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Sample records for examination survey nhanes

  1. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2000 forward. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of...

  2. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2009-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children in...

  3. 76 FR 72417 - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control... National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) will not be receiving DNA proposals in 2012... of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for...

  4. Magnesium, vitamin D status and mortality: results from US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001 to 2006 and NHANES III

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Magnesium plays an essential role in the synthesis and metabolism of vitamin D and magnesium supplementation substantially reversed the resistance to vitamin D treatment in patients with magnesium-dependent vitamin-D-resistant rickets. We hypothesized that dietary magnesium alone, particularly its interaction with vitamin D intake, contributes to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels, and the associations between serum 25(OH)D and risk of mortality may be modified by magnesium intake level. Methods We tested these novel hypotheses utilizing data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001 to 2006, a population-based cross-sectional study, and the NHANES III cohort, a population-based cohort study. Serum 25(OH)D was used to define vitamin D status. Mortality outcomes in the NHANES III cohort were determined by using probabilistic linkage with the National Death Index (NDI). Results High intake of total, dietary or supplemental magnesium was independently associated with significantly reduced risks of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency respectively. Intake of magnesium significantly interacted with intake of vitamin D in relation to risk of both vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency. Additionally, the inverse association between total magnesium intake and vitamin D insufficiency primarily appeared among populations at high risk of vitamin D insufficiency. Furthermore, the associations of serum 25(OH)D with mortality, particularly due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and colorectal cancer, were modified by magnesium intake, and the inverse associations were primarily present among those with magnesium intake above the median. Conclusions Our preliminary findings indicate it is possible that magnesium intake alone or its interaction with vitamin D intake may contribute to vitamin D status. The associations between serum 25(OH)D and risk of mortality may be modified by the intake level of magnesium. Future studies

  5. Type 2 diabetes mellitus unawareness, prevalence, trends and risk factors: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nana; Yang, Xin; Zhu, Xiaolin; Zhao, Bin; Huang, Tianyi; Ji, Qiuhe

    2017-04-01

    Objectives To determine whether the associations with key risk factors in patients with diagnosed and undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are different using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 to 2010. Methods The study analysed the prevalence and association with risk factors of undiagnosed and diagnosed T2DM using a regression model and a multinomial logistic regression model. Data from the NHANES 1999-2010 were used for the analyses. Results The study analysed data from 10 570 individuals. The overall prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed T2DM increased significantly from 1999 to 2010. The prevalence of undiagnosed T2DM was significantly higher in non-Hispanic whites, in individuals physical activity levels. Conclusion The overall T2DM prevalence increased between 1999 and 2010, particularly for undiagnosed T2DM in patients that were formerly classified as low risk.

  6. The relationship between blood pressure and cognitive performance in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhr, Julie A; Stewart, Jesse C; France, Christopher R

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between blood pressure and cognitive performance in 2727 healthy men and women between the ages of 20 and 59 years who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Participants were selected from a subsample of 5662 NHANES III respondents who completed an initial home interview, a medical examination, and a series of computerized cognitive tests of visuomotor reaction time, complex psychomotor speed (ie, symbol digit substitution), and verbal learning/attention (ie, serial digit learning). Hierarchical regressions tested the contribution of resting blood pressure to the prediction of performance on each of the cognitive tests. Results indicated that, after controlling for demographic variables (age, sex, race/ethnicity, education) and resting blood pressure, the interaction of systolic blood pressure by age was a significant predictor of performance on the test of verbal learning/attention. Follow-up analyses revealed that higher systolic blood pressure was associated with poorer performance in those younger than 40 years. Expanding on findings from previous epidemiological studies, the present study reports a small but significant relationship between resting blood pressure and cognitive performance that is particularly evident in younger healthy adults.

  7. Caffeine consumption and telomere length in men and women of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Larry A

    2017-01-01

    The investigation evaluated the relationship between caffeine intake and coffee consumption and leukocyte telomere length, a biomarker of the senescence of cells. A total of 5826 adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were studied cross-sectionally. Using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction method, telomere length was compared to standard reference DNA. Caffeine intake from foods and beverages and coffee consumption were measured using a validated, multi-pass, computer-assisted, 24-h recall system administered by NHANES interviewers. The following covariates were controlled: age, gender, race, marital status, education, housing, smoking, BMI, physical activity, alcohol use, and coffee intake (or caffeine consumption). Caffeine consumption was inversely related to telomere length (F = 15.1, P = 0.0005). For each 100 mg of caffeine consumed, telomeres were 35.4 base pairs shorter, after adjusting for the covariates. For each 100 mg of caffeine consumed among coffee drinkers only, telomeres were 36.7 base pairs shorter (F = 9.0, P = 0.0054), and among non-coffee drinkers only, 40.0 base pairs shorter (F = 8.5, P = 0.0067). Conversely, coffee intake was positively related to telomere length (F = 12.6, P = 0.0013), independent of the covariates. Results suggest that caffeine consumption accounts for shorter telomeres in U.S. adults, independent of numerous covariates, whereas coffee intake predicts longer telomeres.

  8. 77 FR 34387 - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Health and Nutrition Examination... Health and Human Services (DHHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The National Health and Nutrition Examination...: Geraldine McQuillan, Ph.D., Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, National Center for Health...

  9. Serum selenium and serum lipids in US adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laclaustra, Martin; Stranges, Saverio; Navas-Acien, Ana; Ordovas, Jose M; Guallar, Eliseo

    2010-06-01

    High selenium has been recently associated with several cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors including diabetes, blood pressure and lipid levels. We evaluated the association of serum selenium with fasting serum lipid levels in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004, the most recently available representative sample of the US population that measured selenium levels. Cross-sectional analysis of 1159 adults>or=40 years old from NHANES 2003-2004. Serum selenium was measured by inductively coupled plasma-dynamic reaction cell-mass spectrometry. Fasting serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol were measured enzymatically and LDL cholesterol was calculated. Mean serum selenium was 136.7 microg/L. The multivariable adjusted average differences (95% confidence interval) comparing the highest (>or=147 microg/L) to the lowest (selenium quartiles were 18.9 (9.9, 28.0) mg/dL for total cholesterol, 12.7 (3.3, 22.2) mg/dL for LDL cholesterol, 3.9 (0.4, 7.5)mg/dL for HDL cholesterol, and 11.5 (-7.6, 30.7) mg/dL for triglycerides. In spline regression models, total and LDL cholesterol levels increased progressively with increasing selenium concentrations. HDL cholesterol increased with selenium but reached a plateau above 120 microg/L of serum selenium (20th percentile). The triglyceride-selenium relationship was U-shaped. In US adults, high serum selenium concentrations were associated with increased serum concentrations of total and LDL cholesterol. Selenium was associated with increasing HDL cholesterol only at low selenium levels. Given increasing trends in dietary selenium intake and supplementation, the causal mechanisms underlying these associations need to be fully characterized. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Inflammation, obesity, and metabolic syndrome in depression: analysis of the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rethorst, Chad D; Bernstein, Ira; Trivedi, Madhukar H

    2014-12-01

    To describe the rates of elevated inflammation, obesity, and metabolic syndrome (MetS) within a large cohort of individuals with depression and to examine the interrelationships of inflammation and MetS in depressed individuals. Analyses were conducted on study participants from the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) depression scores ≥ 10 to (1) examine the relationship of inflammation (C-reactive protein; CRP) with demographic and clinical characteristics and (2) examine the prevalence of MetS criteria within CRP groups. 5,579 participants provided PHQ-9 data; of those, 606 had PHQ-9 scores ≥ 10 and were included in further analysis. Of the 606 depressed participants, 585 participants had valid CRP data; 275 participants (47.01%) had CRP levels ≥ 3.0 mg/L, while 170 (29.06%) had CRP levels ≥ 5.0 mg/L. Elevated inflammation was significantly correlated with body weight, waist circumference, body mass index, insulin, 2-hour glucose tolerance, and self-report general health (P values inflammation are more likely to be obese and meet criteria for MetS. These results highlight the significant inflammatory and metabolic burden of individuals with depression. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  11. Depression among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiting; Lopez, Janice M S; Bolge, Susan C; Zhu, Vivienne J; Stang, Paul E

    2016-04-05

    Depression in people with diabetes can result in increased risk for diabetes-related complications. The prevalence of depression has been estimated to be 17.6 % in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), based on studies published between 1980 and 2005. There is a lack of more recent estimates of depression prevalence among the US general T2DM population. The present study used the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2012 data to provide an updated, population-based estimate for the prevalence of depression in people with T2DM. NHANES is a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized US population. Starting from 2005, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was included to measure signs and symptoms of depression. We defined PHQ-9 total scores ≥ 10 as clinically relevant depression (CRD), and ≥ 15 as clinically significant depression (CSD). Self-reported current antidepressant use was also combined to estimate overall burden of depression. Predictors of CRD and CSD were investigated using survey logistic regression models. A total of 2182 participants with T2DM were identified. The overall prevalence of CRD and CSD among people with T2DM is 10.6 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) 8.9-12.2 %), and 4.2 % (95 % CI 3.4-5.1 %), respectively. The combined burden of depressive symptoms and antidepressants may be as high as 25.4 % (95 % CI 23.0-27.9 %). Significant predictors of CRD include age (younger than 65), sex (women), income (lower than 130 % of poverty level), education (below college), smoking (current or former smoker), body mass index (≥30 kg/m(2)), sleep problems, hospitalization in the past year, and total cholesterol (≥200 mg/dl). Significant predictors of CSD also include physical activity (below guideline) and cardiovascular diseases. The prevalence of CRD and CSD among people with T2DM in the US may be lower than in earlier studies, however, the burden of

  12. Dietary responses to a hypertension diagnosis: evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Alexander N; Kim, Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Dietary modification has been shown to substantially reduce blood pressure among people with hypertension. This article uses data from the 2007-2008 and 2009-2010 cross-sections of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to examine the extent to which a hypertension diagnosis can influence individuals' dietary choices. Several models were estimated to clarify the association of a hypertension diagnosis with dietary factors related to hypertension management. A comparison group of individuals at risk for developing hypertension was used. Results suggest that individuals who received a recent diagnosis of hypertension are more likely to have lower intakes of some dietary factors important in blood pressure management, including sodium. The results also highlight a discrepancy between added salt use and dietary sodium intake. While more recent hypertensive patients tended to consume lower levels of dietary sodium, patients diagnosed longer ago tended to use less added salt. Given that those diagnosed were more likely to have lower blood pressure profiles and improved diets, especially close to the time of diagnosis, the results of this study underscore the need for a prompt and accurate diagnosis of hypertension.

  13. Leptin Level and Skipping Breakfast: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asao, Keiko; Marekani, Amandine Sambira; VanCleave, Jessica; Rothberg, Amy E.

    2016-01-01

    Skipping breakfast is a common dietary habit considered to be unhealthy. However, the mechanisms underlying skipping breakfast have not been fully explored. Leptin is a hormone that regulates food intake and energy storage and secretes in a diurnal rhythm with lowest levels in the morning. We examined the association between the serum leptin level and skipping breakfast in 5714 adults in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988–1994. We defined breakfast as any food or beverage consumed between 5:00 a.m. and 10:00 a.m. using a single 24-h recall. Skipped breakfast was seen in 13.1%. In the logistic regression models with and without adjusting for adiposity and sex, leptin levels were not associated with skipping breakfast. After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and time of venipuncture, the association remained insignificant. After further adjusting for potential confounders: physical activity, alcohol intake, smoking and diabetes and after further adjusting for: dietary factors, insulin and glucose levels, there was a 9% and 11%–12%, respectively, statistically significantly higher likelihood of skipping breakfast if the leptin level was more than 50% greater. Further investigation into the biological reasons for skipping breakfast may be useful for promoting healthy lifestyles. PMID:26927164

  14. Serum Phosphorus Concentrations in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Ian H.; Rue, Tessa C.; Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Background Higher serum phosphorus concentrations within the normal laboratory range have been associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in large prospective cohort studies of individuals with and without kidney disease. Reasons for interindividual variation in steady-state serum phosphorus concentrations are largely unknown. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Setting & Participants 15,513 participants in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Predictors Demographic data, dietary intake measured by means of 24-hour dietary recall and food-frequency questionnaire, and established cardiovascular risk factors. Outcome & Measurements Serum phosphorus concentration. Results Mean serum phosphorus concentrations were significantly greater in women (+0.16 mg/dL versus men; P phosphorus and phosphorus-rich foods were associated only weakly with circulating serum phosphorus concentrations, if at all. Higher serum phosphorus levels were associated with lower calculated Framingham coronary heart disease risk scores, which are based on traditional atherosclerosis risk factors. In aggregate, demographic, nutritional, cardiovascular, and kidney function variables explained only 12% of the variation in circulating serum phosphorus concentrations. Limitations Results may differ with advanced kidney disease. Conclusions Serum phosphorus concentration is weakly related to dietary phosphorus and not related to a diverse array of phosphorus-rich foods in the general population. Factors determining serum phosphorus concentration are largely unknown. Previously observed associations of serum phosphorus concentrations with cardiovascular events are unlikely to be a result of differences in dietary intake or traditional cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:18992979

  15. Trends in myocardial infarction secondary prevention: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), 1999-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nilay S; Huffman, Mark D; Ning, Hongyan; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M

    2015-04-22

    Nationally representative data evaluating recent trends and future projections of vascular risk factor treatment and control rates in secondary prevention of ischemic heart disease are sparse. We evaluated sex- and race-stratified cholesterol, blood pressure, and hemoglobin A1c levels and risk factor treatment and control rates in 1580 individuals who self-reported a history of myocardial infarction from The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 1999 to 2012. We used weighted linear regression to estimate time trends and created forward linear projections to 2020. Participants were 30% to 41% women, 73% to 85% white, and had a mean age of 63 to 66 years. Cholesterol treatment rates increased and reached above 80% in men and women by 2011-2012, with significant increases in control rates (as then defined) in men to 85% in 2011-2012, with projections to reach 100% by 2020. Cholesterol treatment rates significantly increased in non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics. Statin use increased significantly to 73% of myocardial infarction survivors by 2011-2012, and aspirin use increased significantly but only to 28% by 2011-2012. There were no changes in blood pressure treatment or control rates by sex, and hypertension treatment increased only in non-Hispanic blacks. Projected hypertension control rates remained suboptimal. While temporal trends suggest improvements in cholesterol treatment, unchanged treatment and control of blood pressure and persistently low aspirin use represent missed opportunities. Urgent action is needed to improve secondary prevention rates projected by 2020 to reduce recurrent events in this high-risk group. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  16. Obesity and Insulin Resistance Screening Tools in American Adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joey A; Laurson, Kelly R

    2016-08-01

    To identify which feasible obesity and insulin resistance (IR) screening tools are most strongly associated in adolescents by using a nationally representative sample. Adolescents aged 12.0 to 18.9 years who were participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (n=3584) and who were measured for height, weight, waist circumference (WC), triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness, glycated hemoglobin, fasting glucose (FG) and fasting insulin (FI) level were included. Adolescents were split by gender and grouped by body mass index (BMI) percentile. Age- and gender-specific classifications were constructed for each obesity screening tool measure to account for growth and maturation. General linear models were used to establish groups objectively for analysis based on when IR began to increase. Additional general linear models were used to identify when IR significantly increased for each IR measure as obesity group increased and to identify the variance accounted for among each obesity-IR screening tool relationship. As the obesity group increased, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and FI significantly increased, while FG increased only (above the referent) in groups with BMI percentiles ≥95.0, and glycated hemoglobin level did not vary across obesity groups. The most strongly associated screening tools were WC and FI in boys (R(2)=0.253) and girls (R(2)=0.257). FI had the strongest association with all of the obesity measures. BMI associations were slightly weaker than WC in each in relation to IR. Our findings show that WC and FI are the most strongly associated obesity and IR screening tool measures in adolescents. These feasible screening tools should be utilized in screening practices for at-risk adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Diet and nutrition in psoriasis: analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J A; Ma, C; Kanada, K N; Armstrong, A W

    2014-03-01

    There is limited research examining the association between psoriasis, dietary intake and nutritional status in the general U.S. population. This study aimed to compare levels of vitamins and carotenoids as well as intake of protein, fats, sugar, carbohydrates and total calories between individuals with and without psoriasis. We used data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in the U.S. Demographic information, physical examination, serum laboratory values and questionnaires on past medical history and dietary intake were used to determine the relationship between psoriasis and nutritional status and diet. The cohort consisted of 6260 participants who provided responses to their psoriasis status. Prior psoriasis diagnosis was reported in 156 (2.49%) of the respondents. Based on multivariate regression analysis, psoriasis was significantly associated with increased vitamin A level (OR: 1.01; CI: 1.00-1.02; P = 0.03), increased α-carotene level (OR: 1.02; CI: 1.01-1.04; P = 0.01), lower sugar intake (OR: 0.998; CI: 0.996-1; P = 0.04), increased body mass index (OR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.02-1.07; P = 0.0003) and arthritis (OR: 2.31; CI: 1.37-3.90; P = 0.002). Non-Hispanic black (OR: 0.56; CI: 0.34-0.96; P = 0.03) and Hispanic race (OR: 0.37; CI: 0.19-0.75; P = 0.005) were inversely associated with a diagnosis of psoriasis compared with non-Hispanic white race. Psoriasis is significantly associated with elevated serum levels of vitamin A and α-carotene and reduced intake of sugar. Longitudinal monitoring of nutritional status in psoriasis patients is necessary to determine the effect of nutrition on psoriasis progression and the modifying role of treatments. © 2013 The Authors Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  18. Urinary cadmium in the 1999-2008 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riederer, Anne M; Belova, Anna; George, Barbara J; Anastas, Paul T

    2013-01-15

    Chronic low-level cadmium (Cd) exposure is linked to kidney and cardiovascular disease, fractures, and cancer. Diet and smoking are primary sources of exposure in the general population. We analyzed urinary Cd in NHANES 1999-2008 to determine whether levels declined significantly over the decade for U.S. children, teens, and adults (nonsmokers and smokers) and, if so, factors influencing the decline(s). For each subpopulation, we modeled log urinary Cd using variable-threshold censored multiple regression. Models included individual-level covariates (age, gender, BMI, income, race/ethnicity/country of origin, education, survey period), smoking, housing (home age, water source, filter use), and diet (supplement use; 24-h calorie, fat, protein, micronutrient, and Cd-containing food intakes), creatinine, and survey year variables. Geometric mean urinary Cd (ng/mL) declined 20-25% in these subpopulations, and the regressions showed statistically significant declines in later years for teens and adults. While certain covariates were significantly associated with Cd by subpopulation (creatinine; age; BMI; race/ethnicity/origin; education; smokers in the home; serum cotinine; 24-h fat, Mg, Fe intakes; use of dietary supplements), they did not help explain the declines. Instead, unidentified time-related factors appeared responsible. Despite the declines, millions of Americans remain potentially at risk of adverse outcomes associated with low-level Cd exposure.

  19. Determinants of physical activity in America: a first characterization of physical activity profile using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Ming-Chih Jeffrey; Jarosz, Renata; Goldin, Michael; Patel, Amy; Smuck, Matthew

    2014-10-01

    To develop and implement methodologies for characterizing accelerometry-derived patterns of physical activity (PA) in the United States in relation to demographics, anthropometrics, behaviors, and comorbidities using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) dataset. Retrospective analysis of nationally representative database. Computer-generated modeling in silico. A total of 6329 adults in the United States from the NHANES 2003-2004 database. To discover subtle multivariate signal in the dynamic and noisy accelerometry data, we developed a novel approach, termed discretized multiple adaptive regression and implemented the algorithm in SAS 9.2 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). Demographic, anthropometric, comorbidity, and behavioral variables. The intensity of PA decreased with both increased age and increased body mass index. Both greater education and greater income correlate with increased activity over short durations and reduced activity intensity over long durations. Numerous predictors demonstrated effects within activity ranges that may be masked by use of the standard activity intensity intervals. These include age, one of the most robust variables, where we discovered decreasing activities inside the moderate activity range. It also includes gender, where women compared with men have increased proportions of active times up to the center of light activity range, and income greater than $45,000, where a complex effect is seen with little correspondence to existing cut-points. The results presented in this study suggest that the method of multiple regression and heat map visualization can generate insights otherwise hidden in large datasets such as NHANES. A review of the provided heat maps reveals the trends discussed previously involving demographic, anthropometric, comorbidity, and behavioral variables. It also demonstrates the power of accelerometry to expose alterations in PA. Ultimately, this study provides a US population-based norm to

  20. Androgens and diabetes in men: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Selvin, Elizabeth; Feinleib, Manning; Zhang, Lei; Rohrmann, Sabine; Rifai, Nader; Nelson, William G; Dobs, Adrian; Basaria, Shehzad; Golden, Sherita Hill; Platz, Elizabeth A

    2007-01-01

    ... Examination Survey, a cross-sectional survey of the civilian, noninstitutionalized population of the U.S. Bioavailable and free testosterone levels were calculated from serum total testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin...

  1. Consumption of Nuts and Seeds and Telomere Length in 5,582 Men and Women of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, L A

    2017-01-01

    Consumption of nuts and seeds is associated favorably with all-cause mortality. Nuts and seeds could reduce disease and prolong life by influencing telomeres. Telomere length is a good indicator of the senescence of cells. The purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between nuts and seeds intake and leukocyte telomere length, a biomarker of biologic aging. Cross-sectional. A total of 5,582 randomly selected men and women from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2002, were studied. DNA was obtained via blood samples. Telomere length was assessed using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction method. A validated, multi-pass, 24-h recall dietary assessment, administered by NHANES, was employed to quantify consumption of nuts and seeds. Nuts and seeds intake was positively and linearly associated with telomere length. For each 1-percent of total energy derived from nuts and seeds, telomere length was 5 base pairs longer (F=8.6, P=0.0065). Given the age-related rate of telomere shortening was 15.4 base pairs per year (F=581.1, Pseeds. Consumption of nuts and seeds accounts for meaningful decreases in biologic aging and cell senescence. The findings reinforce the recommendations of the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, which encourage the consumption of nuts and seeds as part of a healthy diet.

  2. Beverage consumption among U.S. children aged 0–24 months: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data on beverage consumption patterns in early life are limited. The aim of this study was to describe beverage consumption by sociodemographic characteristics, along with water intake and sources of water among U.S. children aged 0–24 months. Data from 2740 children in the 2005–2012 NHANES were ana...

  3. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Self-Reported Smell and Taste Alterations: Results from the 2011-2012 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Shristi; Hoffman, Howard J; Bainbridge, Kathleen E; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Duffy, Valerie B

    2016-01-01

    Chemosensory problems challenge health through diminished ability to detect warning odors, consume a healthy diet, and maintain quality of life. We examined the prevalence and associated risk factors of self-reported chemosensory alterations in 3603 community-dwelling adults (aged 40+ years), from the nationally representative, US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2012. In this new NHANES component, technicians surveyed adults in the home about perceived smell and taste problems, distortions, and diminished abilities since age 25 (termed "alterations"), and chemosensory-related health risks and behaviors. The prevalence of self-reported smell alteration was 23%, including phantosmia at 6%; taste was 19%, including dysgeusia at 5%. Prevalence rates increased progressively with age, highest in those aged 80+ years (smell, 32%; taste, 27%). In multivariable logistic regression, controlling for sociodemographics, health behaviors, and chemosensory-related conditions, the strongest independent risk factor for smell alteration was sinonasal symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 2.06; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.63-2.61), followed by heavy drinking, loss of consciousness from head injury, family income ≤110% poverty threshold, and xerostomia. For taste, the strongest risk factor was xerostomia (OR = 2.65; 95% CI: 1.97-3.56), followed by nose/facial injury, lower educational attainment, and fair/poor health. Self-reported chemosensory alterations are prevalent in US adults, supporting increased attention to decreasing their modifiable risks, managing safety/health consequences, and expanding chemosensory screening/testing and treatments. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Self-Reported Smell and Taste Alterations: Results from the 2011–2012 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Shristi; Hoffman, Howard J.; Bainbridge, Kathleen E.; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.

    2016-01-01

    Chemosensory problems challenge health through diminished ability to detect warning odors, consume a healthy diet, and maintain quality of life. We examined the prevalence and associated risk factors of self-reported chemosensory alterations in 3603 community-dwelling adults (aged 40+ years), from the nationally representative, US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011–2012. In this new NHANES component, technicians surveyed adults in the home about perceived smell and taste problems, distortions, and diminished abilities since age 25 (termed “alterations”), and chemosensory-related health risks and behaviors. The prevalence of self-reported smell alteration was 23%, including phantosmia at 6%; taste was 19%, including dysgeusia at 5%. Prevalence rates increased progressively with age, highest in those aged 80+ years (smell, 32%; taste, 27%). In multivariable logistic regression, controlling for sociodemographics, health behaviors, and chemosensory-related conditions, the strongest independent risk factor for smell alteration was sinonasal symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 2.06; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.63–2.61), followed by heavy drinking, loss of consciousness from head injury, family income ≤110% poverty threshold, and xerostomia. For taste, the strongest risk factor was xerostomia (OR = 2.65; 95% CI: 1.97–3.56), followed by nose/facial injury, lower educational attainment, and fair/poor health. Self-reported chemosensory alterations are prevalent in US adults, supporting increased attention to decreasing their modifiable risks, managing safety/health consequences, and expanding chemosensory screening/testing and treatments. PMID:26487703

  5. Decreasing immunity to hepatitis A virus infection among US adults: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klevens, R Monina; Denniston, Maxine M; Jiles-Chapman, Ruth B; Murphy, Trudy V

    2015-11-17

    The clinical course of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is more severe with increased age. In the United States, surveillance data reported to CDC since 2011 indicate increases in both the absolute number of cases and the mean age of cases. Total antibody to HAV (anti-HAV) is a marker of immunity. We analyzed National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data for anti-HAV from respondents aged ≥ 2 years collected from 2007 to 2012 and compared with data collected 10 years earlier (1999-2006). For US-born adults aged ≥ 20 years, we estimated age-adjusted anti-HAV prevalence by demographic and other characteristics, evaluated factors associated with anti-HAV positivity and examined anti-HAV prevalence by decade of birth. The prevalence of anti-HAV among adults aged ≥ 20 years was 24.2% (95% CI 22.5-25.9) during 2007-2012, a significant decline from 29.5% (95% CI 28.0-31.1) during 1999-2006. Prevalence of anti-HAV was consistently lower in 2007-2012 compared to 1999-2006 by all characteristics examined. In 2007-2012, the lowest age-specific prevalence was among adults aged 30-49 years (16.1-17.6%). Factors significantly associated with anti-HAV positivity among adults were older age, Mexican American ethnicity, living below poverty, less education, and not having insurance. By decade of birth, the prevalence of anti-HAV was slightly lower in 2009-2012 than in 1999-2002, except among persons born from 1980 to 1989. NHANES data document very low prevalence of hepatitis A immunity among U.S. adults aged 30-49 years; waning of anti-HAV over time may be minimal. Improving vaccination coverage among susceptible adults should be considered. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Prevalence of overweight in children with developmental disorders in the continuous national health and nutrition examination survey (NHANES) 1999-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandini, Linda G; Curtin, Carol; Hamad, Charles; Tybor, David J; Must, Aviva

    2005-06-01

    To estimate the prevalence of overweight in children identified with developmental disorders on the basis of nationally representative survey data. We estimated the prevalence of overweight in children with developmental disorders on the basis of a recent large nationally representative survey. The continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002 included 4 questions to identify children with developmental disorders. Height and weight were used to calculate body mass index (BMI). BMI percentiles were estimated relative to the age- and sex-specific Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth reference. The 85th percentile BMI defined at-risk-for-overweight and the 95th percentile BMI defined overweight. We found a higher prevalence of at-risk-for overweight and overweight among children with limitations in physical activity and a higher prevalence of overweight in girls with learning disabilities, compared with children without these conditions, after adjustment for age and race-ethnicity. To the extent that children with developmental disorders are included in large representative surveys, the data suggest that children with developmental disorders have a risk for overweight that is at least as great as that of typically developing children.

  7. Prevalence of asthma among adult females and males in the United States: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2001-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Michelle K; Symanski, Elaine; Pompeii, Lisa A; Delclos, George L

    2009-10-01

    The prevalence of asthma has increased over the last three decades with females exhibiting a higher prevalence of asthma than males. The objective of this study was to obtain gender-specific estimates of the prevalence of current and ever asthma and describe the relationships between risk factors and asthma by gender in US men and women ages 20 to 85. Data for this study came from two cycles (2001-2002 and 2003-2004) of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and included 9,243 eligible adults: 4,589 females and 4,654 males. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate gender-specific associations between race/ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), sociodemographic characteristics, and smoking habits for current asthma and ever asthma. The prevalence of current asthma was 8.8% for women and 5.8% for men, while the prevalence of ever having been diagnosed with asthma was higher (13.7% and 10.4% for women and men, respectively). Current asthma was less prevalent in Mexican American women (1.9%) and men (0.9%) born in Mexico as compared to Mexican Americans born in the U.S. (8.7% and 5.2% for women and men, respectively) or for any other ethnic group. Approximately 20% of extremely obese women and men had ever been diagnosed with asthma; among this group, 15% reported they had current asthma. Results from multiple logistic regression models indicate that extreme obesity and living in poverty were strongly associated with current and ever asthma for both women and men, as was former smoking and ever asthma for men. As compared to previous NHANES reports, our results indicate that the prevalence of asthma among U.S. adults continues to increase. Further, our findings of marked differences among subgroups of the population suggest asthma-related disparities for impoverished persons and greater prevalence of asthma among obese and extremely obese US adults.

  8. Stroke risk among menthol versus non-menthol cigarette smokers in the United States: Analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Landingham, Cynthia; Fuller, William; Mariano, Greg; Marano, Kristin; Curtin, Geoffrey; Sulsky, Sandra I

    2017-04-01

    Though available evidence is relatively consistent in showing no additional health effects among smokers due to menthol in cigarettes, two studies reported conflicting results for stroke risk using different subsets of NHANES data. We investigated reasons for the differences in these reports by analyzing NHANES cycles conducted between 1999 and 2012, combined and in subsets. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from three different survey logistic regression models compare risk of reported stroke diagnoses among menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers. Depending on timeframe, about 1150 to 8000 U.S. adults (aged ≥ 20 years) who smoked on ≥ 1 of the last 30 days had complete data for cigarette type and all covariates included in each model. Results were not much affected by which covariates were included in the models, but depended strongly on the NHANES cycles included in the analysis. Using NHANES 1999-2012 data combined, AORs and 95% CIs for stroke comparing menthol with non-menthol cigarette smokers were 0.95 (95% CI: 0.65, 1.37), 0.85 (95% CI: 0.59, 1.23) or 0.86 (95% CI: 0.59, 1.25). Collectively, findings illustrate the need for fully reporting research and analytical methods, especially when analyses are meant to develop evidence intended for regulatory decision-making. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Diet and exercise among adults with type 2 diabetes: findings from the third national health and nutrition examination survey (NHANES III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Karin M; Reiber, Gayle; Boyko, Edward J

    2002-10-01

    To describe diet and exercise practices from a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults with type 2 diabetes. We analyzed data from 1,480 adults older than 17 years with a self-reported diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Fruit and vegetable consumption was obtained from a food frequency questionnaire; the percentages of total calories from fat and saturated fat were obtained from a 24-h food recall. Physical activity was based on self report during the month before the survey. Of individuals with type 2 diabetes, 31% reported no regular physical activity and another 38% reported less than recommended levels of physical activity. Sixty-two percent of respondents ate fewer than five servings of fruits and vegetables per day. Almost two thirds of the respondents consumed >30% of their daily calories from fat and >10% of total calories from saturated fat. Mexican Americans and individuals over the age of 65 years ate a higher number of fruits and vegetables and a lower percentage of total calories from fat. Lower income and increasing age were associated with physical inactivity. Thirty-six percent of the sample were overweight and another 46% were obese. The majority of individuals with type 2 diabetes were overweight, did not engage in recommended levels of physical activity, and did not follow dietary guidelines for fat and fruit and vegetable consumption. Additional measures are needed to encourage regular physical activity and improve dietary habits in this population.

  10. Beverage Consumption among U.S. Children Aged 0–24 Months: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carley A. Grimes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Data on beverage consumption patterns in early life are limited. The aim of this study was to describe beverage consumption by sociodemographic characteristics, along with water intake and sources of water among U.S. children aged 0–24 months. Data from 2740 children in the 2005–2012 NHANES were analysed. Food intake was determined via one 24-h dietary recall. Beverages were categorised according to What We Eat In America groups. Poverty–Income ratio was used to define household income. During infancy (0–5.9 months and 6–11.9 months infant formulas were the most commonly consumed beverage, 74.1% and 78.6% of children consuming, respectively. Comparatively fewer children, 41.6% and 24.3%, consumed breast milk. In toddlers (12–24 months, the most commonly consumed beverages were plain milk (83.6% of children consuming, water (68.6%, 100% fruit juice (51.8% and sweetened beverages (31.2%. Non-Hispanic black and Mexican-American children were more likely to consume sweetened beverages, 100% fruit juice and infant formula than Non-Hispanic white children. Children from lower income households were more likely to consume sweetened beverages and 100% fruit juice and less likely to consume breast milk than children from higher income households. Total water intake increased with age and the contribution of water from food and beverage sources was ~20% and ~80% for all children, respectively. Disparities in beverage consumption by race/ethnicity and income level are apparent in early life.

  11. Beverage Consumption among U.S. Children Aged 0-24 Months: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley A; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2017-03-13

    Data on beverage consumption patterns in early life are limited. The aim of this study was to describe beverage consumption by sociodemographic characteristics, along with water intake and sources of water among U.S. children aged 0-24 months. Data from 2740 children in the 2005-2012 NHANES were analysed. Food intake was determined via one 24-h dietary recall. Beverages were categorised according to What We Eat In America groups. Poverty-Income ratio was used to define household income. During infancy (0-5.9 months and 6-11.9 months) infant formulas were the most commonly consumed beverage, 74.1% and 78.6% of children consuming, respectively. Comparatively fewer children, 41.6% and 24.3%, consumed breast milk. In toddlers (12-24 months), the most commonly consumed beverages were plain milk (83.6% of children consuming), water (68.6%), 100% fruit juice (51.8%) and sweetened beverages (31.2%). Non-Hispanic black and Mexican-American children were more likely to consume sweetened beverages, 100% fruit juice and infant formula than Non-Hispanic white children. Children from lower income households were more likely to consume sweetened beverages and 100% fruit juice and less likely to consume breast milk than children from higher income households. Total water intake increased with age and the contribution of water from food and beverage sources was ~20% and ~80% for all children, respectively. Disparities in beverage consumption by race/ethnicity and income level are apparent in early life.

  12. Psoriasis and sexual behavior in U.S. women: an epidemiologic analysis using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, April W; Follansbee, Matthew R; Harskamp, Caitlin T; Schupp, Clayton W

    2013-02-01

    Although sexual behavior is an integral part of most adults' overall well-being, this aspect of psoriasis patients' quality of life is rarely explored. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between psoriasis and sexual behavior in U.S. women. We analyzed data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2003 to 2006. Our study focuses on responses to the dermatology and sexual behavior questionnaires of the NHANES. This study examines the association between psoriasis and sexual behavior in U.S. women with regard to sexual orientation, age of first sexual encounter, number of sexual partners, and frequency of unprotected sex. A total of 3,462 women provided responses to their psoriasis status: 2,753 (80%) women were heterosexual and 709 (20%) were nonheterosexual. Among them, 2.7% reported a physician-given diagnosis of psoriasis. On multivariate analyses, psoriasis was not associated with differences in sexual orientation (odds ratio [OR] 0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.62-2.01). Among nonheterosexual women, multivariate analysis revealed a lower number of lifetime female sexual partners in women with psoriasis (rate ratio [RR] 0.11, 95% CI 0.04-0.33, P = 0.001). Among heterosexual women, no significant differences existed between those with and without psoriasis in age of first sexual encounter (weighted difference -0.54 years, 95% CI -1.27 to 0.19), number of lifetime male sexual partners (RR 1.19, 95% CI 0.69-2.06), or number of lifetime male oral sex partners (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.40-1.29). Heterosexual women with psoriasis had 1.13 times more unprotected sex (RR 1.13, 95% CI 1.02-1.24, P = 0.03) compared with those without psoriasis. Psoriasis is associated with a significantly reduced number of sexual partners in nonheterosexual women. Psoriasis may differentially impact sexual behavior based on sexual orientation in women. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  13. Rural–Urban Differences in Objective and Subjective Measures of Physical Activity: Findings From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ming; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Lower levels of physical activity among rural relative to urban residents have been suggested as an important contributor to rural–urban health disparity; however, empirical evidence is sparse. Methods We examined rural–urban differences in 4 objective physical activity measures (2 intensity thresholds by 2 bout lengths) and 4 subjective measures (total, leisure, household, and transportation) in a nationally representative sample of participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2006. The sample comprised 5,056 adults aged 20 to 75 years. Rural-Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) codes were matched with NHANES subjects to identify urban status and 2 types of rural status. Rural–urban and within–rural differences in physical activity were estimated without and with controls for demographic and socioeconomic variables. Results Rural residents were less active than urban residents in high-intensity long bout (2,020 counts per minute threshold and 10 miniutes or longer bout length) accelerometer-measured physical activity (42.5 ± 6.2 min/wk vs 55.9 ± 2.8 min/wk) but the difference disappeared with a lower-intensity threshold (760 counts per minute). Rural residents reported more total physical activity than urban residents (438.3 ± 35.3min/wk vs 371.2 ± 12.5 min/wk), with differences primarily attributable to household physical activity. Within rural areas, micropolitan residents were less active than residents in smaller rural areas. Controlling for other variables reduced the size of the differences. Conclusion The direction and significance of rural–urban difference in physical activity varied by the method of physical activity measurement, likely related to rural residents spending more time in low-intensity household physical activity but less time in high-intensity physical activity. Micropolitan residents were substantially less active than residents in smaller rural areas, indicating that physical

  14. HPV vaccine uptake among overweight and obese US adolescents: An analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Maria E; Mason, Susan M; Basta, Nicole E

    2016-05-11

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake in the US is suboptimal; identifying risk factors associated with low vaccine uptake is critical to increase vaccination coverage. Some evidence suggests body mass index (BMI) is associated with low HPV vaccine uptake and increased risk of HPV infection in adults. BMI may therefore be an important factor in targeting HPV vaccine to US adolescents. We investigated the relationship between BMI categories (underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese) and HPV vaccine uptake in 4109 adolescents (9-18 years old) using data from the 2009 to 2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We used modified Poisson regression to assess the relationship between BMI and receipt of at least one HPV vaccine, and BMI and completion of the vaccine three-dose series. We assessed the relationship between BMI and age at first HPV vaccination using linear regression. Receipt of at least one dose of HPV vaccine was low in both females (35%) and males (10%). High BMI was not associated with initiation of the HPV vaccine series, age at first HPV vaccination, or completion of the HPV vaccine three-dose course. We found no evidence that high BMI is associated with reduced initiation or completion of the HPV vaccination series, or age at initiation of the three-dose course among a general population sample of US adolescents. Our results suggest that efforts to increase HPV vaccine uptake need not consider targeting by weight status at this time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Adult Cranberry Beverage Consumers Have Healthier Macronutrient Intakes and Measures of Body Composition Compared to Non-Consumers: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyah J. Duffey

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids, present in high levels in cranberries, are potent bioactives known for their health-promoting benefits, but cranberry beverages (CB are not typically recommended as part of a healthy diet. We examine the association between CB consumption with macronutrient intake and weight status. Data for US adults (≥19 years, n = 10,891 were taken from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES Survey 2005–2008. Total CB consumption was measured over two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Linear and logistic regression models adjusting for important covariates were used to examine predicted differences between CB consumers and non-consumers on macronutrient and anthropometric outcomes. Results are weighted to be nationally representative. CB consumers (n = 581 were older (>50 year non-Hispanic black females. They consumed an average 221 mL (7.5 oz CB per day. In fully adjusted models CB consumers (vs. non-consumers had higher carbohydrates and total sugars and lower percent energy from protein and total fat (all p < 0.001, but no difference in total energy. A significantly higher proportion of CB consumers were predicted to be normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2; p = 0.001 and had to have lower waist circumferences (p = 0.001. Although there was not a significant trend across level of CB intake, low and middle level CB consumers compared to non-consumers were more likely to be normal weight (p < 0.001 and less likely to be overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, p < 0.001. Despite having slightly higher daily macronutrient intakes, CB consumers have more desirable anthropometric measures compared to non-consumers.

  16. Serum phosphorus and mortality in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III): effect modification by fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alex R; Grams, Morgan E

    2014-10-01

    Serum phosphorus levels have been associated with mortality in some but not all studies. Because dietary intake prior to measurement can affect serum phosphorus levels, we hypothesized that the association between serum phosphorus level and mortality is strongest in those who have fasted longer. Prospective cohort study. Nationally representative sample of 12,984 participants 20 years or older in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994). Serum phosphorus level, fasting duration (dichotomized as ≥ 12 or fasting duration recorded as time since food or drink other than water was consumed. Individuals fasting 12 or more hours had lower serum phosphorus levels than those fasting less than 12 hours (3.34 vs 3.55 mg/dL; P fasting 12 or more hours (adjusted HR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.38-2.20; reference, lowest quartile) but not in participants fasting less than 12 hours (adjusted HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.89-1.32; P for interaction = 0.002). Relationships were consistent using 8 hours as the fasting cutoff point or cardiovascular mortality as the outcome. Observational study, lack of fibroblast growth factor 23 or intact parathyroid hormone measurements. Fasting but not nonfasting serum phosphorus levels were associated with increased mortality. Risk prognostication based on serum phosphorus may be improved using fasting levels. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Serum Phosphorus and Mortality in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III): Effect Modification by Fasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alex R.; Grams, Morgan

    2014-01-01

    Background Serum phosphorus levels have been associated with mortality in some but not all studies. Since dietary intake prior to measurement can affect serum phosphorus levels, we hypothesized that the association between serum phosphorus and mortality is strongest in those who have fasted for longer duration. Study Design Prospective cohort study. Setting & Participants Nationally representative sample of 12,984 participants aged 20 years or older in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1994). Factors Serum phosphorus, fasting duration (dichotomized as ≥12 or phosphorus measured in a central laboratory and fasting duration recorded as amount of time since food or drink other than water was consumed. Results Individuals fasting ≥12 hours had lower serum phosphorus levels than those fasting phosphorus was associated with increased mortality in participants fasting ≥12 hours (adjusted HR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.38–2.20; reference, lowest quartile) but not in participants fasting phosphorus levels were associated with increased mortality. Risk prognostication based on serum phosphorus may be improved using fasting levels. PMID:24935232

  18. Inflammation gene variants and susceptibility to albuminuria in the U.S. population: analysis in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1991-1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Man-huei

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Albuminuria, a common marker of kidney damage, serves as an important predictive factor for the progression of kidney disease and for the development of cardiovascular disease. While the underlying etiology is unclear, chronic, low-grade inflammation is a suspected key factor. Genetic variants within genes involved in inflammatory processes may, therefore, contribute to the development of albuminuria. Methods We evaluated 60 polymorphisms within 27 inflammatory response genes in participants from the second phase (1991-1994 of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, a population-based and nationally representative survey of the United States. Albuminuria was evaluated as logarithm-transformed albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR, as ACR ≥ 30 mg/g, and as ACR above sex-specific thresholds. Multivariable linear regression and haplotype trend analyses were conducted to test for genetic associations in 5321 participants aged 20 years or older. Differences in allele and genotype distributions among non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Mexican Americans were tested in additive and codominant genetic models. Results Variants in several genes were found to be marginally associated (uncorrected P value IL1B (rs1143623 among Mexican Americans remained significantly associated with increased odds, while IL1B (rs1143623, CRP (rs1800947 and NOS3 (rs2070744 were significantly associated with ACR ≥ 30 mg/g in this population (additive models, FDR-P TNF rs1800750, which failed the test for Hardy-Weinberg proportions in this population. Haplotypes within MBL2, CRP, ADRB2, IL4R, NOS3, and VDR were significantly associated (FDR-P Conclusions Our findings suggest a small role for genetic variation within inflammation-related genes to the susceptibility to albuminuria. Additional studies are needed to further assess whether genetic variation in these, and untested, inflammation genes alter the

  19. Fruit juice consumption is associated with improved nutrient adequacy in children and adolescents: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Carol E; Nicklas, Theresa A; Zanovec, Michael; Kleinman, Ronald E; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2012-10-01

    To examine the contribution of 100 % fruit juice (FJ) consumption to dietary adequacy of shortfall nutrients by children and adolescents. Cross-sectional. Secondary analysis of data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Children and adolescents aged 2-18 years (n 7250). Usual intake, determined from two 24 h dietary recalls, was calculated using the National Cancer Institute method. The population was dichotomized into consumers or non-consumers of 100 % FJ. The age/gender-specific percentage of the two consumption groups with intakes less than the Estimated Average Requirement or that exceeded the Adequate Intake for selected nutrients was determined. A Z-statistic for differences in population proportions was used to determine significance (P Requirement for vitamin A (24.4 (SE 2.5) % v. 42.2 (SE 2.5) %), vitamin C (0.1 (SE 0.2) % v. 38.9 (SE 4.1) %), folate (8.8 (SE 1.5) % v. 22.1 (SE 2.4) %), P (11.6 (SE 2.1) % v. 21.3 (SE 2.6) %) and Mg (25.8 (SE 1.7) % v. 46.1 (SE 2.0) %). A greater percentage of 100 % FJ consumers exceeded the Adequate Intake for K (2.4 (SE 0.5) v. 0.5 (SE 0.2) %) compared with non-consumers. Consumption of 100 % FJ is associated with improved nutrient adequacy and can contribute to a healthy diet.

  20. Food Insecurity is Associated with Diabetes Mellitus: Results from the National Health Examination and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2002

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seligman, Hilary K; Bindman, Andrew B; Vittinghoff, Eric; Kanaya, Alka M; Kushel, Margot B

    2007-01-01

    ... diabetes.To evaluate whether there is an independent association between food insecurity and diabetes.Cross-sectional analysis of the nationally representative, population-based National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2002 waves...

  1. Home blood pressure monitoring and hypertension status among US adults: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostchega, Yechiam; Berman, Lewis; Hughes, Jeffery P; Chen, Te-Ching; Chiappa, Michele M

    2013-09-01

    Currently, no national prevalence is available on home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM). This report is based on national-level, cross-sectional data for noninstitutionalized US adults aged ≥18 years (n = 6,001 participants) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2009-2010. Overall, 21.7% of the population reported HBPM in the past year. Using 2010 Census data as a reference, approximately 33 million (14.5%) individuals engaged in monthly or more frequent HBPM. The frequency of HBPM increased with higher age, higher body mass index, higher family income-to-poverty ratio, and a higher number of health-care visits (all, P < 0.05). Adults with health-care coverage engaged in monthly or more frequent HBPM than adults without coverage (16.1% vs. 8.4%; P < 0.05). Among people with hypertension (blood pressure ≥140/90mm Hg or currently taking medication), 36.6% engaged in monthly or more frequent HBPM. Of those with hypertension whom were aware, treated, and controlled, 41.9%, 43.5%, and 42.1%, respectively, engaged in monthly or more frequent HBPM. Adjusting for covariables, those who were aware of, treated for, and controlled their hypertension were more likely to have a higher frequency of HBPM than the reference: unaware, untreated, and uncontrolled (odds ratio (OR) = 3.59; OR = 3.96; and OR = 1.50, respectively). Approximately 14.5% of adults engaged in monthly or more frequent HBPM. Being aware of hypertension, being pharmacologically treated, and being controlled were associated with an increased frequency of HBPM. Even among these categories of people with hypertension, <50% were using HBPM.

  2. Racial/ethnic differences in microalbuminuria among adults with prehypertension and hypertension: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunniyi, Modele O; Croft, Janet B; Greenlund, Kurt J; Giles, Wayne H; Mensah, George A

    2010-08-01

    Microalbuminuria, a biomarker of endothelial dysfunction, is associated with increased cardiovascular, renal, and cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality, especially among ethnic minorities. A total of 16,567 adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 through 2006 were categorized according to JNC 7 blood pressure (BP) definitions. Microalbuminuria was defined as spot urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) of 30-299 mg/g. Logistic regression estimated the odds of having microalbuminuria among BP categories compared with normal BP after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, sex, education level, smoking status, body mass index (BMI), systolic BP, and diabetes. Prevalence of microalbuminuria was 4.5% for normal BP, 6.3% for prehypertension, 12.4% for stage 1 hypertension, 25.3% for stage 2 hypertension, and 11.3% among those with treated, controlled hypertension. Compared with participants with normal BP, the adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for microalbuminuria were 1.3 (1.0-1.7, P = 0.03) for those with prehypertension, 2.3 (1.8-3.0, P < 0.01) with stage 1 hypertension, 4.8 (3.7-6.3 P < 0.01) with stage 2 hypertension, and 1.6 (1.3-2.1, P < 0.01) with treated, controlled hypertension. The treated controlled hypertension group exhibited the strongest race-ethnicity gradient. Participants with hypertension and prehypertension had a higher likelihood of microalbuminuria than those with normal BP, especially ethnic minorities, suggesting greater target organ damage. Our observations suggest that further research is necessary to determine whether microalbuminuria can be used as a screening tool in adults with prehypertension, to identify adults at highest risk for cardiovascular disease or decline in renal function.

  3. Blood Lead Levels and Learning Disabilities: A Cross-Sectional Study of the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, David A; Kern, Janet K; Geier, Mark R

    2017-10-10

    Difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning or mathematical abilities are present among persons diagnosed with learning disabilities (LDs). Previous studies suggest a significant relationship between lead (Pb) exposure and LDs. This study evaluated the potential dose-response relationship between blood Pb levels and the risk of LDs. This cross-sectional study examined 1411 children (32,788,743 weighted-persons) between 6 and 15 years old from the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) by analyzing demographics, health related-questions, and laboratory tests using survey logistic and frequency modeling in SAS. On a µg Pb/dL basis, a significant dose-dependent relationship between increasing blood Pb levels and increasing risk of LDs was observed (odds ratio (OR) = 1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.03-1.43). The relationship remained significant when examining covariates such as gender and race (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.00-1.40). By contrast, no dose-dependence was observed between increasing blood Pb levels and the risk of hay fever in the last year (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.56-1.056), a non-plausibly biologically related outcome of blood Pb levels. Persons in the 50th-75th (12.80%) and 75th-100th (17.14%) percentiles of blood Pb were significantly more likely to have LDs than persons in the 0-50th percentile of blood Pb (8.78%). An estimated 1 million persons born in the US from 1989 to 1998 developed LDs from elevated blood Pb levels. Overall, this study revealed a significant dose-dependent association between increasing childhood blood Pb levels and the risk of a LD diagnosis, but it was not possible to ascribe a direct cause-effect relationship between blood Pb exposure and LD diagnosis. Childhood Pb exposure should be considered when evaluating children with LDs, and continuing efforts should be made to reduce Pb exposure.

  4. Association of APOE polymorphism with chronic kidney disease in a nationally representative sample: a Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III Genetic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berthier-Schaad Yvette

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apolipoprotein E polymorphisms (APOE have been associated with lowered glomerular filtration rate (GFR and chronic kidney disease (CKD with e2 allele conferring risk and e4 providing protection. However, few data are available in non-European ethnic groups or in a population-based cohort. Methods The authors analyzed 5,583 individuals from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III to determine association with estimated GFR by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD equation and low-GFR cases. Low-GFR cases were defined as GFR 2; additionally, GFR was analyzed continuously. Results In univariate analysis, the e4 allele was negatively associated with low-GFR cases in non-Hispanic whites, odds ratio (OR: 0.76, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.60, 0.97. In whites, there was a significant association between increasing APOE score (indicating greater number of e2 alleles and higher prevalence of low-GFR cases (OR: 1.21, 95%CI: 1.01, 1.45. Analysis of continuous GFR in whites found the e4 allele was associated with higher levels of continuous GFR (β-coefficient: 2.57 ml/min/1.73 m2, 95%CI: 0.005, 5.14; in non-Hispanic blacks the e2 allele was associated with lower levels of continuous GFR (β-coefficient: -3.73 ml/min/1.73 m2, 95%CI: -6.61, -0.84. APOE e2 and e4 alleles were rare and not associated with low-GFR cases or continuous GFR in Mexican Americans. Conclusion In conclusion, the authors observed a weak association between the APOE e4 allele and low-GFR cases and continuous GFR in non-Hispanic whites, and the APOE e2 allele and continuous GFR in non-Hispanic blacks, but found no association with either measure of kidney function in Mexican Americans. Larger studies including multiethnic groups are needed to determine the significance of this association.

  5. Nutrients in one-carbon metabolism and urinary arsenic methylation in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; da Silva, Vanessa; Thomson, Cynthia A; Hartz, Vern; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Burgess, Jefferey L; O'Rourke, Mary Kay; Harris, Robin B

    2017-12-31

    Exposure to inorganic arsenic (inAs), a potent toxicant, occurs primarily through ingestion of food and water. The efficiency with which it is methylated to mono and dimethyl arsenicals (MMA and DMA) affects toxicity. Folate, vitamins B12 and B6 are required for 1C metabolism, and studies have found that higher levels of these nutrients increase methylation capacity and are associated with protection against adverse health effects from inAs, especially in undernourished populations. Our aim was to determine whether 1C-related nutrients are associated with greater inAs methylation capacity in a general population sample with overall adequate nutrition and low levels of As exposure. Univariate and multivariable regression models were used to evaluate the relationship of dietary and blood nutrients to urinary As methylation in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004. Outcome variables were the percent of the sum of inAs and methylated As species (inAs+MMA+DMA) excreted as inAs, MMA, and DMA, and the ratio of MMA:DMA. In univariate models, dietary folate, vitamin B6 and protein intake were associated with lower urinary inAs% and greater DMA% in adults (≥18years), with similar trends in children (6-18). In adjusted models, vitamin B6 intake (p=0.011) and RBC folate (p=0.036) were associated with lower inAs%, while dietary vitamin B12 was associated with higher inAs% (p=0.002) and lower DMA% (p=0.030). Total plasma homocysteine was associated with higher MMA% (p=0.004) and lower DMA% (p=0.003), but not with inAs%; other blood nutrients showed no association with urinary As. Although effect size is small, these findings suggest that 1C nutrients can influence inAs methylation and potentially play an indirect role in reducing toxicity in a general population sample. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Closing the gap in hypertension control between younger and older adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1988 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Brent M; Li, Jiexiang; Shatat, Ibrahim F; Fuller, J Michael; Sinopoli, Angelo

    2014-05-20

    Joint National Committee goal blood pressure for all adults was <140/<90 mm Hg or lower from 1984 to 2013. Adults aged ≥60 years (older) have mainly isolated systolic hypertension, with major trials attaining systolic blood pressure <150 but not <140 mm Hg. The main objective was to assess changes in hypertension control to <140/<90 mm Hg in younger (aged <60 years) and older adults and <150/<90 mm Hg in the latter. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 1988 to 1994, 1999 to 2004, and 2005 to 2010 were analyzed in adults aged ≥18 years. From 1988 to 1994 to 2005 to 2010, hypertension control to <140/<90 mm Hg improved in older (31.6% to 53.1%; P<0.001) and younger (45.7% to 55.9%; P<0.001) patients. The age gap in control declined from 14.1% (P<0.01) in 1988 to 1994 to 2.8% (P=0.13) in 2005 to 2010. Better hypertension control reflected increased percentages of older (55.6% to 77.5%) and younger (34.6% to 54.7%) patients on treatment and treated older (45.7% to 64.9%) and younger (56.8% to 73.4%) patients controlled (all P<0.001). Control to <150/<90 mm Hg rose from 48.8% to 69.9% in older adults. Antihypertensive medication number and percentages on ≥3 medications increased in both age groups but increased more in older patients (P<0.01). Blood pressure control was higher in both age groups with ≥2 healthcare visits per year and on statin therapy. The age gap in hypertension control to <140/<90 mm Hg was virtually eliminated in 2005 to 2010 as clinicians intensified therapy, especially in older patients in whom isolated systolic hypertension predominates, controlling 70% to <150/<90 mm Hg. More frequent healthcare visits and the use of statin therapy may improve hypertension control in all adults. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Food insecurity is associated with diabetes mellitus: results from the National Health Examination and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Hilary K; Bindman, Andrew B; Vittinghoff, Eric; Kanaya, Alka M; Kushel, Margot B

    2007-07-01

    Food insecurity refers to limited or uncertain access to food resulting from inadequate financial resources. There is a clear association between food insecurity and obesity among women, but little is known about the relationship between food insecurity and type 2 diabetes. To evaluate whether there is an independent association between food insecurity and diabetes. Cross-sectional analysis of the nationally representative, population-based National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2002 waves). Four thousand four hundred twenty-three adults > 20 years of age with household incomes poverty level. We categorized respondents as food secure, mildly food insecure, or severely food insecure using a well-validated food insecurity scale. Diabetes was determined by self-report or a fasting serum glucose > or = 126 mg/dl. Diabetes prevalence in the food secure, mildly food insecure, and severely food insecure categories was 11.7%, 10.0%, and 16.1%. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors and physical activity level, participants with severe food insecurity were more likely to have diabetes than those without food insecurity (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-4.0, p = .02). This association persisted after further adjusting for body mass index (AOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-3.9, p = .01). Food insecurity may act as a risk factor for diabetes. Among adults with food insecurity, increased consumption of inexpensive food alternatives, which are often calorically dense and nutritionally poor, may play a role in this relationship. Future work should address how primary care clinicians can most effectively assist patients with food insecurity to make healthy dietary changes.

  8. Popcorn consumption and dietary and physiological parameters of US children and adults: analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002 dietary survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Ann C; Fulgoni, Victor L; Reimers, Kristin J; Agarwal, Sanjiv

    2008-05-01

    Popcorn is a whole-grain food/snack that is included among foods recommended in the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and MyPyramid to increase whole-grain consumption. The purpose of the present study was to use 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 24-hour dietary recall data to determine the average popcorn intake among Americans, and whether popcorn consumers exhibited different dietary intake patterns or physiological biomarkers of cardiovascular disease compared with popcorn non-consumers. Mean intake among consumers of popcorn was 38.8 g/day. Compared with non-consumers, popcorn consumers had approximately 250% higher (Ppopcorn consumers), protein, niacin, and folate (lower intake in popcorn consumers). In addition, popcorn consumers had a greater (PPopcorn consumption was associated with increased intake of whole grains, dietary fiber, and certain other nutrients.

  9. Gender, mental health service use and objectively measured physical activity: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003-2004).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janney, Carol A; Richardson, Caroline R; Holleman, Robert G; Glasheen, Cristie; Strath, Scott J; Conroy, Molly B; Kriska, Andrea M

    2008-06-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between physical activity levels measured objectively by accelerometry and the use of mental health services (MHS) in a representative sample of males and females. METHOD: NHANES 2003-2004 is a cross-sectional study of the civilian, non-institutionalized US adult population. Participants reported whether or not they had seen a mental health professional during the past 12 months. Three measures of daily physical activity (light minutes, moderate-vigorous minutes, and total activity counts) and sedentary minutes were determined by accelerometry. The relationship between physical activity and use of MHS was modeled with and without adjustments for potential socioeconomic and health confounders. RESULTS: Of the 1846 males and 1963 females included in this analysis, 7 and 8% reported seeing mental health professionals during the past 12 months, respectively. Men who used MHS were significantly less active than men who did not use MHS (227,700 versus 276,900 total activity counts, respectively, p physical activity per day than men who used MHS. Physical activity levels of women, regardless of MHS use, were significantly lower than men who did not use MHS. Differences in total physical activity between women who did and did not use MHS were small (1.3, 95% CI - 14.0, 11.4). CONCLUSION: Men and women who used MHS were relatively sedentary. Additional research is warranted to determine if increasing physical activity levels results in improved mental health in individuals who use MHS.

  10. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Dataset for What We Eat in America, NHANES (Survey-SR) 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Dataset for What We Eat In America, NHANES (Survey-SR) provides the nutrient data for assessing dietary intakes from the national survey What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA, NHANES). The current versi...

  11. The Taste and Smell Protocol in the 2011–2014 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES): Test–Retest Reliability and Validity Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Shristi; Hoffman, Howard J.; Honda, Mallory; Huedo-Medin, Tania B.; Duffy, Valerie B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The US NHANES 2011–2014 protocol includes a taste and smell questionnaire (CSQ) in home-based interviews and brief assessments in mobile exam centers. We report the short- and longer-term test–retest reliability and validity of this protocol against broader chemosensory measures. Methods A convenience sample of 73 adults (age=39.5±20.8 years) underwent the NHANES protocol at baseline, 2 weeks and 6 months. For taste, participants rated intensities of two tastants (1 M NaCl, 1 mM quinine) applied to the tongue tip and three tastants (1 M NaCl, 1 mM quinine, 0.32 M NaCl) sampled with the whole mouth. Smell function was assessed with a Pocket Smell Test™ (PST; eight-item odor identification test). The CSQ asked about chemosensory problems, distortions, and age-related changes. Broader baseline measurements were a 40-item olfactometer-generated identification task and additional whole-mouth taste intensities (1 M sucrose, 32 mM citric acid, 3.2 mM propylthiouracil). Results Intraclass correlations (ICCs) for NHANES taste measures showed moderate-to-good agreement after 2 weeks and 6 months (ICCs 0.42–0.71). Whole-mouth quinine intensity was significantly correlated with other taste intensities, supporting its utility as a marker for overall taste functioning. Olfactory classification from PSTs agreed for 98.5 % of participants across 2 weeks (κ=0.85; 95 % CI 0.71–0.99) and had good correspondence with the olfactometer task. CSQ items showed good-to-excellent agreement over 6 months (ICCs 0.66–0.90). Conclusions These findings further support that the NHANES chemosensory protocol has moderate-to-good test–retest reliability when administered to healthy, educated adults. Despite being a brief procedure with limited measures, the NHANES taste and smell assessments provided good information when compared to broader measures of taste and smell function. PMID:27833669

  12. Estimating the U.S. prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background During 2007–2010, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) conducted a spirometry component which obtained pre-bronchodilator pulmonary lung function data on a nationally representative sample of US adults aged 6–79 years and post-bronchodilator pulmonary lung function data for the subset of adults with airflow limitation. The goals of this study were to 1) compute prevalence estimates of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using pre-bronchodilator and post-bronchodilator spirometry measurements and fixed ratio and lower limit of normal (LLN) diagnostic criteria and 2) examine the potential impact of nonresponse on the estimates. Methods This analysis was limited to those aged 40–79 years who were eligible for NHANES pre-bronchodilator spirometry (n=7,104). Examinees with likely airflow limitation were further eligible for post-bronchodilator testing (n=1,110). Persons were classified as having COPD based on FEV1/FVC spirometry but self-reporting both daytime supplemental oxygen therapy plus emphysema and/or current chronic bronchitis were also classified as having COPD. The final analytic samples for pre-bronchodilator and post-bronchodilator analyses were 77.1% (n=5,477) and 50.8% (n=564) of those eligible, respectively. To account for non-response, NHANES examination weights were adjusted to the eligible pre-bronchodilator and post-bronchodilator subpopulations. Results In 2007–2010, using the fixed ratio criterion and pre-bronchodilator test results, COPD prevalence was 20.9% (SE 1.1) among US adults aged 40–79 years. Applying the same criterion to post-bronchodilator test results, prevalence was 14.0% (SE 1.0). Using the LLN criterion and pre-bronchodilator test results, the COPD prevalence was 15.4% (SE 0.8), while applying the same criterion to post-bronchodilator test results, prevalence was 10.2% (SE 0.8). Conclusions The overall COPD prevalence among US adults aged 40–79 years varied from 10.2% to 20

  13. Estimating the U.S. prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilert, Timothy; Dillon, Charles; Paulose-Ram, Ryne; Hnizdo, Eva; Doney, Brent

    2013-10-09

    During 2007-2010, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) conducted a spirometry component which obtained pre-bronchodilator pulmonary lung function data on a nationally representative sample of US adults aged 6-79 years and post-bronchodilator pulmonary lung function data for the subset of adults with airflow limitation. The goals of this study were to 1) compute prevalence estimates of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using pre-bronchodilator and post-bronchodilator spirometry measurements and fixed ratio and lower limit of normal (LLN) diagnostic criteria and 2) examine the potential impact of nonresponse on the estimates. This analysis was limited to those aged 40-79 years who were eligible for NHANES pre-bronchodilator spirometry (n=7,104). Examinees with likely airflow limitation were further eligible for post-bronchodilator testing (n=1,110). Persons were classified as having COPD based on FEV1/FVC chronic bronchitis were also classified as having COPD. The final analytic samples for pre-bronchodilator and post-bronchodilator analyses were 77.1% (n=5,477) and 50.8% (n=564) of those eligible, respectively. To account for non-response, NHANES examination weights were adjusted to the eligible pre-bronchodilator and post-bronchodilator subpopulations. In 2007-2010, using the fixed ratio criterion and pre-bronchodilator test results, COPD prevalence was 20.9% (SE 1.1) among US adults aged 40-79 years. Applying the same criterion to post-bronchodilator test results, prevalence was 14.0% (SE 1.0). Using the LLN criterion and pre-bronchodilator test results, the COPD prevalence was 15.4% (SE 0.8), while applying the same criterion to post-bronchodilator test results, prevalence was 10.2% (SE 0.8). The overall COPD prevalence among US adults aged 40-79 years varied from 10.2% to 20.9% based on whether pre- or post-bronchodilator values were used and which diagnostic criterion (fixed ratio or LLN) was applied. The overall prevalence

  14. Blood Organic Mercury and Dietary Mercury Intake: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 and 2000

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kathryn R. Mahaffey; Robert P. Clickner; Catherine C. Bodurow

    Blood organic mercury (i.e., methyl mercury) concentrations among 1,709 women who were participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 1999 and 2000 (1999-2000 NHANES) were 0.6...

  15. Is breakfast skipping associated with physical activity among U.S. adolescents? A cross-sectional study of adolescents aged 12-19 years, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Jordan E; Huber, Larissa R; Warren-Findlow, Jan; Racine, Elizabeth F; Dmochowski, Jacek

    2014-04-01

    To examine the association between breakfast skipping and physical activity among US adolescents aged 12-19 years. A cross-sectional study of nationally representative 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. Breakfast skipping was assessed by two 24 h dietary recalls. Physical activity was self-reported by participants and classified based on meeting national recommendations for physical activity for the appropriate age group. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to model the association between breakfast skipping and physical activity while controlling for confounders. A total of 936 adolescents aged 12-19 years in the USA. After adjusting for family income, there was no association between breakfast skipping and meeting physical activity guidelines for age among adolescents aged 12-19 years (OR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.56, 1.32). Findings from the study differ from previous research findings on breakfast skipping and physical activity. Therefore, further research that uses large, nationally representative US samples and national recommended guidelines for physical activity is needed.

  16. Associations of food consumption, serum vitamins and metabolic syndrome risk with physical activity level in middle-aged adults: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jihyun E; Ainsworth, Barbara E

    2016-06-01

    To examine the associations of food consumption, serum vitamins and metabolic syndrome risk with physical activity level in middle-aged adults. Cross-sectional. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006. Adults aged 40-70 years were divided into three groups by tertile of accelerometer-determined steps/d (in men and women, respectively): tertile 1 (sedentary), active), ≥10699, ≥9226. The active men consumed more grain products, fruits and vegetables, whereas the active women consumed more legumes and vegetables, compared with the sedentary group. Serum vitamin concentrations were associated with daily steps in both men and women. Vitamin C, α-carotene, trans-β-carotene, cis-β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein+zeaxanthin, lycopene, γ-tocopherol and vitamin D were significantly associated with daily steps. OR (Pmetabolic syndrome in men and women, respectively. Those with the highest steps taken showed a more healthful eating profile and a better serum vitamin profile compared with less active adults. Those with the lowest steps taken had greater odds of having metabolic syndrome and its risk components. Probably, daily walking is a marker of a healthful eating profile and increasing daily walking is one of the healthful ways to decrease the metabolic syndrome and its risk components.

  17. Tobacco smoke exposure and levels of urinary metals in the U.S. youth and adult population: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Patricia A; Bishop, Ellen E; Wang, Jiantong; Swahn, Monica H

    2009-07-01

    We assessed 12 urine metals in tobacco smoke-exposed and not exposed National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants. Our analysis included age, race/ethnicity, and poverty status. Gender and racial/ethnic differences in cadmium and lead and creatinine-adjusted and unadjusted data for group comparisons are presented. Smokers' had higher cadmium, lead, antimony, and barium levels than nonsmokers. Highest lead levels were in the youngest subjects. Lead levels among adults with high second-hand smoke exposure equaled smokers. Older smokers had cadmium levels signaling the potential for cadmium-related toxicity. Given the potential toxicity of metals, our findings complement existing research on exposure to chemicals in tobacco smoke.

