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Sample records for examination revealed significantly

  1. Significance of blood examination in radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Hirofumi; Nakamura, Shinobu; Ando, Atsushi; Kojima, Kazuhiko; Kikuta, Yoko.

    1978-01-01

    Blood examination made for the past 3 years revealed that the influences of chronic exposure of extremely small amounts of radiation (an average of 5 mrem/day) on peripheral blood are not detected. However, the blood examination, which is prescribed at least twice a year by law, is for determining whether or not the results of blood examination are within a normal range. Therefore, even though influences of a large amount of radiation are detected, it has little significance as a monitoring of chronic exposure of extremely small amounts of radiation. If the blood examination is used as a monitoring method for detecting exposure, it is important to compare the results with the previous ones in the same individuals. It is also necessary to increase the number of examinations and to study the blood more in detail. However, before that, the standard of the evaluation should be more defined because of its obscurity. The present blood examination is useful in managing the health generally. However, it is not good as a monitoring for chronic exposure of the extremely small amounts of radiation. Therefore, a routine biological method to be able to monitor radiation more precisely, is required. (Namekawa, K.)

  2. Introduction of e-learning in dental radiology reveals significantly improved results in final examination.

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    Meckfessel, Sandra; Stühmer, Constantin; Bormann, Kai-Hendrik; Kupka, Thomas; Behrends, Marianne; Matthies, Herbert; Vaske, Bernhard; Stiesch, Meike; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Rücker, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Because a traditionally instructed dental radiology lecture course is very time-consuming and labour-intensive, online courseware, including an interactive-learning module, was implemented to support the lectures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perceptions of students who have worked with web-based courseware as well as the effect on their results in final examinations. Users (n(3+4)=138) had access to the e-program from any networked computer at any time. Two groups (n(3)=71, n(4)=67) had to pass a final exam after using the e-course. Results were compared with two groups (n(1)=42, n(2)=48) who had studied the same content by attending traditional lectures. In addition a survey of the students was statistically evaluated. Most of the respondents reported a positive attitude towards e-learning and would have appreciated more access to computer-assisted instruction. Two years after initiating the e-course the failure rate in the final examination dropped significantly, from 40% to less than 2%. The very positive response to the e-program and improved test scores demonstrated the effectiveness of our e-course as a learning aid. Interactive modules in step with clinical practice provided learning that is not achieved by traditional teaching methods alone. To what extent staff savings are possible is part of a further study. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Phylogeographic analysis reveals significant spatial genetic structure of Incarvillea sinensis as a product of mountain building

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    Chen Shaotian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incarvillea sinensis is widely distributed from Southwest China to Northeast China and in the Russian Far East. The distribution of this species was thought to be influenced by the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Quaternary glaciation. To reveal the imprints of geological events on the spatial genetic structure of Incarvillea sinensis, we examined two cpDNA segments ( trnH- psbA and trnS- trnfM in 705 individuals from 47 localities. Results A total of 16 haplotypes was identified, and significant genetic differentiation was revealed (GST =0.843, NST = 0.975, P  Conclusions The results revealed that the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau likely resulted in the significant divergence between the lineage in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the other one outside this area. The diverse niches in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau created a wide spectrum of habitats to accumulate and accommodate new mutations. The features of genetic diversity of populations outside the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau seemed to reveal the imprints of extinction during the Glacial and the interglacial and postglacial recolonization. Our study is a typical case of the significance of the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the Quaternary Glacial in spatial genetic structure of eastern Asian plants, and sheds new light on the evolution of biodiversity in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau at the intraspecies level.

  4. A pursuit of significance of the coarsened gastric rugae in radiologic examination

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    Kim, Ok Dong [Chung Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    The radiologic upper G.I. series and gastroscopic examination with gastric biopsies of 230 cases were carried out in Korea General Hospital for the purpose of pursuit of significance of coarsened gastric rugae. Out of the above series the 26 cases showing mere radiologic finding of coarsening of the gastric mucosal rugae were selected, excluding the cases with definite evidence of ulceration, malignancies and others. The correlativity of the coarsened gastric rugae was investigated with clinical pictures, gastroscopic features and biopsy findings. The following results were obtained: 1. There were 24 cases of gastritis, 5 of stomach ulcer and 2 of stomach cancer in the 26 cases with mere finding of mucosal coarsening. 2. There was 5 cases of stomach ulcer disease revealing no radiologic evidence, but there were found tiny ulcers in 4 cases and a large ulcer crater of 1.0 cm by 1.5 cm in diameter in the other case under the gastroscopic study. 3. Two cases of stomach cancer were not detected in neither radiologic nor gastroscopic examination, however, they were found by gastric biopsy. 4. It should be strongly emphasized that the biopsy under the gastroscopic control must be followed when a radiologic evidence of coarsened gastric rugae is demonstrated.

  5. A pursuit of significance of the coarsened gastric rugae in radiologic examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ok Dong

    1979-01-01

    The radiologic upper G.I. series and gastroscopic examination with gastric biopsies of 230 cases were carried out in Korea General Hospital for the purpose of pursuit of significance of coarsened gastric rugae. Out of the above series the 26 cases showing mere radiologic finding of coarsening of the gastric mucosal rugae were selected, excluding the cases with definite evidence of ulceration, malignancies and others. The correlativity of the coarsened gastric rugae was investigated with clinical pictures, gastroscopic features and biopsy findings. The following results were obtained: 1. There were 24 cases of gastritis, 5 of stomach ulcer and 2 of stomach cancer in the 26 cases with mere finding of mucosal coarsening. 2. There was 5 cases of stomach ulcer disease revealing no radiologic evidence, but there were found tiny ulcers in 4 cases and a large ulcer crater of 1.0 cm by 1.5 cm in diameter in the other case under the gastroscopic study. 3. Two cases of stomach cancer were not detected in neither radiologic nor gastroscopic examination, however, they were found by gastric biopsy. 4. It should be strongly emphasized that the biopsy under the gastroscopic control must be followed when a radiologic evidence of coarsened gastric rugae is demonstrated.

  6. Examining National Trends in Educational Placements for Students with Significant Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morningstar, Mary E.; Kurth, Jennifer A.; Johnson, Paul E.

    2017-01-01

    Using the least restrictive environments (LRE) data from annual "Reports to Congress," this study examined national trends in placement between 2000 and 2014 for school-aged students considered to have significant disabilities from among the categories of autism (ASD), intellectual disability (ID), multiple disabilities (MD), and…

  7. Significance of radionucleid examination of joints in diagnosis of subclinical arthritis background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersone, D.; Bulina, I.

    2005-01-01

    Background. A large group of inflammation arthritis is represented by seronegative spondyloarthropathies (SpA), including several nosologies: psoriatic arthritis Bechterev's disease, Reiter's disease, etc. One of the most common SpA forms is Reactive arthritis (ReA). Inflammation process in joints is the most characteristic symptom, which determines severeness, course and prognosis of the disease. One of the most sensitive methods of examination of joints is radionucleid (RN) examination. Increased RNV accumulation in the joints is not a specific feature .for a concrete disease, and growth of its accumulation corresponds to the exudative component of inflammation process which reveals the early stage of joint inflammation (subclinical arthritis). Objectives: To find out how often subclinical inflammation processes (subclinical sinovitis) are observed in patients with minimal systemic activity of ReA. To detect in which joints subclinical sinovitis localizes most commonly. To evaluate significance of radionucleid examinations in diagnosis of subclinical arthritis. Material and methods. RN examination of joints was performed in 41 patient with ReA in I stage of activity and in 35 patients with ReA in II stage of activity, when the causative agent of infection - Chlamydia trachomatis - is localized in the urogenital tract. ReA was diagnosed according to diagnostic criteria of French Rheumatologists Association. For clinical description of joints index was used, characterized by pain intensity during joint palpation, and expressed by gradation degree from 0-3. In 76 patients with ReA I activity degree (ReA I) and ReA II activity degree (ReA II) radionucleid examination was done with marked 99 Tc and analysis of the obtained joint scintigrams for SI area. In the control group, 90 joint scintigrams were analyzed for patients with degenerative joint diseases without palpation pain in the examined joints, determining Tc index (Tc ind) in separate joints and summary Tc ind

  8. Transcriptome sequencing revealed significant alteration of cortical promoter usage and splicing in schizophrenia.

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    Jing Qin Wu

    Full Text Available While hybridization based analysis of the cortical transcriptome has provided important insight into the neuropathology of schizophrenia, it represents a restricted view of disease-associated gene activity based on predetermined probes. By contrast, sequencing technology can provide un-biased analysis of transcription at nucleotide resolution. Here we use this approach to investigate schizophrenia-associated cortical gene expression.The data was generated from 76 bp reads of RNA-Seq, aligned to the reference genome and assembled into transcripts for quantification of exons, splice variants and alternative promoters in postmortem superior temporal gyrus (STG/BA22 from 9 male subjects with schizophrenia and 9 matched non-psychiatric controls. Differentially expressed genes were then subjected to further sequence and functional group analysis. The output, amounting to more than 38 Gb of sequence, revealed significant alteration of gene expression including many previously shown to be associated with schizophrenia. Gene ontology enrichment analysis followed by functional map construction identified three functional clusters highly relevant to schizophrenia including neurotransmission related functions, synaptic vesicle trafficking, and neural development. Significantly, more than 2000 genes displayed schizophrenia-associated alternative promoter usage and more than 1000 genes showed differential splicing (FDR<0.05. Both types of transcriptional isoforms were exemplified by reads aligned to the neurodevelopmentally significant doublecortin-like kinase 1 (DCLK1 gene.This study provided the first deep and un-biased analysis of schizophrenia-associated transcriptional diversity within the STG, and revealed variants with important implications for the complex pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  9. Transcriptome Sequencing Revealed Significant Alteration of Cortical Promoter Usage and Splicing in Schizophrenia

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    Wu, Jing Qin; Wang, Xi; Beveridge, Natalie J.; Tooney, Paul A.; Scott, Rodney J.; Carr, Vaughan J.; Cairns, Murray J.

    2012-01-01

    Background While hybridization based analysis of the cortical transcriptome has provided important insight into the neuropathology of schizophrenia, it represents a restricted view of disease-associated gene activity based on predetermined probes. By contrast, sequencing technology can provide un-biased analysis of transcription at nucleotide resolution. Here we use this approach to investigate schizophrenia-associated cortical gene expression. Methodology/Principal Findings The data was generated from 76 bp reads of RNA-Seq, aligned to the reference genome and assembled into transcripts for quantification of exons, splice variants and alternative promoters in postmortem superior temporal gyrus (STG/BA22) from 9 male subjects with schizophrenia and 9 matched non-psychiatric controls. Differentially expressed genes were then subjected to further sequence and functional group analysis. The output, amounting to more than 38 Gb of sequence, revealed significant alteration of gene expression including many previously shown to be associated with schizophrenia. Gene ontology enrichment analysis followed by functional map construction identified three functional clusters highly relevant to schizophrenia including neurotransmission related functions, synaptic vesicle trafficking, and neural development. Significantly, more than 2000 genes displayed schizophrenia-associated alternative promoter usage and more than 1000 genes showed differential splicing (FDRschizophrenia-associated transcriptional diversity within the STG, and revealed variants with important implications for the complex pathophysiology of schizophrenia. PMID:22558445

  10. Melatonin Distribution Reveals Clues to Its Biological Significance in Basal Metazoans

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    Roopin, Modi; Levy, Oren

    2012-01-01

    Although nearly ubiquitous in nature, the precise biological significance of endogenous melatonin is poorly understood in phylogenetically basal taxa. In the present work, we describe insights into the functional role of melatonin at the most “basal” level of metazoan evolution. Hitherto unknown morphological determinants of melatonin distribution were evaluated in Nematostella vectensis by detecting melatonin immunoreactivity and examining the spatial gene expression patterns of putative melatonin biosynthetic and receptor elements that are located at opposing ends of the melatonin signaling pathway. Immuno-melatonin profiling indicated an elaborate interaction with reproductive tissues, reinforcing previous conjectures of a melatonin-responsive component in anthozoan reproduction. In situ hybridization (ISH) to putative melatonin receptor elements highlighted the possibility that the bioregulatory effects of melatonin in anthozoan reproduction may be mediated by interactions with membrane receptors, as in higher vertebrates. Another intriguing finding of the present study pertains to the prevalence of melatonin in centralized nervous structures. This pattern may be of great significance given that it 1) identifies an ancestral association between melatonin and key neuronal components and 2) potentially implies that certain effects of melatonin in basal species may be spread widely by regionalized nerve centers. PMID:23300630

  11. Estimation of population doses from diagnostic medical examinations in Japan, 1974. II. Estimation of genetically significant dose

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    Hashizume, T; Maruyama, T; Kumamoto, Y [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1976-03-01

    The genetically significant dose from radiographic and fluoroscopic examination in Japan has been estimated based on a 1974 nation wide survey of randomly sampled hospitals and clinics. The gonad dose during x-ray diagnosis was determined with an ionization chamber placed at the positions of ovary and testis in a Rando phantom. The instrumented phantom was irradiated with medical diagnostic x-rays on the basis of the exposure data on the patients selected in the nation wide survey. In the calculation of the genetically significant dose, the child expectancy of the patients that undergo each particular type of examination was assumed to be same as that of the general population. The resultant genetically significant dose was 11.1 and 5.43 mrad per person per year for radiography and fluoroscopy, respectively. These values were compared with those of 1960 and 1969. Though the number of examinations per year shows a yearly increase, the genetically significant dose is gradually on the decrease. This may be due to technical improvements in medical radiological practices.

  12. The history of nursing in the home: revealing the significance of place in the expression of moral agency.

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    Peter, Elizabeth

    2002-06-01

    The history of nursing in the home: revealing the significance of place in the expression of moral agency The relationship between place and moral agency in home care nursing is explored in this paper. The notion of place is argued to have relevance to moral agency beyond moral context. This argument is theoretically located in feminist ethics and human geography and is supported through an examination of historical documents (1900-33) that describe the experiences and insights of American home care/private duty nurses or that are related to nursing ethics. Specifically, the role of place in inhibiting and enhancing care, justice, good relationships, and power in the practice of private duty nurses is explored. Several implications for current nursing ethics come out of this analysis. (i) The moral agency of nurses is highly nuanced. It is not only structured by nurses' relationships to patients and health professionals, i.e. moral context, it is also structured by the place of nursing care. (ii) Place has the potential to limit and enhance the power of nurses. (iii) Some aspects of nursing's conception of the good, such as what constitutes a good nurse-patient relationship, are historically and geographically relative.

  13. Seed metabolomic study reveals significant metabolite variations and correlations among different soybean cultivars.

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    Lin, Hong; Rao, Jun; Shi, Jianxin; Hu, Chaoyang; Cheng, Fang; Wilson, Zoe A; Zhang, Dabing; Quan, Sheng

    2014-09-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of the world's major crops, and soybean seeds are a rich and important resource for proteins and oils. While "omics" studies, such as genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, have been widely applied in soybean molecular research, fewer metabolomic studies have been conducted for large-scale detection of low molecular weight metabolites, especially in soybean seeds. In this study, we investigated the seed metabolomes of 29 common soybean cultivars through combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. One hundred sixty-nine named metabolites were identified and subsequently used to construct a metabolic network of mature soybean seed. Among the 169 detected metabolites, 104 were found to be significantly variable in their levels across tested cultivars. Metabolite markers that could be used to distinguish genetically related soybean cultivars were also identified, and metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis revealed some significant associations within the same or among different metabolite groups. Findings from this work may potentially provide the basis for further studies on both soybean seed metabolism and metabolic engineering to improve soybean seed quality and yield. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  14. Seed metabolomic study reveals significant metabolite variations and correlations among different soybean cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Lin; Jun Rao; Jianxin Shi; Chaoyang Hu; Fang Cheng; Zoe AWilson; Dabing Zhang; Sheng Quan

    2014-01-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of the world’s major crops, and soybean seeds are a rich and important resource for proteins and oils. While “omics”studies, such as genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, have been widely applied in soybean molecular research, fewer metabolomic studies have been conducted for large-scale detection of low molecular weight metabolites, especial y in soybean seeds. In this study, we investigated the seed metabolomes of 29 common soybean cultivars through combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. One hundred sixty-nine named metabolites were identified and subsequently used to construct a metabolic network of mature soybean seed. Among the 169 detected metabolites, 104 were found to be significantly variable in their levels across tested cultivars. Metabolite markers that could be used to distinguish genetical y related soybean cultivars were also identified, and metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis revealed some significant associations within the same or among different metabolite groups. Findings from this work may potentially provide the basis for further studies on both soybean seed metabolism and metabolic engineering to improve soybean seed quality and yield.

  15. SubID, a non-median dichotomization tool for heterogeneous populations, reveals the pan-cancer significance of INPP4B and its regulation by EVI1 in AML.

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    Irakli Dzneladze

    Full Text Available Our previous studies demonstrated that INPP4B, a member of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, is overexpressed in a subset of AML patients and is associated with lower response to chemotherapy and shorter survival. INPP4B expression analysis in AML revealed a right skewed frequency distribution with 25% of patients expressing significantly higher levels than the majority. The 75% low/25% high cut-off revealed the prognostic power of INPP4B expression status in AML, which would not have been apparent with a standard median cut-off approach. Our identification of a clinically relevant non-median cut-off for INPP4B indicated a need for a generalizable non-median dichotomization approach to optimally study clinically relevant genes. To address this need, we developed Subgroup Identifier (SubID, a tool which examines the relationship between a continuous variable (e.g. gene expression, and a test parameter (e.g. CoxPH or Fisher's exact P values. In our study, Fisher's exact SubID was used to reveal EVI1 as a transcriptional regulator of INPP4B in AML; a finding which was validated in vitro. Next, we used CoxPH SubID to conduct a pan-cancer analysis of INPP4B's prognostic significance. Our analysis revealed that INPP4Blow is associated with shorter survival in kidney clear cell, liver hepatocellular, and bladder urothelial carcinomas. Conversely, INPP4Blow was shown to be associated with increased survival in pancreatic adenocarcinoma in three independent datasets. Overall, our study describes the development and application of a novel subgroup identification tool used to identify prognostically significant rare subgroups based upon gene expression, and for investigating the association between a gene with skewed frequency distribution and potentially important upstream and downstream genes that relate to the index gene.

  16. SubID, a non-median dichotomization tool for heterogeneous populations, reveals the pan-cancer significance of INPP4B and its regulation by EVI1 in AML.

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    Dzneladze, Irakli; Woolley, John F; Rossell, Carla; Han, Youqi; Rashid, Ayesha; Jain, Michael; Reimand, Jüri; Minden, Mark D; Salmena, Leonardo

    2018-01-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that INPP4B, a member of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, is overexpressed in a subset of AML patients and is associated with lower response to chemotherapy and shorter survival. INPP4B expression analysis in AML revealed a right skewed frequency distribution with 25% of patients expressing significantly higher levels than the majority. The 75% low/25% high cut-off revealed the prognostic power of INPP4B expression status in AML, which would not have been apparent with a standard median cut-off approach. Our identification of a clinically relevant non-median cut-off for INPP4B indicated a need for a generalizable non-median dichotomization approach to optimally study clinically relevant genes. To address this need, we developed Subgroup Identifier (SubID), a tool which examines the relationship between a continuous variable (e.g. gene expression), and a test parameter (e.g. CoxPH or Fisher's exact P values). In our study, Fisher's exact SubID was used to reveal EVI1 as a transcriptional regulator of INPP4B in AML; a finding which was validated in vitro. Next, we used CoxPH SubID to conduct a pan-cancer analysis of INPP4B's prognostic significance. Our analysis revealed that INPP4Blow is associated with shorter survival in kidney clear cell, liver hepatocellular, and bladder urothelial carcinomas. Conversely, INPP4Blow was shown to be associated with increased survival in pancreatic adenocarcinoma in three independent datasets. Overall, our study describes the development and application of a novel subgroup identification tool used to identify prognostically significant rare subgroups based upon gene expression, and for investigating the association between a gene with skewed frequency distribution and potentially important upstream and downstream genes that relate to the index gene.

  17. Assessing dependency using self-report and indirect measures: examining the significance of discrepancies.

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    Cogswell, Alex; Alloy, Lauren B; Karpinski, Andrew; Grant, David A

    2010-07-01

    The present study addressed convergence between self-report and indirect approaches to assessing dependency. We were moderately successful in validating an implicit measure, which was found to be reliable, orthogonal to 2 self-report instruments, and predictive of external criteria. This study also examined discrepancies between scores on self-report and implicit measures, and has implications for their significance. The possibility that discrepancies themselves are pathological was not supported, although discrepancies were associated with particular personality profiles. Finally, this study offered additional evidence for the relation between dependency and depressive symptomatology and identified implicit dependency as contributing unique variance in predicting past major depression.

  18. Use of Digital Rectal Examination as an Adjunct to Prostate Specific Antigen in the Detection of Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Joshua A; Oromendia, Clara; Shoag, Jonathan E; Mittal, Sameer; Cosiano, Michael F; Ballman, Karla V; Vickers, Andrew J; Hu, Jim C

    2018-04-01

    Guidelines from the NCCN ® (National Comprehensive Cancer Network®) advocate digital rectal examination screening only in men with elevated prostate specific antigen. We investigated the effect of prostate specific antigen on the association of digital rectal examination and clinically significant prostate cancer in a large American cohort. We evaluated the records of the 35,350 men who underwent digital rectal examination in the screening arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening trial for the development of clinically significant prostate cancer (Gleason 7 or greater). Followup was 343,273 person-years. The primary outcome was the rate of clinically significant prostate cancer among men with vs without suspicious digital rectal examination. We performed competing risks regression to evaluate the interaction between time varying suspicious digital rectal examination and prostate specific antigen. A total of 1,713 clinically significant prostate cancers were detected with a 10-year cumulative incidence of 5.9% (95% CI 5.6-6.2). Higher risk was seen for suspicious vs nonsuspicious digital rectal examination. Increases in absolute risk were small and clinically irrelevant for normal (less than 2 ng/ml) prostate specific antigen (1.5% vs 0.7% risk of clinically significant prostate cancer at 10 years), clinically relevant for elevated (3 ng/ml or greater) prostate specific antigen (23.0% vs 13.7%) and modestly clinically relevant for equivocal (2 to 3 ng/ml) prostate specific antigen (6.5% vs 3.5%). Digital rectal examination demonstrated prognostic usefulness when prostate specific antigen was greater than 3 ng/ml, limited usefulness for less than 2 ng/ml and marginal usefulness for 2 to 3 ng/ml. These findings support the restriction of digital rectal examination to men with higher prostate specific antigen as a reflex test to improve specificity. It should not be used as a primary screening modality to improve sensitivity. Copyright

  19. Divergent Significance of Bone Mineral Density Changes in Aging Depending on Sites and Sex Revealed through Separate Analyses of Bone Mineral Content and Area

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    Yasumoto Matsui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone mineral density (aBMD is equivalent to bone mineral content (BMC divided by area. We rechecked the significance of aBMD changes in aging by examining BMC and area separately. Subjects were 1167 community-dwelling Japanese men and women, aged 40–79 years. ABMDs of femoral neck and lumbar spine were assessed by DXA twice, at 6-year intervals. The change rates of BMC and area, as well as aBMD, were calculated and described separately by the age stratum and by sex. In the femoral neck region, aBMDs were significantly decreased in all age strata by an increase in area as well as BMC loss in the same pattern in both sexes. In the lumbar spine region, aBMDs decreased until the age of 60 in women, caused by the significant BMC decrease accompanying the small area change. Very differently in men, aBMDs increased after their 50s due to BMC increase, accompanied by an area increase. Separate analyses of BMC and area change revealed that the significance of aBMD changes in aging was very divergent among sites and between sexes. This may explain in part the dissociation of aBMD change and bone strength, suggesting that we should be more cautious when interpreting the meaning of aBMD change.

  20. CT examinations in older patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciuk, J.; Peters, P.E.

    1989-01-01

    A total of 2,878 unselected subsequent CT examinations carried out in 1984 were analyzed retrospectively. All studies were performed in a university hospital with a centralized department of diagnostic radiology. Most of the patients investigated were hospitalized; there were only 12% outpatients. Of the patients studied 12.6% were older than 65 years and 20.5% older than 60; 17.7% were emergency cases and patients between 16 and 25 years of age represented the largest fraction. In all other age groups the relative distribution between emergency cases and regular studies revealed no significant differences. There was no statistically significant difference between the older age group (patients older than 65 years) and the total population of this study in almost all items investigated, i.e., no differences in CT examination time and no differences in preparation time (time between two CT studies). The rate of abdominal CT examinations was 7% higher in the older age group, while the relative distribution of all other CT examinations was again comparable to the total population under study. Thus, the expected increase in patients in the older age group does not measurably prolong the CT examination time. This statement applies to a major referral center with a high percentage of inpatients. (orig.) [de

  1. Examination stress at unified state examination: student destabilization or success factor?

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    Svetlana N. Kostromina

    2017-01-01

    . Stress reactions were already recorded when the students read the instructions, and their number increased in the process of the examination, reaching the maximum by the end of completing the work. The analysis of subjective evaluation of the state by the students themselves reveals that they often evaluate it inadequately. Significant statistical differences were found between the levels of stress at examinations in different subjects. The highest stress level was recorded at the examination in Russian. It was revealed, that the students who chose a free strategy of completing the tasks and followed it, had fewer stress reactions than those who completed the tasks one by one. The differences in the stress levels were registered between students who got different grades: the students who were graded “good”, had the most stress reactions, those who were graded “satisfactory”, had the fewest stress reactions.The results of the study show that the General and Unified State Examinations are highly stressful events: in average, the students were under stress about one third of the time of completing the exam tasks. The given events have a significant impact on school leavers’ psychophysiological state. Additional factors were determined that cause stress reactions at the examination.

  2. Diurnal sampling reveals significant variation in CO2 emission from a tropical productive lake.

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    Reis, P C J; Barbosa, F A R

    2014-08-01

    It is well accepted in the literature that lakes are generally net heterotrophic and supersaturated with CO2 because they receive allochthonous carbon inputs. However, autotrophy and CO2 undersaturation may happen for at least part of the time, especially in productive lakes. Since diurnal scale is particularly important to tropical lakes dynamics, we evaluated diurnal changes in pCO2 and CO2 flux across the air-water interface in a tropical productive lake in southeastern Brazil (Lake Carioca) over two consecutive days. Both pCO2 and CO2 flux were significantly different between day (9:00 to 17:00) and night (21:00 to 5:00) confirming the importance of this scale for CO2 dynamics in tropical lakes. Net heterotrophy and CO2 outgassing from the lake were registered only at night, while significant CO2 emission did not happen during the day. Dissolved oxygen concentration and temperature trends over the diurnal cycle indicated the dependence of CO2 dynamics on lake metabolism (respiration and photosynthesis). This study indicates the importance of considering the diurnal scale when examining CO2 emissions from tropical lakes.