  18. Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Levels of Urinary Metals in the U.S. Youth and Adult Population: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica H. Swahn

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available We assessed 12 urine metals in tobacco smoke-exposed and not exposed National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants. Our analysis included age, race/ethnicity, and poverty status. Gender and racial/ethnic differences in cadmium and lead and creatinine-adjusted and unadjusted data for group comparisons are presented. Smokers’ had higher cadmium, lead, antimony, and barium levels than nonsmokers. Highest lead levels were in the youngest subjects. Lead levels among adults with high second-hand smoke exposure equaled smokers. Older smokers had cadmium levels signaling the potential for cadmium-related toxicity. Given the potential toxicity of metals, our findings complement existing research on exposure to chemicals in tobacco smoke.

  19. Associations between meal and snack frequency and overweight and abdominal obesity in US children and adolescents from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2016-05-28

    The association between eating frequency (EF) and adiposity in young populations is inconsistent. This cross-sectional study examined associations of EF, meal frequency (MF) and snack frequency (SF) with adiposity measures in US children aged 6-11 years (n 4346) and adolescents aged 12-19 years (n 6338) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012. Using data from two 24-h dietary recalls, all eating occasions providing ≥210 kJ of energy were divided into meals or snacks based on contribution to energy intake (≥15 or snacks. In adolescents, after adjustment for EI:EER, positive associations were observed for EF (abdominal obesity only), SF based on energy contribution and MF based on self-report, whereas there was an inverse association between MF based on energy contribution and overweight. In conclusion, higher SF and EF, but not MF, were associated with higher risks of overweight and abdominal obesity in children, whereas associations varied in adolescents, depending on the definition of meals and snacks. Prospective studies are needed to establish the associations observed here.

  20. Secular trends in regional differences in nutritional biomarkers and self-reported dietary intakes among American adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1988-1994 to 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ashima K; Graubard, Barry I

    2018-01-10

    To understand the contribution of regional differentials in dietary exposures to regional gradients in health, we examined 20-year trends in the association of US census region of residence with nutritional biomarkers and dietary intakes of American adults. Observational. The biomarker and 24 h dietary recall data were from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) conducted during 1988-1994 and 1999-2010. The US census region was operationalized as Northeast, Midwest, South and West. Nutritional biomarker outcomes were serum folate, vitamins B6, B12, C, D and E, and carotenoids; dietary outcomes were intakes of nutrients, food groups and eating patterns. US adults, n>8000-40 000 for biomarkers and >43 000 for dietary outcomes. The interactions of survey time period and region were not significant for the examined biomarker and dietary outcomes, indicating similar secular trends among regions. The main effect of region was significant for all nutritional biomarkers except serum vitamin B6, most dietary micronutrients, food groups and eating patterns (P<0·001). The mean serum folate, vitamins B12, C and E, and all carotenoid (except lycopene) biomarker levels, and intakes of dietary fibre, vitamins A, E, C and B6, folate, K, Ca, Mg and Fe, fruits, vegetables and whole grains, were higher in the West and Northeast regions, relative to the South and Midwest regions. Overall, the regional gradients in dietary exposure, expressed objectively as biomarkers or as self-reported nutrient and food group intakes, paralleled trajectories reported for health outcomes and were remarkably persistent over time.

  1. Race-ethnic differences in the association of genetic loci with HbA1c levels and mortality in U.S. adults: the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimsby Jonna L

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c levels diagnose diabetes, predict mortality and are associated with ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in white individuals. Genetic associations in other race groups are not known. We tested the hypotheses that there is race-ethnic variation in 1 HbA1c-associated risk allele frequencies (RAFs for SNPs near SPTA1, HFE, ANK1, HK1, ATP11A, FN3K, TMPRSS6, G6PC2, GCK, MTNR1B; 2 association of SNPs with HbA1c and 3 association of SNPs with mortality. Methods We studied 3,041 non-diabetic individuals in the NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. We stratified the analysis by race/ethnicity (NHW: non-Hispanic white; NHB: non-Hispanic black; MA: Mexican American to calculate RAF, calculated a genotype score by adding risk SNPs, and tested associations with SNPs and the genotype score using an additive genetic model, with type 1 error = 0.05. Results RAFs varied widely and at six loci race-ethnic differences in RAF were significant (p ATP11A, the SNP RAF was 54% in NHB, 18% in MA and 14% in NHW (p 1c in NHW (β = 0.012 HbA1c increase per risk allele, p = 0.04 and MA (β = 0.021, p = 0.005 but not NHB (β = 0.007, p = 0.39. The genotype score was not associated with mortality in any group (NHW: OR (per risk allele increase in mortality = 1.07, p = 0.09; NHB: OR = 1.04, p = 0.39; MA: OR = 1.03, p = 0.71. Conclusion At many HbA1c loci in NHANES III there is substantial RAF race-ethnic heterogeneity. The combined impact of common HbA1c-associated variants on HbA1c levels varied by race-ethnicity, but did not influence mortality.

  2. Avocado consumption is associated with better diet quality and nutrient intake, and lower metabolic syndrome risk in US adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2001–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulgoni Victor L

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avocados contain monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA dietary fiber, essential nutrients and phytochemicals. However, no epidemiologic data exist on their effects on diet quality, weight management and other metabolic disease risk factors. The objective of this research was to investigate the relationships between avocado consumption and overall diet quality, energy and nutrient intakes, physiological indicators of health, and risk of metabolic syndrome. Methods Avocado consumption and nutrition data were based on 24-hour dietary recalls collected by trained NHANES interviewers using the USDA Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM. Physiological data were collected from physical examinations conducted in NHANES Mobile Examination Centers. Diet quality was calculated using the USDA’s Healthy Eating Index-2005. Subjects included 17,567 US adults  ≥ 19 years of age (49% female, including 347 avocado consumers (50% female, examined in NHANES 2001–2008. Least square means, standard errors, and ANOVA were determined using appropriate sample weights, with adjustments for age, gender, ethnicity, and other covariates depending on dependent variable of interest. Results Avocado consumers had significantly higher intakes of vegetables (p  Conclusions Avocado consumption is associated with improved overall diet quality, nutrient intake, and reduced risk of metabolic syndrome. Dietitians should be aware of the beneficial associations between avocado intake, diet and health when making dietary recommendations.

  3. Avocado consumption is associated with better diet quality and nutrient intake, and lower metabolic syndrome risk in US adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Avocados contain monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) dietary fiber, essential nutrients and phytochemicals. However, no epidemiologic data exist on their effects on diet quality, weight management and other metabolic disease risk factors. The objective of this research was to investigate the relationships between avocado consumption and overall diet quality, energy and nutrient intakes, physiological indicators of health, and risk of metabolic syndrome. Methods Avocado consumption and nutrition data were based on 24-hour dietary recalls collected by trained NHANES interviewers using the USDA Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM). Physiological data were collected from physical examinations conducted in NHANES Mobile Examination Centers. Diet quality was calculated using the USDA’s Healthy Eating Index-2005. Subjects included 17,567 US adults  ≥ 19 years of age (49% female), including 347 avocado consumers (50% female), examined in NHANES 2001–2008. Least square means, standard errors, and ANOVA were determined using appropriate sample weights, with adjustments for age, gender, ethnicity, and other covariates depending on dependent variable of interest. Results Avocado consumers had significantly higher intakes of vegetables (p avocado consumers. The odds ratio for metabolic syndrome was 50% (95th CI: 0.32-0.72) lower in avocado consumers vs. non-consumers. Conclusions Avocado consumption is associated with improved overall diet quality, nutrient intake, and reduced risk of metabolic syndrome. Dietitians should be aware of the beneficial associations between avocado intake, diet and health when making dietary recommendations. PMID:23282226

  4. Avocado consumption is associated with better diet quality and nutrient intake, and lower metabolic syndrome risk in US adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgoni, Victor L; Dreher, Mark; Davenport, Adrienne J

    2013-01-02

    Avocados contain monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) dietary fiber, essential nutrients and phytochemicals. However, no epidemiologic data exist on their effects on diet quality, weight management and other metabolic disease risk factors. The objective of this research was to investigate the relationships between avocado consumption and overall diet quality, energy and nutrient intakes, physiological indicators of health, and risk of metabolic syndrome. Avocado consumption and nutrition data were based on 24-hour dietary recalls collected by trained NHANES interviewers using the USDA Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM). Physiological data were collected from physical examinations conducted in NHANES Mobile Examination Centers. Diet quality was calculated using the USDA's Healthy Eating Index-2005. Subjects included 17,567 US adults ≥ 19 years of age (49% female), including 347 avocado consumers (50% female), examined in NHANES 2001-2008. Least square means, standard errors, and ANOVA were determined using appropriate sample weights, with adjustments for age, gender, ethnicity, and other covariates depending on dependent variable of interest. Avocado consumers had significantly higher intakes of vegetables (pavocado consumers. The odds ratio for metabolic syndrome was 50% (95th CI: 0.32-0.72) lower in avocado consumers vs. non-consumers. Avocado consumption is associated with improved overall diet quality, nutrient intake, and reduced risk of metabolic syndrome. Dietitians should be aware of the beneficial associations between avocado intake, diet and health when making dietary recommendations.

  5. Effect of physical activity and sedentary behavior on serum prostate-specific antigen concentrations: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Kohli, Manish

    2013-01-01

    To examine the association between accelerometer-derived sedentary and physical activity and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in a nationally representative sample of men in the United States. Data from the 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey cycles were used in the present study, with data from 1672 adult male participants used in the analyses. The manuscript was prepared between July 7, 2012, and September 26, 2012. Sedentary and physical activity was objectively measured using an accelerometer. Covariates included various demographic, dietary, biological, and immunologic variables including age, height, weight, body mass index, race/ethnicity, marital status, education, and poverty-income ratio; dietary fiber, fat, protein, and carbohydrate intake and total energy intake; vitamin C and vitamin E; alcohol intake; medication use; concentrations of cotinine, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; blood pressure (elevated or not elevated); diabetes; C-reactive protein; and white blood cell count and number of basophils and eosinophils. Only after controlling for all covariates, for every 1-hour increase in sedentary behavior, participants were 16% more likely to have an elevated PSA concentration (odds ratio, 1.16 [95% CI, 1.06-1.27]; P=.001). For every 1-hour increase in light physical activity, participants were 18% less likely to have an elevated PSA concentration (odds ratio, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.68-1.00]; P=.05). Individuals who engage in more sedentary behavior and lower levels of light physical activity have higher PSA concentrations. Future studies are needed to better identify the potential underlying mechanisms delineating the association between sedentary and physical activity and PSA concentration. Copyright © 2013 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Association of diabetes, comorbidities, and A1C with functional disability in older adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyani, Rita Rastogi; Saudek, Christopher D; Brancati, Frederick L; Selvin, Elizabeth

    2010-05-01

    To examine the relationship of diabetes and functional disability in older adults and the possible mediating roles of comorbidities and A1C. We analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of 6,097 participants aged >or=60 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2006. Diabetes was defined by self-report. Disability was defined as difficulty performing a physical task. We evaluated disability by grouping 19 physical tasks into five functional groups: lower-extremity mobility (LEM), general physical activities (GPA), activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and leisure and social activities (LSA). Older U.S. adults with diabetes had the greatest disability in GPA (prevalence 73.6% [95% CI 70.2-76.9]), followed by LEM (52.2% [48.5-55.9]), IADL (43.6% [40.1-47.2]), ADL (37.2% [33.1-41.3]), and LSA groups (33.8% [30.8-36.9]). Diabetes was associated with two to three times increased odds of disability across functional groups (all P or=8%) together explained up to 85% of the excess odds of disability associated with diabetes, whereas poor glycemic control alone explained only approximately 10% of the excess odds. Adjustment for comorbidities, A1C, and diabetes duration fully attenuated the associations of diabetes with disability in all functional groups (all P > 0.05). Older adults with diabetes have a high prevalence of disabilities with variable associations attributable to comorbidities and A1C. Aggressive management of cardiovascular risk factors and obesity may significantly reduce the burden of disability in this population.

  7. Inverse association between insulin resistance and gait speed in nondiabetic older men: results from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002

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    Yu Yau-Hua

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have revealed the associations between insulin resistance (IR and geriatric conditions such as frailty and cognitive impairment. However, little is known about the relation of IR to physical impairment and limitation in the aging process, eg. slow gait speed and poor muscle strength. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of IR in performance-based physical function, specifically gait speed and leg strength, among nondiabetic older adults. Methods Cross-sectional data were from the population-based National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2002. A total of 1168 nondiabetic adults (≥ 50 years with nonmissing values in fasting measures of insulin and glucose, habitual gait speed (HGS, and leg strength were analyzed. IR was assessed by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR, whereas HGS and peak leg strength by the 20-foot timed walk test and an isokinetic dynamometer, respectively. We used multiple linear regression to examine the association between IR and performance-based physical function. Results IR was inversely associated with gait speed among the men. After adjusting demographics, body mass index, alcohol consumption, smoking status, chronic co-morbidities, and markers of nutrition and cardiovascular risk, each increment of 1 standard deviation in the HOMA-IR level was associated with a 0.04 m/sec decrease (p = 0.003 in the HGS in men. We did not find such association among the women. The IR-HGS association was not changed after further adjustment of leg strength. Last, HOMA-IR was not demonstrated in association with peak leg strength. Conclusion IR is inversely associated with HGS among older men without diabetes. The results suggest that IR, an important indicator of gait function among men, could be further investigated as an intervenable target to prevent walking limitation.

  8. Oatmeal consumption is associated with better diet quality and lower body mass index in adults: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2001-2010.

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    Fulgoni, Victor L; Chu, YiFang; O'Shea, Marianne; Slavin, Joanne L; DiRienzo, Maureen A

    2015-12-01

    Data from the 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed to assess the relationship between oatmeal consumption and nutrient intake, diet quality, and physiological measures in adults 19 years and older (n = 22,823). We hypothesized that oatmeal consumption is associated with a more favorable nutrient intake profile, better diet quality, and healthier physiological end points. Oatmeal consumers (n = 1429) were defined as those who had consumed any amount of cooked oatmeal cereal during a 24-hour recall period. Multiple regression analysis, after transforming variables to normality and using appropriate sample weights to ensure national representation, was used to assess differences between oatmeal consumers and nonconsumers in terms of demographics, and covariate-adjusted analysis of variance was used to assess differences between consumers and nonconsumers in nutrient intakes, diet quality (calculated using the Healthy Eating Index-2010), and physiological measures. Our results show that oatmeal consumers were older than nonconsumers and more likely to be female; they also were less likely to smoke and consumed less alcohol. Consumers had higher intakes of protein, dietary fiber, vitamin A, thiamin, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, copper, selenium, and potassium and lower intakes of total, monounsaturated, and saturated fats; cholesterol; and vitamin B12. Oatmeal consumers had higher Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores and lower body weights, waist circumferences, and body mass indices. To conclude, our results suggest that consuming oatmeal is consistent with better nutrient intakes and a higher diet quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Maternal Hypertension after a Low-Birth-Weight Delivery Differs by Race/Ethnicity: Evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Kuller, Lewis H.; Youk, Ada O.; Catov, Janet M.

    2014-01-01

    Studies have suggested an increase in maternal morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases in women with a prior low-birth-weight (LBW, <2,500 grams) delivery. This study evaluated blood pressure and hypertension in women who reported a prior preterm or small-for-gestational-age (SGA) LBW delivery in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2006 (n = 6,307). This study also aimed to explore if race/ethnicity, menopause status, and years since last pregnancy modified the above associations. A total of 3,239 white, 1,350 black, and 1,718 Hispanics were assessed. Linear regression models were used to evaluate blood pressure by birth characteristics (preterm-LBW, SGA-LBW, and birthweight ≥2,500). Logistic regression models estimated the odds ratios (OR) of hypertension among women who reported a preterm-LBW or SGA-LBW delivery compared with women who reported an infant with birthweight ≥2,500 at delivery. Overall, there was a positive association between a preterm-LBW delivery and hypertension (adjusted OR = 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02–1.90). Prior SGA-LBW also increased the odds of hypertension, but the estimate did not reach statistical significance (adjusted OR = 1.21, 95% CI 0.76–1.92). Race/ethnicity modified the above associations. Only black women had increased risk of hypertension following SGA-LBW delivery (adjusted OR = 2.09, 95% CI 1.12–3.90). Black women were at marginally increased risk of hypertension after delivery of a preterm-LBW (adjusted OR = 1.49, 95% CI 0.93–2.38). Whites and Hispanics had increased, but not statistically significant, risk of hypertension after a preterm-LBW (whites: adjusted OR = 1.39, 95% CI 0.92–2.10; Hispanics: adjusted OR = 1.22, 95% CI 0.62–2.38). Stratified analysis indicated that the associations were stronger among women who were premenopausal and whose last pregnancy were more recent. The current study suggests that in a representative

  10. Maternal hypertension after a low-birth-weight delivery differs by race/ethnicity: evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Xu

    Full Text Available Studies have suggested an increase in maternal morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases in women with a prior low-birth-weight (LBW, <2,500 grams delivery. This study evaluated blood pressure and hypertension in women who reported a prior preterm or small-for-gestational-age (SGA LBW delivery in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006 (n = 6,307. This study also aimed to explore if race/ethnicity, menopause status, and years since last pregnancy modified the above associations. A total of 3,239 white, 1,350 black, and 1,718 Hispanics were assessed. Linear regression models were used to evaluate blood pressure by birth characteristics (preterm-LBW, SGA-LBW, and birthweight ≥2,500. Logistic regression models estimated the odds ratios (OR of hypertension among women who reported a preterm-LBW or SGA-LBW delivery compared with women who reported an infant with birthweight ≥2,500 at delivery. Overall, there was a positive association between a preterm-LBW delivery and hypertension (adjusted OR = 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.02-1.90. Prior SGA-LBW also increased the odds of hypertension, but the estimate did not reach statistical significance (adjusted OR = 1.21, 95% CI 0.76-1.92. Race/ethnicity modified the above associations. Only black women had increased risk of hypertension following SGA-LBW delivery (adjusted OR = 2.09, 95% CI 1.12-3.90. Black women were at marginally increased risk of hypertension after delivery of a preterm-LBW (adjusted OR = 1.49, 95% CI 0.93-2.38. Whites and Hispanics had increased, but not statistically significant, risk of hypertension after a preterm-LBW (whites: adjusted OR = 1.39, 95% CI 0.92-2.10; Hispanics: adjusted OR = 1.22, 95% CI 0.62-2.38. Stratified analysis indicated that the associations were stronger among women who were premenopausal and whose last pregnancy were more recent. The current study suggests that in a representative United

  11. Maternal hypertension after a low-birth-weight delivery differs by race/ethnicity: evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Kuller, Lewis H; Youk, Ada O; Catov, Janet M

    2014-01-01

    Studies have suggested an increase in maternal morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases in women with a prior low-birth-weight (LBW, <2,500 grams) delivery. This study evaluated blood pressure and hypertension in women who reported a prior preterm or small-for-gestational-age (SGA) LBW delivery in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006 (n = 6,307). This study also aimed to explore if race/ethnicity, menopause status, and years since last pregnancy modified the above associations. A total of 3,239 white, 1,350 black, and 1,718 Hispanics were assessed. Linear regression models were used to evaluate blood pressure by birth characteristics (preterm-LBW, SGA-LBW, and birthweight ≥2,500). Logistic regression models estimated the odds ratios (OR) of hypertension among women who reported a preterm-LBW or SGA-LBW delivery compared with women who reported an infant with birthweight ≥2,500 at delivery. Overall, there was a positive association between a preterm-LBW delivery and hypertension (adjusted OR = 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.90). Prior SGA-LBW also increased the odds of hypertension, but the estimate did not reach statistical significance (adjusted OR = 1.21, 95% CI 0.76-1.92). Race/ethnicity modified the above associations. Only black women had increased risk of hypertension following SGA-LBW delivery (adjusted OR = 2.09, 95% CI 1.12-3.90). Black women were at marginally increased risk of hypertension after delivery of a preterm-LBW (adjusted OR = 1.49, 95% CI 0.93-2.38). Whites and Hispanics had increased, but not statistically significant, risk of hypertension after a preterm-LBW (whites: adjusted OR = 1.39, 95% CI 0.92-2.10; Hispanics: adjusted OR = 1.22, 95% CI 0.62-2.38). Stratified analysis indicated that the associations were stronger among women who were premenopausal and whose last pregnancy were more recent. The current study suggests that in a representative United States

  12. Snacking is associated with reduced risk of overweight and reduced abdominal obesity in adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snacking is common in adolescents; however, it is unclear if there is an association between snacking and overweight or obesity within the context of the overall diet. This study examined the associations of snacking with weight status and abdominal obesity in adolescents 12–18 y of age (n = 5811). ...

  13. Impact of food choice on sodium intake patterns from multiple NHANES surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zefeng; Gao, Zhifeng; McFadden, Brandon

    2017-02-01

    To examine how the food consumption from various food groups would impact American adults' sodium intake and whether this impact structurally changes over time, data were obtained from six-cycle National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2010. Foods were categorized by the first two digits of the USDA food code. Regression models were employed to investigate the associations between the consumption of each food group and sodium intake, and whether there were changes in the associations in consecutive six cycles. Results show that the calorie consumption of oils, beverages and water, fruit juices, fruits, lamb, fruit products, and sugars and sweets had no significant impact on individuals' sodium intake, while calorie consumption of tomatoes, fish, dark-green vegetables, and crackers contributes the most to sodium intake. The contribution to sodium intake of most food groups does not change significantly over time, with the exception of salad dressing whose contribution to sodium intake increased in four consecutive years when compared to that of 1999-2000. The sodium amount contributed by one calorie consumption (sodium density) of most food was above the daily recommendation level, 1.2 mg per calorie per day. Lowering individuals' sodium intake involves either guiding individuals to consume more fruit related products or decreasing the amount of sodium in most food groups at the production or food preparation stages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cardiovascular Endurance, Body Mass Index, Physical Activity, Screen Time, and Carotenoid Intake of Children: NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey

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    Joan A. Vaccaro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Approximately 17% of children aged 6–11 years were classified as obese in the United States. Obesity adversely affects physical functioning and leads to reduced quality of life. Heart function for overweight and obese children has not been reported. Methods. Data for this study were from NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey (NNYFS conducted in conjunction with the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES in 2012. This study used data from children aged 6–12 (N=732 that had the cardiorespiratory endurance measure, body mass index for age and sex, and dietary data (N=682. Cardiovascular endurance was estimated by heart rate reserve. Results. Compared to the highest percentile of heart rate reserve, those in the first percentile had 3.52 (2.36, 5.24 odds and those in the second percentile had 3.61 (1.84, 7.06 odds of being in the overweight/obese as compared to the under/normal weight category. Considering the highest percentile, boys had a heart rate reserve of 35%, whereas girls had a heart rate reserve of 13% (less than half that of boys. Conclusion. Having an overweight or obese classification for children in this study demonstrated a compromise in cardiovascular endurance. Parental awareness should be raised as to the detrimental consequence of overweight and heart health.

  15. The relationship of breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity, other cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in young adults. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES): 1999-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh-Taskar, Priya; Nicklas, Theresa A; Radcliffe, John D; O'Neil, Carol E; Liu, Yan

    2013-11-01

    To examine the association between breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity, other cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Cross-sectional. Three breakfast groups were identified, breakfast skippers (BS), ready-to-eat-cereal (RTEC) consumers and other breakfast (OB) consumers, using a 24 h dietary recall. Risk factors were compared between the breakfast groups using covariate-adjusted statistical procedures. The 1999–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, USA. Young adults (20–39 years of age). Among these young adults (n 5316), 23.8% were BS, 16.5% were RTEC consumers and 59.7% were OB consumers. Relative to the BS, the RTEC consumers were 31%, 39%, 37%, 28%, 23%, 40% and 42% less likely to be overweight/obese or have abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated serum total cholesterol, elevated serum LDL-cholesterol, reduced serum HDL-cholesterol or elevated serum insulin, respectively. Relative to the OB consumers, the BS were 1.24, 1.26 and 1.44 times more likely to have elevated serum total cholesterol, elevated serum LDL-cholesterol or reduced serum HDL-cholesterol, respectively. Relative to the OB consumers, the RTEC consumers were 22%, 31% and 24% less likely to be overweight/ obese or have abdominal obesity or elevated blood pressure, respectively. No difference was seen in the prevalence of the MetS by breakfast skipping or type of breakfast consumed. Results suggest that consumption of breakfast, especially that included an RTEC, was associated with an improved cardiometabolic risk profile in U.S. young adults. Additional studies are needed to determine the nature of these relationships.

  16. An epidemiological analysis of potential associations between C-reactive protein, inflammation, and prostate cancer in the male US population using the 2009 - 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Hill, Catherine; Lutfiyya, M. Nawal

    2015-08-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in US males, yet much remains to be learned about the role of inflammation in its etiology. We hypothesized that preexisting exposure to chronic inflammatory conditions caused by infectious agents or inflammatory diseases increase the risk of prostate cancer. Using the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we examined the relationships between demographic variables, inflammation, infection, circulating plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), and the risk of occurrence of prostate cancer in US men over 18 years of age. Using IBM SPSS, we performed bivariate and logistic regression analyses using high CRP values as the dependent variable and five study covariates including prostate cancer status. From 2009 - 2010, an estimated 5,448,373 men reported having prostate cancer of which the majority were Caucasian (70.1%) and were aged 40 years and older (62.7%). Bivariate analyses demonstrated that high CRP was not associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. Greater odds of having prostate cancer were revealed for men that had inflammation related to disease (OR = 1.029, CI 1.029-1.029) and those who were not taking drugs to control inflammation (OR = 1.330, CI 1.324-1.336). Men who did not have inflammation resulting from non-infectious diseases had greater odds of not having prostate cancer (OR = 1.031, CI 1.030-1.031). Logistic regression analysis yielded that men with the highest CRP values had greater odds of having higher household incomes and lower odds of having received higher education, being aged 40 years or older, being of a race or ethnicity different from other, and of having prostate cancer. Our results show that chronic inflammation of multiple etiologies is a risk factor for prostate cancer and that CRP is not associated with this increased risk. Further research is needed to elucidate the complex interactions between inflammation and prostate cancer.

  17. Relation of heart rate recovery after exercise to insulin resistance and chronic inflammation in otherwise healthy adolescents and adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hsu-Ko; Gore, Joel M

    2015-09-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) and chronic inflammation are inversely related to heart rate recovery (HRR), a marker of cardiac autonomic function. Little is known, however, about the joint effects of IR and inflammation on HRR. The study sample consisted of 2649 healthy individuals aged 12-49 years with measures of submaximal cardiopulmonary fitness testing from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. HRR 1-min (HRR1) and 2-min (HRR2) after recovery were recorded (bpm). IR was defined if homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) was ≥ 2.73. C-reactive protein (CRP) was quantified by latex-enhanced nephelometry. In the fully adjusted model, participants with IR had attenuated HRR compared to those without (mean HRR1 11.8 vs. 12.7, p = 0.011; mean HRR2 31.2 vs. 33.4, p 0.3 mg/dL, CRP 0.1-0.3 mg/dL, and CRP 0.3 mg/dL to those with no IR/CRP healthy adolescents and adults. Participants with IR and elevated CRP had the worst HRR. Our findings suggest a joint effect of IR and inflammation on cardiac autonomic dysfunction.

  18. Trichomoniasis and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections: Results from the 2001–2004 NHANES Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsworth, Jenifer E.; Ratner, Jane Alyce; Peipert, Jeffrey F.

    2011-01-01

    Background To estimate the association between Trichomonas vaginalis infection (TV) and six sexually transmitted infections: chlamydia, gonorrhea, herpes simplex virus (Types 1 and 2), syphilis and HIV in a nationally representative sample. Methods We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) combining the 2001–2002 and 2003–2004 waves to estimate the association between TV and STIs among women in the civilian, non-institutionalized US population. The final sample included data from 3,648 women, which when weighted, represents the experience of 65,563,298 US women between the ages of 14 and 49. Crude and adjusted relative risks were estimated using logistic regression for rare STIs (trichomoniasis was 3.2% with over 80% of cases asymptomatic in the past month. All STIs examined (chlamydia, gonorrhea, HSV-1, HSV-2, syphilis and HIV) were more common among women with a positive test for trichomoniasis. HSV-1 (RR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.09, 1.34) and HSV-2 (RR= 1.51, 95% CI 2.32, 3.23) were significantly associated with trichomoniasis after adjusting for race/ethnicity, age and recent sexual partners. In crude analyses, a positive treponemal test was 6 times (95% CI 2.07, 18.8) more common and HIV was 13 times (95% 2.88, 59.1) more common among women with trichomoniasis, but these estimates were greatly attenuated after adjustment for potential confounders. Conclusion Trichomoniasis is significantly associated with concurrent STI. PMID:19734826

  19. Development and validation of anthropometric prediction equations for lean body mass, fat mass and percent fat in adults using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Keum, NaNa; Hu, Frank B; Orav, E John; Rimm, Eric B; Sun, Qi; Willett, Walter C; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2017-11-01

    Quantification of lean body mass and fat mass can provide important insight into epidemiological research. However, there is no consensus on generalisable anthropometric prediction equations to validly estimate body composition. We aimed to develop and validate practical anthropometric prediction equations for lean body mass, fat mass and percent fat in adults (men, n 7531; women, n 6534) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006. Using a prediction sample, we predicted each of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-measured lean body mass, fat mass and percent fat based on different combinations of anthropometric measures. The proposed equations were validated using a validation sample and obesity-related biomarkers. The practical equation including age, race, height, weight and waist circumference had high predictive ability for lean body mass (men: R 2=0·91, standard error of estimate (SEE)=2·6 kg; women: R 2=0·85, SEE=2·4 kg) and fat mass (men: R 2=0·90, SEE=2·6 kg; women: R 2=0·93, SEE=2·4 kg). Waist circumference was a strong predictor in men only. Addition of other circumference and skinfold measures slightly improved the prediction model. For percent fat, R 2 were generally lower but the trend in variation explained was similar. Our validation tests showed robust and consistent results with no evidence of substantial bias. Additional validation using biomarkers demonstrated comparable abilities to predict obesity-related biomarkers between direct DXA measurements and predicted scores. Moreover, predicted fat mass and percent fat had significantly stronger associations with obesity-related biomarkers than BMI did. Our findings suggest the potential application of the proposed equations in various epidemiological settings.

  20. Contributions of enriched cereal-grain products, ready-to-eat cereals, and supplements to folic acid and vitamin B-12 usual intake and folate and vitamin B-12 status in US children: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Lorraine F; Cogswell, Mary E; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Bailey, Lynn B; Pfeiffer, Christine M; Berry, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    US children consume folic acid from multiple sources. These sources may contribute differently to usual intakes above the age-specific tolerable upper intake level (UL) for folic acid and to folate and vitamin B-12 status. We estimated usual daily folic acid intakes above the UL and adjusted serum and red blood cell folate, serum vitamin B-12, homocysteine, and methylmalonic acid (MMA) concentrations in US children by age group and by the following 3 major folic acid intake sources: enriched cereal-grain products (ECGP), ready-to-eat cereals (RTE), and supplements containing folic acid (SUP). We analyzed data in 4 groups of children aged 1-3, 4-8, 9-13, and 14-18 y from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003-2006 (n = 7161). A total of 19-48% of children consumed folic acid from ECGP only. Intakes above the UL varied from 0-0.1% of children who consumed ECGP only to 15-78% of children who consumed ECGP+RTE+SUP. In children aged 1-8 y, 99-100% of those who consumed ≥ 200 μg folic acid/d from supplements exceeded their UL. Although < 0.5% of children had folate deficiency or low vitamin B-12 status, the consumption of RTE or SUP with folic acid was associated with higher mean folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations and, in some older children, with lower homocysteine and MMA concentrations. Our data suggest that the majority of US children consume more than one source of folic acid. Postfortification, the consumption of RTE or SUP increases usual daily intakes and blood concentrations of folate and vitamin B-12.

  1. Differential Item Functioning Analysis of the 2003-04 NHANES Physical Activity Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yong; Zhu, Weimo

    2011-01-01

    Using differential item functioning (DIF) analyses, this study examined whether there were any DIF items in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) physical activity (PA) questionnaire. A subset of adult data from the 2003-04 NHANES study (n = 3,083) was used. PA items related to respondents' occupational, transportation,…

  2. Dietary Supplement Use Among U.S. Adults Has Increased Since NHANES III (1988-1994)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... specific nutrients consumed through dietary supplement use. Keywords: vitamin D, folic acid, calcium, trends Dietary supplement use in the United States has increased since the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III (1988–1994). Dietary supplement ...

  3. Use of NHANES data to link chemical exposures to chronic diseases: a cautionary tale

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LaKind, Judy S; Goodman, Michael; Naiman, Daniel Q

    2012-01-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is one example of cross-sectional datasets that have been used to draw causal inferences regarding environmental chemical exposures and adverse health outcomes...

  4. Use of NHANES Data to Link Chemical Exposures to Chronic Diseases: A Cautionary Tale: e51086

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Judy S LaKind; Michael Goodman; Daniel Q Naiman

    2012-01-01

      Background The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is one example of cross-sectional datasets that have been used to draw causal inferences regarding environmental chemical exposures and adverse health outcomes...

  5. The Associations of Youth Physical Activity and Screen Time with Fatness and Fitness: The 2012 NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Bai

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to examine the associations of youth physical activity and screen time with weight status and cardiorespiratory fitness in children and adolescents, separately, utilizing a nationally representative sample. A total of 1,113 participants (692 children aged 6-11 yrs; 422 adolescents aged 12-15 yrs from the 2012 NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey. Participants completed physical activity and screen time questionnaires, and their body mass index and cardiorespiratory fitness (adolescents only were assessed. Adolescents completed additional physical activity questions to estimate daily MET minutes. Children not meeting the screen time guideline had 1.69 times the odds of being overweight/obese compared to those meeting the screen time guideline, after adjusting for physical activity and other control variables. Among adolescent, screen time was significantly associated with being overweight/obese (odds ratio = 1.82, 95% confidence interval: 1.06-3.15, but the association attenuated toward the borderline of being significant after controlling for physical activity. Being physically active was positively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness, independent of screen time among adolescents. In joint association analysis, children who did not meet physical activity nor screen time guidelines had 2.52 times higher odds of being overweight/obese than children who met both guidelines. Adolescents who did not meet the screen time guideline had significantly higher odds ratio of being overweight/obese regardless of meeting the physical activity guideline. Meeting the physical activity guideline was also associated with cardiorespiratory fitness regardless of meeting the screen time guideline in adolescents. Screen time is a stronger factor than physical activity in predicting weight status in both children and adolescents, and only physical activity is strongly associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescents.

  6. A Catalog of Rules, Variables, and Definitions Applied to Accelerometer Data in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2006

    OpenAIRE

    Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Camhi, Sarah M.; Troiano, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) included accelerometry in the 2003–2006 data collection cycles. Researchers have used these data since their release in 2007, but the data have not been consistently treated, examined, or reported. The objective of this study was to aggregate data from studies using NHANES accelerometry data and to catalogue study decision rules, derived variables, and cut point definitions to facilitate a more uniform approach to thes...

  7. Using NHANES oral health examination protocols as part of an esophageal cancer screening study conducted in a high-risk region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Wei

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oral health status of rural residents in the People's Republic of China has not been extensively studied and the relationship between poor oral health and esophageal cancer (EC is unclear. We aim to report the oral health status of adults participating in an EC screening study conducted in a rural high-risk EC area of China and to explore the relationship between oral health and esophageal dysplasia. Methods National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES oral health examination procedures and the Modified Gingival Index (MGI were used in a clinical study designed to examine risk factors for esophageal cancer and to test a new esophageal cytology sampling device. This study was conducted in three rural villages in China with high rates of EC in 2002 and was a collaborative effort involving investigators from the National Institutes of Health and the Cancer Institute of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. Results Nearly 17% of the study participants aged 40–67 years old were edentulous. Overall, the mean number of adjusted missing teeth (including third molars and retained dental roots was 13.8 and 35% had 7 contacts or less. Women were more likely to experience greater tooth loss than men. The average age at the time of first tooth loss for those with no posterior functional contacts was approximately 41 years for men and 36 years for women. The mean DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled teeth score for the study population was 8.5. Older persons, females, and individuals having lower educational attainment had higher DMFT scores. The prevalence of periodontal disease (defined as at least one site with 3 mm of attachment loss and 4 mm of pocket depth was 44.7%, and 36.7% of the study participants had at least one site with 6 mm or more of attachment loss. Results from a parsimonious multivariate model indicate that participants with poor oral health wemore likely to have esophageal dysplasia (OR = 1.59; 95

  8. Prevalences of positive skin test responses to 10 common allergens in the US population: results from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbes, Samuel J; Gergen, Peter J; Elliott, Leslie; Zeldin, Darryl C

    2005-08-01

    Allergy skin tests were administered in the second and third National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES II and III) conducted in the United States from 1976 through 1980 and 1988 through 1994, respectively. This study estimated positive skin test response rates in NHANES III and identified predictors of one or more positive test responses. Comparisons with NHANES II were also made. In NHANES III, 10 allergens and 2 controls were tested in all subjects aged 6 to 19 years and a random half-sample of subjects aged 20 to 59 years. A wheal-based definition of a positive test response was used. In NHANES III, 54.3% of the population had positive test responses to 1 or more allergens. Prevalences were 27.5% for dust mite, 26.9% for perennial rye, 26.2% for short ragweed, 26.1% for German cockroach, 18.1% for Bermuda grass, 17.0% for cat, 15.2% for Russian thistle, 13.2% for white oak, 12.9% for Alternaria alternata, and 8.6% for peanut. Among those with positive test responses, the median number of positive responses was 3.0. Adjusted odds of a positive test response were higher for the following variables: age of 20 to 29 years, male sex, minority race, western region, old homes, and lower serum cotinine levels. For the 6 allergens common to NHANES II and III, prevalences were 2.1 to 5.5 times higher in NHANES III. The majority of the US population represented in NHANES III was sensitized to 1 or more allergens. Whether the higher prevalences observed in NHANES III reflect true changes in prevalence or methodological differences between the surveys cannot be determined with certainty.

  9. Elevated blood lead and cadmium levels associated with chronic infections among non-smokers in a cross-sectional analysis of NHANES data

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Experimental animal studies, in vitro experiments, and clinical assessments have shown that metal toxicity can impair immune responses. We analyzed data from a United States representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to explore associatio...

  10. Prevalence of Hearing Loss in US Children and Adolescents: Findings From NHANES 1988-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Brooke M; Chan, Dylan K

    2017-09-01

    There have been concerns about increasing levels of hearing impairment in children and adolescents, especially in relation to noise exposure, because even mild levels of hearing loss can affect educational outcomes. To further characterize changes in prevalence of hearing loss and noise exposures in the US pediatric population over time. This is a retrospective analysis of demographic and audiometric data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994), NHANES 2005-2006, NHANES 2007-2008, and NHANES 2009-2010. The NHANES are nationally representative survey data sets collected and managed by the US National Center for Health Statistics, and this study includes a total of 7036 survey participants ages 12 to 19 years with available audiometric measurements. Hearing-related behaviors and risk factors such as history of ear infections, noise exposures, firearm use, and hearing protection use. Level of hearing loss measured by pure-tone audiometry, as well as high-frequency and low-frequency hearing loss and noise-induced threshold shifts. Overall, data from 7036 survey participants ages 12 to 19 years with available audiometric measurements were analyzed. The prevalence of hearing loss increased from NHANES III to NHANES 2007-2008 (17.0% to 22.5% for >15 dB hearing loss; absolute difference, 5.5%; 95% CI, 6.1%-10.3%) but decreased in the NHANES 2009-2010 to 15.2% (absolute difference, 7.2%; 95% CI, 2.0%-12.4%) with no significant overall secular trend identified. There was an overall rise in exposure to loud noise or music through headphones 24 hours prior to audiometric testing from NHANES III to NHANES 2009-2010. However, noise exposure, either prolonged or recent, was not consistently associated with an increased risk of hearing loss across all surveys. The most recent survey cycle showed that nonwhite race/ethnicity and low socioeconomic status are independent risk factors for hearing loss. This analysis did not identify

  11. An Examination of the Association of Selected Toxic Metals with Total and Central Obesity Indices: NHANES 99-02

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas M. Ruden

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available It is conceivable that toxic metals contribute to obesity by influencing various aspects of metabolism, such as by substituting for essential micronutrients and vital metals, or by inducing oxidative stress. Deficiency of the essential metal zinc decreases adiposity in humans and rodent models, whereas deficiencies of chromium, copper, iron, and magnesium increases adiposity. This study utilized the NHANES 99-02 data to explore the association between waist circumference and body mass index with the body burdens of selected toxic metals (barium, cadmium, cobalt, cesium, molybdenum, lead, antimony, thallium, and tungsten. Some of the associations were significant direct relationships (barium and thallium, and some of the associations were significant inverse relationships (cadmium, cobalt, cesium, and lead. Molybdenum, antimony, and tungsten had mostly insignificant associations with waist circumference and body mass index. This is novel result for most of the toxic metals studied, and a surprising result for lead because high stored lead levels have been shown to correlate with higher rates of diabetes, and obesity may be a key risk factor for developing diabetes. These associations suggest the possibility that environmental exposure to metals may contribute to variations in human weight gain/loss. Future research, such as prospective studies rather than the cross-sectional studies presented here, is warranted to confirm these findings.

  12. A database of human exposomes and phenomes from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Chirag J; Pho, Nam; McDuffie, Michael; Easton-Marks, Jeremy; Kothari, Cartik; Kohane, Isaac S; Avillach, Paul

    2016-10-25

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a population survey implemented by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to monitor the health of the United States whose data is publicly available in hundreds of files. This Data Descriptor describes a single unified and universally accessible data file, merging across 255 separate files and stitching data across 4 surveys, encompassing 41,474 individuals and 1,191 variables. The variables consist of phenotype and environmental exposure information on each individual, specifically (1) demographic information, physical exam results (e.g., height, body mass index), laboratory results (e.g., cholesterol, glucose, and environmental exposures), and (4) questionnaire items. Second, the data descriptor describes a dictionary to enable analysts find variables by category and human-readable description. The datasets are available on DataDryad and a hands-on analytics tutorial is available on GitHub. Through a new big data platform, BD2K Patient Centered Information Commons (http://pic-sure.org), we provide a new way to browse the dataset via a web browser (https://nhanes.hms.harvard.edu) and provide application programming interface for programmatic access.

  13. 75 FR 32191 - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples: Guidelines for Proposals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... Environmental Health (NCEH) for processing. DNA samples from these specimens are being made available to the... and control of selected diseases; (3) to monitor trends in risk behaviors and environmental exposures... present the results of this project? (C). Data Dictionary: Includes (1) NCHS Restricted Data Dictionary (2...

  14. Secular trends for skinfolds differ from those for BMI and waist circumference among adults examined in NHANES from 1988-1994 through 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, David S; Zemel, Babette S; Ogden, Cynthia L

    2017-01-01

    Although the prevalence of a body mass index [BMI (in kg/m(2))] ≥30 has tripled among US adults since the 1960s, BMI is only moderately correlated with body fatness. Because skinfolds can more accurately estimate body fatness than can BMI, it is possible that skinfolds could be useful in monitoring secular trends in body fatness. We examined whether there were similar secular trends for skinfolds (triceps and subscapular), BMI, and waist circumference between US adults. This study was an analysis of 45,754 adults who participated in the NHANES from 1988-1994 through 2009-2010. Approximately 19% of the subjects were missing ≥1 skinfold-thickness measurement. These missing values were imputed from other characteristics. Trends in mean levels and in the prevalence of high levels of the 4 body size measures were fairly similar between men, with mean levels increasing by ≥5% from 1988-1994 through 2009-2010. Slightly larger increases were seen in women for BMI and waist circumference (7-8%), but trends in skinfolds were markedly different. The mean triceps skinfold, for example, increased by 2 mm through 2003-2004, but subsequently decreased so that the mean in 2009-2010 did not differ from that in 1988-1994. Compared with obese women in 1988-1994, the mean BMI of obese women in 2009-2010 was 1 higher, but mean levels of both skinfolds were 5-10% lower. Although there were fairly similar trends in levels of BMI, waist circumference, and skinfold thicknesses in men in the United States from 1988-1994 through 2009-2010, there were substantial differences in women. Our results indicate that it is unlikely that skinfold thicknesses could be used to monitor trends in obesity. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Iodine status in pregnant women in the National Children's Study and in U.S. women (15-44 years), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Kathleen L; Pan, Yi; Mortensen, Mary E; Makhmudov, Amir; Merrill, Lori; Moye, John

    2013-08-01

    This report presents iodine data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and from a sample of pregnant women in the National Children's Study (NCS) Vanguard Study. Urinary iodine (UI) was measured in a one third subsample of NHANES 2005-2006 and 2009-2010 participants and in all 2007-2008 participants age 6 years and older. These measurements are representative of the general U.S. population. UI was also measured in a convenience sample of 501 pregnant women enrolled in the NCS initial Vanguard Study from seven study sites across the United States. NHANES median UI concentration in 2009-2010 (144 μg/L) was significantly lower than in 2007-2008 (164 μg/L). Non-Hispanic blacks had the lowest UI concentrations (131 μg/L) compared with non-Hispanic whites or Hispanics (147 and 148 μg/L, respectively). The median for all pregnant women in NHANES 2005-2010 was less than adequate (129 μg/L), while third trimester women had UI concentrations that were adequate (median UI 172 μg/L). Third trimester women participating in the NCS similarly had an adequate level of iodine intake, with a median UI concentration of 167 μg/L. Furthermore, NCS median UI concentrations varied by geographic location. Dairy, but not salt, seafood, or grain consumption, was significantly positively associated with median UI concentration in women of childbearing age. Pregnant women in their third trimester in the NHANES 2005-2010 had adequate median UI concentrations, but pregnant women in NHANES who were in their first or second trimesters had median UI concentrations that were less than adequate. Non-Hispanic black pregnant women from both the NHANES 2005-20010 and the NCS consistently had lower UI median concentrations than non-Hispanic whites or Hispanics.

  16. Improving on analyses of self-reported data in a large-scale health survey by using information from an examination-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Nathaniel; Raghunathan, Trivellore E; Bondarenko, Irina

    2010-02-28

    Common data sources for assessing the health of a population of interest include large-scale surveys based on interviews that often pose questions requiring a self-report, such as, 'Has a doctor or other health professional ever told you that you have health condition of interest?' or 'What is your (height/weight)?' Answers to such questions might not always reflect the true prevalences of health conditions (for example, if a respondent misreports height/weight or does not have access to a doctor or other health professional). Such 'measurement error' in health data could affect inferences about measures of health and health disparities. Drawing on two surveys conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics, this paper describes an imputation-based strategy for using clinical information from an examination-based health survey to improve on analyses of self-reported data in a larger interview-based health survey. Models predicting clinical values from self-reported values and covariates are fitted to data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), which asks self-report questions during an interview component and also obtains clinical measurements during a physical examination component. The fitted models are used to multiply impute clinical values for the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), a larger survey that obtains data solely via interviews. Illustrations involving hypertension, diabetes, and obesity suggest that estimates of health measures based on the multiply imputed clinical values are different from those based on the NHIS self-reported data alone and have smaller estimated standard errors than those based solely on the NHANES clinical data. The paper discusses the relationship of the methods used in the study to two-phase/two-stage/validation sampling and estimation, along with limitations, practical considerations, and areas for future research. Published in 2009 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Tuberculosis Infection in the United States: Prevalence Estimates from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miramontes, Roque; Hill, Andrew N; Yelk Woodruff, Rachel S; Lambert, Lauren A; Navin, Thomas R; Castro, Kenneth G; LoBue, Philip A

    2015-01-01

    Reexamining the prevalence of persons infected with tuberculosis (TB) is important to determine trends over time. In 2011-2012 a TB component was included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to estimate the reservoir of persons infected with TB. Civilian, noninstitutionalized U.S. population survey participants aged 6 years and older were interviewed regarding their TB history and eligibility for the tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) blood test. Once eligibility was confirmed, both tests were conducted. Prevalence and numbers of TST positive (10 mm or greater), IGRA positive, and both TST and IGRA positive were calculated by adjusting for the complex survey design after applying corrections for item nonresponse and digit preference in TST induration measurements. To examine TST positivity over time, data from NHANES 1999-2000 were reanalyzed using the same statistical methods. The TST was performed using Tubersol, a commercially available purified protein derivative (PPD), rather than PPD-S, which was the antigen used in NHANES 1999-2000. Prior patient history of TB vaccination was not collected in this study nor were patients examined for the presence of a Bacillus of Calmette and Guerin (BCG) vaccine scar. For NHANES 2011-2012, TST and IGRA results were available for 6,128 (78.4%) and 7,107 (90.9%) eligible participants, respectively. There was no significant difference between the percentage of the U.S. population that was TST positive in 2011-2012 (4.7% [95% CI 3.4-6.3]; 13,276,000 persons) compared with 1999-2000 (4.3%; 3.5-5.3). In 2011-2012 the percentage that was IGRA positive was 5.0% (4.2-5.8) and double TST and IGRA positivity was 2.1% (1.5-2.8). The point estimate of IGRA positivity prevalence in foreign-born persons (15.9%; 13.5-18.7) was lower than for TST (20.5%; 16.1-25.8) in 2011-2012. The point estimate of IGRA positivity prevalence in U.S.-born persons (2.8%; 2.0-3.8) was higher than

  18. The feasibility of adapting a population-based asthma-specific job exposure matrix (JEM) to NHANES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Michelle K; Symanski, Elaine; Pompeii, Lisa A; Delclos, George L

    2010-12-01

    To determine the feasibility of applying a job exposure matrix (JEM) for classifying exposures to 18 asthmagens in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2004. We cross-referenced 490 National Center for Health Statistics job codes used to develop the 40 NHANES occupation groups with 506 JEM job titles and assessed homogeneity in asthmagen exposure across job codes within each occupation group. In total, 399 job codes corresponded to one JEM job title, 32 to more than one job title, and 59 were not in the JEM. Three occupation groups had the same asthmagen exposure across job codes, 11 had no asthmagen exposure, and 26 groups had heterogeneous exposures across jobs codes. The NHANES classification of occupations limits the use of the JEM to evaluate the association between workplace exposures and asthma and more refined occupational data are needed to enhance work-related injury/illness surveillance efforts.

  19. The Association of Sleep Disorder, Obesity Status, and Diabetes Mellitus among US Adults—The NHANES 2009-2010 Survey Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To examine the association between sleep disorders, obesity status, and the risk of diabetes in adults, a total of 3668 individuals aged 40+ years from the NHANES 2009-2010 without missing information on sleep-related questions, measurements related to diabetes, and BMI were included in this analysis. Subjects were categorized into three sleep groups based on two sleep questions: (a no sleep problems; (b sleep disturbance; and (c sleep disorder. Diabetes was defined as having one of a diagnosis from a physician; an overnight fasting glucose > 125 mg/dL; Glycohemoglobin > 6.4%; or an oral glucose tolerance test > 199 mg/dL. Overall, 19% of subjects were diabetics, 37% were obese, and 32% had either sleep disturbance or sleep disorder. Using multiple logistic regression models adjusting for covariates without including BMI, the odds ratios (OR, (95% CI of diabetes were 1.40 (1.06, 1.84 and 2.04 (1.40, 2.95 for those with sleep disturbance and with sleep disorder, respectively. When further adjusting for BMI, the ORs were similar for those with sleep disturbance 1.36 (1.06, 1.73 but greatly attenuated for those with sleep disorders (1.38 [0.95, 2.00]. In conclusion, the impact of sleep disorders on diabetes may be explained through the individuals’ obesity status.

  20. Regional Variation in Human Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants in the United States, NHANES

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    Wendy A. Wattigney

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined serum levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs among geographical regions of the United States as defined by the US Census Bureau. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES data for adults aged 20 years and older are presented for selected survey periods between 1999 and 2010. From NHANES 1999 through 2004, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE concentration levels were consistently higher among people living in the West than in the Midwest, Northeast, or South. In 2003–2010, perfluorinated compound concentrations tended to be highest in the South. The sum of 35 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs congeners was significantly higher in the Northeast [GM: 189; 95% CI: 173–204 ng/g lipid] than the remaining regions. The regional differences in higher body burdens of exposure to particular POPs could be attributed to a variety of activities, including region-specific patterns of land use and industrial and agricultural chemical applications, as well as different levels of regulatory activity.

  1. Body Composition Is Altered in Pre-Diabetic Patients With Impaired Fasting Glucose Tolerance: Results From the NHANES Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Valerie; Blondel, Romain; Pereira, Bruno; Thivel, David; Boirie, Yves; Duclos, Martine

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies suggest that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with a loss of muscle mass but the impact of fasting blood glucose (FBG) on body composition remains underappreciated in pre-diabetic subjects. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of FBG on lean mass (LM), fat mass (FM) and their distribution (trunk vs. appendicular), separately in middle-aged men and women. One thousand nine hundred and eleven (1,911) men (63.9 ± 11.7 years) and 1,977 women (63.7 ± 12.1 years) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999 - 2004) were divided into four groups: normal glucose tolerance (NGT), low impaired fasting glucose (IFG), high IFG and T2DM. Body composition was obtained from dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Of the patients, 68.7% had NGT, 16.1% low IFG, 9.4% high IFG and 5.8% T2DM. After adjustment for age, body mass index, ethnicity, smoking, alcohol and physical activity (PA), no change in appendicular LM was observed between groups, but significant increases in trunk FM (in both gender) and trunk LM (in women) were found with increased glucose intolerance (T2DM > IFG > NGT), as well as significant decreases in trunk and total LM/FM ratios (T2DM IFG > NGT). Elevated FBG within the normal range is not associated with a significant loss of appendicular LM, but modifications in LM and FM trunk and total distribution with IFG suggest that nutritional and physical lifestyle strategies should be implemented in the pre-diabetic state.

  2. Is human cytomegalovirus infection associated with hypertension? The United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Samaranayake, Nithushi R; Ong, Kwok Leung; Wong, Hoi Kin; Cheung, Bernard M Y

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have implicated the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) as a possible pathogen for causing hypertension. We aimed to study the association between HCMV infection and hypertension in the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We analyzed data on 2979 men and 3324 women in the NHANES 1999-2002. We included participants aged 16-49 years who had valid data on HCMV infection and hypertension. Of the participants, 54.7% had serologic evidence of HCMV infection and 17.5% had hypertension. There were ethnic differences in the prevalence of HCMV infection (P<0.001) and hypertension (P<0.001). The prevalence of both increased with age (P<0.001). Before adjustment, HCMV seropositivity was significantly associated with hypertension in women (OR=1.63, 95% CI=1.25-2.13, P=0.001) but not in men. After adjustment for race/ethnicity, the association between HCMV seropositivity and hypertension in women remained significant (OR=1.55, 95% CI=1.20-2.02, P=0.002). Further adjustment for body mass index, diabetes status and hypercholesterolemia attenuated the association (OR=1.44, 95% CI=1.10-1.90, P=0.010). However, after adjusting for age, the association was no longer significant (OR=1.24, 95% CI=0.91-1.67, P=0.162). In this nationally representative population-based survey, HCMV seropositivity is associated with hypertension in women in the NHANES population. This association is largely explained by the association of hypertension with age and the increase in past exposure to HCMV with age.

  3. Is Human Cytomegalovirus Infection Associated with Hypertension? The United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Samaranayake, Nithushi R.; Ong, Kwok Leung; Wong, Hoi Kin; Cheung, Bernard M. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies have implicated the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) as a possible pathogen for causing hypertension. We aimed to study the association between HCMV infection and hypertension in the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods We analyzed data on 2979 men and 3324 women in the NHANES 1999–2002. We included participants aged 16–49 years who had valid data on HCMV infection and hypertension. Results Of the participants, 54.7% had serologic evidence of HCMV infection and 17.5% had hypertension. There were ethnic differences in the prevalence of HCMV infection (P<0.001) and hypertension (P<0.001). The prevalence of both increased with age (P<0.001). Before adjustment, HCMV seropositivity was significantly associated with hypertension in women (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.25–2.13, P = 0.001) but not in men. After adjustment for race/ethnicity, the association between HCMV seropositivity and hypertension in women remained significant (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.20–2.02, P = 0.002). Further adjustment for body mass index, diabetes status and hypercholesterolemia attenuated the association (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.10–1.90, P = 0.010). However, after adjusting for age, the association was no longer significant (OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.91–1.67, P = 0.162). Conclusions In this nationally representative population-based survey, HCMV seropositivity is associated with hypertension in women in the NHANES population. This association is largely explained by the association of hypertension with age and the increase in past exposure to HCMV with age. PMID:22768311

  4. Is human cytomegalovirus infection associated with hypertension? The United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Li

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Recent studies have implicated the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV as a possible pathogen for causing hypertension. We aimed to study the association between HCMV infection and hypertension in the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES. METHODS: We analyzed data on 2979 men and 3324 women in the NHANES 1999-2002. We included participants aged 16-49 years who had valid data on HCMV infection and hypertension. RESULTS: Of the participants, 54.7% had serologic evidence of HCMV infection and 17.5% had hypertension. There were ethnic differences in the prevalence of HCMV infection (P<0.001 and hypertension (P<0.001. The prevalence of both increased with age (P<0.001. Before adjustment, HCMV seropositivity was significantly associated with hypertension in women (OR=1.63, 95% CI=1.25-2.13, P=0.001 but not in men. After adjustment for race/ethnicity, the association between HCMV seropositivity and hypertension in women remained significant (OR=1.55, 95% CI=1.20-2.02, P=0.002. Further adjustment for body mass index, diabetes status and hypercholesterolemia attenuated the association (OR=1.44, 95% CI=1.10-1.90, P=0.010. However, after adjusting for age, the association was no longer significant (OR=1.24, 95% CI=0.91-1.67, P=0.162. CONCLUSIONS: In this nationally representative population-based survey, HCMV seropositivity is associated with hypertension in women in the NHANES population. This association is largely explained by the association of hypertension with age and the increase in past exposure to HCMV with age.

  5. Severe Headache or Migraine History Is Inversely Correlated With Dietary Sodium Intake: NHANES 1999?2004

    OpenAIRE

    Pogoda, Janice M; Gross, Noah B.; Arakaki, Xianghong; Alfred N. Fonteh; Cowan, Robert P; Harrington, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    Objective We investigated whether dietary sodium intake from respondents of a national cross?sectional nutritional study differed by history of migraine or severe headaches. Background Several lines of evidence support a disruption of sodium homeostasis in migraine. Design Our analysis population was 8819 adults in the 1999?2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with reliable data on diet and headache history. We classified respondents who reported a history of migrain...

  6. Adjusting National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey sample weights for women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jennifer; Branum, Amy; Axelrad, Daniel; Cohen, Jonathan

    2013-05-01

    Maternal risk factors have been tabulated for women of childbearing age using defined age ranges. However, statistics for factors strongly related to age may be overly influenced by values for the youngest and oldest women in a range, because pregnancies are most likely for ages 20-35. This report evaluates adjustment methods, based on the probability of pregnancy, for calculating estimates of risk factors for women of childbearing age. Adjusted and unadjusted estimates for environmental and nutritional variables were calculated from the 1999-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for women aged 16-49. U.S. births were used to determine the probability of pregnancy. Adjusted and unadjusted estimates differed for some, but not all, examined variables. More marked differences were observed for the environmental variables compared with the nutritional variables. Adjusted estimates were within about 5% of the unadjusted estimates for the nutritional variables. Adjusted geometric means for lead and mercury were about 7%-10% lower, and for polychlorinated biphenyl (or PCB) about 25% lower, than their respective unadjusted geometric means. With few exceptions, different adjustment methods led to similar estimates. When calculating statistics for women of childbearing age, the decision to adjust for age or not to adjust appears to be more important than the choice of adjustment method. Although the results suggest only small differences among adjustment methods, approaches based on the NHANES design and sample weighting methodology may be the most robust for other applications. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  7. Conducting a statewide health examination survey: the Arkansas Cardiovascular Health Examination Survey (ARCHES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohoori, Namvar; Pulley, LeaVonne; Jones, Camille; Senner, John; Shoob, Hylan; Merritt, Robert K

    2011-05-01

    The Arkansas Cardiovascular Health Examination Survey is a health and nutrition examination survey designed to serve as a demonstration project for collection of data on the prevalence of chronic diseases and their risk factors at the state level. The survey was conducted from mid-2006 through early 2008. We chose a cross-sectional representative sample of adult residents in Arkansas by using a 3-stage, cluster sample design. Trained interviewers conducted interviews and examinations in respondents' homes, collecting data on risk factors and diseases, blood pressure and anthropometric measurements, and blood and urine samples for analysis and storage. Food frequency questionnaires provided dietary and nutrient intake data. We accomplished the project using a collaborative model among several programs and partners within the state. A total of 4,894 eligible households were contacted by telephone. Of these, refusals accounted for 2,748, and 2,146 gave initial consent to participate, for an initial response rate of 44%. The final number of completed household visits was 1,385, resulting in a final response rate of 28.3%. The Arkansas Cardiovascular Health Examination Survey is among the first state-level health and nutrition examination surveys to be conducted in the United States. By using a collaborative model and leveraging federal funds, we engaged several partners who provided additional resources to complete the project. The survey provides the state with valuable state-level data and information for program design and delivery.

  8. The potential impact of the National Osteoporosis Foundation guidance on treatment eligibility in the U.S.: an update in NHANES 2005-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    This analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2008 data describes the prevalence of risk factors for osteoporosis and the proportions of men and postmenopausal women age 50 years and older who are candidates for treatment to lower fracture risk, according to the new...

  9. Association of urinary phenolic compounds, inflammatory bowel disease and chronic diarrheal symptoms: Evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Punyanganie S; Yang, Xuan; Korzenik, Joshua R; Goldman, Rose H; Arheart, Kristopher L; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J

    2017-10-01

    Endocrine disruptors such as phenolic compounds and parabens may be involved in chronic non-infective disease. While products incorporating these compounds are extensively utilized in consumer and personal products, little is known about their effect on bowel health. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) - consisting of the diseases ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease - and irritable bowel syndrome are common chronic non-infectious diarrheal diseases. Despite limited knowledge on the etiology of IBD, these diseases have increased prevalence in industrialized countries and cause significant impairment to quality of life. In the present study we examine relationships between urinary environmental phenolic compounds, chronic diarrhea and inflammatory bowel disease. Data was obtained from the 2005-2010 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) including demographics, lifestyle factors, self-reported health conditions, inflammatory markers and urinary phenolic chemical concentrations. Only participants with complete environmental phenols & parabens component were included in our analysis. Chronic diarrheal symptoms were determined by using the 2009-2010 NHANES questionnaire which included questions pertaining to bowel health. We utilized chronic bowel leakage symptoms as a surrogate marker for chronic diarrhea. The presence of IBD was also analyzed from 2009 to 2010 NHANES data, as a sub-analysis for arthropathy directly querying the presence or absence of IBD. Among the subset of 5218 American adults aged 20-80 years in the NHANES study period who completed environmental phenols & parabens component, 25.5% reported chronic diarrheal symptoms. Abnormal markers of inflammation were present in 2200 (42.2%) of respondents. For IBD, 19 individuals with arthropathy confirmed a diagnosis of ulcerative colitis, and 1 person confirmed a Crohn's diagnosis. After adjustment for demographics, inflammatory and subsample weighing; lower paraben levels were

  10. Relationship Between Objectively Measured Physical Activity, Cardiovascular Disease Biomarkers, and Hearing Sensitivity Using Data From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Joyner, Chelsea

    2017-06-13

    Limited research has examined the interrelationships among cardiometabolic parameters, physical activity, and hearing function, which was this study's purpose. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2006 were used in the path analyses. Physical activity and hearing function were both objectively measured. Various cardiometabolic parameters were assessed from a blood sample. Adults 30-85 years (N = 1,070) constituted the analytic sample. Physical activity was negatively associated with triglycerides (β = -0.11, p physical activity to HPTA was nonsignificant (β = 0.01, p = .99). Physical activity was associated with select cardiovascular disease risk factors. Several cardiovascular disease risk factors were associated with hearing function.

  11. Recent trends in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and the association with abdominal obesity lead to growing health disparities in the USA: An analysis of the NHANES surveys from 1999 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspard, Herve; Jabbour, Serge; Hammar, Niklas; Fenici, Peter; Sheehan, John J; Kosiborod, Mikhail

    2018-03-01

    To assess whether the secular trends in type 2 diabetes prevalence differ between abdominally obese and non-obese individuals. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) were used to estimate the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and abdominal obesity among individuals aged ≥20 years in the USA from 1999/2000 to 2013/2014, after standardization to the age, sex and ethnicity population distribution estimates on January 1, 2014, as published by the US Census Bureau. The prevalence of abdominal obesity in the US population increased from 47.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 42.6-52.2) in 1999/2000 to 57.2% (95% CI 55.9-58.5) in 2013/2014. A significant increase was observed in all age groups: 20 to 44, 45 to 64, and ≥65 years. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes has also increased from 8.8% (95% CI 7.2-10.4) in 1999/2000 to 11.7% (95% CI 10.9-12.6) in 2013/2014, with no substantial change in trend over the recent years. However, the increase in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes was limited to individuals with abdominal obesity, and more specifically to individuals aged ≥45 years with abdominal obesity, with no significant change in prevalence in the non-obese group and in individuals aged <45 years. These findings highlight the critical importance of abdominal obesity-both as a likely key contributor to the continuing epidemic of type 2 diabetes in the USA and as a priority target for public health interventions. © 2017 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. NHANES 2009-2012 findings: association of sexual behaviors with higher prevalence of oral oncogenic human papillomavirus infections in U.S. men

    OpenAIRE

    Chaturvedi, Anil K.; Graubard, Barry I.; Broutian, Tatevik; Pickard, Robert K.L.; Tong, Zhen-yue; Xiao, Weihong; Kahle, Lisa; Gillison, Maura L.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal cancers is higher and rising more rapidly among men than women in the United States (U.S.) for unknown reasons. We compared the epidemiology of oral oncogenic HPV infection between men and women aged 14-69 years (N=9,480) within the U.S. National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys (NHANES) 2009-2012. HPV presence was detected in oral DNA by PCR. Analyses were stratified by gender and utilized NHANES sample weights. Ora...

  13. Urinary Concentrations of Dialkylphosphate Metabolites of Organophosphorus Pesticides: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004

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    Maribel Gallegos

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorus (OP insecticides were among the first pesticides that EPA reevaluated as part of the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996. Our goal was to assess exposure to OP insecticides in the U.S. general population over a six-year period. We analyzed 7,456 urine samples collected as part of three two-year cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES from 1999–2004. We measured six dialkylphosphate metabolites of OP pesticides to assess OP pesticide exposure. In NHANES 2003–2004, dimethylthiophosphate was detected most frequently with median and 95th percentile concentrations of 2.03 and 35.3 µg/L, respectively. Adolescents were two to three times more likely to have diethylphosphate concentrations above the 95th percentile estimate of 15.5 µg/L than adults and senior adults. Conversely, for dimethyldithiophosphate, senior adults were 3.8 times and 1.8 times more likely to be above the 95th percentile than adults and adolescents, respectively, while adults were 2.1 times more likely to be above the 95th percentile than the adolescents. Our data indicate that the most vulnerable segments of our population—children and older adults—have higher exposures to OP pesticides than other population segments. However, according to DAP urinary metabolite data, exposures to OP pesticides have declined during the last six years at both the median and 95th percentile levels.

  14. Urinary Concentrations of Dialkylphosphate Metabolites of Organophosphorus Pesticides: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Dana Boyd; Wong, Lee-Yang; Bravo, Roberto; Weerasekera, Gayanga; Odetokun, Martins; Restrepo, Paula; Kim, Do-Gyun; Fernandez, Carolina; Whitehead, Ralph D.; Perez, Jose; Gallegos, Maribel; Williams, Bryan L.; Needham, Larry L.