  3. Significance of Objective Structured Clinical Examinations to Plastic Surgery Residency Training.

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    Simmons, Brian J; Zoghbi, Yasmina; Askari, Morad; Birnbach, David J; Shekhter, Ilya; Thaller, Seth R

    2017-09-01

    Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) have proven to be a powerful tool. They possess more than a 30-year track record in assessing the competency of medical students, residents, and fellows. Objective structured clinical examinations have been used successfully in a variety of medical specialties, including surgery. They have recently found their way into the subspecialty of plastic surgery. This article uses a systematic review of the available literature on OSCEs and their recent use in plastic surgery. It incorporates survey results assessing program directors' views on the use of OSCEs. Approximately 40% of programs surveyed use OSCEs to assess the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies. We found that 40% use OSCEs to evaluate specific plastic surgery milestones. Objective structured clinical examinations are usually performed annually. They cost anywhere between $100 and more than $1000 per resident. Four milestones giving residents the most difficulties on OSCEs were congenital anomalies, noncancer breast surgery, breast reconstruction, and practice-based learning and improvement. It was determined that challenges with milestones were due to lack of adequate general knowledge and surgical ward patient care, as well as deficits in professionalism and system-based problems. Programs were able to remediate weakness found by OSCEs using a variety of methods. Objective structured clinical examinations offer a unique tool to objectively assess the proficiency of residents in key areas of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies. In addition, they can be used to assess the specific milestones that plastic surgery residents must meet. This allows programs to identify and improve identified areas of weakness.

  4. DNA entropy reveals a significant difference in complexity between housekeeping and tissue specific gene promoters.

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    Thomas, David; Finan, Chris; Newport, Melanie J; Jones, Susan

    2015-10-01

    The complexity of DNA can be quantified using estimates of entropy. Variation in DNA complexity is expected between the promoters of genes with different transcriptional mechanisms; namely housekeeping (HK) and tissue specific (TS). The former are transcribed constitutively to maintain general cellular functions, and the latter are transcribed in restricted tissue and cells types for specific molecular events. It is known that promoter features in the human genome are related to tissue specificity, but this has been difficult to quantify on a genomic scale. If entropy effectively quantifies DNA complexity, calculating the entropies of HK and TS gene promoters as profiles may reveal significant differences. Entropy profiles were calculated for a total dataset of 12,003 human gene promoters and for 501 housekeeping (HK) and 587 tissue specific (TS) human gene promoters. The mean profiles show the TS promoters have a significantly lower entropy (pentropy distributions for the 3 datasets show that promoter entropies could be used to identify novel HK genes. Functional features comprise DNA sequence patterns that are non-random and hence they have lower entropies. The lower entropy of TS gene promoters can be explained by a higher density of positive and negative regulatory elements, required for genes with complex spatial and temporary expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sex Differences in Conscious Sedation During Upper Gastrointestinal Panendoscopic Examination

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    Yu-Hsuan Yen

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: Women need more analgesic agents than men during panendoscopic examination. There was no significant difference between men and women with regard to anesthetic depth and response to noxious stimuli, as revealed by similar SE and RE values.

  6. N Reactor pressure tube 2566 postirradiation examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, K.V.

    1978-01-01

    Pressure tube 2566 was removed from N Reactor in July, 1977 to initiate the postirradiation examination program required by the Technical Specifications. Destructive examination of the pressure tube, after a maximum accumulated fluence of 4.6 x 10 21 n/cm 2 (E > 1 MeV), was conducted at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory to determine the effects of reactor service on the mechanical properties and hydrogen absorption and corrosion characteristics of the pressure tube. Tube 2566 is the sixth tube removed for destructive examination since the initial reactor startup. Evaluation of test results reveal that no significant detrimental changes have occurred in the parameters studied, since the last tube was removed in 1974

  7. 3-dimensional examination of the adult mouse subventricular zone reveals lineage-specific microdomains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, Kasum; Fiorelli, Roberto; Zweifel, Stefan; Hurtado-Chong, Anahi; Yoshikawa, Kazuaki; Slomianka, Lutz; Raineteau, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle is populated by heterogeneous populations of stem and progenitor cells that, depending on their exact location, are biased to acquire specific neuronal fates. This newly described heterogeneity of SVZ stem and progenitor cells underlines the necessity to develop methods for the accurate quantification of SVZ stem and progenitor subpopulations. In this study, we provide 3-dimensional topographical maps of slow cycling "stem" cells and progenitors based on their unique cell cycle properties. These maps revealed that both cell populations are present throughout the lateral ventricle wall as well as in discrete regions of the dorsal wall. Immunodetection of transcription factors expressed in defined progenitor populations further reveals that divergent lineages have clear regional enrichments in the rostro-caudal as well as in the dorso-ventral span of the lateral ventricle. Thus, progenitors expressing Tbr2 and Dlx2 were confined to dorsal and dorso-lateral regions of the lateral ventricle, respectively, while Mash1+ progenitors were more homogeneously distributed. All cell populations were enriched in the rostral-most region of the lateral ventricle. This diversity and uneven distribution greatly impede the accurate quantification of SVZ progenitor populations. This is illustrated by measuring the coefficient of error of estimates obtained by using increasing section sampling interval. Based on our empirical data, we provide such estimates for all progenitor populations investigated in this study. These can be used in future studies as guidelines to judge if the precision obtained with a sampling scheme is sufficient to detect statistically significant differences between experimental groups if a biological effect is present. Altogether, our study underlines the need to consider the SVZ of the lateral ventricle as a complex 3D structure and define methods to accurately assess neural

  8. Interrater reliability of sonographic examinations of orbital fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegfried, Jank; Martina, Deibl; Heinrich, Strobl; Andreas, Oberrauch; Alessandro, Nicasi; Martin, Missmann; Gerd, Bodner

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine whether there are statistically significant variations among different observers when examining fractures of the orbital walls. Material and methods: From December 2003 to April 2004, 28 patients with clinically suspected orbital fractures were examined by ultrasound prospectively. The US images of the infra-orbital margins, the orbital floors, the medial and lateral orbital walls of each patient were reexamined by two independent investigators. Results: Computed tomography revealed fractures of the orbital floor in 28 out of 31 patients (90.3%). The infra-orbital margins showed fractures of 14 of 31 patients (45.2%). The ultrasound examinations of the orbits by the three examiners presented satisfactory correlation regarding sensitivity and specificity. There were no significant differences between investigators. There was good agreement among the ultrasound examiners regarding the infra-orbital margins. This was not the case for the orbital floors. Conclusions: If there are clear cut clinical findings ultrasound examination could represent an alternative to computed tomography. If the clinical findings were indeterminate, computed tomography was essential as implicated by this study. Accordingly, further evaluation of ultrasound examinations of fractures of the orbital margins and floors are necessary

  9. Radiologically revealed spine osteoporosis in male with hypertension and coronary heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P A Chizhov

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiologically revealed spine osteoporosis in male with hypertension and coronary heart disease Objective. To study prevalence and intensity of spine osteoporosis (OP in men suffering from hypertension (H and coronary heart disease (CHD. Material and methods. 101 men with H and CHD aged 50 to 78 years (mean age 60,6±0,85 years and 37 men of control group without cardiovascular diseases aged 50-66 years (mean age 58,6±0,74 years were examined. Clinical examination, radiological, radiomorphometric spine examination and echocardioscopy were performed. Results. OP was revealed in 34,65% of main group pts what is 3,2 times more frequent than in control group (10,8%, p<0,05. OP intensity in men with H and CHD was significantly higher than in healthy people. Vfertebral fractures were revealed in 12,87+3,3% of main group pts and only in 2,7±2,7% in control group (p<0,05. OP development dependence from cardiac history duration and cardiac pathology severity was demonstrated. Conclusion. The results of the study show significantly higher prevalence of spine OP among men suffering from H and CHD. Long history and severity of cardiovascular pathology clinical signs promote OP frequency and severity increase.

  10. Survey of French spine surgeons reveals significant variability in spine trauma practices in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonjon, G; Grelat, M; Dhenin, A; Dauzac, C; Lonjon, N; Kepler, C K; Vaccaro, A R

    2015-02-01

    In France, attempts to define common ground during spine surgery meetings have revealed significant variability in clinical practices across different schools of surgery and the two specialities involved in spine surgery, namely, neurosurgery and orthopaedic surgery. To objectively characterise this variability by performing a survey based on a fictitious spine trauma case. Our working hypothesis was that significant variability existed in trauma practices and that this variability was related to a lack of strong scientific evidence in spine trauma care. We performed a cross-sectional survey based on a clinical vignette describing a 31-year-old male with an L1 burst fracture and neurologic symptoms (numbness). Surgeons received the vignette and a 14-item questionnaire on the management of this patient. For each question, surgeons had to choose among five possible answers. Differences in answers across surgeons were assessed using the Index of Qualitative Variability (IQV), in which 0 indicates no variability and 1 maximal variability. Surgeons also received a questionnaire about their demographics and surgical experience. Of 405 invited spine surgeons, 200 responded to the survey. Five questions had an IQV greater than 0.9, seven an IQV between 0.5 and 0.9, and two an IQV lower than 0.5. Variability was greatest about the need for MRI (IQV=0.93), degree of urgency (IQV=0.93), need for fusion (IQV=0.92), need for post-operative bracing (IQV=0.91), and routine removal of instrumentation (IQV=0.94). Variability was lowest for questions about the need for surgery (IQV=0.42) and use of the posterior approach (IQV=0.36). Answers were influenced by surgeon specialty, age, experience level, and type of centre. Clinical practice regarding spine trauma varies widely in France. Little published evidence is available on which to base recommendations that would diminish this variability. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Estimation of population doses from diagnostic medical examinations in Japan, 1974. III. Per caput mean marrow dose and leukemia significant dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, T; Maruyama, T; Kumamoto, Y [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1976-03-01

    The mean per capita marrow dose and leukemia-significant dose from radiographic and fluoroscopic examinations in Japan have been estimated based on a 1974 nation wide survey of randomly sampled hospitals and clinics. To determine the mean marrow dose to an individual from a certain exposure of a given type of examination, the active marrow in the whole body was divided into 119 parts for an adult and 103 for a child. Dosimetric points on which the individual marrow doses were determined were set up in the center of each marrow part. The individual marrow doses at the dosimetric points in the beams of practical diagnostic x-rays were calculated on the basis of the exposure data on the patients selected in the nation wide survey, using depth dose curves experimentally determined for diagnostic x-rays. The mean individual marrow dose was averaged over the active marrow by summing, for each dosimetric point, the product of the fraction of active marrow exposed and the individual marrow dose at the dosimetric point. The leukemia significant dose was calculated by adopting a weighting factor that is, a leukemia significant factor. The factor was determined from the shape of the time-incidence curve for radiation-induced leukemia from the Hiroshima A-bomb and from the survival statistics for the average population. The resultant mean per capita marrow dose from radiographic and fluoroscopic examination was 37.0 and 70.0 mrad/person/year, respectively, with a total of 107.05 mrad/person/year. The leukemia significant dose was 32.1 mrad/person/year for radiographic examination and 61.2 mrad/person/year, with a total of 93.3. These values were compared with those of 1960 and 1969.

  12. Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence and Attitude Towards Examination of Undergraduates at University of Ilorin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lateef Omotosho Adegboyega

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Emotional intelligence is the basic construct out of which all motivation arises. People with high emotional intelligence have the characteristic of motivating themselves. Students differ in cognitive abilities, with some students being better prepared for the university environment than others. As such, scholars have attempted to find out if emotional intelligence determines students’ attitude toward their studies. The present study therefore, investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence and attitude towards examination of undergraduates’ at the University of Ilorin. Correlational survey method was employed for the study. The study showed that there is low level of emotional intelligence among University of Ilorin undergraduates. Majority of the respondents have negative attitude towards examination. The result revealed that there was a significant relationship between emotional intelligence and attitude towards examination. Also, it revealed that emotional intelligence has significant correlation with gender (r = 0.203, p<0.05, which implies that gender plays a significant role in the emotional intelligence of undergraduates. Emotional intelligence also has a correlation with age (r = 0.073, p<0.05. This implies that age of undergraduates also plays a significant role in their emotional intelligence. Attitude towards examination had a correlation with age (r = 0.086, p<0.05. This implies that age of the undergraduates plays a significant role in influencing an individual’s attitude toward examinations. Based on these findings, it was recommended; among others, that counsellors and lecturers assist students in determining the appropriate emotional intelligence as this would help them to develop positive attitude towards examination

  13. 3-dimensional examination of the adult mouse subventricular zone reveals lineage-specific microdomains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasum Azim

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that the subventricular zone (SVZ of the lateral ventricle is populated by heterogeneous populations of stem and progenitor cells that, depending on their exact location, are biased to acquire specific neuronal fates. This newly described heterogeneity of SVZ stem and progenitor cells underlines the necessity to develop methods for the accurate quantification of SVZ stem and progenitor subpopulations. In this study, we provide 3-dimensional topographical maps of slow cycling "stem" cells and progenitors based on their unique cell cycle properties. These maps revealed that both cell populations are present throughout the lateral ventricle wall as well as in discrete regions of the dorsal wall. Immunodetection of transcription factors expressed in defined progenitor populations further reveals that divergent lineages have clear regional enrichments in the rostro-caudal as well as in the dorso-ventral span of the lateral ventricle. Thus, progenitors expressing Tbr2 and Dlx2 were confined to dorsal and dorso-lateral regions of the lateral ventricle, respectively, while Mash1+ progenitors were more homogeneously distributed. All cell populations were enriched in the rostral-most region of the lateral ventricle. This diversity and uneven distribution greatly impede the accurate quantification of SVZ progenitor populations. This is illustrated by measuring the coefficient of error of estimates obtained by using increasing section sampling interval. Based on our empirical data, we provide such estimates for all progenitor populations investigated in this study. These can be used in future studies as guidelines to judge if the precision obtained with a sampling scheme is sufficient to detect statistically significant differences between experimental groups if a biological effect is present. Altogether, our study underlines the need to consider the SVZ of the lateral ventricle as a complex 3D structure and define methods to

  14. Significance of demonstrating areae gastricae at hypotonic double contrast examination of the stomach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rienmueller, R. (Muenchen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Radiologie)

    1980-05-01

    150 patients were examined by the double contrast-technique in drug-induced hypotonia of the stomach. They were examined gastroscopically and at the same time biopsies were taken. Comparison of histological and radiological results was performed. There was found an agreement of 82% in the performance of areae gastricae and the histological diagnosis of chronic gastritis.

  15. Examining the Role of Antisocial Personality Disorder in Intimate Partner Violence Among Substance Use Disorder Treatment Seekers With Clinically Significant Trauma Histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykstra, Rita E; Schumacher, Julie A; Mota, Natalie; Coffey, Scott F

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the associations among posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity, antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) diagnosis, and intimate partner violence (IPV) in a sample of 145 substance abuse treatment-seeking men and women with positive trauma histories; sex was examined as a moderator. ASPD diagnosis significantly predicted both verbal and physical aggression; sex moderated the association between ASPD diagnosis and physical violence. PTSD symptom severity significantly predicted engaging in verbal, but not physical, aggression. Overall, these results suggest that an ASPD diagnosis may be an important risk factor for engaging in IPV among women seeking treatment for a substance use disorder. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Whole blood transcriptional profiling reveals significant down-regulation of human leukocyte antigen class I and II genes in essential thrombocythemia, polycythemia vera and myelofibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Vibe; Riley, Caroline Hasselbalch; Thomassen, Mads

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression profiling studies in the Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms have revealed significant deregulation of several immune and inflammation genes that might be of importance for clonal evolution due to defective tumor immune surveillance. Other mechanisms might b...

  17. Volunteering as Students significant social activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Zaitseva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the involvement of students in volunteer activities, examines the organization of students volunteer activities and volunteer projects realization at the university. The potential of volunteerism as an effective mechanism for addressing the urgent social problems is revealed.Theauthorstudiesexperience of volunteer services organization the I.A. Bunin State University in Yelets.

  18. 77 FR 34121 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Revealing the African...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... exhibition ``Revealing the African Presence in Renaissance Europe'' imported from abroad for temporary... exhibit objects at The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, MD, from on or about October 14, 2012, until on or about January 21, 2013; at the Princeton University Art Museum, Princeton, NJ, from on or about February...

  19. Pathophysiological Significance of Dermatan Sulfate Proteoglycans Revealed by Human Genetic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Mizumoto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The indispensable roles of dermatan sulfate-proteoglycans (DS-PGs have been demonstrated in various biological events including construction of the extracellular matrix and cell signaling through interactions with collagen and transforming growth factor-β, respectively. Defects in the core proteins of DS-PGs such as decorin and biglycan cause congenital stromal dystrophy of the cornea, spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, and Meester-Loeys syndrome. Furthermore, mutations in human genes encoding the glycosyltransferases, epimerases, and sulfotransferases responsible for the biosynthesis of DS chains cause connective tissue disorders including Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint laxity characterized by skin hyperextensibility, joint hypermobility, and tissue fragility, and by severe skeletal disorders such as kyphoscoliosis, short trunk, dislocation, and joint laxity. Glycobiological approaches revealed that mutations in DS-biosynthetic enzymes cause reductions in enzymatic activities and in the amount of synthesized DS and also disrupt the formation of collagen bundles. This review focused on the growing number of glycobiological studies on recently reported genetic diseases caused by defects in the biosynthesis of DS and DS-PGs.

  20. Clinical significance of a presystolic wave on Doppler examination of the left ventricular outflow tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Kamal R; Kabirdas, Deepa; Romero-Corral, Abel; Shah, Mahek; Figueredo, Vincent M; Pressman, Gregg S

    2014-11-15

    A presystolic wave (PSW) is commonly seen on Doppler examination of the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT), but is little studied. We conducted a retrospective study to assess the prevalence of the PSW, correlations with various Doppler parameters, and its clinical significance. Two hundred echocardiograms, 100 with ejection fraction (EF) >55% and 100 with EF <45%, were reviewed. Mitral inflow velocities, septal annular velocities, LVOT, and PSW velocities were measured. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE [death, heart failure hospitalization, atrial fibrillation, and stroke]) were compared between those with and without a PSW, in both EF groups. Mean age was 58 ± 15 years; 56% were men and 69% were African-American. PSW prevalence was similar between normal (68%) and reduced EF groups (62%). However, its velocity was less in the low EF group (37 ± 10 vs 48 ± 16 cm/s, p <0.0001). In subjects with normal EF PSW velocity correlated with mitral A velocity (rho = 0.43, p = 0.0003). In subjects with reduced EF the association with A velocity was not significant (rho = 0.22, p = 0.09), but there was a significant association with annular a' velocity (rho = 0.38, p = 0.002). Over a mean follow-up of 1.7 ± 0.3 years, 57 subjects (28%) experienced MACE. Those without a PSW had more MACE (39% vs 23%, p = 0.02); PSW absence remained predictive of MACE after adjustment for multiple variables, especially in patients with reduced EF. In conclusion, PSW is common in the LVOT. Its presence and magnitude are associated with measures of atrial contraction. Its absence is associated with increased rates of adverse events, especially in patients with low EF. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Examining How Overweight Adolescents Process Social Information: The Significance of Friendship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.; Spencer, Sarah V.; Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    The current study examines the social information processing and coping styles (SIP) of overweight and average weight adolescents, and whether the associations between friendship quality and SIP differ for these two groups (N = 156, M age = 12.79). On the basis of height and weight assessments, overweight (n = 70) and average weight (n = 86)…

  2. Australasian disasters of national significance: an epidemiological analysis, 1900-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, David A; Bartley, Bruce; Hibble, Belinda A; Varshney, Kavita

    2015-04-01

    A regional epidemiological analysis of Australasian disasters in the 20th century to present was undertaken to examine trends in disaster epidemiology; to characterise the impacts on civil society through disaster policy, practice and legislation; and to consider future potential limitations in national disaster resilience. A surveillance definition of disaster was developed conforming to the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) criteria (≥10 deaths, ≥100 affected, or declaration of state emergency or appeal for international assistance). The authors then applied economic and legislative inclusion criteria to identify additional disasters of national significance. The surveillance definition yielded 165 disasters in the period, from which 65 emerged as disasters of national significance. There were 38 natural disasters, 22 technological disasters, three offshore terrorist attacks and two domestic mass shootings. Geographic analysis revealed that states with major population centres experienced the vast majority of disasters of national significance. Timeline analysis revealed an increasing incidence of disasters since the 1980s, which peaked in the period 2005-2009. Recent seasonal bushfires and floods have incurred the highest death toll and economic losses in Australasian history. Reactive hazard-specific legislation emerged after all terrorist acts and after most disasters of national significance. Timeline analysis reveals an increasing incidence in natural disasters over the past 15 years, with the most lethal and costly disasters occurring in the past 3 years. Vulnerability to disaster in Australasia appears to be increasing. Reactive legislation is a recurrent feature of Australasian disaster response that suggests legislative shortsightedness and a need for comprehensive all-hazards model legislation in the future. © 2015 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  3. The significance of demonstrating areae gastricae at hypotonic double contrast examination of the stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rienmueller, R.

    1980-01-01

    150 patients were examined by the double contrast-technique in drug-induced hypotonia of the stomach. They were examined gastroscopically and at the same time biopsies were taken. Comparison of histological and radiological results was performed. There was found an agreement of 82% in the performance of areae gastricae and the histological diagnosis of chronic gastritis. (orig.) [de

  4. [Mastitis revealing Churg-Strauss syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannepond, C; Le Fourn, E; de Muret, A; Ouldamer, L; Carmier, D; Machet, L

    2014-01-01

    Churg-Strauss syndrome often involves the skin, and this may sometimes reveal the disease. A 25-year-old woman was referred to a gynaecologist for inflammation of the right breast with breast discharge. Cytological analysis of the liquid showed numerous inflammatory cells, particularly polymorphonuclear eosinophils and neutrophils. Ultrasound examination of the breast was consistent with galactophoritis. CRP was normal, and hypereosinophilia was seen. The patient was subsequently referred to a dermatology unit. Skin examination revealed inflammation of the entire breast, which was painful, warm and erythematous; the border was oedematous with blisters. Necrotic lesions were also present on the thumbs and knees. Skin biopsy of the breast showed a dermal infiltrate with abundant infiltrate of polymorphonuclear eosinophils, including patchy necrosis and intraepidermal vesicles. Histological examination of a biopsy sample from a thumb revealed eosinophilic granuloma and leukocytoclastic vasculitis. The patient was also presenting asthma, pulmonary infiltrates and mononeuropathy at L3, consistent with Churg-Strauss syndrome. Breast involvement in Churg-Strauss syndrome is very rare (only one other case has been reported). This is the first case in which the breast condition revealed the disease. Cutaneous involvement of the breast is, however, also compatible with Wells' cellulitis. The lesions quickly disappeared with 1mg/kg/d oral prednisolone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Does unconscious thought outperform conscious thought on complex decisions? A further examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd J. Thorsteinson

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments examined the benefits of unconscious thought on complex decisions (Dijksterhuis, 2004. Experiment 1 attempted to replicate and extend past research by examining the effect of providing reasons prior to rating the options. Results indicated no significant differences between the conditions. Experiment 2 attempted to replicate the findings of Dijksterhuis, Bos, Nordgren, and van Baaren (2006 and determine if a memory aid could overcome the limitations of conscious thought on complex tasks. Results revealed that a memory aid improved decisions compared to the conscious thought condition. Participants in the unconscious thought condition did not perform significantly better than did participants in the conscious thought condition.

  6. Revealing Rembrandt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Parker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our results emphasised the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt’s portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings.

  7. A genome scan revealed significant associations of growth traits with a major QTL and GHR2 in tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Sun, Fei; Xia, Jun Hong; Li, Jian; Fu, Gui Hong; Lin, Grace; Tu, Rong Jian; Wan, Zi Yi; Quek, Delia; Yue, Gen Hua

    2014-01-01

    Growth is an important trait in animal breeding. However, the genetic effects underpinning fish growth variability are still poorly understood. QTL mapping and analysis of candidate genes are effective methods to address this issue. We conducted a genome-wide QTL analysis for growth in tilapia. A total of 10, 7 and 8 significant QTLs were identified for body weight, total length and standard length at 140 dph, respectively. The majority of these QTLs were sex-specific. One major QTL for growth traits was identified in the sex-determining locus in LG1, explaining 71.7%, 67.2% and 64.9% of the phenotypic variation (PV) of body weight, total length and standard length, respectively. In addition, a candidate gene GHR2 in a QTL was significantly associated with body weight, explaining 13.1% of PV. Real-time qPCR revealed that different genotypes at the GHR2 locus influenced the IGF-1 expression level. The markers located in the major QTL for growth traits could be used in marker-assisted selection of tilapia. The associations between GHR2 variants and growth traits suggest that the GHR2 gene should be an important gene that explains the difference in growth among tilapia species. PMID:25435025

  8. Before, During, and After Examination: Development of Prospective Preschool Teachers’ Mathematics-Related Enjoyment and Self-Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Blömeke, Sigrid; Thiel, Oliver; Jenssen, Lars

    2018-01-01

    This article examines the stability of Norwegian prospective preschool teachers’ enjoyment of mathematics and their mathematics-related self-efficacy before, during, and after a teacher-education examination. In addition, the stability of the two constructs across countries was examined through a comparison with Germany. The data revealed partial stability (technically speaking, metric invariance) of enjoyment but not of self-efficacy. Self-efficacy increased significantly before and after th...

  9. Cytogenetical and morphological features reveal significant differences among Venezuelan and Brazilian samples of Mugil curema (Teleostei: Mugilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Nirchio

    Full Text Available Karyotype of M. curema from the Gulf of Mexico and Brazil have been reported as possessing chromosome complement with 2n=28 and FN=48, whereas specimens from Venezuela has been reported as possessing a diploid number 2n=24 and a conserved FN (48. Although at first sight this variation suggests the presence of a chromosomal intraspecific (interpopulational variability, the possibility that we are dealing with two different species was examined. This work revisit the karyotypes of M. curema from Venezuela and Brazil, including new data on C-banding, and NOR localization, and compares morphologic characteristics of samples from both localities. Thus, besides diploid number, the constitutive heterochromatin distribution and NORs location, mark other differences between M. curema Cytotype 1 (2n=28; FN=48 and Cytotype 2 (2n=24; NF=48. Moreover, morphologic comparison revealed differences in the scale counts and pectoral fin rays: 35 scales in the middle body line and 15 pectoral fin rays in specimens possessing the karyotype 2n=28, compared with 37-39 scales in the middle body line and 17 pectoral fin rays in specimens with the karyotype 2n=24. These differences lead us to suggest that both cytotypes are not related merely to geographic polytipic variations but could correspond to different species.

  10. Significance of thymic scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Hiromi; Oshiumi, Yoshihiko; Nakayama, Chikashi; Morita, Kazunori; Koga, Ichinari

    1978-01-01

    Thymic scintigraphy by 67 Ga-citrate and 75 Se-methionine was done on 6 cases of thymoma, and 5 cases of myasthenia gravis. Scan was positive on 5 of 6 cases of thymoma. All patients with malignant thymoma were positive. Among the 7 cases of myasthenia gravis, scintigrams revealed 2 thymomas and 1 hyperplasia on whom no thymic mass suspected. Thymic scintigraphy is useful examination when dealing with myasthenia gravis. (auth.)

  11. Comparison of metrizamide and iohexol for cisternal myelographic examination of dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puglisi, T.A.; Green, R.W.; Hall, C.L.; Read, W.K.; Green, R.A.; Tangner, C.H.; Mann, F.A.; Hobson, H.

    1986-01-01

    A double-blind study, using metrizamide, iohexol, or Ringer's solution (control) as cisternal myelographic agents, was performed on 25 dogs. Before myelographic examination was done, each dog was subjected to physical, clinical pathologic, and neurologic examinations, as well as examinations by electroencephalography and computerized tomography. These were repeated 24 hours after completion of the myelographic examination. The group of dogs given metrizamide (group II) had a significantly greater occurrence of seizure activity (6 of 10) than did the control dogs (group I; 0 of 5) or dogs given iohexol (group III; 0 of 10; P less than 0.003). In group II, the CSF microprotein concentration was significantly greater 24 hours after myelography was done than were the values in groups I and III (P less than 0.003). Myelograms of the group II dogs (metrizamide) and group III dogs (iohexol) had similar diagnostic qualities. At 24 hours after myelographic examination was done, computerized tomography scan revealed that each dog given metrizamide and iohexol had myelographic contrast material in the brain and cervical spinal cord parenchyma. Seemingly, iohexol has good diagnostic quality, but is less epileptogenic than metrizamide when used in cervical myelographic examinations of dogs

  12. Measuring the significance of pearlescence in real-time bottle forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, J.; Menary, G.; Yan, S.

    2018-05-01

    This work examines the optical properties of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles during the stretch-blow-moulding (SBM) process. PET has a relatively large process window with regards to process parameters, however if the boundaries are pushed, the resultant bottle can become insufficient for consumer requirements. One aspect of this process is the onset of pearlescence in the bottle material, where the bottle becomes opaque due to elevated stress whitening. Experimental trials were carried out using a modified free-stretch-blow machine where the deforming bottle was examined in free air. The strain values of the deformation were measured using digital image correlation (DIC) and the optical properties were measured relative to the initial amorphous PET preform. The results reveal that process parameters can significantly affect pearlescence. The detrimental level of pearlescence may be predicted therefore reducing the probability of poorly formed bottles.

  13. Different continuous cropping spans significantly affect microbial community membership and structure in a vanilla-grown soil as revealed by deep pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wu; Zhao, Qingyun; Zhao, Jun; Xun, Weibing; Li, Rong; Zhang, Ruifu; Wu, Huasong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, soil bacterial and fungal communities across vanilla continuous cropping time-series fields were assessed through deep pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. The results demonstrated that the long-term monoculture of vanilla significantly altered soil microbial communities. Soil fungal diversity index increased with consecutive cropping years, whereas soil bacterial diversity was relatively stable. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity cluster and UniFrac-weighted principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) revealed that monoculture time was the major determinant for fungal community structure, but not for bacterial community structure. The relative abundances (RAs) of the Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Basidiomycota phyla were depleted along the years of vanilla monoculture. Pearson correlations at the phyla level demonstrated that Actinobacteria, Armatimonadetes, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Firmicutes had significant negative correlations with vanilla disease index (DI), while no significant correlation for fungal phyla was observed. In addition, the amount of the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum accumulated with increasing years and was significantly positively correlated with vanilla DI. By contrast, the abundance of beneficial bacteria, including Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus, significantly decreased over time. In sum, soil weakness and vanilla stem wilt disease after long-term continuous cropping can be attributed to the alteration of the soil microbial community membership and structure, i.e., the reduction of the beneficial microbes and the accumulation of the fungal pathogen.

  14. Ultrasound examination in diagnostic of early congenital syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Zavadovskaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A peculiarity of the congenital syphilis of recent years is an increase of the number of cases of latent forms of the disease, marked with osteopathy. With the help of an examination of 50 children with early congenital syphilis, the following ultrasonic signs of a musculoskeletal system lesion were revealed: osteochondritis 90%, osteosclerosis 80%, and periostitis 30%.The comparison of the nature of a musculoskeletal system lesion with serological data of the specific process activity showed that complex manifestations of lesions with periostitis being a component were of the greatest clinical significance.

  15. 78 FR 55772 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Beauty Revealed: Images of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ..., 1965 (79 Stat. 985; 22 U.S.C. 2459), Executive Order 12047 of March 27, 1978, the Foreign Affairs...). The mailing address is U.S. Department of State, SA-5, L/PD, Fifth Floor (Suite 5H03), Washington, DC... Determinations: ``Beauty Revealed: Images of Women in Qing Dynasty Chinese Painting'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby...

  16. Significance of pelvic CT examination for the diagnosis of the distal colonic and rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shindo, Takeshi

    1984-01-01

    Pelvic CT examination was performed in preoperative 40 patients and postoperrative 51 patients of the distal colonic and rectal carcinoma. CT study expect for the decision of the depth of invasion and the detection of lymphnode metastasis, or the location of recurrence. Diagnostic accuracy rate of the depth of invasion was 68.6% in tumors of sigmoid colon, rectosigmoid, and upper rectum, and 78.9% in lower rectum, and anal canal. These rate were superior to those of selective angiographic examination. Diagnostic accuracy rate for lymphnode metastasis was 73.0%. CT examination could define the lymphnode swelling, but could not define if those were metastasis or not. Furthermore, CT-angiography was beneficial for the estimation of the depth of invasion. The differentiation between local recurrent tumor and granulomatous mass in the perineum after abdomino-perineal resection is the most important problem, however, the further studies are necessary to obtain the definite criteria of differential diagnosis. Above results support that CT examination should be used routinely in the distal colonic and rectal cancer patients. (author)

  17. Significance of the S100A4 protein in psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibert, John R; Skov, Lone; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2010-01-01

    the expression and significance of S100A4 in psoriasis. We found significant upregulation of S100A4 in the dermis of psoriatic skin compared with normal skin. This pattern of S100A4 expression differs considerably from that of other S100 proteins, S100A7 and S100A8/9, with predominant expression in the epidermis...... of psoriasis. Furthermore, we revealed a massive release of the biologically active forms of S100A4 from psoriatic skin. Interestingly, we found stabilization (increase) of p53 in the basal layer of epidermis in close proximity to cells expressing S100A4. To examine the possible implication of S100A4...... in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, we analyzed the effect of S100A4 blocking antibodies in a human psoriasis xenograft SCID mouse model and observed a significant reduction of the epidermal thickness and impairment in cell proliferation and dermal vascularization. In conclusion, we showed strong upregulation...

  18. Significant genetic differentiation within the population of the Island of Corsica (France) revealed by y-chromosome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiani, Maria Elena; Varesi, Laurent; Mitchell, Robert John; Vona, Giuseppe

    2009-12-01

    Using 10 Y-chromosome short tandem repeat allelic and haplotypic frequencies, we examined genetic variation within the population of Corsica and its relationship with other Mediterranean populations. The most significant finding is the high level of genetic differentiation within Corsica, with strong evidence of an effective barrier to male-mediated gene flow between the south and the rest of the island. This internal differentiation most probably results from low exogamy among small isolated populations and also from the orography of the island, with a central mountain chain running the length of the island restricting human movement. This physical barrier is reflected not only in present-day intraisland linguistic and genetic differences but also in the relatedness of Corsican regions to other Mediterranean groups. Northwest and Central Corsica are much closer to West Mediterranean populations, whereas South Corsica is closer to Central-North Sardinia and East Mediterranean populations.

  19. Mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    Mathematics Revealed focuses on the principles, processes, operations, and exercises in mathematics.The book first offers information on whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and percents. Discussions focus on measuring length, percent, decimals, numbers as products, addition and subtraction of fractions, mixed numbers and ratios, division of fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The text then examines positive and negative numbers and powers and computation. Topics include division and averages, multiplication, ratios, and measurements, scientific notation and estim

  20. The Significance of Normativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Presskorn-Thygesen, Thomas

    and Weber. It does so by situating Durkheim and Weber in the context of Neo-Kantian philosophy, which prevailed among their contemporaries, and the chapter thereby reveals a series of under-thematised similarities not only with regard to their methodological positions, but also in their conception of social...... of social theory. In pursuing this overall research agenda, the dissertation contributes to a number of specific research literatures. Following two introductory and methodological chapters, Chapter 3 thus critically examines the analysis of normativity suggested in the recent attempts at transforming...... the methods of neo-classical economics into a broader form of social theory. The chapter thereby contributes to the critical discourses, particularly in philosophy of science, that challenge the validity of neo-classical economics and its underlying conception of practical rationality. In examining...

  1. Whole-body computed tomography in trauma patients: optimization of the patient scanning position significantly shortens examination time while maintaining diagnostic image quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hickethier T

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Tilman Hickethier,1,* Kamal Mammadov,1,* Bettina Baeßler,1 Thorsten Lichtenstein,1 Jochen Hinkelbein,2 Lucy Smith,3 Patrick Sven Plum,4 Seung-Hun Chon,4 David Maintz,1 De-Hua Chang1 1Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 2Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 3Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Canada; 4Department of General, Visceral and Cancer Surgery, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The study was conducted to compare examination time and artifact vulnerability of whole-body computed tomographies (wbCTs for trauma patients using conventional or optimized patient positioning. Patients and methods: Examination time was measured in 100 patients scanned with conventional protocol (Group A: arms positioned alongside the body for head and neck imaging and over the head for trunk imaging and 100 patients scanned with optimized protocol (Group B: arms flexed on a chest pillow without repositioning. Additionally, influence of two different scanning protocols on image quality in the most relevant body regions was assessed by two blinded readers. Results: Total wbCT duration was about 35% or 3:46 min shorter in B than in A. Artifacts in aorta (27 vs 6%, liver (40 vs 8% and spleen (27 vs 5% occurred significantly more often in B than in A. No incident of non-diagnostic image quality was reported, and no significant differences for lungs and spine were found. Conclusion: An optimized wbCT positioning protocol for trauma patients allows a significant reduction of examination time while still maintaining diagnostic image quality. Keywords: CT scan, polytrauma, acute care, time requirement, positioning

  2. The Impact of Clinical and Cognitive Variables on Social Functioning in Parkinson's Disease: Patient versus Examiner Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick McNamara

    2010-01-01

    Results. Patients' estimates of their own social functioning were not significantly different from examiners' estimates. The impact of clinical variables on social functioning in PD revealed depression to be the strongest association of social functioning in PD on both the patient and the examiner version of the Social Adaptation Self-Evaluation Scale. Conclusions. PD patients appear to be well aware of their social strengths and weaknesses. Depression and motor symptom severity are significant predictors of both self- and examiner reported social functioning in patients with PD. Assessment and treatment of depression in patients with PD may improve social functioning and overall quality of life.

  3. Discriminant analysis of Social Work’s performance in licensure examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonel R. Alonzo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Many research studies have examined academic factors as predictors of success in licensure examination. The purpose of this descriptive discriminant analysis was to explore possible factors in passing social work licensure examination. Data were examined from academic records of 69 (37 passed and 32 failed Social Work graduates of the University of Mindanao who took Social Work Licensure Examination 2014. This can be used as a basis of Social Work program in planning and administering strategies to improve its national passing rates. Discriminant analysis was employed along five academic factors which are Human Behavior and Social Environment (HBSE, Social Work Programs and Policies (SWPP, Social Work Methods (SWM, Field Practice (FP and Grade Point Average (GPA. The analysis generated three significant predictors accounting for 76.22% of between group variability. The function had a hit ratio of 100%. Structure matrix revealed that three cluster subjects were identified as good factors of passing the social work licensure examination: HBSE, SWPP and SWM had a correlation value of 0.713, 0.768 and 0.840, respectively.

  4. Mastoiditis and facial paralysis as initial manifestations of temporal bone systemic diseases - the significance of the histopathological examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniu, Alma Aurelia; Harabagiu, Oana; Damian, Laura Otilia; Ştefănescu, Eugen HoraŢiu; FănuŢă, Bogdan Marius; Cătană, Andreea; Mogoantă, Carmen Aurelia

    2016-01-01

    Several systemic diseases, including granulomatous and infectious processes, tumors, bone disorders, collagen-vascular and other autoimmune diseases may involve the middle ear and temporal bone. These diseases are difficult to diagnose when symptoms mimic acute otomastoiditis. The present report describes our experience with three such cases initially misdiagnosed. Their predominating symptoms were otological with mastoiditis, hearing loss, and subsequently facial nerve palsy. The cases were considered an emergency and the patients underwent tympanomastoidectomy, under the suspicion of otitis media with cholesteatoma, in order to remove a possible abscess and to decompress the facial nerve. The common features were the presence of severe granulation tissue filling the mastoid cavity and middle ear during surgery, without cholesteatoma. The definitive diagnoses was made by means of biopsy of the granulation tissue from the middle ear, revealing granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly known as Wegener's granulomatosis) in one case, middle ear tuberculosis and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma respectively. After specific associated therapy facial nerve functions improved, and atypical inflammatory states of the ear resolved. As a group, systemic diseases of the middle ear and temporal bone are uncommon, but aggressive lesions. After analyzing these cases and reviewing the literature, we would like to stress upon the importance of microscopic examination of the affected tissue, required for an accurate diagnosis and effective treatment.

  5. [Severe pulmonary embolism revealed by status epilepticus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allou, N; Coolen-Allou, N; Delmas, B; Cordier, C; Allyn, J

    2016-12-01

    High-risk pulmonary embolism (PE) is associated with high mortality rate (>50%). In some cases, diagnosis of PE remains a challenge with atypical presentations like in this case report with a PE revealed by status epilepticus. We report the case of a 40-year-old man without prior disease, hospitalized in ICU for status epilepticus. All paraclinical examinations at admission did not show any significant abnormalities (laboratory tests, cardiologic and neurological investigations). On day 1, he presented a sudden circulatory collapse and echocardiography showed right intra-auricular thrombus. He was treated by thrombolysis and arteriovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. After stabilization, computed tomography showed severe bilateral PE. He developed multi-organ failure and died 4days after admission. Pulmonary embolism revealed by status epilepticus has rarely been reported and is associated with poor prognosis. Physicians should be aware and think of the possibility of PE in patients with status epilepticus without any history or risk factors of seizure and normal neurological investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Family-based Association Analyses of Imputed Genotypes Reveal Genome-Wide Significant Association of Alzheimer’s disease with OSBPL6, PTPRG and PDCL3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Christine; Hooli, Basavaraj V.; Mullin, Kristina; Liu, Tian; Roehr, Johannes T; Mattheisen, Manuel; Parrado, Antonio R.; Bertram, Lars; Lange, Christoph; Tanzi, Rudolph E.

    2015-01-01

    The genetic basis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is complex and heterogeneous. Over 200 highly penetrant pathogenic variants in the genes APP, PSEN1 and PSEN2 cause a subset of early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (EOFAD). On the other hand, susceptibility to late-onset forms of AD (LOAD) is indisputably associated to the ε4 allele in the gene APOE, and more recently to variants in more than two-dozen additional genes identified in the large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and meta-analyses reports. Taken together however, although the heritability in AD is estimated to be as high as 80%, a large proportion of the underlying genetic factors still remain to be elucidated. In this study we performed a systematic family-based genome-wide association and meta-analysis on close to 15 million imputed variants from three large collections of AD families (~3,500 subjects from 1,070 families). Using a multivariate phenotype combining affection status and onset age, meta-analysis of the association results revealed three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that achieved genome-wide significance for association with AD risk: rs7609954 in the gene PTPRG (P-value = 3.98·10−08), rs1347297 in the gene OSBPL6 (P-value = 4.53·10−08), and rs1513625 near PDCL3 (P-value = 4.28·10−08). In addition, rs72953347 in OSBPL6 (P-value = 6.36·10−07) and two SNPs in the gene CDKAL1 showed marginally significant association with LOAD (rs10456232, P-value: 4.76·10−07; rs62400067, P-value: 3.54·10−07). In summary, family-based GWAS meta-analysis of imputed SNPs revealed novel genomic variants in (or near) PTPRG, OSBPL6, and PDCL3 that influence risk for AD with genome-wide significance. PMID:26830138

  7. The Relationship between Racial Identity and Perceived Significance of the Election of President Barack Obama among African American Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Marisa; Smith-Bynum, Mia

    2016-01-01

    African American women's racial identity is a major determinant for how they interpret the world around them, yet there is little research examining how specific aspects of racial identity are linked with attitudes about an event that has been highly significant for African-Americans: the election of President Barack Obama. The current study examined the relationship between African American mothers' racial identity and their perceived significance of the election of President Barack Obama as an indicator of reduced systemic and actual racism for African Americans, using a sample of 110 African American mothers residing in a Northeastern metropolitan area. Results revealed that racial centrality and assimilation positively predicted perceived significance of President Obama's election for diminishing racism. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  8. 'Twisted tape sign': Its significance in recurrent sigmoid volvulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopal, K.; Lim, Y.; Banerjee, B.

    2005-01-01

    Aim: Sigmoid volvulus is a common cause of intestinal obstruction in the elderly. Mild attacks of sigmoid volvulus may be more difficult to diagnose due to the lack of severity of symptoms which may resolve spontaneously only to recur after an interval. This study was a review of patients to assess the incidence of the 'twisted tape sign' and to evaluate the significance of its presence in cases of recurrent sigmoid volvulus. Methods and materials: A retrospective study over eight years revealed six cases of surgically confirmed recurrent sigmoid volvulus. Case records and barium enemas of all patients were reviewed. Results: Six patients were identified, including four men and two women, with a median age of 56 years. Diagnostic difficulties were encountered in four (67%) patients with a delay ranging between 10 and 37 months with a mean 17.3 months. Twisted tape sign was confirmed on all barium examinations retrospectively. Conclusion: Recognition of twisted tape sign on barium enema examination along with an appropriate clinical history would suggest a diagnosis of recurrent sigmoid volvulus

  9. [Biomechanical significance of the acetabular roof and its reaction to mechanical injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domazet, N; Starović, D; Nedeljković, R

    1999-01-01

    The introduction of morphometry into the quantitative analysis of the bone system and functional adaptation of acetabulum to mechanical damages and injuries enabled a relatively simple and acceptable examination of morphological acetabular changes in patients with damaged hip joints. Measurements of the depth and form of acetabulum can be done by radiological methods, computerized tomography and ultrasound (1-9). The aim of the study was to obtain data on the behaviour of acetabular roof, the so-called "eyebrow", by morphometric analyses during different mechanical injuries. Clinical studies of the effect of different loads on acetabular roof were carried out in 741 patients. Radiographic findings of 400 men and 341 women were analysed. The control group was composed of 148 patients with normal hip joints. Average age of the patients was 54.7 years and that of control subjects 52.0 years. Data processing was done for all examined patients. On the basis of our measurements the average size of female "eyebrow" ranged from 24.8 mm to 31.5 mm with standard deviation of 0.93 and in men from 29.4 mm to 40.3 mm with standard deviation of 1.54. The average size in the whole population was 32.1 mm with standard deviation of 15.61. Statistical analyses revealed high correlation coefficients between the age and "eyebrow" size in men (r = 0.124; p 0.05). The examination of the size of collodiaphysial angle and length of "eyebrow" revealed that "eyebrow" length was in inverse proportion to the size of collodiaphysial angle (r = 0.113; p 0.05) and female (r = 0.005; p > 0.05) patients. The "eyebrow" length was proportionally dependent on the size of the shortened extremity in all examined subjects. This dependence was statistically significant both in female (r = 0.208; p < 0.05) and male (r = 0.193; p < 0.05) patients. The study revealed that fossa acetabuli was forward and downward laterally directed. The size, form and cross-section of acetabulum changed during different

  10. Cancer patients undertaking bone scans in a department of Nuclear Medicine have significant stress related to the examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sioka, C.; Manetou, M.; Dimakopoulos, N.; Christidi, S.; Kouraklis, G.

    2005-01-01

    cohort of 213 patients that underwent mammography to screen for breast cancer found that although the overall anxiety level was high in approximately 30% in patients prior to the examination, dropped to 9% of patients who did not have cancer 4 weeks later, but remained high in all patients with diagnosis of cancer. Thus, it appeared that although a large number of patients undergoing mammography had transient anxiety the psychological distress continued only in patients with the cancer diagnosis. Another study in a similar female population receiving a mammogram screening found a significant increase in anxiety following notification of a questionable screening result that necessitated additional testing. In summary our study showed that the vast majority of cancer patients that underwent a simple test such as a bone scan had intense psychological stress. Better patient education about the low risk of side effects from the examination and continuous psychological support of the cancer patient should be able to reduce this anxiety

  11. Emotional stability, anxiety, and natural killer activity under examination stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borella, P; Bargellini, A; Rovesti, S; Pinelli, M; Vivoli, R; Solfrini, V; Vivoli, G

    1999-08-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the relation between a stable personality trait, a mood state and immune response to an examination stress. A self-reported measure of emotional stability (BFQ-ES scale) was obtained in a sample (n = 39) randomly selected from 277 cadets; this personality trait was also investigated by completing a neuroticism scale (Eysenck personality inventory) and a trait-anxiety scale (STAI). Natural killer (NK) cell activity was measured at baseline, long before the examination time and the examination day. The state-anxiety scale evaluated the response to the stressful stimulus. Taking subjects all together, the academic task did not result in significant modification over baseline in NK cell activity. Subjects were then divided into three groups based on emotional stability and state-anxiety scores: high emotional stability/low anxiety, medium, and low emotional stability/high anxiety. Examination stress induced significant increases in NK cell activity in the high emotional stability/low anxiety group, no effect in the medium group, and significant decreases in the low emotional stability/high anxiety group. The repeated-measure ANOVA revealed a significant interaction of group x period (baseline vs. examination) for both lytic units and percent cytolysis. The results did not change after introducing coffee and smoking habits as covariates. Our findings suggest that the state-anxiety acts in concert with a stable personality trait to modulate NK response in healthy subjects exposed to a psychological naturalistic stress. The relation between anxiety and poor immune control has been already described, whereas the ability of emotional stability to associate with an immunoenhancement has not yet reported. The peculiarity of our population, a very homogeneous and healthy group for life style and habits, can have highlighted the role of emotional stability, and may account for the difference with other studies.

  12. Examining the Associations Among Home-School Dissonance, Amotivation, and Classroom Disruptive Behavior for Urban High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Wright, Lynda; Tyler, Kenneth M; Graves, Scott L; Thomas, Deneia; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Mulder, Shambra

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the association among home-school dissonance, amotivation, and classroom disruptive behavior among 309 high school juniors and seniors at two urban high schools in the Southern region of the country. Students completed two subscales of the Patterns of Learning Activities Scales (PALS) and one subscale of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS). ANCOVA analyses revealed significant differences in classroom disruptive behaviors for the gender independent variable. Controlling for gender in the multiple hierarchical regression analyses, it was revealed that home-school dissonance significantly predicted both amotivation and classroom disruptive behavior. In addition, a Sobel mediation analysis showed that amotivation was a significant mediator of the association between home-school dissonance and classroom disruptive behavior. Findings and limitations are discussed.

  13. Examining the Associations Among Home–School Dissonance, Amotivation, and Classroom Disruptive Behavior for Urban High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Wright, Lynda; Tyler, Kenneth M.; Graves, Scott L.; Thomas, Deneia; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Mulder, Shambra

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the association among home–school dissonance, amotivation, and classroom disruptive behavior among 309 high school juniors and seniors at two urban high schools in the Southern region of the country. Students completed two subscales of the Patterns of Learning Activities Scales (PALS) and one subscale of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS). ANCOVA analyses revealed significant differences in classroom disruptive behaviors for the gender independent variable. Controlling for gender in the multiple hierarchical regression analyses, it was revealed that home–school dissonance significantly predicted both amotivation and classroom disruptive behavior. In addition, a Sobel mediation analysis showed that amotivation was a significant mediator of the association between home–school dissonance and classroom disruptive behavior. Findings and limitations are discussed. PMID:27081213

  14. An examination of the effects of service brand dimensions on customer satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios; Chrysochou, Polymeros

    The present study intends to examine how consumers evaluate service brands. Building on past literature, several causal relationships are examined between key brand dimensions and consumer satisfaction using the airline industry as an exemplary branded service category. Results reveal price, core...... service, feelings and self-image congruence to be the most important dimensions of a service brand which, in turn, impact significantly on consumer satisfaction. Except price, these attributes are intangible components of the service brand that can only be assessed by the customer during the use stage...... of decision-making. Besides these brand components, controlled communications are also found to strongly influence customers’ overall dispositions toward the brand....

  15. Predicting everyday functional abilities of dementia patients with the Mini-Mental State Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razani, Jill; Wong, Jennifer T; Dafaeeboini, Natalia; Edwards-Lee, Terri; Lu, Po; Alessi, Cathy; Josephson, Karen

    2009-03-01

    The Mini-Mental State Examination is a widely used cognitive screening measure. The purpose of the present study was to assess how 5 specific clusters of Mini-Mental State Examination items (ie, subscores) correlate with and predict specific areas of daily functioning in dementia patients, 61 patients with varied forms of dementia were administered the Mini-Mental State Examination and an observation-based daily functional test (the Direct Assessment of Functional Status). The results revealed that the orientation and attention subscores of the Mini-Mental State Examination correlated most significantly with most functional domains. The Mini-Mental State Examination language items correlated with all but the shopping and time orientation tasks, while the Mini-Mental State Examination recall items correlated with the Direct Assessment of Functional Status time orientation and shopping tasks. Stepwise regression analyses found that among the Mini-Mental State Examination subscores, orientation was the single, best independent predictor of daily functioning.