    2011-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) insecticides were among the first pesticides that EPA reevaluated as part of the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996. Our goal was to assess exposure to OP insecticides in the U.S. general population over a six-year period. We analyzed 7,456 urine samples collected as part of three two-year cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999–2004. We measured six dialkylphosphate metabolites of OP pesticides to assess OP pesticide exposure. In NHANES 2003–2004, dimethylthiophosphate was detected most frequently with median and 95th percentile concentrations of 2.03 and 35.3 μg/L, respectively. Adolescents were two to three times more likely to have diethylphosphate concentrations above the 95th percentile estimate of 15.5 μg/L than adults and senior adults. Conversely, for dimethyldithiophosphate, senior adults were 3.8 times and 1.8 times more likely to be above the 95th percentile than adults and adolescents, respectively, while adults were 2.1 times more likely to be above the 95th percentile than the adolescents. Our data indicate that the most vulnerable segments of our population—children and older adults—have higher exposures to OP pesticides than other population segments. However, according to DAP urinary metabolite data, exposures to OP pesticides have declined during the last six years at both the median and 95th percentile levels. PMID:21909292

  15. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in sera from children 3 to 11 years of age participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaoyun; Kato, Kayoko; Wong, Lee-Yang; Jia, Tao; Kalathil, Akil; Latremouille, John; Calafat, Antonia M

    2018-01-01

    Several per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been measured in U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) participants 12 years of age and older since 1999-2000, but PFAS data using NHANES individual samples among children younger than 12 years do not exist. To obtain the first nationally representative PFAS exposure data in U.S. children, we quantified serum concentrations of 14 PFAS including perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), in a nationally representative subsample of 639 3-11year old participants in NHANES 2013-2014. We used on-line solid-phase extraction coupled to isotope dilution-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; limits of detection were 0.1ng/mL for all analytes. We calculated geometric mean concentrations, determined weighted Pearson correlations, and used linear regression to evaluate associations of sex, age (3-5 vs 6-11 years), race/ethnicity (Hispanic vs non-Hispanic), household income, and body mass index with concentrations of PFAS detected in more than 60% of participants. We detected PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, and PFNA in all children at concentrations similar to those of NHANES 2013-2014 adolescents and adults, suggesting prevalent exposure to these PFAS or their precursors among U.S. 3-11year old children, most of whom were born after the phase out of PFOS in the United States in 2002. PFAS concentration differences by sex, race/ethnicity, and age suggest lifestyle differences that may impact exposure, and highlight the importance of identifying exposure sources and of studying the environmental fate and transport of PFAS. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  16. Antimony and sleep-related disorders: NHANES 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scinicariello, Franco; Buser, Melanie C; Feroe, Aliya G; Attanasio, Roberta

    2017-07-01

    Antimony is used as a flame-retardant in textiles and plastics, in semiconductors, pewter, and as pigments in paints, lacquers, glass and pottery. Subacute or chronic antimony poisoning has been reported to cause sleeplessness. The prevalence of short sleep duration (antimony exposure and sleep-related disorders in the US adult population using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2008. We performed multivariate logistic regression to analyze the association of urinary antimony with several sleep disorders, including insufficient sleep and OSA, in adult (ages 20 years and older) participants of NHANES 2005-2008 (n=2654). We found that participants with higher urinary antimony levels had higher odds to experience insufficient sleep (≤6h/night) (OR 1.73; 95%CI; 1.04, 2.91) as well as higher odds to have increased sleep onset latency (>30min/night). Furthermore, we found that higher urinary antimony levels in participants were associated with OSA (OR 1.57; 95%CI; 1.05, 2.34), sleep problems, and day-time sleepiness. In this study, we found that urinary antimony was associated with higher odds to have insufficient sleep and OSA. Because of the public health implications of sleep disorders, further studies, especially a prospective cohort study, are warranted to evaluate the association between antimony exposure and sleep-related disorders. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Serum bicarbonate and mortality in adults in NHANES III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Kalani L; Zhang, Yingying; Wei, Guo; Greene, Tom; Cheung, Alfred K; Beddhu, Srinivasan

    2013-05-01

    Low serum bicarbonate concentration is a risk factor for death in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Whether low serum bicarbonate is a mortality risk factor for people without CKD is unknown. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III) adult participants were categorized into one of four serum bicarbonate categories: bicarbonate category, using 26-30 mM as the reference group, in the (i) entire population, (ii) non-CKD subgroup and (iii) CKD subgroup. After adjusting for age, gender, race, estimated glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria, diuretic use, smoking, C-reactive protein, cardiovascular disease, protein intake, diabetes, hypertension, body mass index, lung disease and serum albumin, the hazards of death in the bicarbonate category were 1.75 (95% CI: 1.12-2.74), 1.56 (95% CI: 0.78-3.09) and 2.56 (95% CI: 1.49-4.38) in the entire population, non-CKD subgroup and CKD subgroup, respectively, compared with the reference group. Hazard ratios in the other serum bicarbonate categories in the entire population and non-CKD and CKD subgroups did not differ from the reference group. Among the NHANES III participants, low serum bicarbonate was not observed to be a strong predictor of mortality in people without CKD. However, low serum bicarbonate was associated with a 2.6-fold increased hazard of death in people with CKD.

  18. Dietary Sources of Methylated Arsenic Species in Urine of the United States Population, NHANES 2003–2010

    OpenAIRE

    B Rey deCastro; Kathleen L. Caldwell; Jones, Robert L.; Blount, Benjamin C.; Yi Pan; Cynthia Ward; Mortensen, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Arsenic is an ubiquitous element linked to carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity, as well as adverse respiratory, gastrointestinal, hepatic, and dermal health effects. OBJECTIVE: Identify dietary sources of speciated arsenic: monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). METHODS: Age-stratified, sample-weighted regression of NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) 2003-2010 data (∼8,300 participants ≥6 years old) characterized the association between uri...

  19. Who tended to continue smoking after cancer diagnosis: the national health and nutrition examination survey 1999–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tseng Tung-Sung

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been estimated that there are approximately 12 million cancer survivors in the United States. Continued smoking after a cancer diagnosis is linked to adverse effects among cancer survivors on overall survival, treatment effectiveness, and quality of life. Little is known about who is more likely to quit smoking after his/her cancer diagnosis. The objective of this study is to evaluate factors associated with smoking cessation in cancer survivors, which to date has not been well studied. Method The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999–2008 surveys were used in this study. A total of 2,374 cancer survivors aged 20 and over with valid smoking status in the NHANES 99–08 survey were included in this study. Among them, 566 cancer survivors who regularly smoked at the time of their cancer diagnosis were included in the analyses. Results Around 50.6% of cancer survivors smoked regularly prior to their cancer diagnosis and only 36.1% of them quit smoking after their cancer diagnosis. Racial disparity was observed in smoking cessation among cancer survivors. Hispanics (OR = 0.23, 95% CI = 0.10-0.57 were less likely to quit smoking than Whites after their cancer diagnosis. Conclusion Two-thirds of cancer survivors continued smoking after cancer diagnosis. Our study observed that the high risk group of continued smokers among cancer survivors is made up of those who are female, younger, Hispanic, with longer smoking history, underweight or with normal weight and without smoking-related cancer. These findings suggest that smoking cessation for cancer survivors should target on the high risk subgroups.

  20. Multilevel model to estimate county-level untreated dental caries among US children aged 6-9years using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mei; Zhang, Xingyou; Holt, James B; Robison, Valerie; Li, Chien-Hsun; Griffin, Susan O

    2017-11-16

    Because conducting population-based oral health screening is resource intensive, oral health data at small-area levels (e.g., county-level) are not commonly available. We applied the multilevel logistic regression and poststratification method to estimate county-level prevalence of untreated dental caries among children aged 6-9years in the United States using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2010 linked with various area-level data at census tract, county and state levels. We validated model-based national estimates against direct estimates from NHANES. We also compared model-based estimates with direct estimates from select State Oral Health Surveys (SOHS) at state and county levels. The model with individual-level covariates only and the model with individual-, census tract- and county-level covariates explained 7.2% and 96.3% respectively of overall county-level variation in untreated caries. Model-based county-level prevalence estimates ranged from 4.9% to 65.2% with median of 22.1%. The model-based national estimate (19.9%) matched the NHANES direct estimate (19.8%). We found significantly positive correlations between model-based estimates for 8-year-olds and direct estimates from the third-grade State Oral Health Surveys (SOHS) at state level for 34 states (Pearson coefficient: 0.54, P=0.001) and SOHS estimates at county level for 53 New York counties (Pearson coefficient: 0.38, P=0.006). This methodology could be a useful tool to characterize county-level disparities in untreated dental caries among children aged 6-9years and complement oral health surveillance to inform public health programs especially when local-level data are not available although the lack of external validation due to data unavailability should be acknowledged. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Assessment of Intakes and Patterns of Cooked Oatmeal Consumption in the U.S. Using Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

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    Kathy Musa-Veloso

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to characterize the consumption of cooked oatmeal in the United States (U.S. and to determine whether oatmeal consumption is associated with body mass index (BMI. To estimate current intakes of cooked oatmeal in the various age and gender population groups, we used dietary intake data from Day 1 of the U.S. 2009–2010 and 2011–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES. We also used dietary intake data from Day 1 of the U.S. 2003–2012 NHANES to assess associations between intakes of cooked oatmeal (in g/kg body weight and NHANES cycle (2003–2004, 2005–2006, 2007–2008, 2009–2010, 2011–2012, age category (3–11 years, 12–18 years, 19–44 years, 45 years+, gender, and BMI classification (underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese, using a multiple linear regression model. A consumer of oatmeal was defined as any individual who reported the consumption of any amount of oatmeal on Day 1 of the survey. Approximately 6% of the total population consumed oatmeal, with an average intake of 238 g/day of cooked oatmeal among consumers. The greatest prevalence of oatmeal consumption was in infants (14.3% and older female adults (11.1%. Amongst oatmeal consumers, underweight, normal weight, and overweight individuals consumed significantly more oatmeal than obese individuals. Oatmeal was consumed almost exclusively at breakfast and, among consumers, contributed an average of 54.3% of the energy consumed at breakfast across all age groups examined. The association between oatmeal consumption and BMI is interesting and requires confirmation in future clinical studies.

  2. Assessment of Intakes and Patterns of Cooked Oatmeal Consumption in the U.S. Using Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa-Veloso, Kathy; Fallah, Shafagh; O'Shea, Marianne; Chu, YiFang

    2016-08-17

    The objective of the present study was to characterize the consumption of cooked oatmeal in the United States (U.S.) and to determine whether oatmeal consumption is associated with body mass index (BMI). To estimate current intakes of cooked oatmeal in the various age and gender population groups, we used dietary intake data from Day 1 of the U.S. 2009-2010 and 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). We also used dietary intake data from Day 1 of the U.S. 2003-2012 NHANES to assess associations between intakes of cooked oatmeal (in g/kg body weight) and NHANES cycle (2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, 2009-2010, 2011-2012), age category (3-11 years, 12-18 years, 19-44 years, 45 years+), gender, and BMI classification (underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese), using a multiple linear regression model. A consumer of oatmeal was defined as any individual who reported the consumption of any amount of oatmeal on Day 1 of the survey. Approximately 6% of the total population consumed oatmeal, with an average intake of 238 g/day of cooked oatmeal among consumers. The greatest prevalence of oatmeal consumption was in infants (14.3%) and older female adults (11.1%). Amongst oatmeal consumers, underweight, normal weight, and overweight individuals consumed significantly more oatmeal than obese individuals. Oatmeal was consumed almost exclusively at breakfast and, among consumers, contributed an average of 54.3% of the energy consumed at breakfast across all age groups examined. The association between oatmeal consumption and BMI is interesting and requires confirmation in future clinical studies.

  3. Evaluation of Frequency-Doubling Technology Perimetry as a Means of Screening for Glaucoma and Other Eye Diseases Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Michael V; Gupta, Priya; Ko, Fang; Zhao, Di; Guallar, Eliseo; Friedman, David S

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is a significant cause of global blindness and there are, as yet, no effective means of screening. To assess the potential role of frequency-doubling technology (FDT) perimetry in screening for glaucoma using data collected as part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Reanalysis of cross-sectional data of 6797 participants in the 2005-2008 cycles of the NHANES, which evaluated a sample of the noninstitutionalized US population with at least light-perception vision. A subset of optic nerve photographs were regraded by 3 glaucoma specialists in December 2012. Each participant underwent visual field testing, including FDT perimetry screening, and had fundus photographs taken. Sensitivity and specificity of FDT perimetry to detect glaucoma, macular disease, or decreased visual acuity. A total of 5746 NHANES participants had optic images originally graded. We regraded 1201 images of 1073 eyes of 548 participants with initial cup-disc ratio (CDR) of 0.6 or greater and 423 images of 360 eyes of 180 randomly selected participants with initial CDR less than 0.6. Diagnoses of glaucoma by disc photograph were 1.6% (3 of 180) in the CDR less than 0.6 group and 31.4% (172 of 548) in the CDR of 0.6 or greater group. The sensitivity of FDT was 33% (95% CI, 0%-87%) and specificity was 77% (95% CI, 71%-84%). For the group with at least 1 CDR of 0.6 or greater, sensitivity of FDT was 66% (95% CI, 59%-73%) and specificity was 70% (95% CI, 66%-75%). When analyzed to give FDT credit for identifying glaucoma, macular disease, or decreased visual acuity, the sensitivity of the test was 80% (95% CI, 77%-83%) and the specificity was 83% (95% CI, 82%-84%). Approximately 25% of the NHANES population was not able to successfully complete FDT testing, representing screening failures and decreasing specificity. Using the 2005-2008 waves of the NHANES as a model of population-based screening for eye disease, FDT perimetry lacks both sensitivity and

  4. Urinary triclosan is associated with elevated body mass index in NHANES.

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    Joanna Lankester

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Triclosan-a ubiquitous chemical in toothpastes, soaps, and household cleaning supplies-has the potential to alter both gut microbiota and endocrine function and thereby affect body weight. METHODS: We investigated the relationship between triclosan and body mass index (BMI using National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES from 2003-2008. BMI and spot urinary triclosan levels were obtained from adults. Using two different exposure measures-either presence vs. absence or quartiles of triclosan-we assessed the association between triclosan and BMI. We also screened all NHANES serum and urine biomarkers to identify correlated factors that might confound observed associations. RESULTS: Compared with undetectable triclosan, a detectable level was associated with a 0.9-point increase in BMI (p<0.001. In analysis by quartile, compared to the lowest quartile, the 2nd, 3rd and 4th quartiles of urinary triclosan were associated with BMI increases of 1.5 (p<0.001, 1.0 (p = 0.002, and 0.3 (p = 0.33 respectively. The one strong correlate of triclosan identified in NHANES was its metabolite, 2,4-dichlorophenol (ρ = 0.4; its association with BMI, however, was weaker than that of triclosan. No other likely confounder was identified. CONCLUSIONS: Triclosan exposure is associated with increased BMI. Stronger effect at moderate than high levels suggests a complex mechanism of action.

  5. Vitamin D status and community-acquired pneumonia: results from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Sadeq A Quraishi

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] level and history of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP.We identified 16,975 individuals (≥17 years from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III with documented 25(OHD levels. To investigate the association of 25(OHD with history of CAP in these participants, we developed a multivariable logistic regression model, adjusting for demographic factors (age, sex, race, poverty-to-income ratio, and geographic location, clinical data (body mass index, smoking status, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, stroke, chronic kidney disease, neutropenia, and alcohol consumption, and season. Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (LOWESS was used to depict the relationship between increasing 25(OHD levels and the cumulative frequency of CAP in the study cohort.The median [interquartile range (IQR] serum 25(OHD level was 24 (IQR 18-32 ng/mL. 2.1% [95% confidence interval (CI: 1.9-2.3] of participants reported experiencing a CAP within one year of their participation in the national survey. After adjusting for demographic factors, clinical data, and season, 25(OHD levels <30 ng/mL were associated with 56% higher odds of CAP [odds ratio 1.56; 95% confidence interval: 1.17-2.07] compared to levels ≥30 ng/mL. LOWESS analysis revealed a near linear relationship between vitamin D status and the cumulative frequency of CAP up to 25(OHD levels around 30 ng/mL.Among 16,975 participants in NHANES III, 25(OHD levels were inversely associated with history of CAP. Randomized controlled trials are warranted to determine the effect of optimizing vitamin D status on the risk of CAP.

  6. Engineering surveying theory and examination problems for students

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2013-01-01

    Engineering Surveying: Theory and Examination Problems for Students, Volume 1, Third Edition discusses topics concerning engineering surveying techniques and instrumentations. The book is comprised of eight chapters that cover several concerns in engineering survey. Chapter 1 discusses the basic concepts of surveying. Chapter 2 deals with simple and precise leveling, while Chapter 3 covers earthworks. The book also talks about the theodolite and its applications, and then discusses optical distance measurement. Curves, underground and hydrographic surveying, and aspects of dimensional control

  7. Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances and Indicators of Immune Function in Children Aged 12 – 19 years: NHANES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Cheryl R.; McGovern, Kathleen J.; Pajak, Ashley M.; Maglione, Paul J.; Wolff, Mary S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are immunotoxic in laboratory studies. Humans studies of immune effects are inconsistent. Using the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) we examined PFAS serum concentration and indicators of prevalent immune function among 12 to 19 year old children. Methods In this cross-sectional study we examined PFAS serum concentration in relation to measles, mumps, and rubella antibody concentrations in NHANES 1999 – 2000 and 2003 – 2004 (n=1,191) and to allergic conditions and allergic sensitization in NHANES 2005 – 2006 (n=640). Results In adjusted, survey-weighted models, a doubling of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) concentration among seropositive children was associated with a 13.3% (95% CI −19.9, −6.2) decrease in rubella antibody concentration and a 5.9% decrease in mumps antibody concentration (95% CI −9.9, −1.6). We observed no adverse association between exposure and current allergic conditions, including asthma. Children with higher PFOS concentration were less likely to be sensitized to any allergen (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.58, 0.95). Conclusion Increased exposure to several PFAS was associated with lower levels to mumps and rubella antibody concentrations, especially among seropositive individuals. These lower antibody concentrations may indicate a less robust response to vaccination or greater waning of vaccine-derived immunity over time. PMID:26492286

  8. Variation in LPA is associated with Lp(a levels in three populations from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Logan Dumitrescu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of lipoprotein(a [Lp(a] levels can differ dramatically across diverse racial/ethnic populations. The extent to which genetic variation in LPA can explain these differences is not fully understood. To explore this, 19 LPA tagSNPs were genotyped in 7,159 participants from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III. NHANES III is a diverse population-based survey with DNA samples linked to hundreds of quantitative traits, including serum Lp(a. Tests of association between LPA variants and transformed Lp(a levels were performed across the three different NHANES subpopulations (non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Mexican Americans. At a significance threshold of p<0.0001, 15 of the 19 SNPs tested were strongly associated with Lp(a levels in at least one subpopulation, six in at least two subpopulations, and none in all three subpopulations. In non-Hispanic whites, three variants were associated with Lp(a levels, including previously known rs6919246 (p = 1.18 × 10(-30. Additionally, 12 and 6 variants had significant associations in non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans, respectively. The additive effects of these associated alleles explained up to 11% of the variance observed for Lp(a levels in the different racial/ethnic populations. The findings reported here replicate previous candidate gene and genome-wide association studies for Lp(a levels in European-descent populations and extend these findings to other populations. While we demonstrate that LPA is an important contributor to Lp(a levels regardless of race/ethnicity, the lack of generalization of associations across all subpopulations suggests that specific LPA variants may be contributing to the observed Lp(a between-population variance.

  9. Allergy-related outcomes in relation to serum IgE: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Päivi M; Calatroni, Agustin; Gergen, Peter J; Hoppin, Jane A; Sever, Michelle L; Jaramillo, Renee; Arbes, Samuel J; Zeldin, Darryl C

    2011-05-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006 was the first population-based study to investigate levels of serum total and allergen-specific IgE in the general US population. We estimated the prevalence of allergy-related outcomes and examined relationships between serum IgE levels and these outcomes in a representative sample of the US population. Data for this cross-sectional analysis were obtained from NHANES 2005-2006. Study subjects aged 6 years and older (n = 8086) had blood taken for measurement of total IgE and 19 specific IgE levels against common aeroallergens, including Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Bermuda grass, birch, oak, ragweed, Russian thistle, rye grass, cat dander, cockroach, dog dander, dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus), mouse and rat urine proteins, and selected foods (egg white, cow's milk, peanut, and shrimp). Serum samples were analyzed for total and allergen-specific IgE by using the Pharmacia CAP System. Information on allergy-related outcomes and demographics was collected by questionnaire. In NHANES 2005-2006, 6.6% reported current hay fever, and 23.5% had current allergies. Allergy-related outcomes increased with increasing total IgE levels (adjusted odds ratios for a 10-fold increase in total IgE level of 1.86 [95% CI, 1.44-2.41] for hay fever and 1.64 [95% CI, 1.41-1.91] for allergies). Increased levels of plant-, pet-, and mold-specific IgE contributed independently to allergy-related symptoms. The greatest increase in odds was observed for hay fever and plant-specific IgE (adjusted odds ratio, 4.75; 95% CI, 3.83-5.88). In the US population self-reported allergy symptoms are most consistently associated with increased levels of plant-, pet-, and mold-specific IgE. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  10. The change in weight perception of weight status among the overweight: comparison of NHANES III (1988–1994 and 1999–2004 NHANES

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    Starke-Reed Pamela

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study seeks to determine whether perception of weight status among the overweight has changed with the increasing overweight/obesity prevalence. Methods The perception of weight status was compared between overweight participants (BMI between 25.0–29.9 kg/m2 from NHANES III (1988–1994 and overweight participants from NHANES 1999–2004. Perception of weight status was assessed by asking participants to classify their weight as about the right weight, underweight or overweight. Comparisons were made across age groups, genders, race/ethnicities and various income levels. Results Fewer overweight people during the NHANES 1999–2004 survey perceived themselves as overweight when compared to overweight people during the NHANES III survey. The change in distortion between the survey periods was greatest among persons with lower income, males and African-Americans. Conclusion The increase in overweight/obesity between the survey years (NHANES III and NHANES 1999–2004 has been accompanied with fewer overweight people perceiving themselves as overweight.

  11. The Relationship between Dietary Fiber Intake and Lung Function in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

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    Hanson, Corrine; Lyden, Elizabeth; Rennard, Stephen; Mannino, David M; Rutten, Erica P A; Hopkins, Raewyn; Young, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Extensive research supports a protective effect of a high-fiber diet in certain disease states; however, little is known about its relationship to lung health. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) contain spirometry measures and dietary intake information, allowing us to assess this relationship. Determine the association between fiber intake and measures of lung function in a representative sample of U.S. adults. Participants included 1,921 adults who had spirometry measurements and fiber intake available. The primary outcomes were lung function measurements, including FEV1, FVC, and percent predicted FEV1 and FVC. We also conducted a categorical analysis of fiber intake and airflow restriction and obstruction based on Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease and Spirometry Grade (SG) classifications. Multivariable regression models were used to look at the association of lung function measurements with dietary fiber intake after adjustment for relevant confounders. All analyses accounted for the weighted data and complex design of the NHANES sample. Subjects in the highest quartile intake of fiber had mean FEV1 and FVC measurements that were 82 ml and 129 ml higher than the lowest quartile of intake (P = 0.05 and 0.01, respectively), and mean percent predicted FEV1 and FVC values that were 2.4 and 2.8 percentage points higher (P = 0.07 and 0.02, respectively). In the categorical analysis, higher fiber intake was associated with a higher percentage of those with normal lung function (P = 0.001) and a significant decline in the proportion of participants with airflow restriction (P = 0.001). Low fiber intake was associated with reduced measures of lung function. A diet rich in fiber-containing foods may play a role in improving lung health.

  12. Poor Adherence to US Dietary Guidelines for Children and Adolescents in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Population.

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    Banfield, Emilyn C; Liu, Yan; Davis, Jennifer S; Chang, Shine; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C

    2016-01-01

    Poor diet quality in childhood and adolescence is associated with adverse health outcomes throughout life, yet the dietary habits of American children and how they change across childhood and adolescence are unknown. This study sought to describe diet quality among children and adolescents by assessing adherence to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) and to determine whether any differences in adherence occurred across childhood. We employed a cross-sectional design using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Of 9,280 children aged 4 to 18 years who participated in NHANES from 2005 to 2010, those with insufficient data on dietary recall (n=852) or who were pregnant or lactating during the time of interview (n=38) were excluded from the final study sample (n=8,390). We measured adherence to the DGA using the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010) and stratified participants into three age groups (4 to 8, 9 to 13, and 14 to 18 years of age). We analyzed each of 12 HEI-2010 components and total HEI-2010 score. The youngest children had the highest overall diet quality due to significantly greater scores for total fruit, whole fruit, dairy, and whole grains. These children also had the highest scores for sodium, refined grains, and empty calories. Total HEI-2010 scores ranged from 43.59 to 52.11 out of 100, much lower than the minimum score of 80 that is thought to indicate a diet associated with good health. Overall, children and adolescents are failing to meet the DGA and may be at an increased risk of chronic diseases throughout life. By analyzing which food groups show differences between age groups, we provide data that can inform the development of dietary interventions to promote specific food groups targeting specific ages and improve diet quality among children and adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Association between sleep quality and C-reactive protein: results from national health and nutrition examination survey, 2005-2008.

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    Liu, Rong; Liu, Xin; Zee, Phyllis C; Hou, Lifang; Zheng, Zheng; Wei, Yongxiang; Du, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to explore the association between poor sleep quality and hs_CRP in an adult U.S. population. This study focused on 9,317 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2005-2008 who were aged 20-85 years, completed a sleep disorder questionnaire, and had available information on serum hs_CRP. Sleep quality was classified into three categories (good, moderate, poor) based on the responses of participants to the NHANES sleep disorder questionnaire. High CRP was defined as hs-CRP >1 md/dL. Linear regression model was applied to investigate the association between poor sleep quality and log-transformed hs_CRP. And logistic regression model was fitted to evaluate the association between sleep quality and the risk of high CRP. Females were more likely to report poor sleep quality than males (26% vs. 19%, psleep disorder was significantly associated with increased hs_CRP and correlative to other sleep disorders. In fully-adjusted linear regression model, poor sleep quality was significantly associated with elevated hs_CRP (log transformed) among the overall sample and in females only (β = 0.10, se = 0.03, psleep quality was linked with risk of high CRP(OR: 1.42, 95%CI: 1.15-1.76 in overall sample and OR: 1.59, 95%CI: 1.18-2.14 in females, respectively). We found that poor sleep quality was independently associated with elevated hs_CRP in females but not in males in a U.S. adult population.

  14. Prevalence of Glaucoma in the United States: The 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

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    Gupta, Priya; Zhao, Di; Guallar, Eliseo; Ko, Fang; Boland, Michael V.; Friedman, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the prevalence of glaucoma in the US population based on optic nerve head photography, to estimate the prevalence of glaucoma awareness, and to identify demographic and ocular risk factors for being unaware of having glaucoma. Methods The study included 5746 men and women 40 years of age and older participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2008. Each participant had 45° photographs of the macula and optic disc of both eyes. Fundus photographs were first graded by a reading center, and those with a cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) ≥ 0.6 were regraded by three glaucoma specialists to determine the presence or absence of glaucoma. Analyses were performed using NHANES weights to account for the complex multistage probability sampling design. Results The estimated overall prevalence of glaucoma in the US civilian, noninstitutionalized population 40 years of age and older was 2.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7%–2.6%). Glaucoma affected 2.9 million individuals, including 1.4 million women; 1.5 million men; 2.3 million people 60 years of age and older; and 0.9 million blacks, Mexican Americans, and people of other races. The prevalence of glaucoma was highest in non-Hispanic blacks, followed by non-Hispanic whites, Mexican Americans, and others. Over half of participants with glaucoma were unaware that they had the disease. Conclusions The prevalence of glaucoma based on optic nerve fundus photography assessment in the general US population 40 years of age and older was 2.1%. Approximately half of glaucoma cases were previously undiagnosed. Studies to determine whether and how to identify undiagnosed glaucoma are an important next step. PMID:27168366

  15. Diabetes, glucose metabolism, and glaucoma: the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Di Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetes may affect vascular autoregulation of the retina and optic nerve and may be associated with an increased risk of glaucoma,but the association of prediabetes, insulin resistance, markers of glucose metabolismwith glaucoma has not beenevaluated in general population samples. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between diabetes, pre-diabetes, metabolic syndrome and its components and the levels of fasting glucose, HbA1c and HOMA-IR with the prevalence of glaucoma in the general U.S. population. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 3,299 adult men and women from the 2005-2008 National Health and NutritionExamination Survey (NHANES. The presence of diabetes, prediabetes, the metabolic syndrome and its individual components and biomarkers of glucose metabolisms were based on standardized questionnaire and physical exam data and laboratory tests. The history of glaucoma was assessed through questionnaire during the home interview. RESULTS: Diabetes was strongly associated with prevalent glaucoma.In fully adjusted models, the odds ratiofor glaucoma comparing participants with diabetes with participants in the reference group with neither pre-diabetes nor diabetes was 2.12 (95% CI: 1.23, 3.67. The corresponding odd ratio comparing participants with pre-diabetes to those in the reference group was 1.01 (95% CI: 0.57, 1.82. Patients with 5 or more years of diabetes duration hadan OR for glaucoma of 3.90 (95% CI: 1.63, 9.32 compared with patients with <5 years of diabetes duration. We also found a hockey-stick shaped associations between biomarkers of glucose metabolisms and the prevalence of glaucoma. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes was associated with higher risk of glaucoma. Participants without diabetes but at the higher levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HbA1c and HOMA-IR spectrum may also be at greater risk of glaucoma.

  16. A Catalog of Rules, Variables, and Definitions Applied to Accelerometer Data in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2006

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    Camhi, Sarah M.; Troiano, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) included accelerometry in the 2003–2006 data collection cycles. Researchers have used these data since their release in 2007, but the data have not been consistently treated, examined, or reported. The objective of this study was to aggregate data from studies using NHANES accelerometry data and to catalogue study decision rules, derived variables, and cut point definitions to facilitate a more uniform approach to these data. Methods We conducted a PubMed search of English-language articles published (or indicated as forthcoming) from January 2007 through December 2011. Our initial search yielded 74 articles, plus 1 article that was not indexed in PubMed. After excluding 21 articles, we extracted and tabulated details on 54 studies to permit comparison among studies. Results The 54 articles represented various descriptive, methodological, and inferential analyses. Although some decision rules for treating data (eg, criteria for minimal wear-time) were consistently applied, cut point definitions used for accelerometer-derived variables (eg, time spent in various intensities of physical activity) were especially diverse. Conclusion Unique research questions may require equally unique analytical approaches; some inconsistency in approaches must be tolerated if scientific discovery is to be encouraged. This catalog provides a starting point for researchers to consider relevant and/or comparable accelerometer decision rules, derived variables, and cut point definitions for their own research questions. PMID:22698174

  17. A catalog of rules, variables, and definitions applied to accelerometer data in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006.

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    Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Camhi, Sarah M; Troiano, Richard P

    2012-01-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) included accelerometry in the 2003-2006 data collection cycles. Researchers have used these data since their release in 2007, but the data have not been consistently treated, examined, or reported. The objective of this study was to aggregate data from studies using NHANES accelerometry data and to catalogue study decision rules, derived variables, and cut point definitions to facilitate a more uniform approach to these data. We conducted a PubMed search of English-language articles published (or indicated as forthcoming) from January 2007 through December 2011. Our initial search yielded 74 articles, plus 1 article that was not indexed in PubMed. After excluding 21 articles, we extracted and tabulated details on 54 studies to permit comparison among studies. The 54 articles represented various descriptive, methodological, and inferential analyses. Although some decision rules for treating data (eg, criteria for minimal wear-time) were consistently applied, cut point definitions used for accelerometer-derived variables (eg, time spent in various intensities of physical activity) were especially diverse. Unique research questions may require equally unique analytical approaches; some inconsistency in approaches must be tolerated if scientific discovery is to be encouraged. This catalog provides a starting point for researchers to consider relevant and/or comparable accelerometer decision rules, derived variables, and cut point definitions for their own research questions.

  18. Antioxidants and self-reported history of kidney stones: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Holoch, Peter A; Tracy, Chad R

    2011-12-01

    Animal studies have demonstrated the likely role of oxidative tissue damage in the pathophysiology of stone disease; however, the effect of antioxidants on stone formation in the human population is unknown. We evaluated the association between serum antioxidant levels and the self-reported prevalence of kidney stones in a large cross-sectional population in a retrospective cohort study. Serum levels of antioxidants among adult participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) 1988-1994 were compared between those with and without a self-reported history of kidney stones, adjusting for covariates of age, sex, body mass index (BMI), race/ethnicity, diabetes, and hypertension. The prevalence of kidney stones was 5.25% (95% confidence interval: 4.60%, 5.90%). The prevalence of kidney stones was higher in males, white/non-Hispanics, diabetics, and those with hypertension. The prevalence of kidney stones increased with BMI. After adjusting for covariates, mean levels of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and beta-cryptoxanthin were significantly lower in those with kidney stones (-9.36%, -10.79%, and -8.48%, respectively). When analyzed by quartile, higher serum levels of beta-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin,, trended toward a decreasing prevalence of stones (P=0.007 and P=0.03, respectively), indicating that the highest levels of these antioxidants may protect against the formation of kidney stones. Lower levels of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and beta-cryptoxanthin are associated with a history of kidney stones and may indicate a role for these antioxidants in preventing stone formation.

  19. Urinary bisphenol A and type-2 diabetes in U.S. adults: data from NHANES 2003-2008.

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    Monica K Silver

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is found in plastics and other consumer products; exposure may lead to insulin resistance and development of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM through over-activation of pancreatic β-cells. Previous studies using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES showed an inconsistent association between prevalence of self-reported T2DM and urinary BPA. We used a different diagnosis method of T2DM (hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c with a larger subset of NHANES.We analyzed data from 4,389 adult participants who were part of a sub-study of environmental phenol measurements in urine from three NHANES cycles from 2003 to 2008. T2DM was defined as having a HbA1c ≥ 6.5% or use of diabetes medication. The weighted prevalence of T2DM was 9.2%. Analysis of the total sample revealed that a two-fold increase in urinary BPA was associated with an odds ratio (OR of 1.08 of T2DM (95% confidence interval (CI, 1.02 to 1.16, after controlling for potential confounders. However, when we examined each NHANES cycle individually, we only found a statistically significant association in the 2003/04 cycle (n = 1,364, OR = 1.23 (95% CI, 1.07 to 1.42 for each doubling in urinary BPA. We found no association in either the NHANES cycle from 2005/06 (n = 1,363, OR = 1.05 (95% CI, 0.94 to 1.18; or 2007/08 (n = 1,662, OR = 1.06 (95% CI, 0.91 to 1.23. Similar patterns of associations between BPA and continuous HbA1c were also observed.Although higher urinary BPA was associated with elevated HbA1c and T2DM in the pooled analysis, it was driven by data from only one NHANES cycle. Additional studies, especially of a longitudinal design with repeated BPA measurements, are needed to further elucidate the association between BPA and T2DM.

  20. Association of Urinary Phthalates with Self-Reported Eye Affliction/Retinopathy in Individuals with Diabetes: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2010

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    Manju Mamtani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. An epidemiological association between exposure to phthalates and type 2 diabetes (T2D is known. However, the potential role of environmental phthalates in the complications of T2D is unknown. Methods. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2001–2010, we studied the association of 12 urinary phthalate metabolites with self-reported eye affliction/retinopathy in 1,004 participants with diabetes. Data from retinal imaging was used to validate this outcome. Independence of the phthalates→T2D association was studied by adjusting for age, sex, race, marital status, educational attainment, poverty income ratio, physical activity, glycated hemoglobin levels, total serum cholesterol, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, serum triglycerides, blood pressure, duration of diabetes, total calorie intake, and obesity. Results. Self-reported eye affliction/retinopathy had 82% accuracy with Cohen’s kappa of 0.31 (p<0.001. Urinary mono-n-octyl phthalate (MOP was independently associated with the likelihood of self-reported eye affliction/retinopathy in subjects with T2D after accounting for all the confounders. This significance of this association was robust to the potential misclassification in cases and controls of retinopathy. Further, a significant dose-response relationship between MOP and self-reported eye affliction/retinopathy was demonstrable. Conclusions. We show a novel epidemiological link between the environment and diabetic complications in NHANES 2001–2010 participants.

  1. Selecting adequate exposure biomarkers of diisononyl and diisodecyl phthalates: data from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Calafat, Antonia M; Wong, Lee-Yang; Silva, Manori J; Samandar, Ella; Preau, James L; Jia, Lily T; Needham, Larry L

    2011-01-01

    High-molecular-weight phthalates, such as diisononyl phthalate (DINP) and diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP), are used primarily as polyvinyl chloride plasticizers. We assessed exposure to DINP and DIDP in a representative sample of persons ≥ 6 years of age in the U.S. general population from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We analyzed 2,548 urine samples by using online solid-phase extraction coupled to isotope dilution high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We detected monocarboxyisooctyl phthalate (MCOP), a metabolite of DINP, and monocarboxyisononyl phthalate (MCNP), a metabolite of DIDP, in 95.2% and 89.9% of the samples, respectively. We detected monoisononyl phthalate (MNP), a minor metabolite of DINP, much less frequently (12.9%) and at concentration ranges (> 0.8 µg/L-148.1 µg/L) much lower than MCOP (> 0.7 µg/L- 4,961 µg/L). Adjusted geometric mean concentrations of MCOP and MCNP were significantly higher (p < 0.01) among children than among adolescents and adults. The general U.S. population, including children, was exposed to DINP and DIDP. In previous NHANES cycles, the occurrence of human exposure to DINP by using MNP as the sole urinary biomarker has been underestimated, thus illustrating the importance of selecting the most adequate biomarkers for exposure assessment.

  2. Selecting Adequate Exposure Biomarkers of Diisononyl and Diisodecyl Phthalates: Data from the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

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    Calafat, Antonia M.; Wong, Lee-Yang; Silva, Manori J.; Samandar, Ella; Preau, James L.; Jia, Lily T.; Needham, Larry L.

    2011-01-01

    Background High-molecular-weight phthalates, such as diisononyl phthalate (DINP) and diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP), are used primarily as polyvinyl chloride plasticizers. Objectives We assessed exposure to DINP and DIDP in a representative sample of persons ≥ 6 years of age in the U.S. general population from the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods We analyzed 2,548 urine samples by using online solid-phase extraction coupled to isotope dilution high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Results We detected monocarboxyisooctyl phthalate (MCOP), a metabolite of DINP, and monocarboxyisononyl phthalate (MCNP), a metabolite of DIDP, in 95.2% and 89.9% of the samples, respectively. We detected monoisononyl phthalate (MNP), a minor metabolite of DINP, much less frequently (12.9%) and at concentration ranges (> 0.8 μg/L–148.1 μg/L) much lower than MCOP (> 0.7 μg/L– 4,961 μg/L). Adjusted geometric mean concentrations of MCOP and MCNP were significantly higher (p < 0.01) among children than among adolescents and adults. Conclusions The general U.S. population, including children, was exposed to DINP and DIDP. In previous NHANES cycles, the occurrence of human exposure to DINP by using MNP as the sole urinary biomarker has been underestimated, thus illustrating the importance of selecting the most adequate biomarkers for exposure assessment. PMID:20870567

  3. The relationship between hand osteoarthritis and serum leptin concentration in participants of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Massengale, Mei; Reichmann, William M; Losina, Elena; Solomon, Daniel H; Katz, Jeffrey N

    2012-05-31

    Leptin has been suspected to contribute to the development of osteoarthritis (OA). However, this hypothesis has not been tested in large-scale hand OA cohorts. Our study aimed to determine whether there is a cross-sectional relationship between serum leptin levels and hand OA in a population-based sample of US adults. We used the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), a national cross-sectional population-based survey, to study the relationship between hand OA and serum leptin concentration. We applied previously established classification criteria for hand OA. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis were excluded. Potential confounders included sex, body mass index, the presence of polyarticular OA, diabetes, and total cholesterol. We estimated unadjusted mean leptin concentration by hand OA status and by all confounders. We further developed a linear regression model to assess mean leptin levels, adjusted for appropriate confounders. Of 2,477 subjects in the NHANES III sample that had a hand examination and did not have rheumatoid arthritis, 1,056 (42.6%) had a leptin measurement and were included in the analysis. Subjects with and without leptin measurement had similar demographic characteristics. We did not find any significant differences in mean serum leptin levels in subjects with symptomatic hand OA (7.38 ng/ml in males (95% confidence interval (CI) = 5.31, 9.46) and 21.55 ng/ml in females (95% CI = 17.08, 26.02)), asymptomatic hand OA (6.69 ng/ml in males (95% CI = 5.19, 8.18) and 17.09 ng/ml in females (95% CI = 15.00, 19.18)), and no hand OA (8.22 ng/ml in males (95% CI = 7.47, 8.97) and 20.77 ng/ml in females (95% CI = 18.01, 23.53)) in the unadjusted analysis. In a multivariable linear regression model that included variables of hand OA status, age, race/ethnicity, and obesity status, we found no statistically significant association between serum leptin and hand OA status. In this cross-sectional study of a large

  4. Associations between Food Security Status and Dietary Inflammatory Potential within Lower-Income Adults from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Cycles 2007 to 2014.

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    Bergmans, Rachel S; Palta, Mari; Robert, Stephanie A; Berger, Lawrence M; Ehrenthal, Deborah B; Malecki, Kristen M

    2018-02-13

    Evidence suggests both that chronic inflammation mediates the association of food insecurity with adverse health outcomes and that diet may be a significant source of inflammation among food insecure individuals. To examine whether food security status is associated with dietary inflammatory potential. Cross-sectional data came from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), cycles 2007 to 2014 (n=10,630). The analysis sample is representative of noninstitutionalized US adults with an income-to-poverty ratio ≤3.00. Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) score, calculated using the average of two 24-hour dietary recalls, was the main outcome measure. Type III F tests or χ 2 tests compared population characteristics by food security status, defined using the US Food Security Survey Module. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the association between food security status and the DII score and moderation by demographic factors. Survey weighting procedures accounted for the effects of stratification and clustering used in the NHANES study design. When accounting for socioeconomic status, demographic factors, and health status, DII score was higher at greater levels of food insecurity (P=0.0033). Those with very low food security had a 0.31 (95% CI=0.12 to 0.49) higher DII score than those with high food security. Age moderated the association between food security status and DII score (interaction P=0.0103), where the magnitude of the association between DII score and severity of food insecurity was higher for those >65 years than for younger age groups. Food security status may be associated with dietary inflammatory potential, which is hypothesized to play a role in multiple chronic health conditions. Further research is needed to determine the causal nature of this relationship and evaluate how best to implement programs designed to address health disparities within food insecure populations. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and

  5. Predictors of Blood Trihalomethane Concentrations in NHANES 1999–2006

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    Dhingra, Radhika; Blount, Benjamin C.; Steenland, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Background: Trihalomethanes (THMs) are water disinfection by-products that have been associated with bladder cancer and adverse birth outcomes. Four THMs (bromoform, chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane) were measured in blood and tap water of U.S. adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2006. THMs are metabolized to potentially toxic/mutagenic intermediates by cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2D6 and CYP2E1 enzymes. Objectives: We conducted exploratory analyses of blood THMs, including factors affecting CYP2D6 and CYP2E1 activity. Methods: We used weighted multivariable regressions to evaluate associations between blood THMs and water concentrations, survey year, and other factors potentially affecting THM exposure or metabolism (e.g., prescription medications, cruciferous vegetables, diabetes, fasting, pregnancy, swimming). Results: From 1999 to 2006, geometric mean blood and water THM levels dropped in parallel, with decreases of 32%–76% in blood and 38%–52% in water, likely resulting, in part, from the lowering of the total THM drinking water standard in 2002–2004. The strongest predictors of blood THM levels were survey year and water concentration (n = 4,232 total THM; n = 4,080 bromoform; n = 4,582 chloroform; n = 4,374 bromodichloromethane; n = 4,464 dibromochloromethane). We detected statistically significant inverse associations with diabetes and eating cruciferous vegetables in all but the bromoform model. Medications did not consistently predict blood levels. Afternoon/evening blood samples had lower THM concentrations than morning samples. In a subsample (n = 230), air chloroform better predicted blood chloroform than water chloroform, suggesting showering/bathing was a more important source than drinking. Conclusions: We identified several factors associated with blood THMs that may affect their metabolism. The potential health implications require further study. Citation: Riederer AM, Dhingra R

  6. Association between rice consumption and selected indicators of dietary and nutritional status using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2008.

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    Kennedy, Eileen; Luo, Hanqi

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating whether white rice, brown rice, and rice flour consumption has any association with selected measures of dietary intake and nutritional status, including various variables of energy intake, major vitamin and mineral intakes, weigh status, blood pressure, cholesterol level, and serum folate level for adults 20 years and older. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2008 and the Food Commodity Intake Database were used. Rice consumers had a significantly higher energy intake, yet they had lower percentage calorie intake from fat and saturated fat. Rice consumers also had significantly higher intakes of a range of nutrients. Rice consumers had lower waist circumference, triceps skinfold, and were significantly more likely to have a body mass index less than or equal to 25.

  7. Prevalence and determinants of isolated systolic hypertension among young adults: the 1999-2004 US National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Grebla, Regina C; Rodriguez, Carlos J; Borrell, Luisa N; Pickering, Thomas G

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) in younger adults. We examined the prevalence and determinants of ISH in this age group using the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) and made comparisons using data from NHANES III (1988-1994). A total of 5685 adults aged 18-39 years and not on antihypertensive medications were analyzed. Prevalence estimates of ISH and potential risk factors were estimated by age and sex. For comparison of prevalence estimates with published reports of NHANES III data, age cutoffs (18-24, 25-34, and 35-44 year) by sex were also employed. A multivariate logistic regression model tested independent determinants of ISH. ISH in young adults had a higher prevalence than systolic/diastolic hypertension (1.57 +/- 0.23% vs. 0.93 +/- 0.18%). ISH prevalence increased within the last decade particularly for men for each respective age category [men (0.8 vs. 2.2%, 1.3 vs. 2.4%, 1.3 vs. 2.4%), women (0.0 vs. 0.3%, 0.1 vs. 0.7%, 1.7 vs. 1.8%)]. On multivariate analysis, obesity [odds ratio (OR): 2.68, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 6.77], male sex (OR: 2.19, 95% CI: 1.10, 4.37), education level less than high school (OR: 2.98, 95% CI: 1.10, 8.06), and current smoking (OR: 2.06, 95% CI: 1.03, 4.11) were characteristics independently associated with higher odds of ISH among young adults. Relative increases in prevalence between the surveys were noted for current smoking (24.3 vs. 51.5%), obesity (33.9 vs. 42.7%) and low educational level (18.4 vs. 38.6%). ISH among young adults is increasing in prevalence, and is more common than systolic/diastolic hypertension. Obesity, smoking, and low socioeconomic status appear to be important determinants of ISH among young adults and have all increased over the last decade.

  8. European Health Examination Survey--towards a sustainable monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Hanna; Koponen, Päivikki; Mindell, Jennifer; Männistö, Satu; Kuulasmaa, Kari

    2014-04-01

     Health examination surveys (HESs), including both questionnaire and physical measurements, and in most cases also collection of biological samples, can provide objective health indicators. This information complements data from health interview surveys and administrative registers, and is important for evidence-based planning of health policies and prevention activities. HESs are valuable data sources for research. The first national HESs in Europe were conducted in the late 1950s and early 1960s. They have recently been carried out in an increasing number of countries, but there has been no joint standardization between the countries. The European Health Examination Survey Pilot Project was conducted in 2009-2012. The European Health Examination Survey Pilot Reference Centre was established and pilot surveys were conducted in 12 countries.  European standardized protocols for key measurements on main chronic disease risk factors (height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood lipids and fasting glucose or HbA1c) were prepared. European-level training and external quality assessment were organized. Although the level of earlier experience, infrastructures, economic status and cultural settings varied between the pilot countries, it was possible to standardize measurements of HESs across the populations. Obtaining high participation rates was challenging.  HESs provide high-quality and representative population data to support policy decisions and research. For future national HESs, centralized coordination, training and external quality assessment are needed to ensure comparability of the results. Further studies on effects of different survey methods on comparability of the results and on recruitment and motivation of survey participants are needed.

  9. Examining the Challenges of Cadastral Surveying Practice in Zambia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition the paper also examines the challenges faced by surveyors in the existing cadastral management with regard to legislation, archiving of cadastral information, quality control, and delivery period of cadastral survey services, professionalism and continuous professional development. The paper offers a modest ...

  10. Mammography examination in Ghana: preliminary survey of patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mammography examination in Ghana: preliminary survey of patients' profiles. ... The probability of an obese individual to develop breast cancer out of the entire population was p = 0.004. The profiles indicated that breast screening awareness programmes should be targeted towards women between ages of 41 - 60 years.

  11. Urinary bisphenol A and age at menarche among adolescent girls: evidence from NHANES 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinn, Laura A; Ghazarian, Armen A; Joseph Su, L; Ellison, Gary L

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental estrogen used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins used to make food and beverage packaging. Increasing evidence suggests that BPA mimics estrogens in the body and may be associated with putative markers of breast cancer risk. We analyzed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2010 data to investigate the association of BPA with age at menarche in adolescent girls. We hypothesized that urinary BPA, as a surrogate biomarker for BPA exposure, is associated with earlier age at menarche, and that body mass index (BMI) may modulate this association. We conducted cross-sectional analyses of urinary BPA, BMI and age of menarche in a subsample of 987 adolescent girls aged 12-19, using pooled data from the 2003-2010 NHANES. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between urinary BPA and early onset of menarche, with adjustment for sampling design. We additionally assessed interaction of BPA with BMI. Adolescent girls with moderate BPA levels appeared to be less likely to have early onset of menarche than those with the lowest levels (OR=0.57; 95% CI=0.30, 1.08) after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, parental education, country of birth, NHANES cycle, BMI and creatinine. BMI appeared to modify the BPA-menarche association. Although a non-significant trend suggests increasing urinary BPA may be associated with delayed menarche in adolescent girls, these results are based on cross-sectional data. Results should be clarified in carefully designed longitudinal cohort studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cardiovascular health metrics and accelerometer-measured physical activity levels: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, Tiago V; Harrington, Deirdre M; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether relationships exist between accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and other cardiovascular (CV) health metrics in a large sample. Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) collected from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2006, were used. Overall, 3454 nonpregnant adults 20 years or older who fasted for 6 hours or longer, with valid accelerometer data and with CV health metrics, were included in the study. Blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI), smoking status, diet, fasting plasma glucose level, and total cholesterol level were defined as ideal, intermediate, and poor on the basis of American Heart Association criteria. Results were weighted to account for sampling design, oversampling, and nonresponse. Significant increasing linear trends in mean daily MVPA were observed across CV health levels for BMI, BP, and fasting plasma glucose (Phealth metrics (Phealth metrics in this large sample. These results support the inclusion of physical activity in the overall definition of ideal CV health. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Increasing health examination survey participation rates by SMS reminders and flexible examination times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Hanna; Aistrich, Anna; Borodulin, Katja

    2014-11-01

    Declining participation rates are an increasing problem in population surveys. Different kinds of methods have been used to ensure participation rates as high as possible. Monetary incentives and reminders have been found to be effective ways to increase participation rates, but these are rather expensive to implement in large population surveys. There is a need for cheaper ways to motivate survey invitees to participate. The Kuusamo Health Examination Survey was conducted in May-June 2011. A random sample of 250 people was selected for the survey. Mobile phone numbers, when available, were obtained for people within the sample. For a random sample of 50% of survey invitees with a mobile phone number, a short message service (SMS) reminder was sent prior to their appointment. All survey participants were asked to fill in a feedback questionnaire. Participation rate was 58% for men and 74% for women. Mobile phone numbers were available for 66% of the sample. Among those receiving an SMS reminder about their appointment, participation rates were up to 25 percentage points higher than among the group not receiving a reminder. In the feedback questionnaire, 9% of the survey participants reported that they would not have participated without the SMS reminder they received. Participants preferred morning hours and Monday-Tuesday as time and day options for the examinations. SMS reminder about the appointment time was an effective way to increase participation rate, especially among the youngest age groups also, providing flexible office hours for the examination clinic may increase participation rate. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  14. Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in US Hispanic/Latino Adults: Results From the NHANES 2007–2010 and HCHS/SOL Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniholm, Mark H.; Jung, Molly; Everhart, James E.; Cotler, Scott; Heiss, Gerardo; McQuillan, Geraldine; Kim, Ryung S.; Strickler, Howard D.; Thyagarajan, Bharat; Youngblood, Marston; Kaplan, Robert C.; Ho, Gloria Y. F.

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody has been reported in Mexican Americans, but its prevalence in other US Hispanic/Latino groups is unknown. We studied 2 populations of US Hispanic/Latino adults; 3210 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2010 and 11 964 from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). Age-standardized prevalence of HCV antibody was similar in NHANES 2007–2010 (1.5%) and HCHS/SOL (2.0%) but differed significantly by Hispanic/Latino background in HCHS/SOL (eg, 11.6% in Puerto Rican men vs 0.4% in South American men). These findings suggest that the HCV epidemic among US Hispanics/Latinos is heterogeneous. PMID:24423693

  15. Assessing the Collective Population Representativeness of Related Type 2 Diabetes Trials by Combining Public Data from ClinicalTrials.gov and NHANES

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhe; Wang, Shuang; Borhanian, Elhaam; Weng, Chunhua

    2015-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials generate high-quality medical evidence. However, the use of unjustified inclusion/exclusion criteria may compromise the external validity of a study. We have introduced a method to assess the population representativeness of related clinical trials using electronic health record (EHR) data. As EHR data may not perfectly represent the real-world patient population, in this work, we further validated the method and its results using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. We visualized and quantified the differences in the distributions of age, HbA1c, and BMI among the target population of Type 2 diabetes trials, diabetics in NHANES databases, and a convenience sample of patients enrolled in selected Type 2 diabetes trials. The results are consistent with the previous study. PMID:26262115

  16. Family Consumer Behaviors, Adolescent Prediabetes and Diabetes in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Sairaman; Khokhar, Aditi; Holmes, Danielle Sweetnam; Chandwani, Sheenu

    2017-01-01

    Prediabetes or diabetes (characterized by hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] levels ≥ 5.7 gm%) has been associated with numerous long-term complications. Family consumer behaviors are important risk factors that lead to impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes. However, few studies have studied the association between the family consumer environment and prediabetes and diabetes in adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine the association between family consumer behaviors (healthy food availability and supermarket spending) and adolescent prediabetes and diabetes (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier #NCT03136289.) Methods: Data from a nationwide survey conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey [NHANES] 2007-2010 data) were used for these analyses. Adolescents aged 12-19 years were selected for this study. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression models assessed the relationship between family consumer behaviors and the prevalence of adolescent prediabetes and diabetes. Multivariable models adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, physical activity, education, income, and household size. A total of 2520 adolescents were eligible for this study. Adolescents with healthier household food availability had negative odds (odds ratio [OR] = 0.74, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55-1.00), as did higher log supermarket spending (OR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.57-0.85). Interaction models demonstrated that adolescent females had more negative odds of prediabetes/diabetes for both healthier food availability (OR = 0.79, 95% CI, 0.39-1.29) and for greater log supermarket spending (OR = 0.69, 95% CI, 0.57-0.85). This study shows that both healthy food availability and an increase in supermarket spending were associated with a decreased adjusted prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes in adolescents, with a greater effect in females. These results suggest the need for policy and dietary interventions targeting the consumer

  17. Allergy-related outcomes in relation to serum IgE: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Päivi M.; Calatroni, Agustin; Gergen, Peter J.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Sever, Michelle L.; Jaramillo, Renee; Arbes, Samuel J.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2011-01-01

    Background The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2006 was the first population-based study to investigate levels of serum total and allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the general US population. Objective We estimated prevalence of allergy-related outcomes and examined relationships between serum IgE levels and these outcomes in a representative sample of the US population. Methods Data for this cross-sectional analysis were obtained from the NHANES 2005–2006. Study subjects aged 6 years and older (N=8086) had blood taken for measurement of total IgE and 19 specific IgEs against common aeroallergens, including Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Bermuda grass, birch, oak, ragweed, Russian thistle, rye grass, cat dander, cockroach, dog dander, dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus), mouse and rat urine proteins; and selected foods (egg white, cow’s milk, peanut, and shrimp). Serum samples were analyzed for total and allergen-specific IgEs using the Pharmacia CAP System. Information on allergy-related outcomes and demographics was collected by questionnaire. Results In the NHANES 2005–2006, 6.6% reported current hay fever and 23.5% suffered from current allergies. Allergy-related outcomes increased with increasing total IgE (adjusted ORs for a 10-fold increase in total IgE =1.86, 95% CI:1.44–2.41 for hay fever and 1.64, 95% CI: 1.41–1.91 for allergies). Elevated levels of plant-, pet-, and mold-specific IgEs contributed independently to allergy-related symptoms. The greatest increase in odds was observed for hay fever and plant-specific IgEs (adjusted OR=4.75, 95% CI:3.83–5.88). Conclusion In the US population, self-reported allergy symptoms are most consistently associated with elevated levels of plant-, pet-, and mold-specific IgEs. PMID:21320720

  18. Fresh pear consumption is associated with better nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight parameters in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    No studies have examined the association of consuming fresh pears on nutrient intake or adequacy, diet quality, and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF). The purpose of this study was to examine these association in adults (n=24,808) participating the NHANES 2001-2010. Covariate adjusted linear regres...

  19. Update on NHANES Dietary Data: Focus on Collection, Release, Analytical Considerations, and Uses to Inform Public Policy12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Namanjeet; Dwyer, Johanna; Terry, Ana; Moshfegh, Alanna; Johnson, Clifford

    2016-01-01

    NHANES is the cornerstone for national nutrition monitoring to inform nutrition and health policy. Nutritional assessment in NHANES is described with a focus on dietary data collection, analysis, and uses in nutrition monitoring. NHANES has been collecting thorough data on diet, nutritional status, and chronic disease in cross-sectional surveys with nationally representative samples since the early 1970s. Continuous data collection began in 1999 with public data release in 2-y cycles on ∼10,000 participants. In 2002, the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals and the NHANES dietary component were merged, forming a consolidated dietary data collection known as What We Eat in America; since then, 24-h recalls have been collected on 2 d using the USDA’s Automated Multiple-Pass Method. Detailed and targeted food-frequency questionnaires have been collected in some NHANES cycles. Dietary supplement use data have been collected (in detail since 2007) so that total nutrient intakes can be described for the population. The continuous NHANES can adapt its content to address emerging public health needs and reflect federal priorities. Changes in data collection methods are made after expert input and validation/crossover studies. NHANES dietary data are used to describe intake of foods, nutrients, food groups, and dietary patterns by the US population and large sociodemographic groups to plan and evaluate nutrition programs and policies. Usual dietary intake distributions can be estimated after adjusting for day-to-day variation. NHANES remains open and flexible to incorporate improvements while maintaining data quality and providing timely data to track the nation’s nutrition and health status. In summary, NHANES collects dietary data in the context of its broad, multipurpose goals; the strengths and limitations of these data are also discussed in this review. PMID:26773020

  20. Activity change in response to bad air quality, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen M Wells

    Full Text Available Air pollution contributes to poor respiratory and cardiovascular health. Susceptible individuals may be advised to mitigate effects of air pollution through actions such as reducing outdoor physical activity on days with high pollution. Our analysis identifies the extent to which susceptible individuals changed activities due to bad air quality. This cross-sectional study included 10,898 adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007-2010. Participants reported if they did something differently when air quality was bad. Susceptible categories included respiratory conditions, cardiovascular conditions and older age (≥ 65 years. Analyses accounted for complex survey design; logistic regression models controlled for gender, race, education, smoking, and body mass index. 1305 individuals reported doing something differently (12.0%, 95% confidence interval (CI: 10.9, 13.1. This percentage was 14.2% (95% CI: 11.6, 16.8, 25.1% (95% CI: 21.7, 28.6, and 15.5% (95% CI: 12.2, 18.9 among older adults, those with a respiratory condition, and those with a cardiovascular condition, respectively. In adjusted regression models the following were significantly more likely to have changed activity compared to those who did not belong to any susceptible group: respiratory conditions (adjusted odds ratio (aOR: 2.61, 95% CI: 2.03, 3.35; respiratory and cardiovascular conditions (aOR: 4.36, 95% CI: 2.47, 7.69; respiratory conditions and older age (aOR: 3.83; 95% CI: 2.47, 5.96; or all three groups (aOR: 3.52; 95% CI: (2.33, 5.32. Having cardiovascular conditions alone was not statistically significant. Some individuals, especially those with a respiratory condition, reported changing activities due to poor air quality. However, efforts should continue to educate the public about air quality and health.

  1. Association of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome with obesity: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 to 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ninh T; Magno, Cheryl P; Lane, Karen T; Hinojosa, Marcelo W; Lane, John S

    2008-12-01

    Hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia are common conditions associated with obesity. This study provides current estimates of the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome according to the severity of obesity in men and women participating in the 1999 to 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Data from a representative sample of 13,745 US men and women who participated in the NHANES between 1999 and 2004 were reviewed. Overweight and obesity classes 1, 2, and 3 were defined as a body mass index of 25.0 to 29.9, 30.0 to 34.9, 35.0 to 39.9, and> or =40.0 kg/m(2), respectively. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the 2004 National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute/American Heart Association conference proceedings. With increasing overweight and obesity class, there is an increase in the prevalence of hypertension (18.1% for normal weight to 52.3% for obesity class 3), diabetes (2.4% for normal weight to 14.2% for obesity class 3), dyslipidemia (8.9% for normal weight to 19.0% for obesity class 3), and metabolic syndrome (13.6% for normal weight to 39.2% for obesity class 3). With normal weight individuals as a reference, individuals with obesity class 3 had an adjusted odds ratio of 4.8 (95% CI 3.8 to 5.9) for hypertension, 5.1 (95% CI 3.7 to 7.0) for diabetes, 2.2 (95% CI 1.7 to 2.4) for dyslipidemia, and 2.0 (95% CI 1.4 to 2.8) for metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome substantially increases with increasing body mass index. These findings have important public health implications for the prevention and treatments (surgical and nonsurgical) of obesity.

  2. Sodium intake in US ethnic subgroups and potential impact of a new sodium reduction technology: NHANES Dietary Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgoni, Victor L; Agarwal, Sanjiv; Spence, Lisa; Samuel, Priscilla

    2014-12-18

    Because excessive dietary sodium intake is a major contributor to hypertension, a reduction in dietary sodium has been recommended for the US population. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010 data, we estimated current sodium intake in US population ethnic subgroups and modeled the potential impact of a new sodium reduction technology on sodium intake. NHANES 2007-2010 data were analyzed using The National Cancer Institute method to estimate usual intake in population subgroups. Potential impact of SODA-LO® Salt Microspheres sodium reduction technology on sodium intake was modeled using suggested sodium reductions of 20-30% in 953 foods and assuming various market penetrations. SAS 9.2, SUDAAN 11, and NHANES survey weights were used in all calculations with assessment across age, gender and ethnic groups. Current sodium intake across all population subgroups exceeds the Dietary Guidelines 2010 recommendations and has not changed during the last decade. However, sodium intake measured as a function of food intake has decreased significantly during the last decade for all ethnicities. "Grain Products" and "Meat, Poultry, Fish, & Mixtures" contribute about 2/3rd of total sodium intake. Sodium reduction, using SODA-LO® Salt Microspheres sodium reduction technology (with 100% market penetration) was estimated to be 185-323 mg/day or 6.3-8.4% of intake depending upon age, gender and ethnic group. Current sodium intake in US ethnic subgroups exceeds the recommendations and sodium reduction technologies could potentially help reduce dietary sodium intake among those groups.

  3. Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Diet, Weight Status, and Blood Pressure among Children and Adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Juliana F W; Lehnerd, Megan E; Houser, Robert F; Rimm, Eric B

    2017-09-01

    The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet is associated with lower blood pressure and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease among adults, but little is known about accordance with this dietary pattern or health benefits among children and adolescents. The objectives were to evaluate accordance with the DASH diet, differences over time, and the association with health attributes among a nationally representative sample of US children and adolescents. Cross-sectional data from the 2003-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) were analyzed. Data from 9,793 individuals aged 8 to 18 years were examined. DASH accordance was estimated based on nine nutrient targets: total fat, saturated fat, protein, cholesterol, fiber, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium; possible score range is 0 to 9. Accordance with the DASH diet across time was examined comparing the 2011-2012 to 2003-2004 NHANES surveys. The association between DASH score and weight status was examined using multinomial logistic regression, and the associations with waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure were examined using multivariable linear regression. Accordance with the DASH diet was low across the age groups, with a range of mean DASH scores from 1.48 to 2.14. There were no significant changes across time. DASH score was inversely associated with systolic blood pressure (mm Hg) among 14- to 18-year-olds (β=-.46; 95% CI -.83 to -.09) among the larger sample of participants who completed at least one dietary recall, but no significant differences were seen in other age categories. In the subsample of participants with both dietary recalls, a significant inverse association was seen between DASH score and systolic blood pressure for 11- to 13-year-olds (β=-.57; 95% CI -1.02 to -.12). There were no significant associations between this dietary pattern and weight status, waist circumference, or diastolic blood pressure. Few US

  4. Acculturation and diabetes among Hispanics: evidence from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainous, Arch G; Majeed, Azeem; Koopman, Richelle J; Baker, Richard; Everett, Charles J; Tilley, Barbara C; Diaz, Vanessa A

    2006-01-01

    Hispanic individuals in the United States have a greater prevalence of diabetes mellitus than non-Hispanic white individuals; however, it is unclear whether Hispanics' risk of diabetes differs based on their level of acculturation. The purpose of our research was to examine acculturation among Hispanic Americans with respect to prevalence and control of diabetes. We conducted an analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2002, a nationally representative sample of the noninstitutionalized U.S. population. We evaluated data on Hispanic adults (> or = 18 years of age, unweighted n=2,696), analyzing diagnosed diabetes, glycemic blood pressure and lipid control, and diabetes complications according to acculturation as measured by language and birth outside the United States. Hispanics with low acculturation were more likely to be without a routine place for health care, have no health insurance, and have low levels of education. In adjusted analyses, individuals with low acculturation, measured by language, were more likely to have diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 1.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02, 3.54). Among individuals with diagnosed diabetes, no significant association was yielded between acculturation and diabetes control. However, individuals with low language acculturation were more likely to have the diabetes complication of peripheral neuropathy (OR 4.01, 95% CI 1.40, 11.48). Acculturation as measured through language is associated with diabetes and complications among Hispanics even after controlling for a variety of demographic characteristics including health insurance and education. The findings suggest that even within a "single" minority ethnic group, there are differences in disease prevalence and complications and access to health care.

  5. Dyslipidemia and Food Security in Low-Income US Adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tester, June M; Laraia, Barbara A; Leung, Cindy W; Mietus-Snyder, Michele L

    2016-02-11

    Low levels of food security are associated with dyslipidemia and chronic disease in adults, particularly in women. There is a gap in knowledge about the relationship between food security among youth and dyslipidemia and chronic disease. We investigated the relationship between food security status and dyslipidemia among low-income adolescents. We analyzed data from adolescents aged 12 to 18 years (N = 1,072) from households with incomes at or below 200% of the federal poverty level from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2010. We used logistic regression to examine the relationship between household food security status and the odds of having abnormalities with fasting total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), serum triglycerides (TGs), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), TG/HDL-C ratio, and apolipoprotein B (Apo B). Models included age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking status, partnered status in the household, and maternal education, with additional adjustment for adiposity. Household food security status was not associated with elevated TC or LDL-C. Adolescents with marginal food security were more likely than food-secure peers to have elevated TGs (odds ratio [OR] = 1.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-3.05), TG/HDL-C ratio (OR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.11-2.82), and Apo B (OR = 1.98; 95% CI, 1.17-3.36). Female adolescents with marginal food security had greater odds than male adolescents of having low HDL-C (OR = 2.69; 95% CI, 1.14-6.37). No elevated odds of dyslipidemia were found for adolescents with low or very low food security. Adjustment for adiposity did not attenuate estimates. In this nationally representative sample, low-income adolescents living in households with marginal food security had increased odds of having a pattern consistent with atherogenic dyslipidemia, which represents a cardiometabolic burden above their risk from adiposity alone.