  16. The distribution of FDG at PET examinations constitutes a relative mechanism: significant effects at activity quantification in patients with a high muscular uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindholm, Henry; Johansson, Ove; Jacobsson, Hans; Jonsson, Cathrine

    2012-01-01

    At 18 F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) examinations a high tracer uptake of the skeletal muscles is sometimes encountered which can lead to reduced uptake in pathological lesions. This was evaluated in retrospect in patients being recalled for a repeat examination after reducing the muscular uptake. Ten patients with increased muscular tracer uptake were examined with FDG PET/CT on two occasions with a mean of 6 days. All patients showed at least one pathological lesion with increased tracer uptake. The muscular uptake was reduced at the second examination by informing the patient to refrain from physical activity together with pretreatment with diazepam. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ) of the pathological lesion and SUV mean of certain skeletal muscles, liver, spleen, lungs, blood and certain bone marrow portions were calculated. In all patients, the muscular uptake was reduced to a normal level at visual evaluation as well as at comparison of SUVs with 25 consecutive clinical patients exhibiting a normal FDG distribution (p max increased from 2.4 to 3.7 (54 %) between the examinations (p max to the activity of any of the reference tissues/organs there was no significant difference between the studies. The distribution of FDG constitutes a relative mechanism. This must be especially considered at longitudinal examinations in the same patient at therapy evaluations. In examinations with a somehow distorted general distribution of the activity, it may be more relevant to relate the lesion activity to a reference tissue/organ than relying on SUV assessments. (orig.)

  17. Post-irradiation examination of Oconee 1 fuel: end-of-cycle 2 nondestructive test phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    Standard B and W Mark B (15 x 15) pressurized water reactor fuel assemblies were nondestructively examined at the end of the second cycle of Oconee 1 reactor operation. Burnups of the 16 fuel assemblies examined ranged from 13,100 to 20,000 MWd/mtU. The examinations were conducted in the Oconee 1 and 2 spent fuel storage pool using the installed underwater test equipment. Data obtained included fuel rod and fuel assembly dimensions, water channel spacings, holddown spring forces, fuel rod crud characteristics, and fuel column axial gap and stack lengths. Visual examinations revealed no evidence of significant rod bowing, cladding deformation, cocked grids, or rod defects. The results, summarized in this report, indicate that the assemblies performed well through two cycles of reactor operation

  18. How significant is the ‘significant other’? Associations between significant others’ health behaviors and attitudes and young adults’ health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berge Jerica M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Having a significant other has been shown to be protective against physical and psychological health conditions for adults. Less is known about the period of emerging young adulthood and associations between significant others’ weight and weight-related health behaviors (e.g. healthy dietary intake, the frequency of physical activity, weight status. This study examined the association between significant others’ health attitudes and behaviors regarding eating and physical activity and young adults’ weight status, dietary intake, and physical activity. Methods This study uses data from Project EAT-III, a population-based cohort study with emerging young adults from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds (n = 1212. Logistic regression models examining cross-sectional associations, adjusted for sociodemographics and health behaviors five years earlier, were used to estimate predicted probabilities and calculate prevalence differences. Results Young adult women whose significant others had health promoting attitudes/behaviors were significantly less likely to be overweight/obese and were more likely to eat ≥ 5 fruits/vegetables per day and engage in ≥ 3.5 hours/week of physical activity, compared to women whose significant others did not have health promoting behaviors/attitudes. Young adult men whose significant other had health promoting behaviors/attitudes were more likely to engage in ≥ 3.5 hours/week of physical activity compared to men whose significant others did not have health promoting behaviors/attitudes. Conclusions Findings suggest the protective nature of the significant other with regard to weight-related health behaviors of young adults, particularly for young adult women. Obesity prevention efforts should consider the importance of including the significant other in intervention efforts with young adult women and potentially men.

  19. An examination of the identity development of African American undergraduate engineering students attending an HBCU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kenneth J.

    This study examined the identity development for a sample of 90 African American undergraduate engineering male and female students attending an HBCU. Using the Student Development Task and Lifestyle Assessment (SDTLA), which is based on Chickering and Reisser's identity development theory, differences in identity development were examined with respect to gender, academic classification, and grade point average. Previous research has shown the need to look beyond academic factors to understand and influence the persistence of African American engineering students. Non-cognitive factors, including identity development have proven to be influential in predicting persistence, especially for African American engineering students. Results from the analysis revealed significant means for academic classification and five of the dependent variables to include career planning peer relations, emotional autonomy, educational involvement, and establishing and clarifying purpose. Post hoc analysis confirmed significant differences for four of those dependent variables. However, the analysis failed to confirm statistical significant differences in peer relations due to academic classification. The significant decline in the mean scores for development in these four areas, as students progressed from sophomore to senior year revealed strong implications for the need to provide programming and guidance for those students. Institutions of higher education should provide more attention to the non-cognitive areas of development as a means of understanding identity development and working toward creating support systems for students.

  20. EXAMINING FACTORS IN FLUENCING CUSTOMER SATISFACTION AND TRUST TOWARDS VENDORS ON THE MOBILE INTERNET

    OpenAIRE

    Norazah Mohd Suki

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to examine factors influencing customer satisfaction and trust towards vendors on the mobile Internet. Data were analysed among 200 respondents who completed the questionnaire by employing multiple regression analysis. Results revealed that customer satisfaction towards the vendor was significantly influenced by ease-of-use, responsiveness, and brand image. Meanwhile, customer trust towards the vendor in m-commerce is affected by responsiveness, brand image and...

  1. Revealing teacher agendas: An examination of teacher motivations and strategies for conducting museum fieldtrips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiel, James Francis

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify the motivations and strategies that comprise teachers' agendas when leading a student fieldtrip to a museum or similar site. Two data collection methods were used. A survey regarding field trip experiences and rationale was mailed to upper elementary teachers, resulting in a variety of open-ended responses that were analyzed and coded to identify recurring themes. In addition, ten teachers accompanying students during a school trip to a natural history museum were interviewed and observed. Data collected from these in-depth studies were used to verify findings from the survey instrument and to refine and enhance the definitions and descriptions of actual practice. Eight fieldtrip motivations were identified including to connection with the classroom curriculum, to provide a general learning experience, to encourage lifelong learning, to enhance interest and motivation, to provide exposure to new experiences, to provide a change in setting or routine, for enjoyment, and to meet school expectations. Fieldtrip strategies used by teachers could be divided into pre-visit, during-visit or post-visit strategies. The commonly reported pre-visit strategies included familiarization and supervision preparation. During-visit strategies focused on structured student engagement strategies (such as worksheets or guided tours) and unstructured strategies (such as interpretation, connecting, facilitation, label-reading, advance organizers and free exploration), as well as event documentation and supervision tactics (such as keeping track and refocusing). Post-visit strategies included review and discussion, documentation , and assessment. Comparison of stated motivations and observed strategies revealed few links. However, results indicated that connecting to the classroom curriculum was an important consideration, even though teachers had different interpretations of what this meant. Providing hands-on experiences was also critical

  2. Estimation of clinically significant prostate volumes by digital rectal examination: a comparative prospective study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ahmad, Sarfraz

    2011-12-01

    Reliable quantification of prostate volume is important to correctly select patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) most likely to benefit from medical therapy [e.g. 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs)] and in selecting appropriate surgical approach. We aim to determine the reliability of digital rectal examination (DRE) in estimation of prostate volume which may be helpful in patient selection for 5-ARIs therapy.

  3. Dynamic metabolome profiling reveals significant metabolic changes during grain development of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Shoumin; Dong, Kun; Deng, Xiong; Zhou, Jiaxing; Xu, Xuexin; Han, Caixia; Zhang, Wenying; Xu, Yanhao; Wang, Zhimin; Yan, Yueming

    2016-08-01

    Metabolites in wheat grains greatly influence nutritional values. Wheat provides proteins, minerals, B-group vitamins and dietary fiber to humans. These metabolites are important to human health. However, the metabolome of the grain during the development of bread wheat has not been studied so far. In this work the first dynamic metabolome of the developing grain of the elite Chinese bread wheat cultivar Zhongmai 175 was analyzed, using non-targeted gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for metabolite profiling. In total, 74 metabolites were identified over the grain developmental stages. Metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis revealed that the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, organic acids, amines and lipids was interrelated. An integrated metabolic map revealed a distinct regulatory profile. The results provide information that can be used by metabolic engineers and molecular breeders to improve wheat grain quality. The present metabolome approach identified dynamic changes in metabolite levels, and correlations among such levels, in developing seeds. The comprehensive metabolic map may be useful when breeding programs seek to improve grain quality. The work highlights the utility of GC/MS-based metabolomics, in conjunction with univariate and multivariate data analysis, when it is sought to understand metabolic changes in developing seeds. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. The Effects of Music during a Physical Examination Skills Practice: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemiou, Elpida; Gilbert, Gregory E; Sithole, Fortune; Koster, Liza S

    2017-09-27

    Some veterinary students experience elevated stress, anxiety, and depression resulting in disease and psychological changes. Elevated arousal, negative moods, and lack of interest can negatively affect performance and learning. Psychoacoustic music promotes calming effects using simple and slow piano sounds and can positively impact well-being and functioning. This pilot study assessed the effects of music on blood pressure, pulse, arousal, and mood during a canine physical examination laboratory. In an AB/BA crossover study, 17 students were randomly allocated to practice physical examination skills while listening to Through a Dog's Ear, Volume 1 . Psychological and physiologic data were collected. Nonparametric methods were used to test for significant differences in psychological and physiologic data and a linear mixed models approach was used to test for physiological differences. There were no significant baseline differences between the music and no music groups for DASS-21 depression, anxiety, or stress scores; however, there were significant time differences between pretest and posttest on arousal and mood as measured by the Profile of Mood Sates (POMS) Depression, Fatigue-Inertia, and Tension Anxiety subscales. Linear mixed models revealed no significant treatment effect on the pulse and diastolic blood pressure; however, there was a significant systolic blood pressure treatment effect. Future indications include repeating the study with a larger sample to examine longitudinal psychological and physiological benefits.

  5. The Effects of Music during a Physical Examination Skills Practice: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elpida Artemiou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Some veterinary students experience elevated stress, anxiety, and depression resulting in disease and psychological changes. Elevated arousal, negative moods, and lack of interest can negatively affect performance and learning. Psychoacoustic music promotes calming effects using simple and slow piano sounds and can positively impact well-being and functioning. This pilot study assessed the effects of music on blood pressure, pulse, arousal, and mood during a canine physical examination laboratory. In an AB/BA crossover study, 17 students were randomly allocated to practice physical examination skills while listening to Through a Dog’s Ear, Volume 1. Psychological and physiologic data were collected. Nonparametric methods were used to test for significant differences in psychological and physiologic data and a linear mixed models approach was used to test for physiological differences. There were no significant baseline differences between the music and no music groups for DASS-21 depression, anxiety, or stress scores; however, there were significant time differences between pretest and posttest on arousal and mood as measured by the Profile of Mood Sates (POMS Depression, Fatigue–Inertia, and Tension Anxiety subscales. Linear mixed models revealed no significant treatment effect on the pulse and diastolic blood pressure; however, there was a significant systolic blood pressure treatment effect. Future indications include repeating the study with a larger sample to examine longitudinal psychological and physiological benefits.

  6. Neonatal doses from X ray examinations by birth weight in a neonatal intensive care unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, K.; Akahane, K.; Aota, T.; Hada, M.; Takano, Y.; Kai, M.; Kusama, T

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and type of X ray examinations performed on neonates classified according to their birth weight in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). In this study, the radiology records of 2408 neonates who were admitted to the NICU of Oita Prefectural Hospital between January 1994 and September 1999 were investigated. This study revealed that the neonates with earlier gestational ages and lower birth weights required longer NICU stays and more frequent X ray examinations made using a mobile X ray unit. The average number of X ray examinations performed on neonates of less than 750 g birth weight was 26 films per neonate. In regard to computed tomography and fluoroscopy, no significant relationship was found between the birth weight and number of X rays. This study revealed that the entrance-surface dose per neonate was dependent upon the birth weight, while the maximum dose was not dependent upon the birth weight. The average neonatal dose in the NICU was predominantly from computed tomography and fluoroscopy. The individual dose varied widely among neonates. (author)

  7. Neonatal doses from X ray examinations by birth weight in a neonatal intensive care unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, K.; Akahane, K.; Aota, T.; Hada, M.; Takano, Y.; Kai, M.; Kusama, T.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and type of X ray examinations performed on neonates classified according to their birth weight in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). In this study, the radiology records of 2408 neonates who were admitted to the NICU of Oita Prefectural Hospital between January 1994 and September 1999 were investigated. This study revealed that the neonates with earlier gestational ages and lower birth weights required longer NICU stays and more frequent X ray examinations made using a mobile X ray unit. The average number of X ray examinations performed on neonates of less than 750 g birth weight was 26 films per neonate. In regard to computed tomography and fluoroscopy, no significant relationship was found between the birth weight and number of X rays. This study revealed that the entrance-surface dose per neonate was dependent upon the birth weight, while the maximum dose was not dependent upon the birth weight. The average neonatal dose in the NICU was predominantly from computed tomography and fluoroscopy. The individual dose varied widely among neonates. (author)

  8. Urine Proteomics Revealed a Significant Correlation Between Urine-Fibronectin Abundance and Estimated-GFR Decline in Patients with Bardet-Biedl Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Caterino

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:/Aims: Renal disease is a common cause of morbidity in patients with Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS, however the severity of kidney dysfunction is highly variable. To date, there is little information on the pathogenesis, the risk and predictor factors for poor renal outcome in this setting. The present study aims to analyze the spectrum of urinary proteins in BBS patients, in order to potentially identify 1 disease-specific proteomic profiles that may differentiate the patients from normal subjects; 2 urinary markers of renal dysfunction. Methods: Fourteen individuals (7 males and 7 females with a clinical diagnosis of BBS have been selected in this study. A pool of 10 aged-matched males and 10 aged-matched females have been used as controls for proteomic analysis. The glomerular filtration rate (eGFR has been estimated using the CKD-EPI formula. Variability of eGFR has been retrospectively assessed calculating average annual eGFR decline (ΔeGFR in a mean follow-up period of 4 years (3-7. Results: 42 proteins were significantly over- or under-represented in BBS patients compared with controls; the majority of these proteins are involved in fibrosis, cell adhesion and extracellular matrix organization. Statistic studies revealed a significant correlation between urine fibronectin (u-FN (r2=0.28; p<0.05, CD44 antigen (r2 =0.35; p<0.03 and lysosomal alfa glucosidase ( r20.27; p<0.05 abundance with the eGFR. In addition, u-FN (r2 =0.2389; p<0.05 was significantly correlated with ΔeGFR. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that urine proteome of BBS patients differs from that of normal subjects; in addition, kidney dysfunction correlated with urine abundance of known markers of renal fibrosis.

  9. Independent component analysis reveals new and biologically significant structures in micro array data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerla Srinivas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An alternative to standard approaches to uncover biologically meaningful structures in micro array data is to treat the data as a blind source separation (BSS problem. BSS attempts to separate a mixture of signals into their different sources and refers to the problem of recovering signals from several observed linear mixtures. In the context of micro array data, "sources" may correspond to specific cellular responses or to co-regulated genes. Results We applied independent component analysis (ICA to three different microarray data sets; two tumor data sets and one time series experiment. To obtain reliable components we used iterated ICA to estimate component centrotypes. We found that many of the low ranking components indeed may show a strong biological coherence and hence be of biological significance. Generally ICA achieved a higher resolution when compared with results based on correlated expression and a larger number of gene clusters with significantly enriched for gene ontology (GO categories. In addition, components characteristic for molecular subtypes and for tumors with specific chromosomal translocations were identified. ICA also identified more than one gene clusters significant for the same GO categories and hence disclosed a higher level of biological heterogeneity, even within coherent groups of genes. Conclusion Although the ICA approach primarily detects hidden variables, these surfaced as highly correlated genes in time series data and in one instance in the tumor data. This further strengthens the biological relevance of latent variables detected by ICA.

  10. Laboratory simulation reveals significant impacts of ocean acidification on microbial community composition and host-pathogen interactions between the blood clam and Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Shanjie; Liu, Saixi; Su, Wenhao; Shi, Wei; Xiao, Guoqiang; Yan, Maocang; Liu, Guangxu

    2017-12-01

    It has been suggested that climate change may promote the outbreaks of diseases in the sea through altering the host susceptibility, the pathogen virulence, and the host-pathogen interaction. However, the impacts of ocean acidification (OA) on the pathogen components of bacterial community and the host-pathogen interaction of marine bivalves are still poorly understood. Therefore, 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing and host-pathogen interaction analysis between blood clam (Tegillarca granosa) and Vibrio harveyi were conducted in the present study to gain a better understanding of the ecological impacts of ocean acidification. The results obtained revealed a significant impact of ocean acidification on the composition of microbial community at laboratory scale. Notably, the abundance of Vibrio, a major group of pathogens to many marine organisms, was significantly increased under ocean acidification condition. In addition, the survival rate and haemolytic activity of V. harveyi were significantly higher in the presence of haemolymph of OA treated T. granosa, indicating a compromised immunity of the clam and enhanced virulence of V. harveyi under future ocean acidification scenarios. Conclusively, the results obtained in this study suggest that future ocean acidification may increase the risk of Vibrio pathogen infection for marine bivalve species, such as blood clams. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Examining the impact of child parent relationship therapy (CPRT) on family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornett, Nick; Bratton, Sue C

    2014-07-01

    Research supports that child parent relationship therapy (CPRT), a filial therapy approach, has strong effects on participating parents and children. Some speculate that filial therapy improves the family system; however, minimal research exists to support this claim. Using a single-case design, researchers examined CPRT's impact on the functioning of 8 families. Results revealed that 6 families experienced statistically significant improvements in targeted areas of family functioning. Results from self-reported measures indicated that 7 families improved in family satisfaction, 4 in cohesion, 3 in communication, and 1 in flexibility. Observational measures also revealed improvements: 5 families in flexibility, 4 families in cohesion, and 4 families in communication. The results support that the benefits of CPRT may extend to the family system. © 2013 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  12. The relationship between clinician turnover and adolescent treatment outcomes: An examination from the client perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Bryan R.; Funk, Rodney R.; Hunter, Brooke D.

    2012-01-01

    The turnover of substance use disorder (SUD) treatment staff has been assumed to adversely impact treatment effectiveness, yet only limited research has empirically examined this assumption. Representing an extension of prior organizational-level analyses of the impact of staff turnover on client outcomes, this study examined the impact of SUD clinician turnover on adolescent treatment outcomes using a client perspective. Multilevel regression analysis did reveal that relative to those adolescents who did not experience clinician turnover, adolescents who experienced both direct and indirect clinician turnover reported a significantly higher percentage of days using alcohol or drugs at 6-month follow-up. However, clinician turnover was not found to have significant associations (negative or positive) with the other five treatment outcomes examined (e.g., substance-related problems, involvement in illegal activity). Thus, consistent with our prior findings, the current study provides additional evidence that turnover of SUD clinicians is not necessarily associated with adverse treatment outcomes. PMID:23083980

  13. Pubertal status, interaction with significant others, and self-esteem of adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacković-Grgin, K; Dekovíc, M; Opacić, G

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between pubertal status, the quality of interactions with significant others, and the self-esteem of adolescent girls. The model which was tested, hypothesized that pubertal status affects self-esteem through girls' interactions with their parents and friends. Pubertal status was operationalized as the number of months between occurrence of the first menstrual periods and time of the investigation. The measure of self-esteem was the shortened form of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Analyses revealed that girls who begun menstruating six months before the investigation obtained higher scores on the measure of self-esteem than did girls who had been menstruating 13 months or more. The best predictor of self-esteem, however, was the quality of interaction with their mothers. The results support the theoretical view that stresses the importance of interaction with significant others for the development of self-esteem.

  14. 'Twisted tape sign': Its significance in recurrent sigmoid volvulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopal, K. [Tameside and Glossop Acute Services NHS Trust, Fountain Street, Ashton-under-Lyne OL6 9RW (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: karthikgopal73@yahoo.co.uk; Lim, Y. [Tameside and Glossop Acute Services NHS Trust, Fountain Street, Ashton-under-Lyne OL6 9RW (United Kingdom); Banerjee, B. [Tameside and Glossop Acute Services NHS Trust, Fountain Street, Ashton-under-Lyne OL6 9RW (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-01

    Aim: Sigmoid volvulus is a common cause of intestinal obstruction in the elderly. Mild attacks of sigmoid volvulus may be more difficult to diagnose due to the lack of severity of symptoms which may resolve spontaneously only to recur after an interval. This study was a review of patients to assess the incidence of the 'twisted tape sign' and to evaluate the significance of its presence in cases of recurrent sigmoid volvulus. Methods and materials: A retrospective study over eight years revealed six cases of surgically confirmed recurrent sigmoid volvulus. Case records and barium enemas of all patients were reviewed. Results: Six patients were identified, including four men and two women, with a median age of 56 years. Diagnostic difficulties were encountered in four (67%) patients with a delay ranging between 10 and 37 months with a mean 17.3 months. Twisted tape sign was confirmed on all barium examinations retrospectively. Conclusion: Recognition of twisted tape sign on barium enema examination along with an appropriate clinical history would suggest a diagnosis of recurrent sigmoid volvulus.

  15. INTER-EXAMINER VARIABILITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To establish whether inter-examiner variability is still a significant factor for the undergraduate orthopaedic clinical ... D. The scores for each student were tabulated and the range, mean, and pass rate determined for each of the examiners. ... has not the heart to reject the man”, consistently gave higher scores (1).

  16. Examine Precipitation Extremes in Terms of Storm Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, P.; Yu, Z.; Chen, L.; Gautam, M. R.; Acharya, K.

    2017-12-01

    The increasing potential of the extreme precipitation is of significant societal concern. Changes in precipitation extremes have been mostly examined using extreme precipitation indices or Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) analyses, which often fail to reveal the characteristics of an integrated precipitation event. In this study, we will examine the precipitation extremes in terms of storm properties including storm duration, storm intensity, total storm precipitation, and within storm pattern. Single storm event will be identified and storm properties will be determined based on the hourly precipitation time series in the selected locations in southwest United States. Three types of extreme precipitation event will be recognized using the criteria as (1) longest storm duration; (2) Highest storm intensity; and (3) largest total precipitation over a storm. The trend and variation of extreme precipitation events will be discussed for each criterion. Based on the comparisons of the characteristics of extreme precipitation events identified using different criteria, we will provide guidelines for choosing proper criteria for extreme precipitation analysis in specific location.

  17. Does Changing Examiner Stations During UK Postgraduate Surgery Objective Structured Clinical Examinations Influence Examination Reliability and Candidates' Scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Peter A; Croke, David T; Reed, Malcolm; Smith, Lee; Munro, Euan; Foulkes, John; Arnett, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE) are widely used for summative assessment in surgery. Despite standardizing these as much as possible, variation, including examiner scoring, can occur which may affect reliability. In study of a high-stakes UK postgraduate surgical OSCE, we investigated whether examiners changing stations once during a long examining day affected marking, reliability, and overall candidates' scores compared with examiners who examined the same scenario all day. An observational study of 18,262 examiner-candidate interactions from the UK Membership of the Royal College of Surgeons examination was carried at 3 Surgical Colleges across the United Kingdom. Scores between examiners were compared using analysis of variance. Examination reliability was assessed with Cronbach's alpha, and the comparative distribution of total candidates' scores for each day was evaluated using t-tests of unit-weighted z scores. A significant difference was found in absolute scores differences awarded in the morning and afternoon sessions between examiners who changed stations at lunchtime and those who did not (p design and examiner experience in surgical OSCEs and beyond. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparative genomic sequence analysis of strawberry and other rosids reveals significant microsynteny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbott Albert

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fragaria belongs to the Rosaceae, an economically important family that includes a number of important fruit producing genera such as Malus and Prunus. Using genomic sequences from 50 Fragaria fosmids, we have examined the microsynteny between Fragaria and other plant models. Results In more than half of the strawberry fosmids, we found syntenic regions that are conserved in Populus, Vitis, Medicago and/or Arabidopsis with Populus containing the greatest number of syntenic regions with Fragaria. The longest syntenic region was between LG VIII of the poplar genome and the strawberry fosmid 72E18, where seven out of twelve predicted genes were collinear. We also observed an unexpectedly high level of conserved synteny between Fragaria (rosid I and Vitis (basal rosid. One of the strawberry fosmids, 34E24, contained a cluster of R gene analogs (RGAs with NBS and LRR domains. We detected clusters of RGAs with high sequence similarity to those in 34E24 in all the genomes compared. In the phylogenetic tree we have generated, all the NBS-LRR genes grouped together with Arabidopsis CNL-A type NBS-LRR genes. The Fragaria RGA grouped together with those of Vitis and Populus in the phylogenetic tree. Conclusions Our analysis shows considerable microsynteny between Fragaria and other plant genomes such as Populus, Medicago, Vitis, and Arabidopsis to a lesser degree. We also detected a cluster of NBS-LRR type genes that are conserved in all the genomes compared.

  19. [Examination of the significance of psychological factors in the etiology of alopecia areata. I. Examining Type A behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wygledowska-Kania, M; Bogdanowski, T

    1995-01-01

    We tested the significance of psychic factors in the etiology of alopecia areata by means of the assessment of the Behaviour Pattern A (BPA)--a particular way of regulation of the relations between the individual and the environment, the basis of which is a great need for achievement in the individual who realizes this need by means of domination and aggressiveness. The testing was carried out by means of the Polish Questionnaire for the Assessment of the Behaviour Pattern A in adults. 60 patients were tested (31 women and 29 men). The results were compared with the normative groups described by Wrześniewski. The frequency of the occurrence of the Behaviour Pattern A in the tested patients may indicate the connection of this type of regulation of relations between the individual and the environment with the susceptibility to this disease.

  20. Contribution of radiodiagnosis to genetically significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pele, J.M.; Ouvrard, R.

    Surveys were carried out in France on 33,000 X-ray medical examinations. The genetically significant dose to the whole population from roentgenography and fluoroscopy, for typical examinations, should be about 65mrads [fr

  1. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of the Cdkl5 knockout mice revealed significant enhancement in anxiety- and fear-related behaviors and impairment in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Kosuke; Takao, Keizo; Watanabe, Aya; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Tanaka, Teruyuki

    2018-01-01

    Mutations in the Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene cause severe neurodevelopmental disorders. Recently we have generated Cdkl5 KO mice by targeting exon 2 on the C57BL/6N background, and demonstrated postsynaptic overaccumulation of GluN2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the hippocampus. In the current study, we subjected the Cdkl5 KO mice to a battery of comprehensive behavioral tests, aiming to reveal the effects of loss of CDKL5 in a whole perspective of motor, emotional, social, and cognition/memory functions, and to identify its undetermined roles. The neurological screen, rotarod, hot plate, prepulse inhibition, light/dark transition, open field, elevated plus maze, Porsolt forced swim, tail suspension, one-chamber and three-chamber social interaction, 24-h home cage monitoring, contextual and cued fear conditioning, Barnes maze, and T-maze tests were applied on adult Cdkl5 -/Y and +/Y mice. Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a mild alteration in the gait. Analyses of emotional behaviors revealed significantly enhanced anxiety-like behaviors of Cdkl5 -/Y mice. Depressive-like behaviors and social interaction of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were uniquely altered. The contextual and cued fear conditioning of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were comparable to control mice; however, Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a significantly increased freezing time and a significantly decreased distance traveled during the pretone period in the altered context. Both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory were significantly impaired. The morphometric analysis of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons revealed impaired dendritic arborization and immature spine development in Cdkl5 -/Y mice. These results indicate that CDKL5 plays significant roles in regulating emotional behaviors especially on anxiety- and fear-related responses, and in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory, which suggests that focus and special attention should be paid to the

  2. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of the Cdkl5 knockout mice revealed significant enhancement in anxiety- and fear-related behaviors and impairment in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Okuda

    Full Text Available Mutations in the Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5 gene cause severe neurodevelopmental disorders. Recently we have generated Cdkl5 KO mice by targeting exon 2 on the C57BL/6N background, and demonstrated postsynaptic overaccumulation of GluN2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors in the hippocampus. In the current study, we subjected the Cdkl5 KO mice to a battery of comprehensive behavioral tests, aiming to reveal the effects of loss of CDKL5 in a whole perspective of motor, emotional, social, and cognition/memory functions, and to identify its undetermined roles. The neurological screen, rotarod, hot plate, prepulse inhibition, light/dark transition, open field, elevated plus maze, Porsolt forced swim, tail suspension, one-chamber and three-chamber social interaction, 24-h home cage monitoring, contextual and cued fear conditioning, Barnes maze, and T-maze tests were applied on adult Cdkl5 -/Y and +/Y mice. Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a mild alteration in the gait. Analyses of emotional behaviors revealed significantly enhanced anxiety-like behaviors of Cdkl5 -/Y mice. Depressive-like behaviors and social interaction of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were uniquely altered. The contextual and cued fear conditioning of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were comparable to control mice; however, Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a significantly increased freezing time and a significantly decreased distance traveled during the pretone period in the altered context. Both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory were significantly impaired. The morphometric analysis of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons revealed impaired dendritic arborization and immature spine development in Cdkl5 -/Y mice. These results indicate that CDKL5 plays significant roles in regulating emotional behaviors especially on anxiety- and fear-related responses, and in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory, which suggests that focus and special attention should be

  3. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of the Cdkl5 knockout mice revealed significant enhancement in anxiety- and fear-related behaviors and impairment in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Kosuke; Takao, Keizo; Watanabe, Aya; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Mizuguchi, Masashi

    2018-01-01

    Mutations in the Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene cause severe neurodevelopmental disorders. Recently we have generated Cdkl5 KO mice by targeting exon 2 on the C57BL/6N background, and demonstrated postsynaptic overaccumulation of GluN2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the hippocampus. In the current study, we subjected the Cdkl5 KO mice to a battery of comprehensive behavioral tests, aiming to reveal the effects of loss of CDKL5 in a whole perspective of motor, emotional, social, and cognition/memory functions, and to identify its undetermined roles. The neurological screen, rotarod, hot plate, prepulse inhibition, light/dark transition, open field, elevated plus maze, Porsolt forced swim, tail suspension, one-chamber and three-chamber social interaction, 24-h home cage monitoring, contextual and cued fear conditioning, Barnes maze, and T-maze tests were applied on adult Cdkl5 -/Y and +/Y mice. Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a mild alteration in the gait. Analyses of emotional behaviors revealed significantly enhanced anxiety-like behaviors of Cdkl5 -/Y mice. Depressive-like behaviors and social interaction of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were uniquely altered. The contextual and cued fear conditioning of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were comparable to control mice; however, Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a significantly increased freezing time and a significantly decreased distance traveled during the pretone period in the altered context. Both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory were significantly impaired. The morphometric analysis of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons revealed impaired dendritic arborization and immature spine development in Cdkl5 -/Y mice. These results indicate that CDKL5 plays significant roles in regulating emotional behaviors especially on anxiety- and fear-related responses, and in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory, which suggests that focus and special attention should be paid to the

  4. Significance of X-ray examination in the diagnosis of contralateral pneumonia in closed chest trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anan'ina, G.V.; Parizhskij, Z.M.; Abramova, T.T.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that after unilateral closed chest traumas X-ray examination of both lungs should be conducted to except traumatic pneumonia as at the side of the trauma as in contralateral lung and to exclude pneumonia complications. Special attention must be paid to the patients with traumatic rib fractures and to those who has chromic nonspecific diseases of lungs and abused with alcochol

  5. Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised for mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColgan, Peter; Evans, Jonathan R; Breen, David P; Mason, Sarah L; Barker, Roger A; Williams-Gray, Caroline H

    2012-08-01

    Cognitive impairment is common in Parkinson's disease (PD), even in the early stages, and appropriate screening tools are needed. We investigated the utility of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised for detecting mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in PD in an incident population-representative cohort (n = 132) and investigated the relationship between performance on this instrument and behavior and quality of life (n = 219). Twenty-two percent met criteria for MCI. Receiver operating curve analysis revealed an area under the curve of 0.81. A cutoff Cognitive Rating Scale, and there were significant correlations with the Cambridge Behavioral Inventory-Revised and Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire 39. This instrument is a useful screening tool for PD-MCI, and poor performance is significantly related to impaired behavior and quality of life. Copyright © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.

  6. The Therapy Beneath the Fun: Medical Clowning During Invasive Examinations on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofir, Shoshi; Tener, Dafna; Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; On, Avi; Lang-Franco, Nessia

    2016-01-01

    The qualitative research presented here is part of a larger project on the significance of medical clowning during invasive examinations in children in the Department of Gastroenterology and the Center for the Sexually Abused in a hospital in Israel. It investigated what makes up the essence of medical clowning, what skills and techniques are used by medical clowns, and whether their work contains therapeutic elements. A total of 9 children undergoing invasive examinations and 9 of their accompanying parents participated in semistructured interviews, which were analyzed using a thematic analysis methodology assisted by an Atlas-ti software program. The interviews revealed that the medical clowning intervention during invasive examinations was essentially therapeutic, with the clown using theatrical and clowning tools to incorporate therapeutic elements such as empowerment, reversal of role, reframing, and building a therapeutic alliance. In addition, during the invasive examinations, the medical clowning followed the model of brief crisis intervention therapy. The study advances the need to incorporate medical clowns as an integral part of medical teams performing invasive procedures and to include clowns in all stages of the hospital visit when children undergo invasive examinations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. A Validation Study of the Japanese Version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Kawata, Kelssy Hitomi; Hashimoto, Ryusaku; Nishio, Yoshiyuki; Hayashi, Atsuko; Ogawa, Nanayo; Kanno, Shigenori; Hiraoka, Kotaro; Yokoi, Kayoko; Iizuka, Osamu; Mori, Etsuro

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the Japanese version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R) [Mori: Japanese Edition of Hodges JR's Cognitive Assessment for Clinicians, 2010] designed to detect dementia, and to compare its diagnostic accuracy with that of the Mini-Mental State Examination. The ACE-R was administered to 85 healthy individuals and 126 patients with dementia. The reliability assessment revealed a strong correlation in both groups. The internal consistency was excellent (α-coefficient = 0.88). Correlation with the Clinical Dementia Rating sum of boxes score was significant (r(s) = -0.61, p Examination. The cut-off score of 80 showed a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 94%. Like the original ACE-R and the versions designed for other languages, the Japanese version of the ACE-R is a reliable and valid test for the detection of dementia.

  8. Examining the Link Between Public Transit Use and Active Commuting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Bopp

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: An established relationship exists between public transportation (PT use and physical activity. However, there is limited literature that examines the link between PT use and active commuting (AC behavior. This study examines this link to determine if PT users commute more by active modes. Methods: A volunteer, convenience sample of adults (n = 748 completed an online survey about AC/PT patterns, demographic, psychosocial, community and environmental factors. t-test compared differences between PT riders and non-PT riders. Binary logistic regression analyses examined the effect of multiple factors on AC and a full logistic regression model was conducted to examine AC. Results: Non-PT riders (n = 596 reported less AC than PT riders. There were several significant relationships with AC for demographic, interpersonal, worksite, community and environmental factors when considering PT use. The logistic multivariate analysis for included age, number of children and perceived distance to work as negative predictors and PT use, feelings of bad weather and lack of on-street bike lanes as a barrier to AC, perceived behavioral control and spouse AC were positive predictors. Conclusions: This study revealed the complex relationship between AC and PT use. Further research should investigate how AC and public transit use are related.

  9. Gonad doses in biliary tract examinations (cholecystography)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, I [Staedtisches Klinikum Berlin-Buch (German Democratic Republic). Roentgendiagnostisches Zentrum; Angerstein, W [Forschungsinstitut fuer Tuberkulose und Lungenkrankheiten, Berlin (German Democratic Republic); Koenig, W; Menzel, B [Staatliches Amt fuer Atomsicherheit und Strahlenschutz, Berlin (German Democratic Republic)

    1979-02-01

    622 single measurements of gonad doses were performed during cholecystography in patients of either sex (intravaginally in women). In oral cholecystography on an average 13 mR were revealed for men and 149 mR for women, resp. According to a minimum, medium, or maximum extent of examination, in intravenous cholecystography the data for men were 11, 17, and 24 mR, while the corresponding data for women were 93, 185, and 278 mR. Based on about 400,000 cholegraphic examinations per year in the GDR the contribution to the total gonad dose caused by radiological examinations is 6-8%.

  10. Gonad doses in biliary tract examinations (cholecystography)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radtke, I.; Koenig, W.; Menzel, B.

    1979-01-01

    622 single measurements of gonad doses were performed during cholecystography in patients of either sex (intravaginally in women). In oral cholecystography on an average 13 mR were revealed for men and 149 mR for women, resp. According to a minimum, medium, or maximum extent of examination, in intravenous cholecystography the data for men were 11, 17, and 24 mR, while the corresponding data for women were 93, 185, and 278 mR. Based on about 400,000 cholegraphic examinations per year in the GDR the contribution to the total gonad dose caused by radiological examinations is 6-8%. (author)

  11. Ultrasonographic findings in patients examined in cataract detection-andtreatment campaigns: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Henrique Mendes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A cataract is defined as an opacity of any portion of the lens, regardless of visual acuity. In some advanced cases of cataracts, in which good fundus visualization is not possible, an ultrasound examination provides better assessment of the posterior segment of the globe. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to evaluate the ultrasonographic records of patients with advanced cataracts who were examined during cataract campaigns. METHODS: The ultrasonographic findings obtained from 215 patients examined in cataract campaigns conducted by the Hospital das Clínicas Department of Ophthalmology of the Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo between the years of 2005 and 2007 were evaluated, and the utility of this exam in changing the treatment procedures was studied. RESULTS: A total of 289 eyes from 215 patients were examined. Of the eyes examined, 77.5% presented with findings in the vitreous cavity and the posterior pole. A posterior vitreous detachment with no other complications was observed in 47.4% of the eyes. The remaining 30.1% presented with eye diseases that could result in a reduced visual function after surgery. The most frequent eye diseases observed were diffuse vitreous opacity (12.1% of the eyes and detachment of the retina (9.3% of the eyes. DISCUSSION: In many cases, the ultrasonographic evaluation of the posterior segment revealed significant anomalies that changed the original treatment plan or contra-indicated surgery. At the very least, the evaluation was useful for patient counseling. CONCLUSION: The ultrasonographic examination revealed and differentiated between eyes with cataracts and eyes with ocular abnormalities other than cataracts as the cause of poor vision, thereby indicating the importance of its use during ocular evaluation.

  12. Significant Locus and Metabolic Genetic Correlations Revealed in Genome-Wide Association Study of Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Laramie; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Gaspar, Helena; Walters, Raymond; Goldstein, Jackie; Anttila, Verneri; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Ripke, Stephan; Thornton, Laura; Hinney, Anke; Daly, Mark; Sullivan, Patrick F; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Breen, Gerome; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2017-09-01

    The authors conducted a genome-wide association study of anorexia nervosa and calculated genetic correlations with a series of psychiatric, educational, and metabolic phenotypes. Following uniform quality control and imputation procedures using the 1000 Genomes Project (phase 3) in 12 case-control cohorts comprising 3,495 anorexia nervosa cases and 10,982 controls, the authors performed standard association analysis followed by a meta-analysis across cohorts. Linkage disequilibrium score regression was used to calculate genome-wide common variant heritability (single-nucleotide polymorphism [SNP]-based heritability [h 2 SNP ]), partitioned heritability, and genetic correlations (r g ) between anorexia nervosa and 159 other phenotypes. Results were obtained for 10,641,224 SNPs and insertion-deletion variants with minor allele frequencies >1% and imputation quality scores >0.6. The h 2 SNP of anorexia nervosa was 0.20 (SE=0.02), suggesting that a substantial fraction of the twin-based heritability arises from common genetic variation. The authors identified one genome-wide significant locus on chromosome 12 (rs4622308) in a region harboring a previously reported type 1 diabetes and autoimmune disorder locus. Significant positive genetic correlations were observed between anorexia nervosa and schizophrenia, neuroticism, educational attainment, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and significant negative genetic correlations were observed between anorexia nervosa and body mass index, insulin, glucose, and lipid phenotypes. Anorexia nervosa is a complex heritable phenotype for which this study has uncovered the first genome-wide significant locus. Anorexia nervosa also has large and significant genetic correlations with both psychiatric phenotypes and metabolic traits. The study results encourage a reconceptualization of this frequently lethal disorder as one with both psychiatric and metabolic etiology.

  13. Rare human papillomavirus 16 E6 variants reveal significant oncogenic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommasino Massimo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to determine whether low prevalence human papillomavirus (HPV 16 E6 variants differ from high prevalence types in their functional abilities. We evaluated functions relevant to carcinogenesis for the rarely-detected European variants R8Q, R10G and R48W as compared to the commonly detected L83V. Human immortalized keratinocytes (NIKS stably transduced with the E6 variants were used in most functional assays. Low and high prevalence E6 variants displayed similar abilities in abrogation of growth arrest and inhibition of p53 elevation induced by actinomycin D. Differences were detected in the abilities to dysregulate stratification and differentiation of NIKS in organotypic raft cultures, modulate detachment induced apoptosis (anoikis and hyperactivate Wnt signaling. No distinctive phenotype could be assigned to include all rare variants. Like L83V, raft cultures derived from variants R10G and R48W similarly induced hyperplasia and aberrantly expressed keratin 5 in the suprabasal compartment with significantly lower expression of keratin 10. Unlike L83V, both variants, and particularly R48W, induced increased levels of anoikis upon suspension in semisolid medium. R8Q induced a unique phenotype characterized by thin organotypic raft cultures, low expression of keratin 10, and high expression of keratins 5 and 14 throughout all raft layers. Interestingly, in a reporter based assay R8Q exhibited a higher ability to augment TCF/β-catenin transcription. The data suggests that differences in E6 variant prevalence in cervical carcinoma may not be related to the carcinogenic potential of the E6 protein.

  14. Discovering the Significance of Scientific Design Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses and defines the achievement of significance in design science research. We review the values and processes of old-science and how this mode of science attacks the complexity of scientific knowledge production through analysis. We then explain how new-science attacks...... the complexity of scientific knowledge production through synthesis. The work argues that significance of the new-science contribution in design science can be obfuscated when wrapped in old-science. This understanding helps reveal how new-science, such as design science research, constitutes its significance...

  15. Engagement in activities revealing the body and psychosocial adjustment in adults with a trans-tibial prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan-Hall, M K; Yardley, L; Watts, R J

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the appearance of a prosthesis on social behaviour, social discomfort and psychological well-being in eleven amputees taking delivery of a prosthesis with a silicone cover. Two new scales were developed: the 'Engagement in everyday activities involving revealing the body' (EEARB); and the 'Discomfort-Engagement in everyday activities involving revealing the body' (Discomfort-EEARB) scales. The psychometric properties of these scales were determined using a sample of 101 able-bodied adults. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were also used to measure psychological well-being in the amputee sample. The EEARB and Discomfort-EEARB proved to have good reliability and validity. Comparison of amputees' scores prior to receiving the silicone cosmesis with those of the able-bodied adults revealed significant behavioural limitations and social discomfort, associated with low self-esteem, anxiety and depression. There was a significant increase in amputees' scores three months afier taking delivery of their prosthesis, indicating that amputees reported engaging in more activities which involved revealing their body, and that they would feel more comfortable in situations which involved revealing the body. As the amputee sample available was small and self-selected, it is not possible to generalise these findings to the amputee population as a whole. However, since there is little previous research investigating the effects of the appearance of the prosthesis, these findings demonstrate the need for further research in this area.

  16. Determination of organ doses during radiological examinations and calculation of somatically significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, H.

    1980-01-01

    Examples are used to demonstrate that a shift in the point of emphasis is necessary with regard to radiation hazard in medicinal X-ray diagnosis. The parameters employed in this study to calculate somatic dose (SD) and somatically significant dose (SSD) may well be in need of modification; nevertheless the numerical estimation of SSD arrived at here appears to reflect the right order of magnitude for the estimation of somatic risk. The consideration of the threshold dose for somatic injury remains a problem. (orig./MG) [de

  17. Examining the Associations Among Home–School Dissonance, Amotivation, and Classroom Disruptive Behavior for Urban High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Brown-Wright, Lynda; Tyler, Kenneth M.; Graves, Scott L.; Thomas, Deneia; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Mulder, Shambra

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the association among home–school dissonance, amotivation, and classroom disruptive behavior among 309 high school juniors and seniors at two urban high schools in the Southern region of the country. Students completed two subscales of the Patterns of Learning Activities Scales (PALS) and one subscale of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS). ANCOVA analyses revealed significant differences in classroom disruptive behaviors for the gender independent variable. Control...

  18. Future role and significance of space activities in reflection of global social, technological and economic trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekmann, Andreas; Richarz, Hans.-Peter

    The paper describes the interrelation of space activities and global socio-economic trends like "globalisation of markets" and "renaissance of fine arts". The interrelation reveals the economic strategic, technological and scientific dimension of space activities and their benefits to mankind. Then, the significance and perspectives of space activities in these dimensions are examined in more detail. The paper calls (1) for a more visible initiative to employ space activities to tackle urgent questions of global change and development, and (2) for a stronger impetus to secure European economic position in space sector as a key industry of the 21st century.

  19. The nitrogen responsive transcriptome in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) reveals significant gene regulatory motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, José Héctor; Tai, Helen H; Lagüe, Martin; Zebarth, Bernie J; Strömvik, Martina V

    2016-05-19

    Nitrogen (N) is the most important nutrient for the growth of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Foliar gene expression in potato plants with and without N supplementation at 180 kg N ha(-1) was compared at mid-season. Genes with consistent differences in foliar expression due to N supplementation over three cultivars and two developmental time points were examined. In total, thirty genes were found to be over-expressed and nine genes were found to be under-expressed with supplemented N. Functional relationships between over-expressed genes were found. The main metabolic pathway represented among differentially expressed genes was amino acid metabolism. The 1000 bp upstream flanking regions of the differentially expressed genes were analysed and nine overrepresented motifs were found using three motif discovery algorithms (Seeder, Weeder and MEME). These results point to coordinated gene regulation at the transcriptional level controlling steady state potato responses to N sufficiency.

  20. Coping with examinations: exploring relationships between students' coping strategies, implicit theories of ability, and perceived control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, Julie; Stephan, Yannick; Boiché, Julie; Le Scanff, Christine

    2009-09-01

    Relatively little is known about the contribution of students' beliefs regarding the nature of academic ability (i.e. their implicit theories) on strategies used to deal with examinations. This study applied Dweck's socio-cognitive model of achievement motivation to better understand how students cope with examinations. It was expected that students' implicit theories of academic ability would be related to their use of particular coping strategies to deal with exam-related stress. Additionally, it was predicted that perceived control over exams acts as a mediator between implicit theories of ability and coping. Four hundred and ten undergraduate students (263 males, 147 females), aged from 17 to 26 years old (M=19.73, SD=1.46) were volunteers for the present study. Students completed measures of coping, implicit theories of academic ability, and perception of control over academic examinations during regular classes in the first term of the university year. Multiple regression analyses revealed that incremental beliefs of ability significantly and positively predicted active coping, planning, venting of emotions, seeking social support for emotional and instrumental reasons, whereas entity beliefs positively predicted behavioural disengagement and negatively predicted active coping and acceptance. In addition, analyses revealed that entity beliefs of ability were related to coping strategies through students' perception of control over academic examinations. These results confirm that exam-related coping varies as a function of students' beliefs about the nature of academic ability and their perceptions of control when approaching examinations.

  1. DOING BUSINESS IN GLOBAL ARENA: AN EXAMINATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CULTURAL INTELLIGENCE AND CROSS-CULTURAL ADJUSTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniam Sri Ramalu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the relationship between cultural intelligence (CQ and crosscultural adjustment (CCA using a field study of 332 expat iates in Malaysia. The findings of this study reveal that CQ is a vital cross-cultural competency that facilitates expatriates CCA in international assignment. Specifically, the result of this study reveals that greater general adjustment is related to greater motivational and meta-cognitive CQ. The more successful interaction adjustment is associated with greater motivational, metacognitiveand cognitive CQ. Greater work adjustment is related to greater motivational CQ. Motivational component of CQ is the only dimensions of CQ that is significantly related to all three dimensions of CCA. The findings of this study have significant contribution to the body of knowledge in the cross-cultural management field as well aspractical implication to expatriating firms especially in the area of selection and hiring of international candidates.

  2. 1H NMR-based metabolic profiling reveals inherent biological variation in yeast and nematode model systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeto, Samuel S. W.; Reinke, Stacey N.; Lemire, Bernard D.

    2011-01-01

    The application of metabolomics to human and animal model systems is poised to provide great insight into our understanding of disease etiology and the metabolic changes that are associated with these conditions. However, metabolomic studies have also revealed that there is significant, inherent biological variation in human samples and even in samples from animal model systems where the animals are housed under carefully controlled conditions. This inherent biological variability is an important consideration for all metabolomics analyses. In this study, we examined the biological variation in 1 H NMR-based metabolic profiling of two model systems, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Using relative standard deviations (RSD) as a measure of variability, our results reveal that both model systems have significant amounts of biological variation. The C. elegans metabolome possesses greater metabolic variance with average RSD values of 29 and 39%, depending on the food source that was used. The S. cerevisiae exometabolome RSD values ranged from 8% to 12% for the four strains examined. We also determined whether biological variation occurs between pairs of phenotypically identical yeast strains. Multivariate statistical analysis allowed us to discriminate between pair members based on their metabolic phenotypes. Our results highlight the variability of the metabolome that exists even for less complex model systems cultured under defined conditions. We also highlight the efficacy of metabolic profiling for defining these subtle metabolic alterations.

  3. Organizational commitment among intercollegiate head athletic trainers: examining our work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterstein, A P

    1998-01-01

    To 1) examine the commitment of head athletic trainers to their intercollegiate work environments, 2) develop a model that better reflects the head athletic trainer's daily work setting, and 3) use new techniques to describe the various ways head athletic trainers demonstrate commitment to their organizations. Organizational commitment (OC) surveys were sent to 461 head athletic trainers identified for the sample. A response rate of 71.5% (330/461) was obtained from the mail survey. A proportional random sample of head athletic trainers was taken from a population identified in the National Association of Collegiate Directors of Athletics (NACDA) directory of intercollegiate athletics as Division I, II, and III institutions. Returned OC surveys were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics for all demographic and OC variables. Exploratory cluster analysis was performed to examine naturally clustering groups. Exploratory cluster analysis revealed five naturally clustering groups that represent the head athletic trainers' patterns of commitment across the specific organizational targets. Paired t tests indicated that the continuance commitment scores were significantly lower than the affective and normative scores across the sample. Analysis of variance tests indicated significant differences for specific commitment dimensions based on gender and NCAA division demographics. Beyond that, the five-cluster solution revealed no particular demographic characteristics that predisposed individuals to specific clusters. THE FINDINGS REINFORCE A CENTRAL THEME IN INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETIC TRAINING: that student-athletes and student athletic trainers are the primary focus of the head athletic trainers' commitment. Positive attachment and obligation directed toward student-athletes and student athletic trainers link the five clusters. Commitment patterns in areas other than student-athletes and student athletic trainers define the cluster membership or head athletic

  4. Comparative analysis reveals that polyploidy does not decelerate diversification in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, S H; Glick, L; Tsigenopoulos, C S; Otto, S P; Mayrose, I

    2014-02-01

    While the proliferation of the species-rich teleost fish has been ascribed to an ancient genome duplication event at the base of this group, the broader impact of polyploidy on fish evolution and diversification remains poorly understood. Here, we investigate the association between polyploidy and diversification in several fish lineages: the sturgeons (Acipenseridae: Acipenseriformes), the botiid loaches (Botiidae: Cypriniformes), Cyprininae fishes (Cyprinidae: Cypriniformes) and the salmonids (Salmonidae: Salmoniformes). Using likelihood-based evolutionary methodologies, we co-estimate speciation and extinction rates associated with polyploid vs. diploid fish lineages. Family-level analysis of Acipenseridae and Botiidae revealed no significant difference in diversification rates between polyploid and diploid relatives, while analysis of the subfamily Cyprininae revealed higher polyploid diversification. Additionally, order-level analysis of the polyploid Salmoniformes and its diploid sister clade, the Esociformes, did not support a significantly different net diversification rate between the two groups. Taken together, our results suggest that polyploidy is generally not associated with decreased diversification in fish - a pattern that stands in contrast to that previously observed in plants. While there are notable differences in the time frame examined in the two studies, our results suggest that polyploidy is associated with different diversification patterns in these two major branches of the eukaryote tree of life. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  5. Shear wave elastography (SWE) of the spleen in patients with hepatitis B and C but without significant liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawluś, Aleksander; Inglot, Marcin; Chabowski, Mariusz; Szymańska, Kinga; Inglot, Małgorzata; Patyk, Mateusz; Słonina, Joanna; Caseiro-Alves, Filipe; Janczak, Dariusz; Zaleska-Dorobisz, Urszula

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the elasticity of the spleen in patients with hepatitis B and C but without liver fibrosis with that of healthy subjects using a shear wave elastography (SWE) examination. Between December 2014 and December 2015, 35 patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections and 45 patients with (hepatitis C virus) HCV infections and liver stiffness below 7.1 kPa were included in the study. The control group was composed of 53 healthy volunteers without any chronic liver disease, with no abnormal findings in their ultrasound examinations and with an SWE of the liver below 6.5 kPa. The SWE measurements were a part of routine ultrasound abdominal examinations. The examinations were performed using an Aixplorer device by two radiologists with at least 6 years' experience. To compare spleen stiffness between the groups, the Mann-Whitney U-test was applied. To analyze the dependency between liver and spleen elasticity, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was calculated. A total of 133 SWE findings were analyzed. Stiffness of the spleen was significantly higher in patients with HBV and HCV but without significant liver fibrosis than it was in the healthy controls (p = 0.0018 and 0.0000, respectively). This correlation was also present in patients with liver stiffness below 6.5 kPa (p = 0.0041 and 0.0000, respectively). Analysis revealed no significant correlation between liver and spleen stiffness in patients with hepatitis B and C and without significant fibrosis (p = 0.3216 and 0.0626, respectively). Patients with hepatitis B and C but without significant liver fibrosis have stiffer spleens than healthy controls. There is no dependency between liver and spleen elasticity in patients without significant fibrosis. The SWE examination might be an important tool and could be used in addition to conventional imaging. Our study may become a starting point in further investigations into the role of the spleen in HCV and HBV

  6. New possibilities of the isotope distribution examination in irradiated absorbing materials using secondary ion mass spectrometry method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharenko, Y. D.; Evseev, L.A.; Risovany, V.D.