  6. Adjusting for nonresponse bias in a health examination survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, M L; Forthofer, R N

    1993-01-01

    There is a potential for nonresponse bias in most population studies using health examinations. This is true of the Mexican American portion of the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES), conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics, in which unit nonresponse to the examination accounted for 24 percent of the sample. Even though the full effect of nonresponse can never be really known, ancillary information from the interview sample can be used in an attempt to adjust for bias in estimates. Two techniques for nonresponse bias adjustment are presented and illustrated using health status level and hypertension status from published studies based on the HHANES of 1982-84. The first approach uses conditional probabilities and the second approach uses direct standardization. The examples examine whether or not an adjustment for socioeconomic status, sex, and age--variables related to both response status and the conditions under study--changes the prevalence estimates of (a) Mexican Americans who report poor, fair, or good health status and (b) hypertension among Mexican Americans. PMID:8497577

  7. Physical activity and telomere length in U.S. men and women: An NHANES investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Larry A

    2017-07-01

    The principal objective was to determine the extent to which physical activity (PA) accounts for differences in leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in a large random sample of U.S. adults. Another purpose was to assess the extent to which multiple demographic and lifestyle covariates affect the relationship between PA and LTL. A total of 5823 adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002) were studied cross-sectionally. Employing the quantitative polymerase chain reaction method, LTL was compared to standard reference DNA. PA was indexed using MET-minutes using self-reported frequency, intensity, and duration of participation in 62 physical activities. Covariates were controlled statistically. Telomeres were 15.6 base pairs shorter for each year of chronological age (F=723.2, Paccounting for years of reduced cellular aging compared to their more sedentary counterparts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Chronic low-back pain in adult with diabetes: NHANES 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassoon, Ahmed; Bydon, Mohamad; Kerezoudis, Panagiotis; Maloney, Patrick R; Rinaldo, Lorenzo; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with an increased prevalence of chronic low back pain (CLBP) in the general population. We analyzed data for 5106 adults (4591 without DM & 515 with diagnosed DM), who were part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2009 through 2010. Adults with DM were older (mean age 54.2years' vs. 42.1years), more likely to be obese (BMI>30, 69.5% vs. 33.3%), less educated (college or above 44.4% vs. 57.3%), had a lower annual income (low back pain (CLBP), and higher odds of CLBP after adjusting for LBP risk factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of changing from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey III spirometry reference range to that of the Global Lung Initiative 2012 at Gold Coast Hospital and Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embling, Laura A K; Zagami, Debbie; Sriram, Krishna Bajee; Gordon, Robert J; Sivakumaran, Pathmanathan

    2016-12-01

    The categorisation of lung disease into obstructive ventilatory defect (OVD) and tendency to a restrictive ventilatory defect (TRVD) patterns using spirometry is used to guide both prognostication and treatment. The effectiveness of categorisation depends upon having reference ranges that accurately represent the population they describe. The Global Lung Initiative 2012 (GLI 2012) has spirometry reference ranges drawn from the largest sample size to date. This study aimed to determine whether using spirometry reference ranges from the new GLI 2012 dataset, compared to the previously used National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey III (NHANES III) dataset, resulted in a change in diagnosis between OVD, TRVD and normal ventilatory pattern (NVP). Spirometry data were collected from 301 patients, aged 18-80 years, undergoing investigation at the Gold Coast Hospital and Health Service (GCHHS) throughout February and March 2014. OVD was defined as a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) divided by forced vital capacity (FVC) less than lower limit of normal (LLN). TRVD was defined as FEV1/FVC ≥ LLN, FEV1 < LLN, and FVC < LLN. The LLN values were determined by equations from the GLI and NHANES datasets. Spirometry interpreted using the NHANES III equations showed: 102 individuals (33.9%) with normal spirometry, 136 (45.2%) with an OVD pattern, 52 (17.3%) with a TRVD pattern, and 11 (3.7%) with a mixed pattern. When the spirometry data were interpreted using the GLI 2012 equations 2 (0.7%) individuals changed from OVD to NVP, 2 (0.7%) changed from NVP to OVD and 14 (4.7%) changed from TRVD to NVP. Using the GLI 2012 reference range resulted in a change in diagnosis of lung disease in 5.9% of the individuals included in this study. This variance in diagnosis when changing reference ranges should be taken into account by clinicians as it may affect patient management.

  10. Comparison of body habitus in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension enrolled in the Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-term PAH Disease Management with normative values from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Charles D; Foreman, Aimee J; Miller, Dave P; Safford, Robert E; McGoon, Michael D; Badesch, David B

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and pulmonary artery systolic pressure in a large population of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The BMI of patients with group 1 PAH enrolled in the Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-term PAH Disease Management (REVEAL) was compared with that of age- and sex-matched controls in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to clarify whether obesity is linked with PAH. The diagnosis of PAH was defined in REVEAL by right-sided heart catheterization. Differences in BMI and the percentage of patients considered obese (BMI ≥30) and underweight (BMI <18.5) in various subgroups of patients enrolled in REVEAL from March 30, 2006, through September 11, 2007, were determined. Mean BMI was no different for patients with PAH (n=2141) than for the NHANES normal comparison group; however, the proportion of obese and underweight patients was increased in patients with PAH. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that subgroups with idiopathic PAH and those with PAH associated with drugs and toxins had both higher BMI and percentage of obese patients, whereas 3 other subgroups (those with PAH associated with congenital heart disease, connective tissue disease, and human immunodeficiency virus) had lower mean BMI. Mean BMI of the REVEAL patients was the same as that of the NHANES normal comparison group; however, there were higher percentages of obese and underweight patients in REVEAL. This discrepancy can be explained by the balancing effect of more overweight and underweight patients in different PAH subgroups. The reason for the increased frequency of obesity in idiopathic PAH is unknown, and additional study is needed.

  11. Associations between Urinary Phthalate Metabolites and Serum Anti-Müller Hormone Levels in U.S. Men Based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2004

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    Ningning Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Anti-Müller hormone (AMH plays an important role in reproductive development and has a wide potential clinical application value. Phthalates have been widely found in human living environment and have negative effects on human reproduction. This study aimed to explore the relationship between urinary phthalate metabolites and serum AMH level in the general male population. Cross-sectional analyses were performed with a population of 489 men aged more than 12 years who participated in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003–2004 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the United States. NHANES public data (demographic and socioeconomic information, examinations, and laboratory tests were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test, Wilcoxon test and multivariable regression. Results showed that the urine concentration of mono (3-carboxypropyl phthalate (MCPP of 12–20 age group was significantly positively correlated with serum AMH concentration in the model without any covariates (p < 0.05. In the 60-year-old group, the monomethyl phthalate (MEP, mono (2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate (MECPP concentrations were significantly correlated with serum AMH concentrations in models both with and without covariates (all p < 0.05. It could be concluded that exposure to phthalates might have negative effects on AMH level, especially in seniors. AMH could be used as a marker of exposure to phthalates in aged males. How exposure to phthalates affected AMH level and what the potential long-term health consequences of their relationship are needs more investigation.

  12. Temporal changes in concentrations of lipids and apolipoprotein B among adults with diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes, prediabetes, and normoglycemia: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988–1991 to 2005–2008

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    Ford Earl S

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is characterized by profound lipid abnormalities. The objective of this study was to examine changes in concentrations of lipids and apolipoprotein B among participants stratified by glycemic status (diabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, prediabetes, and normoglycemia in the United States from 1988–1991 to 2005–2008. Methods We used data from 3202 participants aged ≥20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III (1988–1991 and 3949 participants aged ≥20 years from NHANES 2005–2008. Results Among participants of all four groups, unadjusted and adjusted mean concentrations of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B, but not triglycerides, decreased significantly. Among participants with prediabetes and normoglycemia, unadjusted and adjusted mean concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased significantly. Adjusted mean log-transformed concentrations of triglycerides decreased in adults with undiagnosed diabetes and prediabetes. During 2005–2008, unadjusted concentrations of apolipoprotein B ≥80 mg/dl were observed in 72.8% of participants with diagnosed diabetes, 87.9% of participants with undiagnosed diabetes, 86.6% of participants with prediabetes, and 77.2% of participants with normoglycemia. The unadjusted use of cholesterol-lowering medications rose rapidly, especially among participants with diabetes (from ~1% to ~49%, P Conclusion Lipid profiles of adults with diabetes improved during the approximately 16-year study period. Nevertheless, large percentages of adults continue to have elevated concentrations of apolipoprotein B.

  13. Workplace noise exposure and serum testosterone in men enrolled in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Dzhambov, Angel M

    2016-09-01

    There is compelling evidence from animal experiments that noise exposure suppresses testosterone in males by affecting the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis. Virtually nothing is known about its effect in humans. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the association between occupational noise exposure and serum testosterone in a representative sample of the general population. The sample has been taken from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data for the period between 1999 and 2004 and is limited to employed men aged 16-85+ years at the time. The associations between noise exposure (either established according to the Occupational Information Network - O*NET categories or self-reported) and total and free testosterone (TT and FT, respectively) were analysed using linear regression models with increasing adjustments. In the fully adjusted model (n=414), the third quartile of the O*NET noise exposure was associated with lower TT and FT, which reached statistically significant decrease of -58.32 ng dL-1 (95 % CI: -111.22, -5.42) and -1.58 ng dL-1 (95 % CI: -2.98, -0.18), respectively. In stratified analyses, younger, lower income, normal weight, better hearing, and workers not using hearing protection at work experienced significantly more severe adverse effects than the rest. The odds for hypogonadism (TTnoise exposure (OR=1.24, 95 % CI: 0.64, 2.39). Self-reported loud noise exposure did not significantly decrease TT when all men were considered (n=214) and only in the men ≥37 years did it decrease TT significantly by -87.55 ng dL-1 (95 % CI: -158.35, -16.74). In conclusion, noise exposure was associated with lower TT and FT only in some population subgroups and these associations were non-linear.

  14. Urine arsenic and hypertension in US adults: the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Jones, Miranda R; Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Sharrett, A Richey; Guallar, Eliseo; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2011-03-01

    High chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic may contribute to the development of hypertension. Limited information is available, however, on the association of low to moderate exposure to inorganic arsenic with blood pressure levels and hypertension. We investigated the association of exposure to inorganic arsenic (as measured in urine) with systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels and the prevalence of hypertension in US adults. We studied 4167 adults 20 years of age or older who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2003 through 2008 and for whom total arsenic, dimethylarsinate (DMA), and arsenobetaine had been assessed in urine. The median (interquartile range) urine concentrations were 8.3 μg/L (4.2-17.1) for total arsenic, 3.6 μg/L (2.0-6.0) for DMA, and 1.4 μg/L (0.3-6.3) for arsenobetaine. The weighted prevalence of hypertension in the study population was 36%. After multivariable adjustment, a 2-fold increase in total arsenic was associated with a hypertension odds ratio of 0.98 (95% confidence interval = 0.86-1.11). A doubling of total arsenic minus arsenobetaine was associated with a hypertension OR of 1.03 (0.94-1.14) and a doubling of DMA concentrations was associated with a hypertension OR of 1.11 (0.99-1.24). Total arsenic, total arsenic minus arsenobetaine, or DMA levels were not associated with systolic or diastolic blood pressure. At the low to moderate levels, typical of the US population, total arsenic, total arsenic minus arsenobetaine, and DMA concentrations in urine were not associated with the prevalence of hypertension or with systolic or diastolic blood pressure levels. A weak association of DMA with hypertension could not be ruled out.

  15. National trends in beverage consumption in children from birth to 5 years: analysis of NHANES across three decades.

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    Fulgoni, Victor L; Quann, Erin E

    2012-10-31

    Given the epidemic of childhood obesity, it is crucial to assess food and beverage intake trends. Beverages can provide a large number of calories and since consumption patterns seem to develop at a young age we examined beverage consumption trends over three decades. The objective of this study was to assess the beverage (milk, fruit juice, fruit drinks, tea, soy beverages, and soft drinks) consumption trends in children beverage consumption and associated calorie and nutrient intakes. During the NHANES 1976-1980 and 1988-1994 periods, approximately 84-85% of children were consuming milk, whereas only 77% were consuming milk during NHANES 2001-2006. Flavored milk intake was relatively low, but increased to 14% during the last decade (p beverage calorie contributor in all three decades surveyed and was the primary contributor of calcium (52-62%), phosphorus (37-42%), magnesium (27-28%), and potassium (32-37%). Fruit juice and fruit drinks each provided 8-10% of calories with soft drinks providing 5-6% of calories. Fruit juice was an important provider of potassium (16-19%) and magnesium (11%). Fruit drinks provided less than 5% of nutrients examined and soft drinks provided very little of the nutrients evaluated. Given concerns about childhood obesity and the need to meet nutrition requirements, it is prudent that parents, educators and child caretakers replace some of the nutrient poor beverages young children are currently consuming with more nutrient dense sources like low-fat and fat-free milk.

  16. Extreme value analyses of VOC exposures and risks: A comparison of RIOPA and NHANES datasets

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    Su, Feng-Chiao; Jia, Chunrong; Batterman, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Extreme value theory, which characterizes the behavior of tails of distributions, is potentially well-suited to model exposures and risks of pollutants. In this application, it emphasizes the highest exposures, particularly those that may be high enough to present acute or chronic health risks. The present study examines extreme value distributions of exposures and risks to volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Exposures of 15 different VOCs were measured in the Relationship between Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA) study, and ten of the same VOCs were measured in the nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Both studies used similar sampling methods and study periods. Using the highest 5 and 10% of measurements, generalized extreme value (GEV), Gumbel and lognormal distributions were fit to each VOC in these two large studies. Health risks were estimated for individual VOCs and three VOC mixtures. Simulated data that matched the three types of distributions were generated and compared to observations to evaluate goodness-of-fit. The tail behavior of exposures, which clearly neither fit normal nor lognormal distributions for most VOCs in RIOPA, was usually best fit by the 3-parameter GEV distribution, and often by the 2-parameter Gumbel distribution. In contrast, lognormal distributions significantly underestimated both the level and likelihood of extrema. Among the RIOPA VOCs, 1,4-dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB) caused the greatest risks, e.g., for the top 10% extrema, all individuals had risk levels above 10−4, and 13% of them exceeded 10−2. NHANES had considerably higher concentrations of all VOCs with two exceptions, methyl tertiary-butyl ether and 1,4-DCB. Differences between these studies can be explained by sampling design, staging, sample demographics, smoking and occupation. This analysis shows that extreme value distributions can represent peak exposures of VOCs, which clearly are neither normally nor

  17. Total blood mercury levels and depression among adults in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008.

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    Tsz Hin H Ng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mercury is a neurotoxicant linked with psychiatric symptoms at high levels of exposure. However, it is unclear whether an association is present at the low exposure levels in the US adult population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional associations of total blood mercury and depression were assessed in 6,911 adults age ≥20 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 2005-2008. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was used to assess depression (high likelihood of a depressive spectrum disorder diagnosis; score 5-27. RESULTS: Unadjusted survey weighted logistic regression suggested that higher total blood mercury was associated with lower odds of depression (Odds Ratio  = 0.49, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.36-0.65, comparing the highest and lowest mercury quintiles. This association largely disappeared after adjustment for sociodemographic variables (income-poverty ratio, education, marital status. However, in age-stratified analyses, this inverse relationship remained in older adults (age ≥40 even after adjustment for sociodemographic variables. Simulation analyses adjusting for expected confounding effects of fish intake suggested that the inverse relationship among older adults may be plausibly attributed to residual confounding (Odds Ratio  = 0.75, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.50-1.12, comparing the highest and lowest mercury quintiles. CONCLUSIONS: Higher total blood mercury was not associated with increased odds of depression. The lower odds of depression in older adults with higher total blood mercury may be due to residual confounding.

  18. Genetic variants associated with fasting blood lipids in the U.S. population: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Chang, Man-huei; Yesupriya, Ajay; Ned, Renée M; Mueller, Patricia W; Dowling, Nicole F

    2010-04-20

    The identification of genetic variants related to blood lipid levels within a large, population-based and nationally representative study might lead to a better understanding of the genetic contribution to serum lipid levels in the major race/ethnic groups in the U.S. population. Using data from the second phase (1991-1994) of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), we examined associations between 22 polymorphisms in 13 candidate genes and four serum lipids: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerides (TG). Univariate and multivariable linear regression and within-gene haplotype trend regression were used to test for genetic associations assuming an additive mode of inheritance for each of the three major race/ethnic groups in the United States (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American). Variants within APOE (rs7412, rs429358), PON1 (rs854560), ITGB3 (rs5918), and NOS3 (rs2070744) were found to be associated with one or more blood lipids in at least one race/ethnic group in crude and adjusted analyses. In non-Hispanic whites, no individual polymorphisms were associated with any lipid trait. However, the PON1 A-G haplotype was significantly associated with LDL-C and TC. In non-Hispanic blacks, APOE variant rs7412 and haplotype T-T were strongly associated with LDL-C and TC; whereas, rs5918 of ITGB3 was significantly associated with TG. Several variants and haplotypes of three genes were significantly related to lipids in Mexican Americans: PON1 in relation to HDL-C; APOE and NOS3 in relation to LDL-C; and APOE in relation to TC. We report the significant associations of blood lipids with variants and haplotypes in APOE, ITGB3, NOS3, and PON1 in the three main race/ethnic groups in the U.S. population using a large, nationally representative and population-based sample survey. Results from our study contribute to a growing

  19. Iron status and reproduction in US women: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2006.

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    Elizabeth M Miller

    Full Text Available Women experience significant changes in iron status throughout their reproductive lifespans. While this is evident in regions with high rates of malnutrition and infectious disease, the extent of reproductive-related changes is less well known in countries with low rates of iron deficiency anemia, such as the United States. The goal of this study is determine the relationship between women's reproductive variables (pregnancy, parity, currently breastfeeding, regular menstruation, hormonal contraceptive use, and age at menarche and iron status (hemoglobin, ferritin, transferrin receptor, and % transferrin saturation using an anthropological framework for interpreting the results. Data from women aged 18-49 were taken from the 1999-2006 US NHANES, a nationally representative cross-sectional sample of US women. Using multiple imputation and complex survey statistics, women's reproductive variables were regressed against indicators of iron status. Pregnant women had significantly poorer iron status, by most indicators, than non-pregnant women. All biomarkers demonstrated significantly lower iron levels with increasing parity. Women who were having regular periods had iron indicators that suggested decreased iron levels, while women who used hormonal contraceptives had iron indicators that suggested increased iron levels. Despite relatively good iron status and widespread availability of iron-rich foods in the US, women still exhibit patterns of iron depletion across several reproductive variables of interest. These results contribute to an ecological approach to iron status that seeks to understand variation in iron status, with the hopes that appropriate, population-specific recommendations can be developed to improve women's health.

  20. Whole grains contribute a small proportion of dietary fiber to the U.S. diet: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2010

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    The United States (U.S.) food supply offers a variety of foods that are considered “whole grain” foods and consumption of whole grains is recommended to be 50% of all grains consumed. Whole grain intake prevents a number of chronic diseases; however, the specific component of whole grains that prot...

  1. Anthropometrically-predicted visceral adipose tissue and mortality among men and women in the third national health and nutrition examination survey (NHANES III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin C; Harhay, Michael O; Harhay, Meera N

    2017-01-01

    This study seeks to quantify the relationship between anthropometrically-predicted visceral adipose tissue (apVAT) and all-cause and cause-specific mortality among individuals of European descent in a population-based prospective cohort study of 10,624 participants. The apVAT with a validated regression equation that included age, body mass index, and waist and thigh circumferences were predicted. During a median of 18.8 years, 3531 participants died with 1153 and 741 deaths attributable to cardiovascular disease and cancer, respectively. In multivariable-adjusted analyses that accounted for demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics, higher apVAT was associated with an increased risk of all-cause (Ptrend  cardiovascular-specific (Ptrend  effect estimates. apVAT more accurately predicted all-cause, cardiovascular-specific, and cancer-specific mortality than body mass index (P < .001), waist circumference (P < .001), or the combination of body mass index and waist circumference (P < .001). These data provide evidence that apVAT is associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a large population-based sample of men and women of European descent. These results support the use of apVAT to risk-stratify individuals for premature mortality when imaging data are not available such as in routine clinical practice or in large clinical trials. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Association of urinary bisphenol a concentration with heart disease: evidence from NHANES 2003/06.

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    David Melzer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA is a high production volume chemical widely used in food and drinks packaging. Associations have previously been reported between urinary BPA concentrations and heart disease, diabetes and liver enzymes in adult participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003/04. We aimed to estimate associations between urinary BPA concentrations and health measures in NHANES 2005/06 and in data pooled across collection years. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional analysis of NHANES: subjects were n = 1455 (2003/04 and n = 1493 (2005/06 adults aged 18-74 years, representative of the general adult population of the United States. Regression models were adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, income, smoking, BMI, waist circumference, and urinary creatinine concentration. Main outcomes were reported diagnoses of heart attack, coronary heart disease, angina and diabetes and serum liver enzyme levels. Urinary BPA concentrations in 2005/06 (geometric mean 1.79 ng/ml, 95% CI: 1.64 to 1.96 were lower than in 2003/04 (2.49 ng/ml, CI: 2.20 to 2.83, difference p-value = 0.00002. Higher BPA concentrations were associated with coronary heart disease in 2005/06 (OR per z-score increase in BPA = 1.33, 95%CI: 1.01 to 1.75, p = 0.043 and in pooled data (OR = 1.42, CI: 1.17 to 1.72, p = 0.001. Associations with diabetes did not reach significance in 2005/06, but pooled estimates remained significant (OR = 1.24, CI: 1.10 to 1.40, p = 0.001. There was no overall association with gamma glutamyl transferase concentrations, but pooled associations with alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase remained significant. CONCLUSIONS: Higher BPA exposure, reflected in higher urinary concentrations of BPA, is consistently associated with reported heart disease in the general adult population of the USA. Studies to clarify the mechanisms of these associations are urgently needed.

  3. Associations between urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites and serum testosterone in U.S. adult males: National Health and nutrition examination survey 2011-2012.

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    Wang, Lingling; Hu, Weiyue; Xia, Yankai; Wang, Xinru

    2017-03-01

    Effects of environmental chemicals on human reproductive health and sex hormone levels have been reported for several years, but compared to other environmental chemicals, such as heavy metals, PCBs, triclosan, Phthalate, the links between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and sex hormone levels have not been studied widely. Therefore, our purpose of research was to study the associations between urinary PAH metabolites and serum total testosterone (T) levels among men. The data was obtained from the independent cross-section wave (2011-2012) of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), including demographic, socioeconomic, dietary, health-related questions, examinations and laboratory test. All analyses were performed by R software (version 3.2.3), including one-way analysis of variance, multivariable linear regression, stratified analysis and heterogeneity test. Of 1102 American adults aged 20 and above included in the statistical analysis, we found that urinary 3-hydroxyfluorene and 2-hydroxyfluorene were significantly positively associated with serum T levels (β = 40.62, 95%CI = 21.78-59.46, P = 2.56 × 10(-5); β = 35.17, 95%CI = 13.18-57.15, P = 1.75 × 10(-3), respectively). The associations between urinary PAH metabolites and serum T levels signified a major public health problem over the world. Prospective work is needed to investigate the potential long-term health consequences of these findings.

  4. Change in Hepatitis A Seroprevalence among U.S. Children and Adolescents: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006 and 2007–2010

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    Geraldine M. McQuillan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To examine changes in seroprevalence of antibodies to hepatitis A virus (HAV during a period in which universal vaccine recommendations for all U.S. children were implemented, results from serologic testing from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES from 2003–2010 were analyzed among 7,989 participants age 6–19 years, born in the U.S. in two birth cohorts (1986–1996 and 1997–2004. Overall prevalence increased over time from 24.4% in 2003–2006 to the highest ever reported (37.6% in 2007–2010. Specifically, increases reached statistical significance in the birth cohort born in the years after implementation of vaccine recommendations (1997–2004, among those of race/ethnicity other than white, non-Hispanic, and among states where recommendations were implemented later. The greatest increase over time was among the subgroup of persons in states with early implementation who were of race/ethnicity other than white, non-Hispanic. Geographic region and birth cohort based on vaccine recommendations as well as race/ethnicity were the main predictors of seropositivity in 2007–2010. The increase in Hepatitis A seroprevalence occurred during a time of decreasing incidence and increasing vaccination, however race/ethnic disparities persist.

  5. Biomarkers of exposure to molybdenum and other metals in relation to testosterone among men from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2012.

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    Lewis, Ryan C; Meeker, John D

    2015-01-01

    To examine the potential associations between biomarkers of metal exposure and serum testosterone in men of reproductive age in the general US population. Cross-sectional epidemiology study with adjustment for potential confounders. Not applicable. Men recruited in the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Metal concentrations measured in whole blood, urine, and/or serum samples collected from 484 men. Serum T concentration. Concentrations of the metals were detected in 69%-100% of the samples. In adjusted analyses where metals were modeled as a continuous variable, we found significant inverse associations between urinary molybdenum and serum copper and serum T, whereas there were significant positive associations between blood lead and cadmium and serum T. When metals were categorized into quartiles, analyses for serum copper and blood lead and cadmium produced significant associations in the same direction as the continuous measures. A suggestive inverse association was observed between quartiles of urinary molybdenum and serum T, but the association was statistically significant when molybdenum was categorized into quintiles. Significant positive associations were also observed for quartiles of blood Se and serum Zn and serum T. These findings add to the limited human evidence that exposure to molybdenum and other metals is associated with altered T in men, which may have important implications for male health. More research is needed to confirm the findings of our study. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Diet Quality Associated with Total Sodium Intake among US Adults Aged ≥18 Years—National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2012

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    Carla I. Mercado

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Diet quality or macronutrient composition of total daily sodium intake (dNa <2300 mg/day in the United States (US is unknown. Using data from 2011–2014 NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we examined 24-h dietary recalls (n = 10,142 from adults aged ≥18 years and investigated how diet composition and quality are associated with dNa. Diet quality was assessed using components of macronutrients and Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010. Associations were tested using linear regression analysis adjusted for total energy (kcal, age, gender, and race/ethnicity. One-day dNa in the lower quartiles were more likely reported among women, older adults (≥65 years old, and lower quartiles of total energy (kcal (p-values ≤ 0.001. With increasing dNa, there was an increase in the mean protein, fiber, and total fat densities, while total carbohydrates densities decreased. As dNa increased, meat protein, refined grains, dairy, and total vegetables, greens and beans densities increased; while total fruit and whole fruit densities decreased. Modified HEI-2010 total score (total score without sodium component increased as dNa increased (adjusted coefficient: 0.11, 95% confidence interval = 0.07, 0.15. Although diet quality, based on modified HEI-2010 total score, increased on days with greater dNa, there is much room for improvement with mean diet quality of about half of the optimal level.

  7. Geographic variation in stroke risk in the United States. Region, urbanization, and hypertension in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Obisesan, T O; Vargas, C M; Gillum, R F

    2000-01-01

    In the United States, stroke mortality is higher in the south than in other regions. Hypertension is the main risk factor for stroke among older adults; however, few studies have examined group-specific regional and urbanization differences in hypertension prevalence. Data from the Third National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988 to 1994, were analyzed to calculate the prevalence of hypertension (systolic >140 mm Hg and/or diastolic >90 mm Hg and/or taking antihypertensive medication) by region and urbanization for age (40 to 59 and 60 to 79 years), sex, and ethnic subgroups. Logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the association of hypertension with region and urbanization. With age and urbanization kept constant, southern residence was associated with hypertension among middle-aged non-Hispanic white men (odds ratio [OR], 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12 to 1.90; Purbanization (P=0.01), with a higher prevalence in the south only for nonmetropolitan residents (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.56; Purbanization or region in the other subgroups. Southern residence was associated with increased hypertension prevalence among middle-aged non-Hispanic white men, non-Hispanic black men and women, and older non-Hispanic white men.

  8. Trends of VOC exposures among a nationally representative sample: Analysis of the NHANES 1988 through 2004 data sets.

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    Su, Feng-Chiao; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Batterman, Stuart

    2011-09-01

    Exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are ubiquitous due to emissions from personal, commercial and industrial products, but quantitative and representative information regarding long term exposure trends is lacking. This study characterizes trends from1988 to 2004 for the 15 VOCs measured in blood in five cohorts of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a large and representative sample of U.S. adults. Trends were evaluated at various percentiles using linear quantile regression (QR) models, which were adjusted for solvent-related occupations and cotinine levels. Most VOCs showed decreasing trends at all quantiles, e.g., median exposures declined by 2.5 (m, p-xylene) to 6.4 (tetrachloroethene) percent per year over the 15 year period. Trends varied by VOC and quantile, and were grouped into three patterns: similar decreases at all quantiles (including benzene, toluene); most rapid decreases at upper quantiles (ethylbenzene, m, p-xylene, o-xylene, styrene, chloroform, tetrachloroethene); and fastest declines at central quantiles (1,4-dichlorobenzene). These patterns reflect changes in exposure sources, e.g., upper-percentile exposures may result mostly from occupational exposure, while lower percentile exposures arise from general environmental sources. Both VOC emissions aggregated at the national level and VOC concentrations measured in ambient air also have declined substantially over the study period and are supportive of the exposure trends, although the NHANES data suggest the importance of indoor sources and personal activities on VOC exposures. While piecewise QR models suggest that exposures of several VOCs decreased little or any during the 1990's, followed by more rapid decreases from 1999 to 2004, questions are raised concerning the reliability of VOC data in several of the NHANES cohorts and its applicability as an exposure indicator, as demonstrated by the modest correlation between VOC levels in blood and personal

  9. Association between periodontitis and mortality in stages 3-5 chronic kidney disease: NHANES III and linked mortality study.

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    Sharma, Praveen; Dietrich, Thomas; Ferro, Charles J; Cockwell, Paul; Chapple, Iain L C

    2016-02-01

    Periodontitis may add to the systemic inflammatory burden in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD), thereby contributing to an increased mortality rate. This study aimed to determine the association between periodontitis and mortality rate (all-cause and cardiovascular disease-related) in individuals with stage 3-5 CKD, hitherto referred to as "CKD". Survival analysis was carried out using the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) and linked mortality data. Cox proportional hazards regression was employed to assess the association between periodontitis and mortality, in individuals with CKD. This association was compared with the association between mortality and traditional risk factors in CKD mortality (diabetes, hypertension and smoking). Of the 13,784 participants eligible for analysis in NHANES III, 861 (6%) had CKD. The median follow-up for this cohort was 14.3 years. Adjusting for confounders, the 10-year all-cause mortality rate for individuals with CKD increased from 32% (95% CI: 29-35%) to 41% (36-47%) with the addition of periodontitis. For diabetes, the 10-year all-cause mortality rate increased to 43% (38-49%). There is a strong, association between periodontitis and increased mortality in individuals with CKD. Sources of chronic systemic inflammation (including periodontitis) may be important contributors to mortality in patients with CKD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients among Adults in the US: NHANES 2003–2006

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    Theresa A. Nicklas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Identification of current food sources of energy and nutrients among US adults is needed to help with public health efforts to implement feasible and appropriate dietary recommendations. To determine the food sources of energy and 26 nutrients consumed by US adults the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 24-h recall (Day 1 dietary intake data from a nationally representative sample of adults 19+ years of age (y (n = 9490 were analyzed. An updated USDA Dietary Source Nutrient Database was developed for NHANES 2003–2006 using current food composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from food sources were sample-weighted. Percentages of total dietary intake contributed from food sources were ranked. The highest ranked sources of energy and nutrients among adults more than 19 years old were: energy — yeast bread/rolls (7.2% and cake/cookies/quick bread/pastry/pie (7.2%; protein—poultry (14.4% and beef (14.0%; total fat — other fats and oils (9.8%; saturated fatty acids — cheese (16.5% and beef (9.1%; carbohydrate — soft drinks/soda (11.4% and yeast breads/rolls (10.9%; dietary fiber — yeast breads/rolls (10.9% and fruit (10.2%; calcium — milk (22.5% and cheese (21.6%; vitamin D — milk (45.1% and fish/shellfish (14.4%; and potassium — milk (9.6% and coffee/tea/other non-alcoholic beverages (8.4%. Knowledge of primary food sources of energy and nutrients can help health professionals design effective strategies to reduce excess energy consumed by US adults and increase the nutrient adequacy of their diets.

  11. Update on Prevalence of Periodontitis in Adults in the United States: NHANES 2009 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, Paul I; Dye, Bruce A; Wei, Liang; Slade, Gary D; Thornton-Evans, Gina O; Borgnakke, Wenche S; Taylor, George W; Page, Roy C; Beck, James D; Genco, Robert J

    2015-05-01

    This report describes prevalence, severity, and extent of periodontitis in the US adult population using combined data from the 2009 to 2010 and 2011 to 2012 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Estimates were derived for dentate adults, aged ≥30 years, from the US civilian non-institutionalized population. Periodontitis was defined by combinations of clinical attachment loss (AL) and periodontal probing depth (PD) from six sites per tooth on all teeth, except third molars, using standard surveillance case definitions. For the first time in NHANES history, sufficient numbers of non-Hispanic Asians were sampled in 2011 to 2012 to provide reliable estimates of their periodontitis prevalence. In 2009 to 2012, 46% of US adults, representing 64.7 million people, had periodontitis, with 8.9% having severe periodontitis. Overall, 3.8% of all periodontal sites (10.6% of all teeth) had PD ≥4 mm, and 19.3% of sites (37.4% teeth) had AL ≥3 mm. Periodontitis prevalence was positively associated with increasing age and was higher among males. Periodontitis prevalence was highest in Hispanics (63.5%) and non-Hispanic blacks (59.1%), followed by non-Hispanic Asian Americans (50.0%), and lowest in non-Hispanic whites (40.8%). Prevalence varied two-fold between the lowest and highest levels of socioeconomic status, whether defined by poverty or education. This study confirms a high prevalence of periodontitis in US adults aged ≥30 years, with almost fifty-percent affected. The prevalence was greater in non-Hispanic Asians than non-Hispanic whites, although lower than other minorities. The distribution provides valuable information for population-based action to prevent or manage periodontitis in US adults.

  12. Calcium intake and serum concentration in relation to risk of cardiovascular death in NHANES III.

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    Mieke Van Hemelrijck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence for an association between calcium intake and risk of cardiovascular death remains controversial. By assessing dietary intake, use of supplements, and serum levels of calcium, we aimed to disentangle this link in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III. METHODS: Mortality linkage of NHANES III to death certificate data for those aged 17 years or older (n = 20,024 was used to estimate risk of overall cardiovascular death as well as death from ischemic heart disease (IHD, acute myocardial infarction (AMI, heart failure (HF, and cerebrovascular disease (CD with multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. RESULTS: About 10.0% of the population died of cardiovascular disease and the majority (5.4% died of IHD. There was increased risk of overall CVD death for those in the bottom 5% of serum calcium compared to those in the mid 90% (HR: 1.51 (95% CI: 1.03-2.22. For women there was a statistically significant increased risk of IHD death for those with serum calcium levels in the top 5% compared to those in the mid 90% (HR: 1.72 (95%CI: 1.13-2.61, whereas in men, low serum calcium was related to increased IHD mortality (HR: 2.32 (95% CI 1.14-3.01, Pinteraction: 0.306. No clear association with CVD death was observed for dietary or supplemental calcium intake. CONCLUSIONS: Calcium as assessed by serum concentrations is involved in cardiovascular health, though differential effects by sex may exist. No clear evidence was found for an association between dietary or supplementary intake of calcium and cardiovascular death.

  13. Food sources of energy and nutrients among adults in the US: NHANES 2003–2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Carol E; Keast, Debra R; Fulgoni, Victor L; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2012-12-19

    Identification of current food sources of energy and nutrients among US adults is needed to help with public health efforts to implement feasible and appropriate dietary recommendations. To determine the food sources of energy and 26 nutrients consumed by US adults the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 24-h recall (Day 1) dietary intake data from a nationally representative sample of adults 19+ years of age (y) (n = 9490) were analyzed. An updated USDA Dietary Source Nutrient Database was developed for NHANES 2003-2006 using current food composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from food sources were sample-weighted. Percentages of total dietary intake contributed from food sources were ranked. The highest ranked sources of energy and nutrients among adults more than 19 years old were: energy - yeast bread/rolls (7.2%) and cake/cookies/quick bread/pastry/pie (7.2%); protein-poultry (14.4%) and beef (14.0%); total fat - other fats and oils (9.8%); saturated fatty acids - cheese (16.5%) and beef (9.1%); carbohydrate - soft drinks/soda (11.4%) and yeast breads/rolls (10.9%); dietary fiber - yeast breads/rolls (10.9%) and fruit (10.2%); calcium - milk (22.5%) and cheese (21.6%); vitamin D - milk (45.1%) and fish/shellfish (14.4%); and potassium - milk (9.6%) and coffee/tea/other non-alcoholic beverages (8.4%). Knowledge of primary food sources of energy and nutrients can help health professionals design effective strategies to reduce excess energy consumed by US adults and increase the nutrient adequacy of their diets.

  14. Associations Between Sex Hormone Levels and Periodontitis in Men: Results From NHANES III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Joao Paulo; Wang, Xiaoshan; Starr, Jacqueline R; Spolidorio, Luis Carlos; Van Dyke, Thomas E; Kantarci, Alpdogan

    2015-10-01

    Sex hormones are linked to inflammation and bone turnover. The goal of this study is to explore the association between sex hormone levels and periodontitis in men using data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Data from 755 men (aged ≥ 30 years), including serum levels of testosterone, estradiol, sex hormone binding globulin, and androstenediol glucuronide, were analyzed. Calculated bioavailable testosterone (CBT) and estradiol-to-testosterone ratio were calculated. Periodontitis was defined using the latest classification of extent and severity of periodontitis for NHANES data (≥ 2 interproximal sites with ≥ 3 mm attachment loss, ≥ 2 interproximal sites with probing depth [PD] ≥ 4 mm not on the same tooth, or one site with PD ≥ 5 mm). Sex hormones were evaluated as categorized and continuous variables. Correlations between the presence and severity of periodontitis and levels of sex hormones were determined and expressed as odds ratios (ORs). When adjusted for confounding factors, high total testosterone (TT) and CBT levels correlated with both the prevalence (OR [95% confidence interval (CI)], 2.1 [1 to 4.5] and 3.9 [1 to 14.8], respectively) and severity (OR [95% CI], 2.1 [1 to 4.3] and 3.4 [1.2 to 9.8]) of periodontitis. When continuous variables were used, the ORs (95% CIs) for presence and severity of periodontitis were 1.4 (0.6 to 3.3) and 1.5 (0.6 to 3.6) for TT and 1.3 (0.9 to 1.9) and 1.3 (0.9 to 1.8) for CBT, respectively. These findings are consistent with the existence of an association of periodontitis with sex hormone levels, especially testosterone, in men.

  15. Severe Headache or Migraine History Is Inversely Correlated With Dietary Sodium Intake: NHANES 1999–2004

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    Pogoda, Janice M.; Gross, Noah B.; Arakaki, Xianghong; Fonteh, Alfred N.; Cowan, Robert P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We investigated whether dietary sodium intake from respondents of a national cross‐sectional nutritional study differed by history of migraine or severe headaches. Background Several lines of evidence support a disruption of sodium homeostasis in migraine. Design Our analysis population was 8819 adults in the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with reliable data on diet and headache history. We classified respondents who reported a history of migraine or severe headaches as having probable history of migraine. To reduce the diagnostic conflict from medication overuse headache, we excluded respondents who reported taking analgesic medications. Dietary sodium intake was measured using validated estimates of self‐reported total grams of daily sodium consumption and was analyzed as the residual value from the linear regression of total grams of sodium on total calories. Multivariable logistic regression that accounted for the stratified, multistage probability cluster sampling design of NHANES was used to analyze the relationship between migraine and dietary sodium. Results Odds of probable migraine history decreased with increasing dietary sodium intake (odds ratio = 0.93, 95% confidence interval = 0.87, 1.00, P = .0455). This relationship was maintained after adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) with slightly reduced significance (P = .0505). In women, this inverse relationship was limited to those with lower BMI (P = .007), while in men the relationship did not differ by BMI. We likely excluded some migraineurs by omitting frequent analgesic users; however, a sensitivity analysis suggested little effect from this exclusion. Conclusions This study is the first evidence of an inverse relationship between migraine and dietary sodium intake. These results are consistent with altered sodium homeostasis in migraine and our hypothesis that dietary sodium may affect brain extracellular fluid

  16. Severe Headache or Migraine History is Inversely Correlated With Dietary Sodium Intake: NHANES 1999-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogoda, Janice M; Gross, Noah B; Arakaki, Xianghong; Fonteh, Alfred N; Cowan, Robert P; Harrington, Michael G

    2016-04-01

    We investigated whether dietary sodium intake from respondents of a national cross-sectional nutritional study differed by history of migraine or severe headaches. Several lines of evidence support a disruption of sodium homeostasis in migraine. Our analysis population was 8819 adults in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with reliable data on diet and headache history. We classified respondents who reported a history of migraine or severe headaches as having probable history of migraine. To reduce the diagnostic conflict from medication overuse headache, we excluded respondents who reported taking analgesic medications. Dietary sodium intake was measured using validated estimates of self-reported total grams of daily sodium consumption and was analyzed as the residual value from the linear regression of total grams of sodium on total calories. Multivariable logistic regression that accounted for the stratified, multistage probability cluster sampling design of NHANES was used to analyze the relationship between migraine and dietary sodium. Odds of probable migraine history decreased with increasing dietary sodium intake (odds ratio = 0.93, 95% confidence interval = 0.87, 1.00, P = .0455). This relationship was maintained after adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) with slightly reduced significance (P = .0505). In women, this inverse relationship was limited to those with lower BMI (P = .007), while in men the relationship did not differ by BMI. We likely excluded some migraineurs by omitting frequent analgesic users; however, a sensitivity analysis suggested little effect from this exclusion. This study is the first evidence of an inverse relationship between migraine and dietary sodium intake. These results are consistent with altered sodium homeostasis in migraine and our hypothesis that dietary sodium may affect brain extracellular fluid sodium concentrations and neuronal excitability.

  17. Association between HSV1 seropositivity and obesity: data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, 2007-2008.

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    Zuzana Karjala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus (HSV is among the most common sexually transmitted pathogens in the United States and worldwide. HSV has a high incidence of undetected cases. In addition, there is no treatment, and there is a lack of knowledge why disparities among populations exist. Research studies suggest that fat tissue may participate in body's immune responses, and the impact of obesity on susceptibility to HSV1 infection is not clear. The purpose of this study was to examine whether obesity is a risk factor for HSV1 infection using a large sample from the general population. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This cross-sectional study used data from the National Health and Examination and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES from 2007-2008. Variables, gender, age, race/ethnicity, marital status, education, poverty level, and diabetes represented potential confounders and were included in analyses. The two-tailed Pearson's chi square, student's t test, and a multiple logistic regression analysis were applied to evaluate associations using a significance value of p≤0.05. Adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence interval represented the degree of these associations. The prevalence of HSV1 infection in US population between 20 and 49 years old was 60.3% (n = 1,536. In this study, having a BMI classified as the obese group (BMI 30-39.9 was significantly associated with HSV1 infection before [unadjusted OR = 1.74 (95% CI 1.20-2.51, p = 0.006] and after controlling for socio-demographic factors [adjusted OR = 1.50 (95%CI 1.06-2.13], p = 0.026]. This association was stronger than three already established risk factors of age, female gender, and poverty level. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides evidence that obesity may play a role in the susceptibility to HSV1 infection. Findings from this study suggest that obesity should be considered when designing preventive measures for HSV1 infection. These results may also

  18. Added Sugar Intake among Pregnant Women in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioffi, Catherine E; Figueroa, Janet; Welsh, Jean A

    2018-01-09

    Despite associations of dietary added sugar with excess weight gain and chronic disease risk, intake among most Americans exceeds the recommended limits (<10% total energy). Maternal diet plays an important role in pregnancy-related outcomes, but little is known about the extent of added sugar intake during pregnancy. To assess intake and identify the top sources of added sugars in the diets of pregnant vs nonpregnant women in the United States. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003-2004 to 2011-2012. Four thousand one hundred seventy-nine pregnant and nonpregnant women (aged 20 to 39 years) who completed a dietary recall. Survey-weighted analyses were used to estimate means (95% CIs) in total grams and as percentage of total energy for added sugar intake by pregnancy status and by demographic subgroup and to identify leading sources of added sugar. Added sugar intake trended toward being higher in pregnant compared with nonpregnant women in absolute grams, 85.1 g (95% CI: 77.4 to 92.7) vs 76.7 g (95% CI: 73.6 to 79.9), respectively (P=0.06), but was lower among pregnant women when total energy intake was accounted for, 14.8% (95% CI: 13.8 to 15.7) vs 15.9% (95% CI: 15.2 to 16.6) of total energy, respectively (P=0.03). Among pregnant women, added sugar intake was similar among demographic subgroups. However, in multivariable regression, pregnancy status significantly modified the associations of education and income with added sugar intake, whereby less educated and lower-income women who were pregnant had lower added sugar intakes compared with those who were not pregnant, but more educated or higher-income women did not exhibit this pattern. The top five sources of added sugar for all women were sugar-sweetened beverages; cakes, cookies, and pastries; sugars and sweets; juice drinks and smoothies; and milk-based desserts. Although pregnant women had higher energy intakes, this was not attributed

  19. Hair Mercury Levels in U.S. Children and Women of Childbearing Age: Reference Range Data from NHANES 1999–2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Margaret A.; Dillon, Charles F.; Osterloh, John; Bolger, P. Michael; Pellizzari, Edo; Fernando, Reshan; de Oca, Ruben Montes; Schober, Susan E.; Sinks, Thomas; Jones, Robert L.; Mahaffey, Kathryn R.

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to methyl mercury, a risk factor for neurodevelopmental toxicity, was assessed in U.S. children 1–5 years of age (n = 838) and women 16–49 years of age (n = 1,726) using hair mercury analysis during the 1999–2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The data are nationally representative and are based on analysis of cross-sectional data for the non-institutionalized, U.S. household population. The survey consisted of interviews conducted in participants’ homes and standardized health examinations conducted in mobile examination centers. Distributions of total hair mercury levels expressed as micrograms per gram hair Hg and the association of hair Hg levels with sociodemographic characteristics and fish consumption are reported. Geometric mean (standard error of the geometric mean) hair mercury was 0.12 μg/g (0.01 μg/g) in children, and 0.20 μg/g (0.02 μg/g) in women. Among frequent fish consumers, geometric mean hair mercury levels were 3-fold higher for women (0.38 vs. 0.11 μg/g) and 2-fold higher for children (0.16 vs. 0.08 μg/g) compared with nonconsumers. The NHANES 1999–2000 data provide population-based data on hair mercury concentrations for women and children in the United States. Hair mercury levels were associated with age and fish consumption frequency. PMID:15289161

  20. 46 CFR 115.600 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, and underwater survey intervals.

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    2010-10-01

    ... underwater remotely operated vehicle (ROV), the vessel must undergo one alternate hull and one internal..., and underwater surveys required by this section. (b) If your vessel is operated on international..., and underwater survey intervals. 115.600 Section 115.600 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  1. Hearing Impairment Associated With Depression in US Adults, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan-Ming; Zhang, Xinzhi; Hoffman, Howard J.; Cotch, Mary Frances; Themann, Christa L.; Wilson, M. Roy

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Depression among hearing impaired US adults has not been studied previously. OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of and risk factors for depression among adults with hearing loss. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Adults aged 18 years or older (N = 18 318) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2005–2010, a nationally representative sample. INTERVENTIONS Multistage probability sampling of US population. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Depression, assessed by the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) scale, and hearing impairment (HI), assessed by self-report and audiometric examination for adults aged 70 years or older. RESULTS The prevalence of moderate to severe depression (PHQ-9 score, ≥10) was 4.9% for individuals reporting excellent hearing, 7.1% for those with good hearing, and 11.4% for participants who reported a little trouble or greater HI. Using excellent hearing as the reference, after adjusting for all covariates, multivariate odds ratios (ORs) for depression were 1.4 (95% CI, 1.1–1.8) for good hearing, 1.7 (1.3–2.2) for a little trouble, 2.4 (1.7–3.2) for moderate trouble, 1.5 (0.9–2.6) for a lot of trouble, and 0.6 (0.1–2.6) for deaf. Moderate HI (defined by better ear pure-tone average of hearing thresholds at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz within the range 35- to 49-dB hearing level) was significantly associated with depression among older women (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.3–11.3), after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, lifestyle characteristics, and selected health conditions. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE After accounting for health conditions and other factors, including trouble seeing, self-reported HI and audiometrically determined HI were significantly associated with depression, particularly in women. Health care professionals should be aware of an increased risk for depression among adults with hearing loss. PMID:24604103

  2. Dyslipidemia and Food Security in Low-Income US Adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laraia, Barbara A.; Leung, Cindy W.; Mietus-Snyder, Michele L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Low levels of food security are associated with dyslipidemia and chronic disease in adults, particularly in women. There is a gap in knowledge about the relationship between food security among youth and dyslipidemia and chronic disease. We investigated the relationship between food security status and dyslipidemia among low-income adolescents. Methods We analyzed data from adolescents aged 12 to 18 years (N = 1,072) from households with incomes at or below 200% of the federal poverty level from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2010. We used logistic regression to examine the relationship between household food security status and the odds of having abnormalities with fasting total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), serum triglycerides (TGs), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), TG/HDL-C ratio, and apolipoprotein B (Apo B). Models included age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking status, partnered status in the household, and maternal education, with additional adjustment for adiposity. Results Household food security status was not associated with elevated TC or LDL-C. Adolescents with marginal food security were more likely than food-secure peers to have elevated TGs (odds ratio [OR] = 1.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14–3.05), TG/HDL-C ratio (OR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.11–2.82), and Apo B (OR = 1.98; 95% CI, 1.17–3.36). Female adolescents with marginal food security had greater odds than male adolescents of having low HDL-C (OR = 2.69; 95% CI, 1.14–6.37). No elevated odds of dyslipidemia were found for adolescents with low or very low food security. Adjustment for adiposity did not attenuate estimates. Conclusion In this nationally representative sample, low-income adolescents living in households with marginal food security had increased odds of having a pattern consistent with atherogenic dyslipidemia, which represents a cardiometabolic burden above their risk from adiposity

  3. A Qualitative Survey Examining the Moral Identities of Young Adults

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    Onat Kocabiyik, Oya; Kulaksizoglu, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Moral identity can orient one's behaviors when exhibiting any kind of moral behavior. In this study, the moral identities of young adults are analyzed to a certain extent. For this purpose, the "interpretative phenomenological pattern" and "grounded theory" models are used as qualitative survey models. The study group for…

  4. Physical activity among cancer survivors and those with no history of cancer- a report from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Webb A; Nolan, Vikki G; Robison, Leslie L; Hudson, Melissa M; Ness, Kirsten K

    2011-08-15

    Cancer survivors are at greater risk for chronic diseases that make regular physical activity a challenge. The purpose of this manuscript was to compare physical activity levels among five-year cancer survivors and those with no history of cancer, and to determine risk factors for physical inactivity. Participants who completed the physical activity monitoring portion of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 2003-04 and 2005-06 were included in these analyses. Physical activity collected via accelerometer was used to determine who completed recommended amounts of physical activity according to Centers for Disease Control (CDC) guidelines. Associations between physical activity and cancer status were evaluated with multiple logistic regressions. 95.5% of five-year cancer survivors and 87.3% of those with no cancer history did not meet the CDC guidelines. After adjusting for sex, age, race, education and chronic conditions, cancer survivors were 1.7 (95% CI: 1.0, 2.9) times more likely than those with no cancer history to fail to meet CDC guidelines for physical activity. Neither the general population nor cancer survivors met the CDC guidelines for physical activity. Cancer survivors were less likely to meet recommendations and may need tailored interventions designed to take into account comorbid conditions to increase their physical activity levels.

  5. Physical activity among cancer survivors and those with no history of cancer— a report from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Webb A; Nolan, Vikki G; Robison, Leslie L; Hudson, Melissa M; Ness, Kirsten K

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Cancer survivors are at greater risk for chronic diseases that make regular physical activity a challenge. The purpose of this manuscript was to compare physical activity levels among five-year cancer survivors and those with no history of cancer, and to determine risk factors for physical inactivity. Methods: Participants who completed the physical activity monitoring portion of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 2003-04 and 2005-06 were included in these analyses. Physical activity collected via accelerometer was used to determine who completed recommended amounts of physical activity according to Centers for Disease Control (CDC) guidelines. Associations between physical activity and cancer status were evaluated with multiple logistic regressions. Results: 95.5% of five-year cancer survivors and 87.3% of those with no cancer history did not meet the CDC guidelines. After adjusting for sex, age, race, education and chronic conditions, cancer survivors were 1.7 (95% CI: 1.0, 2.9) times more likely than those with no cancer history to fail to meet CDC guidelines for physical activity. Conclusions: Neither the general population nor cancer survivors met the CDC guidelines for physical activity. Cancer survivors were less likely to meet recommendations and may need tailored interventions designed to take into account comorbid conditions to increase their physical activity levels. PMID:21904654

  6. Association of Plasma Homocysteine with Self-Reported Sleep Apnea Is Confounded by Age: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

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    Tushar P. Thakre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High levels of plasma homocysteine are implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases especially if accompanied by sleep apnea, but a direct pathogenetic link between plasma homocysteine levels and obstructive sleep apnea is debatable. This association can have far-reaching public health implications considering the inverse association between folate and plasma homocysteine. We used data from the 2005-2006 cycle of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES to test the hypothesized associations. Of the 4490 subjects included in analysis, 177 reported sleep apnea. Age-standardized and design-effect-corrected prevalence rates were differential across gender, plasma homocysteine, and red cell folate status. Plasma homocysteine was positively correlated with age (r=0.38, P<0.0001. Multivariate analyses using sociodemographic and clinical covariates demonstrated that plasma homocysteine levels retained their respective associations with self-reported sleep apnea in all models except when age was included as a covariate. Our results demonstrate that the claimed association of plasma homocysteine with sleep apnea may be confounded by age.

  7. Associations between sleep disorders, sleep duration, quality of sleep, and hypertension: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansil, Pooja; Kuklina, Elena V; Merritt, Robert K; Yoon, Paula W

    2011-10-01

    Sleep is a contributing factor to optimal health and vitality. However, to date, no national study has evaluated the simultaneous relationship between sleep disorders, quality, and duration with hypertension. Using data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (2005 to 2008), hypertension was defined by current use of antihypertensive medication or systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg. Self-reported sleep disorders and duration were categorized from a single household interview question, and sleep quality was determined from several questions on sleeping habits. The prevalence of hypertension was 30.2% and 7.5%, and 33.0% and 52.1% reported having sleep disorders, short sleep, and poor sleep, respectively. After adjustment for demographic characteristics and comorbidities, having sleep disorders only was not significantly associated with hypertension (odds ratio [OR], 1.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73-3.77). However, this association was modified by sleep duration: significant associations were observed among adults with concurrent sleep disorders and short sleep (OR, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.49-3.56) and with sleep disorders, short sleep, and poor sleep (OR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.13-2.98). These findings indicate an association between a combination of sleep problems and hypertension, but prospective studies are needed to understand the complex interplay between them. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Longitudinal Associations of Leisure-Time Physical Activity and Cancer Mortality in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1986–2006

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    Niyati Parekh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal associations between leisure-time physical activity (LTPA and overall cancer mortality were evaluated within the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III; 1988–2006; n=15,535. Mortality status was ascertained using the National Death Index. Self-reported LTPA was divided into inactive, regular low-to-moderate and vigorous activity. A frequency-weighted metabolic equivalents (METS/week variable was also computed. Hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated for overall cancer mortality in the whole sample, by body mass index categories and insulin resistance (IR status. Nonsignificant protective associations were observed for regular low-to-moderate and vigorous activity, and for the highest quartile of METS/week (HRs range: 0.66–0.95. Individuals without IR engaging in regular vigorous activity had a 48% decreased risk of cancer mortality (HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.28–0.98 in multivariate analyses. Conversely, nonsignificant positive associations were observed in people with IR. In conclusion, regular vigorous activity may reduce risk of cancer mortality among persons with normal insulin-glucose metabolism in this national sample.

  9. National Survey on Justification of CT-examinations in Sweden

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    Almen, Anja; Leitz, Wolfram; Richter, Sven

    2009-02-15

    All examinations in diagnostic radiology shall be justified to avoid unnecessary irradiation of the patients. The objective of the study was to investigate the degree of justification for CT-examinations in Sweden. Referrals for all examinations performed during one day were retrospectively evaluated by a group of physicians. The study was designed and conducted by a project group lead by prof. Haakan Jorulf. The authors of this report have derived the results and conclusions on the basis of the data and are responsible for the content of this report. The principle result was that approximately 20 % of all examinations were not justified. The degree of justification varied strongly with organ examined, moderately with prescriber affiliation and weakly with geographical region. If unjustified examinations could be avoided a large dose reduction for the population would be achieved. This study shows that there is a need for improvements and the authority will continue to work with this issue

  10. Vision Test Validation Study for the Health Examination Survey Among Youths 12-17 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jean

    A validation study of the vision test battery used in the Health Examination Survey of 1966-1970 was conducted among 210 youths 12-17 years-old who had been part of the larger survey. The study was designed to discover the degree of correspondence between survey test results and clinical examination by an opthalmologist in determining the…

  11. Use of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to calculate the impact of obesity and diabetes on cost and prevalence of urolithiasis in 2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, Jodi A; Maalouf, Naim M; Pearle, Margaret S; Lotan, Yair

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of urolithiasis and its risk factors such as obesity and diabetes have increased over time. Determine the future cost and prevalence of kidney stones using current and projected estimates for stones, obesity, diabetes, and population rates. The stone prevalence in 2000 was estimated from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1988-1994 and 2007-2010. The cost per percentage prevalence of stones in 2000, calculated using Urologic Diseases in America Project data, was used to estimate the annual cost of stones in 2030, adjusting for inflation and increases in population, stone prevalence, obesity and diabetes rates. The primary outcome was prevalence and cost of stones in 2030. The secondary outcomes were the impact of obesity and diabetes on these values, calculated using odds ratios for stones by body mass index and diabetes status. The annual cost of stone disease in 2000, adjusted for inflation to 2014 US dollars, was approximately $2.81 billion. After accounting for increases in population and stone prevalence from 2000, the estimated cost of stones in 2007 in 2014 US dollars was $3.79 billion. Future population growth alone would increase the cost of stone disease by $780 million in 2030. Based on projected estimates for 2030, obesity will independently increase stone prevalence by 0.36%, with an annual cost increase of $157 million. Diabetes will independently increase stone prevalence by 0.72%, associated with a cost increase of $308 million annually by 2030. NHANES data, however, capture patient self-assessment rather than medical diagnosis, which is a potential bias. The rising prevalence of obesity and diabetes, together with population growth, is projected to contribute to dramatic increases in the cost of urolithiasis, with an additional $1.24 billion/yr estimated by 2030. Obesity, diabetes, and population rates will contribute to an estimated $1.24 billion/yr increase in the cost of kidney stones by 2030. Copyright

  12. Comparison of the Treatment Implications of American Society of Hypertension and International Society of Hypertension 2013 and Eighth Joint National Committee Guidelines: an analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Venkatesh L; Shah, Ravi V; Rubenfire, Melvyn; Brook, Robert D

    2014-08-01

    Multiple guidelines and statements related to hypertension have recently been published. Much discord has arisen from discrepant treatment and target systolic blood pressure thresholds for individuals aged 60 to 79 years of <150 mm Hg in the guideline published by members assigned to the Eighth Joint National Committee and <140 mm Hg in a statement by the American Society of Hypertension and International Society of Hypertension 2013. We sought to evaluate the public health implications of these differences using data from the 2005 to 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cycles. NHANES is an ongoing survey designed to allow characterization of the US population and subpopulations. We found that only .2.4% (95% confidence interval, 1.5.3.2%) of adults aged 60 to 79 years had indications for antihypertensive treatment under the more stringent American Society of Hypertension and International Society of Hypertension 2013 guideline but not under Eighth Joint National Committee. About 65.7% (95% confidence interval, 62.4.69.0%) of adults aged 60 to 79 years had indications for treatment under both guidelines. Furthermore, those with indications for treatment under American Society of Hypertension and International Society of Hypertension 2013 but not under Eighth Joint National Committee generally had higher systolic blood pressure and less favorable lipid profiles compared with those with indications for treatment under both guidelines. Importantly, a larger group, comprising 21.0% (95% confidence interval, 18.7.23.2%) of adults aged 60 to 79 years, had either untreated or inadequately treated hypertension and represents an important group for continued efforts.

  13. Exposure to DDT and diabetic nephropathy among Mexican Americans in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Charles J; Thompson, Olivia M; Dismuke, Clara E

    2017-03-01

    Concentrations of the pesticide DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and its metabolite DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene), in the blood of Mexican Americans, were evaluated to determine their relationships with diabetes and diabetic nephropathy. The data were derived from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004 (unweighted N = 1,411, population estimate = 13,760,609). The sample included teens, 12-19 years old, which accounted for 19.8% of the data. The time of the study overlapped the banning of DDT in Mexico in the year 2000, and those participants born in Mexico were exposed to DDT before they immigrated to the US. We sought to better understand the relationship of DDT with diabetes in a race/ethnicity group prone to develop diabetes and exposed to DDT. In this study, nephropathy was defined as urinary albumin to creatinine ratio >30 mg/g, representing microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria, and total diabetes was defined as diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes (glycohemoglobin, A1c ≥ 6.5%). The proportion with the isomer p,p'-DDT >0.086 ng/g (above the maximum limit of detection) was 13.3% for Mexican Americans born in the US, and 36.9% for those born in Mexico. Levels of p,p'-DDT >0.086 ng/g were associated with total diabetes with nephropathy (odds ratio = 4.42, 95% CI 2.23-8.76), and with total diabetes without nephropathy (odds ratio = 2.02, 95% CI 1.19-3.44). The third quartile of p,p'-DDE (2.99-7.67 ng/g) and the fourth quartile of p,p'-DDE (≥7.68 ng/g) were associated with diabetic nephropathy and had odds ratios of 5.32 (95% CI 1.05-26.87) and 14.95 (95% CI 2.96-75.48) compared to less than the median, respectively, whereas p,p'-DDE was not associated with total diabetes without nephropathy. The findings of this study differ from those of a prior investigation of the general adult US population in that there were more associations found with the Mexican Americans sample. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Sugary soda consumption and albuminuria: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Shoham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: End-stage renal disease rates rose following widespread introduction of high fructose corn syrup in the American diet, supporting speculation that fructose harms the kidney. Sugar-sweetened soda is a primary source of fructose. We therefore hypothesized that sugary soda consumption was associated with albuminuria, a sensitive marker for kidney disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Design was a cross-sectional analysis. Data were drawn from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 1999-2004. The setting was a representative United States population sample. Participants included adults 20 years and older with no history of diabetes mellitus (n = 12,601; after exclusions for missing outcome and covariate information (n = 3,243, the analysis dataset consisted of 9,358 subjects. Exposure was consumption of two or more sugary soft drinks, based on 24-hour dietary recall. The main outcome measure was Albuminuria, defined by albumin to creatinine ratio cutpoints of >17 mg/g (males and >25 mg/g (females. Logistic regression adjusted for confounders (diet soda, age, race-ethnicity, gender, poverty. Interactions between age, race-ethnicity, gender, and overweight-obesity were explored. Further analysis adjusted for potential mediators: energy intake, basal metabolic rate, obesity, hypertension, lipids, serum uric acid, smoking, energy expenditure, and glycohemoglobin. Alternative soda intake definitions and cola consumption were employed. RESULTS: Weighted albuminuria prevalence was 11%, and 17% consumed 2+ sugary soft drinks/day. The confounder-adjusted odds ratio for sugary soda was 1.40 (95% confidence interval: 1.13, 1.74. Associations were modified by gender (p = 0.008 and overweight-obesity (p = 0.014. Among women, the OR was 1.86 (95% CI: 1.37, 2.53; the OR among males was not significant. In the group with body mass under 25 kg/m(2, OR = 2.15 (95% confidence interval: 1.42, 3.25. Adjustment for potential

  15. Gender differences in the associations between urinary bisphenol A and body composition among American children: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: As an endocrine disruptor, bisphenol A (BPA exposure has been implicated as a potential risk factor in childhood obesity, which is defined using percentiles of body mass index for age. We aimed to examine the associations between BPA exposure, reflected by urinary BPA concentration, and body composition in American children. Methods: Data of 1860 children aged 8–19 years who participated in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES were analyzed in this study. Urinary BPA concentration (ng/mL was used to indicate BPA status in the body. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Multivariate linear regression models were fitted using survey procedures to investigate the associations between urinary BPA level and body composition separately for boys and girls. Results: After adjusting for demographic and lifestyle covariates, higher quartiled and log-transformed urinary BPA levels were significantly associated with elevated lean body mass index (LBMI z-scores in boys (p < 0.05, and significantly associated with elevated fat mass index (FMI z-scores in girls (p < 0.05. Lower urinary BPA concentration was associated with lower percentage of trunk fat in girls (compared to 1st quartile, 2nd-quartile: β = 2.85, 95% CI, 0.92–4.78; 3rd-quartile: β = 2.57, 95% CI, 0.28–4.85; 4th-quartile: β = 2.79, 95% CI, 0.44–5.14; all p < 0.05. Such patterns were not observed in boys. Conclusions: Higher BPA levels may be associated with elevated LBM in boys, but not in girls, while higher BPA levels may be associated with elevated FM in girls, but not in boys.

  16. Interrelations of socioeconomic position and occupational and leisure-time physical activity in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolin, Kathleen Y; Bennett, Gary G

    2008-03-01

    The interrelations between various physical activity domains have received little empirical attention in the United States. Of particular interest, given the potential applicability to traditionally underserved communities, is the nature of the association between occupational physical activity (OPA) and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). 5448 adult men and women who participated in NHANES 1999-2000 were included in analyses. Linear regression was used to examine the bivariate and multivariable associations of OPA and education with LTPA. Generalized logit models were used to examine the association of education with OPA. We found no association between education and LTPA. OPA was significantly positively associated with LTPA (P education and held only for men in gender-stratified analysis. Education was inversely associated with OPA (P class.

  17. The Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008 (DANHES 2007-2008)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Louise; Grønbæk, Morten; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2011-01-01

    The Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES 2007-2008) was carried out by the National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, in 13 Danish municipalities in 2007-2008. The focus of the survey was diet, smoking, alcohol, and physical activity. The aim of the survey...

  18. Sample Design and Estimation Procedures for a National Health Examination Survey of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, E. Earl; And Others

    This report presents considerations for sample design and estimation procedures for the Health Examination Survey, one of the major survey programs employed by the National Center for Health Statistics. The survey collects data which provide national estimates and distributions of various health characteristics related to the growth and…

  19. Dental sealants and restorations and urinary bisphenol A concentrations in children in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Christy; Rue, Tessa; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Martin, Michael; Seminario, Ana Lucia; DeRouen, Timothy

    2014-07-01

    Resin-based dental sealants and composites contain bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate, a bisphenol A (BPA) derivative. The authors hypothesized that a greater number of sealants or restorations would be associated with higher urinary BPA concentrations. The authors examined urinary BPA measurements (in nanograms per milliliter) and oral examination data for 1,001 children aged 6 to 19 years from data sets of the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). They categorized children according to number of occlusal sealants and number of restorations, with four categories in each of the two groups. They estimated associations by using unadjusted and adjusted tobit regression models. The lowest quartile of BPA concentrations ranged from 0.3 ng/mL to 1.9 ng/mL, whereas the highest quartile ranged from 7.3 ng/mL to 149 ng/mL. In adjusted analysis, children with seven to 16 sealants had geometric mean BPA concentrations 25 percent higher than those of children with no sealants (95 percent confidence interval [CI], -14 percent to 82 percent; P = .23). In adjusted analysis, children with seven to 42 restorations had geometric mean BPA concentrations 20 percent higher than those of children with no restorations (95 percent CI, -6 percent to 53 percent; P = .13). Neither of these adjusted estimates was statistically significant. Though the findings were in the direction hypothesized, the authors did not observe a statistically significant association between a greater number of sealants or restorations and higher urinary BPA concentrations. Additional studies are needed to determine the extent of oral and systemic exposure to BPA from resin-based dental restorative materials over time. Dentists should follow this issue carefully as it develops and as the body of evidence grows. There is insufficient evidence to change practice at this time.

  20. Trends in serum lipids and hypertension prevalence among non-pregnant reproductive-age women: United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laz, Tabassum H; Rahman, Mahbubur; Berenson, Abbey B

    2013-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death among reproductive-age women. In this study, we examine trends in the prevalence of dyslipidemia, hypertension, and related clinicians' advice among reproductive-age women. We conducted trend analysis of these factors among non-pregnant women aged 20-49 years (n = 5,768) using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data obtained between 1999 and 2008. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression analyses were used to examine linear trends over a 10-year period after adjusting for covariates. A downward trend was observed for the proportion of women with abnormal levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL; P = 0.038) and high density lipoprotein (HDL; P = 0.008) cholesterol from 1999 to 2008. In contrast, no significant changes were observed in the prevalence of abnormal total cholesterol (P = 0.948) and triglyceride levels (P = 0.300), or hypertension (P = 0.632). Based on the self-reported data, upward trends were observed in the rates of cholesterol checking (P = 0.002), high cholesterol (P = 0.012), receiving clinicians' advice to use lipid-lowering agents (P < 0.001) and patients' compliance with their advice (P < 0.001). Although rates of self-reported hypertension did not change over time (P = 0.120), receiving clinicians' advice to use antihypertensive medications (P = 0.003) and patients' compliance with these medications (P = 0.015) also increased significantly. Overall improvements in LDL and HDL cholesterol over this time period could be due to increases in related awareness, receiving advice to use medications, and patients' compliance with this advice. Use of antihypertensive medication has also increased among reproductive-age women in the US.