    2005-01-01

    The SIMS technique (with using a linear analysis and 2D surface imaging) has been to measure the radial distribution of the boron isotope ratio in the boron carbide pellets irradiated in the fast reactor. It was revealed that a radial distribution of isotope ratio in the boron carbide pellets is significantly different after irradiation in fast and thermal reactors. It was showed the advisability of using ion images for such examinations. (Author)

  7. An examination of the cohesion-performance relationship in university hockey teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, M R; Sewell, D F

    1994-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess, using the Group Environment Questionnaire, whether team cohesion in university-level field hockey was a cause for, or an effect of, successful performance. A quasi-experimental longitudinal design with cross-lagged correlational analysis was adopted and measures of cohesion and performance were taken midway and later in the season. The results of the synchronous correlations showed a positive relationship (with good stationarity) between team cohesion and performance outcome. Although non-significant cross-lagged differentials indicated a circular relationship, the magnitudes of both the cross-lagged correlations and the partial correlations, together with multiple-regression analyses, revealed that the stronger flow was from cohesion to performance. The socially oriented aspects of cohesion, in particular, had significant associations with performance. The results imply that cohesion-performance relationships should be examined within a circular model, in which cohesion and performance are interdependent.

  8. [Identification of circulatory diseases and their risk during medical examination of an adult population: methodological aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinina, A M; Ipatov, P V; Kaminskaya, A K; Kushunina, D V

    2015-01-01

    To study the efficiency of a methodology for the active detection of coronary heart disease (CHD) and cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) during medical examination and to determine the need and possible ways of its improvement. The medical examinations of 19.4 million people (94.6% of all the citizens who had undergone medical examinations in all the regions of Russia in 2013) were analyzed and the methodological aspects of identification of the circulatory diseases (CDs) that were induced by coronary and cerebral vessel atherosclerosis and had common risk factors, primarily CHD and CVD, were assessed. The medical examinations revealed 2,915,445 cases of CDs and their suspicions, during which its clinical diagnosis was established in 57.2%. The suspected disease requiring that its diagnosis should be further specified; off-medical examinations revealed hypertension in more than 770,000 cases, CHD in 232,000, and CVD in 146,000. The proportion of stable angina pectoris of all angina cases was much higher at a young age (25.6%) than at middle (15.6%) and elderly (11.3%) ages. Brachiocephalic artery stenoses were detected in almost 13,000 cases. According to the official health statistics, within the years preceding the introduction of large-scale medical examinations, there was a slight rise in new CD cases among the adult population of Russia, which was more significant in 2013 (according to the preliminary data) than in 2012. The methodology for the active detection of CDs through a two-step medical examination, which is used during a follow-up, makes it possible to substantially increase detection rates for CDs. There has been shown to be a need for the better quality and completeness of diagnostic examination in real practice.

  9. Organization and carrying out the roentgenological examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolik, L.I.; Lejkin, V.E.

    1981-01-01

    Organization of roentgenological examination with the purpose of occupational diseases diagnosis is based, first of all, on the considerations of labour activity of patient, compared with clinical data, as well as with concrete sanitary- and'-hygienic and working conditions, that may cause that or another occupational pathology. Much attention is paid to the choice of examination method and special techniques. The aims of roentgenologist are: generalization of roentgenological changes revealed and impartial recording of roentgenological picture. The main and special roentgenological techniques used for diagnosis of occupational diseases are discussed [ru

  10. Effects of prefrontal tDCS on executive function: Methodological considerations revealed by meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imburgio, Michael J; Orr, Joseph M

    2018-05-01

    A meta-analysis of studies using single-session transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to target the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was undertaken to examine the effect of stimulation on executive function (EF) in healthy samples. 27 studies were included in analyses, yielding 71 effect sizes. The most relevant measure for each task was determined a priori and used to calculate Hedge's g. Methodological characteristics of each study were examined individually as potential moderators of effect size. Stimulation effects on three domains of EF (inhibition of prepotent responses, mental set shifting, and information updating and monitoring) were analyzed separately. In line with previous work, the current study found no significant effect of anodal unilateral tDCS, cathodal unilateral tDCS, or bilateral tDCS on EF. Further moderator and subgroup analyses were only carried out for anodal unilateral montages due to the small number of studies using other montages. Subgroup analyses revealed a significant effect of anodal unilateral tDCS on updating tasks, but not on inhibition or set-shifting tasks. Cathode location significantly moderated the effect of anodal unilateral tDCS. Extracranial cathodes yielded a significant effect on EF while cranial cathodes yielded no effect. Anode size also significantly moderated effect of anodal unilateral tDCS, with smaller anodes being more effective than larger anodes. In summary, anodal DLPFC stimulation is more effective at improving updating ability than inhibition and set-shifting ability, but anodal stimulation can significantly improve general executive function when extracranial cathodes or small anodes are used. Future meta-analyses may examine how stimulation's effects on specific behavioral tasks, rather than broader domains, might be affected by methodological moderators. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Membrane bioreactor wastewater treatment plants reveal diverse yeast and protist communities of potential significance in biofouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liébana, Raquel; Arregui, Lucía; Belda, Ignacio; Gamella, Luis; Santos, Antonio; Marquina, Domingo; Serrano, Susana

    2015-01-01

    The yeast community was studied in a municipal full-scale membrane bioreactor wastewater treatment plant (MBR-WWTP). The unexpectedly high diversity of yeasts indicated that the activated sludge formed a suitable environment for them to proliferate, with cellular concentrations of 2.2 ± 0.8 × 10(3) CFU ml(-1). Sixteen species of seven genera were present in the biological reactor, with Ascomycetes being the most prevalent group (93%). Most isolates were able to grow in a synthetic wastewater medium, adhere to polyethylene surfaces, and develop biofilms of variable complexity. The relationship between yeast populations and the protists in the MBR-WWTP was also studied, revealing that some protist species preyed on and ingested yeasts. These results suggest that yeast populations may play a role in the food web of a WWTP and, to some extent, contribute to membrane biofouling in MBR systems.

  12. Examining the relationships between challenge and threat cognitive appraisals and coaching behaviours in football coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Martin; Turner, Martin J; Gillman, Jamie

    2017-12-01

    Previous research demonstrates that sports coaching is a stressful activity. This article investigates coaches' challenge and threat cognitive appraisals of stressful situations and their impact on coaching behaviour, using Blascovich and Mendes' (2000) biopsychosocial model as a theoretical framework. A cross-sectional correlational design was utilised to examine the relationships between irrational beliefs (Shortened general attitude and belief scale), challenge and threat appraisals (Appraisal of life events scale), and coaching behaviours (Leadership scale for sports) of 105 professional football academy coaches. Findings reveal significant positive associations between challenge appraisals and social support, and between threat appraisals and autocratic behaviour, and a significant negative association between threat appraisals and positive feedback. Results also show that higher irrational beliefs are associated with greater threat, and lesser challenge cognitive appraisals. However, no associations were revealed between irrational beliefs and challenge cognitive appraisals. Additionally, findings demonstrate a positive relationship between age and training and instruction. Results suggest that practitioners should help coaches to appraise stressful situations as a challenge to promote positive coaching behaviours.

  13. Examining Science Teachers' Argumentation in a Teacher Workshop on Earthquake Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavlazoglu, Baki; Stuessy, Carol

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine changes in the quality of science teachers' argumentation as a result of their engagement in a teacher workshop on earthquake engineering emphasizing distributed learning approaches, which included concept mapping, collaborative game playing, and group lesson planning. The participants were ten high school science teachers from US high schools who elected to attend the workshop. To begin and end the teacher workshop, teachers in small groups engaged in concept mapping exercises with other teachers. Researchers audio-recorded individual teachers' argumentative statements about the inclusion of earthquake engineering concepts in their concept maps, which were then analyzed to reveal the quality of teachers' argumentation. Toulmin's argumentation model formed the framework for designing a classification schema to analyze the quality of participants' argumentative statements. While the analysis of differences in pre- and post-workshop concept mapping exercises revealed that the number of argumentative statements did not change significantly, the quality of participants' argumentation did increase significantly. As these differences occurred concurrently with distributed learning approaches used throughout the workshop, these results provide evidence to support distributed learning approaches in professional development workshop activities to increase the quality of science teachers' argumentation. Additionally, these results support the use of concept mapping as a cognitive scaffold to organize participants' knowledge, facilitate the presentation of argumentation, and as a research tool for providing evidence of teachers' argumentation skills.

  14. Exploration of the attitudes of nursing students to peer physical examination and physical examination of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearn, Andy M; Bhoopatkar, Harsh; Mathew, Thomas K; Stewart, Lisa

    2013-08-01

    The use of peer physical examination (PPE) in early clinical skills has been studied amongst medical students. The majority of students are comfortable with using peer physical examination, when sensitive areas are excluded. Students' attitudes are related to their personal characteristics: gender, age, religious faith, and ethnicity. There is no data on nursing students' attitudes to peer physical examination. Identify and explore: Dual cohort, cross-sectional, anonymous survey. Three-year undergraduate nursing programme, skills centre and service clinical learning. All first and third year nursing students were asked to complete a modified Examining Fellow Students questionnaire at the end of 2008. The questionnaire asked students to indicate which of 12 body areas they would not be willing to examine/have examined by a peer of the same/opposite gender. This study also asked students which of the 12 body areas they felt uncomfortable examining on patients. The response rate was 76% (128/168). The students were predominantly female (93% female; 7% male). Most students were comfortable with examining non-sensitive body regions of peers (78.2%-100% willing) and patients (92.3-100% willing). Male gender was significantly associated with willingness to examine and be examined by peers (p=0.001); Asian students were significantly less willing to engage in peer physical examination with opposite gender (pexamining patients of either gender (pexamination shows similarities and differences to other studies. Student characteristics were not related to patient examination attitudes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The refinement of a cultural standardized patient examination for a general surgery residency program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Maria B J; Deptula, Peter; Morihara, Sarah; Jackson, David S

    2014-01-01

    Recent articles have documented the importance of cultural competency in surgery. Surgical residency programs have used the Objective Structured Clinical Examinations or cultural standardized patient examinations as a training tool. Past studies evaluating cultural competency have noted the importance of including an observational (control) arm, which would allow for a more objective assessment of a resident's competency in this area. The purpose of our article is to present the results of a follow-up study to a pilot cultural standardized patient examination for surgery residents. All first-year surgery residents were required to participate in the videotaped cultural SP examination as part of the general surgery residency curriculum. Two measures were used to assess resident performance. On the day of the examination, the Cross-Cultural Care Survey was administered. The examination was assessed by the residents themselves, faculty observers, and standardized patients, using a written checklist that was developed to evaluate residents on all 6 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education competencies. The current study includes 20 first-year surgery residents from academic years 2011 to 2012 and 2012 to 2013. The examination of pretest differences in groups found that students born outside of the United States had significantly higher scores on attitude (t = -2.68, df = 18, p = 0.02), but no statistically significant differences were found in skillfulness or knowledge or in the overall rating scale. For the overall rating scale, change from pretest to posttest was statistically significant (t = -2.25, df = 18, p = 0.04). Further analysis revealed that students who were born in the United States demonstrated a significant increase in ratings (t = -3.08, df = 10, p = 0.01) whereas students who were not born in the United States showed little change (t = -0.35, df = 7, p = 0.74). These results show that the means in attitude scales changed little for all

  16. Primary study on the clinical significance of measurement of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and NPY concentrations in human semen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiyun; Ning Yong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the difference between the semen plasma contents of EGF and NPY in fertile and non-fertile males with the relevant sperm count and motility. Methods: Semen plasma contents of EGF and NPY were determined with RIA in 110 non-fertile males. Simultaneous semen analysis revealed (1) Group A, n=45, with normal sperm count, (2) Group B, n=34 low sperm count (0-20) x 10 6 /ml and (3) Group C n=31, with aspermia. White blood cell/HPF was examined in all the semen specimens and sperm motile rate and motility were examined in Group A specimens. Results: The semen plasma contents of EGF and NPY in non-fertile males were significantly higher than those in fertile males (P 1 x 10 6 /ml) were significantly lower than those in specimens with more white blood cells (P<0.05). Conclusion: Higher semen plasma contents of EGF and NPY might exert toxic effect on the sperms, contributing to the development of infertility. (authors)

  17. A Case of Hydranencephaly in Which Ophthalmic Examinations Were Performed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohei Eda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We performed ophthalmic examinations, including optical coherence tomography (OCT, on a case diagnosed with hydranencephaly. Case Report: This case involved a female infant born at the gestational age of 35 weeks and 4 days, with the birth weight of 2,152 g, who was one of monochorionic diamniotic twins, and the identical twin died in utero at the gestational age of 24 weeks. After that, examination by fetal echo indicated that she had microcephaly and ventriculomegaly. Postnatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of her head indicated microcephaly and significant enlargement of the lateral ventricle on both sides, with no obvious signs of elevated intracranial pressure. The brain parenchyma of both sides of the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, and occipital lobe had marked thinning, yet that of the temporal lobe, basal ganglia, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum had been maintained. Moreover, no obvious hematoma or neoplastic lesions were observed. Ophthalmic examinations indicated that both of her eyes had slight light reflex, attributed to optic nerve atrophy. Examination by use of a hand-held OCT system indicated a layered structure of the retina and thinning of the ganglion cell layer. Flicker electroretinogram (ERG examination by use of a hand-held ERG system indicated an almost normal wave. However, no clear visual reaction was observed when she was 10 months old. Conclusion: Our findings in this case of hydranencephaly revealed that even though the outer layer functions of the patient’s retina were maintained, extensive damage to her cerebral cortex resulted in poor visual function.

  18. On combining revealed and stated preferences to forecast customer behaviour: three case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); P.C. Verhoef (Peter)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractMany companies collect stated preference data (SP) like intentions and satisfaction as well as revealed preference data (RP) like actual purchasing behavior. It seems relevant to examine the predictive usefulness of this information for future revealed preferences, that is, customer

  19. Informed Consent - Attitudes, knowledge and information concerning prenatal examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Kesmodel, Ulrik; Hvidman, Lone

    estimates is low and possible consequences if the test reveals a problem is seldom considered beforehand. A woman's attitude to prenatal examinations is found decisive for up-take of prenatal tests, with no association between a woman's attitude towards prenatal examinations and her knowledge of those tests....... Most women consider their doctor an important source of information, and state that information has influenced their decision.      Conclusions: Pregnant women favor prenatal examinations, but participation does not seem to be based on an informed consent....

  20. Self-disclosure among bloggers: re-examination of social penetration theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jih-Hsin; Wang, Cheng-Chung

    2012-05-01

    Based on Social Penetration theory, this study explores the topics that bloggers disclose on their blogs, and in the real world. A total of 1,027 Taiwanese bloggers participated in this online survey, which revealed that bloggers self-disclosed nine topics (attitude, body, money, work, feelings, personal, interests, experiences, and unclassified). Further, we examined the depth and width of what bloggers self-disclosed to three target audiences (online audience, best friend, and parents), confirming that their disclosure is significantly different for each of these target audiences. Bloggers seemingly express themselves to their best friends the most, followed by parents and online audiences, both in depth and in width. The "wedge model," proposed by Altman and Taylor (1973), has been extended to online relationships in this study. In comparison to male bloggers, female bloggers seemed to disclose more to their best friends and parents in their daily lives; however, no significant difference was observed in their disclosure to online audiences. Younger bloggers (<20 years old) seemed to disclose a wider range of topics; however, there was no significant difference in the depth of their disclosure on their blogs. Discussions of these results are also presented.

  1. Gene expression profiling in equine polysaccharide storage myopathy revealed inflammation, glycogenesis inhibition, hypoxia and mitochondrial dysfunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benech Philippe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several cases of myopathies have been observed in the horse Norman Cob breed. Muscle histology examinations revealed that some families suffer from a polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM. It is assumed that a gene expression signature related to PSSM should be observed at the transcriptional level because the glycogen storage disease could also be linked to other dysfunctions in gene regulation. Thus, the functional genomic approach could be conducted in order to provide new knowledge about the metabolic disorders related to PSSM. We propose exploring the PSSM muscle fiber metabolic disorders by measuring gene expression in relationship with the histological phenotype. Results Genotypying analysis of GYS1 mutation revealed 2 homozygous (AA and 5 heterozygous (GA PSSM horses. In the PSSM muscles, histological data revealed PAS positive amylase resistant abnormal polysaccharides, inflammation, necrosis, and lipomatosis and active regeneration of fibers. Ultrastructural evaluation revealed a decrease of mitochondrial number and structural disorders. Extensive accumulation of an abnormal polysaccharide displaced and partially replaced mitochondria and myofibrils. The severity of the disease was higher in the two homozygous PSSM horses. Gene expression analysis revealed 129 genes significantly modulated (p Conclusion The main disorders observed in PSSM muscles could be related to mitochondrial dysfunctions, glycogenesis inhibition and the chronic hypoxia of the PSSM muscles.

  2. The Role of Family for Youth Friendships: Examining a Social Anxiety Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Hio Wa; Fosco, Gregory M; Feinberg, Mark E

    2018-02-01

    The quality of family relationships and youth friendships are intricately linked. Previous studies have examined different mechanisms of family-peer linkage, but few have examined social anxiety. The present study examined whether parental rejection and family climate predicted changes in youth social anxiety, which in turn predicted changes in friendship quality and loneliness. Possible bidirectional associations also were examined. Data for mothers, fathers, and youth (M age at Time 1 = 11.27; 52.3% were female) from 687 two-parent households over three time points are presented. Results from autoregressive, cross-lagged analyses revealed that father rejection (not mother rejection or family climate) at Time 1 (Fall of 6th Grade) predicted increased youth social anxiety at Time 2 (Spring of 7th Grade), which in turn, predicted increased loneliness at Time 3 (Spring of 8th Grade). The indirect effect of father rejection on loneliness was statistically significant. Mother rejection, father rejection, and a poor family climate were associated with decreased friendship quality and increased loneliness over time. Finally, there was some evidence of transactional associations between father rejection and youth social anxiety as well as between social anxiety and loneliness. This study's findings underscore the important role of fathers in youth social anxiety and subsequent social adjustment.

  3. Intergenerational Transmission of Maltreatment: A Multilevel Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leve, Leslie D.; Khurana, Atika; Reich, Emily B.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the commonly held belief that there is a high degree of intergenerational continuity in maltreatment, studies to date suggest a mixed pattern of findings. One reason for the variance in findings may be related to the measurement approach used, which includes a range of self-report and official indicators of maltreatment and both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs. This study attempted to shed light on the phenomenon of intergenerational continuity of maltreatment by examining multiple indicators of perpetration of maltreatment in young adults and multiple risk factors across different levels within an individual’s social ecology. The sample included 166 women who had been placed in out-of-home care as adolescents (>85% had a substantiated maltreatment incident) and followed into young adulthood, and included three waves of adolescent data and six waves of young adult data collected across 10 years. The participants were originally recruited during adolescence as part of a randomized controlled trial examining the efficacy of the Treatment Foster Care Oregon intervention. Analyses revealed weak to modest associations between the three indicators of perpetration of maltreatment in young adulthood, i.e., official child welfare records, self-reported child welfare system involvement, and self-reported maltreatment (r = .03–.51). Further, different patterns of prediction emerged as a function of the measurement approach. Adolescent delinquency was a significant predictor of subsequent self-reported child welfare contact, and young adult partner risk was a significant predictor of perpetration of maltreatment as indexed by both official child welfare records and self-reported child welfare contact. In addition, women who were originally assigned to the intervention condition reported perpetrating less maltreatment during young adulthood. Implications for measurement and interventions related to reducing the risk for intergenerational transmission of

  4. An Examination of Conceptualization of Sport Metaphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervent, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the metaphors that were used by athletes, coaches, faculty members, and sport managers to describe the concept of "sport". Participants (N = 473) were asked to reveal the single metaphor they had in minds in the sense of the concept of sport by the prompt "Sport is like … because …" 22 valid metaphors were…

  5. Middle School Students' Science Self-Efficacy and Its Sources: Examination of Gender Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kıran, Dekant; Sungur, Semra

    2012-10-01

    The main purpose of the present study is to investigate middle school students' science self-efficacy as well as its sources and outcomes as a function of gender. Bandura's hypothesized sources of self-efficacy (i.e., mastery experience, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and emotional arousal) in addition to being inviting with self and inviting with others were examined as sources of self-efficacy, while cognitive and metacognitive strategy use was examined as an outcome of self-efficacy. A total of 1,932 students participated in the study and were administered self-report instruments. Results showed that the relationship between science self-efficacy and its proposed sources does not change as a function of gender. All proposed sources, except for vicarious experience, were found to be significantly related to students' scientific self-efficacy. Moreover, girls were found to experience significantly more emotional arousal and to send positive messages to others more than boys. On the other hand, no gender difference was found concerning science self-efficacy and strategy use. The findings also revealed a positive association between science self-efficacy and strategy use. Overall, findings supported Bandura's conception of self-efficacy and suggested invitations as additional sources of self-efficacy.

  6. Numerical examinations of simplified spondylodesis models concerning energy absorption in magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadert Nicole

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Metallic implants in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI are a potential safety risk since the energy absorption may increase temperature of the surrounding tissue. The temperature rise is highly dependent on implant size. Numerical examinations can be used to calculate the energy absorption in terms of the specific absorption rate (SAR induced by MRI on orthopaedic implants. This research presents the impact of titanium osteosynthesis spine implants, called spondylodesis, deduced by numerical examinations of energy absorption in simplified spondylodesis models placed in 1.5 T and 3.0 T MRI body coils. The implants are modelled along with a spine model consisting of vertebrae and disci intervertebrales thus extending previous investigations [1], [2]. Increased SAR values are observed at the ends of long implants, while at the center SAR is significantly lower. Sufficiently short implants show increased SAR along the complete length of the implant. A careful data analysis reveals that the particular anatomy, i.e. vertebrae and disci intervertebrales, has a significant effect on SAR. On top of SAR profile due to the implant length, considerable SAR variations at small scale are observed, e.g. SAR values at vertebra are higher than at disc positions.

  7. Clinical significance of high-sensitivity C- reactive protein in systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Nevskaya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine diagnostic and prognostic significance of high-sensitivity Creactive protein (hsCRP in systemic sclerosis (SS, to define relationship of this factor with activity of the disease and cardiovascular pathology, to assess role of pro-inflammatory cytokines in induction of acute phase proteins synthesis in SS.Material and methods. Serum levels of hsCRP, interleukin (IL 6, IL 1β, IL1ra, IL 10, sIL2r were evaluated by enzyme immunoassay (EIA in 40 pts with SS and 24 subjects of control group. Relationship with clinical features of the disease, endothelial dysfunction, capillaries structure changes, sub-clinical atherosclerosis, total coronary risk and some traditional cardiovascular risk factors was analyzed. Instrumental assessment included nailfold capillaroscopy, sonographic duplex examination of carotids , brachial arte ry sonographic examination. HsCRP prognostic significance was assessed in 51 pts with SS.Results. Elevated levels of hsCRP were found in 32% of SS pts and correlated with activity and severity of the disease, HAQ and SHAQ. Direct correlation of hsCRP with skin fibrosis distribution, interstitial lung disease, arthritis, laboratory indices of SS activity (ESR, sIL2r and Scl-70 was revealed. HsCRP concentration in SS did not depend on character and intensity of cardiovascular pathology, subclinical atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction and proinflammatory cytokines production.Conclusion. HsCRP in SS reflects intensity of immuno-inflammatory process, correlates with T-cell activation markers and can be used as index of the disease activity, severity of skin and lung fibrosis.

  8. In vivo examination of the effects of hydroxycinnamic acid on xenobiotic metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semiz Asli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, hydroxycinnamic acids (HCA have gained increasing attention from researchers due to their antioxidant potential. The aim of this study was to examine in detail the impact of dietary HCA on particular types of P450 and also selected phase II and antioxidant enzymes in Wistar rat. HCA (10 mM/kg/day, i.p. was administered for ten continuous days. Examination of the activities and mRNA and protein levels revealed that CYP2B, 2C6 and 3A enzyme activities were not altered significantly, with Western blot and qRT-PCR results corroborating this result. While treatment with HCA led to a significant reduction in CYP1A1/CYP1A2-associated enzyme activities, CYP1A1 protein, and mRNA levels were found to be unchanged. Aromatase (CYP19 activity, as well as protein and mRNA levels, were significantly reduced with HCA treatment. On the other hand, the NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs activities were increased significantly. Also, HCA treatment significantly increased the GST-mu and GST-theta mRNA levels. These observations may be of importance given the potential use of HCA as a chemopreventive and as an anticancer agent.

  9. Indications, applications and future prospects of diagnostic examinations in clinical cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugishita, Yasuro; Koseki, Susumu; Matsuda, Mitsuo

    1982-01-01

    Nowadays there are various kinds of diagnostic examinations in the field of clinical cardiology. In this field, information concerning structure, dimension (hypertrophy and dilatation) and cardiac function is essentially imporant. For the diagnosis of valvular and congenital heart diseases and of cardiomyopathy, ultrasonic examinations are more useful; for ischemic heart disease, nuclear medicine is superior. Angiocardiography provides us much information but it is invasive. A combination of an exercise-test with the examinations mentioned above is useful for the detection of left ventricular and coronary reserves. The determinants of left ventricular reserve, being related to the prognosis of the patients, can be analyzed by exercise echocardiography. Exercise echocardiography can reveal instantaneous changes in myocardial ischemia during exercise. Regional and global left ventricular performances revealed by exercise radionuclide angiocardiography can lead us to a new interpretation of an exercise ECG. (author)

  10. Significance of magnetic resonance imaging for early rheumatoid arthritis activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Y Pogozeva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess possibility of magnetic resonance image (MRI application for rheu- matoid arthritis (RA activity and severity assessment.Material and methods. 100 pts with RA who fulfilled the 1987 ACR criteria with disease duration less than 12 months were included. Standard clinical examination with evaluation of tender and swollen joint counts, acute phase markers, hand and foot X-ray and hand MRI with 0,2 T Artoscan apparatus (ESAOTE Biomedica, Italy were performed.Results. MRI showed hand joint synovitis in 94,5%, erosions – in 67,3% of cases. X-ray examination revealed erosions in only 20,8% of pts. Localization of erosions revealed by X-ray and MRI coincided in 36,4% of cases and in 61,8% of pts erosions were detected only by MRI. MRI confirmed clinical conclusion about presence or absence of metacarpophalangeal and wrist joint synovitis in 64,5% and 74,5% of cases respectively. In8,2% and 21,8% MRI revealed signs of synovitis in clinically intact joints. MRI synovitis score correlated with clinical and laboratory measures of disease activity – DAS 28 (r=0,37, p=0,001, CRP(r=0,30, p=0,001, ESR (r=0,42, p=0,001, HAQ (r=0,24, p=0,001. Weak correlation was revealed between ESR and presence of erosions (r=0,29, CRP, ESR and MRI signs of bone marrow edema (r=0,27, p=0,005 and r=0,29, p=0,002 respectively. Relationship between laboratory and clinical features was weaker and referred only to CRP level and swollen joint count (p=0,05.Conclusion. MRI signs may be used as additional and independent measures of inflammatory activity (particularly synovitis score and severity of RA

  11. Significance of interfacet distance, facet joint orientation, and lumbar lordosis in spondylolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sang-Bong; Lee, Sungjoon; Kim, Hoon; Lee, Sun-Ho; Kim, Eun Sang; Eoh, Whan

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal the association between lumbar spondylolysis and several radiologic parameters, which had been suggested to be significant. The authors examine interfacet distance (IFD), facet joint orientation (FJO), and lumbar segmental lordosis (LSL) all together on the basis of lumbar computed tomography (CT) scan of 35 patients with L5 spondylolysis and 36 unaffected control groups. Thirty-five Korean military recruits, aged 19-23 (mean 20.9 years), were diagnosed as L5 spondylolysis by lumber CT scans. As a control group, 36 male Korean military recruits, aged 18-25 (mean 21.3 years), were reconfirmed as not affected by lumbar spondylolysis by CT scan when they visited our hospital complaining of back pain. This study compares IFD, FJO, and LSL for each lumbar segment between the spondylolytic and unaffected groups. We also propose the use of normal mean data of IFD, FJO, and LSL of lumbar vertebrae from 36 Korean young military recruits because each measurement has power as an absolute value, like data from an osteologic collection in other studies. Comparison of IFD between spondylolytic and unaffected individuals reveals significant differences at the L3, L4, and L5 level (P = 0.0384, P = 0.0219, and P spondylolysis, the increase of IFD from L4 to S1 was less pronounced (P spondylolysis and individuals without pars defect on L5. In the spondylolysis group, and the increase of IFD from L4 to S1 was less pronounced and the LSL at L5-S1 was more lordotic. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Clinical significance of lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jing-Yu; Liang, Han

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer, one of the most common malignancies in the world, frequently reveals lymph node, peritoneum, and liver metastases. Most of gastric cancer patients present with lymph node metastasis when they were initially diagnosed or underwent surgical resection, which results in poor prognosis. Both the depth of tumor invasion and lymph node involvement are considered as the most important prognostic predictors of gastric cancer. Although extended lymphadenectomy was not considered a survival benefit procedure and was reported to be associated with high mortality and morbidity in two randomized controlled European trials, it showed significant superiority in terms of lower locoregional recurrence and disease related deaths compared to limited lymphadenectomy in a 15-year follow-up study. Almost all clinical investigators have reached a consensus that the predictive efficiency of the number of metastatic lymph nodes is far better than the extent of lymph node metastasis for the prognosis of gastric cancer worldwide, but other nodal metastatic classifications of gastric cancer have been proposed as alternatives to the number of metastatic lymph nodes for improving the predictive efficiency for patient prognosis. It is still controversial over whether the ratio between metastatic and examined lymph nodes is superior to the number of metastatic lymph nodes in prognostic evaluation of gastric cancer. Besides, the negative lymph node count has been increasingly recognized to be an important factor significantly associated with prognosis of gastric cancer. PMID:24744586

  13. Examining Application Components to Reveal Android Malware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    classifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2.2 Kolter Maloof experiment results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.3 Review of...samples in their database and may not identify previously unknown samples that DroidRanger could. 2.5 n-grams in Malware Detection Kolter and Maloof...calculate the areas under the ROC curves shown in Table 2.2. Table 2.2: Kolter Maloof experiment results Method AUC Boosted Decision Trees 0.9958±0.0024

  14. Examination of new environmental control applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Claude; Drouin, Gilbert; Routhier, François

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the application of new Environmental Control Systems (ECSs) in the homes of users and caregivers. The research questions were: (1) Can new ECS applications improve the activities of daily living (ADL) of people with significant functional limitations who require personal assistance? (2) Can new ECS applications replace home services and lessen caregiver burden? To answer these questions, user satisfaction regarding ECS applications, impact on ADL, technical performance, and caregiver burden were examined. This collaborative investigation involving a local community health care center, a telephone monitoring service, an industrial partner, and a university research team used a case study approach. Five users with moderate cognitive problems or significant functional limitations who required personal assistance were chosen, along with their caregivers, for a 3-month in-home trial to test new ECS alternatives. The ECS in the study featured remote control functions (e.g., door lock release, outside intercom), specific verbal reminders (e.g., reminders to turn off stove elements), and automatic functions (e.g., night-lights in the bathroom and hallway). Information was collected in the users' homes with three standardized questionnaires and a company-designed questionnaire. The overall technical performance of the ECS was found to be in most cases moderately efficient. Participant satisfaction revealed that ECS alternatives needed improvement with respect to the service aspects such as follow-up services and repair/servicing. Caregiver burden was lessened for psychological aspects but not for physical tasks. Users seemed to have a positive perception of the impact of the ECS on many of their ADL. We learned six lessons from this 15-month case study, namely: (1) the use of remote control by people with moderate cognitive impairments was difficult; (2) verbal reminders were greatly appreciated; (3) the automatic ECS applications needed

  15. Super-resolution structure of DNA significantly differs in buccal cells of controls and Alzheimer's patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Angeles; Huang, David; Righolt, Amanda; Righolt, Christiaan; Kalaw, Maria Carmela; Mathur, Shubha; McAvoy, Elizabeth; Anderson, James; Luedke, Angela; Itorralba, Justine; Mai, Sabine

    2017-09-01

    The advent of super-resolution microscopy allowed for new insights into cellular and physiological processes of normal and diseased cells. In this study, we report for the first time on the super-resolved DNA structure of buccal cells from patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) versus age- and gender-matched healthy, non-caregiver controls. In this super-resolution study cohort of 74 participants, buccal cells were collected and their spatial DNA organization in the nucleus examined by 3D Structured Illumination Microscopy (3D-SIM). Quantitation of the super-resolution DNA structure revealed that the nuclear super-resolution DNA structure of individuals with AD significantly differs from that of their controls (p structure of AD significantly differs in mild, moderate, and severe disease with respect to the DNA-containing and DNA-free/poor spaces. We conclude that whole genome remodeling is a feature of buccal cells in AD. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. PCR reveals significantly higher rates of Trypanosoma cruzi infection than microscopy in the Chagas vector, Triatoma infestans: High rates found in Chuquisaca, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucero David E

    2007-06-01

    ' and TCZ2 (5' – CCT CCA AGC AGC GGA TAG TTC AGG – 3' primers. Amplicons were chromatographed on a 2% agarose gel with a 100 bp size standard, stained with ethidium bromide and viewed with UV fluorescence. For both the microscopy and PCR assays, we calculated sensitivity (number of positives by a method divided by the number of positives by either method and discrepancy (one method was negative and the other was positive at the locality, life stage and habitat level. The degree of agreement between PCR and microscopy was determined by calculating Kappa (k values with 95% confidence intervals. Results We observed a high prevalence of T. cruzi infection in T. infestans (81.16% by PCR and 56.52% by microscopy and discovered that PCR is significantly more sensitive than microscopic observation. The overall degree of agreement between the two methods was moderate (Kappa = 0.43 ± 0.07. The level of infection is significantly different among communities; however, prevalence was similar among habitats and life stages. Conclusion PCR was significantly more sensitive than microscopy in all habitats, developmental stages and localities in Chuquisaca, Bolivia. Overall we observed a high prevalence of T. cruzi infection in T. infestans in this area of Bolivia; however, microscopy underestimated infection at all levels examined.

  17. A Survey of Electronic Serials Managers Reveals Diversity in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Costello

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Branscome, B. A. (2013. Management of electronic serials in academic libraries: The results of an online survey. Serials Review, 39(4, 216-226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.serrev.2013.10.004 Abstract Objective – To examine industry standards for the management of electronic serials and measure the adoption of electronic serials over print. Design – Survey questionnaire. Setting – Email lists aimed at academic librarians working in serials management. Subjects – 195 self-selected subscribers to serials email lists. Methods – The author created a 20 question survey that consisted primarily of closed-ended questions pertaining to the collection demographics, staff, budget, and tools of serials management groups in academic libraries. The survey was conducted via Survey Monkey and examined using the analytical features of the tool. Participants remained anonymous and the survey questions did not ask them to reveal identifiable information about their libraries. Main Results – Collection demographics questions revealed that 78% of surveyed librarians estimated that print-only collections represented 40% or fewer of their serials holdings. The author observed diversity in the factors that influence print to digital transitions in academic libraries. However 71.5% of participants indicated that publisher technology support like IP authentication was required before adopting digital subscriptions. A lack of standardization also marked serials workflows, department responsibilities, and department titles. The author did not find a correlation between serials budget and the enrollment size of the institution. Participants reported that they used tools from popular serials management vendors like Serials Solutions, Innovative Interfaces, EBSCO, and Ex Libris, but most indicated that they used more than one tool for serials management. Participants specified 52 unique serials management products used in their libraries. Conclusion

  18. Clinical significance of the fabella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodevski, A.; Lazarova-Tosovska, D.; Zhivadinovik, J.; Lazareska, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: There is variable number of sesamoid bones in the human body; one of them is fabella, located in the tendon of the gastrocnemius muscle. Aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of occurrence of fabella in the Macedonian population and to discuss about clinical importance of this bone. Materials and methods: We retrospectively examined radiographs of 53 patients who had knee exams undertaken for a variety of clinical reasons, performed as a part of their medical treatment. Over a time span of six months, 53 patients (38 males and 15 females, age range 19-60 years, mean age of 36.7±12.3 years) were examined. Results: In seven (13.2%) patients of 53 analyzed reports, fabella was found in the lateral tendon of gastrocnemius muscle. We did not find a significant gender or side difference in the appearance of fabella. Conclusion: Although anatomic studies emphasized a lack of significance of the fabella, this bone has been associated with a spectrum of pathology affecting the knee as fabellar syndrome, perineal nerve injury and fracture. We should think of this sesamoid bone while performing diagnostic and surgical procedures

  19. The significance of recruiting underrepresented minorities in medicine: an examination of the need for effective approaches used in admissions by higher education institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obed Figueroa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the significance of recruiting underrepresented minorities in medicine (URM. This would include African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans. The research findings support the belief that URMs, upon graduating, are more likely to become practitioners in underserved communities, thereby becoming a resource that prompts us to find effective ways to help increase their college enrollments statewide. This paper analyzes the recruitment challenges for institutions, followed by a review of creative and effective approaches used by organizations and universities. The results have shown positive outcomes averaging a 50% increase in minority enrollments and retention. In other areas, such as cognitive development, modest gains were achieved in programs that were shorter in duration. The results nevertheless indicated steps in the right direction inspiring further program developments.

  20. A Validation Study of the Japanese Version of the Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-Revised

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    Kelssy Hitomi dos Santos Kawata

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to validate the Japanese version of the Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R [Mori: Japanese Edition of Hodges JR’s Cognitive Assessment for Clinicians, 2010] designed to detect dementia, and to compare its diagnostic accuracy with that of the Mini-Mental State Examination. The ACE-R was administered to 85 healthy individuals and 126 patients with dementia. The reliability assessment revealed a strong correlation in both groups. The internal consistency was excellent (α-coefficient = 0.88. Correlation with the Clinical Dementia Rating sum of boxes score was significant (rs = –0.61, p < 0.001. The area under the curve was 0.98 for the ACE-R and 0.96 for the Mini-Mental State Examination. The cut-off score of 80 showed a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 94%. Like the original ACE-R and the versions designed for other languages, the Japanese version of the ACE-R is a reliable and valid test for the detection of dementia.

  1. {sup 1}H NMR-based metabolic profiling reveals inherent biological variation in yeast and nematode model systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeto, Samuel S. W.; Reinke, Stacey N.; Lemire, Bernard D., E-mail: bernard.lemire@ualberta.ca [University of Alberta, Department of Biochemistry, School of Molecular and Systems Medicine (Canada)

    2011-04-15

    The application of metabolomics to human and animal model systems is poised to provide great insight into our understanding of disease etiology and the metabolic changes that are associated with these conditions. However, metabolomic studies have also revealed that there is significant, inherent biological variation in human samples and even in samples from animal model systems where the animals are housed under carefully controlled conditions. This inherent biological variability is an important consideration for all metabolomics analyses. In this study, we examined the biological variation in {sup 1}H NMR-based metabolic profiling of two model systems, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Using relative standard deviations (RSD) as a measure of variability, our results reveal that both model systems have significant amounts of biological variation. The C. elegans metabolome possesses greater metabolic variance with average RSD values of 29 and 39%, depending on the food source that was used. The S. cerevisiae exometabolome RSD values ranged from 8% to 12% for the four strains examined. We also determined whether biological variation occurs between pairs of phenotypically identical yeast strains. Multivariate statistical analysis allowed us to discriminate between pair members based on their metabolic phenotypes. Our results highlight the variability of the metabolome that exists even for less complex model systems cultured under defined conditions. We also highlight the efficacy of metabolic profiling for defining these subtle metabolic alterations.

  2. Neglect Of Parameter Estimation Uncertainty Can Significantly Overestimate Structural Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rózsás Árpád

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Parameter estimation uncertainty is often neglected in reliability studies, i.e. point estimates of distribution parameters are used for representative fractiles, and in probabilistic models. A numerical example examines the effect of this uncertainty on structural reliability using Bayesian statistics. The study reveals that the neglect of parameter estimation uncertainty might lead to an order of magnitude underestimation of failure probability.

  3. Structured Evaluation of Glioma Patients by an Occupational Therapist-Is Our Clinical Examination Enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyschlag, Christian Franz; Kerschbaumer, Johannes; Pinggera, Daniel; Bacher, Gabriele; Mur, Erich; Thomé, Claudius

    2017-07-01

    Preservation of neurologic function is mandatory when offering a surgical intervention to patients with low-grade gliomas (LGGs), given that the goal of any treatment is the patient's return to their normal everyday life. To determine whether a structured evaluation by an occupational therapist can reveal deficits that might be overseen in routine clinical examination of patients with a surgically treated LGG. A total of 20 patients with radiographically suspected LGG were examined in a standardized fashion at 3 stages: preoperatively, postoperatively, and 3 months thereafter. Results were analyzed descriptively. A total of 19 patients (95%) showed no postoperative motor deficit; one suffered from akinesia due to supplementary motor area involvement and demonstrated a transient deficit with manifestation on the first postoperative day. Patients with eloquent LGGs, involving speech (n = 6, 30%), exhibited different transient speech disturbances according to the location of the lesion. Structured testing revealed a postoperative worsening of movement mirroring (upper extremity) and finger discrimination (sensory) in 5 of 20 patients (25%). Force meter evaluation of the upper extremity was decreased significantly postoperatively for the affected hemisphere, even though motor deficits were absent in most patients. The action research arm test detected deterioration in more than one half of the patients postoperatively. Patients recovered from these deficits within the first 3 months. Routine clinical examination and neuropsychological evaluation fail to detect mild deficits in sensory function, reactivity, and apraxia, which may have a serious impact on patients' ability to return to their normal lives and work. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Selecting and Hiring Psychologically Fit Probation Officers: A Focused Examination of the PEPQ / PSR Plus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don Scott Herrmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Selecting and hiring the most psychologically fit probation officers is of utmost importance to the judiciary, court administration and the public good.  This study examined the predictive validity of the PsychEval Personality Questionnaire / Protective Service Report Plus (PEPQ / PSR Plus in its ability to predict job performance in a combined cohort of preemployment and incumbent probation officer candidates.  Analyses revealed a statistically significant ability to predict performance problems, demonstrating that the PEPQ / PRS Plus is a valid and clinically useful psychological screening tool for the assessment and selection of probation officer candidates.

  5. Noticing numeracy now! Examining changes in preservice teachers' noticing, knowledge, and attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Molly H.; Thomas, Jonathan; Schack, Edna O.; Jong, Cindy; Tassell, Janet

    2017-11-01

    This study examined the impact of an intervention, focused on professional noticing of children's conceptual development in whole number and arithmetic reasoning, on preservice elementary teachers' (PSETs') professional noticing skills, attitudes toward mathematics, and mathematical knowledge for teaching mathematics. A video-based professional noticing module, situated in the pedagogies of practice framework, was used with 224 PSETs from five universities. Comparison data was also collected with similar groups not participating in the instructional module. Through pre- and post-assessments, findings indicated that PSETs can develop sound professional noticing skills as a result of participation in a video-based module. The impact on attitudes toward mathematics was less convincing as significant changes were revealed in intervention as well as comparison groups. We hypothesized the potential for professional noticing of children's mathematical thinking to serve as a mechanism for increasing the capabilities of PSETs to negotiate the complexities of mathematics teaching and learning; however, mathematics knowledge for teaching showed no significant increase for either group.

  6. Noticing numeracy now! Examining changes in preservice teachers' noticing, knowledge, and attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Molly H.; Thomas, Jonathan; Schack, Edna O.; Jong, Cindy; Tassell, Janet

    2018-06-01

    This study examined the impact of an intervention, focused on professional noticing of children's conceptual development in whole number and arithmetic reasoning, on preservice elementary teachers' (PSETs') professional noticing skills, attitudes toward mathematics, and mathematical knowledge for teaching mathematics. A video-based professional noticing module, situated in the pedagogies of practice framework, was used with 224 PSETs from five universities. Comparison data was also collected with similar groups not participating in the instructional module. Through pre- and post-assessments, findings indicated that PSETs can develop sound professional noticing skills as a result of participation in a video-based module. The impact on attitudes toward mathematics was less convincing as significant changes were revealed in intervention as well as comparison groups. We hypothesized the potential for professional noticing of children's mathematical thinking to serve as a mechanism for increasing the capabilities of PSETs to negotiate the complexities of mathematics teaching and learning; however, mathematics knowledge for teaching showed no significant increase for either group.

  7. AGR-1 Compact 4-1-1 Post-Irradiation Examination Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demkowicz, Paul Andrew [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Harp, Jason M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Winston, Philip L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ploger, Scott A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); van Rooyen, Isabella J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    -125, and Zr-95 were significantly less than 1.0. However, as no significant release of these fission products from compacts was noted during previous analysis of the AGR-1 capsule components, the low M/C ratios are most likely an indication of a bias in the inventories predicted by physics simulations of the AGR-1 experiment. The distribution of Ag-110m M/C ratios was centered on a value of 1.02 and was fairly broad (standard deviation of 0.18, with values as high as 1.42 and as low as 0.68). Based on all data gathered to date, it is believed that silver retention in the particles was on average relatively high, but that the broad distribution in values among the particles represents significant variation in the inventory of Ag-110m generated in the particles. Ceramographic analysis of particle cross-sections revealed many of the characteristic microstructures often observed in irradiated AGR-1 particles from other fuel compacts. Palladium-rich fission product clusters were observed in the IPyC and SiC layers near the IPyC-SiC interface of three Compact 4-1-1 particle cross-sections. In spite of the presence of fission product clusters in the SiC layer, no significant corrosion or degradation of the layer was observed in any of the particles examined.

  8. Safety and reliability of the insertable Reveal XT recorder in patients undergoing 3 Tesla brain magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeusler, Karl Georg; Koch, Lydia; Ueberreiter, Juliane; Coban, Nalan; Safak, Erdal; Kunze, Claudia; Villringer, Kersten; Endres, Matthias; Schultheiss, Heinz-Peter; Fiebach, Jochen B; Schirdewan, Alexander

    2011-03-01

    Up to now there is little evidence about the safety and reliability of insertable cardiac monitors (ICMs) in patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The purpose of this prospective single-center study (MACPAF; clinicaltrials.govNCT01061931), which we are currently performing, was to evaluate these issues for the ICM Reveal XT at a 3 Tesla MRI scanner in patients undergoing serial brain MRI. We present an interim analysis including 62 brain MRI examinations in 24 patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation bearing the Reveal XT. All patients were interviewed for potential ICM-associated clinical symptoms during and after MRI examination. According to the study protocol, data from the Reveal XT were transmitted before and after the MRI examination. All patients were clinically asymptomatic during the MRI procedure. Moreover, the reliability (ability to detect signals, battery status) of the Reveal XT was unaffected, except for one MRI-induced artifact that was recorded by the ICM, mimicking a narrow complex tachycardia, as similarly recorded in a further study patient bearing the forerunner ICM Reveal DX. No loss of ICM data was observed after the MRI examination. The 3 Tesla brain MRI scanning is safe for patients bearing the ICM Reveal XT and does not alloy reliability of the Reveal XT itself. MRI-induced artifacts occur rarely but have to be taken into account. Copyright © 2011 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Postirradiation Examination Of U3O8-AL Plate Type Dispersion Fuel Element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasution-Hasbullah; Sugondo; Amin, D.L.; Siti-Amini

    1996-01-01

    Postirradiation examination of plate type spent fuel element RIE-01 has been carried out in order to observer its physical changes and performance under irradiation in the reactor. The irradiation has been time more than two years with a declared burnup of 51.04 %. The examination included visual and dimensional measurement, measurement of burn-up distribution, wipe test and metallographic analysis. The results showed that all fuel plates retained their integrity. The colour changes were occurred on most of the plates significant suggesting that it was generated from the oxide layer formation. From gamma-scanning examination it could be deducted that the highest burn-up distribution of the plate was at position of 30 cm from the bottom. A more homogeneous distribution was found in the middle plate of the bundle. The increased plate thickness, as revealed by dimensional measurements as in agreement with the burn-up distribution pattern. Despite the changes observed in could be concluded that all changes occurred were still within the allowable limits and therefore it can recommended that an increase of the burn-up level above 51,04 % is still quite possible

  10. Bedside examination for vestibular screening in occupational medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Zamysłowska-Szmytke

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of bedside examination for screening of vestibular and balance system for occupational medicine purposes. Study group comprised 165 patients referred to Audiology and Phoniatric Clinic due to vestibular and/or balance problems. Caloric canal paresis of 19% was the cut off value to divide patients into 43 caloric-positive vestibular subjects and 122 caloric-negative patients. The latter group comprised 79 subjects revealing abnormalities of videonystagmographic (VNG oculomotor tests (central group and 43 subjects with normal VNG. Material and Methods: Vestibular and balance symptoms were collected. Five tests were included to bedside examination: Romberg and Unterberger tests, Head Impulse Test (HIT, Dynamic Visual Acuity (DVA and gaze nystagmus assessment. Results: Vestibular and balance symptoms were reported by 82% of vestibular, 73% of central and 40% of VNG-normal patients. Thirteen out of 18 VNG-normal but symptomatic subjects (73% had abnormal tests in clinical assessment. The sensitivity of bedside test set for vestibular pathology was 88% as compared to caloric test and 68% for central pathology as compared to VNG oculomotor tests. Conclusions: The combination of 5 bedside tests reveal satisfactory sensitivity to detect vestibular abnormalities. Bedside examination abnormalities are highly correlated with vestibular/balance symptoms, regardless the normal results of VNG. Thus, this method should be recommended for occupational medicine purposes.

  11. Clinical significance of dental root canal microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, B P; Lilley, J D; Drucker, D B

    1996-01-01

    Previous work by this group has shown that a significant association exists between pain and the presence of either Prevotella or Peptostreptococcus spp. in dental root canals. The aim of this study was to examine a more extensive series of canals microbiologically, to determine whether any other particular endodontic symptoms or clinical signs showed specific associations with individual bacterial species. Seventy root canals were examined microbiologically and clinical data collected to investigate in detail such associations. Of the canals studied, 37 were associated with pain, 49 with tenderness to percussion, 23 with swelling, six with purulent exudate and 57 presented with wet root canals. Anaerobes were isolated from 70.3% of painful canals and from 29.7% of pain-free canals. Significant associations were found between (a) pain and either Prevotella spp. or peptostreptococci, both with P spp. (P Eubacterium spp. (P spp. or Pstr. micros, both with P spp. (each P Eubacterium, Peptostreptococcus, Prevotella or Propionibacterium (each P < 0.05). It was concluded that several different endodontic clinical signs and symptoms are significantly associated with specific bacterial species.