  1. Trends in Serum Lipids and Hypertension Prevalence Among Non-Pregnant Reproductive-Age Women: United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death among reproductive-age women. In this study, we examine trends in the prevalence of dyslipidemia, hypertension, and related clinicians’ advice among reproductive-age women. We conducted trend analysis of these factors among non-pregnant women aged 20–49 years (n = 5,768) using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data obtained between 1999 and 2008. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression analyses were used to examine linear trends over a 10-year period after adjusting for covariates. A downward trend was observed for the proportion of women with abnormal levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL; P = 0.038) and high density lipoprotein (HDL; P = 0.008) cholesterol from 1999 to 2008. In contrast, no significant changes were observed in the prevalence of abnormal total cholesterol (P = 0.948) and triglyceride levels (P = 0.300), or hypertension (P = 0.632). Based on the self-reported data, upward trends were observed in the rates of cholesterol checking (P = 0.002), high cholesterol (P = 0.012), receiving clinicians’ advice to use lipid-lowering agents (P < 0.001) and patients’ compliance with their advice (P < 0.001). Although rates of self-reported hypertension did not change over time (P = 0.120), receiving clinicians’ advice to use antihypertensive medications (P = 0.003) and patients’ compliance with these medications (P = 0.015) also increased significantly. Overall improvements in LDL and HDL cholesterol over this time period could be due to increases in related awareness, receiving advice to use medications, and patients’ compliance with this advice. Use of antihypertensive medication has also increased among reproductive-age women in the US. PMID:23054453

  2. Examining the medical blogosphere: an online survey of medical bloggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovic, Ivor; Lulic, Ileana; Brumini, Gordana

    2008-09-23

    Blogs are the major contributors to the large increase of new websites created each year. Most blogs allow readers to leave comments and, in this way, generate both conversation and encourage collaboration. Despite their popularity, however, little is known about blogs or their creators. To contribute to a better understanding of the medical blogosphere by investigating the characteristics of medical bloggers and their blogs, including bloggers' Internet and blogging habits, their motivations for blogging, and whether or not they follow practices associated with journalism. We approached 197 medical bloggers of English-language medical blogs which provided direct contact information, with posts published within the past month. The survey included 37 items designed to evaluate data about Internet and blogging habits, blog characteristics, blogging motivations, and, finally, the demographic data of bloggers. Pearson's Chi-Square test was used to assess the significance of an association between 2 categorical variables. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was utilized to reveal the relationship between participants' ages, as well as the number of maintained blogs, and their motivation for blogging. The Mann-Whitney U test was employed to reveal relationships between practices associated with journalism and participants' characteristics like gender and pseudonym use. A total of 80 (42%) of 197 eligible participants responded. The majority of responding bloggers were white (75%), highly educated (71% with a Masters degree or doctorate), male (59%), residents of the United States (72%), between the ages of 30 and 49 (58%), and working in the healthcare industry (67%). Most of them were experienced bloggers, with 23% (18/80) blogging for 4 or more years, 38% (30/80) for 2 or 3 years, 32% (26/80) for about a year, and only 7% (6/80) for 6 months or less. Those who received attention from the news media numbered 66% (53/80). When it comes to best practices associated

  3. Healthy Eating Index-2010 and food groups consumed by US adults who meet or exceed fiber intake recommendations NHANES 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Carla R; Birkett, Anne; Fulgonii Iii, Victor L

    2016-01-01

    The proportion of the US adult population who meet fiber intake recommendations is very low. Information about food groups consumed and diet quality for the adults who consume recommended amounts of fiber are scarce. To examine food groups consumed and Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010) scores for US adults meeting the fiber adequate intake (AI) based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data 2001-2010. A secondary analysis of NHANES data from 2001 to 2010. Participants included adults aged 19 and older (n=24,807) with complete day 1 dietary records. Variables measured were food group sources of fiber and HEI-2010 scores. Sample-weighted data were used to calculate least square means (LSM)±standard error of the mean (SEM) by fiber intake quartile along with HEI-2010 scores. Significance was set at Pmeeting the AI were grain products, vegetables, legumes, and fruits. The top grain products consumed were grain mixtures, ready-to-eat (RTE) cereals, and breads/rolls. The mean HEI-2010 score for adults meeting the AI for fiber was significantly (Pmeet the AI for fiber have a higher quality diet. Fiber may be an important dietary component that predicts diet quality.

  4. Reaction Time and Mortality from the Major Causes of Death: The NHANES-III Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger-Johnson, Gareth; Deary, Ian J.; Davies, Carolyn A.; Weiss, Alexander; Batty, G. David

    2014-01-01

    Objective Studies examining the relation of information processing speed, as measured by reaction time, with mortality are scarce. We explored these associations in a representative sample of the US population. Methods Participants were 5,134 adults (2,342 men) aged 20–59 years from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988–94). Results Adjusted for age, sex, and ethnic minority status, a 1 SD slower reaction time was associated with a raised risk of mortality from all-causes (HR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.12, 1.39) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) (HR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.17, 1.58). Having 1 SD more variable reaction time was also associated with greater risk of all-cause (HR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.19, 1.55) and CVD (HR = 1.50, 95% CI 1.33, 1.70) mortality. No associations were observed for cancer mortality. The magnitude of the relationships was comparable in size to established risk factors in this dataset, such as smoking. Interpretation Alongside better-established risk factors, reaction time is associated with increased risk of premature death and cardiovascular disease. It is a candidate risk factor for all-cause and cause-specific mortality. PMID:24489645

  5. Serum vitamins A and E as modifiers of lipid trait genetics in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys as part of the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, Logan; Goodloe, Robert; Brown-Gentry, Kristin; Mayo, Ping; Allen, Melissa; Jin, Hailing; Gillani, Niloufar B; Schnetz-Boutaud, Nathalie; Dilks, Holli H; Crawford, Dana C

    2012-11-01

    Both environmental and genetic factors impact lipid traits. Environmental modifiers of known genotype-phenotype associations may account for some of the "missing heritability" of these traits. To identify such modifiers, we genotyped 23 lipid-associated variants identified previously through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in 2,435 non-Hispanic white, 1,407 non-Hispanic black, and 1,734 Mexican-American samples collected for the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). Along with lipid levels, NHANES collected environmental variables, including fat-soluble macronutrient serum levels of vitamin A and E levels. As part of the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study, we modeled gene-environment interactions between vitamin A or vitamin E and 23 variants previously associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) levels. We identified three SNP × vitamin A and six SNP × vitamin E interactions at a significance threshold of p < 2.2 × 10(-3). The most significant interaction was APOB rs693 × vitamin E (p = 8.9 × 10(-7)) for LDL-C levels among Mexican-Americans. The nine significant interaction models individually explained 0.35-1.61% of the variation in any one of the lipid traits. Our results suggest that vitamins A and E may modify known genotype-phenotype associations; however, these interactions account for only a fraction of the overall variability observed for HDL-C, LDL-C, and TG levels in the general population.

  6. Whole grain and fiber consumption are associated with lower body weight measures in US adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Carol E; Zanovec, Michael; Cho, Susan S; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the association of whole grain consumption with body weight measures and prevalence of overweight/obesity in a recent, nationally representative sample of adults. A secondary analysis of 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data was conducted using adults 19 to 50 years of age (y) (n = 7,039) and 51+ y (n = 6,237). Participants were categorized by whole grain consumption: ≥ 0 to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and prevalence of overweight/obesity. Sample weights were applied and the number and percentages of adults in whole grain consumption groups were determined. Least-square means and standard errors were calculated for body weight measures. Two regression models were developed and compared. Model 1 covariates included age, gender, ethnicity, and total energy intake; Model 2 was extended to include cereal fiber. Trend analysis was conducted to test for differences between least-square means. Significance was set at P ≤ .05. Adults 19-50 and 51+ y consumed a mean of 0.63 and 0.77 servings of whole grains/day, respectively. A significant trend was observed in both age groups for increased consumption of whole grains with lower BMI, WC, and percentage overweight/obese (Model 1); however, a significant trend was not observed when cereal fiber was added as a covariate (Model 2). Results confirm overall whole grain intake well below recommendations, and adults who consumed the most servings of whole grains had lower body weight measures. Results also suggest that fiber in whole grain foods may mediate associations with weight measures in adults. Intake of whole grain foods should be encouraged by health professionals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Association between family history of diabetes and cardiovascular disease and lifestyle risk factors in the United States population: The 2009-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhuemonkhan, Eboselume; Lazo, Mariana

    2017-03-01

    Family history is a well-known risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and modification of lifestyle risk factors can significantly lessen such risk. Our aim was to assess the association between family history of diabetes and/or CVD and lifestyle behaviors and risk factors (smoking, low physical activity, excessive dietary sodium and cholesterol intake and obesity) in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009-2012. Family history, lifestyle behaviors and risk factors were defined using self-reported and physical examination data. The study sample included 10,988 participants with a mean age of 47years. Among the U.S. adult population, 29.5%, 5.7% and 6.5% had a family history of diabetes, CVD and both diseases respectively. Compared to participants with no family history, participants with a family history of diabetes, CVD and both diabetes and CVD were more likely to be current smokers (OR=1.18[95% CI, 1.03-1.35], OR=1.68[95% CI, 1.31-2.17] and OR=1.71[95% CI, 1.30-2.26] respectively). Participants with a family history of diabetes (OR=1.42[95% CI, 1.26-1.61]) and both diabetes and CVD were more likely to be overweight/obese (OR=2.06[95% CI, 1.57-2.69]). There was no association between family history and dietary factors or physical activity. In the U.S., there is a high prevalence of modifiable risk factors among persons with a family history of diabetes and/or CVD. Healthcare providers have a significant role to play in targeting these individuals for lifestyle changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. An association of health behaviors with depression and metabolic risks: Data from 2007 to 2014 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Ozodiegwu, Ifeoma D; Yu, Yang; Hess, Rick; Bie, Ronghai

    2017-08-01

    Both depression and metabolic syndrome (MetS) confer an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease. Accumulating evidence suggests healthy behaviors are crucial to maintain, improve and manage chronical disease and mental health; and unhealthy diet and sedentary behavior were found two major risk factors of MetS. The objective of this study was to investigate whether health behaviors (alcohol consumption, smoking, diet and recreational physical activity) are associated with depression and metabolic syndrome simultaneously. This study included 1300 participants aged 20 years and over who had answered mental health-depression screener questions (PHQ-9) and finished examinations and laboratory tests related to five risk factors of MetS during the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2014. A set of series of weighted logistic regression models were used to investigate the aforementioned relationship. The prevalence of depression among U.S. adults is 15.08%. The two most often reported depression symptoms were "Trouble sleeping or sleeping too much" and "Feeling tired or having little energy", with rates of14.68% and 13.09%, respectively. Participants who engaged in only light physical activity were more likely to have been identified as experiencing depression and MetS than those who engaged in vigorous physical activity with odd ratios 3.18 (95% CI: 1.59, 6.37) and 3.50 (95%CI: 2.17, 5.63), respectively. Individuals in the study having poor diets were more likely to suffer from depression than those eating good diets (OR=2.17, 95%CI: 1.47, 3.22). Physical activity is strongly and inversely associated with depression and MetS. Diet is significantly associated with depression rather than MetS in this study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Blood mercury concentrations in pregnant and non-pregnant women in the United States; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaghi, Hilda; Tinker, Sarah C.; Crider, Krista

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal exposure to methylmercury is associated with adverse neurological development in children. We examined total blood mercury (BHg) concentrations and predictors of higher BHg concentrations in pregnant and non-pregnant women. Methods We analyzed data from 1,183 pregnant and 5,587 non-pregnant women aged 16–49 years from the 1999–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We estimated geometric mean BHg concentrations and characteristics associated with higher mercury concentrations (≥3.5 μg/L) in crude and adjusted linear and logistic regression models. Results After adjusting for age and race/ethnicity, geometric mean BHg concentrations were clinically similar but significantly lower for pregnant (0.81 μg/L, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.71, 0.91) and non-pregnant women of childbearing age (0.93 μg/L, 95% CI: 0.87, 0.99); 94% of pregnant and 89% of non-pregnant women had BHg concentrations below 3.5 μg/L. The most significant predictor of higher BHg concentrations for both pregnant and non-pregnant women was any seafood consumption vs. no consumption in the last 30 days (Odds ratio [OR]: 18.7, 95% CI: 4.9, 71.1; OR: 15.5, 95% CI: 7.5, 32.1, respectively). Other characteristics associated with ≥3.5 μg/L BHg concentrations were older age (35+ years), higher education (greater than high school), and higher family income to poverty ratio (3.501+) for both pregnant and non-pregnant women. Conclusion Pregnancy status was not strongly associated with BHg concentrations in women of childbearing age and BHg concentrations above the 3.5 μg/L cut were uncommon. PMID:24189168

  10. Blood mercury concentrations in pregnant and nonpregnant women in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaghi, Hilda; Tinker, Sarah C; Crider, Krista

    2014-04-01

    Prenatal exposure to methylmercury is associated with adverse neurologic development in children. We examined total blood mercury concentrations and predictors of higher blood mercury concentrations in pregnant and nonpregnant women. We analyzed data from 1183 pregnant and 5587 nonpregnant women aged 16-49 years from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We estimated geometric mean blood mercury concentrations and characteristics associated with higher mercury concentrations (≥3.5 μg/L) in crude and adjusted linear and logistic regression models. After adjusting for age and race/ethnicity, geometric mean blood mercury concentrations were clinically similar but significantly lower for pregnant (0.81 μg/L; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71-0.91) and nonpregnant women of childbearing age (0.93 μg/L; 95% CI, 0.87-0.99); 94% of pregnant and 89% of nonpregnant women had blood mercury concentrations below 3.5 μg/L. The most significant predictor of higher blood mercury concentrations for both pregnant and nonpregnant women was any seafood consumption vs no consumption in the last 30 days (odds ratio, 18.7; 95% CI, 4.9-71.1; odds ratio, 15.5; 95% CI, 7.5-32.1, respectively). Other characteristics associated with ≥3.5 μg/L blood mercury concentrations were older age (≥35 years), higher education (greater than high school), and higher family income to poverty ratio (3.501+) for both pregnant and nonpregnant women. Pregnancy status was not strongly associated with blood mercury concentrations in women of childbearing age and blood mercury concentrations above the 3.5 μg/L cut were uncommon. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Characteristics and risk factors of rheumatoid arthritis in the United States: an NHANES analysis

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    Bei Xu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background We examined the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES database to determine factors associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA in adults 20 to 55 years of age. Methods NHANES data collected between 2007 and 2014, excluding the 2011–2012 period, were used. Subjects were divided into those with and without RA. Demographic, clinical, and lifestyle factors were compared between the groups. Results After applying inclusion/exclusion criteria, 8,789 persons were included in the study (8,483 without RA, 306 with RA. Multivariable analysis indicated that advanced age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.09, 95% CI [1.07–1.11], P < 0.001, regular smoking (OR = 2.19, 95% CI [1.49–3.21], P < 0.001, diabetes (OR = 2.00, 95% CI [1.35–2.95], P = 0.001, obesity (reference, normal or underweight; OR = 3.31, 95% CI [2.05–5.36], P < 0.001, and osteoporosis (OR = 3.68, 95% CI [1.64–8.22], P = 0.002 were positively associated with RA. Covered by health insurance (OR = 1.81, 95% CI [1.12–2.93], P = 0.016 and living in poverty (OR = 2.96, 95% CI [1.88–4.65], P < 0.001 were also associated with having RA. Mexican American, Hispanic white or other Hispanic ethnicity (reference, non-Hispanic white; OR = 0.54, 95% CI [0.31–0.96], P = 0.036, appropriate sleep duration (about 6–11 h, OR = 0.46, 95% CI [0.32–0.65], P < 0.001, and insufficient vitamin A intake (reference, recommended; OR = 0.70, 95% CI [0.50–0.98], P = 0.036 were negatively associated with RA. Discussion Some factors associated with RA are potentially modifiable.

  12. Pyramid Servings Database (PSDB) for NHANES III

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute developed a database to examine dietary data from the National Center for Health Statistics' Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in terms of servings from each of United States Department of Agriculture's The Food Guide Pyramid's major and minor food groups.

  13. Associations between Yogurt, Dairy, Calcium, and Vitamin D Intake and Obesity among U.S. Children Aged 8–18 Years: NHANES, 2005–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra R. Keast

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate associations of yogurt and dairy consumption with energy, macronutrient, calcium, and vitamin D intakes, and associations with indicators of overweight/obesity in U.S. children in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005–2008. Using 24-hour recall data, children 8–18 years of age were classified to dairy consumption groups of <1, 1 to <2, or 2+ dairy servings, and yogurt consumers were those who reported eating yogurt during at least one of two dietary intake interviews. NHANES anthropometric measurements were used, and BMI and BMI-for-age percentiles were calculated. Yogurt and dairy consumption were associated with higher intakes of calcium, vitamin D and protein. Yogurt intake was associated with lower total fat and saturated fat intakes and body fat as measured by subscapular skinfold thickness. This study supports consumption of yogurt and higher amounts of dairy as eating patterns associated with greater intake of specific shortfall nutrients, and lower body fat in U.S. children.

  14. Associations between Yogurt, Dairy, Calcium, and Vitamin D Intake and Obesity among U.S. Children Aged 8–18 Years: NHANES, 2005–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keast, Debra R.; Hill Gallant, Kathleen M.; Albertson, Ann M.; Gugger, Carolyn K.; Holschuh, Norton M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations of yogurt and dairy consumption with energy, macronutrient, calcium, and vitamin D intakes, and associations with indicators of overweight/obesity in U.S. children in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005–2008). Using 24-hour recall data, children 8–18 years of age were classified to dairy consumption groups of yogurt consumers were those who reported eating yogurt during at least one of two dietary intake interviews. NHANES anthropometric measurements were used, and BMI and BMI-for-age percentiles were calculated. Yogurt and dairy consumption were associated with higher intakes of calcium, vitamin D and protein. Yogurt intake was associated with lower total fat and saturated fat intakes and body fat as measured by subscapular skinfold thickness. This study supports consumption of yogurt and higher amounts of dairy as eating patterns associated with greater intake of specific shortfall nutrients, and lower body fat in U.S. children. PMID:25742042

  15. Associations between yogurt, dairy, calcium, and vitamin D intake and obesity among U.S. children aged 8-18 years: NHANES, 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keast, Debra R; Hill Gallant, Kathleen M; Albertson, Ann M; Gugger, Carolyn K; Holschuh, Norton M

    2015-03-03

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations of yogurt and dairy consumption with energy, macronutrient, calcium, and vitamin D intakes, and associations with indicators of overweight/obesity in U.S. children in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005-2008). Using 24-hour recall data, children 8-18 years of age were classified to dairy consumption groups of yogurt consumers were those who reported eating yogurt during at least one of two dietary intake interviews. NHANES anthropometric measurements were used, and BMI and BMI-for-age percentiles were calculated. Yogurt and dairy consumption were associated with higher intakes of calcium, vitamin D and protein. Yogurt intake was associated with lower total fat and saturated fat intakes and body fat as measured by subscapular skinfold thickness. This study supports consumption of yogurt and higher amounts of dairy as eating patterns associated with greater intake of specific shortfall nutrients, and lower body fat in U.S. children.

  16. Urinary antimony and leukocyte telomere length: An analysis of NHANES 1999-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scinicariello, Franco; Buser, Melanie C

    2016-10-01

    Telomeres are repetitive DNA sequences (TTAGGG) at the end of chromosomes. Cells with critically short telomeres enter replicative senescence and apoptosis. Several in vitro studies report that antimony causes cell apoptosis in human leukocyte cell lines. The goal of this analysis was to investigate whether there is an association between antimony exposure and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) among US adults aged 20 and older based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002. We used multivariate linear regression to analyze the association of urinary antimony with LTL. LTL was log-natural transformed and the results were re-transformed and presented as percent differences. After adjustment for potential confounders, individuals in the 3rd and 4th quartiles of urinary antimony had statistically significantly shorter LTL (-4.78%, 95% CI: -8.42,-0.90; and -6.11%, 95% CI: -11.04,-1.00, respectively) compared to the lowest referent quartile, with evidence of a dose-response relationship (p-value for trend =0.03). Shorter LTL with antimony was driven by middle aged (40-59 years) and older (60-85 years) adult groups. The association may be biologically plausible because of reported oxidative stress and apoptosis effects of antimony on blood cells, effects known to shorten telomere length. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Environmental lead and childhood blood lead levels in US children: NHANES, 1999-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Stacey M; Talbott, Evelyn O; Brink, LuAnn L; Wu, Candace; Sharma, Ravi K; Marsh, Gary M

    2017-03-04

    Although blood lead levels in the United States have fallen dramatically since 1980, there remain subgroups of children with high blood lead levels. We assessed the relationship between environmental lead sources and blood lead levels in children ages 1 to 5 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2006. Modeled ambient air lead levels and industrial lead releases at the census-tract level were assigned to each child's residence with adjustment for confounding factors. Of 3,223 children, 272 (8.4%) had blood lead levels ≥ 5 ug/dL. Industrial releases (2,252 vs 1,696 lbs/mi 2 ) and ambient air lead levels (2.28 vs 1.75 ng/m 3 ) were greater in exposed versus unexposed children. For every 10,000 lb/mi 2 increase in inverse distance squared weighted exposure, there was a 1.13% increase (95% CI: 0.45%, 1.81%) in blood lead (p = .001).

  18. Relationship between Urinary Triclosan and Paraben Concentrations and Serum Thyroid Measures in NHANES 2007–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeppe, Erika S.; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Colacino, Justin A.; Meeker, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Triclosan and parabens are broad spectrum antimicrobials used in a range of consumer products. In vitro and animal studies have suggested the potential for these compounds to disrupt thyroid function, though studies in humans have been limited. The objective of the study was to assess the relationship of urinary concentrations of triclosan and parabens with serum thyroid measures in a large, representative sample of the US population. We conducted an exploratory, cross-sectional analysis of data on urinary biomarkers of triclosan and paraben exposure and serum thyroid measures obtained from 1,831 subjects (ages ≥12 years) as part of the 2007–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We found evidence of some inverse associations between parabens and circulating thyroid hormone levels in adults, with the strongest and most consistent associations among females. We also observed a positive association between triclosan and total triiodothyonine (T3) concentrations in adolescents. These results, in accordance with the in vitro and animal literature, suggest that paraben, and potentially triclosan, exposures may be associated with altered thyroid hormone levels in humans. Further research is needed for confirmation and to determine the potential clinical significance of these findings. PMID:23340023

  19. Mercury Exposure and Antinuclear Antibodies among Females of Reproductive Age in the United States: NHANES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Emily C; Ganser, Martha A; Warren, Jeffrey S; Basu, Niladri; Wang, Lu; Zick, Suzanna M; Park, Sung Kyun

    2015-08-01

    Immune dysregulation associated with mercury has been suggested, although data in the general population are lacking. Chronic exposure to low levels of methylmercury (organic) and inorganic mercury is common, such as through fish consumption and dental amalgams. We examined associations between mercury biomarkers and antinuclear antibody (ANA) positivity and titer strength. Among females 16-49 years of age (n = 1,352) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004, we examined cross-sectional associations between mercury and ANAs (indirect immunofluorescence; cutoff ≥ 1:80). Three biomarkers of mercury exposure were used: hair (available 1999-2000) and total blood (1999-2004) predominantly represented methylmercury, and urine (1999-2002) represented inorganic mercury. Survey statistics were used. Multivariable modeling adjusted for several covariates, including age and omega-3 fatty acids. Sixteen percent of females were ANA positive; 96% of ANA positives had a nuclear speckled staining pattern. Geometric mean (geometric SD) mercury concentrations were 0.22 (0.03) ppm in hair, 0.92 (0.05) μg/L blood, and 0.62 (0.04) μg/L urine. Hair and blood, but not urinary, mercury were associated with ANA positivity (sample sizes 452, 1,352, and 804, respectively), after adjusting for confounders: for hair, odds ratio (OR) = 4.10 (95% CI: 1.66, 10.13); for blood, OR = 2.32 (95% CI: 1.07, 5.03) comparing highest versus lowest quantiles. Magnitudes of association were strongest for high-titer (≥ 1:1,280) ANA: hair, OR = 11.41 (95% CI: 1.60, 81.23); blood, OR = 5.93 (95% CI: 1.57, 22.47). Methylmercury, at low levels generally considered safe, was associated with subclinical autoimmunity among reproductive-age females. Autoantibodies may predate clinical disease by years; thus, methylmercury exposure may be relevant to future autoimmune disease risk.

  20. Vitamin D intake and status are associated with lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome in U.S. adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R; Rains, Tia M; Park, Keigan M; Rubin, Martyn R

    2012-10-01

    Previous reports have shown that metabolic syndrome and some metabolic syndrome components are associated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), 2003-2006, we evaluated the associations of vitamin D intake (n=3543) and vitamin D status [25(OH)D; n=3529], with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in adults 20 years and older. Exclusion criteria included nonfasted subjects, those pregnant and/or lactating, and, for intake analyses, those with unreliable 24-h recall records. Subjects were separately classified into quartiles of vitamin D intake (both including and excluding supplements) and serum 25(OH)D. Logistic regression was used to determine odds ratios (OR) for metabolic syndrome after adjusting for multiple confounders. Those in the highest quartile of serum 25(OH)D had 60% lower odds for metabolic syndrome as compared to those in the lowest quartile [OR=0.40; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.27, 0.59]. Elevated waist circumference (OR=0.57; 95% CI 0.39, 0.84), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (OR=0.54; 95% CI 0.39, 0.75), and high homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (OR=0.40; 95% CI 0.29, 0.55) were the main components associated with serum 25(OH)D. Compared with the lowest vitamin D intake quartile (excluding supplements), those in the highest intake quartile had 28% lower odds for metabolic syndrome (OR=0.72; 95% CI 0.58, 0.90). No components of metabolic syndrome were significantly associated with dietary intake of vitamin D with supplements included or excluded. We conclude that higher 25(OH)D, and, to a lesser degree, greater dietary vitamin D intake, are associated with reduced prevalence of metabolic syndrome.

  1. Caffeine intake and its association with urinary incontinence in United States men: results from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2005-2006 and 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Nicole J; Vaughan, Camille P; Johnson, Theodore M; Goode, Patricia S; Burgio, Kathryn L; Redden, David T; Markland, Alayne D

    2013-06-01

    Epidemiological studies in women have revealed an association between caffeine intake and urinary incontinence, although evidence among men is limited. Therefore, we evaluated the association between caffeine intake and urinary incontinence in United States men. Data were used from male NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys) 2005-2006 and 2007-2008 participants. Urinary incontinence was defined using a standard questionnaire with Incontinence Severity Index scores 3 or greater categorized as moderate to severe. Structured dietary recall was used to determine caffeine consumption (mg per day), water intake (gm per day) and total dietary moisture (gm per day). Stepwise multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the association between caffeine intake at or above the 75th and 90th percentiles and moderate to severe urinary incontinence, controlling for potential confounders, urinary incontinence risk factors and prostate conditions in men age 40 years or older. Of the 5,297 men 3,960 (75%) were 20 years old or older with complete data. Among these men the prevalence of any urinary incontinence was 12.9% and moderate to severe urinary incontinence was 4.4%. Mean caffeine intake was 169 mg per day. Caffeine intake at the upper 75th percentile (234 mg or more daily) and 90th percentile (392 mg or more per day) was significantly associated with having moderate to severe urinary incontinence (1.72, 95% 1.18-2.49 and 2.08, 95% 1.15-3.77, respectively). In addition, after adjusting for prostate conditions, the effect size for the association between caffeine intake and moderate to severe urinary incontinence remained. Caffeine consumption equivalent to approximately 2 cups of coffee daily (250 mg) is significantly associated with moderate to severe urinary incontinence in United States men. Our findings support the further study of caffeine modification in men with urinary incontinence. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association

  2. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus Among Females After Vaccine Introduction-National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, United States, 2003-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Sara E; Unger, Elizabeth R; Lewis, Rayleen; McDaniel, Darius; Gargano, Julia W; Steinau, Martin; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2017-09-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine was recommended in 2006 for routine vaccination of US females aged 11-12 years. Most vaccine used through 2014 was quadrivalent vaccine (4vHPV), which prevents HPV-6, -11, -16, and -18 infection. To evaluate vaccine impact, we measured HPV prevalence in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We analyzed HPV DNA types detected in self-collected cervicovaginal specimens and demographic, sexual behavior, and self-reported vaccination data from females 14-34 years old. We estimated HPV prevalence in the prevaccine (2003-2006) and vaccine eras (2007-2010 and 2011-2014). Among 14- to 19-year-olds, 4vHPV-type prevalence decreased from 11.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.1%-14.4%) in 2003-2006 to 3.3% (95% CI, 1.9%-5.8%) in 2011-2014, when ≥1-dose coverage was 55%. Among 20- to 24-year-olds, prevalence decreased from 18.5% (95% CI, 14.9%-22.8%) in 2003-2006 to 7.2% (95% CI, 4.7%-11.1%) in 2011-2014, when ≥1-dose coverage was 43%. Compared to 2003-2006, 4vHPV prevalence in sexually active 14- to 24-year-olds in 2011-2014 decreased 89% among those vaccinated and 34% among those unvaccinated. Vaccine effectiveness was 83%. Within 8 years of vaccine introduction, 4vHPV-type prevalence decreased 71% among 14- to 19-year-olds and 61% among 20- to 24-year-olds. Estimated vaccine effectiveness was high. The decrease in 4vHPV-type prevalence among unvaccinated females suggests herd protection.

  3. Dental caries and periodontal disease among U.S. pregnant women and nonpregnant women of reproductive age, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azofeifa, Alejandro; Yeung, Lorraine F.; Alverson, C. J.; Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study assessed and compared the prevalence and severity of dental caries and the prevalence of periodontal disease among pregnant and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15–44 years) using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, NHANES (1999–2004). Methods Estimates were derived from a sample of 897 pregnant women and 3,971 nonpregnant women. Chi-square and two-sample t-tests were used to assess differences between groups stratified by age, race/ethnicity, education, and poverty. Bonferroni method was applied to adjust for multiple comparisons. Results In general, there were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence estimates of dental caries and periodontal disease between pregnant women and nonpregnant women. However, results showed significant differences when stratified by sociodemographic characteristics. For example, the prevalence of untreated dental caries among women aged 15–24 years was significantly higher in pregnant women than in nonpregnant women (41 percent versus 24 percent, P=0.001). Regardless of their pregnancy status, racial/ethnic minorities or women with less education or lower family income had higher prevalence of untreated dental caries, severity of dental caries, and periodontal disease compared to the respective reference groups of non-Hispanic whites or women with more education or higher family income. Conclusion Results of this study show few clinical differences in dental caries and periodontal disease between pregnant and nonpregnant women but persistent disparities by sociodemographic characteristics. In order to reduce oral health disparities in the United States, it is important to improve access to oral health care particularly among vulnerable groups. Integrating oral health into the overall health care could benefit and improve women’s oral health outcomes. PMID:27154283

  4. Dental caries and periodontal disease among U.S. pregnant women and nonpregnant women of reproductive age, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azofeifa, Alejandro; Yeung, Lorraine F; Alverson, C J; Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio

    2016-09-01

    This study assessed and compared the prevalence and severity of dental caries and the prevalence of periodontal disease among pregnant and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15-44 years) using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, NHANES (1999-2004). Estimates were derived from a sample of 897 pregnant women and 3,971 nonpregnant women. Chi-square and two-sample t-tests were used to assess differences between groups stratified by age, race/ethnicity, education, and poverty. Bonferroni method was applied to adjust for multiple comparisons. In general, there were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence estimates of dental caries and periodontal disease between pregnant women and nonpregnant women. However, results showed significant differences when stratified by sociodemographic characteristics. For example, the prevalence of untreated dental caries among women aged 15-24 years was significantly higher in pregnant women than in nonpregnant women (41 percent versus 24 percent, P = 0.001). Regardless of their pregnancy status, racial/ethnic minorities or women with less education or lower family income had higher prevalence of untreated dental caries, severity of dental caries, and periodontal disease compared to the respective reference groups of non-Hispanic whites or women with more education or higher family income. Results of this study show few clinical differences in dental caries and periodontal disease between pregnant and nonpregnant women but persistent disparities by sociodemographic characteristics. In order to reduce oral health disparities in the United States, it is important to improve access to oral health care particularly among vulnerable groups. Integrating oral health into the overall health care could benefit and improve women's oral health outcomes. © 2016 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  5. Evaluation of Psychological Measures Used in the Health Examination Survey of Children Ages 6-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sells, S. B.

    In this report the psychological procedures used in the Health Examination Survey conducted between June 1963 and December 1965 for children ages 6 through 11 are critically evaluated. In his analysis, the author combines his own professional competence with the information obtained in an extensive survey of literature pertaining to the four…

  6. Contributions of White Vegetables to Nutrient Intake: NHANES 2009–201012

    OpenAIRE

    Storey, Maureen L; Anderson, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Vegetables, especially white potatoes, provide significant levels of key nutrients of concern, such as potassium and dietary fiber. Per capita availability (PCA) data for vegetables—often used as a proxy for vegetable consumption—show that vegetable consumption, including consumption of white potatoes, declined in the past decade. Using dietary data for participants in the NHANES 2009–2010, we examined total vegetable, white potato, and French-fried potato consumption among all age-gender gro...

  7. Sample selection, recruitment and participation rates in health examination surveys in Europe--experience from seven national surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindell, Jennifer S; Giampaoli, Simona; Goesswald, Antje; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Mann, Charlotte; Männistö, Satu; Morgan, Karen; Shelton, Nicola J; Verschuren, W M Monique; Tolonen, Hanna

    2015-10-05

    Health examination surveys (HESs), carried out in Europe since the 1950's, provide valuable information about the general population's health for health monitoring, policy making, and research. Survey participation rates, important for representativeness, have been falling. International comparisons are hampered by differing exclusion criteria and definitions for non-response. Information was collected about seven national HESs in Europe conducted in 2007-2012. These surveys can be classified into household and individual-based surveys, depending on the sampling frames used. Participation rates of randomly selected adult samples were calculated for four survey modules using standardised definitions and compared by sex, age-group, geographical areas within countries, and over time, where possible. All surveys covered residents not just citizens; three countries excluded those in institutions. In two surveys, physical examinations and blood sample collection were conducted at the participants' home; the others occurred at examination clinics. Recruitment processes varied considerably between surveys. Monetary incentives were used in four surveys. Initial participation rates aged 35-64 were 45% in the Netherlands (phase II), 54% in Germany (new and previous participants combined), 55% in Italy, and 65% in Finland. In Ireland, England and Scotland, household participation rates were 66%, 66% and 63% respectively. Participation rates were generally higher in women and increased with age. Almost all participants attending an examination centre agreed to all modules but surveys conducted in the participants' home had falling responses to each stage. Participation rates in most primate cities were substantially lower than the national average. Age-standardized response rates to blood pressure measurement among those aged 35-64 in Finland, Germany and England fell by 0.7-1.5 percentage points p.a. between 1998-2002 and 2010-2012. Longer trends in some countries show a more

  8. Non-participation modestly increased with distance to the examination clinic among adults in Finnish health examination surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinikainen, Jaakko; Saarsalmi, Perttu; Härkänen, Tommi; Jousilahti, Pekka; Karvanen, Juha; Männistö, Satu; Tolonen, Hanna

    2017-11-01

    Health examination surveys (HES) provide important information about population health and health-related factors, but declining participation rates threaten the representativeness of collected data. It is hard to conduct national HESs at examination clinics near to every sampled individual. Thus, it is interesting to look into the possible association between the distance from home to the examination clinic and non-participation, and whether there is a certain distance after which the participation activity decreases considerably. Data from two national HESs conducted in Finland in 2011 and 2012 were used and a logistic regression model was fitted to investigate how distance was related to non-participation. We found out that non-participation modestly increased with distance to the examination clinic. An additional analysis indicated that the option of having an examination at home may decrease the effect of distance to participation. Long distances from home to the examination clinic are one reason for low participation activity. Possible bias caused by these differences in participation could be decreased by providing the option of a home examination.

  9. An Overview of Ophthalmologic Survey Methodology in the 2008-2015 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kyung Chul; Choi, Won; Lee, Hyo Seok; Kim, Sang-Duck; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Chan Yun; Park, Ki Ho; Park, Young Jeung; Baek, Seung-Hee; Song, Su Jeong; Shin, Jae Pil; Yang, Suk-Woo; Yu, Seung-Young; Lee, Jong Soo; Lim, Key Hwan; Oh, Kyung Won; Kang, Se Woong

    2015-12-01

    The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) is a national program designed to assess the health and nutritional status of the noninstitutionalized population of South Korea. The KNHANES was initiated in 1998 and has been conducted annually since 2007. Starting in the latter half of 2008, ophthalmologic examinations were included in the survey in order to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of common eye diseases such as visual impairment, refractive errors, strabismus, blepharoptosis, cataract, pterygium, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, dry eye disease, and color vision deficiency. The measurements included in the ophthalmic questionnaire and examination methods were modified in the KNHANES IV, V, and VI. In this article, we provide detailed information about the methodology of the ophthalmic examinations in KNHANES in order to aid in further investigations related to major eye diseases in South Korea.

  10. Reasons for non-participation and ways to enhance participation in health examination surveys-the Health 2011 Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Hanna; Lundqvist, Annamari; Jääskeläinen, Tuija; Koskinen, Seppo; Koponen, Päivikki

    2017-10-01

    High-participation rates to the health examination surveys are needed to obtain representative information about population health. This study aimed to examine reasons for non-participation and factors that could enhance participation using data from the Health 2011 Survey, conducted in 2011-12 in Finland (N = 8135). The most common reason for non-participation was unsuitable timing or location of the health examinations. Older persons also reported that they were too sick to participate. Flexibility on selection of examination times and places and getting feedback on the measurements were most often mentioned as factors which would increase willingness to participate in the future. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  11. Survey of medical examiner office computerization. From the National Association of Medical Examiners (N.A.M.E.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzlick, R

    1994-06-01

    Following a suggestion that the National Association of Medical Examiners (N.A.M.E.) develop a N.A.M.E. Information Center (NIC), N.A.M.E. conducted a survey to evaluate the current status of medical examiner office automation (computerization) in the United States. Responses were received from 80 unique reporting areas, including 75 medical examiner offices, which represent approximately 30% of the 258 medical examiner jurisdictions in the country. A total of 58 responders (65%) indicated that their office was automated. At least 38 states have one or more automated death investigation office, and electronic data exist for approximately 145,000 deaths per year, or approximately 30% of all deaths certified by medical examiners and coroners annually and approximately 6% of all deaths per year in the United States. Although computerized offices vary substantially in size and in their choice of hardware and software, a typical computerized medical examiner office (a) is in a single county with 1,000-6,000 death reports per year, (b) keeps electronic records on all cases reported, (c) uses an IBM or compatible personal computer (PC) or PC network with off-the-shelf software, (d) stores data on cause of death, manner of death, how injuries occur, and toxicology results, and (e) is interested in sharing its data. Considerable electronic death investigation data exist that can provide timely and valuable information for mortality and public health studies.

  12. Biomarkers of Exposure to Molybdenum and Other Metals in Relation to Testosterone among Men from NHANES 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ryan C.; Meeker, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the potential associations between biomarkers of metal exposure and serum testosterone in men of reproductive age in the general U.S. population. Design Cross-sectional epidemiology study with adjustment for potential confounders. Setting Nationwide survey. Patient(s) Men recruited in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Intervention(s) Metal concentrations measured in whole blood, urine, and/or serum samples collected from 484 men. Main Outcome Measure(s) Serum testosterone concentration. Result(s) Concentrations of the metals were detected in 69-100% of the samples. In adjusted analyses where metals were modeled as a continuous variable, we found significant inverse associations between urinary molybdenum and serum copper and serum testosterone, whereas there were significant positive associations between blood lead and cadmium and serum testosterone. When metals were categorized into quartiles, analyses for serum copper and blood lead and cadmium produced significant associations in the same direction as the continuous measures. A suggestive inverse association was observed between quartiles of urinary molybdenum and serum testosterone, but the association was statistically significant when molybdenum was categorized into quintiles. Significant positive associations were also observed for quartiles of blood Se and serum Zn and serum testosterone. Conclusion(s) These findings add to the limited human evidence that exposure to molybdenum and other metals is associated with altered testosterone in men, which may have important implications for male health. More research is needed to confirm the findings of our study. PMID:25439796

  13. Food insecurity is associated with chronic disease among low-income NHANES participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Hilary K; Laraia, Barbara A; Kushel, Margot B

    2010-02-01

    Food insecurity refers to the inability to afford enough food for an active, healthy life. Numerous studies have shown associations between food insecurity and adverse health outcomes among children. Studies of the health effects of food insecurity among adults are more limited and generally focus on the association between food insecurity and self-reported disease. We therefore examined the association between food insecurity and clinical evidence of diet-sensitive chronic disease, including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes. Our population-based sample included 5094 poor adults aged 18-65 y participating in the NHANES (1999-2004 waves). We estimated the association between food insecurity (assessed by the Food Security Survey Module) and self-reported or laboratory/examination evidence of diet-sensitive chronic disease using Poisson regression. We adjusted the models to account for differences in age, gender, race, educational attainment, and income. Food insecurity was associated with self-reported hypertension [adjusted relative risk (ARR) 1.20; 95% CI, 1.04-1.38] and hyperlipidemia (ARR 1.30; 95% CI, 1.09-1.55), but not diabetes (ARR 1.19; 95% CI, 0.89-1.58). Food insecurity was associated with laboratory or examination evidence of hypertension (ARR 1.21; 95% CI, 1.04-1.41) and diabetes (ARR 1.48; 95% CI, 0.94-2.32). The association with laboratory evidence of diabetes did not reach significance in the fully adjusted model unless we used a stricter definition of food insecurity (ARR 2.42; 95% CI, 1.44-4.08). These data show that food insecurity is associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Health policy discussions should focus increased attention on ability to afford high-quality foods for adults with or at risk for chronic disease.

  14. Survey of Forensic Document Examination Habit Areas: Degree of Use and Discriminatory Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G Sperry; PA Manzolillo; RC Hanlan; RJ Muehlberger

    1999-09-07

    Beginning in 1998, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNL), US Postal Inspection Service Forensic Laboratory (USPIS), and the Data Fusion Laboratory, Drexel University (DFL) have been collaborating on a large scale research project ''Handwriting Individuality--Moving From Art to Science''. In April 1998 a survey was distributed to the community of forensic document examiners (FDEs) requesting input on the habit areas used and their utility in distinguishing handwriting. The information obtained from this survey was intended to provide the data necessary to select the criteria and begin the evaluation of the handwriting samples currently in the project. Preliminary results of the survey were made available to the community at the American Society of Questioned Document Examiners (ASQDE) meeting in August 1998 and the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS) meeting in February 1999. This report provides final documentation of the survey and its results. This survey has two objectives: (1) to compile a list of handwriting features and characteristics used by professional forensic document examiners in the examination and comparison of handwriting and (2) to gather information about the significance of these features and characteristics. These objectives are met by having the FDEs provide an indication of their experience in the frequency of habit area evaluation and the utility of the habit area for discrimination.

  15. Survey of Handwriting Habit Areas Used by Forensic Document Examiners: Degree of Use and Discriminatory Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanlen, Richard C.; Manzolillo, Patricia A.; Muehlberger, Robert J.; Sperry, Grant R.

    1999-11-15

    In April 1998, a survey was distributed to Forensic Document Examiners (FDEs) requesting an evaluation of the habit areas used and their utility in distinguishing handwriting. The information obtained from this survey was intended to provide the data necessary to select a preliminary set of characteristics for analysis. It is important to use these relative rankings as an indication of general tendency and possible discriminatory dominance as compared to an absolute ranking of discriminatory dominance over the other habit areas. The particular circumstances surrounding the examination of handwriting can dictate a far different ordering of habit areas.

  16. Relationship between femur neck bone mineral density and prevalent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or COPD mortality in older non-Hispanic white adults from NHANES III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looker, A C

    2014-03-01

    The relationship between femur neck bone mineral density (FNBMD), prevalent COPD, and COPD mortality was examined in older non-Hispanic white adults from NHANES III. FNBMD was significantly related to prevalent COPD and COPD mortality before and after adjusting for shared risk factors. Bone mineral density (BMD) has been linked to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but little is known about its relationship with COPD mortality. The present study examined the relationship between FNBMD, prevalent COPD, and COPD mortality in older non-Hispanic white adults from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994). COPD status at baseline was defined by self-reported physician's diagnosis and by airway obstruction based on spirometry measurements in 3,275 non-Hispanic whites aged 50 years and older. COPD mortality cases were identified using linked mortality records obtained through 2006. FNBMD was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Multiple regression was used to examine the baseline relationship between COPD and FNBMD. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazards ratio (HR) for COPD mortality by FNBMD. Twelve percent self-reported a physician's diagnosis of COPD, 23 % had mild or moderate airway obstruction, and 9 % had severe or very severe airway obstruction. There were 180 COPD mortality cases in the sample. FNBMD was significantly lower in those with self-reported COPD diagnosis or airway obstruction before and after adjusting for shared risk factors (p COPD mortality risk was significantly increased for each standard deviation decline in FNBMD before (by 68 %) and after (by 26-38 %) adjusting for shared risk factors. Low FNBMD was associated with both baseline COPD and future COPD mortality. Shared risk factors appeared to explain some, but not all, of these relationships.

  17. Perception survey on the introduction of clinical performance examination as part of the national nursing licensing examination in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Jin Shin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The purpose of this study was to analyze opinions about the action plan for implementation of clinical performance exam as part of the national nursing licensing examination and presents the expected effects of the performance exam and aspects to consider regarding its implementation. Methods This study used a mixed-methods design. Quantitative data were collected by a questionnaire survey, while qualitative data were collected by focus group interviews with experts. The survey targeted 200 nursing professors and clinical nurses with more than 5 years of work experience, and the focus group interviews were conducted with 28 of professors, clinical instructors, and nurses at hospitals. Results First, nursing professors and clinical specialists agreed that the current written tests have limitations in evaluating examinees’ ability, and that the introduction of a clinical performance exam will yield positive results. Clinical performance exam is necessary to evaluate and improve nurses’ work ability, which means that the implementation of a performance exam is advisable if its credibility and validity can be verified. Second, most respondents chose direct performance exams using simulators or standardized patients as the most suitable format of the test. Conclusion In conclusion, the current national nursing licensing exam is somewhat limited in its ability to identify competent nurses. Thus, the time has come for us to seriously consider the introduction of a performance exam. The prerequisites for successfully implementing clinical performance exam as part of the national nursing licensing exam are a professional training process and forming a consortium to standardize practical training.

  18. A cross sectional study of the association between walnut consumption and cognitive function among adult US populations represented in NHANES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, L; Ang, A

    2015-03-01

    To examine the association between walnut consumption and measures of cognitive function in the US population. Nationally representative cross sectional study using 24 hour dietary recalls of intakes to assess walnut and other nut consumption as compared to the group reporting no nut consumption. 1988-1994 and 1999-2002 rounds of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Representative weighted sample of US adults 20 to 90 years of age. The Neurobehavioral Evaluation System 2 (NES2), consisting of simple reaction time (SRTT), symbol digit substitution (SDST), the single digit learning (SDLT), Story Recall (SRT) and digit-symbol substitution (DSST) tests. Adults 20-59 years old reporting walnut consumption of an average of 10.3 g/d required 16.4ms less time to respond on the SRTT, P=0.03, and 0.39s less for the SDST, P=0.01. SDLT scores were also significantly lower by 2.38s (P=0.05). Similar results were obtained when tertiles of walnut consumption were examined in trend analyses. Significantly better outcomes were noted in all cognitive test scores among those with higher walnut consumption (P consumption and cognitive functions among all adults, regardless of age, gender or ethnicity suggest that daily walnut intake may be a simple beneficial dietary behavior.

  19. The physical examination content of the Japanese National Health and Nutrition Survey: temporal changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hisako; Imai, Shino; Nakade, Makiko; Imai, Eri; Takimoto, Hidemi

    2016-12-01

    Survey items of the Japan National Nutrition Survey (J-NNS) have changed over time. Several papers on dietary surveys have been published; however, to date, there are no in-depth papers regarding physical examinations. Therefore, we investigated changes in the survey items in the physical examinations performed in the J-NNS and the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS), with the aim of incorporating useful data for future policy decisions. We summarized the description of physical examinations and marshalled the changes of survey items from the J-NNS and NHNS from 1946 to 2012. The physical examination is roughly classified into the following six components: some are relevant to anthropometric measurements, clinical measurements, physical symptoms, blood tests, lifestyle and medication by interview, and others. Items related to nutritional deficiency, such as anaemia and tendon reflex disappearance, and body weight measurements were collected during the early period, according to the instructions of the General Headquarters. From 1989, blood tests and measurement of physical activity were added, and serum total protein, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, blood glucose, red blood corpuscles and haemoglobin measurements have been performed continuously for more than 20 years. This is the first report on the items of physical examination in the J-NNS and NHNS. Our research results provide basic information for the utilization of the J-NNS and NHNS, to researchers, clinicians or policy makers. Monitoring the current state correctly is essential for national health promotion, and also for improvement of the investigation methods to apply country-by-country comparisons.

  20. Periodontitis is associated with cognitive impairment among older adults: analysis of NHANES-III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, J M; Borrell, L N; Papapanou, P N; Elkind, M S V; Scarmeas, N; Wright, C B

    2011-01-01

    Background Periodontitis is ubiquitous and associated with serological evidence of exposure to periodontal organisms, systemic inflammation and vascular disease. Dementia is a major public health problem likely related to a complex interaction between genetics and diseases associated with systemic inflammation, including diabetes, smoking and stroke. Methods To assess relationships between systemic exposure to periodontal pathogens and cognitive test outcomes, data were analysed from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-III), a nationally representative cross sectional observational study among older adults. We included 2355 participants ≥60 years who completed measures of cognition and Poryphyromonas gingivalis IgG. Using SUDAAN, logistic regression models examined the association of P gingivalis IgG with cognitive test performance. Results Poor immediate verbal memory (119 ELISA Units (EU)) were more likely to have poor delayed verbal recall (OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.14 to 7.29) and impaired subtraction (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.22 to 3.11) than those with the lowest (≤57 EU), with dose–response relationships for both (p trend, delayed memory=0.045, subtraction=0.04). After adjusting for socioeconomic and vascular variables, these relationships remained robust for the highest P gingivalis IgG group (delayed verbal memory OR 3.01 (95% CI 1.06 to 8.53); subtraction OR 2.00 (95% CI 1.19 to 3.36)). In contrast, immediate verbal memory was not significantly associated with P gingivalis. Conclusion A serological marker of periodontitis is associated with impaired delayed memory and calculation. Further exploration of relationships between oral health and cognition is warranted. PMID:19419981

  1. Language as a determinant of participation rates in Finnish health examination surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Hanna; Koponen, Päivikki; Borodulin, Katja; Männistö, Satu; Peltonen, Markku; Vartiainen, Erkki

    2017-08-01

    A high participation rate is considered as a prerequisite for representative survey results, especially when it is known that non-participation is selective. In many countries migration is increasing and the proportion of people speaking other language(s) than the official language(s) of the country is also increasing. How does this affect survey participation rates? Data from four cross-sectional health examination surveys (the FINRISK Study) were used to evaluate the effect of the registered mother tongue to participation in the survey. Finland has two official languages (Finnish and Swedish). Between 1997 and 2012, the proportion of the population with some other language as their registered mother tongue has increased significantly. Participation rates in the health surveys have been highest among the Finnish language group (68% in men in 1997 and 76% in women in 1997), while lowest among the foreign language group (43% in men in 1997 and 57% in women in 1997). In 2012, the participation rates had declined in all language groups: for men, 58%, 62% and 41% for Finnish, Swedish and foreign groups respectively, and for women 68%, 75% and 56%. The participation rate for the foreign language group was significantly lower than for the Finnish and Swedish groups. In future surveys it will be important to include actions to promote participation, e.g. providing survey material in several languages. These actions will increase costs but will be essential to ensure high participation rates and reliable results for the total population.

  2. The associations between blood lipids and the Food Guide Pyramid: findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tande, Desiree L; Hotchkiss, Larry; Cotugna, Nancy

    2004-04-01

    Dietary recommendations are based on nutrients, foods, and food groups, but the relationship between the Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) food groups and serum lipids has not been studied. NHANES III data were obtained for US adults who met the following criteria: aged 20-59 years, reliable participant, and typical 24-h recall. We examined whether serum lipids (serum total cholesterol (STC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triacylglycerol) were related to FGP food group intake (dairy, fruit, grain, meat, and vegetable). A sample of 9111 participants qualified for this analysis. Fruit intakes were inversely related to STC, HDL-C, and LDL-C (P = 0.012, P = 0.001, and P = 0.014, respectively) and directly related to triacylglycerol levels (P = 0.003). Grain intake was inversely associated with both STC and HDL-C (P = 0.020 and P = 0.000). Dairy and meat intakes were directly related to LDL-C (P = 0.026 and P = 0.020). Food groups are related to serum lipids. Universal definitions for food groups are needed in research and nutrition education. Studying the relationships between food groups and serum lipids is important for future dietary recommendations related to serum lipids.

  3. Self-reported smoking in online surveys: prevalence estimate validity and item format effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Jonathan D; Thomas, Randall K; Sutter, Erika J

    2007-07-01

    We assessed validity of self-reported smoking prevalence estimates from an online sample, and explored the impact of different item response formats on estimates. Self-reported current smoking status was obtained from 110,837 respondents from the Harris Poll Online (HPOL) panel from April 2004 to January 2005. Current smoking prevalence was compared with national estimates from the 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), 2003 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), and 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). All estimates were weighted to reflect the US population. A separate survey section measured smoking prevalence using randomly assigned response formats, including yes/no grid, multiple response, numeric box, category grid, and drop-down box formats. 24.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 23.7-24.4) of HPOL respondents reported current smoking. BRFSS, NHIS, and NHANES estimates found 20.9%, 21.5% (95% CI = 20.9-22.1), and 24.9% (95% CI = 22.4-27.5), respectively, reporting current smoking. An additional 4.5% of NHANES respondents reporting not smoking had cotinine levels > or =15 ng/mL, indicating current smoking. Estimates of smoking prevalence varied by prevalence period and response format. Prevalence estimates obtained from the HPOL panel are comparable to those from national surveys. Online response format choices result in variation in estimated behavioral prevalence. Online surveys may be useful for public health surveillance of the US population.

  4. Recent Fast Food Consumption and Bisphenol A and Phthalates Exposures among the U.S. Population in NHANES, 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zota, Ami R; Phillips, Cassandra A; Mitro, Susanna D

    2016-10-01

    Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) are widely used industrial chemicals that may adversely impact human health. Human exposure is ubiquitous and can occur through diet, including consumption of processed or packaged food. To examine associations between recent fast food intake and BPA and urinary metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (ΣDEHPm) and diisononyl phthalate (DiNPm) among the U.S. We combined data on 8,877 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003-2010). Using 24-hr dietary recall data, we quantified: a) fast food intake [percent of total energy intake (TEI) from fast food]; b) fast food-derived fat intake (percent of TEI from fat in fast food); and c) fast food intake by food group (dairy, eggs, grains, meat, and other). We examined associations between dietary exposures and urinary chemical concentrations using multivariate linear regression. We observed evidence of a positive, dose-response relationship between fast food intake and exposure to phthalates (p-trend fast food) had 23.8% (95% CI: 11.9%, 36.9%) and 39.0% (95% CI: 21.9%, 58.5%) higher levels of ΣDEHPm and DiNPm, respectively, than nonconsumers. Fast food-derived fat intake was also positively associated with ΣDEHPm and DiNPm (p-trend food groups, ΣDEHPm was associated with grain and other intake, and DiNPm was associated with meat and grain intake. Fast food may be a source of exposure to DEHP and DiNP. These results, if confirmed, could inform individual and regulatory exposure reduction strategies. Zota AR, Phillips CA, Mitro SD. 2016. Recent fast food consumption and bisphenol A and phthalates exposures among the U.S. population in NHANES, 2003-2010. Environ Health Perspect 124:1521-1528; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510803.

  5. Recent Fast Food Consumption and Bisphenol A and Phthalates Exposures among the U.S. Population in NHANES, 2003–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zota, Ami R.; Phillips, Cassandra A.; Mitro, Susanna D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) are widely used industrial chemicals that may adversely impact human health. Human exposure is ubiquitous and can occur through diet, including consumption of processed or packaged food. Objective: To examine associations between recent fast food intake and BPA and urinary metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (ΣDEHPm) and diisononyl phthalate (DiNPm) among the U.S. population. Methods: We combined data on 8,877 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003–2010). Using 24-hr dietary recall data, we quantified: a) fast food intake [percent of total energy intake (TEI) from fast food]; b) fast food-derived fat intake (percent of TEI from fat in fast food); and c) fast food intake by food group (dairy, eggs, grains, meat, and other). We examined associations between dietary exposures and urinary chemical concentrations using multivariate linear regression. Results: We observed evidence of a positive, dose–response relationship between fast food intake and exposure to phthalates (p-trend fast food) had 23.8% (95% CI: 11.9%, 36.9%) and 39.0% (95% CI: 21.9%, 58.5%) higher levels of ΣDEHPm and DiNPm, respectively, than nonconsumers. Fast food-derived fat intake was also positively associated with ΣDEHPm and DiNPm (p-trend food groups, ΣDEHPm was associated with grain and other intake, and DiNPm was associated with meat and grain intake. Conclusion: Fast food may be a source of exposure to DEHP and DiNP. These results, if confirmed, could inform individual and regulatory exposure reduction strategies. Citation: Zota AR, Phillips CA, Mitro SD. 2016. Recent fast food consumption and bisphenol A and phthalates exposures among the U.S. population in NHANES, 2003–2010. Environ Health Perspect 124:1521–1528; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510803 PMID:27072648

  6. An overview of the European Health Examination Survey Pilot Joint Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuulasmaa, Kari; Tolonen, Hanna; Koponen, Päivikki; Kilpeläinen, Katri; Avdicová, Mária; Broda, Grazyna; Calleja, Neville; Dias, Carlos; Gösswald, Antje; Kubinova, Ruzena; Mindell, Jennifer; Männistö, Satu; Palmieri, Luigi; Tell, Grethe S; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Verschuren, Wm Monique

    2012-08-28

    Health Examination Surveys (HESs) can provide essential information on the health and health determinants of a population, which is not available from other data sources. Nevertheless, only some European countries have systems of national HESs. A study conducted in 2006-2008 concluded that it is feasible to organize national HESs using standardized measurement procedures in nearly all EU countries. The feasibility study also outlined a structure for a European Health Examination Survey (EHES), which is a collaboration to organize standardized HESs in countries across Europe.To facilitate setting up national surveys and to gain experience in applying the EHES methods in different cultures, EHES Joint Action (2010-2011) planned and piloted standardized HESs in the working age population in 12 countries. This included countries with earlier national HESs and countries which were planning their first national HES. The core measurements included in all surveys were weight, height, waist circumference and blood pressure, and blood samples were taken to measure lipid profiles and glucose or glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). These are modifiable determinants of major chronic diseases not identified in health interview surveys. There was a questionnaire to complement the data on the examination measurements. Evaluation of the pilot surveys was based on review of national manuals and evaluation reports of survey organizers; observations and discussions of survey procedures during site visits and training seminars; and other communication with the survey organizers. Despite unavoidable differences in the ways HESs are organized in the various countries, high quality and comparability of the data seems achievable. The biggest challenge in each country was obtaining high participation rate. Most of the pilot countries are now ready to start their full-size national HES, and six of them have already started. The EHES Pilot Project has set up the structure for obtaining comparable

  7. Relationship Between Frequent Recreational Cannabis (Marijuana and Hashish) Use and Periodontitis in Adults in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Jaffer A; Ahluwalia, Kavita P; Papapanou, Panos N

    2017-03-01

    Recreational use of cannabis, following its legalization in some countries, poses emergent oral and periodontal health concerns. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between frequent recreational cannabis (FRC) (marijuana and hashish) use and periodontitis prevalence among adults in the United States. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011 to 2012 were analyzed. Primary outcome (periodontitis) was defined using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/American Academy of Periodontology classification as well as continuous measurements of probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment loss (AL). Exposure of interest was self-reported cannabis use, defined as "FRC use" versus "non-FRC use." Bivariate and multivariable regression models were performed using the entire analytical sample (model 1) as well as those who had never used tobacco (never-users) (model 2). Of 1,938 participants with available cannabis use data and essential covariates, 26.8% were FRC users. Mean number of sites per participant with PD ≥4, ≥6, and ≥8 mm and AL ≥3, ≥5, and ≥8 mm was significantly higher among FRC users than among non-FRC users (mean difference in number of PD sites: 6.9, 5.6, and 5.6; P <0.05; mean difference in number of AL sites: 12.7, 7.6, and 5.6; P <0.05). Average AL was higher among FRC users than among non-FRC users (1.8 versus 1.6 mm; P = 0.004). Bivariate analysis revealed positive (harmful) association between FRC use and severe periodontitis in the entire sample (odds ratio [OR]: 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3 to 2.4; P = 0.002) as well as in never-smokers (OR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.2 to 3.5; P = 0.01). This association was retained in multivariable models adjusted for demographics (age, sex, race/ethnicity, and income level), alcohol and tobacco use, diabetes mellitus, and past periodontal treatment (model 1: adjusted OR [aOR]: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1 to 1.9; P = 0.07; model 2: aOR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1

  8. Ten-year trends in fiber and whole grain intakes and food sources for the United States population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Carla R; Fulgoni, Victor L; Devareddy, Latha

    2015-02-09

    Current U.S. dietary guidance includes recommendations to increase intakes of both dietary fiber and whole grain (WG). This study examines fiber and WG intakes, food sources and trends from 2001 to 2010 based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data for children/adolescents (n=14,973) and adults (n=24,809). Mean fiber intake for children/adolescents was 13.2 (±0.1) g/day. Mean fiber intake for adults 19-50 years (y) was 16.1 (±0.2) g/day and for adults 51+ was 16.1 (±0.2) g/day. There were significant increases in fiber intake from 2001-2010 for children/adolescents and for adults 51+y. Mean WG intake for children/adolescents was 0.52 (±0.01) oz eq/day. Mean WG intake for adults 19-50 y was 0.61 (±0.02) oz eq/day and for adults 51+0.86 (±0.02) oz eq/day. There were no significant changes in WG intake for any age group from 2001-2010. The main food groups contributing to dietary fiber intake for children/adolescents were vegetables (16.6%), grain mixtures (16.3%), other foods (15.8%) and fruits (11.3%). For adults 19+y, the main sources of dietary fiber were vegetables (22.6%), other foods (14.3%), grain mixtures (12.0%) and fruits (11.1%). Major WG sources for children/adolescents included ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) (31%), yeast breads/rolls (21%) and crackers and salty grain snacks (21%). The main sources of WG for adults 19+ were yeast breads/rolls (27%), RTEC (23%) and pastas/cooked cereals/rice (21%). Recommending cereals, breads and grain mixtures with higher contents of both dietary fiber and WG, along with consumer education, could increase intakes among the United States (U.S.) population.

  9. Ten-Year Trends in Fiber and Whole Grain Intakes and Food Sources for the United States Population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla R. McGill

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Current U.S. dietary guidance includes recommendations to increase intakes of both dietary fiber and whole grain (WG. This study examines fiber and WG intakes, food sources and trends from 2001 to 2010 based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES data for children/adolescents (n = 14,973 and adults (n = 24,809. Mean fiber intake for children/adolescents was 13.2 (±0.1 g/day. Mean fiber intake for adults 19–50 years (y was 16.1 (±0.2 g/day and for adults 51+ was 16.1 (±0.2 g/day. There were significant increases in fiber intake from 2001–2010 for children/adolescents and for adults 51+ y. Mean WG intake for children/adolescents was 0.52 (±0.01 oz eq/day. Mean WG intake for adults 19–50 y was 0.61 (±0.02 oz eq/day and for adults 51+ 0.86 (±0.02 oz eq/day. There were no significant changes in WG intake for any age group from 2001–2010. The main food groups contributing to dietary fiber intake for children/adolescents were vegetables (16.6%, grain mixtures (16.3%, other foods (15.8% and fruits (11.3%. For adults 19+ y, the main sources of dietary fiber were vegetables (22.6%, other foods (14.3%, grain mixtures (12.0% and fruits (11.1%. Major WG sources for children/adolescents included ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC (31%, yeast breads/rolls (21% and crackers and salty grain snacks (21%. The main sources of WG for adults 19+ were yeast breads/rolls (27%, RTEC (23% and pastas/cooked cereals/rice (21%. Recommending cereals, breads and grain mixtures with higher contents of both dietary fiber and WG, along with consumer education, could increase intakes among the United States (U.S. population.

  10. Consumption of Low-Calorie Sweetened Beverages Compared to Water Is Associated with Reduced Intake of Carbohydrates and Sugar, with No Adverse Relationships to Glycemic Responses: Results from the 2001-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Marge; Ratliff, Joseph C; Riedt, Claudia S; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2017-08-24

    Although the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee concluded that there was moderate evidence that substituting sugar-containing sweeteners with low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) reduces calorie intake and weight, dietary recommendations encourage substituting only water for sugar-sweetened beverages during weight management. This cross-sectional study evaluated the relation of water and no- and low-calorie sweetened beverage (LCSB) intake with nutrient intakes and prediabetes criteria using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2012 in 25,817 adults that were free of diabetes. Although linear trends were observed with both beverages, higher LCSB intake was associated with significantly lower consumption of carbohydrates (-9.1 g/day vs. -1.4 g/day), total sugars (-10.9 g/day vs. -2.2 g/day), and added sugars (-2.0 tsp eq vs. -0.8 tsp eq) than those associated with higher water intake. Higher intake of both beverages was significantly associated with lower insulin levels (p sugars and carbohydrate intake, with no adverse associations to measures of glycemic response.

  11. Differences in the association of cardiovascular risk factors with education: a comparison of Costa Rica (CRELES) and the USA (NHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehkopf, David H; Dow, William H; Rosero-Bixby, Luis

    2010-09-01

    Despite different levels of economic development, Costa Rica and the USA have similar mortalities among adults. However, in the USA there are substantial differences in mortality by educational attainment, and in Costa Rica there are only minor differences. This contrast motivates an examination of behavioural and biological correlates underlying this difference. The authors used data on adults aged 60 and above from the Costa Rican Longevity and Healthy Ageing Study (CRELES) (n=2827) and from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (n=5607) to analyse the cross-sectional association between educational level and the following risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD): ever smoked, current smoker, sedentary, high saturated fat, high carbohydrates, high calorie diet, obesity, severe obesity, large waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, hemoglobin A1c, fasting glucose, C-reactive protein, systolic blood pressure and BMI. There were significantly fewer hazardous levels of risk biomarkers at higher levels of education for more than half (10 out of 17) of the risk factors in the USA, but for less than a third of the outcomes in Costa Rica (five out of 17). These results are consistent with the context-specific nature of educational differences in risk factors for CVD and with a non-uniform nature of association of CVD risk factors with education within countries. Our results also demonstrate that social equity in mortality is achieved without uniform equity in all risk factors.

  12. A Study to Examine Differences Between In Person and Online Survey Data Collection Methodologies.

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    ROBERT CASE,

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine differences between the results of an in person or face-to-face direct spending survey and a post-event online direct spending survey. Participants in a large annual marathon held in the Mid-Atlantic Region of the United States were used as subjects for the study. The research methodology selected for this study included an in person survey instrument administered to out-of-town marathon participants prior to the start of the event during the race number and race timing chip pick-up period. The same survey instrument was administered online four days after the conclusion of the marathon to the same group of out-of-town marathon participants who did not previously respond to the in person survey. Analysis of data and results revealed that average direct spending for the online respondents was consistently and significantly higher than spending for the in person respondents on direct spending questions. Spending on lodging for both groups showed no significant differences. It was recommended that the use of online survey methods be considered when conducting direct spending studies for participant oriented sporting events when adequate e-mail addresses are available and the potential respondents have a certain level of computer literacy.

  13. An examination of responses to surveys among Filipino-Australian migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneze, Della; Everett, Bronwyn; DiGiacomo, Michelle; Davidson, Patricia M; Salamonson, Yenna

    2016-11-18

    Background Surveys are frequently used to collect data. Although paper surveys are commonly used, online surveys are gaining in popularity, with the inclusion of open-ended questions (OEQs) allowing respondents to freely express their views. Little is known about how Filipino-Australian migrants respond to surveys. There is some concern about the usefulness of OEQs administered to culturally and linguistically diverse migrants, who may have limited capacity to articulate their thoughts in writing. Aim To examine the responses of Filipino-Australian migrants to a survey. Discussion A total of 552 respondents were recruited, of whom 428 (78%) completed the questionnaire online. The overall response rate to the OEQs was 69%, with higher completion rates among those given a paper-based questionnaire and those with university educations. Conclusion Filipino migrants with functional English language skills responded well to the online survey. Paper-based administration elicited more OEQ responses, which is attributed to greater interaction between participants and researchers. Those with university educations may have more capacity to express themselves in English and were therefore more likely to complete the OEQs. Implications for practice The high response rate obtained in this study suggests that among Filipino-Australian migrants who rated their English language skills and educational level highly, the translation of OEQs may not be necessary. This has important implications for resources in research. Face-to-face interaction between participants and researchers is an important strategy for increasing the rates of response to OEQs.

  14. Laboratorial training of examiners for using a visual caries detection system in epidemiological surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesan, Chaiana; Moro, Bruna Lp; Lara, Juan S; Ardenghi, Thiago M; Guedes, Renata S; Haddad, Ana E; Braga, Mariana M; Mendes, Fausto M

    2013-10-03

    In epidemiological surveys, a good reliability among the examiners regarding the caries detection method is essential. However, training and calibrating those examiners is an arduous task because it involves several patients who are examined many times. To facilitate this step, we aimed to propose a laboratory methodology to simulate the examinations performed to detect caries lesions using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) in epidemiological surveys. A benchmark examiner conducted all training sessions. A total of 67 exfoliated primary teeth, varying from sound to extensive cavitated, were set in seven arch models to simulate complete mouths in primary dentition. Sixteen examiners (graduate students) evaluated all surfaces of the teeth under illumination using buccal mirrors and ball-ended probe in two occasions, using only coronal primary caries scores of the ICDAS. As reference standard, two different examiners assessed the proximal surfaces by direct visual inspection, classifying them in sound, with non-cavitated or with cavitated lesions. After, teeth were sectioned in the bucco-lingual direction, and the examiners assessed the sections in stereomicroscope, classifying the occlusal and smooth surfaces according to lesion depth. Inter-examiner reproducibility was evaluated using weighted kappa. Sensitivities and specificities were calculated at two thresholds: all lesions and advanced lesions (cavitated lesions in proximal surfaces and lesions reaching the dentine in occlusal and smooth surfaces). Regarding the reproducibility, the mean (range) of kappa values was 0.781 (0.529-0.927) for occlusal surfaces, 0.568 (0.191-0.881) for smooth surfaces, and 0.844 (0.698-0.971) for proximal surfaces. Considering all lesions, sensitivity and specificity mean values were respectively 0.724 and 0.844 for occlusal, 0.635 and 0.943 for smooth and 0.658 and 0.927 for proximal surfaces. For detecting advanced lesions, sensitivities and

  15. Population stratification in the context of diverse epidemiologic surveys sans genome-wide data

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    Matthew T. Oetjens

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Population stratification or confounding by genetic ancestry is a potential cause of false associations in genetic association studies. Estimation of and adjustment for genetic ancestry has become common practice thanks in part to the availability of ancestry informative markers on genome-wide association study (GWAS arrays. While array data is now widespread, these data are not ubiquitous as several large epidemiologic and clinic-based studies lack genome-wide data. One such large epidemiologic-based study lacking genome-wide data accessible to investigators is the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES, population-based cross-sectional surveys of Americans linked to demographic, health, and lifestyle data conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. DNA samples (n=14,998 were extracted from biospecimens from consented NHANES participants between 1991-1994 (NHANES III, phase 2 and 1999-2002 and represent three major self-identified racial/ethnic groups: non-Hispanic whites (n=6,634, non-Hispanic blacks (n=3,458, and Mexican Americans (n=3,950. We as the Epidemiologic Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE study genotyped candidate gene and GWAS-identified index variants in NHANES as part of the larger Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE I study for collaborative genetic association studies. To enable basic quality control such as estimation of genetic ancestry to control for population stratification in NHANES san genome-wide data, we outline here strategies that use limited genetic data to identify the markers optimal for characterizing genetic ancestry. From among 411 and 295 autosomal SNPs available in NHANES III and NHANES 1999-2002, we demonstrate that markers with ancestry information can be identified to estimate global ancestry. Despite limited resolution, global genetic ancestry is highly correlated with self-identified race for the majority of participants

  16. Away from home meals: associations with biomarkers of chronic disease and dietary intake in American adults, NHANES 2005-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ashima K.; Whitley, Melanie I.; Graubard, Barry I.

    2014-01-01

    Background Away from home (AFH) meals are known to be energy-dense and of poor diet quality. Both direct and indirect exposure (e.g., neighborhood restaurant density) to AFH meals have been implicated as contributors to higher body weight and adverse health outcomes. Objective To examine the association of frequency of eating AFH and fast-food meals with biomarkers of chronic disease and dietary intake. Design This cross-sectional study used frequency of AFH and fast-food meal and biomarker data from the NHANES 2005-2010. Information on weekly frequency of AFH and fast-food meals was collected via questionnaire during the household interview. The metabolic biomarkers examined included BMI, serum cholesterol (total, HDL, and LDL), triglycerides, glycohemoglobin, and fasting glucose (n=8314, age ≥20, NHANES 2007-2010). Biomarkers of dietary exposure included serum concentrations of vitamins A, D, E, C, B-6, B-12, folate, and carotenoids (n=4162; 2005-2006). Multiple linear and logistic regression methods adjusted for complex survey methodology and covariates. Results American adults reported a mean of 3.9 (95% CI 3.7, 4.0) AFH and 1.8 (1.6, 1.9) fast-food meals/week. Over 50% of adults reported ≥3 AFH and >35% reported ≥2 fast-food meals/week. Mean BMI of more frequent AFH or fast-food meal reporters was higher (Ptrend≤0.0004). Serum concentrations of total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol were related inversely with frequency of AFH meals (P<0.05). Frequency of fast-food meals and serum HDL-cholesterol were also related inversely (P=0.0001). Serum concentrations of all examined micronutrients (except vitamin A and lycopene) declined with increasing frequency of AFH meals (P<0.05); women and ≥50 y olds were at higher risk. Conclusions Reporters of frequent AFH and fast-food meals had higher BMI and lower concentrations of HDL cholesterol; but profiles of other biomarkers did not indicate higher metabolic risk. However, the serum concentrations of nutrients with

  17. The Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008 (DANHES 2007-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Louise; Grønbæk, Morten; Helge, Jørn Wulff; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Curtis, Tine

    2011-03-01

    The Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES 2007-2008) was carried out by the National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, in 13 Danish municipalities in 2007-2008. The focus of the survey was diet, smoking, alcohol, and physical activity. The aim of the survey was to establish a research database for future cross-sectional and follow-up studies. DANHES 2007-2008 included internet-based questionnaires and a health examination. There were two different questionnaires: a basic questionnaire on socio-demography, health behaviour, self-reported health status, and living conditions, and a supplementary food frequency questionnaire. The health examination contained measurements of blood pressure, resting heart rate, height, weight, fat percentage, waist and hip circumference, blood and hair samples, spirometry, bone mineral density, physical performance, muscle strength, and aerobic fitness. A total of 76,484 people completed the basic questionnaire, and 18,065 adult individuals participated in the health examination, corresponding to a response rate of 14% and a participation rate of 10%, respectively. The database from DANHES 2007-2008 is unique in its size and diversity of measurements and questionnaire contents. Data can be linked to various registers through the Danish civil registration system, and blood samples are stored in a biobank allowing for genetic analyses. Hence, DANHES 2007-2008 forms the basis for future research projects with a focus on health behaviour and prevention of lifestyle-related diseases.

  18. Role of Caffeine Intake on Erectile Dysfunction in US Men: Results from NHANES 2001-2004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Lopez

    Full Text Available Caffeine is consumed by more than 85% of adults and little is known about its role on erectile dysfunction (ED in population-based studies. We investigated the association of caffeine intake and caffeinated beverages with ED, and whether these associations vary among comorbidities for ED.Data were analyzed for 3724 men (≥20 years old who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES. ED was assessed by a single question during a self-paced, computer-assisted self-interview. We analyzed 24-h dietary recall data to estimate caffeine intake (mg/day. Multivariable logistic regression analyses using appropriate sampling weights were conducted.We found that men in the 3rd (85-170 mg/day and 4th (171-303 mg/day quintiles of caffeine intake were less likely to report ED compared to men in the lowest 1st quintile (0-7 mg/day [OR: 0.58; 95% CI, 0.37-0.89; and OR: 0.61; 95% CI, 0.38-0.97, respectively], but no evidence for a trend. Similarly, among overweight/obese and hypertensive men, there was an inverse association between higher quintiles of caffeine intake and ED compared to men in the lowest 1st quintile, P≤0.05 for each quintile. However, only among men without diabetes we found a similar inverse association (Ptrend = 0.01.Caffeine intake reduced the odds of prevalent ED, especially an intake equivalent to approximately 2-3 daily cups of coffee (170-375 mg/day. This reduction was also observed among overweight/obese and hypertensive, but not among diabetic men. Yet, these associations are warranted to be investigated in prospective studies.

  19. Association between serum antibodies to periodontal bacteria and rheumatoid factor in NHANES III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Charlene E.; Kopp, Jacob; Papapanou, Panos N.; Molitor, Jerry A.; Demmer, Ryan T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Alterations in the microbiome, including the periodontal microbiome, may be a risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Most studies that have analyzed this association are relatively small, focus primarily on a single periodontal pathogen (Porphyromonas gingivalis), and are not population-based. We investigated the association between elevated serum IgG antibodies to 19 periodontal species and the prevalence of rheumatoid factor (RF) in a large nationally representative sample of adults. Methods The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey is a cross-sectional sample of the non-institutionalized US population (n=33,994). Our study population included all dentate participants ≥60 years, who did not have RA as defined by a modified version of the American College of Rheumatology 1987 criteria, and had complete data for both serum IgG antibodies against periodontal bacteria and serum RF antibody titer (n=2461). Results Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) (95% CI) summarizing the relationship between the 19 periodontal serum IgGs and RF seropositivity ranged from 0.53 (0.29, 0.97) to 1.27 (0.79, 2.06), and 17 of the 19 observed ORs were < 1.0. The ORs for RF seropositivity among participants with elevated Prevotella intermedia [0.53 (0.29, 0.97)] and Capnocytophaga ochracea [0.54 (0.31, 0.95)] IgG were statistically significant. Conclusion We have found elevated periodontal IgGs to be mostly unassociated with RF seropositivity in the nationally representative NHANES III. Elevated antibody levels to P. intermedia and C. ochracea were associated with lower odds of RF seropositivity. PMID:27110949

  20. Association of high blood pressure with renal insufficiency: role of albuminuria, from NHANES, 1999-2006.

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    Ping Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The relationship between hypertension and kidney disease is complicated. Clinical trials found intense blood pressure control was not associated with alterations in glomerular filtration rate (GFR in all patients but did slow the rate of GFR decline among those with a higher baseline proteinuria. However, the underlying mechanism has been unclear. METHODS: We tested the hypothesis that the association between high blood pressure and renal function is modified by albuminuria status by conducting analyses in a cross-sectional study with 12,440 adult participants without known kidney diseases, diabetes or cardiovascular diseases, participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2006. RESULTS: 1226 out of 12440 were found to have unknown high blood pressure and 4494 were found to have reduced renal function. Overall, a moderate association was found between high blood pressure and renal function insufficiency in all participants analyzed. However, among participants with albuminuria, the prevalence of moderate-severe renal insufficiency substantially and progressively increased from normal subjects to prehypertensive and undiagnosed hypertensive subjects (1.43%, 3.44%, 10.96%, respectively, P for trend<0.0001; on the other hand, the prevalence of undiagnosed hypertension was also significantly higher among subjects with moderate-severe renal insufficiency than those with mild renal insufficiency (35.54% Vs 19.09%, P value <0.05, supporting an association between hypertension and renal function damage. In contrast, no association between hypertension and renal insufficiency was observed among those without albuminuria in this population. Similar findings were observed when the CKD-EPI equation was used. CONCLUSIONS: The association between high blood pressure and reduced renal function could be dependent upon the albuminuria status. This finding may provide a possible explanation for results observed in

  1. Negative association between acrylamide exposure and body composition in adults: NHANES, 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, P-L; Lin, L-Y; Chen, P-C; Su, T-C; Lin, C-Y

    2017-03-13

    Acrylamide is present in mainstream cigarette smoke and in some food prepared at high temperature. Animal studies have shown that acrylamide exposure reduces body weight. Prenatal exposure to acrylamide also has been linked to reduced birth weight in human. Whether acrylamide exposure is associated with altered body compositions in adults is not clear. We selected 3623 subjects (aged ⩾20 years) from a National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 2003-2004 to determine the relationship among hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide (HbAA), hemoglobin adducts of glycidamide (HbGA) and body composition (body measures, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)). Data were adjusted for potential confounding variables. The geometric means and 95% CI concentrations of HbAA and HbGA were 60.48 (59.32-61.65) pmol/g Hb and 55.64 (54.40-56.92) pmol/g Hb, respectively. After weighting for sampling strategy, we identified that one-unit increase in natural log-HbAA, but not HbGA, was associated with reduction in body measures (body weight, body mass index (BMI), subscapular/triceps skinfold), parameters of BIA (fat-free mass, fat mass, percent body fat, total body water) and parameters of DXA (android fat mass, android percent fat, gynoid fat/lean mass, gynoid percent mass, android to gynoid ratio). Subgroup analysis showed that these associations were more evident in subjects at younger age, male gender, whites, lower education level, active smokers and those with lower BMI. Higher concentrations of HbAA are associated with a decrease in body composition in the US general population. Further studies are warranted to clarify this association.

  2. Inappropriate survey design analysis of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey may produce biased results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yangho; Park, Sunmin; Kim, Nam-Soo; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2013-03-01

    The inherent nature of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) design requires special analysis by incorporating sample weights, stratification, and clustering not used in ordinary statistical procedures. This study investigated the proportion of research papers that have used an appropriate statistical methodology out of the research papers analyzing the KNHANES cited in the PubMed online system from 2007 to 2012. We also compared differences in mean and regression estimates between the ordinary statistical data analyses without sampling weight and design-based data analyses using the KNHANES 2008 to 2010. Of the 247 research articles cited in PubMed, only 19.8% of all articles used survey design analysis, compared with 80.2% of articles that used ordinary statistical analysis, treating KNHANES data as if it were collected using a simple random sampling method. Means and standard errors differed between the ordinary statistical data analyses and design-based analyses, and the standard errors in the design-based analyses tended to be larger than those in the ordinary statistical data analyses. Ignoring complex survey design can result in biased estimates and overstated significance levels. Sample weights, stratification, and clustering of the design must be incorporated into analyses to ensure the development of appropriate estimates and standard errors of these estimates.

  3. Validation of a survey to examine drinking-water access, practices and policies in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Amelie A; Grumbach, Jacob M; Hampton, Karla E; Hecht, Kenneth; Braff-Guajardo, Ellen; Brindis, Claire D; McCulloch, Charles E; Patel, Anisha I

    2017-12-01

    Ensuring ready access to free drinking-water in schools is an important strategy for prevention of obesity and dental caries, and for improving student learning. Yet to date, there are no validated instruments to examine water access in schools. The present study aimed to develop and validate a survey of school administrators to examine school access to beverages, including water and sports drinks, and school and district-level water-related policies and practices. Survey validity was measured by comparing results of telephone surveys of school administrators with on-site observations of beverage access and reviews of school policy documents for any references to beverages. The semi-structured telephone survey included items about free drinking-water access (sixty-four items), commonly available competitive beverages (twenty-nine items) and water-related policies and practices (twenty-eight items). Agreement between administrator surveys and observation/document review was calculated using kappa statistics for categorical variables, and Pearson correlation coefficients and t tests for continuous variables. Public schools in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, USA. School administrators (n 24). Eighty-one per cent of questions related to school beverage access yielded κ values indicating substantial or almost perfect agreement (κ>0·60). However, only one of twenty-eight questions related to drinking-water practices and policies yielded a κ value representing substantial or almost perfect agreement. This school administrator survey appears reasonably valid for questions related to beverage access, but less valid for questions on water-related practices and policies. This tool provides policy makers, researchers and advocates with a low-cost, efficient method to gather national data on school-level beverage access.

  4. [The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS): data management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dölle, R; Schaffrath Rosario, A; Stolzenberg, H

    2007-01-01

    In the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), comprehensive, nationwide representative data on the state of health of children and adolescents were collected for the first time. During the 3-year data collection phase of the survey, 17,641 subjects were examined and interviewed and approx. 1,500 items were recorded. Data management was not limited to survey data collection, administration and quality assurance alone, but also comprised the provision of tools for the management and control of process data, as well as for managing survey-specific business processes. In the context of the KiGGS study, numerous components for supporting the extensive and complex processes were developed for the study staff. Here the primary focus was on subject and sample point administration, scheduling, sampling, reporting, field logistics and laboratory data management. Thanks to the computer-based processing of routine tasks involved in the organisation of the field work, ease of work and project progress control were enhanced significantly. To some extent, KiGGS-specific components have already been used in other studies and only minor adaptations were needed for the transfer. The main emphasis with regards to survey data management was on the standardisation of methods for data processing, data control and data cleaning. Here, a wealth of previous experiences was available as a starting point. The established quality assurance methods were standardised to a large extent and partly automated and complemented by data base tools for the management and documentation of survey instruments and quality assurance measures. All these measures combined made it possible to provide data users with a controlled and cleaned final data set, including a detailed documentation.

  5. Nicotine and Toxicant Exposure Among US Smokeless Tobacco Users: Results from 1999-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostron, Brian L.; Chang, Cindy M.; van Bemmel, Dana M.; Xia, Yang; Blount, Benjamin C.

    2016-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that smokeless tobacco users have high levels of exposure to nicotine and some toxic substances as measured by biomarker concentrations, but studies with nationally representative data have been limited. Methods We analyzed biomarkers of tobacco exposure for 23,684 adult participants from the National Health and Nutrition and Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999-2012. The biomarkers analyzed were serum cotinine, urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), blood lead, blood cadmium, blood mercury, urinary arsenic, and urinary N-acetyl-S-(2-cyanoethyl)-L-cysteine (CYMA). We calculated geometric mean concentrations for each biomarker by tobacco use category (exclusive smokeless tobacco use, exclusive cigarette smoking, dual cigarette and smokeless tobacco use, and non-cigarette and smokeless tobacco use) and geometric mean ratios adjusting for demographic factors. Results Exclusive smokeless tobacco users had higher geometric mean concentrations of cotinine (178.9 ng/mL, 95% CI = 145.5, 220.0) and NNAL (583.0 pg/mg creatinine, 95% CI = 445.2, 763.5) than exclusive cigarette smokers, (130.6 ng/mL, 95% CI = 122.3, 139.6 and 217.6 pg/mg creatinine, 95% CI = 193.0, 245.2, respectively). Smokeless tobacco users also had higher concentrations of blood lead compared with non-tobacco users (adjusted geometric mean ratio = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.21, 1.38). Differences in concentrations of cadmium, mercury, and CYMA between smokeless tobacco users and non-tobacco users were not observed. Based on limited sample sizes, NNAL concentrations for smokeless tobacco users appear to have declined from 2007-2008 (geometric mean = 1013.7 pg/mg creatinine, 95% CI = 738.9, 1390.8) to 2011-2012 (geometric mean = 325.7 pg/mg creatinine, 95% CI = 159.6, 664.9). Conclusions Smokeless tobacco users have higher observed levels of exposure to nicotine and carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines, as measured by cotinine and NNAL biomarker

  6. Participation rates by educational levels have diverged during 25 years in Finnish health examination surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinikainen, Jaakko; Tolonen, Hanna; Borodulin, Katja; Härkänen, Tommi; Jousilahti, Pekka; Karvanen, Juha; Koskinen, Seppo; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Männistö, Satu; Rissanen, Harri; Vartiainen, Erkki

    2017-10-03

    Declining participation rates in health examination surveys may impair the representativeness of surveys and introduce bias into the comparison of results between population groups if participation rates differ between them. Changes in the characteristics of non-participants over time may also limit comparability with earlier surveys. We studied the association of socio-economic position with participation, and its changes over the past 25 years. Occupational class and educational level are used as indicators of socio-economic position. Data from six cross-sectional FINRISK surveys conducted between 1987 and 2012 in Finland were linked to national administrative registers, which allowed investigation of the differences between survey participants and non-participants. Our results show that individuals with low occupational class or low level of education were less likely to participate than individuals with high occupational class or high level of education. Participation rates decreased in all subgroups of the population but the decline was fastest among those with low level of education. The differences in participation rates must be taken into account to avoid biased estimates because socio-economic position has also been shown to be strongly related to health, health behaviour and biological risk factors. Particular attention should be paid to the recruitment of the less-educated population groups.

  7. Findings from the oral health study of the Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongstad, Johanne; Ekstrand, Kim; Qvist, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective. The aims of the oral part of the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES 2007-2008) were (1) to establish an oral health database for adult Danes and (2) to explore the influence of general diseases and lifestyle on oral health. This paper presents the study population....... The validated questionnaire and the clinical characteristics enable robust analyses, although the conclusions may be hampered by limited external validity....

  8. Replacing American Breakfast Foods with Ready-To-Eat (RTE Cereals Increases Consumption of Key Food Groups and Nutrients among US Children and Adults: Results of an NHANES Modeling Study

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    Colin D. Rehm

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Replacing the typical American breakfast with ready-to-eat cereals (RTECs may improve diet quality. Our goal was to assess the impact of RTECs on diet quality measures for different age groups, using substitution modeling. Dietary intakes came from the 2007–2010 National Health and Examination Surveys (NHANES; n = 18,112. All breakfast foods, excluding beverages, were replaced on a per calorie basis, with frequency-weighted and age/race specific RTECs. Model 1 replaced foods with RTECs alone; Model 2 replaced foods with RTECs and milk. Diet quality measures were based on desirable food groups and nutrients, Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010 scores, and estimated diet costs. Model 1 diets were significantly higher in whole grains (+84.6%, fiber (+14.3%, vitamin D (+14.0%, iron (+54.5% and folic acid (+104.6%, as compared to observed diets. Model 2 diets were additionally higher in dairy (+15.8%, calcium (+11.3% and potassium (+3.95%. In Model 1, added sugar increased (+5.0%, but solid fats declined (−10.9%. Energy from solid fats and added sugars declined (−3.2% in both models. Model 2 offered higher diet quality (57.1 vs. 54.6, p-value < 0.01 at a lower cost ($6.70 vs. $6.92; p < 0.01, compared to observed diets. Substitution modeling of NHANES data can assess the nutritional and economic impact of dietary guidance.

  9. Replacing American Breakfast Foods with Ready-To-Eat (RTE) Cereals Increases Consumption of Key Food Groups and Nutrients among US Children and Adults: Results of an NHANES Modeling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D; Drewnowski, Adam

    2017-09-13

    Replacing the typical American breakfast with ready-to-eat cereals (RTECs) may improve diet quality. Our goal was to assess the impact of RTECs on diet quality measures for different age groups, using substitution modeling. Dietary intakes came from the 2007-2010 National Health and Examination Surveys (NHANES; n = 18,112). All breakfast foods, excluding beverages, were replaced on a per calorie basis, with frequency-weighted and age/race specific RTECs. Model 1 replaced foods with RTECs alone; Model 2 replaced foods with RTECs and milk. Diet quality measures were based on desirable food groups and nutrients, Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010 scores, and estimated diet costs. Model 1 diets were significantly higher in whole grains (+84.6%), fiber (+14.3%), vitamin D (+14.0%), iron (+54.5%) and folic acid (+104.6%), as compared to observed diets. Model 2 diets were additionally higher in dairy (+15.8%), calcium (+11.3%) and potassium (+3.95%). In Model 1, added sugar increased (+5.0%), but solid fats declined (-10.9%). Energy from solid fats and added sugars declined (-3.2%) in both models. Model 2 offered higher diet quality (57.1 vs. 54.6, p-value < 0.01) at a lower cost ($6.70 vs. $6.92; p < 0.01), compared to observed diets. Substitution modeling of NHANES data can assess the nutritional and economic impact of dietary guidance.

  10. Asian American Dietary Sources of Sodium and Salt Behaviors Compared with Other Racial/ethnic Groups, NHANES, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Melanie J; Beasley, Jeannette M; Kwon, Simona C; Ahn, Jiyoung; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Yi, Stella S

    2017-01-01

    Asian Americans consume more sodium than other racial/ethnic groups. The purpose of this analysis was to describe major sources of sodium intake to inform sodium reduction initiatives. Cross-sectional data on adults (aged >18 years) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2012 with one 24-hour dietary recall were analyzed (n=5,076). Population proportions were calculated from "What We Eat in America" (WWEIA) food categories. Asian Americans had a higher sodium density vs adults of other racial/ethnic groups (means in mg/1000kcal: Asian American, 2031.1; Hispanic,1691.6; White: 1666.5; Black: 1655.5; Pfood categories, in contrast to Hispanics (43.6%), Whites (39.0%), and Blacks (36.0%). Four food categories were a top source of sodium for Hispanics, Whites, Blacks, and others, but not among Asian Americans: cold cuts and cured meats; meat mixed dishes; eggs and omelets; and cheese. The top three food category sources of sodium among Asians were soups, rice, and yeast breads accounting for 28.9% of dietary sodium. Asian Americans were less likely to add salt at the table, but used salt in food preparation 'very often' (P for both ethnic groups with highest consumption in Asian Americans. Given the smaller number of food categories contributing to sodium intake in Asian Americans, results imply that targeted activities on a few food items would have a large impact on reducing sodium intake in this group.

  11. Body mass index, sexual behaviour, and sexually transmitted infections : an analysis using the NHANES 1999–2000 data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernsen Roos MD

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factors determining human sexual behaviour are not completely understood, but are important in the context of sexually transmitted disease epidemiology and prevention. Being obese is commonly associated with a reduced physical attractiveness but the associations between body mass index, sexual behaviour and the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections has never been studied. Methods The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES files of 1999–2000 were used. Linear regression was used to relate the reported number of sex partners in the last year and lifetime to Body Mass Index (BMI. Logistic regression was used to relate Herpes Simplex Virus type II (HSV-2 antibodies to BMI and other variables. Results Data on 979 men and 1250 women were available for analysis. Obese (mean number of partners for men:1.12, women: 0.93 and overweight (mean for men: 1.38, women: 1.03 individuals reported fewer partners than individuals of normal BMI (mean for men:2.00, women: 1.15 in the last year (p Conclusion Obese and overweight individuals, especially men, self report fewer sex partners than individuals of normal weight, but surprisingly this is not reflected in their risk of HSV-2 infection. HSV-2 antibodies provide information not contained in self-reported number of partners and may better estimate sexual risk than self-reported behaviour.

  12. A survey of patient doses from conventional diagnostic radiology examinations: first results from Serbia and Montenegro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciraj, Olivera; Kosutic, Dusko; Kovacevic, Milojko; Markovic, Srpko

    Diagnostic reference levels provide framework to reduce variability. The aim of this study is to establish, for the first time, a baseline for national diagnostic reference levels in Serbia and Montenegro for the most common X-ray examination types. Measurements of patient dose using kerma-area product meter and entrance surface air kerma assessment were performed on at least ten patients for each examination type, in each of 16 randomly selected hospitals in Serbia and Montenegro, so that a total of 3,026 procedures for nine different examination categories were included in the survey. Exposure settings and individual data were recorded for each patient. Mean, median and third quartile values of patient doses are reported. Results have shown wide variation of mean hospital doses, with factor of four for barium enema to 23 for thoracic spine radiography. Entrance surface air kerma were compared with previously published diagnostic reference levels (DRL) proposed by Commission of European Communities (CEC). Doses for all studied examination types except chest radiography were within European DRL. The reasons for dose variation are discussed. Survey data are aimed to help in development of an on-going national quality assurance and quality control programme in diagnostic radiology. The findings emphasize the importance of regular patient dose measurement to ensure that patient doses are kept as low as reasonable achievable.

  13. NHANES 2009-2012 Findings: Association of Sexual Behaviors with Higher Prevalence of Oral Oncogenic Human Papillomavirus Infections in U.S. Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Anil K; Graubard, Barry I; Broutian, Tatevik; Pickard, Robert K L; Tong, Zhen-Yue; Xiao, Weihong; Kahle, Lisa; Gillison, Maura L

    2015-06-15

    The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal cancers is higher and increasing more rapidly among men than women in the United States for unknown reasons. We compared the epidemiology of oral oncogenic HPV infection between men and women ages 14 to 69 years (N = 9,480) within the U.S. National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys (NHANES) 2009-2012. HPV presence was detected in oral DNA by PCR. Analyses were stratified by gender and used NHANES sample weights. Oral oncogenic HPV prevalence was higher among men than women (6.6% vs. 1.5%, P men versus 1.54 million women with prevalent infection at any point in time during 2009-2012. Prevalence increased significantly with age, current smoking, and lifetime number of sexual partners for both genders (adjusted Ptrend men had more partners than women (mean = 18 vs. 7, P HPV prevalence was similar for men and women with 0 to 1 lifetime partners, the male-female difference in prevalence significantly increased with number of lifetime partners (adjusted prevalence differences for none, 1, 2-5, 6-10, 11-20, and 20+ partners = 1.0%, 0.5%, 3.0%, 5.7%, 4.6%, and 9.3%, respectively). Importantly, the per-sexual partner increase in prevalence was significantly stronger among men than among women (adjusted synergy index = 3.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-9.7), and this increase plateaued at 25 lifetime partners among men versus 10 partners among women. Our data suggest that the higher burden of oral oncogenic HPV infections and HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancers among men than women arises in part from higher number of lifetime sexual partners and stronger associations with sexual behaviors among men. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. The National Teacher Examinations (NTE) Commons Revision Survey: Final Report of the Results of a National Survey to Review Proposed Specifications for the Revised Commons Examinations of the NTE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Frieda; Grandy, Jerilee

    In July of 1981, the Policy Council of the National Teacher Examinations (NTE), in conjunction with the Educational Testing Service in Princeton, New Jersey, completed a series of national surveys to review proposed changes in the NTE Commons Examinations. The survey was designed to tap varying perspectives on the proposed test content and its…

  15. Diagnostic accuracy of body mass index to identify obesity in older adults: NHANES 1999-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsis, J A; Mackenzie, T A; Bartels, S J; Sahakyan, K R; Somers, V K; Lopez-Jimenez, F

    2016-05-01

    Body composition changes with aging lead to increased adiposity and decreased muscle mass, making the diagnosis of obesity challenging. Conventional anthropometry, including body mass index (BMI), while easy to use clinically may misrepresent adiposity. We determined the diagnostic accuracy of BMI using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in assessing the degree of obesity in older adults. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999-2004 were used to identify adults aged ⩾60 years with DEXA measures. They were categorized (yes/no) as having elevated body fat by gender (men: ⩾25%; women ⩾35%) and by BMI ⩾25 and ⩾30 kg m(-)(2). The diagnostic performance of BMI was assessed. Metabolic characteristics were compared in discordant cases of BMI/body fat. Weighting and analyses were performed per NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) guidelines. We identified 4984 subjects (men: 2453; women: 2531). Mean BMI and % body fat was 28.0 kg m(-2) and 30.8% in men, and 28.5 kg m(-)(2) and 42.1% in women. A BMI ⩾30 kg m(-)(2) had a low sensitivity and moderately high specificity (men: 32.9 and 80.8%, concordance index 0.66; women: 38.5 and 78.5%, concordance 0.69) correctly classifying 41.0 and 45.1% of obese subjects. A BMI ⩾25 kg m(-2) had a moderately high sensitivity and specificity (men: 80.7 and 99.6%, concordance 0.81; women: 76.9 and 98.8%, concordance 0.84) correctly classifying 80.8 and 78.5% of obese subjects. In subjects with BMI BMI ⩾30 kg m(-)(2), sensitivity drops from 40.3% to 14.5% and 44.5% to 23.4%, whereas specificity remains elevated (>98%), in men and women, respectively, in those 60-69.9 years to subjects aged ⩾80 years. Correct classification of obesity using a cutoff of 30 kg m(-)(2) drops from 48.1 to 23.9% and 49.0 to 19.6%, in men and women in these two age groups. Traditional measures poorly identify obesity in the elderly. In older adults, BMI may be a suboptimal

  16. Cancer patients' perceptions regarding the value of the physical examination: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadakia, Kunal C; Hui, David; Chisholm, Gary B; Frisbee-Hume, Susan E; Williams, Janet L; Bruera, Eduardo

    2014-07-15

    Despite its clinical utility, progressive reliance on technology can lead to devaluing the physical examination in patients with advanced cancer. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether these patients have a positive or negative perception of the physical examination. A secondary objective was to determine whether these perceptions are related to interpersonal/relational values (symbolic) or diagnostic/objective values (pragmatic). One hundred fifty patients with cancer who were receiving concurrent oncology and palliative care were administered a 26-item survey regarding their overall perception of the physical examination. The primary outcome-patient responses to "In the last 3 months, I believe my experience while being examined has been overall: very negative (a score of -5) to very positive (a score of +5),"-was analyzed using the Sign test. Other items were predefined as either symbolic or pragmatic statements, and patient responses from strongly disagree (a score of 1) to strongly agree (a score of 5) were further analyzed. Multivariable logistic regression was used to test for associations between baseline characteristics and the primary outcome. Most patients (83%) indicated that the overall experience of being examined was highly positive (median score, 4; interquartile range [IQR], 2-5; P ≤ .0001). Patients valued both the pragmatic aspects (median score, 5; IQR, 4-5) and symbolic aspects (median score, 4; IQR, 4-5) of the physical examination. Increasing age was independently associated with a more positive perception of the physical examination (odds ratio, 1.07 per year; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.12 per year; P = .01). Patients with advanced cancer indicate that the physical examination is a highly positive aspect of their care. These benefits are perceived as having both symbolic and pragmatic value. The physical examination should remain a cornerstone of clinical encounters. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  17. Urinary Metabolite Levels of Flame Retardants in Electronic Cigarette Users: A Study Using the Data from NHANES 2013–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binnian Wei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating the safety of e-cigarettes and making informed judgement about developing potential standards require sufficient scientific evidence. Since e-cigarettes are highly engineered products containing plastic, glass and metal parts, and e-liquids are largely different matrices, many toxic compounds which are not typical hazards for the users of combustible tobacco products (e.g., cigarettes, could exist in e-liquids, and consequently, posing potential health risk to e-cigarette users. We combined the measurements of urinary metabolites of organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs with questionnaire data collected in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES from 2013 to 2014, and we compared adjusted geometric means (GM for each biomarker in e-cigarette users with levels in non-users and users of various tobacco products using multiple regression analyses to adjust for potential confounders. We found diphenyl phosphate (DPhP, bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl phosphate (BDCPP, bis(2-chloroethyl phosphate (BCEP, and dibutyl phosphate (DBUP were detected in all e-cigarette users. The adjusted GM of BCEP, the metabolite of tris(2-chloroethyl phosphate (TCEP, was 81% higher than nonusers (p = 0.0124 and significantly higher than those for both cigarette and cigar users (p < 0.05. The findings in this pilot study suggest that certain OPFRs may present in e-cigarettes as contaminants, and consequently, resulting in higher exposure levels in e-cigarette users compared to nonusers. As we only identified 14 e-cigarette users in the survey, the findings in this study need to be confirmed in future study at a larger scale. A better examination of the types and levels of FRs and their potential contamination sources in e-cigarettes is also needed.

  18. Sociodemographic characteristics of underweight korean adults: Korea national health and nutrition examination survey, 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Il; Cho, Young Gyu; Kang, Jae Heon; Park, Hyun Ah; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Hur, Yang Im; Kang, Hye Jin

    2013-11-01

    Underweight is associated with increased risk of mortality and morbidity. It is reported that the prevalence of underweight is increasing among Korean young women. However, there have been few studies on sociodemographic factors related to being underweight. This study was conducted to elucidate the sociodemographic characteristics of Korean underweight adults. This study is a cross-sectional study of 7,776 adults aged 25 to 69 years using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010. Study subjects were composed of underweight and normal-weight adults excluding overweight adults. Body mass index was calculated from measured height and weight. Health behaviors such as smoking, drinking, and physical activity were surveyed through self-administered questionnaires, and socioeconomic status, marital status, and history of morbidity were surveyed through face-to-face interviews. Women had a higher frequency of underweight (10.4% vs. 7.0%, P sociodemographic factors were associated with underweight. It was ascertained that there were differences in the sociodemographic factors related to underweight between Korean men and women.

  19. Standardization of physical measurements in European health examination surveys-experiences from the site visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Hanna; Mäki-Opas, Johanna; Mindell, Jennifer S; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Männistö, Satu; Giampaoli, Simona; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Koponen, Päivikki

    2017-10-01

    Health examination surveys (HESs) provide valuable data on health and its determinants at the population level. Comparison of HES results within and between countries and over time requires measurements which are free of bias due to differences in or adherence to measurement procedures and/or measurement devices. In the European HES (EHES) Pilot Project, 12 countries conducted a pilot HES in 2010-11 using standardized measurement protocols and centralized training. External evaluation visits (site visits) were performed by the EHES Reference Centre staff to evaluate the success of standardization and quality of data collection. In general, standardized EHES protocols were followed adequately in all the pilot surveys. Small deviations were observed in the posture of participants during the blood pressure and height measurement; in the use of a tourniquet when drawing blood samples; and in the calibration of measurement devices. Occasionally, problems with disturbing noise from outside or people coming into the room during the measurements were observed. In countries with an ongoing national HES or a long tradition of conducting national HESs at regular intervals, it was more difficult to modify national protocols to fulfil EHES requirements. The EHES protocols to standardize HES measurements and procedures for collection of blood samples are feasible in cross-country settings. The prerequisite for successful standardization is adequate training. External and internal evaluation activities during the survey fieldwork are also needed to monitor compliance to standards.

  20. [Physical activity: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, S; Jordan, S; Mensink, G B M; Müters, S; Finger, J; Lampert, T

    2013-05-01

    Regular physical activity can have a positive effect on health at any age. Today's lifestyles, however, can often be characterised as sedentary. Therefore, the promotion of physical activity and sports has become an integral part of public health measures. The representative data of adults aged 18 to 79 years in Germany obtained from the "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults" (DEGS1) provide an overview of self-estimated current physical activity behaviour. The results show that one third of the adult population claims to pay close attention to reaching a sufficient level of physical activity and one fourth participates in sports for at least 2 h/week on a regular basis. Thus, the percentage of adults regularly engaged in sports has increased compared to the previous "German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998". Still, four out of five adults do not achieve at least 2.5 h/week of moderate-intensity physical activity as recommended by the World Health Organisation. Consequently, future individual-level and population-level interventions should focus on target group-specific measures while continuing to promote regular physical activity in all segments of the population. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.

  1. [Measurement of socioeconomic status in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, T; Kroll, L; Müters, S; Stolzenberg, H

    2013-05-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) constitutes a central analysis category of epidemiological research and health reporting. As part of the German cardiovascular disease prevention study 1984-1991, a multi-dimensional aggregated index was developed for the purpose of measuring SES. This index continues to be used in numerous studies to this day. For the purpose of health monitoring at the Robert Koch Institute (RKI), the index was fundamentally revised following critical assessment. This article describes the basic concepts underlying the revision and how they were implemented in relation to the "German health interview and examination survey for adults" (DEGS1). In addition, the results of the age and sex-specific distribution of the values of the revised SES index and those relating to the connection with other measurements of socioeconomic status are reported. The results are based on the data of DEGS1 2012 and the German national health interview and examination survey 1998 (GNHIES98). An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.

  2. Relationship between anthropometric parameters and open angle glaucoma: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Yeun Lee

    Full Text Available To evaluate the relationships between open-angle glaucoma (OAG and various anthropometric measurements.Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, a population-based cross-sectional study using a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey.A total of 5,255 participants including 247 glaucoma patients, aged ≥ 19 years were included from the KNHANES V database. Glaucoma diagnosis was based on International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria. Various anthropometric data regarding obesity were analyzed including body mass index (BMI, total body fat mass, total body muscle mass (lean body mass, non-bone lean body mass, and appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM mass, and waist circumference (WC. The differences in OAG prevalence with respect to anthropometric parameter quartiles were examined.In males, the multivariate general linear model adjusted for age, alcohol, smoking, exercise, systemic hypertension, diabetes, and intraocular pressure (IOP showed the quartiles for the anthropometric parameters BMI, fat mass/weight ratio and fat mass/muscle mass ratio were negatively associated with OAG. However, muscle mass parameter/BMI ratio was significantly positively associated with OAG (P for trend<0.05. In females, height and fat mass/BMI showed a significant relationship with the risk of OAG. (P value<0.05.In the present study, high fat mass was associated with low OAG risk. Body composition seemed to affect the prevalence of OAG, but further evaluation is needed.

  3. [Eating behaviours of italian adults: results of the Osservatorio epidemiologico cardiovascolare/Health Examination Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampaoli, Simona; Krogh, Vittorio; Grioni, Sara; Palmieri, Luigi; Gulizia, Massimo Michele; Stamler, Jeremiah; Vanuzzo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    to describe eating behaviours of the Italian adult population collected by the Osservatorio Epidemiologico Cardiovascolare/Health Examination Survey during 2008- 2012. cross-sectional survey conducted in all Italian regions; random samples of the general population, stratified by age and sex, in 23 municipalities, 220 persons every 1.5 million people. 9,111 persons examined, aged 25-79 years; participation rate of 53%; data of 8,462 persons were used in this analysis. lifestyles, risk factors, and high risk conditions were measured. Eating behaviours were assessed by the EPIC questionnaire, which includes principal foods, portions, and eating patterns; principal health eating behaviours and nutrients were described by macroareas; sodium and potassium intake were measured also by 24h urine collection; data were compared to the Mediterranean model described in the Sixties nutritional survey carried out in Nicotera, a municipality of Calabria Region, Southern Italy. the eating behaviours are healthy only in a part of the population: 30% have adequate intake of vegetables and fish; only 10% use cakes/sweets/desserts once a week as recommended. Energy intake from saturated fat and sugars are high. Compared to the Sixties Mediterranean model, consumption of cereals, potatoes, and legumes are reduced by half, while meats, cheeses, milk, and in particular sweets are more than doubled. taking into account the distribution of risk factors and high risk conditions as overweight/obesity, which affects almost 75% of the adult population, physical inactivity (30-40%), hypertension (50%), hypercholesterolemia (35%), and diabetes (7-11%), community actions for improving diet in the population are urgent. Education of the population is also needed to reduce portions and salt intake, and to use less olive oil and wine given their high caloric values, as recommended by the modern Mediterranean diet.

  4. The FRCR 2B examination: a survey of candidate perceptions and experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeung, A., E-mail: andrewyeung@hotmail.co [Department of Radiology, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Booth, T.C. [Department of Radiology, Royal Free Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Jacob, K. [Department of Radiology, Weston General Hospital, Weston-super-Mare (United Kingdom); McCoubrie, P. [Department of Radiology, Southmead Hospital, Bristol (United Kingdom); McKnight, L. [Department of Radiology, Morriston Hospital, Swansea (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-15

    Aim: To survey the views of recent candidates of the Fellowship of the Royal College of Radiologists (FRCR) 2B examination with reference to assessment validity, reliability, and acceptability. Materials and methods: One thousand, two hundred and four UK radiology trainees and consultants were invited to complete an automated internet questionnaire regarding their experiences and perceptions of the FRCR 2B examination. The questionnaire was informed by a review of the literature. Eligible participants were candidates who had taken the examination within the previous 3 years. Results: Four hundred and ninety-seven out of 1204 (41%) responses were received; of which 258/497 (52% of respondents) were eligible for inclusion into the study. The rapid reporting component is perceived to be significantly fairer than the oral section (82 versus 70% agree; p < 0.001). The oral component fared poorly in perceived performance-reducing anxiety levels but well in questions relating to validity and reliability. Female candidates are more likely to find the FRCR 2B unfair (p = 0.01) and experience performance-reducing anxiety (p < 0.001) than males. No gender differences were observed in first-time pass rates (p = 0.6). Candidate first language did not affect anxiety levels (p = 0.9) or first-time pass rates (p = 0.06). Only 12% of candidates agreed that the oral examination should move to an objective structured clinical format. Conclusion: Candidates score the FRCR 2B examination well in test validity with little desire for change to the oral examination format. Efforts to help reduce anxiety levels in the oral component would improve perceived fairness.

  5. Coffee, alcohol, smoking, physical activity and QT interval duration: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyi Zhang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abnormalities in the electrocardiographic QT interval duration have been associated with an increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. However, there is substantial uncertainty about the effect of modifiable factors such as coffee intake, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity on QT interval duration.We studied 7795 men and women from the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994. Baseline QT interval was measured from the standard 12-lead electrocardiogram. Coffee and tea intake, alcohol consumption, leisure-time physical activities over the past month, and lifetime smoking habits were determined using validated questionnaires during the home interview.In the fully adjusted model, the average differences in QT interval comparing participants drinking ≥6 cups/day to those who did not drink any were -1.2 ms (95% CI -4.4 to 2.0 for coffee, and -2.0 ms (-11.2 to 7.3 for tea, respectively. The average differences in QT interval duration comparing current to never smokers was 1.2 ms (-0.6 to 2.9 while the average difference in QT interval duration comparing participants drinking ≥7 drinks/week to non-drinkers was 1.8 ms (-0.5 to 4.0. The age, race/ethnicity, and RR-interval adjusted differences in average QT interval duration comparing men with binge drinking episodes to non-drinkers or drinkers without binge drinking were 2.8 ms (0.4 to 5.3 and 4.0 ms (1.6 to 6.4, respectively. The corresponding differences in women were 1.1 (-2.9 to 5.2 and 1.7 ms (-2.3 to 5.7. Finally, the average differences in QT interval comparing the highest vs. the lowest categories of total physical activity was -0.8 ms (-3.0 to 1.4.Binge drinking was associated with longer QT interval in men but not in women. QT interval duration was not associated with other modifiable factors including coffee and tea intake, smoking, and physical activity.

  6. Associations of objectively assessed physical activity and sedentary time with all-cause mortality in US adults: the NHANES study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Daniela; Ricci, Cristian; Leitzmann, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Sedentary behavior is related to increased mortality risk. Whether such elevated risk can be offset by enhanced physical activity has not been examined using accelerometry data. We examined the relations of sedentary time and physical activity to mortality from any cause using accelerometry data among 1,677 women and men aged 50 years or older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004 cycle with follow-up through December 31, 2006. During an average follow-up of 34.67 months and 4,845.42 person-years, 112 deaths occurred. In multivariate Cox proportional hazard models, greater sedentary time (≥ median of 8.60 hours/day) was associated with increased risk of mortality from any cause (relative risk (RR) = 2.03; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.09-3.81). Low level of moderate to vigorous physical activity (physical activity predicted a substantially elevated all-cause mortality risk. As compared with the combination of a low sedentary level and a high level of moderate to vigorous physical activity, the risks of mortality from all causes were 4.38 (95% CI = 1.26-15.16) for low levels of both sedentary time and physical activity, 2.79 (95% CI = 0.77-10.12) for greater time spent sedentary and high physical activity level, and 7.79 (95% CI = 2.26-26.82) for greater time spent sedentary and low physical activity level. The interaction term between sedentary time and moderate to vigorous physical activity was not statistically significant (p = 0.508). Both high levels of sedentary time and low levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity are strong and independent predictors of early death from any cause. Whether a high physical activity level removes the increased risk of all-cause mortality related to sedentariness requires further investigation.

  7. Differences in participation rates and lessons learned about recruitment of participants--the European Health Examination Survey Pilot Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Hanna; Ahonen, Sanna; Jentoft, Susie; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Heldal, Johan

    2015-03-01

    In the 1980s, participation rates in health interview and health examination surveys were around 80% while now they are around 50-60%. There is also evidence that non-participation is selective. Low participation rates and selective non-participation may cause bias to our survey results based on participants alone. We aim to increase knowledge on cultural differences in acceptance and feasibility of different recruitment methods. The European Health Examination Survey Pilot Project, conducted in 2009-2012, included pilot surveys in 12 countries among people aged 25-64 years. Information about recruitment methods and participation rates in these surveys was collected. Participation rates ranged from 16% to 57% for men and from 31% to 74% for women, where in most surveys women had higher participation rates than men. A variety of recruitment and promotion methods were used to obtain as high participation rates as possible. Combinations of phone calls, invitation letter and home visits were used to recruit invitees. Obtaining valid phone numbers for survey invitees was difficult in several countries. Incentives, websites and promotion in local media were used to promote the surveys. The European Health Examination Survey Pilot surveys showed that obtaining a participation rate above 50% for a representative population sample is possible but it requires hard work and a well-planned recruitment strategy. Recruitment methods used in one country may not be possible to use in another country due to cultural norms and national regulations. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  8. The protocol and preliminary baseline survey results of the thyroid ultrasound examination in Fukushima [Rapid Communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shinichi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Fukushima, Toshihiko; Nakano, Keiichi; Midorikawa, Sanae; Ohtsuru, Akira; Yasumura, Seiji; Hosoya, Mitsunori; Kamiya, Kenji; Shimura, Hiroki; Suzuki, Satoru; Nakamura, Izumi; Abe, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    After the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident on March 11, 2011, the public of Japan became particularly concerned about the possibility of an increased risk of childhood thyroid cancer, similar to what was observed after the Chernobyl's accident. Due to serious public health perception, there was an urgency to evaluate the baseline levels of childhood thyroid status in Fukushima prefecture. Therefore we have commenced a thyroid ultrasound examination (TUE) survey of the approximately 360,000 pediatric inhabitants (0 to 18 years of age) who lived in Fukushima at the time of the accident in October 2011. The subjects were divided into three categories according to the standardized diagnostic criteria of ultrasound findings. Category A contained the subjects whose TUE findings were intact or benign. Category B were recommended a confirmatory TUE. Category C was recommended an immediate confirmatory TUE. The survey of 40,302 subjects in the first year was completed in March, 2013. There were 40,097 (99.5%), 205 (0.50%) and 0 subjects in categories A, B and C, respectively. Of the 82 category B subjects who underwent fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), 12 were diagnosed with a malignant tumor or were suspected to have malignancy. The 12 subjects received thyroid surgery and 11 thyroid cancers and one benign nodule were confirmed histologically after surgery. This is the first large-scaled TUE survey to employ sophisticated ultrasound screening and aim to evaluate the baseline frequency of childhood thyroid nodules and cysts. The results will become the golden standard of future comparative TUE in Fukushima, Japan.

  9. A survey of digital rectal examination training in Canadian medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nensi, Alysha; Chande, Nilesh

    2012-07-01

    The digital rectal examination (DRE) is important for the diagnosis of a variety of gastrointestinal, urological and gynecological disorders. However, it appears that Canadian medical students may not be adequately taught nor provided the opportunity to practice their skills often enough. The present study was an analysis of the current practices in DRE teaching and evaluation in undergraduate medicine programs across Canada. Clinical skills coordinators from the 14 English-speaking medical schools in Canada were invited to participate in the survey and to respond to questions regarding DRE teaching at their respective schools. Thirteen of the 14 schools (93%) responded to the survey. The DRE is taught in various ways: 69% of schools use anatomical rectal models, 62% use video tutorials and 62% involve physician instruction. Most schools (85%) offer one formal teaching session before clerkship. Generally, there is no formal DRE teaching session during clerkship. Preclerkship students in 62% of the schools perform competence in their students as well as provide more opportunities for students to obtain the necessary experience performing DREs during their clinical training.

  10. The Mississippi Delta Cardiovascular Health Examination Survey: Study Design and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Vanessa L.; Ivory-Walls, Tameka; Smith, Larry; Loustalot, Fleetwood

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality in subnational areas is limited. A model for regional CVD surveillance is needed, particularly among vulnerable populations underrepresented in current monitoring systems. The Mississippi Delta Cardiovascular Health Examination Survey (CHES) is a population-based, cross-sectional study on a representative sample of adults living in the 18-county Mississippi Delta region, a rural, impoverished area with high rates of poor health outcomes and marked health disparities. The primary objectives of Delta CHES are to (1) determine the prevalence and distribution of CVD and CVD risk factors using self-reported and directly measured health metrics and (2) to assess environmental perceptions and existing policies that support or deter healthy choices. An address-based sampling frame is used for household enumeration and participant recruitment and an in-home data collection model is used to collect survey data, anthropometric measures, and blood samples from participants. Data from all sources will be merged into one analytic dataset and sample weights developed to ensure data are representative of the Mississippi Delta region adult population. Information gathered will be used to assess the burden of CVD and guide the development, implementation, and evaluation of cardiovascular health promotion and risk factor control strategies. PMID:25844257

  11. High alcohol consumption in Germany: results of the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Martina; Mensink, Gert B M

    2004-10-01

    To analyse the alcohol consumption behaviour of the German adult population, with a focus on the characteristics of persons drinking more than the tolerable upper alcohol intake level (TUAL) of 10-12 g day(-1) for healthy adult women and 20-24 g day(-1) for healthy adult men. For the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998, a representative sample of free-living adults was drawn. A total of 7124 participants were interviewed comprehensively about their sociodemographic background, lifestyle and eating habits including alcohol consumption. A sub-sample of 4030 women and men, 18-79 years old, who were involved in the integrated German Nutrition Survey. About 16% of women and 31% of men had mean alcohol consumption above the TUAL. Among other factors, the inclination to exceed the TUAL was related to middle-age, high socio-economic status, smoking and use of soft drugs. Among both women and men, a high proportion of persons drinking above the TUAL was observed among those consuming low amounts of soft drinks, fruit, poultry, milk products, bread and cake/biscuits. Women preferred to drink wine, whereas men preferred to drink beer. Many Germans have an alcohol consumption level above the TUAL and thus are supposed to be at increased risk for alcohol-associated diseases.

  12. [Asbestos clinics and asbestos health examinations--findings from a questionnaire survey of implementing organizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Norihisa; Nishikawa, Kunihito; Kiyomoto, Yoshihumi; Todoroki, Miwako; Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Ken

    2008-09-01

    In June 2005 the press reported that many former employees of a company which used asbestos, and individuals who lived near the company's factory, had been diagnosed with mesothelioma. This finding triggered concern and alarm in Japan. In response, many "asbestos clinics" were formed, and recognized medical institutions began to implement asbestos-related health examinations. We conducted a nationwide questionnaire survey to evaluate the activities in, and the challenges for, these medical institutions. We received 137 valid responses, more than half of which were from clinics and hospital-based "asbestos clinics" instigated after the "Kubota shock." Among the asbestos exposure history interviewing practices, job histories of the interviewee were prioritized, over place of residence, and possible exposure of family members. Standard questionnaires were utilized by over 70% of respondents. The practitioners reported problems with lack of manpower and evaluation of asbestos exposure. Examinees consulted attending physicians on a wide range of matters including asbestos-related diseases, asbestos exposure, and financial compensation. It is predicted that asbestos-related diseases in general, and mesothelioma in particular, will increase in the future. Accordingly, early detection and treatment should be accorded high priority. The organizations we surveyed have important roles to play. Although resources are limited, effective diagnosis and treatment are essential, and a system assisting organizations to make accurate and efficient identification of asbestos exposure hazards is imperative.

  13. [The physical examination within the scope of The Child and Adolescent Health Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dippelhofer, A; Bergmann, K E; Kahl, H; Lange, M

    2002-12-01

    The National Health Survey for Children and Adolescents intends a comprehensive description of the health status of children and adolescents. In this context physical examination of children and adolescents permits collection of objective data concerning physical development, certain body functions and selected performance parameters. Most important are indicators pointing towards increasing developmental and health problems in children and adolescents, which are partly predictive for the health status as an adult. Body measurements including stages of puberty will be taken, the blood pressure measured, vision tests carried out, coordination skills and endurance tested. Besides, if acute symptoms are detected, severity of atopic dermatitis is recorded. The methods and instruments have been tested in a pilot study over a period of one year and were optimised for the main study.

  14. Cadmium exposure and cardiovascular disease in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mi-Sun [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Park, Sung Kyun; Hu, Howard [Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lee, Sundong, E-mail: sdlee@sangji.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Oriental Medicine, Sangji University, Wonju, Kangwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Background: Limited epidemiologic data are available concerning the cardiovascular effects of cadmium exposure, although recent studies suggest associations with myocardial infarction and peripheral arterial disease. We examined the associations of cadmium exposure with cardiovascular disease in nationally representative general Korean adults. Methods: We used cross-sectional data on blood cadmium and self-reported diagnoses of ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and hypertension in a sub-sample of 1908 adults, aged 20 years and older, who participated in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). We used survey logistic regression models accounting for the complex sampling design to estimate the odds ratios (OR), adjusting for age, education, income, alcohol, smoking, body mass index, waist circumference, family history of hypertension, blood pressure, and blood lead. Results: The geometric mean of blood cadmium was 1.53 {mu}g/L. After adjusting for potential confounders, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in blood cadmium (0.91 {mu}g/L) was found to be associated with an increased risk for IHD (OR 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-3.4). An IQR increase in blood cadmium was found to be associated with an elevated risk for hypertension only among men (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.8) but not among women. No association was observed with stroke in both genders. Conclusions: These findings suggest that cadmium in blood may be associated with an increased risk for IHD and hypertension in the general Korean adult population.

  15. Methodological issues in estimating sodium intake in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Ja; Oh, Kyungwon

    2014-01-01

    For policy goal setting, efficacy evaluations, and the development of related programs for reducing sodium intake, it is essential to accurately identify the amount of sodium intake in South Korea and constantly monitor its trends. The present study aimed to identify the status of sodium intake in South Korea and to review the methods and their validity for estimating sodium intake in each country; through this, we aim to determine more accurate methods for determining sodium intake and to monitor the trend in sodium intake for Korean citizens in the future. Using 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) to estimate daily sodium intake, the average daily sodium intake among Koreans was 4,546 mg (men, 5,212 mg; women, 3,868 mg). In addition to the nutrition survey that uses the 24-hour dietary recall method, sodium intake can also be calculated from the amount of sodium excreted in 24-hour urine, 8-hour overnight urine, and spot urine samples. Although KNHANES uses the 24-hour dietary recall method to estimate the sodium intake, the 24-hour dietary recall method has the disadvantage of not being able to accurately determine the amount of sodium intake owing to its unique characteristics of the research method and in the processing of data. Although measuring the amount of sodium excreted in 24-hour urine is known to be the most accurate method, because collecting 24-hour urine from the general population is difficult, using spot urine samples to estimate sodium intake has been suggested to be useful for examining the trend of sodium intake in the general population. Therefore, we planned to conduct a study for estimating of 24-hour sodium excretion from spot urine and 8-hour overnight urine samples and testing the validity among subsamples in the KNHANES. Based on this result, we will adopt the most appropriate urine collection method for estimating population sodium intake in South Korea.

  16. Methodological issues in estimating sodium intake in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Ja Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available For policy goal setting, efficacy evaluations, and the development of related programs for reducing sodium intake, it is essential to accurately identify the amount of sodium intake in South Korea and constantly monitor its trends. The present study aimed to identify the status of sodium intake in South Korea and to review the methods and their validity for estimating sodium intake in each country; through this, we aim to determine more accurate methods for determining sodium intake and to monitor the trend in sodium intake for Korean citizens in the future. Using 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES to estimate daily sodium intake, the average daily sodium intake among Koreans was 4,546 mg (men, 5,212 mg; women, 3,868 mg. In addition to the nutrition survey that uses the 24-hour dietary recall method, sodium intake can also be calculated from the amount of sodium excreted in 24-hour urine, 8-hour overnight urine, and spot urine samples. Although KNHANES uses the 24-hour dietary recall method to estimate the sodium intake, the 24-hour dietary recall method has the disadvantage of not being able to accurately determine the amount of sodium intake owing to its unique characteristics of the research method and in the processing of data. Although measuring the amount of sodium excreted in 24-hour urine is known to be the most accurate method, because collecting 24-hour urine from the general population is difficult, using spot urine samples to estimate sodium intake has been suggested to be useful for examining the trend of sodium intake in the general population. Therefore, we planned to conduct a study for estimating of 24-hour sodium excretion from spot urine and 8-hour overnight urine samples and testing the validity among subsamples in the KNHANES. Based on this result, we will adopt the most appropriate urine collection method for estimating population sodium intake in South

  17. Testing Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and homogeneity of Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium using complex survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Graubard, Barry I

    2009-12-01

    For studies on population genetics, the use of representative random samples of the target population can avoid ascertainment bias. Genetic variation data from over a hundred genes were collected in a U.S. nationally representative sample in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Surveys such as the NHANES have complex stratified multistage cluster sample designs with sample weighting that can inflate variances and alter the expectations of test statistics. Thus, classical statistical tests of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) and homogeneity of HW disequilibrium (HHWD) for simple random samples are not suitable for data from complex samples. We propose using Wald tests for HWE and generalized score tests for HHWD that have been modified for complex samples. Monte Carlo simulation studies are used to investigate the finite sample properties of the proposed tests. Rao-Scott corrections applied to the tests were found to improve their type I error properties. Our methods are applied to the NHANES III genetic data for three loci involved in metabolizing lead in the body.

  18. Testing Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium using family data from complex surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Dewei; Zhang, Hong; Li, Zhaohai

    2009-07-01

    Genetic data collected during the second phase of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) enable us to investigate the association of a wide variety of health factors with regard to genetic variation. The classic question when looking into the genetic variations in a population is whether the population is in the state of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE). Our objective was to develop test procedures using family data from complex surveys such as NHANES III. We developed six Pearson chi(2) based tests for a diallelic locus of autosomal genes. The finite sample properties of the proposed test procedures were evaluated via Monte Carlo simulation studies and the Rao-Scott first order corrected test was recommended. Test procedures were applied to three loci from NHANES III genetic databases, i.e., ADRB2, TGFB1, and VDR. HWE was shown to hold at 0.05 level for all three loci when only families with genotypic information available for two parents and for one or more children were used in the analysis.

  19. Adherence to diabetic eye examination guidelines in Australia: the National Eye Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Joshua; Keel, Stuart; Xie, Jing; Van Wijngaarden, Peter; Taylor, Hugh R; Dirani, Mohamed

    2017-05-15

    To determine adherence to NHMRC eye examination guidelines for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian people with diabetes. Cross-sectional survey using multistage, random cluster sampling. Thirty randomly selected geographic sites in the five mainland Australian states and the Northern Territory, stratified by remoteness. 1738 Indigenous Australians aged 40-92 years and 3098 non-Indigenous Australians aged 50-98 years were recruited and examined between March 2015 and April 2016 according to a standardised protocol that included a questionnaire (administered by an interviewer) and a series of standard eye tests. Adherence rates to NHMRC eye examination guidelines; factors influencing adherence. Adherence to screening recommendations was significantly greater among non-Indigenous Australians (biennial screening; 77.5%) than Indigenous Australians (annual screening; 52.7%; P < 0.001). Greater adherence by non-Indigenous Australians was associated with longer duration of diabetes (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.19 per 5 years; P = 0.018), while increasing age was associated with poorer adherence in non-Indigenous Australians (aOR, 0.70 per decade; P = 0.011). For Indigenous Australians, residing in inner regional areas (aOR, 1.66; P = 0.007) and being male (aOR, 1.46; P = 0.018) were significant factors positively associated with adherence. More than three-quarters of non-Indigenous Australians with diabetes and more than half of Indigenous Australians with diabetes adhere to the NHMRC eye examination guidelines. The discrepancy between the adherence rates may point to gaps in the provision or uptake of screening services in Indigenous communities, or a lack of awareness of the guidelines. A carefully integrated diabetic retinopathy screening service is needed, particularly in remote areas, to improve adherence rates.

  20. Physical activity patterns and socioeconomic position: the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Finger, Jonas D; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Lampert, Thomas; Mensink, Gert B M

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the associations between education and leisure-time, occupational, sedentary and total physical-activity levels based on data from the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98...

  1. Bisphenol-A and Sleep Adequacy among Adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beydoun, Hind A; Beydoun, May A; Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Zonderman, Alan B; Eid, Shaker M

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate bisphenol-A (BPA) level and its relationship to sleep adequacy in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted using 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey whereby data were collected using in-person interviews, physical examination and laboratory testing. BPA level was measured in urine samples and analyzed as loge-transformed variable and in quartiles (Sleep adequacy was operationalized with three questions: "How much sleep do you usually get at night on weekdays or workdays?", "Have you ever told a doctor or other health professionals that you have trouble sleeping?" and "Have you ever been told by a doctor or other health professional that you have a sleep disorder?" Sleep duration was further categorized as ( 8 h); (sleep duration defined, in hours, as a continuous variable, a dichotomous variable (≥ 6, sleep problems and diagnosis with sleep disorders were not significantly associated with loge-transformed BPA level in fully adjusted models. Loge-transformed BPA level may be associated with fewer hours of sleep among U.S. adults, with implications for prevention. Further research involving diverse populations are needed to confirm these study findings. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  2. Coffee and depression in Korea: the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, R J; Moon, J D

    2015-04-01

    There is substantial interest in the health effects of coffee because it is the leading worldwide beverage after water. Existing literature on the connection between depression and coffee is scarce, and studies have yielded inconsistent results. The aim of this study was to examine the association between coffee consumption and depression in the Korean population. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 10,177 Korean individuals aged 20-97 years who participated in the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Consumption of coffee and depression were assessed using a questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for depression. The lifetime prevalence of self-reported depression was 14.0% and that of self-reported clinical depression was 3.7%. After adjustment for potential confounders, the adjusted ORs for self-reported depression across coffee consumption categories were 1.00 (reference) for less than one cup/week, 0.84 (95% CI: 0.66, 1.07) for one to six cups/week, 0.63 (95% CI: 0.51, 0.79) for one cup/day, 0.69 (95% CI: 0.54, 0.88) for two cups/day and 0.58 (95% CI: 0.44, 0.76) for three or more cups/day (P for trend, coffee on the risk of depression.

  3. Moderate wine consumption is associated with decreased odds of developing age-related macular degeneration in NHANES-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obisesan, T O; Hirsch, R; Kosoko, O; Carlson, L; Parrott, M

    1998-01-01

    To determine the association between alcohol intake and the risk of developing age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Case control study. The sample consisted of 3072 adults 45 to 74 years of age with macular changes indicative of AMD who participated in a nationally representative sample of the first National Health Nutrition and Examination Survey (NHANES-1) between 1971 and 1975: (a) the ophthalmology data set and (b) the medical history questionnaire. Alcohol intake and the risk of developing AMD were measured. AMD was determined by staff at the National Eye Institute by fundoscopy examination using standardized protocol. Overall, 184 individuals (6%) had AMD. We observed a statistically significant but negative association between AMD and the type of alcohol consumed in a bivariate model (OR 0.86; 95% CI 0.73, 0.99). In the same model, age maintained a consistently strong association with AMD (OR 1.08; 95% CI 1.06-1.11; P beer, wine, and liquor), the effect of wine, either alone (OR 0.66; 95% CI 0.55-0.79) or in combination with beer (OR 0.66; 95% CI 0.55-0.79) or liquor (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.63-0.86), dominated the negative association observed between AMD and alcohol type. Additionally, a statistically significant and negative association between wine and AMD was noted after adjusting for the effect of age, gender, income, history of congestive heart failure, and hypertension (OR 0.81; 95% CI 0.67-0.99). Moderate wine consumption is associated with decreased odds of developing AMD. Health promotion and disease prevention activities directed at cardiovascular disease may help reduce the rate of AMD-associated blindness among older people. The nature and pathophysiology of this association warrant further investigation.

  4. Characterizing Normal Bowel Frequency and Consistency in a Representative Sample of Adults in the United States (NHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuhashi, Shuji; Ballou, Sarah; Jiang, Zhenghui G; Hirsch, William; Nee, Judy; Iturrino, Johanna; Cheng, Vivian; Lembo, Anthony

    2017-08-01

    Our current understanding of normal bowel patterns in the United States (US) is limited. Available studies have included individuals with both normal and abnormal bowel patterns, making it difficult to characterize normal bowel patterns in the US. The current study aims to (1) examine frequency and consistency in individuals with self-reported normal bowel habits and (2) determine demographic factors associated with self-reported normalcy. This study used data from adult participants who completed bowel health questions as part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 2009-2010 and who reported normal bowel patterns (N=4,775). Data regarding self-perceived bowel health; stool frequency; stool consistency (using the Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS)); and demographic factors were analyzed. 95.9% of the sample reported between 3 and 21 BMs per week. Among men, 90% reported a BSFS between 3 and 5, while for women it was 2-6. After controlling for age, the following demographic variables were associated with normalcy: male sex, higher education, higher income, first study to evaluate normal bowel frequency and consistency in a representative sample of adults in the US. The current findings bolster the common "3 and 3" metric of normal frequency (3 BMs/day to 3 BMs/week) while also suggesting different criteria for normal consistency for men and women. Finally, this study provides novel information about demographic factors associated with normal frequency and consistency.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 1 August 2017; doi:10.1038/ajg.2017.213.

  5. Association between physical activity and kidney function: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Marquis S; Sevick, Mary Ann; Richardson, Caroline R; Fried, Linda F; Arena, Vincent C; Kriska, Andrea M

    2011-08-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a condition characterized by the deterioration of the kidney's ability to remove waste products from the body. Although treatments to slow the progression of the disease are available, chronic kidney disease may eventually lead to a complete loss of kidney function. Previous studies have shown that physical activities of moderate intensity may have renal benefits. Few studies have examined the effects of total movement on kidney function. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between time spent at all levels of physical activity intensity and sedentary behavior and kidney function. Data were obtained from the 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional study of a complex, multistage probability sample of the US population. Physical activity was assessed using an accelerometer and questionnaire. Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study formula. To assess linear associations between levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior with log-transformed estimated GFR (eGFR), linear regression was used. In general, physical activity (light and total) was related to log eGFR in females and males. For females, the association between light and total physical activity with log eGFR was consistent regardless of diabetes status. For males, the association between light and total physical activity and log eGFR was only significant in males without diabetes. When examining the association between physical activity, measured objectively with an accelerometer, and kidney function, total and light physical activities were found to be positively associated with kidney function.

  6. Melanoma awareness and prevalence of dermoscopic examination among internet users: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazyna Kaminska-Winciorek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Melanoma presents the greater threat to health the later the disease is detected and treated, although treatment results can be improved by the widespread use of dermoscopy. However, scarce data are available concerning the awareness of dermoscopy and the frequency of its performance in the non-patient population. Aim: To assess the awareness of melanoma detection by dermoscopic examination among the audience of a scientific website. Material and methods : Respondents were invited to participate in an online cross-sectional survey. They were asked to complete an online questionnaire designed by the authors. The preliminary analysis of 5,154 collected forms and the exclusion of incomplete forms yielded 4,919 fully completed questionnaires; the resulting database was analyzed statistically using logistic regression with the R software program (95% CI. Results: Less than two-fifths (39.2% of respondents reported ever having sought the advice of a medical professional (dermatologist or other specialist, and 25.4% of the respondents had undergone dermoscopy at least once in their life. Furthermore, approximately one-tenth of respondents (10.7% were not aware of this detection tool. The study respondents gained knowledge about dermoscopic examination from television and magazines. The performance of dermoscopy was more increasingly associated with inhabitants of larger locales, the use of higher-SPF sunscreens, and greater awareness of the relationship between the risk of melanoma and sunburn. Conclusions : Awareness of melanoma and sun care varied within the analyzed population. A subset of individuals at high risk of melanoma was identified. This group included those who engaged in risky sun exposure behaviors and who had never been examined by dermoscopy.

  7. A Novel Survey to Examine the Relationship between Health IT Adoption and Nurse-Physician Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, A Jay; Pfeifer, Eric; Manojlovich, Milisa; Adler-Milstein, Julia

    2016-12-21

    As EHR adoption in US hospitals becomes ubiquitous, a wide range of IT options are theoretically available to facilitate physician-nurse communication, but we know little about the adoption rate of specific technologies or the impact of their use. To measure adoption of hardware, software, and telephony relevant to nurse-physician communication in US hospitals. To assess the relationship between non-IT communication practices and hardware, software, and telephony adoption. To identify hospital characteristics associated with greater adoption of hardware, software, telephony, and non-IT communication practices. We conducted a survey of 105 hospitals in the National Nursing Practice Network. The survey captured adoption of hardware, software, and telephony to support nurse-physician communication, along with non-IT communication practices. We calculated descriptive statistics and then created four indices, one for each category, by scoring degree of adoption of technologies or practices within each category. Next, we examined correlations between the three technology indices and the non-IT communication practices index. We used multivariate OLS regression to assess whether certain types of hospitals had higher index scores. The majority of hospitals surveyed have a range of hardware, software, and telephony tools available to support nurse-physician communication; we found substantial heterogeneity across hospitals in non-IT communication practices. More intensive non-IT communication was associated with greater adoption of software (r=0.31, p=0.01), but was not correlated with hardware or telephony. Medium-sized hospitals had lower adoption of software (r =-1.14,p=0.04) in comparison to small hospitals, while federally-owned hospitals had lower software (r=-2.57, p=0.02) and hardware adoption (r=-1.63, p=0.01). The positive relationship between non-IT communication and level of software adoption suggests that there is a complementary, rather than substitutive

  8. Clinical Relevance of Sleep Duration: Results from a Cross-Sectional Analysis Using NHANES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, M. Soledad; Stang, Paul; Blacketer, Clair; Kent, Justine M.; Wittenberg, Gayle M.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess the clinical relevance of sleep duration, hours slept were compared by health status, presence of insomnia, and presence of depression, and the association of sleep duration with BMI and cardiovascular risk was quantified. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of subjects in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys using adjusted linear and logistic regressions. Results: A total of 22,281 adults were included, 37% slept ≤ 6 hours, 36% were obese, and 45% reported cardiovascular conditions. Mean sleep duration was 6.87 hours. Better health was associated with more hours of sleep. Subjects with poor health reported sleeping 46 min, (95% CI −56.85 to −35.67) less than subjects with excellent health. Individuals with depression (vs. not depressed) reported 40 min less sleep, (95% CI −47.14 to −32.85). Individuals with insomnia (vs. without insomnia) reported 39 min less sleep, (95% CI −56.24 to −22.45). Duration of sleep was inversely related to BMI; for every additional hour of sleep, there was a decrease of 0.18 kg/m2 in BMI, (95% CI −0.30 to −0.06). The odds of reporting cardiovascular problems were 6.0% lower for every hour of sleep (odds ratio = 0.94, 95% CI [0.91 to 0.97]). Compared with subjects who slept ≤ 6 h, subjects who slept more had lower odds of reporting cardiovascular problems, with the exception of subjects ≥ 55 years old who slept ≥ 9 hours. Conclusions: Long sleep duration is associated with better health. The fewer the hours of sleep, the greater the BMI and reported cardiovascular disease. A difference of 30 minutes of sleep is associated with substantive impact on clinical well-being. Citation: Cepeda MS, Stang P, Blacketer C, Kent JM, Wittenberg GM. Clinical relevance of sleep duration: results from a cross-sectional analysis using NHANES. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(6):813–819. PMID:26951419

  9. Diagnostic Accuracy of Body Mass Index to Identify Obesity in Older Adults: NHANES 1999–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsis, John A.; Mackenzie, Todd A.; Bartels, Stephen J.; Sahakyan, Karine R.; Somers, Virend K.; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Background Body composition changes with aging lead to increased adiposity and decreased muscle mass, making the diagnosis of obesity challenging. Conventional anthropometry, including body mass index (BMI), while easy to use clinically may misrepresent adiposity. We determined the diagnostic accuracy of BMI using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in assessing the degree of obesity in older adults. Methods The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999–2004 were used to identify adults aged ≥60years with DEXA measures. They were categorized (yes/no) as having elevated body fat by gender (men≥25%; females ≥35%) and by body mass index (BMI) ≥25 and ≥30kg/m2. The diagnostic performance of BMI was assessed. Metabolic characteristics were compared in discordant cases of BMI/body fat. Weighting and analyses were performed per NHANES guidelines. Results We identified 4,984 subjects (men:2,453; female:2,531). Mean BMI and % body fat was 28.0kg/m2 and 30.8% in men, and 28.5kg/m2 and 42.1% in females. A BMI ≥30kg/m2 had a low sensitivity and moderately high specificity (men:32.9% and 80.8%, concordance index 0.66; females:38.5% and 78.5%, concordance 0.69) correctly classifying 41.0 and 45.1% of obese subjects. A BMI ≥25kg/m2 had a moderately high sensitivity and specificity (men:80.7% and 99.6%, concordance 0.81;females:76.9% and 98.8%, concordance 0.84) correctly classifying 80.8 and 78.5% of obese subjects. In subjects with BMIBMI≥30kg/m2, sensitivity drops from 40.3 to 14.5% and 44.5 to 23.4%, while specificity remains elevated (>98%),in males and females, respectively in those 60–69.9years to subjects aged ≥80years. Correct classification of obesity using a cutoff of 30kg/m2 drops from 48.1 to 23.9% and 49.0 to 19.6%, in males and females in these two age groups. Conclusions Traditional measures poorly identify obesity in the elderly. In older adults, BMI may be a suboptimal marker for adiposity. PMID:26620887

  10. Consuming the daily recommended amounts of dairy products would reduce the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intakes in the United States: diet modeling study based on NHANES 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quann, Erin E; Fulgoni, Victor L; Auestad, Nancy

    2015-09-04

    A large portion of Americans are not meeting the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for several essential vitamins and minerals due to poor dietary choices. Dairy products are a key source of many of the nutrients that are under consumed, but children and adults do not consume the recommended amounts from this food group. This study modeled the impact of meeting daily recommended amounts of dairy products on population-based nutrient intakes. Two-day 24-h dietary recalls collected from participants ≥ 2 years (n = 8944) from the 2007-2010 What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were analyzed. Databases available from the WWEIA/NHANES and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) were used to determine nutrient, food group, and dietary supplement intakes. Modeling was performed by adding the necessary number of dairy servings, using the dairy composite designed by USDA, to each participant's diet to meet the dairy recommendations outlined by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. All analyses included sample weights to account for the NHANES survey design. The majority of children 4 years and older (67.4-88.8%) and nearly all adults (99.0-99.6%) fall below the recommended 2.5-3 daily servings of dairy products. Increasing dairy consumption to recommended amounts would result in a significant reduction in the percent of adults with calcium, magnesium, and vitamin A intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) when considering food intake alone (0-2.0 vs. 9.9-91.1%; 17.3-75.0 vs. 44.7-88.5%; 0.1-15.1 vs. 15.3-48.0%, respectively), as well as food and dietary supplement intake. Minimal, but significant, improvements were observed for the percent of people below the EAR for vitamin D (91.7-99.9 vs. 91.8-99.9%), and little change was achieved for the large percentage of people below the Adequate Intake for potassium. Increasing dairy food consumption to recommended amounts is one practical dietary change that

  11. Relationship Between Sarcopenia and Albuminuria: The 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Nyun; Lee, Eun Ju; Hong, Jae Won; Kim, Jung Min; Won, Jong Chul; Kim, Mi Kyung; Noh, Jung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that albuminuria, obesity, and sarcopenia may share pathophysiological processes related to cardiovascular disease risk. Their direct relationships, however, have not been examined. This study investigated the association between albuminuria and sarcopenia in a representative fraction of the Korean population.Of the 10,589 people who participated in the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2158 participants aged over 19 years had been tested for albumin-to-creatinine ratio and for body composition data using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Albuminuria was defined as an albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g. Sarcopenia was defined as a skeletal muscle index (SMI) (SMI (%) = total appendicular skeletal muscle mass [kg]/weight [kg] × 100) of less than 1 standard deviation (SD) (grade 1) or 2 SD (grade 2) below the sex-specific mean for a younger reference group.The prevalence of albuminuria was higher in those with grade 2 sarcopenia than in those with a normal SMI or grade 1 sarcopenia (33.3% versus 8.4% and 8.9%; P albuminuria than in those with the upper tertile of normoalbuminuria. In addition, multiple logistic regression analysis showed the odds ratio for albuminuria risk in the grade 2 sarcopenia group was 2.93 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46-5.88), compared with normal SMI after adjusting for potential confounding factors, including the presence of obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Moreover, individuals with albuminuria had an odds ratio of 3.39 (95% [confidence interval], 1.38-8.37) for grade 2 sarcopenia compared with those in the lowest tertile of normoalbuminuria.This is the first study to demonstrate that individuals with sarcopenia exhibited increased risk of albuminuria and vice versa.

  12. Alcohol drinking patterns and diet quality: the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Breslow, Rosalind A; Guenther, Patricia M; Smothers, Barbara A

    2006-02-15

    Associations between alcohol drinking and cardiovascular disease mortality could be confounded by diet if alcohol drinking and diet are related. Depending on the alcohol measure, alcohol-diet relations may or may not be observed. The authors examined associations between alcohol and diet quality (Healthy Eating Index (HEI) scores) using cross-sectional, nationally representative data from the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Weighted analyses included 3,729 participants aged > or =20 years. In adjusted analyses among current alcohol drinkers, as quantity increased from 1 to > or =3 drinks/drinking day, the mean HEI score decreased from 65.3 (95% confidence interval (CI): 63.4, 67.1) to 61.9 (95% CI: 60.5, 63.2). As frequency increased from the lowest quartile to the highest, the mean HEI score increased from 60.9 (95% CI: 58.7, 63.2) to 64.9 (95% CI: 63.4, 66.4). As average volume ((quantity x frequency)/365.25) increased from or =3 drinks/day, the mean HEI score increased from 62.9 (95% CI: 61.2, 64.5) to 65.2 (95% CI: 62.7, 67.8). In stratified analyses, the lowest HEI score, 58.5 (95% CI: 55.5, 61.5), occurred among drinkers who consumed the highest quantity at the lowest frequency. Average volume of alcohol consumed is driven by and masks the contributions of its components. These results suggest the importance of measuring drinking patterns (quantity, frequency, and stratified combinations) in epidemiologic alcohol-diet studies.

  13. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Roma: a comparative health examination survey in Hungary.

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    Kósa, Zsigmond; Moravcsik-Kornyicki, Ágota; Diószegi, Judit; Roberts, Bayard; Szabó, Zoltán; Sándor, János; Ádány, Róza

    2015-04-01

    The objective of our study was to compare the health status of the Roma people with that of the general population in Hungary. A health examination survey to define the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components was performed in a representative random sample (n = 646) of the Roma population aged 20-64 years living in segregated colonies, and data were compared with that obtained in a representative random sample (n = 1819) of the Hungarian population. The risks for central obesity, hypertension and raised triglyceride level among Roma adults were not different from the Hungarian references, while raised fasting plasma glucose or known type 2 diabetes mellitus (OR = 2.65, 95%CI 1.90-3.69), reduced HDL cholesterol level or treated lipid disorder (OR = 2.15, 95%CI 1.65-2.79) were significantly more frequent in all age groups in the Roma sample. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (OR = 1.37, 95%CI 1.03-1.83) was also significantly higher among Roma than in the general Hungarian population. Besides tackling the socio-economic determinants of the poor health of Roma people, specific public health interventions considering increased genetic susceptibility to metabolic disturbances are needed to improve their health status. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  14. Untreated, Uncontrolled, and Apparent Resistant Hypertension: Results of the German Health Examination Survey 2008-2011.

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    Sarganas, Giselle; Neuhauser, Hannelore K

    2016-11-01

    The prevalence and associated factors of untreated, uncontrolled, and apparent-resistant hypertension (RH) in Germany are unknown. Based on European Society of Hypertension criteria, apparent RH was defined as blood pressure (BP) ≥140/90 mm Hg (≥140/85 mm Hg in diabetics) under treatment with three different classes of antihypertensive agents including a diuretic. Data from the German Health Examination Survey (2008-2011; n=7115, age 18-79 years) including standardized BP measurements and Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical-coded taken medications were analyzed. Among patients aware of their hypertensive status (n=2205), 37.9% were uncontrolled and, among those, 33.4% were untreated. Being aware and having untreated and uncontrolled BP was associated with male sex, young age, not having cardiovascular disease, not performing BP self-measurement, not being obese, and not smoking. Apparent RH occurred in 6.8% of treated aware hypertensive patients and was positively associated with having diabetes. The proportion of uncontrolled BP is still high. Not having "obvious risk factors" has become a risk itself for having untreated and uncontrolled hypertension. ©2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Retrospective Reports of Weight Change and Inflammation in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

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    Sarinnapha Vasunilashorn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study investigated the association between weight change and inflammation in a nationally representative population of US adults aged 40 and older. Methods. Using the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005–2008, logistic regression models were used to determine the relationship between high levels of inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP] and infection (white blood cell count [WBC] with 1- and 10-year change in self-reported weight status. Results. Change in 1- and 10-year weight was associated with high CRP but not high WBC. Individuals who gained or lost ≥10 kg had an odds of having high CRP that was 1.96 (95% CI 1.11–3.50 and 1.61 (95% CI 1.02–2.46 as high, respectively, as those who maintained a stable weight (<4 kg change in the past year. The increased risk of elevated CRP among individuals who experienced at least 10 kg of weight loss or weight gain was also observed for weight change that occurred over the past 10 years; however, weight loss over the 10-year period was no longer associated with high inflammation. Conclusions. These results suggest that adult respondents who retrospectively self-reported weight loss or gain had higher levels of inflammation relative to their weight stable counterparts.

  16. Routine pelvic examinations: A descriptive cross-sectional survey of women's attitudes and beliefs after new guidelines.

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    Kling, Juliana M; Vegunta, Suneela; Al-Badri, Mina; Faubion, Stephanie S; Fields, Heather E; Shah, Amit A; Wallace, Mark R; Ruddy, Barbara E; Bryan, Michael J; Temkit, M'hamed; MacLaughlin, Kathy L

    2017-01-01

    Routine pelvic examinations have been a fundamental part of the annual female examination. The 2014 American College of Physicians (ACP) guideline recommends against routine pelvic examinations in asymptomatic, nonpregnant, average-risk women. Our aim was to evaluate women's attitudes and beliefs about pelvic examinations and how knowledge of the new guidelines contributes to attitudes and beliefs. A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed using a self-administered written survey developed through literature review and pretested and revised on the basis of staff suggestions. Nonpregnant women age≥21years presenting to outpatient clinics at Mayo Clinic in Arizona or Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, received the survey. After being asked about pelvic examination practices and beliefs, participants were informed of the ACP guideline, to determine effect on attitudes and beliefs. Demographic characteristics and pertinent medical history questions were collected from participants. In total, 671 women who were predominantly white, married, and educated completed surveys. Participants described pelvic examinations as reassuring, and a majority believed the examinations were useful in detecting ovarian cancer (74.6%), necessary for screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (71.0%), or necessary before initiating contraception (67.0%). After reading the 2014 ACP guideline, significantly fewer women planned to continue yearly pelvic examinations (Ppelvic examinations were necessary for STI screening, contraception initiation, and ovarian cancer detection. After education on the ACP screening guideline, fewer women planned to continue yearly pelvic examinations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of Health Examination Survey Methods in Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, England, Scotland, and the United States.

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    Mindell, Jennifer S; Moody, Alison; Vecino-Ortiz, Andres I; Alfaro, Tania; Frenz, Patricia; Scholes, Shaun; Gonzalez, Silvia A; Margozzini, Paula; de Oliveira, Cesar; Sanchez Romero, Luz Maria; Alvarado, Andres; Cabrera, Sebastián; Sarmiento, Olga L; Triana, Camilo A; Barquera, Simón

    2017-09-15

    Comparability of population surveys across countries is key to appraising trends in population health. Achieving this requires deep understanding of the methods used in these surveys to examine the extent to which the measurements are comparable. In this study, we obtained detailed protocols of 8 nationally representative surveys from 2007-2013 from Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, the United Kingdom (England and Scotland), and the United States-countries that that differ in economic and inequity indicators. Data were collected on sampling frame, sample selection procedures, recruitment, data collection methods, content of interview and examination modules, and measurement protocols. We also assessed their adherence to the World Health Organization's "STEPwise Approach to Surveillance" framework for population health surveys. The surveys, which included half a million participants, were highly comparable on sampling methodology, survey questions, and anthropometric measurements. Heterogeneity was found for physical activity questionnaires and biological samples collection. The common age range included by the surveys was adults aged 18-64 years. The methods used in these surveys were similar enough to enable comparative analyses of the data across the 7 countries. This comparability is crucial in assessing and comparing national and subgroup population health, and to assisting the transfer of research and policy knowledge across countries. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Exposure to hazardous workplace noise and use of hearing protection devices among US workers--NHANES, 1999-2004.

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    Tak, Sangwoo; Davis, Rickie R; Calvert, Geoffrey M

    2009-05-01

    To estimate the prevalence of workplace noise exposure and use of hearing protection devices (HPDs) at noisy work, NIOSH analyzed 1999-2004 data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). A total of 9,275 currently employed workers aged > or =16 years were included in the weighted analysis. Hazardous workplace noise exposure was defined as self-reported exposure to noise at their current job that was so loud that the respondent had to speak in a raised voice to be heard. Industry and occupation were determined based on the respondent's current place and type of work. Twenty-two million US workers (17%) reported exposure to hazardous workplace noise. The weighted prevalence of workplace noise exposure was highest for mining (76%, SE = 7.0) followed by lumber/wood product manufacturing (55%, SE = 2.5). High-risk occupations included repair and maintenance, motor vehicle operators, and construction trades. Overall, 34% of the estimated 22 million US workers reporting hazardous workplace exposure reported non-use of HPDs. The proportion of noise-exposed workers who reported non-use of HPDs was highest for healthcare and social services (73.7%, SE = 8.1), followed by educational services (55.5%). Hearing loss prevention and intervention programs should be targeted at those industries and occupations identified to have a high prevalence of workplace noise exposure and those industries with the highest proportion of noise-exposed workers who reported non-use of HPDs. Published 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Fat mass to fat-free mass ratio reference values from NHANES III using bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, J; Purcell, S A; Prado, C M; Gonzalez, M C

    2017-10-06

    Low fat-free mass (FFM) or high fat mass (FM) are abnormal body composition phenotypes associated with morbidity. These conditions in combination lead to worse health outcomes, and can be identified by a high FM/FFM ratio. Here, we developed sex, age, and body mass index (BMI) stratified, population-based FM/FFM reference values using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) measurements. White, non-Hispanic individuals aged 18-90 years old with data for weight, stature and BIA resistance measures from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III were included. Previously validated and sex-specific BIA prediction equations were used to calculate FM and FFM. FM/FFM values were generated at 5th, 50th and 95th percentiles for each sex, age (18-39.9, 40-59.9, 60-69.9 and 70-90 years), and BMI category (underweight, normal weight, overweight, class I/II and class III obesity). A total of 6372 individuals who had estimated FM and FFM values were identified (3366 females, 3006 males). Median values of FM/FFM were 0.24 and 0.40 for young (≤39.9 years) males and females with normal BMI, and 0.34 for males and 0.59 for females who were overweight. For elderly individuals aged >70 years, median FM/FFM for males and females were respectively 0.28 and 0.45 for those with normal BMI, and 0.37 and 0.61 for those in the overweight category. These FM/FFM reference values provide information on body composition characteristics that account for age, sex and BMI, which can be useful to identify individuals at risk for body composition abnormalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  20. Seasonal Variations of Complete Blood Count and Inflammatory Biomarkers in the US Population - Analysis of NHANES Data.

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    Liu, Bian; Taioli, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies reported seasonal differences in gene expression in white blood cells, adipose tissue, and inflammatory biomarkers of the immune system. There is no data on the seasonal variations of these biomarkers in the US general population of both children and adults. Then aim of this study is to explore the seasonal trends in complete blood count (CBC), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in a large non-institutionalized US population. Seven cross-sectional data collected in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) during 1999-2012 were aggregated; participants reporting recent use of prescribed steroids, chemotherapy, immunomodulators and antibiotics were excluded. Linear regression models were used to compare levels of CBC and CRP between winter-spring (November-April) and summer-fall (May-October), adjusting for demographics, personal behavioral factors, and chronic disease conditions. A total of 27,478 children and 36,644 adults (≥18 years) were included in the study. Levels of neutrophils, white blood cell count (WBC), and CRP were higher in winter-spring than summer-fall (p≤0.05). Red blood cell components were lower in winter-spring than in summer-fall, while the opposite was seen for platelets. This large population-based study found notable seasonal variations in blood cell composition and inflammatory biomarkers, with a more pro-inflammatory immune system seen in winter-spring than summer-fall. The red blood cell patterns could have implications for the observed cardio-vascular seasonality.

  1. Dietary sources of methylated arsenic species in urine of the United States population, NHANES 2003-2010.

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    B Rey deCastro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Arsenic is an ubiquitous element linked to carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity, as well as adverse respiratory, gastrointestinal, hepatic, and dermal health effects. OBJECTIVE: Identify dietary sources of speciated arsenic: monomethylarsonic acid (MMA, and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA. METHODS: Age-stratified, sample-weighted regression of NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2010 data (∼8,300 participants ≥6 years old characterized the association between urinary arsenic species and the additional mass consumed of USDA-standardized food groups (24-hour dietary recall data, controlling for potential confounders. RESULTS: For all arsenic species, the rank-order of age strata for median urinary molar concentration was children 6-11 years > adults 20-84 years > adolescents 12-19 years, and for all age strata, the rank-order was DMA > MMA. Median urinary molar concentrations of methylated arsenic species ranged from 0.56 to 3.52 µmol/mol creatinine. Statistically significant increases in urinary arsenic species were associated with increased consumption of: fish (DMA; fruits (DMA, MMA; grain products (DMA, MMA; legumes, nuts, seeds (DMA; meat, poultry (DMA; rice (DMA, MMA; rice cakes/crackers (DMA, MMA; and sugars, sweets, beverages (MMA. And, for adults, rice beverage/milk (DMA, MMA. In addition, based on US (United States median and 90th percentile consumption rates of each food group, exposure from the following food groups was highlighted: fish; fruits; grain products; legumes, nuts, seeds; meat, poultry; and sugars, sweets, beverages. CONCLUSIONS: In a nationally representative sample of the US civilian, noninstitutionalized population, fish (adults, rice (children, and rice cakes/crackers (adolescents had the largest associations with urinary DMA. For MMA, rice beverage/milk (adults and rice cakes/crackers (children, adolescents had the largest associations.

  2. Dietary sources of methylated arsenic species in urine of the United States population, NHANES 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deCastro, B Rey; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Jones, Robert L; Blount, Benjamin C; Pan, Yi; Ward, Cynthia; Mortensen, Mary E

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is an ubiquitous element linked to carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity, as well as adverse respiratory, gastrointestinal, hepatic, and dermal health effects. Identify dietary sources of speciated arsenic: monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Age-stratified, sample-weighted regression of NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) 2003-2010 data (∼8,300 participants ≥6 years old) characterized the association between urinary arsenic species and the additional mass consumed of USDA-standardized food groups (24-hour dietary recall data), controlling for potential confounders. For all arsenic species, the rank-order of age strata for median urinary molar concentration was children 6-11 years > adults 20-84 years > adolescents 12-19 years, and for all age strata, the rank-order was DMA > MMA. Median urinary molar concentrations of methylated arsenic species ranged from 0.56 to 3.52 µmol/mol creatinine. Statistically significant increases in urinary arsenic species were associated with increased consumption of: fish (DMA); fruits (DMA, MMA); grain products (DMA, MMA); legumes, nuts, seeds (DMA); meat, poultry (DMA); rice (DMA, MMA); rice cakes/crackers (DMA, MMA); and sugars, sweets, beverages (MMA). And, for adults, rice beverage/milk (DMA, MMA). In addition, based on US (United States) median and 90th percentile consumption rates of each food group, exposure from the following food groups was highlighted: fish; fruits; grain products; legumes, nuts, seeds; meat, poultry; and sugars, sweets, beverages. In a nationally representative sample of the US civilian, noninstitutionalized population, fish (adults), rice (children), and rice cakes/crackers (adolescents) had the largest associations with urinary DMA. For MMA, rice beverage/milk (adults) and rice cakes/crackers (children, adolescents) had the largest associations.

  3. Prevalence and Determinants of Diabetic Nephropathy in Korea: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

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    Jae Hee Ahn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDiabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of end stage renal disease and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. It manifests as albuminuria or impaired glomerular filtration rate (GFR, and the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy varies with ethnicity. The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy and its determinants in Korean adults have not previously been studied at the national level. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to ascertain the prevalence and determinants of albuminuria and chronic kidney disease (CKD in Korean patients with diabetes.MethodsThe Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V, conducted in 2011, was used to define albuminuria (n=4,652, and the dataset of KNHANES IV-V (2008-2011 was used to define CKD (n=21,521. Selected samples were weighted to represent the entire civilian population in Korea. Albuminuria was defined as a spot urine albumin/creatinine ratio >30 mg/g. CKD was defined as a GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2.ResultsAmong subjects with diabetes, 26.7% had albuminuria, and 8.6% had CKD. Diabetes was associated with an approximate 2.5-fold increased risk of albuminuria, with virtually no difference between new-onset and previously diagnosed diabetes. Only systolic blood pressure was significantly associated with albuminuria, and old age, high serum triglyceride levels, and previous cardiovascular disease (CVD were related with CKD in subjects with diabetes.ConclusionKorean subjects with diabetes had a higher prevalence of albuminuria and CKD than those without diabetes. Blood pressure was associated with albuminuria, and age, triglyceride level, and previous CVD were independent determinants of CKD in subjects with diabetes.

  4. Metabolic syndrome and total cancer mortality in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Gathirua-Mwangi, Wambui G; Monahan, Patrick O; Murage, Mwangi J; Zhang, Jianjun

    2017-02-01

    Although metabolic syndrome incidence has substantially increased during the last few decades, it largely remains unclear whether this metabolic disorder is associated with total cancer mortality. The present study was carried out to investigate this important question. A total of 687 cancer deaths were identified from 14,916 participants in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey by linking them to the National Death Index database through December 31, 2006. Cox proportional hazards regression was performed to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for total cancer mortality in relation to metabolic syndrome and its individual components. After adjustment for confounders, a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was associated with 33% elevated total cancer mortality. Compared with individuals without metabolic syndrome, those with 3, 4 and 5 abnormal components had HRs (95% CIs) of 1.28 (1.03-1.59), 1.24 (0.96-1.60), and 1.87 (1.34-2.63), respectively (p-trend = 0.0003). Systolic blood pressure and serum glucose were associated with an increased risk of death from total cancer [HR (95% CI) for highest vs. lowest quartiles: 1.67 (1.19-2.33), p-trend = 0.002 and 1.34 (1.04-1.74), p-trend = 0.003, respectively]. Overall null results were obtained for lung cancer mortality. The effects of metabolic syndrome and its components on non-lung cancer mortality were generally similar to, but somewhat larger than, those for total cancer mortality. Our study is among the first to reveal that metabolic syndrome is associated with increased total cancer mortality.

  5. Comorbidities of rheumatoid arthritis: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Hyemin Jeong

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of comorbidities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA compared with the non-RA population. The 2010-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, which assesses the general health status of populations in South Korea using interviews and basic health assessment, was analyzed retrospectively. Weighted prevalence and odds ratio (OR of comorbidities were analyzed in patients with RA compared with the non-RA population. The overall weighted (n = 37,453,158 prevalence of RA was 1.5%. Patients with RA were older and more female predominant than subjects without RA. The prevalence of living in an urban area, college graduation, alcohol consumption and smoking was lower in patients with RA than non-RA. Patients with RA had more comorbidities including hypertension, dyslipidemia, myocardial infarction (MI or angina, stoke, osteoarthritis, lung cancer, colon cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, asthma, diabetes, depression, thyroid disease and chronic kidney disease. After adjusting socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics, RA was associated with an increased prevalence of MI or angina (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.17-2.96, p = 0.009, pulmonary TB (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.24-3.09, p = 0.004, asthma (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.05-3.71, p = 0.036, thyroid disease (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.05-2.77, depression (OR 2.38, 95% CI 1.47-3.85, p < 0.001 and hepatitis B (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.15-4.80, p = 0.020 compared with the non-RA population. Prevalence of solid cancer was not significantly associated with RA after adjustment.

  6. Prevalence of Dyslipidemia and Management in the Thai Population, National Health Examination Survey IV, 2009.

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    Aekplakorn, Wichai; Taneepanichskul, Surasak; Kessomboon, Pattapong; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Putwatana, Panwadee; Sritara, Piyamitr; Sangwatanaroj, Somkiat; Chariyalertsak, Suwat

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence and management of dyslipidemia in Thai adults using data from the Thai National Health Examination Survey IV in 2009. Dyslipidemia was defined based on the Third Adult Treatment Panel guidelines. A total of 19,021 adults aged 20 yr and over were included. Mean (SE) levels of total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, and triglycerides were 206.4 (1.03), 46.9 (0.34), 128.7 (1.09), and 131.4 (2.20) mg/dL, respectively. Prevalence of high LDL-C, low HDL-C, and high triglycerides were 29.6 %, 47.1 %, and 38.6%, respectively. Compared with individuals in the north and northeast, residents in Bangkok and Central region had significant higher levels of LDL-C but lower level of HDL-C. Triglyceride level was the highest in the northeast residents. Overall, 66.5% of Thais had some forms of dyslipidemia. Awareness and treatment of high LDL-C among those with high LDL-C were 17.8% and 11.7%, respectively. Among individuals aware of high LDL-C, those at highest CHD risk compared with those at low risk had higher percentage of treatment (73.1% versus 51.7%, resp.) but lower percentage of control at goal (32.9% versus 76.4%, resp.). Various forms of dyslipidemia are common in Thai adults, with a low level of awareness and treatment of high LDL-C.

  7. Examining Student Attitudes in Introductory Physics via the Math Attitude and Expectations Survey (MAX)

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    Hemingway, Deborah; Eichenlaub, Mark; Losert, Wolfgang; Redish, Edward F.

    2017-01-01

    Student often face difficulties with using math in science, and this exploratory project seeks to address the underlying mechanisms that lead to these difficulties. This mixed-methods project includes the creation of two novel assessment surveys, the Mathematical Epistemic Games Survey (MEGS) and the Math Attitude and Expectations Survey (MAX). The MAX, a 30-question Likert-scale survey, focuses on the attitudes towards using mathematics of the students in a reformed introductory physics course for the life sciences (IPLS) which is part of the National Experiment in Undergraduate Education (NEXUS/Physics) developed at the University of Maryland (UMD). Preliminary results from the MAX are discussed with specific attention given to students' attitudes towards math and physics, opinions about interdisciplinarity, and the usefulness of physics in academic settings as well as in professional biological research and modern medicine settings.

  8. Pulmonary Impairment in Tuberculosis Survivors: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012.

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    Jung, Jae-Woo; Choi, Jae-Chol; Shin, Jong-Wook; Kim, Jae-Yeol; Choi, Byoung-Whui; Park, In-Won

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) can affect lung function, but studies regarding long-term follow-up in patients with no sequelae on chest X-ray (CXR) have not been performed. We evaluated lung functional impairment and persistent respiratory symptoms in those with prior pulmonary TB and those with prior pulmonary TB with no residual sequelae on CXR, and determined risk factors for airflow obstruction. We used data from adults aged ≥ 40 years from the annual Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted between 2008 and 2012. P values for comparisons were adjusted for age, sex, and smoking status. In total of 14,967 adults, 822 subjects (5.5%) had diagnosed and treated pulmonary TB (mean 29.0 years ago). The FVC% (84.9 vs. 92.6), FEV1% (83.4 vs. 92.4), and FEV1/FVC% (73.4 vs. 77.9) were significantly decreased in subjects with prior pulmonary TB compared to those without (p pulmonary TB (296, 2.3%) had significantly lower FEV1% (90.9 vs. 93.4, p = 0.001) and FEV1/FVC% (76.6 vs. 78.4, p pulmonary TB as well as subjects with no sequalae on CXR were more likely to experience cough and physical activity limitations due to pulmonary symptoms than those without prior pulmonary TB (p pulmonary TB (OR, 2.314; 95% CI, 1.922-2.785), along with age, male, asthma, and smoking mount was risk factor for airflow obstruction. In subjects with prior pulmonary tuberculosis, inactive TB lesion on chest x-ray (OR, 2.300; 95% CI, 1.606-3.294) were risk factors of airflow obstruction. In addition to subjects with inactive TB lesion on CXR, subjects with no sequelae on CXR can show impaired pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms. Prior TB is a risk factor for airflow obstruction and that the risk is more important when they have inactive lesions on chest X-ray. Hence, the patients with treated TB should need to have regular follow-up of lung function and stop smoking for early detection and prevention of the chronic airway disease.

  9. The Contribution of Fortified Ready-to-Eat Cereal to Vitamin and Mineral Intake in the U.S. Population, NHANES 2007–2010

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    Victor L. Fulgoni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrients play a pivotal role in achieving and maintaining optimum health across all life stages. Much of the U.S. population fails to meet Estimated Average Requirements (EARs for key nutrients. This analysis aims to assess the contribution of fortified ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC to micronutrient intake for U.S. residents aged 2–18, 19–99, and 2–99 years of age according to National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007–2010 data. We used the National Cancer Institute (NCI method to assess usual intake of 21 micronutrients and the percentage of the population under EARs and above Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL. Without fortification of RTECs, the percentage of those aged 2–18 years that were below EARs increased by 155, 163, 113, and 35% for niacin, iron, thiamin, and vitamin A, respectively. For vitamins B6 and zinc, the respective numbers were 118% and 60%. Adults aged 19–99 and 2–99 had lower percentages but similar outcomes. RTECs are associated with improved nutrient adequacy and do not widely affect prevalence above the UL. The data indicate that large proportions of the population fail to achieve micronutrient sufficiency without fortification, and that its use can help Americans reach national nutrient intake goals.

  10. The Contribution of Fortified Ready-to-Eat Cereal to Vitamin and Mineral Intake in the U.S. Population, NHANES 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgoni, Victor L; Buckley, Rita B

    2015-05-25

    Micronutrients play a pivotal role in achieving and maintaining optimum health across all life stages. Much of the U.S. population fails to meet Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) for key nutrients. This analysis aims to assess the contribution of fortified ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) to micronutrient intake for U.S. residents aged 2-18, 19-99, and 2-99 years of age according to National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010 data. We used the National Cancer Institute (NCI) method to assess usual intake of 21 micronutrients and the percentage of the population under EARs and above Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL). Without fortification of RTECs, the percentage of those aged 2-18 years that were below EARs increased by 155, 163, 113, and 35% for niacin, iron, thiamin, and vitamin A, respectively. For vitamins B6 and zinc, the respective numbers were 118% and 60%. Adults aged 19-99 and 2-99 had lower percentages but similar outcomes. RTECs are associated with improved nutrient adequacy and do not widely affect prevalence above the UL. The data indicate that large proportions of the population fail to achieve micronutrient sufficiency without fortification, and that its use can help Americans reach national nutrient intake goals.

  11. Major food sources of calories, added sugars, and saturated fat and their contribution to essential nutrient intakes in the U.S. diet: data from the national health and nutrition examination survey (2003–2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The risk of chronic disease cannot be predicted simply by the content of a single nutrient in a food or food group in the diet. The contribution of food sources of calories, added sugars and saturated fat (SFA) to intakes of dietary fiber and micronutrients of public health importance is also relevant to understanding the overall dietary impact of these foods. Objective Identify the top food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA in the U.S. diet and quantify their contribution to fiber and micronutrient intakes. Methods Single 24-hour dietary recalls (Day 1) collected from participants ≥2 years (n = 16,822) of the What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA/NHANES 2003–2006) were analyzed. All analyses included sample weights to account for the survey design. Calorie and nutrient intakes from foods included contributions from disaggregated food mixtures and tabulated by rank order. Results No one food category contributes more than 7.2% of calories to the overall U.S. diet, but half of the top 10 contribute 10% or more of total dietary fiber and micronutrients. Three of the top 10 sources of calories and SFA (beef, milk and cheese) contribute 46.3% of the calcium, 49.5% of the vitamin D, 42.3% of the vitamin B12 as well as other essential nutrients to the American diet. On the other hand, foods categorized as desserts, snacks, or beverages, contribute 13.6% of total calories, 83% of added sugar intake, and provide little or no nutritional value. Including food components of disaggregated recipes more accurately estimated the contribution of foods like beef, milk or cheese to overall nutrient intake compared to “as consumed” food categorizations. Conclusions Some food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA make major contributions to American dietary fiber and micronutrient intakes. Dietary modifications targeting reductions in calories, added sugar, or SFA need to take these key micronutrient

  12. Major food sources of calories, added sugars, and saturated fat and their contribution to essential nutrient intakes in the U.S. diet: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Peter J; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R; Park, Keigan; Auestad, Nancy

    2013-08-08

    The risk of chronic disease cannot be predicted simply by the content of a single nutrient in a food or food group in the diet. The contribution of food sources of calories, added sugars and saturated fat (SFA) to intakes of dietary fiber and micronutrients of public health importance is also relevant to understanding the overall dietary impact of these foods. Identify the top food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA in the U.S. diet and quantify their contribution to fiber and micronutrient intakes. Single 24-hour dietary recalls (Day 1) collected from participants ≥2 years (n = 16,822) of the What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA/NHANES 2003-2006) were analyzed. All analyses included sample weights to account for the survey design. Calorie and nutrient intakes from foods included contributions from disaggregated food mixtures and tabulated by rank order. No one food category contributes more than 7.2% of calories to the overall U.S. diet, but half of the top 10 contribute 10% or more of total dietary fiber and micronutrients. Three of the top 10 sources of calories and SFA (beef, milk and cheese) contribute 46.3% of the calcium, 49.5% of the vitamin D, 42.3% of the vitamin B12 as well as other essential nutrients to the American diet. On the other hand, foods categorized as desserts, snacks, or beverages, contribute 13.6% of total calories, 83% of added sugar intake, and provide little or no nutritional value. Including food components of disaggregated recipes more accurately estimated the contribution of foods like beef, milk or cheese to overall nutrient intake compared to "as consumed" food categorizations. Some food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA make major contributions to American dietary fiber and micronutrient intakes. Dietary modifications targeting reductions in calories, added sugar, or SFA need to take these key micronutrient sources into account so as not to have the unintended

  13. Review of survey and experimental research that examines the relationship between alcohol consumption and men's sexual aggression perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Antonia; Wegner, Rhiana; Woerner, Jacqueline; Pegram, Sheri E; Pierce, Jennifer

    2014-10-01

    This article systematically reviews empirical studies that examine associations between alcohol consumption and men's sexual aggression with the goal of identifying major findings; gaps in current knowledge; and directions for future research, practice, and policy. We identified 25 cross-sectional surveys, 6 prospective studies, and 12 alcohol administration experiments published between 1993 and August 2013 with male college students and young adult (nonincarcerated) samples. Many cross-sectional surveys have demonstrated that distal and proximal measures of men's alcohol consumption are positively associated with sexual assault perpetration, although very few of these studies evaluated how alcohol interacts with other risk and protective factors to exacerbate or inhibit sexual aggression. There are surprisingly few surveys that examine alcohol's effects at the event level and over short-time intervals to identify how changes in alcohol consumption are associated with changes in perpetration status. Alcohol administration studies suggest some important mechanisms that warrant additional investigation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Review of Survey and Experimental Research That Examines the Relationship Between Alcohol Consumption and Men's Sexual Aggression Perpetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Antonia; Wegner, Rhiana; Woerner, Jacqueline; Pegram, Sheri E.; Pierce, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This article systematically reviews empirical studies that examine associations between alcohol consumption and men's sexual aggression with the goal of identifying major findings; gaps in current knowledge; and directions for future research, practice, and policy. We identified 25 cross-sectional surveys, 6 prospective studies, and 12 alcohol administration experiments published between 1993 and August 2013 with male college students and young adult (nonincarcerated) samples. Many cross-sectional surveys have demonstrated that distal and proximal measures of men's alcohol consumption are positively associated with sexual assault perpetration, although very few of these studies evaluated how alcohol interacts with other risk and protective factors to exacerbate or inhibit sexual aggression. There are surprisingly few surveys that examine alcohol's effects at the event level and over short-time intervals to identify how changes in alcohol consumption are associated with changes in perpetration status. Alcohol administration studies suggest some important mechanisms that warrant additional investigation. PMID:24776459

  15. Student Engagement and Student Learning: Examining the Convergent and Discriminant Validity of the Revised National Survey of Student Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilvinskis, John; Masseria, Anthony A.; Pike, Gary R.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between student engagement, represented by two versions of the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) and self-reported gains in learning. The study drew on institutional-level data from participating institutions in 2011 and 2013. The objective of the research was to compare evidence of…

  16. Examining the Cultural Validity of Fear Survey Schedule for Children: The Contemporary Fears of Turkish Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serim-Yildiz, Begum; Erdur-Baker, Ozgur

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the cultural validity of Fear Survey Schedule for Children (FSSC-AM) developed by J. J. Burnham (2005) with Turkish children. The relationships between demographic variables and the level of fear were also tested. Three independent data sets were used. The first data set comprised 676 participants (321 women and 355 men) and…

  17. Association of urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations with body mass index and waist circumference: a cross-sectional study of NHANES data, 1999–2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer Martha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although diet and activity are key factors in the obesity epidemic, laboratory studies suggest that endocrine disrupting chemicals may also affect obesity. Methods We analyzed associations between six phthalate metabolites measured in urine and body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES participants aged 6–80. We included 4369 participants from NHANES 1999–2002, with data on mono-ethyl (MEP, mono-2-ethylhexyl (MEHP, mono-n-butyl (MBP, and mono-benzyl (MBzP phthalate; 2286 also had data on mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl (MEHHP and mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl (MEOHP phthalate (2001–2002. Using multiple regression, we computed mean BMI and WC within phthalate quartiles in eight age/gender specific models. Results The most consistent associations were in males aged 20–59; BMI and WC increased across quartiles of MBzP (adjusted mean BMI = 26.7, 27.2, 28.4, 29.0, p-trend = 0.0002, and positive associations were also found for MEOHP, MEHHP, MEP, and MBP. In females, BMI and WC increased with MEP quartile in adolescent girls (adjusted mean BMI = 22.9, 23.8, 24.1, 24.7, p-trend = 0.03, and a similar but less strong pattern was seen in 20–59 year olds. In contrast, MEHP was inversely related to BMI in adolescent girls (adjusted mean BMI = 25.4, 23.8, 23.4, 22.9, p-trend = 0.02 and females aged 20–59 (adjusted mean BMI = 29.9, 29.9, 27.9, 27.6, p-trend = 0.02. There were no important associations among children, but several inverse associations among 60–80 year olds. Conclusion This exploratory, cross-sectional analysis revealed a number of interesting associations with different phthalate metabolites and obesity outcomes, including notable differences by gender and age subgroups. Effects of endocrine disruptors, such as phthalates, may depend upon endogenous hormone levels, which vary dramatically by age and gender. Individual phthalates also have different

  18. Association of Dietary Intake and Biomarker Levels of Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury among Asian Populations in the United States: NHANES 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awata, Hiroshi; Linder, Stephen; Mitchell, Laura E; Delclos, George L

    2017-03-01

    We have recently shown that biomarker levels of selected metals are higher in Asians than in other U.S. ethnic groups, with important differences within selected Asian subgroups. Much of this difference may be dietary in origin; however, this is not well established. We evaluated dietary intake of toxic metals as a source of increased biomarker levels of metals among U.S. Asians. We estimated daily food consumption and dietary intake of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury by combining 24-hr dietary intake recall data from the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with data from the USDA Food Composition Intake Database and FDA Total Dietary Study. We analyzed associations between dietary metal intake and biomarker levels of the metals using linear regression. Further, estimated food consumption and metal intake levels were compared between Asians and other racial/ethnic groups (white, black, Mexican American, and other Hispanic) and within three Asian subgroups (Chinese, Indian Asian, and other Asians). Significant associations (p Asians. Asians had the highest daily fish and rice consumption across the racial/ethnic groups. Fish was the major contributor to dietary mercury and total arsenic intake, whereas rice was the major contributor to inorganic arsenic dietary intake. Fish consumption across the Asian subgroups varied, with Asian Indians having lower fish consumption than the other Asian subgroups. Rice consumption was similar across the Asian subgroups. We confirmed that estimated dietary intake of arsenic (total and inorganic) and mercury is significantly associated with their corresponding biomarkers in U.S. Asians, using nationally representative data. In contrast, estimated dietary intake of cadmium and lead were not significantly associated with their corresponding biomarker levels in U.S. Asians. Citation: Awata H, Linder S, Mitchell LE, Delclos GL. 2017. Association of dietary intake and biomarker levels of arsenic

  19. Examining Stress in Graduate Assistants: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Survey Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, Joseph J.; Walker, Erin J.; Shockley, Kristen M.; Spector, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to employ qualitative and quantitative survey methods in a concurrent mixed model design to assess stressors and strains in graduate assistants. The stressors most frequently reported qualitatively were work overload, interpersonal conflict, and organizational constraints; the most frequently reported psychological…

  20. The Prevalence of Anemia and Moderate-Severe Anemia in the US Population (NHANES 2003-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Since anemia is associated with poor health outcomes, the prevalence of anemia is a significant public health indicator. Even though anemia is primarily caused by iron deficiency, low oxygen-carrying capacity may result from other conditions such as chronic diseases, which remain a relevant health concern in the United States. However, studies examining current rates of anemia in the total US population and in more specific subgroups are limited. Data from five National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from 2003 to 2012 were analyzed to assess two outcomes: anemia and moderate-severe anemia, which were based upon serum hemoglobin levels (Hb) as per World Health Organization (WHO) definitions. Statistical analysis using SAS examined temporal trends and the prevalence of anemia among sexes, age groups, and races/ethnicities. The study estimated that an average of 5.6% of the U.S. population met the criteria for anemia and 1.5% for moderate-severe anemia during this 10-year period. High-risk groups such as pregnant women, elderly persons, women of reproductive age, non-Hispanic blacks, and Hispanics were identified, and relationships between multiple risk factors were examined. Rates of anemia in men increased monotonically with age, while that of women increased bimodally with peaks in age group 40–49 years and 80–85 years. The effect of risk factors was observed to compound. For instance, the prevalence of anemia in black women aged 80–85 years was 35.6%, 6.4 times higher than the population average. Moreover, anemia is a growing problem because of the increased prevalence of anemia (4.0% to 7.1%) and moderate-severe anemia (1.0% to 1.9%), which nearly doubled from 2003–2004 to 2011–2012. Thus, these results augment the current knowledge on anemia prevalence, severity, and distribution among subgroups in the US and raised anemia as an issue that requires urgent public health intervention. PMID:27846276

  1. Examining impacts of allergic diseases on psychological problems and tobacco use in Korean adolescents: the 2008-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Hong Chun

    Full Text Available Asthma during adolescence can induce social, psychological, and behavioral problems. We examined the impact of asthma and other allergic diseases on psychological symptoms and health risk behaviors among South Korean adolescents.In this population-based cross-sectional study, 3192 adolescents (10-18 years of age participating in the 2008-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were enrolled. Psychological problems associated with clinically diagnosed asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis were assessed using questionnaires and surveys. Data was analyzed using logistic regression to determine the association of depression with allergic disease while controlling for age, sex, body mass index, smoking experience, and alcohol use.Asthma and atopic dermatitis were associated with a higher prevalence of depression (17.2% and 13%, respectively. After adjusting for the covariates, asthma patients were approximately two times as likely to have depression as non-allergic participants (odds ratio, 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-2.68. Psychosocial stress significantly increased in the following order: no allergy, any allergy without asthma, asthma only, and asthma with any allergy (p for linear trend = 0.01. The asthma without other allergies group showed the highest prevalence of cigarette smoking (p = 0.007.In this study, asthma with or without other allergies was significantly related to increases in depression, psychosocial stress, and smoking experience. Thus, care should be taken to adjust treatment to account for the psychological symptoms and health risk behaviors common among asthmatic adolescents.

  2. Reimagining infertility: a critical examination of fertility norms, geopolitics and survey bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fledderjohann, Jasmine; Barnes, Liberty Walther

    2018-01-01

    While it is estimated that 15% of couples worldwide are infertile, this figure hinges critically on the quality, inclusiveness and availability of infertility data sources. Current infertility data and statistics fail to account for the infertility experiences of some social groups. We identify these people as the invisible infertile, and refer to their omission from infertility data and statistics-whether intentional or unintentional-as the process of invisibilization. We identify two processes through which invisibilization in survey data is produced: sampling, with focus on exclusionary definitions of the population at-risk, and survey instrument design, with focus on skip patterns and question wording. Illustrative examples of these processes are drawn from the Integrated Fertility Survey Series and the Demographic and Health Surveys. Empirical research is not designed in an objective vacuum. Rather, survey instruments and sampling techniques are shaped and influenced by the sociocultural norms and geopolitical context of the time and place in which they are created and conducted, reflecting broader social beliefs about family building and reproduction. Furthermore, population policy singularly aimed at curbing overpopulation in high fertility parts of the world limits the type of reproduction data collected, effectively rendering the infertility of some groups epidemiologically unfathomable. In light of these sociocultural and geopolitical forces, many marginalized groups are missing from reproductive health (RH) statistics. The omission of entire groups from the scientific discourse casts doubt on the quality of research questions, validity of the analytic tools, and accuracy of scientific findings. Invisibility may also misguide evidence-based RH and family planning policies and deter equitable access to reproductive healthcare for some social groups, perpetuating social inequalities. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association

  3. Examining Variation in Surveying Attitudes on Same-Sex Marriage: A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Andrew R

    2015-01-01

    Recent polls report majorities of the public supporting marriage recognition for same-sex couples. These reports are not uniform, with some polling organizations still reporting less than a majority in favor. I examine variation in these results using meta-analysis to examine variation among organizations (norg=21) and question wordings (nqw=36) . I also examine direct effects that explain variation based on question framing from 1996 to 2014 (npoll=138) . The results show that after accounti...

  4. Chaperone use during intimate examinations in primary care: postal survey of family physicians

    OpenAIRE

    Upshur Ross EG; Tracy C Shawn; Price David H

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Physicians have long been advised to have a third party present during certain parts of a physical examination; however, little is known about the frequency of chaperone use for those specific intimate examinations regularly performed in primary care. We aimed to determine the frequency of chaperone use among family physicians across a variety of intimate physical examinations for both male and female patients, and also to identify the factors associated with chaperone use...

  5. Prevalence and trends in physical activity among older adults in the United States: A comparison across three national surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keadle, Sarah Kozey; McKinnon, Robin; Graubard, Barry I; Troiano, Richard P

    2016-08-01

    This paper examined how many older adults (65+years) are meeting physical activity (PA) Guidelines (PAG; 150min/week of moderate-to-vigorous PA) using data from three leading national surveys (NHANES, BRFSS and NHIS). The proportion of individuals meeting aerobic PAG was determined for the most recent cycle available for each survey (NHANES 2011-12, NHIS and BRFSS 2013). We also assessed whether PAG adherence has changed over time. Predicted margins from multinomial logistic regression were computed after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity and gender and sample weights. The proportion of older adults meeting PAG was 27.3% for NHANES, 35.8% for NHIS and 44.3% for BRFSS. Across all surveys, men reported higher levels of activity than women, Non-Hispanic whites reported higher levels than Non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, activity declined with age and was lower in those with functional limitations, all P<0.05. The proportion of older adults meeting PAG in the NHIS survey, the only survey where PA questions remained the same over time, increased from 25.7% in 1998 to 35.8% in 2013 (P<0.01). Point-estimates for activity levels are different between surveys but they consistently identify sub-groups who are less active. Although older adults are reporting more activity over time, adherence to aerobic and strength training PAG remains low in this population and there is a need for effective interventions to prevent age-related declines in PA and address health disparities among older adults. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. HIV testing during the Canadian immigration medical examination: a national survey of designated medical practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Jennifer M; Li, Alan; Owino, Maureen; English, Ken; Mascarenhas, Lyndon; Tan, Darrell H S

    2014-01-01

    HIV testing is mandatory for individuals wishing to immigrate to Canada. Since the Designated Medical Practitioners (DMPs) who perform these tests may have varying experience in HIV and time constraints in their clinical practices, there may be variability in the quality of pre- and posttest counseling provided. We surveyed DMPs regarding HIV testing, counseling, and immigration inadmissibility. A 16-item survey was mailed to all DMPs across Canada (N = 203). The survey inquired about DMP characteristics, knowledge of HIV, attitudes and practices regarding inadmissibility and counseling, and interest in continuing medical education. There were a total of 83 respondents (41%). Participants frequently rated their knowledge of HIV diagnostics, cultural competency, and HIV/AIDS service organizations as "fair" (40%, 43%, and 44%, respectively). About 25%, 46%, and 11% of the respondents agreed/strongly agreed with the statements "HIV infected individuals pose a danger to public health and safety," "HIV-positive immigrants cause excessive demand on the healthcare system," and "HIV seropositivity is a reasonable ground for denial into Canada," respectively. Language was cited as a barrier to counseling, which focused on transmission risks (46% discussed this as "always" or "often") more than coping and social support (37%). There was a high level of interest (47%) in continuing medical education in this area. There are areas for improvement regarding DMPs' knowledge, attitudes, and practices about HIV infection, counseling, and immigration criteria. Continuing medical education and support for DMPs to facilitate practice changes could benefit newcomers who test positive through the immigration process.

  7. Prenatal examination behavior of Southeast Asian pregnant women in Taiwan: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Miao-Ling; Wang, Hsiu-Hung

    2008-05-01

    There is growing concern about the factors affecting the prenatal examinations of immigrant women. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between the knowledge of pregnancy, attitude toward pregnancy and experience of medical services, and prenatal examination behavior of pregnant Southeast Asian women in Taiwan. This was a cross-sectional study with a structured questionnaire administered to participants. Participants were recruited from the community health centers in Kaohsiung County, Taiwan. The sampling criteria were as follows: each subject was to (a) have come from a Southeast Asian country, (b) be over 28 weeks pregnant to less than one year postpartum, (c) be able to communicate either in Mandarin or Taiwanese, and (d) be willing to participate in the research after hearing an explanation of it. As a result, 140 participants were recruited. A total of 132 participants completed the questionnaire and were used for data analysis. The participants completed structured questionnaires, which included the Demographic Inventory Scale, Knowledge of Pregnancy Scale, Attitudes toward Pregnancy Scale, Experience of Medical Services Scale and the Prenatal Examination Behavior Scale. Findings show that 80.3% of the subjects attended their first-time prenatal examination during the first trimester and 59.1% of the subjects evaluated their prenatal examinations as being adequate. Their attitude toward childbearing was significantly correlated with their prenatal examination behavior, including the initial time of prenatal examination and frequencies of prenatal examinations during pregnancy. Positive attitudes toward childbearing and prenatal examination, and the number of years spent in Taiwan were all significant predictive factors of frequencies of prenatal examinations during pregnancy. The findings of this study can not only help healthcare professionals understand the prenatal examination behavior and related factors of the participants, but

  8. Examining gender salary disparities: an analysis of the 2003 multistate salary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lawrence M; Schommer, Jon C; Mott, Dave; Gaither, Caroline A; Doucette, William R; Zgarrick, Dave P; Droege, Marcus

    2006-09-01

    Pharmacist salary and wage surveys have been conducted at the state and national level for more than 20 years; however, it is not known to what extent, if any, wage disparities due to gender still exist. The overall objective of this study was to determine if wage disparities exist among male and female pharmacists at the multistate and individual state level for each of 6 states studied. A secondary objective was to explore the effect of various demographic variables on the hourly wages of pharmacists. Data were collected from 1,688 pharmacists in 6 states during 2003 using a cross-sectional descriptive survey design. A multiple regression analysis on hourly wage testing the effects of state of practice, practice setting, position, terminal degree, and years in practice was conducted. Subsequent multiple regression analyses were conducted individually for each of the 6 states to test the effects of the above variables on hourly wage for both male and female pharmacists, followed by state-level analyses for male and female pharmacists, respectively. For the pooled data, all variables were found to be significant predictors of hourly wage, except for earning a PharmD degree without a residency or graduate degree. Gender was not a significant predictor of wage disparities in the state-level analyses. Position was the only significant predictor of wage disparities in all states (except Tennessee) such that pharmacists in management positions make significantly higher salaries than those in staff positions. The results of these analyses suggest that wage disparities due to gender do not exist at the state level for the 6 states surveyed, when controlling for practice setting, position, terminal degree, and years in practice. The larger number of men in management positions may explain lower wages for female pharmacists.

  9. Increasing Plant Based Foods or Dairy Foods Differentially Affects Nutrient Intakes: Dietary Scenarios Using NHANES 2007–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Cifelli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Diets rich in plant foods and lower in animal-based products have garnered increased attention among researchers, dietitians and health professionals in recent years for their potential to, not only improve health, but also to lessen the environmental impact. However, the potential effects of increasing plant-based foods at the expense of animal-based foods on macro- and micronutrient nutrient adequacy in the U.S. diet is unknown. In addition, dairy foods are consistently under consumed, thus the impact of increased dairy on nutrient adequacy is important to measure. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to use national survey data to model three different dietary scenarios to assess the effects of increasing plant-based foods or dairy foods on macronutrient intake and nutrient adequacy. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007–2010 for persons two years and older (n = 17,387 were used in all the analyses. Comparisons were made of usual intake of macronutrients and shortfall nutrients of three dietary scenarios that increased intakes by 100%: (i plant-based foods; (ii protein-rich plant-based foods (i.e., legumes, nuts, seeds, soy; and (iii milk, cheese and yogurt. Scenarios (i and (ii had commensurate reductions in animal product intake. In both children (2–18 years and adults (≥19 years, the percent not meeting the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR decreased for vitamin C, magnesium, vitamin E, folate and iron when plant-based foods were increased. However the percent not meeting the EAR increased for calcium, protein, vitamin A, and vitamin D in this scenario. Doubling protein-rich plant-based foods had no effect on nutrient intake because they were consumed in very low quantities in the baseline diet. The dairy model reduced the percent not meeting the EAR for calcium, vitamin A, vitamin D, magnesium, and protein, while sodium and saturated fat levels increased. Our modeling shows that

  10. Oral Human Papillomavirus Infection: Differences in Prevalence Between Sexes and Concordance With Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection, NHANES 2011 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonawane, Kalyani; Suk, Ryan; Chiao, Elizabeth Y; Chhatwal, Jagpreet; Qiu, Peihua; Wilkin, Timothy; Nyitray, Alan G; Sikora, Andrew G; Deshmukh, Ashish A

    2017-10-17

    The burden of human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is disproportionately high among men, yet empirical evidence regarding the difference in prevalence of oral HPV infection between men and women is limited. Concordance of oral and genital HPV infection among men is unknown. To determine the prevalence of oral HPV infection, as well as the concordance of oral and genital HPV infection, among U.S. men and women. Nationally representative survey. Civilian noninstitutionalized population. Adults aged 18 to 69 years from NHANES (National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, 2011 to 2014). Oral rinse, penile swab, and vaginal swab specimens were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction followed by type-specific hybridization. The overall prevalence of oral HPV infection was 11.5% (95% CI, 9.8% to 13.1%) in men and 3.2% (CI, 2.7% to 3.8%) in women (equating to 11 million men and 3.2 million women nationwide). High-risk oral HPV infection was more prevalent among men (7.3% [CI, 6.0% to 8.6%]) than women (1.4% [CI, 1.0% to 1.8%]). Oral HPV 16 was 6 times more common in men (1.8% [CI, 1.3% to 2.2%]) than women (0.3% [CI, 0.1% to 0.5%]) (1.7 million men vs. 0.27 million women). Among men and women who reported having same-sex partners, the prevalence of high-risk HPV infection was 12.7% (CI, 7.0% to 18.4%) and 3.6% (CI, 1.4% to 5.9%), respectively. Among men who reported having 2 or more same-sex oral sex partners, the prevalence of high-risk HPV infection was 22.2% (CI, 9.6% to 34.8%). Oral HPV prevalence among men with concurrent genital HPV infection was fourfold greater (19.3%) than among those without it (4.4%). Men had 5.4% (CI, 5.1% to 5.8%) greater predicted probability of high-risk oral HPV infection than women. The predicted probability of high-risk oral HPV infection was greatest among black participants, those who smoked more than 20 cigarettes daily, current marijuana users, and those who reported 16 or more

  11. Survey on th incidence of homeless pulmonary tuberculosis infection rate through chest x-ray examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Young; Shin, Sung Rae [Dept. of Nursing, Sahmyook University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Young Hwan [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hwan Yeal [Dept. of Medical Business Administration, U1 University, Yeongdong (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    This study, Seoul City shelter, you are trying to seek medical cooperation and cure rate increase proposal Yu fndings’s current situation and tuberculosis of homeless tuberculosis. Inspector, and has a total 591 people is targeted to implement an interview after acquiring utilization agreement in studies conducted chest X-ray photography. Of the interview questions, three or more protons, it is determined that the TB symptomatic conducted sputum examination, chest X-ray examination confrms the physician radiology, when sputum examination primarily chromatic fndings the double implemented and conducted by requesting the ship inspection also said inspection sputum acid-fast bacteria if it is true one, respectively. confrmed case result of checking whether there is a difference due to risk factors (Jb) at the chi square black, it was found that there is no statistically significant difference at 95% confidence level. (χ{sup 2}=0.276, p>0.05), suspected case (Ac, Ae) results of examining whether there is a difference due to risk factors in chi square black, that there is a statistically significant difference at 99% confidence level is I found (χ{sup 2}=9.414, p<0.01). The nature of the homeless tuberculosis screening and directed to the distance homeless specifc location are likely to evaluate the actual incidence low and aggressive or management needs, the rationale is allowed insufficient reality is. Through this research, future, for tuberculosis high risk tuberculosis patient, such as homeless to expand the tuberculosis screening of infectious tuberculosis patients in private medical institutions, and one-stop service that chest X-ray examination and sputum examination is carried out at the same time introduced immediately to prevent the inspection and examination, cure, and should establish a foundation that can be up to post administration.

  12. Consumption of Low-Calorie Sweetened Beverages Compared to Water Is Associated with Reduced Intake of Carbohydrates and Sugar, with No Adverse Relationships to Glycemic Responses: Results from the 2001–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marge Leahy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee concluded that there was moderate evidence that substituting sugar-containing sweeteners with low-calorie sweeteners (LCS reduces calorie intake and weight, dietary recommendations encourage substituting only water for sugar-sweetened beverages during weight management. This cross-sectional study evaluated the relation of water and no- and low-calorie sweetened beverage (LCSB intake with nutrient intakes and prediabetes criteria using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2001–2012 in 25,817 adults that were free of diabetes. Although linear trends were observed with both beverages, higher LCSB intake was associated with significantly lower consumption of carbohydrates (−9.1 g/day vs. −1.4 g/day, total sugars (−10.9 g/day vs. −2.2 g/day, and added sugars (−2.0 tsp eq vs. −0.8 tsp eq than those associated with higher water intake. Higher intake of both beverages was significantly associated with lower insulin levels (p < 0.01; however, higher intake of LCSB was also associated with lower hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c and lower homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (p < 0.01. We observed lower odds ratios for elevated HbA1c (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.79, 95% CI 0.64–0.98, HOMA-IR (0.68, 0.53–0.87, and insulin levels (0.63, 0.49–0.80 in LCSB among the higher (2+ servings intake group compared to the lowest (<1 serving intake group. Contrary to conventional wisdom, LCSB consumption was associated with equal, if not better, dietary intake and glycemic response than water consumption. Although observational in nature, these results contribute to the growing body of evidence from human studies suggesting that in addition to water, LCSBs can also be sensible choices for reducing sugars and carbohydrate intake, with no adverse associations to measures of glycemic response.

  13. What is the viva experience of phase 2 Radiation Oncology examination candidates? Survey and advice for future candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiven, Hilde M; Tejani, Neetu; Sullivan, Lisa

    2016-06-01

    Medical speciality examination is a very stressful event in medical careers. We aimed to determine the subjective experience of Radiation Oncology Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists (RANZCR) oral examination candidates. It was hoped the results would provide reassurance and advice for future candidates. We distributed an anonymous online survey through the RANZCR membership database to Radiation Oncology Trainees and fellows who may have sat their oral examination within the last 3 years. There were 21 responses, yielding a response rate of 21%. Nineteen percent of respondents were moderately or very surprised during their viva and the most frequently noted cause was the demeanour of the examiners. The clinical cases and clinical examination station were rated very fair by over 80% of responders while the planning cases were rated very fair by 57%. During the viva, 33% thought they passed and 71% of these candidates were successful. Forty-three percent felt they were borderline, and all of these respondents passed. Five participants (24%) failed in the first attempt and four described being unable to convey their actual knowledge. Candidates found mock examinations to be the most useful examination preparation activity. The most frequently given advice was to focus on the planning examination. The majority of this select group of candidates indicated that the oral examination cases were very fair. Candidates rated the planning exam as least fair, indicating this may be the area that would benefit most from better preparation. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  14. Chaperone use during intimate examinations in primary care: postal survey of family physicians

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    Upshur Ross EG

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians have long been advised to have a third party present during certain parts of a physical examination; however, little is known about the frequency of chaperone use for those specific intimate examinations regularly performed in primary care. We aimed to determine the frequency of chaperone use among family physicians across a variety of intimate physical examinations for both male and female patients, and also to identify the factors associated with chaperone use. Methods Questionnaires were mailed to a randomly selected sample of 500 Ontario members of the College of Family Physicians of Canada. Participants were asked about their use of chaperones when performing a variety of intimate examinations, namely female pelvic, breast, and rectal exams and male genital and rectal exams. Results 276 of 500 were returned (56%, of which 257 were useable. Chaperones were more commonly used with female patients than with males (t = 9.09 [df = 249], p Conclusion Clinical practice concerning the use of chaperones during intimate exams continues to be discordant with the recommendations of medical associations and medico-legal societies. Chaperones are used by only a minority of Ontario family physicians. Chaperone use is higher for examinations of female patients than of male patients and is highest for female pelvic exams. The availability of a nurse in the clinic to act as a chaperone is associated with more frequent use of chaperones.

  15. Review of Survey and Experimental Research That Examines the Relationship Between Alcohol Consumption and Men's Sexual Aggression Perpetration

    OpenAIRE

    ABBEY, ANTONIA; Wegner, Rhiana; Woerner, Jacqueline; Pegram, Sheri E.; Pierce, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article systematically reviews empirical studies that examine associations between alcohol consumption and men's sexual aggression with the goal of identifying major findings; gaps in current knowledge; and directions for future research, practice, and policy. We identified 25 cross-sectional surveys, 6 prospective studies, and 12 alcohol administration experiments published between 1993 and August 2013 with male college students and young adult (nonincarcerated) samples. Many cross-sect...

  16. The Relationship between Health Behavior and General Health Status: Based on 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Cheon, Chunhoo; Oh, So-Mi; Jang, Soobin; Park, Jeong-Su; Park, Sunju; Jang, Bo-Hyoung; SHIN, YONG-CHEOL; KO, SEONG-GYU

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between health behavior and general health status. Methods We used data from the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mental health was measured by stress recognition and depression. Dietary habit was measured by mixed grain diet. Life pattern was measured by sleeping time and working pattern. Physical activity was measured by walking and exercise. We defined general health status as Euro Qualit...

  17. [Survey on status of staff for Plasmodium microscopy examinations in Changzhou City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yi-Qing; He, Ming-Zhen; Zhu, Shi-Ying; Zou, Yong-Gen; Chen, Hong

    2014-02-01

    To understand the current state of staff for Plasmodium microscopy examinations in Changzhou City in the early stage of eliminating malaria action, so as to provide the evidence for achieving the target of malaria elimination. The staff for Plasmodium microscopy examinations from medical institutions and centers for disease control and prevention at different levels were investigated by questionnaires and tests of the malaria related theory and microscopic operation. Totally 95 people were investigated, and among them, 40.0% had college degree and 45.3% were university educated. There were 18.9% of them working on Plasmodium microscopy examinations for less than 1 year, 40.0% for 2-5 years, 18.9% for 6-10 years and 22.1% for more than 10 years. The numbers of person-time of provincial and municipal level training, district-level training, and unit-level training in the last year were 0.57, 0.59, and 0.14, respectively. Totally 18.9% of them had the experience of finding Plasmodium at work, and 97.9% of them considered it was necessary or very necessary to do Plasmodium microscopy examinations. However, 57.9% and 8.4% of them considered Plasmodium microscopy examinations increased their work load and work difficulty, respectively. The average correct rates of knowledge tests on malaria before and after training were 72.5% and 91.6% respectively (P Plasmodium microscopic tests was 25.3 points (full mark being 50 points), and the passing rate (> or = 30 points) was 58.9%. The working experience of staff for Plasmodium microscopy examinations in Changzhou City is relatively poor, and the related training should be enhanced.

  18. A survey examining the attitudes of general dental practitioners toward change in undergraduate dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, H; Ireland, R; Bligh, J

    1998-04-25

    To determine the attitudes of general dental practitioners toward aspects of change in undergraduate dental education. Descriptive postal survey using a cross-sectional random sample of general dental practitioners administered in 1997. 689 general dental practitioners practising in five regions of England with close proximity to a dental school selected by a one in two stratified random sample. Response rate: 70%. The questionnaire was both valid and reliable with an internal consistency reliability coefficient of 0.84. Responses identified strong support for preparing dental students for the wider role of the dentist and an emphasis toward self-directed learning. Other themes emerging from the investigation included support for learning to work as part of a dental team and for students to have experience of general dental practice early on in the undergraduate course. These responses have implications for curriculum design, syllabus, teaching methods, resources and staff development for dental schools in the UK.

  19. Cross-Sectional Study of Polybrominated Flame Retardants and Self-Reported Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in US Youth Aged 12–15 (NHANES 2003-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Przybyla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Animal toxicity tests and epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to PBDEs can alter attention behavior, yet few studies have examined their association with diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in adolescents. Methods. Logistic regression was used to examine the cross-sectional association between ADHD and lipid and non-lipid adjusted blood serum concentrations of 2′,4-tribromodiphenyl ether (BDE-28, 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenylether (BDE-47, 2,2′,4,4′,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99, 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-100, 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-153, serum PBDEs, above/below the 75th percentile of serum PBDEs, and tertiles of serum PBDE in 12–15-year-olds (N=292 using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003-2004. Results. The ADHD weighted prevalence was 13.57%. The weighted adjusted odds ratios (AOR and 95% confidence interval (CI between ADHD diagnosis and lipid adjusted BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, serum total PBDE, serum PBDE concentrations above the 75th percentile, and serum PBDE concentrations in the second or third tertile were 1.16 (95% CI: 0.51, 2.67, 1.36 (95% CI: 0.72, 2.56, 1.51 (95% CI: 0.70, 3.25, 1.53 (95% CI: 0.73, 3.23, 1.43 (95% CI: 0.57, 3.56, 1.41 (0.71, 2.83, 0.59 (0.10, 3.56, 6.16 (1.19, 31.90, and 0.99 (0.23, 4.29. Conclusions. We observed no association between serum PBDE concentrations and ADHD in US youths.

  20. Design of the health examination survey on early childhood physical growth in the Great East Japan Earthquake affected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Hiroko; Ishikuro, Mami; Kikuya, Masahiro; Chida, Shoichi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Ono, Atsushi; Kato, Noriko; Yokoya, Susumu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Yamagata, Zentaro; Tanaka, Soichiro; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Kure, Shigeo

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on preschool children's physical growth in the disaster-affected areas, the three medical universities in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures conducted a health examination survey on early childhood physical growth. The survey was conducted over a 3-year period to acquire data on children who were born in different years. Our targets were as follows: 1) children who were born between March 1, 2007 and August 31, 2007 and experienced the disaster at 43-48 months of age, 2) children who were born between March 1, 2009 and August 31, 2009 and experienced the disaster at 19-24 months of age, and 3) children who were born between June 1, 2010 and April 30, 2011 and were under 10 months of age or not born yet when the disaster occurred. We collected their health examination data from local governments in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures. We also collected data from Aomori, Akita, and Yamagata Prefectures to use as a control group. The survey items included birth information, anthropometric measurements, and methods of nutrition during infancy. Eighty municipalities from Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures and 21 from the control prefectures participated in the survey. As a result, we established three retrospective cohorts consisting of 13,886, 15,474, and 32,202 preschool children. The large datasets acquired for the present survey will provide valuable epidemiological evidence that should shed light on preschool children's physical growth in relation to the disaster. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Design of the health examination survey on early childhood physical growth in the Great East Japan Earthquake affected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Matsubara

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: To investigate the impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on preschool children's physical growth in the disaster-affected areas, the three medical universities in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures conducted a health examination survey on early childhood physical growth. Methods: The survey was conducted over a 3-year period to acquire data on children who were born in different years. Our targets were as follows: 1 children who were born between March 1, 2007 and August 31, 2007 and experienced the disaster at 43–48 months of age, 2 children who were born between March 1, 2009 and August 31, 2009 and experienced the disaster at 19–24 months of age, and 3 children who were born between June 1, 2010 and April 30, 2011 and were under 10 months of age or not born yet when the disaster occurred.We collected their health examination data from local governments in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures. We also collected data from Aomori, Akita, and Yamagata Prefectures to use as a control group. The survey items included birth information, anthropometric measurements, and methods of nutrition during infancy. Results: Eighty municipalities from Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures and 21 from the control prefectures participated in the survey. As a result, we established three retrospective cohorts consisting of 13,886, 15,474, and 32,202 preschool children. Conclusions: The large datasets acquired for the present survey will provide valuable epidemiological evidence that should shed light on preschool children's physical growth in relation to the disaster.

  2. Survey of serum concentrations of dioxins, furans, and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls in a small non-random sample of U.S. residents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassman, J. [Brooklyn Coll. CUNY, Health and Nutrition Sciences, Brooklyn, New York, NY (United States); Patterson, D.G. Jr.; Needham, L.L. [National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Spencer, D.L.; Masten, S.A. [Environmental Toxicology Program, National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2004-09-15

    This cross sectional assessment of serum dioxin concentrations was conducted as part of a larger study to examine the relationship between dioxin exposure and gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Recent reports indicate that environmental levels of dioxins have declined since the mid-1980's. Except for the recent National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), there has been little systematic surveillance of serum dioxins levels in the US general population. Here, we report the serum concentrations of 22 congeners of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds and their relationship with age, sex, smoking, and meat consumption.

  3. A Survey of Digital Rectal Examination Training in Canadian Medical Schools

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    Alysha Nensi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The digital rectal examination (DRE is important for the diagnosis of a variety of gastrointestinal, urological and gynecological disorders. However, it appears that Canadian medical students may not be adequately taught nor provided the opportunity to practice their skills often enough. The present study was an analysis of the current practices in DRE teaching and evaluation in undergraduate medicine programs across Canada.

  4. A re-examination of risk estimates from the NIOSH Occupational Noise and Hearing Survey (ONHS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, M M; Stayner, L T; Smith, R J; Gilbert, S J

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes a new analysis of data from the 1968-72 National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health (NIOSH) Occupational Noise and Hearing Survey (ONHS). The population consisted of 1172 (792 noise-exposed and 380 "controls") predominately white male workers from a cross section of industries within the United States. The analysis focused on how risk estimates vary according to various model assumptions, including shape of the dose-response curve and the amount of noise exposure among low-noise exposed workers (or controls). Logistic regression models were used to describe the risk of hearing handicap in relation to age, occupational noise exposure, and duration exposed. Excess risk estimates were generated for several definitions of hearing handicap. Hearing handicap is usually denoted as an average hearing threshold level (HTL) of greater than 25 dB for both ears at selected frequencies. The frequencies included in the biaural averages were (1) the articulation-weighted average over 1-4 kHz, (2) the unweighted average over 0.5, 1, and 2 kHz, and (3) the unweighted average over 1, 2, and 3 kHz. The results show that excess risk estimates for time-weighted average sound levels below 85 dB were sensitive to statistical model form and assumptions regarding the sound level to which the "control" group was exposed. The choice of frequencies used in the hearing handicap definition affected the magnitude of excess risk estimates, which depended on age and duration of exposure. Although data were limited below 85 dB, an age-stratified analysis provided evidence of excess risks at levels ranging from 80 to 84 dB, 85-89 dB, and 90-102 dB. Due to uncertainty in quantifying risks below 85 dB, new data collection efforts should focus on better characterization of dose-response and longitudinal hearing surveys that include workers exposed to 8-hour time-weighted noise levels below 85 dB. Results are compared to excess risk estimates generated using methods given by

  5. German health interview and examination survey for adults (DEGS) - design, objectives and implementation of the first data collection wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidt-Nave, Christa; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Gößwald, Antje; Hölling, Heike; Lange, Michael; Busch, Markus A; Dahm, Stefan; Dölle, Rüdiger; Ellert, Ute; Fuchs, Judith; Hapke, Ulfert; Heidemann, Christin; Knopf, Hildtraud; Laussmann, Detlef; Mensink, Gert B M; Neuhauser, Hannelore; Richter, Almut; Sass, Anke-Christine; Rosario, Angelika Schaffrath; Stolzenberg, Heribert; Thamm, Michael; Kurth, Bärbel-Maria

    2012-09-01

    The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS) is part of the recently established national health monitoring conducted by the Robert Koch Institute. DEGS combines a nationally representative periodic health survey and a longitudinal study based on follow-up of survey participants. Funding is provided by the German Ministry of Health and supplemented for specific research topics from other sources. The first DEGS wave of data collection (DEGS1) extended from November 2008 to December 2011. Overall, 8152 men and women participated. Of these, 3959 persons already participated in the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98) at which time they were 18-79 years of age. Another 4193 persons 18-79 years of age were recruited for DEGS1 in 2008-2011 based on two-stage stratified random sampling from local population registries. Health data and context variables were collected using standardized computer assisted personal interviews, self-administered questionnaires, and standardized measurements and tests. In order to keep survey results representative for the population aged 18-79 years, results will be weighted by survey-specific weighting factors considering sampling and drop-out probabilities as well as deviations between the design-weighted net sample and German population statistics 2010. DEGS aims to establish a nationally representative data base on health of adults in Germany. This health data platform will be used for continuous health reporting and health care research. The results will help to support health policy planning and evaluation. Repeated cross-sectional surveys will permit analyses of time trends in morbidity, functional capacity levels, disability, and health risks and resources. Follow-up of study participants will provide the opportunity to study trajectories of health and disability. A special focus lies on chronic diseases including asthma, allergies, cardiovascular conditions, diabetes

  6. German health interview and examination survey for adults (DEGS - design, objectives and implementation of the first data collection wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheidt-Nave Christa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS is part of the recently established national health monitoring conducted by the Robert Koch Institute. DEGS combines a nationally representative periodic health survey and a longitudinal study based on follow-up of survey participants. Funding is provided by the German Ministry of Health and supplemented for specific research topics from other sources. Methods/design The first DEGS wave of data collection (DEGS1 extended from November 2008 to December 2011. Overall, 8152 men and women participated. Of these, 3959 persons already participated in the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98 at which time they were 18–79 years of age. Another 4193 persons 18–79 years of age were recruited for DEGS1 in 2008–2011 based on two-stage stratified random sampling from local population registries. Health data and context variables were collected using standardized computer assisted personal interviews, self-administered questionnaires, and standardized measurements and tests. In order to keep survey results representative for the population aged 18–79 years, results will be weighted by survey-specific weighting factors considering sampling and drop-out probabilities as well as deviations between the design-weighted net sample and German population statistics 2010. Discussion DEGS aims to establish a nationally representative data base on health of adults in Germany. This health data platform will be used for continuous health reporting and health care research. The results will help to support health policy planning and evaluation. Repeated cross-sectional surveys will permit analyses of time trends in morbidity, functional capacity levels, disability, and health risks and resources. Follow-up of study participants will provide the opportunity to study trajectories of health and disability. A special focus lies on chronic

  7. National trends in beverage consumption in children from birth to 5 years: analysis of NHANES across three decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulgoni Victor L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the epidemic of childhood obesity, it is crucial to assess food and beverage intake trends. Beverages can provide a large number of calories and since consumption patterns seem to develop at a young age we examined beverage consumption trends over three decades. The objective of this study was to assess the beverage (milk, fruit juice, fruit drinks, tea, soy beverages, and soft drinks consumption trends in children Methods Data from individuals ages Results During the NHANES 1976–1980 and 1988–1994 periods, approximately 84–85% of children were consuming milk, whereas only 77% were consuming milk during NHANES 2001–2006. Flavored milk intake was relatively low, but increased to 14% during the last decade (p  Conclusions Given concerns about childhood obesity and the need to meet nutrition requirements, it is prudent that parents, educators and child caretakers replace some of the nutrient poor beverages young children are currently consuming with more nutrient dense sources like low-fat and fat-free milk.

  8. The incidence of hypertension and its risk factors in the German adult population: results from the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 and the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichs, Claudia; Neuhauser, Hannelore

    2017-02-01

    To analyze incident hypertension and its risk factors based on 11.9 years follow-up of a recent National Examination Survey cohort in Germany. Out of 7124 participants of the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98), 640 had died at follow-up 2008-2011 and 3045 were reexamined as part of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults 2008-2011 (DEGS1). Baseline and follow-up included standardized blood pressure (BP) measurements. Hypertension was defined as BP of at least 140/90 mmHg or intake of antihypertensive medication in participants with known hypertension. Out of 2231 GNHIES98-DEGS1 participants aged 18-79 years without hypertension in 1998, 26.2% developed hypertension within a mean of 11.9 (range 10.0-14.1) years (men 29.0%, women 23.4%). In univariate analysis, hypertension incidence was positively associated with age, BMI, initial BP levels, pulse pressure, and alcohol consumption. Comorbidities such as diabetes and hyperlipidemia increased the chance to develop hypertension. In the multivariate model, initial SBP and DBP levels had the strongest influence on the development of future hypertension (7% increase in men and 5% in women per mmHg SBP). The percentage of aware, treated, and controlled hypertensive patients were 75.8, 62.1, and 50.3% in men and 83.8, 73.3, and 59.0% in women. The high 11.9-year incidence in all age groups points to the lifelong potential for prevention of hypertension.

  9. Prevalence of Comorbidity among People with Hypertension: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Juhwan; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Shin, Anna; Yeom, Hyungseon; Jang, Suk-Yong; Lee, Jung Hyun; Kim, Changsoo; Suh, Il

    2016-09-01

    Joint National Committee guidelines attempt to vary treatment recommendations for patients based on considerations of their comorbidities. The aim of the present study is to estimate the age-standardized prevalence of common comorbidities among Korean hypertension patients. We analyzed the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2013. Among the 58423 participants, 30092 adults, aged ≥30 yrs who completed a health examination and interview survey, were selected. The survey procedures were used to estimate weighted prevalence and odds ratios for 8 comorbidities, including obesity, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, and thyroid disease. Most chronic conditions were more prevalent in adults with hypertension than in those without hypertension. Common comorbidities were obesity (60.1%), dyslipidemia (57.6%), and impaired fasting glucose (45.1%). Hypertensive patients with two or more comorbid diseases were 42.2% and those with three or more diseases were 17.7%. The age- and sex-specific prevalence of three or more comorbid diseases among male hypertension patients was significantly higher than those patients in the 30-59 (p<0.05) age group. Comorbidity is highly prevalent in Korean patients with hypertension.

  10. Phenotypic characteristics of adolescents with concave and convex facial profiles - The National Health Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hujoel, P P; Bollen, A-M; Yuen, K C J; Hujoel, I A

    2016-10-01

    It has been suggested that facial traits are informative on the inherited susceptibility to tuberculosis and obesity, two current global health issues. Our aim was to compare the phenotypic characteristics of adolescents with dental markers for a concave (n=420), a convex (n=978), and a straight (n=3542) facial profile in a nationally representative sample of United States adolescents. The results show that adolescents with a concave facial profile, when compared to a straight facial profile, had an increased waist-to-height ratio (Δ, 1.1 [95% CI 0.5-1.7], p<0.003) and an increased acne prevalence (OR, 1.5 [95% CI 1.2-1.9], p<0.001). Adolescents with a convex facial profile, when compared to a straight facial profile, had an increased prevalence of tuberculosis (OR, 4.3 [95% CI 1.4-13.1], p<0.02), increased ectomorphy (Δ, 0.3 [95% CI 0.2-0.4], p<0.0001), increased left-handedness (OR, 1.4 [95% CI 1.1-1.7], p<0.007), increased color-blindness (OR, 1.7 [95% CI 1.3-2.3], p<0.004), and rhesus ee phenotype (OR, 1.3 [95% CI 1.1-1.5], p<0.008). Adolescents with a concave facial profile, when compared to a convex profile, had increased mesomorphy (Δ, 1.3 [95% CI 1.1-1.5], p<0.0001), increased endomorphy (Δ, 0.5 [95% CI 0.4-0.6], p<0.0001), lower ectomorphy (Δ, 0.5 [95% CI 0.4-0.6], p<0.0001), and lower vocabulary test scores (Δ, 2.3 [95% CI 0.8-3.8], p<0.008). It is concluded that population-based survey data confirm that distinct facial features are associated with distinct somatotypes and distinct disease susceptibilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Examination of the equivalence of self-report survey-based paper-and-pencil and internet data collection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigold, Arne; Weigold, Ingrid K; Russell, Elizabeth J

    2013-03-01

    Self-report survey-based data collection is increasingly carried out using the Internet, as opposed to the traditional paper-and-pencil method. However, previous research on the equivalence of these methods has yielded inconsistent findings. This may be due to methodological and statistical issues present in much of the literature, such as nonequivalent samples in different conditions due to recruitment, participant self-selection to conditions, and data collection procedures, as well as incomplete or inappropriate statistical procedures for examining equivalence. We conducted 2 studies examining the equivalence of paper-and-pencil and Internet data collection that accounted for these issues. In both studies, we used measures of personality, social desirability, and computer self-efficacy, and, in Study 2, we used personal growth initiative to assess quantitative equivalence (i.e., mean equivalence), qualitative equivalence (i.e., internal consistency and intercorrelations), and auxiliary equivalence (i.e., response rates, missing data, completion time, and comfort completing questionnaires using paper-and-pencil and the Internet). Study 1 investigated the effects of completing surveys via paper-and-pencil or the Internet in both traditional (i.e., lab) and natural (i.e., take-home) settings. Results indicated equivalence across conditions, except for auxiliary equivalence aspects of missing data and completion time. Study 2 examined mailed paper-and-pencil and Internet surveys without contact between experimenter and participants. Results indicated equivalence between conditions, except for auxiliary equivalence aspects of response rate for providing an address and completion time. Overall, the findings show that paper-and-pencil and Internet data collection methods are generally equivalent, particularly for quantitative and qualitative equivalence, with nonequivalence only for some aspects of auxiliary equivalence. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all

  12. Body mass index, sexual behaviour, and sexually transmitted infections: an analysis using the NHANES 1999-2000 data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelkerke, Nico J D; Bernsen, Roos M D; Sgaier, Sema K; Jha, Prabhat

    2006-08-02

    Factors determining human sexual behaviour are not completely understood, but are important in the context of sexually transmitted disease epidemiology and prevention. Being obese is commonly associated with a reduced physical attractiveness but the associations between body mass index, sexual behaviour and the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections has never been studied. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) files of 1999-2000 were used. Linear regression was used to relate the reported number of sex partners in the last year and lifetime to Body Mass Index (BMI). Logistic regression was used to relate Herpes Simplex Virus type II (HSV-2) antibodies to BMI and other variables. Data on 979 men and 1250 women were available for analysis. Obese (mean number of partners for men:1.12, women: 0.93) and overweight (mean for men: 1.38, women: 1.03) individuals reported fewer partners than individuals of normal BMI (mean for men: 2.00, women: 1.15) in the last year (p partners in men (mean 11.94, 18.80, and 22.08 for obese, overweight and normal BMI respectively (p obese and overweight vs normal respectively), but not in women (mean 7.96, 4.77, and 5.24 respectively). HSV-2 antibodies were significantly correlated with the number of lifetime partners in both men and women, with the odds of being HSV-2 positive increasing by 0.6% (p partners (p obese (HSV-2 prevalence 15.9 and 34.9% for men and women respectively) or overweight (HSV-2 prevalence 16.7 and 29.3 for men and women respectively) was not associated with HSV-2 antibodies (HSV-2 prevalence for normal BMI: 15.6 and 23.2% respectively), independent of whether the association was adjusted for life time sexual partners or not. There was evidence of substantial misreporting of sexual behaviour. Obese and overweight individuals, especially men, self report fewer sex partners than individuals of normal weight, but surprisingly this is not reflected in their risk of HSV-2 infection. HSV

  13. Cadmium, follicle-stimulating hormone, and effects on bone in women age 42-60 years, NHANES III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Carolyn M., E-mail: 2crgallagher@optonline.net [PhD Program in Population Health and Clinical Outcomes Research, Stony Brook University, Health Sciences Center L3-R071, Stony Brook, New York 11794-8338 (United States); Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, New York (United States); Moonga, Baljit S. [Stony Brook University School of Dental Medicine, New York (United States); Kovach, John S. [Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, New York (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Background: Increased body burden of environmental cadmium has been associated with greater risk of decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis in middle-aged and older women, and an inverse relationship has been reported between follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and BMD in middle-aged women; however, the relationships between cadmium and FSH are uncertain, and the associations of each with bone loss have not been analyzed in a single population. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium (UCd) and FSH levels, and the associations between UCd and FSH with BMD and osteoporosis, in postmenopausal and perimenopausal women aged 42-60 years. Methods: Data were obtained from the Third National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey, 1988-1994 (NHANES III). Outcomes evaluated were serum FSH levels, femoral bone mineral density measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and osteoporosis indicated by femoral BMD cutoffs based on the international standard. Urinary cadmium levels were analyzed for association with these outcomes, and FSH levels analyzed for association with bone effects, using multiple regression. Subset analysis was conducted by a dichotomous measure of body mass index (BMI) to proxy higher and lower adipose-synthesized estrogen effects. Results: UCd was associated with increased serum FSH in perimenopausal women with high BMI (n=642; {beta}=0.45; p{<=}0.05; R{sup 2}=0.35) and low BMI (n=408; {beta}=0.61; p{<=}0.01; R{sup 2}=0.34). Among perimenopausal women with high BMI, BMD was inversely related to UCd ({beta}=-0.04; p{<=}0.05) and FSH ({beta}=-0.03; p{<=}0.05). In postmenopausal women with low BMI, an incremental increase in FSH was associated with 2.78 greater odds for osteoporosis (109 with and 706 without) (OR=2.78; 95% CI=1.43, 5.42; p{<=}0.01). Conclusion: Long-term cadmium exposure at environmental levels is associated with increased serum FSH, and both FSH

  14. Obesity in Korean Men: Results from the Fourth through Sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2007~2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Yeon Won; Choi, Kwi Bok; Kim, Soon Ki; Lee, Dong-Gi; Lee, Jun Ho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Obesity is related to many diseases, including urological conditions. We investigated the prevalence, risk factors, and treatment of male obesity. Materials and Methods: This study included 17,485 men older than 20 years of age who participated in the fourth, fifth, and sixth administrations of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Two main cutoff points for obesity were defined: a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2 and a BMI≥30 kg/m2. Additionally, we...

  15. Is vaccine type seropositivity a marker for human papillomavirus vaccination? National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003?2010 ?

    OpenAIRE

    Petrosky, Emiko Y.; Hariri, Susan; Markowitz, Lauri E.; Panicker, Gitika; Unger, Elizabeth R.; Eileen F. Dunne

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Since 2006, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has been routinely recommended for adolescent females in the USA. The quadrivalent vaccine induces long-term seropositivity to HPV 6/11/16, which may be useful as a marker for HPV vaccine coverage. Methods: We evaluated vaccine type seropositivity (i.e., seropositivity to HPV 6/11/16 with or without HPV18) among females aged 14–59 years participating in the 2003–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (cross-sectio...

  16. Serum Lipid Levels in Relation to Consumption of Yogurt: The 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Bong-Kyung; Kim, Nam-Eun; Park, Kyong-Min; Park, Kye-Yeung; Park, Hoon-Ki; Hwang, Hwan-Sik

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate serum lipid levels in Korean adults after consumption of different types of yogurt. Study subjects were 3,038 individuals (≥19 years of age) who participated in the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Yogurt intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire by using the 24-hour recall method. We conducted complex samples general linear analysis with adjustment for covariates. The serum triglyceride levels in the group consuming viscous yogurt were lower than those in the group consuming non-viscous yogurt. Consumption of viscous yogurt is associated with low serum triglyceride levels in Korean adults.

  17. Findings of thyroid ultrasound examination within three years after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident: The Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Hiroki; Sobue, Tomotaka; Takahashi, Hideto; Yasumura, Seiji; Ohira, Tetsuya; Ohtsuru, Akira; Midorikawa, Sanae; Suzuki, Satoru; Fukushima, Toshihiko; Suzuki, Shinichi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Ohto, Hitoshi

    2017-12-14

    Childhood thyroid cancer is of great concern after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident. The baseline analytical data on thyroid ultrasound examination in children is quite important for future examination. We analyzed the age and sex distribution of findings from the thyroid ultrasound examinations of children and adolescents in the Fukushima Health Management Survey (FHMS). From October 2011 through March 2014, 294,905 participants aged 18 years or younger at the earthquake voluntarily had thyroid ultrasound examinations in the first round of the FHMS. A secondary confirmatory examination was performed in 2,032 subjects. Age- and sex-dependent prevalence and size of thyroid cysts, nodules, and caners were analyzed. Age, sex, and size distribution of findings were analyzed. Thyroid cysts, nodules, and cytologically suspected cancers were detected in 68,009, 1,415, and 38 subjects in males and 73,014, 2455, and 74 subjects in females, respectively. There was an age-dependent increase in the detection rate of thyroid nodules and cancer, but that of cysts reached a peak at 11-12 years. Sex affected the prevalence of thyroid nodules and cancers after the onset of puberty, but only a small difference was exhibited in that of cysts. The thyroid cancer detection rate in Fukushima was clarified and the proportion of those with thyroid nodules and cysts varied substantially by age. The results of this study will make a valid contribution to future epidemiological researches on nodular thyroid diseases in children and adolescents.

  18. Weight Fluctuation and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I Epidemiologic Follow-Up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Komaroff

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study is to investigate if weight fluctuation is an independent risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer (PBC among women who gained weight in adult years. Methods. NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-Up Study (NHEFS database was used in the study. Women that were cancers-free at enrollment and diagnosed for the first time with breast cancer at age 50 or greater were considered cases. Controls were chosen from the subset of cancers-free women and matched to cases by years of follow-up and status of body mass index (BMI at 25 years of age. Weight fluctuation was measured by the root-mean-square-error (RMSE from a simple linear regression model for each woman with their body mass index (BMI regressed on age (started at 25 years while women with the positive slope from this regression were defined as weight gainers. Data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression models. Results. A total of 158 women were included into the study. The conditional logistic regression adjusted for weight gain demonstrated positive association between weight fluctuation in adult years and postmenopausal breast cancers (odds ratio/OR = 1.67; 95% confidence interval/CI: 1.06–2.66. Conclusions. The data suggested that long-term weight fluctuation was significant risk factor for PBC among women who gained weight in adult years. This finding underscores the importance of maintaining lost weight and avoiding weight fluctuation.

  19. Physical activity and depression symptoms among pregnant women from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Fitzgerald, Elizabeth M; Cardinal, Bradley J

    2012-03-01

    To examine the association between objectively measured physical activity and depression symptoms among a nationally representative sample of pregnant women to provide a more accurate understanding of the relationship between physical activity and depression symptoms. We employed a cross-sectional study design. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006 were used for this study. One-hundred and forty-one pregnant women wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for 7 days and completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 to assess depression status. More than 19% of the participants experienced some depression symptoms, and compared to their counterparts not having depression symptoms, they were less physically active. An inverse association was found between physical activity and depression symptoms among pregnant women. When feasible, nurses are encouraged to help facilitate physical activity among pregnant women, assuming an uncomplicated pregnancy. © 2012 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  20. Factors associated with low water intake among South Korean adolescents - Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haeng-Shin; Park, Sohyun; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2014-02-01

    Water is essential for life and plain water instead of sugar-sweetened beverages is one approach for decreasing energy intake. Due to limited data on characteristics associated with water intake among Korean adolescents, this study examined associations of demographic and behavioral characteristics with plain water intake by using nationally representative sample of South Korean adolescents. The data (2007-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) for 1,288 high school-aged adolescents (15-18 years) were used. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for factors associated with low water intake (coffee drinks, fruits, vegetables, and sodium and eating out were not significantly associated with low or very low water intake. These findings may be used to target intervention efforts to increase plain water intake as part of a healty lifestyle.

  1. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Portugal: Results from the First Portuguese Health Examination Survey (INSEF 2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaio, Vânia; Antunes, Liliana; Namorado, Sónia; Barreto, Marta; Gil, Ana; Kyslaya, Irina; Rodrigues, Ana Paula; Santos, Ana; Bøhler, Linn; Castilho, Emília; Vargas, Patrícia; do Carmo, Isabel; Nunes, Baltazar; Dias, Carlos Matias

    Obesity is recognised as a serious public health issue, due to its associated morbidity and mortality. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the Portuguese population through direct measurements obtained by the 1st National Health Examination Survey (INSEF 2015) and to identify its associated sociodemographic factors. INSEF was a nationally representative cross-sectional prevalence study conducted on 4911 Portuguese adults aged 25-74 years, in 2015. Height and weight were measured according to the European Health Examination Survey procedures. Poisson regression was used to estimate the adjusted prevalence ratios of overweight and obesity according to age, marital status, occupational activity, education, urbanization of living area and smoking status. Overall prevalences of overweight and obesity were 39.1% and 28.6%, respectively. The prevalence of overweight was higher among men (45.5% vs 33.2%) while the prevalence of obesity was higher among women (32% vs 25%). The sociodemographic factors associated with overweight and obesity were age, marital status and education. Smoking status was associated with overweight and obesity but only in women. INSEF suggests that a high prevalences of overweight and obesity are found in older individuals, married, with lower education levels and non-smoking women. Public health interventions are urgently required for obesity prevention, namely throughout health literacy strategies. Copyright © 2017 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Prevalence of Open-Angle Glaucoma by Age in Myopia: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Seong Hee; Sung, Kyung Rim; Kim, Joon Mo; Kim, Hyun Tae; Jeong, Jinho; Kim, Chan Yun; Lee, Mi Yeon; Park, Ki Ho

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in myopia by age. A cross-sectional study using a stratified, multistage, probability cluster survey. Participants in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2010 and 2011 were included. A standardized protocol was used to interview every participant and perform comprehensive ophthalmic examinations. Glaucoma was diagnosed according to the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology (ISGEO) criteria. After adjusting for age and sex, there was a positive correlation between OAG prevalence and increasing myopic refractive error except in participants with hyperopia. Younger participants with higher myopic refractive error had higher OAG prevalence than older participants with lower myopic refractive error. Participants with high myopia (OR 3.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.30-6.59) had significantly greater age- and sex-adjusted odd ratios (ORs) than did those with emmetropia who were younger than 60 years. These data suggest that OAG develops earlier in participants with high myopia than in others. There was a high prevalence of OAG in participants with high myopia, even in those 19-29 years of age. Therefore, OAG screening should be performed earlier in participants with high myopia than is suggested by traditional guidelines.

  3. Algae consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeon Ju; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Vitek, Libor; Nam, Chung Mo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between dietary algae (seaweed) consumption and the risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Korean population. We analyzed data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2005, a nationally representative survey. The study participants included 3,405 males and females aged 20-65 y. Participants were classified into four groups according to the quartiles of total algae consumption frequencies. Proportional odds models were used to assess the relationship between algae consumption and the risk of having diabetes or prediabetes, after adjustment for age, family history of diabetes, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, body mass index, waist circumference, triglycerides, total energy intake and food group intakes. The frequency of algae consumption was positively correlated to the consumption of legumes, fruits, fish, and dairy products in both genders (palgae consumption compared to the lowest quartile. Our results suggest that dietary algae consumption may decrease the risk of diabetes mellitus in Korean men. A well-designed prospective study is needed to confirm this association.

  4. Trends in energy intake among Korean adults, 1998-2015: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Sungha; Kim, Hyun Ja; Oh, Kyungwon

    2017-04-01

    Assessing changes in energy intake and dietary sources is important to understand trends in the prevalence of obesity. Thus, we examined trends in energy intake and its nutrient and food sources in Korean adults from 1998 through 2015. This study included 70,769 subjects aged ≥ 19 years who completed a nutrition survey. Subject data were obtained from the 1998, 2001, 2005, 2007-2009, 2010-2012, and 2013-2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Dietary intake was assessed by a 1-day 24-hour recall method. In men, the daily energy intake significantly increased from 2,196 kcal in 1998 to 2,489 kcal in 2013-2015 (P for trend 1998, energy intake has increased among Korean adult men, but not among women. However, the composition of food and nutrient sources of energy intake has changed in both men and women. Energy intake and its nutrient and food sources should continue to be monitored regularly in the Korean adult population.

  5. Systematic determination of thyroid volume by ultrasound examination from infancy to adolescence in Japan: the Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Satoru; Midorikawa, Sanae; Fukushima, Toshihiko; Shimura, Hiroki; Ohira, Tetsuya; Ohtsuru, Akira; Abe, Masafumi; Shibata, Yoshisada; Yamashita, Shunichi; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    Although several reports have defined normal thyroid volume depending on either age or body surface, there are no sequential reference values on childhood thyroid volume evaluated by using ultrasonography and epidemiological analysis in Japan. The aim of the present study was to establish updated reference values for thyroid volume by ultrasound examination and epidemiological analysis in 0-19 year-old Japanese children. It is based on a cross-sectional study conducted from October 9, 2011 to March 31, 2012. The subjects were 38,063 children who were examined by ultrasonography as the initial preliminary survey of the Fukushima Health Management Survey in October 9, 2011 to March 31, 2012. The width, thickness, and height of each lobe were measured and the volume of each lobe was calculated by the mean of the elliptical shape volume formula. The values of thyroid volume at the 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles of age and body surface area for each gender group were obtained from 0-19 year-old children. Positive correlation was observed between thyroid volume and either age or body surface. The right lobe was significantly larger than the left lobe. The thyroid volume in females was larger than that in males after adjusting body surface area. The reference values of childhood thyroid for each age or body surface area were obtained by this extensive survey using ultrasound. These reference values may be used to define the normal size of thyroid gland by echosonography in Japanese children, although thyroid volume may be affected by dimorphic factors such as sex hormones.

  6. Use of the nutrition facts label in chronic disease management: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Robert E; Mainous, Arch G; Diaz, Vanessa A; Matheson, Eric M; Everett, Charles J

    2010-04-01

    Dietary modifications are common treatment strategies for patients with various chronic diseases, but it is unclear how often these individuals read food labels. The objective of this study was to determine whether patients with chronic disease who are advised to change their eating habits read nutrition labels more than patients who have not been so advised, and whether that impacts their energy and nutrient intake. Analysis of the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey of the United States population, was performed. Adults (20 years of age or older) who participated in the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and who had type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and/or hyperlipidemia were included for analysis. There were 3,748 unweighted participants, which represents 170,958,166 in the US population. Proportions of patients with chronic disease who read nutrition labels were compared by chi(2) analysis, mean values of various components of their diet were compared by the two-sample independent t test, and odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were determined by logistic regression. Among patients with chronic disease, the odds of reading food labels when told by their doctor or another health professional to reduce calories or weight was 50% higher than in those without physician intervention (odds ratio=1.50, 95% confidence interval: 1.12 to 2.00). Those who read food labels consumed less energy, saturated fat, carbohydrates, and sugar, and more fiber than those who did not. These findings point to the value of dietary counseling in chronic disease management. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Association between Food Insecurity and Obesity in Children-The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jasbir; Lamb, Molly M; Ogden, Cynthia L

    2015-05-01

    Food insecurity can put children at greater risk of obesity because of altered food choices and nonuniform consumption patterns. We examined the association between obesity and both child-level food insecurity and personal food insecurity in US children. Data from 9,701 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001-2010, aged 2 to 11 years were analyzed. Child-level food insecurity was assessed with the US Department of Agriculture's Food Security Survey Module based on eight child-specific questions. Personal food insecurity was assessed with five additional questions. Obesity was defined, using physical measurements, as body mass index (calculated as kg/m²) greater than or equal to the age- and sex-specific 95th percentile of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. Logistic regressions adjusted for sex, race/ethnic group, poverty level, and survey year were conducted to describe associations between obesity and food insecurity. Obesity was significantly associated with personal food insecurity for children aged 6 to 11 years (odds ratio=1.81; 95% CI 1.33 to 2.48), but not in children aged 2 to 5 years (odds ratio=0.88; 95% CI 0.51 to 1.51). Child-level food insecurity was not associated with obesity among 2- to 5-year-olds or 6- to 11-year-olds. Personal food insecurity is associated with an increased risk of obesity only in children aged 6 to 11 years. Personal food-insecurity measures may give different results than aggregate food-insecurity measures in children. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Association between Chronic Laryngitis and Particulate Matter Based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Hoon Joo

    Full Text Available Chronic laryngitis (CL has been described as chronic inflammation of the larynx. CL have various causes such as long-term smoking, acid reflux, voice overuse, bronchitis, allergies, pneumonia, excessive exposure to toxic chemicals and complications from the flu or a chronic cold. However, the prevalence of CL and role of air pollution in the etiology is uncertain.The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between CL and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10 in South Korea using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES during 2008-2012.KNHANES is a cross-sectional survey of the civilian, non-institutionalized population of South Korea (n = 21,116. A field survey team that included an otolaryngologist moved with a mobile examination unit and performed interviews and physical examinations. The mean annual concentrations of ambient PM10, SO2, O3, NO2, and CO levels in Korea were determined from monitoring station data. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the relationship of air pollution to CL.Among the population ≥ 19 years of age, the weighted prevalence of CL was 3.37 ± 0.30% (95% confidence interval, 2.79-3.95%. CL was more prevalent in men, current smokers, and those with lower household income and prevalence increased with age. A significant decrease over time was observed in the prevalence of CL (P for trend = 0.0049 and the annual average concentrations of PM10 (P for trend < 0.0001 from 2008 to 2012. In a multivariate model, the factors associated with CL included PM10 (odds ratio [OR], 1.378, p = 0.0457, age (OR, 1.020, p<0.0001, sex (OR, 0.734, p = 0.0179, and smoking status (OR, 1.438, p = 0.0054.Elevated PM10 exposures could be associated with increased risk of CL in South Koreans. Further epidemiological and experimental studies are necessary to clarify the impact of chronic PM10 exposure on CL.

  9. A Survey of the Students' Perspectives of Open-Book Examinations in the Histology/Embryology Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Mahmoudzadeh-Sagheb

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: An open-book exam permits the examinees to consult some specific selected reference sources or materials while answering the exam questions. This study focused on the students' perspectives of open-book examinations in the histology/embryology courses, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences (ZUMS, Zahedan, Iran. Methods: The survey was conducted via a questionnaire after open-book examinations had been conducted in the histology and embryology courses, between 2009 and 2010. Of the 254 students who entered the new education system, 160 students were selected at random. Results: The results revealed that 72% of the students preferred the open-book type to the closed-book kind of examinations. Most of the students voiced that this type of examination was more suited to test high cognitive learning skills and solving real life situation problems, involving less stress while preparing for and taking the exam. They also mentioned that their marks in these examinations were not higher than those from the closed-book examinations. The overall satisfaction scores of the students of the biological sciences were significantly (p<0.001 higher than those of the medical sciences students (16.28±4.17 vs. 12.65±5.16; in the government run university students it was significantly (P<0.001 higher than in the international university students (14.93±4.53 vs. 10.24±5.08; the embryology course results were significantly (p<0.001 higher than the histology course (15.23 ± 4.07 vs. 12.79±5.4 and among the MD students it was significantly (p<0.001 lower than those of the BSc students (12±5.1 vs. 15.93±4.29. There was a positive correlation between the scores they acquired in their course and the overall satisfaction scores with the open-book type of examinations (r=0.46, p value=0.01. Conclusions: The finding of a positive response towards the open-book examination augurs well for extending such a type of examination to other subjects in

  10. Physical activity and mortality in chronic kidney disease (NHANES III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddhu, Srinivasan; Baird, Bradley C; Zitterkoph, Jennifer; Neilson, Jill; Greene, Tom

    2009-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with impaired physical activity. However, it is unclear whether the associations of physical activity with mortality are modified by the presence of CKD. Therefore, we examined the effects of CKD on the associations of physical activity with mortality. This was an observational study of 15,368 adult participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III; 5.9% had CKD (eGFR physical activity obtained by a questionnaire, participants were divided into inactive, insufficiently active, and active groups. Time to mortality was examined in Cox models, taking into account the complex survey design. Inactivity was present in 13.5% of the non-CKD and 28.0% of the CKD groups (P physically inactive group, hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of mortality for insufficiently active and active groups were 0.60 (0.45 to 0.81) and 0.59 (0.45 to 0.77) in the non-CKD subpopulation and 0.58 (0.42 to 0.79) and 0.44 (0.33 to 0.58) in the CKD subpopulation. These hazard ratios did not differ significantly between the CKD and non-CKD subpopulations (P > 0.3). Physical inactivity is associated with increased mortality in CKD and non-CKD populations. As in the non-CKD population, increased physical activity might have a survival benefit in the CKD population.

  11. Considering common sources of exposure in association studies - Urinary benzophenone-3 and DEHP metabolites are associated with altered thyroid hormone balance in the NHANES 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sujin; Kim, Sunmi; Won, Sungho; Choi, Kyungho

    2017-10-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that thyroid hormone balances can be disrupted by chemical exposure. However, many association studies have often failed to consider multiple chemicals with possible common sources of exposure, rendering their conclusions less reliable. In the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from the U.S.A., urinary levels of environmental phenols, parabens, and phthalate metabolites as well as serum thyroid hormones were measured in a general U.S. population (≥12years old, n=1829). Employing these data, first, the chemicals or their metabolites associated with thyroid hormone measures were identified. Then, the chemicals/metabolites with possible common exposure sources were included in the analytical model to test the sensitivities of their association with thyroid hormone levels. Benzophenone-3 (BP-3), bisphenol A (BPA), and a metabolite of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were identified as significant determinants of decreased serum thyroid hormones. However, significant positive correlations were detected (p-value<0.05, r=0.23 to 0.45) between these chemicals/metabolites, which suggests that they might share similar exposure sources. In the subsequent sensitivity analysis, which included the chemicals/metabolite with potentially similar exposure sources in the model, we found that urinary BP-3 and DEHP exposure were associated with decreased thyroid hormones among the general population but BPA exposure was not. In association studies, the presence of possible common exposure sources should be considered to circumvent possible false-positive conclusions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry body composition reference values of limbs and trunk from NHANES 1999–2004 with additional visualization methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Bo; Ng, Bennett K.; Shepherd, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Body Mass Index has traditionally been used as a measure of health, but Fat Mass Index (FMI) and Lean Mass Index (LMI) have been shown to be more predictive of mortality and health risk. Total body FMI and LMI reference curves have particularly been useful in quantifying sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity. Research has shown regional composition has significant associations to health outcomes. We derived FMI and LMI reference curves of the regions of the body (leg, arm, and trunk) for 15,908 individuals in the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for each sex and ethnicity using the Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS) method and developed software to visualize this regional composition. These reference curves displayed differentiation between males and females during puberty and sharper limb LMI declines during late adulthood for males. For adults ages 30–50, females had 39%, 83%, and 47% larger arm, leg, and trunk FMI values than males, respectively. Males had 49%, 20%, and 15% higher regional LMI values than females for the arms, legs, and trunk respectively. The leg FMI and LMI of black females were 14% and 15% higher respectively than those of Hispanic and white females. White and Hispanic males had 37% higher trunk FMI values than black males. Hispanic females had 20% higher trunk FMI than white and black females. These data underscore the importance of accounting for sex and ethnicity in studies of regional composition. This study is the first to produce regional LMI and FMI reference tables and curves from the NHANES dataset. These reference curves provide a framework useful in studies and research involving sarcopenia, obesity, sarcopenic obesity, and other studies of compositional phenotypes. Further, the software tool we provide for visualizing regional composition will prove useful in monitoring progress in physical therapy, diets, or other attempts to attain healthier compositions. PMID:28346492

  13. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry body composition reference values of limbs and trunk from NHANES 1999-2004 with additional visualization methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J Hinton

    Full Text Available Body Mass Index has traditionally been used as a measure of health, but Fat Mass Index (FMI and Lean Mass Index (LMI have been shown to be more predictive of mortality and health risk. Total body FMI and LMI reference curves have particularly been useful in quantifying sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity. Research has shown regional composition has significant associations to health outcomes. We derived FMI and LMI reference curves of the regions of the body (leg, arm, and trunk for 15,908 individuals in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for each sex and ethnicity using the Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS method and developed software to visualize this regional composition. These reference curves displayed differentiation between males and females during puberty and sharper limb LMI declines during late adulthood for males. For adults ages 30-50, females had 39%, 83%, and 47% larger arm, leg, and trunk FMI values than males, respectively. Males had 49%, 20%, and 15% higher regional LMI values than females for the arms, legs, and trunk respectively. The leg FMI and LMI of black females were 14% and 15% higher respectively than those of Hispanic and white females. White and Hispanic males had 37% higher trunk FMI values than black males. Hispanic females had 20% higher trunk FMI than white and black females. These data underscore the importance of accounting for sex and ethnicity in studies of regional composition. This study is the first to produce regional LMI and FMI reference tables and curves from the NHANES dataset. These reference curves provide a framework useful in studies and research involving sarcopenia, obesity, sarcopenic obesity, and other studies of compositional phenotypes. Further, the software tool we provide for visualizing regional composition will prove useful in monitoring progress in physical therapy, diets, or other attempts to attain healthier compositions.

  14. Contributions of White Vegetables to Nutrient Intake: NHANES 2009–201012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Maureen L.; Anderson, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Vegetables, especially white potatoes, provide significant levels of key nutrients of concern, such as potassium and dietary fiber. Per capita availability (PCA) data for vegetables—often used as a proxy for vegetable consumption—show that vegetable consumption, including consumption of white potatoes, declined in the past decade. Using dietary data for participants in the NHANES 2009–2010, we examined total vegetable, white potato, and French-fried potato consumption among all age-gender groups as well as mean energy, potassium, and dietary fiber intakes. Mean total energy intake for the US population (≥2 y old) was 2080 kcal/d, with white potatoes and French-fried potatoes providing ∼4% and ∼2% of total energy, respectively. Individuals who consumed white potatoes had significantly higher total vegetable and potassium intakes than did nonconsumers. In addition, the proportion of potassium and dietary fiber contributed by white potatoes was higher than the proportion that they contributed to total energy. Among white potato consumers aged 14–18 y, white potatoes provided ∼23% of dietary fiber and ∼20% of potassium but only ∼11% of total energy in the diet. The nutrient-dense white potato may be an effective way to increase total vegetable consumption and potassium and dietary fiber intake. PMID:23674802

  15. Contributions of white vegetables to nutrient intake: NHANES 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Maureen L; Anderson, Patricia A

    2013-05-01

    Vegetables, especially white potatoes, provide significant levels of key nutrients of concern, such as potassium and dietary fiber. Per capita availability (PCA) data for vegetables-often used as a proxy for vegetable consumption-show that vegetable consumption, including consumption of white potatoes, declined in the past decade. Using dietary data for participants in the NHANES 2009-2010, we examined total vegetable, white potato, and French-fried potato consumption among all age-gender groups as well as mean energy, potassium, and dietary fiber intakes. Mean total energy intake for the US population (≥2 y old) was 2080 kcal/d, with white potatoes and French-fried potatoes providing ∼4% and ∼2% of total energy, respectively. Individuals who consumed white potatoes had significantly higher total vegetable and potassium intakes than did nonconsumers. In addition, the proportion of potassium and dietary fiber contributed by white potatoes was higher than the proportion that they contributed to total energy. Among white potato consumers aged 14-18 y, white potatoes provided ∼23% of dietary fiber and ∼20% of potassium but only ∼11% of total energy in the diet. The nutrient-dense white potato may be an effective way to increase total vegetable consumption and potassium and dietary fiber intake.

  16. Trends and patterns of caffeine consumption among US teenagers and young adults, NHANES 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, N L; Barraj, L M; Bi, X; Jack, M M

    2016-08-01

    Caffeine consumption among US teenagers (13-17y), young adults (18-24y) and adults (25-29y) for a 10 year period was examined using NHANES 2003-12. Of the 85% who consume caffeine 84% consume caffeinated beverages. This percentage remained constant despite new caffeine sources. Less than 7.1% of the population consume energy drinks. While mean caffeine intake among teenage caffeine consumers decreased from 62 to 55 mg/day (p-value = 0.018) over the 10-year period, no discernable trend was observed for other age groups. Caffeine intake from energy drinks increased, and was only statistically significant for age 18-24y accounting for beverage products suggestive of a substitution effect. Linear regression models of caffeine intake from energy drinks against caffeine from coffee, tea and soda among energy drink consumers in the upper 50th percentile shows a statistically significant inverse relationship (R2 = 28%, coffee: β = -0.35, p < 0.001; tea: β = -0.44, p < 0.001; soda: β = -0.22, p = 0.036) and further supports the substitution concept. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence and trends of obesity and association with socioeconomic status in Thai adults: National Health Examination Surveys, 1991-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aekplakorn, Wichai; Inthawong, Rungkarn; Kessomboon, Pattapong; Sangthong, Rassamee; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Putwatana, Panwadee; Taneepanichskul, Surasak

    2014-01-01

    We determined the prevalence of obesity in Thai adults aged 20 and over in 2009 and examined trends of body mass index (BMI) between 1991 and 2009. Data from Thai National Health Examination Survey for 19,181 adults in 2009 and 64,480 adults between 1991 and 2004 were used to calculate age-adjusted mean and prevalence. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of obesity with education level. In 2009, age-adjusted prevalence of obesity classes I (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m(2)) and II (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)) in Thai adults aged ≥20 years were 26.0% and 9.0%, respectively. Compared with primary education, the odds of obesity class I were highest in men with university education. For women, the odds of obesity classes I and II were highest in those with primary education. BMI significantly increased from 21.6 kg/m(2) in men and 22.8 kg/m(2) in women in 1991 to 23.3 kg/m(2) and 24.4 kg/m(2) in 2009, respectively. The average BMI increases per decade were highest in men with secondary education (1.0 kg/m(2), P < 0.001) and in women with primary education with the same rate. There were increasing trends in BMI with slight variation by SES groups in Thai men and women during 1991-2009.

  18. Is vaccine type seropositivity a marker for human papillomavirus vaccination? National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosky, Emiko Y; Hariri, Susan; Markowitz, Lauri E; Panicker, Gitika; Unger, Elizabeth R; Dunne, Eileen F

    2015-04-01

    Since 2006, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has been routinely recommended for adolescent females in the USA. The quadrivalent vaccine induces long-term seropositivity to HPV 6/11/16, which may be useful as a marker for HPV vaccine coverage. We evaluated vaccine type seropositivity (i.e., seropositivity to HPV 6/11/16 with or without HPV18) among females aged 14-59 years participating in the 2003-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (cross-sectional, nationally representative surveys). We compared pre-vaccine era (2003-2006) to vaccine era (2007-2010) seropositivity and assessed agreement between vaccine era seropositivity and reported vaccination by kappa statistic. Seropositivity was 1.0% among 2151 females in the pre-vaccine era and 22.1% among 1420 females in the vaccine era (p vaccine era females reported receipt of one or more HPV vaccine dose. Seropositivity and reported vaccination had high agreement (kappa = 0.79; 95% confidence interval 0.74-0.84). Among seropositive females, 14.5% reported no vaccination. The increase in vaccine era seropositivity likely reflects vaccination uptake. Our study suggests seropositivity to HPV 6/11/16 may be a useful marker for vaccination coverage in adolescent and young adult females. Discordance between seropositivity and reported vaccination may be explained by inaccurate reporting and/or natural exposure to HPV. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Serum Lipid Levels in Relation to Consumption of Yogurt: The 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Bong-Kyung; Kim, Nam-Eun; Park, Kyong-Min; Park, Kye-Yeung; Park, Hoon-Ki

    2017-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate serum lipid levels in Korean adults after consumption of different types of yogurt. Methods Study subjects were 3,038 individuals (≥19 years of age) who participated in the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Yogurt intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire by using the 24-hour recall method. We conducted complex samples general linear analysis with adjustment for covariates. Results The serum triglyceride levels in the group consuming viscous yogurt were lower than those in the group consuming non-viscous yogurt. Conclusion Consumption of viscous yogurt is associated with low serum triglyceride levels in Korean adults. PMID:29026484

  20. Hypertension among US adults by disability status and type, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Alissa; Courtney-Long, Elizabeth; Gillespie, Cathleen; Armour, Brian S

    2014-08-14

    The prevalence of hypertension among people with disabilities is not well understood. We combined data from the 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to obtain estimates of hypertension prevalence by disability status and type (cognitive, hearing, vision, or mobility limitation) and assess the association between disability and hypertension. Overall, 34% of adults with disabilities had hypertension compared with 27% of adults without disabilities; adults with mobility limitations were more likely to have hypertension than adults without disabilities (adjusted prevalence ratio: 1.23; 95% confidence interval: 1.16-1.32). Our results suggest that adults living with disabilities are an important subpopulation to include in hypertension reporting and intervention efforts.

  1. Hypertension Among US Adults by Disability Status and Type, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney-Long, Elizabeth; Gillespie, Cathleen; Armour, Brian S.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension among people with disabilities is not well understood. We combined data from the 2001–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to obtain estimates of hypertension prevalence by disability status and type (cognitive, hearing, vision, or mobility limitation) and assess the association between disability and hypertension. Overall, 34% of adults with disabilities had hypertension compared with 27% of adults without disabilities; adults with mobility limitations were more likely to have hypertension than adults without disabilities (adjusted prevalence ratio: 1.23; 95% confidence interval: 1.16–1.32). Our results suggest that adults living with disabilities are an important subpopulation to include in hypertension reporting and intervention efforts. PMID:25121351

  2. Dietary vitamin intake correlates with hearing thresholds in the older population: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ju Wan; Choi, Hyun Seung; Kim, Kyubo; Choi, Jae Young

    2014-06-01

    Previous animal studies have shown that vitamins may prevent age-related hearing loss. However, no concrete conclusions have been reached about the association between vitamin intake and presbycusis in humans. We investigated the association between dietary vitamin intake and hearing thresholds in adults between 50 and 80 y of age by using data from a large population-based survey. We used data from the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A pure-tone audiogram and physical examination of the ear were performed, and vitamin intake was calculated by using the 24-h recall method. Data from 1910 participants were analyzed through univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking, and exposure to occupational and explosive noise, intake of vitamin C correlated with better hearing at midfrequency (2000 and 3000 Hz) (coefficient: -0.012; 95% CI: -0.022, -0.002). Dietary supplement use was positively associated with better hearing at all frequencies. The univariate analysis indicated that dietary intakes of retinol, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin C were positively correlated with better hearing at most frequencies. In contrast, serum concentrations of vitamin D were associated with worse hearing at mid and high (4000 and 6000 Hz) frequencies. Dietary intake of vitamin C was associated with better hearing in the older population. Because less than one-half of elderly participants in this study consumed a sufficient amount of vitamins, and vitamin intake decreased with age, we should consider proper diet counseling to prevent hearing decline. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Fruit and vegetable consumption and its recommended intake associated with sociodemographic factors: Thailand National Health Examination Survey III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheannoppakao, Warapone; Aekplakorn, Wichai; Pradipasen, Mandhana

    2009-11-01

    To examine the fruit and vegetable consumption in Thailand, the percentage of Thais meeting recommended intakes and the association with sociodemographic factors. Cross-sectional survey with a stratified, three-stage, cluster probability sampling design. Community-dwelling men and women participating in the Thailand National Health Examination Survey III. A total of 39 290 individuals aged >or=15 years were interviewed using a questionnaire to obtain information on sociodemographic characteristics and fruit and vegetable consumption. Daily fruit and vegetable consumption was estimated through the use of a short semi-qualitative FFQ. Overall, participants had average frequencies of fruit and vegetable consumption equal to 4.56 and 5.97 d/week, respectively. Average daily number of servings of fruit, vegetables and fruit plus vegetables were 1.46, 1.78 and 3.24, respectively. Intake amounts of fruit, vegetables and fruit plus vegetables varied by marital status and region, and were lower among males (except for vegetable intake), those of older age, those with low educational attainment, those with low monthly household income and those living in a rural area. Only 1/3, 1/4 and 1/4 of the population consumed the recommended >or=2, >or=3 and >or=5 servings/d for fruit, vegetables and fruit plus vegetables. Sociodemographic factors related to meeting the recommended intake of >or=5 servings/d for fruit plus vegetables included being female (OR = 1.13) and household income >or=50,000 Baht/month (OR = 1.66). The amounts of fruit and vegetables consumed by Thai participants were far below the level of current recommendations. Public education and campaigns on adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables should be targeted more towards low socio-economic groups.

  4. Sodium Intake among US School-Aged Children: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quader, Zerleen S; Gillespie, Cathleen; Sliwa, Sarah A; Ahuja, Jaspreet K C; Burdg, Jinee P; Moshfegh, Alanna; Pehrsson, Pamela R; Gunn, Janelle P; Mugavero, Kristy; Cogswell, Mary E

    2017-01-01

    Identifying current major dietary sources of sodium can enhance strategies to reduce excess sodium intake, which occurs among 90% of US school-aged children. To describe major food sources, places obtained, and eating occasions contributing to sodium intake among US school-aged children. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A nationally representative sample of 2,142 US children aged 6 to 18 years who completed a 24-hour dietary recall. Population proportions of sodium intake from major food categories, places, and eating occasions. Statistical analyses accounted for the complex survey design and sampling. Wald F tests and t tests were used to examine differences between subgroups. Average daily sodium intake was highest among adolescents aged 14 to 18 years (3,565±120 mg), lowest among girls (2,919±74 mg). Little variation was seen in average intakes or the top five sodium contributors by sociodemographic characteristics or weight status. Ten food categories contributed to almost half (48%) of US school-aged children's sodium intake, and included pizza, Mexican-mixed dishes, sandwiches, breads, cold cuts, soups, savory snacks, cheese, plain milk, and poultry. More than 80 food categories contributed to the other half of children's sodium intake. Foods obtained from stores contributed 58% of sodium intake, fast-food/pizza restaurants contributed 16%, and school cafeterias contributed 10%. Thirty-nine percent of sodium intake was consumed at dinner, 31% at lunch, 16% from snacks, and 14% at breakfast. With the exception of plain milk, which naturally contains sodium, the top 10 food categories contributing to US schoolchildren's sodium intake during 2011-2012 comprised foods in which sodium is added during processing or preparation. Sodium is consumed throughout the day from multiple foods and locations, highlighting the importance of sodium reduction across the US food supply. Published by Elsevier

  5. Use of the National Board of Medical Examiners® Comprehensive Basic Science Exam: survey results of US medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, William S; Baston, Kirk

    2017-01-01

    The National Board of Medical Examiners® (NBME) Comprehensive Basic Science Exam (CBSE) is a subject exam offered to US medical schools, where it has been used for external validation of student preparedness for the United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE) Step 1 in new schools and schools undergoing curricular reform. Information regarding the actual use of the NBME CBSE is limited. Therefore, the aim of the survey was to determine the scope and utilization of the NBME CBSE by US medical schools. A survey was sent in May 2016 to curriculum leadership of the 139 US medical schools listed on the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME®) website with provisional or full accreditation as of February 29, 2016. Responses were received from 53 schools (38% response rate). A series of different follow-up questions were asked if respondents stated "yes" or "no" to the initial question "Does your institution administer the NBME CBSE prior to the USMLE Step 1?". A total of 37 schools (70%) administered the NBME CBSE. In all, 36 of the 37 schools responded to follow-up questions. Of 36 schools, 13 schools (36%) used the NBME CBSE for curriculum modification. Six schools (17%) used the NBME CBSE for formative assessment for a course, and five schools (14%) used the NBME CBSE for summative assessment for a course. A total of 28 schools (78%) used the NBME CBSE for identifying students performing below expectations and providing targeted intervention strategies. In all, 24 schools (67%) of the 36 responding schools administering the NBME CBSE administered the test once prior to the administration of the USMLE Step 1, whereas 10 (28%) schools administered the NBME CBSE two or more times prior to the administration of the USMLE Step 1. Our data suggest that the NBME CBSE is administered by many US medical schools. However, the objective, timing, and number of exams administered vary greatly among schools.

  6. Perceptions of the ethical acceptability of using medical examiner autopsies for research and education: a survey of forensic pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, L W; Nolte, K B; Warner, T D; McCarty, T; Rosenbaum, L S; Zumwalt, R

    2000-10-01

    Forensic pathologists face difficult moral questions in their practices each day. Consistent ethical and legal guidelines for autopsy tissue use extending beyond usual clinical and legal imperatives have not been developed in this country. To obtain the perceptions of medical examiners regarding the ethical acceptability of autopsy tissue use for research and education. A written, self-report questionnaire was developed and piloted by a multidisciplinary team at the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque. All individuals who attended a platform presentation at the National Association of Medical Examiners Annual Meeting in September 1997 were invited to participate. Ninety-one individuals completed the survey (40% of all conference registrants and approximately 75% of presentation attendees). Sixty-three percent of respondents had encountered an ethical dilemma surrounding autopsy tissue use, and one third reported some professional ethics experience. Perspectives varied greatly concerning the ethical acceptability of using autopsy tissues to demonstrate or practice techniques (eg, intubation, brachial plexus dissection) and of fulfilling requests to supply varying kinds and quantities of tissues for research and education. Most respondents indicated that consent by family members was important in tissue use decisions. Respondents agreed on the importance of basic values in education and research, such as integrity, scientific or educational merit, and formal institutional approval of a project. Characteristics of the decedent did not influence decisions to release tissues, except when the individual had died from a mysterious or very rare illness. Attributes of medical examiners, with the exception of sex, also did not consistently predict responses. Significant diversity exists in beliefs among medical examiners regarding perceptions of the appropriate use of autopsy tissues for education and research. There is need for further inquiry and dialogue so that

  7. Suicidal ideation in underweight adults who attempt to lose weight: Korea national health and nutrition examination survey, 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinho; Shin, Jinyoung; Kim, Yun A; Lee, Jungkwon

    2015-03-01

    Being underweight has been related to health risks. However, little is known about the relationship between suicidal ideation and attempting to lose weight. This study was conducted to examine if there is an association between suicidal ideation and attempting to lose weight among underweight adults. A cross-sectional study of 1,122 underweight adults (range, 19 to 69 years) was conducted based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2012. We examined suicidal ideation, doctor-diagnosed depression, depressive mood, stress, physical activity, health-related behavior, comorbidity, and socioeconomic status by weight loss attempts. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between suicidal ideation and weight loss attempts. The following covariates were controlled for: age, sex, physical activity, alcohol problem, marital status, education, income, occupation, self-perception of body image, chronic disease, and body mass index. There were 101 subjects in the weight loss attempt group and 1,021 in the non-attempt group. The attempt group had a higher risk of suicidal ideation (odds ratio [OR], 2.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35 to 4.53) and depressive symptoms (OR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.19 to 3.98). After depressive symptoms were added to the covariates, the risk of suicidal ideation was also significant (OR 2.11, 95% CI: 1.03 to 4.35). The two groups did not significantly differ in doctor-diagnosed depression and stress. Weight loss attempts were associated with suicidal ideation in underweight Korean adults.

  8. Use of the National Board of Medical Examiners® Comprehensive Basic Science Exam: survey results of US medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright WS

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available William S Wright,1 Kirk Baston2 1Department of Biomedical Sciences, 2Department of Pathology, University of South Carolina School of Medicine Greenville, Greenville, SC, USA Purpose: The National Board of Medical Examiners® (NBME Comprehensive Basic Science Exam (CBSE is a subject exam offered to US medical schools, where it has been used for external validation of student preparedness for the United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE Step 1 in new schools and schools undergoing curricular reform. Information regarding the actual use of the NBME CBSE is limited. Therefore, the aim of the survey was to determine the scope and utilization of the NBME CBSE by US medical schools.Methods: A survey was sent in May 2016 to curriculum leadership of the 139 US medical schools listed on the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME® website with provisional or full accreditation as of February 29, 2016. Responses were received from 53 schools (38% response rate. A series of different follow-up questions were asked if respondents stated “yes” or “no” to the initial question “Does your institution administer the NBME CBSE prior to the USMLE Step 1?”.Results: A total of 37 schools (70% administered the NBME CBSE. In all, 36 of the 37 schools responded to follow-up questions. Of 36 schools, 13 schools (36% used the NBME CBSE for curriculum modification. Six schools (17% used the NBME CBSE for formative assessment for a course, and five schools (14% used the NBME CBSE for summative assessment for a course. A total of 28 schools (78% used the NBME CBSE for identifying students performing below expectations and providing targeted intervention strategies. In all, 24 schools (67% of the 36 responding schools administering the NBME CBSE administered the test once prior to the administration of the USMLE Step 1, whereas 10 (28% schools administered the NBME CBSE two or more times prior to the administration of the USMLE Step 1.Conclusion

  9. Use of fake identification to purchase alcohol amongst 15-16 year olds: a cross-sectional survey examining alcohol access, consumption and harm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morleo, Michela; Cook, Penny A; Bellis, Mark A; Smallthwaite, Linda

    2010-01-01

    ... risk of alco