  12. The Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire: reliability and validity of the Italian version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calugi, Simona; Milanese, Chiara; Sartirana, Massimiliano; El Ghoch, Marwan; Sartori, Federica; Geccherle, Eleonora; Coppini, Andrea; Franchini, Cecilia; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2017-09-01

    To examine the validity and reliability of a new Italian language version of the latest edition of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q 6.0). The sixth edition of the EDE-Q was translated into Italian and administered to 264 Italian-speaking inpatient and outpatient (257 females in their mid-20s) with eating disorder (75.4% anorexia nervosa) and 216 controls (205 females). Internal consistency was high for both the global EDE-Q and all subscale scores. Test-retest reliability was good to excellent (0.66-0.83) for global and subscale scores, and for items assessing key behavioral features of eating disorders (0.55-0.91). Patients with an eating disorder displayed significantly higher EDE-Q scores than controls, demonstrating the good criterion validity of the tool. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a good fit for a modified seven-item three-factor structure. The study showed the good psychometric properties of the new Italian version of the EDE-Q 6.0, and validated its use in Italian eating disorder patients, particularly in young females with anorexia nervosa.

  13. Affective significance enhances covert attention: roles of anxiety and word familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Manuel G; Eysenck, Michael W

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the processing of emotional words by covert attention, threat-related, positive, and neutral word primes were presented parafoveally (2.2 degrees away from fixation) for 150 ms, under gaze-contingent foveal masking, to prevent eye fixations. The primes were followed by a probe word in a lexical-decision task. In Experiment 1, results showed a parafoveal threat-anxiety superiority: Parafoveal prime threat words facilitated responses to probe threat words for high-anxiety individuals, in comparison with neutral and positive words, and relative to low-anxiety individuals. This reveals an advantage in threat processing by covert attention, without differences in overt attention. However, anxiety was also associated with greater familiarity with threat words, and the parafoveal priming effects were significantly reduced when familiarity was covaried out. To further examine the role of word knowledge, in Experiment 2, vocabulary and word familiarity were equated for low- and high-anxiety groups. In these conditions, the parafoveal threat-anxiety advantage disappeared. This suggests that the enhanced covert-attention effect depends on familiarity with words.

  14. Body Esteem and Self-examination in British Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Gayle; Dewhurst, Anne M

    2013-06-01

    Breast and testicular cancers affect a substantial and increasing proportion of the global population. Self-examination encourages early detection and treatment of these cancers, which positively impacts on patient quality of life and survival. The present study investigated the role of body esteem in breast and testicular self-examination. Men (N = 60) and women (N = 90) recruited from a British University completed the body esteem scale and either the testicular self-examination or breast self-examination questionnaire. Logistic regression models revealed that body esteem predicted women's intention to engage in breast self-examination. Women with higher levels of sexual attractiveness and those with lower levels of weight concern were more likely to report that they would regularly self-examine in the future. Body esteem did not however, distinguish between those women that did or did not currently self-examine or predict men's current or intended testicular self-examination. The findings have implications for the promotion of self-examination and highlight an emerging area of preventive health research.

  15. The Significance of the Nursery School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesell, Arnold

    2017-01-01

    From the standpoint of mental health and perhaps even from the standpoint of human culture, the complete realization of the educational possibilities of the preschool child is of foundational significance. Normative and comparative studies performed at a psychological clinic at Yale examining norms of development in children from one month to five…

  16. Stressing Success: Examining Hmong Student Success in Career and Technical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen M. Iannarelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines factors affecting the academic performance of Hmong students at Chippewa Valley Technical College in Eau Claire, WI. Factors specifically analyzed for their impact upon student success are socioeconomic status, family support, the use of academic support programs, and the influence of agents of socialization. Through the use of archival institutional data, Hmong students were compared to white students at CVTC in terms of their relative grade point averages, course completion rates, and retention rates. Data revealed significant disparities in grade point average performance between Hmong and white students. The data also showed that eligibility for financial aid was significantly higher among Hmong students, and that this difference was commensurate with educational performance gaps between the two groups. Additionally, online surveys were used to assess family support while attending CVTC, the role of academic support programs, and influential agents of socialization. Gender differences in grade point average performance and socialization also were analyzed. Implications of the study’s findings are discussed and recommendations for improving the performance of Hmong students are provided.

  17. Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction: reducing dose while preserving image quality in the pediatric head CT examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKnight, Colin D.; Watcharotone, Kuanwong; Ibrahim, Mohannad; Christodoulou, Emmanuel; Baer, Aaron H.; Parmar, Hemant A. [University of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Over the last decade there has been escalating concern regarding the increasing radiation exposure stemming from CT exams, particularly in children. Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) is a relatively new and promising tool to reduce radiation dose while preserving image quality. While encouraging results have been found in adult head and chest and body imaging, validation of this technique in pediatric population is limited. The objective of our study was to retrospectively compare the image quality and radiation dose of pediatric head CT examinations obtained with ASIR compared to pediatric head CT examinations without ASIR in a large patient population. Retrospective analysis was performed on 82 pediatric head CT examinations. This group included 33 pediatric head CT examinations obtained with ASIR and 49 pediatric head CT examinations without ASIR. Computed tomography dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) was recorded on all examinations. Quantitative analysis consisted of standardized measurement of attenuation and the standard deviation at the bilateral centrum semiovale and cerebellar white matter to evaluate objective noise. Qualitative analysis consisted of independent assessment by two radiologists in a blinded manner of gray-white differentiation, sharpness and overall diagnostic quality. The average CTDI{sub vol} value of the ASIR group was 21.8 mGy (SD = 4.0) while the average CTDI{sub vol} for the non-ASIR group was 29.7 mGy (SD = 13.8), reflecting a statistically significant reduction in CTDI{sub vol} in the ASIR group (P < 0.01). There were statistically significant reductions in CTDI for the 3- to 12-year-old ASIR group as compared to the 3- to 12-year-old non-ASIR group (21.5 mGy vs. 30.0 mGy; P = 0.004) as well as statistically significant reductions in CTDI for the >12-year-old ASIR group as compared to the >12-year-old non-ASIR group (29.7 mGy vs. 49.9 mGy; P = 0.0002). Quantitative analysis revealed no significant difference in the

  18. Students’ performance in the different clinical skills assessed in OSCE: what does it reveal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joong Hiong Sim

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare students’ performance in the different clinical skills (CSs assessed in the objective structured clinical examination. Methods: Data for this study were obtained from final year medical students’ exit examination (n=185. Retrospective analysis of data was conducted using SPSS. Means for the six CSs assessed across the 16 stations were computed and compared. Results: Means for history taking, physical examination, communication skills, clinical reasoning skills (CRSs, procedural skills (PSs, and professionalism were 6.25±1.29, 6.39±1.36, 6.34±0.98, 5.86±0.99, 6.59±1.08, and 6.28±1.02, respectively. Repeated measures ANOVA showed there was a significant difference in the means of the six CSs assessed [F(2.980, 548.332=20.253, p<0.001]. Pairwise multiple comparisons revealed significant differences between the means of the eight pairs of CSs assessed, at p<0.05. Conclusions: CRSs appeared to be the weakest while PSs were the strongest, among the six CSs assessed. Students’ unsatisfactory performance in CRS needs to be addressed as CRS is one of the core competencies in medical education and a critical skill to be acquired by medical students before entering the workplace. Despite its challenges, students must learn the skills of clinical reasoning, while clinical teachers should facilitate the clinical reasoning process and guide students’ clinical reasoning development.

  19. Significance of reheat cracks to the integrity of pressure vessels for light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canonico, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Reheat cracks usually manifest themselves as macroscopic defects, which are centimeters long and deep, and are detectable by the usual nondestructive examination (NDE) procedures or as microscopic grain boundary decohesions (GBD) that are beyond the limit of detection by commercial NDE procedures. This report has concentrated on the significance of the microscopic cracks that may go undetected. The probability that GBD exist in the heat-affected zones (HAZ) of weldments of pressure vessel steels is high; particularly in SA 508 Class 2 weldments. A sample of the HAZ from the prolongation-weldment from the Heavy Section Steel Technology program Intermediate Test Vessel (ITV) No. 4 was examined by the Staatliche Materialprufungsanstalt (MPA). They reported GBD 5 mm (0.2 in.) long. This prompted an examination of the HAZ from the ITV vessel that had been tested to failure at 24 0 C (75 0 F). During testing, the region of the weld which contained the flaw that initiated the failure was strained up to 0.5%. A metallographic examination of this region of the weldment revealed GBD, but none of the size reported by the MPA. Further, there was no evidence that the GBD had extended as a consequence of the tests. Fracture toughness tests were made of the HAZ of welds from ITV-4. The electron-beam welding procedure, which permits more accurate siting of the crack, was used. Fracture toughness values in excess of 220 MPa root m (200 ksi root in.) were obtained at -18 0 C

  20. Physicochemical state of the nanotopographic surface of commercially pure titanium following anodization-hydrothermal treatment reveals significantly improved hydrophilicity and surface energy profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takebe, Jun; Ito, Shigeki; Miura, Shingo; Miyata, Kyohei; Ishibashi, Kanji

    2012-01-01

    A method of coating commercially pure titanium (cpTi) implants with a highly crystalline, thin hydroxyapatite (HA) layer using discharge anodic oxidation followed by hydrothermal treatment (Spark discharged Anodic oxidation treatment ; SA-treated cpTi) has been reported for use in clinical dentistry. We hypothesized that a thin HA layer with high crystallinity and nanostructured anodic titanium oxide film on such SA-treated cpTi implant surfaces might be a crucial function of their surface-specific potential energy. To test this, we analyzed anodic oxide (AO) cpTi and SA-treated cpTi disks by SEM and AFM. Contact angles and surface free energy of each disk surface was measured using FAMAS software. High-magnification SEM and AFM revealed the nanotopographic structure of the anodic titanium oxide film on SA-treated cpTi; however, this was not observed on the AO cpTi surface. The contact angle and surface free energy measurements were also significantly different between AO cpTi and SA-treated cpTi surfaces (Tukey's, P<0.05). These data indicated that the change of physicochemical properties of an anodic titanium oxide film with HA crystals on an SA-treated cpTi surface may play a key role in the phenomenon of osteoconduction during the process of osseointegration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Multivariate pattern classification reveals autonomic and experiential representations of discrete emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragel, Philip A; Labar, Kevin S

    2013-08-01

    Defining the structural organization of emotions is a central unresolved question in affective science. In particular, the extent to which autonomic nervous system activity signifies distinct affective states remains controversial. Most prior research on this topic has used univariate statistical approaches in attempts to classify emotions from psychophysiological data. In the present study, electrodermal, cardiac, respiratory, and gastric activity, as well as self-report measures were taken from healthy subjects during the experience of fear, anger, sadness, surprise, contentment, and amusement in response to film and music clips. Information pertaining to affective states present in these response patterns was analyzed using multivariate pattern classification techniques. Overall accuracy for classifying distinct affective states was 58.0% for autonomic measures and 88.2% for self-report measures, both of which were significantly above chance. Further, examining the error distribution of classifiers revealed that the dimensions of valence and arousal selectively contributed to decoding emotional states from self-report, whereas a categorical configuration of affective space was evident in both self-report and autonomic measures. Taken together, these findings extend recent multivariate approaches to study emotion and indicate that pattern classification tools may improve upon univariate approaches to reveal the underlying structure of emotional experience and physiological expression. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. THE DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF CLINICAL EXAMINATION AND ULTRASOUND STUDY OF ENTHESES FOR EARLY DETECTION OF PSORIATIC AND RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS: REMARC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Viktorovna Korotaeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of enthesitis can help in differentiating early psoriatic arthritis (ePsA from early rheumatoid arthritis (eRA.Objective. To estimate the diagnostic value of detecting enthesitis during clinical examination and ultrasound in ePsA and eRA.Subjects and methods. The trial included 36 patients with ePsA and 33 with eRA. Entheses were evaluated using the Leeds Enthesitis Index (LEI: lateral humeral epicondyle and medial femoral condyle (MFC, Achilles tendon insertion site (ATAP, and plantar fascia (PF point on the right and on the left. Enthesitis (on ultrasound presented with thickening, reduced echo density, and vascularization at Doppler energy imaging. DAS, DAS28, SDAI, CDAI, M±SD, Me [25th, 75th percentile], t-test, Fisher's exact test, χ2test, U test, and Spearman correlation coefficients (R were calculated; the value p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results. Clinical examination revealed enthesitis in 41.6% of the patients with ePsA and in 39.4% of those with eRA (p >0.05. No significant differences were found between ePsA and eRA according to LEI (0.5 [0; 2] and 1 [0; 2] and to LEI+PF (1 [0; 2] and 1 [0; 2], respectively. Enthesitis of MFC and PF was significantly more frequently detected in ePsA than in eRA – 12 (33.3%/2 (6.1% and 10 (27.8%/2 (6.1% patients, respectively. In eRA versus ePsA, enthesitis of MFC was more frequently found (16 (48.4% and 8 (22.2% patients, respectively. Ultrasound revealed no significant differences between the groups in enthesitis. In ePsA, there was a significant correlation between DAS, DAS28, SDAI, CDAI, LEI, and LEI+PF.Conclusion. Enthesis ultrasound cannot differentiate ePsA from eRA. Clinical examination more frequently detects enthesitis in the knee joints in eRA and in the calcaneal region in ePsA.

  3. Bridge Over an Aging Population: Examining Longitudinal Relations Among Human Resource Management, Social Support, and Employee Outcomes Among Bridge Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veth, Klaske N.; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.; Korzilius, Hubert P. L. M.; De Lange, Annet H.; Emans, Ben J. M.

    2018-01-01

    This two-wave complete panel study aims to examine human resource management (HRM) bundles of practices in relation to social support [i.e., leader–member exchange (LMX), coworker exchange (CWX)] and employee outcomes (i.e., work engagement, employability, and health), within a context of workers aged 65+. Based upon the social exchange theory and the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) framework, it was hypothesized that HRM bundles at Time 1 would increase bridge workers' outcomes at Time 2, and that this relationship would be mediated by perceptions of LMX and CWX at Time 2. Using a longitudinal design, hypotheses were tested in a unique sample of Dutch bridge employees (N = 228). Results of several structural equation modeling analyses revealed no significant associations between HRM bundles, and social support, moreover, no significant associations were found in relation to employee outcomes. However, the results of the best-fitting final model revealed the importance of the impact of social support on employee (65+) outcomes over time. PMID:29755386

  4. Bridge Over an Aging Population: Examining Longitudinal Relations Among Human Resource Management, Social Support, and Employee Outcomes Among Bridge Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veth, Klaske N; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I J M; Korzilius, Hubert P L M; De Lange, Annet H; Emans, Ben J M

    2018-01-01

    This two-wave complete panel study aims to examine human resource management (HRM) bundles of practices in relation to social support [i.e., leader-member exchange (LMX), coworker exchange (CWX)] and employee outcomes (i.e., work engagement, employability, and health), within a context of workers aged 65+. Based upon the social exchange theory and the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) framework, it was hypothesized that HRM bundles at Time 1 would increase bridge workers' outcomes at Time 2, and that this relationship would be mediated by perceptions of LMX and CWX at Time 2. Using a longitudinal design, hypotheses were tested in a unique sample of Dutch bridge employees ( N = 228). Results of several structural equation modeling analyses revealed no significant associations between HRM bundles, and social support, moreover, no significant associations were found in relation to employee outcomes. However, the results of the best-fitting final model revealed the importance of the impact of social support on employee (65+) outcomes over time.

  5. Bridge Over an Aging Population: Examining Longitudinal Relations Among Human Resource Management, Social Support, and Employee Outcomes Among Bridge Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaske N. Veth

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This two-wave complete panel study aims to examine human resource management (HRM bundles of practices in relation to social support [i.e., leader–member exchange (LMX, coworker exchange (CWX] and employee outcomes (i.e., work engagement, employability, and health, within a context of workers aged 65+. Based upon the social exchange theory and the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R framework, it was hypothesized that HRM bundles at Time 1 would increase bridge workers' outcomes at Time 2, and that this relationship would be mediated by perceptions of LMX and CWX at Time 2. Using a longitudinal design, hypotheses were tested in a unique sample of Dutch bridge employees (N = 228. Results of several structural equation modeling analyses revealed no significant associations between HRM bundles, and social support, moreover, no significant associations were found in relation to employee outcomes. However, the results of the best-fitting final model revealed the importance of the impact of social support on employee (65+ outcomes over time.

  6. Estimation of the genetically significant dose resulting from diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angerstein, W.

    1978-01-01

    Based on the average gonad dose received per examination or per film and on the frequency of x-ray examinations (36 million per annum), the mean annual gonad dose to individuals in the GDR has been determined to be 33 mR. Considering different age groups of patients and the fact that the gonad dose to children is often significantly reduced in comparison to adults, estimates of the genetically significant dose (GSD) range from 7 to 19 mR per annum. Examinations of women have accounted for about 66 per cent of the GSD. The highest contribution to the GSD result from examinations of the following organs: kidneys, colon, bile duct (only in women), lumbar spine, pelois, hips, and proximal femur. Despite their high frequency, examinations of the stomach account for only about 3 per cent of the GSD. All thorax examinations (nearly 10,000,000 per annum) contribute less than 0.5 per cent, and the most frequent x-ray examinations of the skeletal system, skull, cervical spine, and teeth account for less than 3 per cent. The GSD values obtained are comparable with those from countries such as India, Japan, Netherlands, USSR, and USA. (author)

  7. Spinal epidural hematomas examined on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rejnowski, G.; Poniatowska, R.; Kozlowski, P.

    1995-01-01

    Spinal epidural hematomas are rare pathology, caused by trauma or spontaneous. In clinical examination acute spinal cord compression is observed. MRI designations appear entirely particular. In sagittal projection, biconvex mass in the dorsal, or sometimes ventral part of the spinal canal is clearly visible. This is well delineated by the thecal sac from the cord and cauda equina. MRI investigations in 3 patients revealed corresponding with spinal bone injuries and cord edema epidural hematomas. Differential diagnosis must contain subdural hematoma and epidural neoplasms or abscess. (author)

  8. A Meta-Analysis Examining the Influence of Pro-Eating Disorder Websites on Body Image and Eating Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Lowy, Alice S; Halperin, Daniella M; Franko, Debra L

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that exposure to pro-eating disorder websites might increase eating pathology; however, the magnitude of this effect is unknown. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effect of exposure to pro-eating disorder websites on body image and eating pathology. Studies examining the relationship between exposure to pro-eating disorder websites and eating pathology-related outcomes were included. The systematic review identified nine studies. Findings revealed significant effect sizes of exposure to pro-eating disorder websites on body image dissatisfaction (five studies), d = .41, p = .003; dieting (six studies), d = .68, p eating disorder websites on body image and eating pathology, highlighting the need for enforceable regulation of these websites. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  9. Predicting Scheduling and Attending for an Oral Cancer Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepperd, James A.; Emanuel, Amber S.; Howell, Jennifer L.; Logan, Henrietta L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Oral and pharyngeal cancer is highly treatable if diagnosed early, yet late diagnosis is commonplace apparently because of delays in undergoing an oral cancer examination. Purpose We explored predictors of scheduling and attending an oral cancer examination among a sample of Black and White men who were at high risk for oral cancer because they smoked. Methods During an in-person interview, participants (N = 315) from rural Florida learned about oral and pharyngeal cancer, completed survey measures, and were offered a free examination in the next week. Later, participants received a follow-up phone call to explore why they did or did not attend their examination. Results Consistent with the notion that scheduling and attending an oral cancer exam represent distinct decisions, we found that the two outcomes had different predictors. Defensive avoidance and exam efficacy predicted scheduling an examination; exam efficacy and having coping resources, time, and transportation predicted attending the examination. Open-ended responses revealed that the dominant reasons participants offered for missing a scheduled examination was conflicting obligations, forgetting, and confusion or misunderstanding about the examination. Conclusions The results suggest interventions to increase scheduling and attending an oral cancer examination. PMID:26152644

  10. ROLE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF STATEMENT OF OTHER COMPREHENSIVE INCOME– IN RESPECT OF REPORTING COMPANIES’ PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildiko Orban

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A commonly accepted rule-system, which name was International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS created the framework for represent the financial performace, and other facts related to the company’s health. In the system of IFRS profit is not equal to income less expenses, this deviation led to the other comprehensive income, OCI term. IFRS have created the term of other comprehensive income, but knowledge and using of it is not widespread. In this paper I tend to present the meaning and essence of this income category, and to reveal how it is work in corporate practice. As basis of the research, definitions and formats related to the statement of comprehensive income will be presented in the paper first. In order to get a clear picture about the differences between the income statements, I make a comparison of the IFRS and the Hungarian Accounting Act in the field of performance’s representation. As a result of my comparison I’ve stated that the EU accepted the international financial reporting standards to present the financial performance of publicly traded companies, and as EU member state it is obligatory for the Hungarian companies as well. This is the reason why Hungary’s present task is taking over the IFRS mentality. After the comparative analysis I’ve examined the Statement of other comprehensive income in the practice of 11 listed companies in the Budapest Stock Exchange. The Premium category includes those companies’ series of liquid shares, which has got broader investor base. The aim of this examination was to reveal if the most significant listed companies calculate other comprehensive income and what kind of items do they present in the statement of OCI. As a result of the research we can state that statement of other comprehensive income is part of the statement of total comprehensive income in general, and not an individual statement. Main items of the other comprehensive income of the examined companies are the

  11. Examination of human diaphragms for trichinosis, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gould, S E; Ozaki, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Kazuo

    1961-11-30

    Trichinella spiralis has been found in three species of mammals born in Hokkaido so it possibly infects other species in Japan, including man. Although examination of human diaphragms in a small series of 149 autopsies in Hiroshima and 37 autopsies in Nagasaki (by digestion, compression, and microscopic sections) failed to reveal any instance of trichinous infection, it is felt that the existence or absence of human trichinosis inJapan can be determined only by examination covering a larger series of autopsies, and performed in various parts of the country. 6 references.

  12. Observations on the significance of diagnostic findings in egg-binding of Psittaciformes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krautwald-Junghanns, M.E.; Kostka, V.M.; Hofbauer, H.

    1998-01-01

    Clinical examination of 2192 psittacine birds of both sexes revealed a prevalence of 2.74 per cent (60 birds) of egg-binding. Domesticated species easily bred in captivity were the most commonly affected; the prevalence in cockatiels (15.75 per cent), and in budgerigars (5.73 per cent). An accurate diagnosis was possible in all cases by means of an evaluation of the case history, a visual examination, palpation and radiographic and ultrasonographic examinations. The case history alone was typical in 60 per cent of the cases, and reliable diagnosis was reached with the help of a visual examination in 70 per cent of the cases. Radiographic examination provided a definitive diagnosis in 30 per cent of the cases, especially in those with shelled eggs. Medullary bone proved to be a radiographic indication of laminated and thin-shelled eggs. However, laminated and thin-shelled eggs could only be differentiated definitively from abdominal masses, salpingitis and cystic degeneration by means of ultrasonography

  13. Learning and Study Strategies Inventory subtests and factors as predictors of National Board of Chiropractic Examiners Part 1 examination performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, Christine M; Dalton, Leanne; Tepe, Rodger E

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to extend research on the relationship between chiropractic students' learning and study strategies and national board examination performance. Sixty-nine first trimester chiropractic students self-administered the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI). Linear trends tests (for continuous variables) and Mantel-Haenszel trend tests (for categorical variables) were utilized to determine if the 10 LASSI subtests and 3 factors predicted low, medium and high levels of National Board of Chiropractic Examiners (NBCE) Part 1 scores. Multiple regression was performed to predict overall mean NBCE examination scores using the 3 LASSI factors as predictor variables. Four LASSI subtests (Anxiety, Concentration, Selecting Main Ideas, Test Strategies) and one factor (Goal Orientation) were significantly associated with NBCE examination levels. One factor (Goal Orientation) was a significant predictor of overall mean NBCE examination performance. Learning and study strategies are predictive of NBCE Part 1 examination performance in chiropractic students. The current study found LASSI subtests Anxiety, Concentration, Selecting Main Ideas, and Test Strategies, and the Goal-Orientation factor to be significant predictors of NBCE scores. The LASSI may be useful to educators in preparing students for academic success. Further research is warranted to explore the effects of learning and study strategies training on GPA and NBCE performance.

  14. Examining spiritual support among African American and Caucasian Alzheimer's caregivers: A risk and resilience study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Scott E; Spurlock, Wanda R; Brown, Sandra C; Teegen, Bettina C; Geiger, Jennifer R

    2018-05-25

    Research shows African Americans at greater risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared to the Caucasian population, suggesting African American AD caregivers are rising in numbers at a greater rate than Caucasian counterparts. Over a decade ago, an article in Geriatric Nursing revealed spiritual well-being differences among these caregiver groups. The purpose of this study was a quasi-follow-up, utilizing a larger caregiver sample to test spiritual support as a moderator via a risk-and-resilience framework. Secondary data analysis from a sample of 691 AD caregivers examined data on demographics and standardized measures of spiritual support, caregiver burden, and psychological resilience. One-third of the sample reported as African American. Resilience negatively regressed, though not significantly, on caregiving burden among both groups. Spiritual support positively, significantly impacted resilience among both groups, slightly stronger among African Americans. Spiritual support did not significantly moderate risk with either group. Implications for professional healthcare practice are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Examining Gender Inequality In A High School Engineering Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegle-Crumb, Catherine; Moore, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines gender inequality within the context of an upper-level high school engineering course recently offered in Texas. Data was collected from six high schools that serve students from a variety of backgrounds. Among the almost two hundred students who enrolled in this challenge-based engineering course, females constituted a clear minority, comprising only a total of 14% of students. Quantitative analyses of surveys administered at the beginning of the school year (Fall 2011) revealed statistically significant gender gaps in personal attitudes towards engineering and perceptions of engineering climate. Specifically, we found that compared to males, females reported lower interest in and intrinsic value for engineering, and expressed less confidence in their engineering skills. Additionally, female students felt that the classroom was less inclusive and viewed engineering occupations as less progressive. Gender disparities on all of these measures did not significantly decrease by the end of the school year (Spring 2012). Findings suggest that efforts to increase the representation of women in the engineering pipeline via increasing exposure in secondary education must contend not only with obstacles to recruiting high school girls into engineering courses, but must also work to remedy gender differences in engineering attitudes within the classroom.

  16. Integrative genomic approaches to dissect clinically-significant relationships between the VDR cistrome and gene expression in primary colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Mark D; Campbell, Moray J

    2017-10-01

    Recently, we undertook a pan-cancer analyses of the nuclear hormone receptor (NR) superfamily in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and revealed that the vitamin D receptor (NR1I1/VDR) was commonly and significantly down-regulated specifically in colon adenocarcinoma cohort (COAD). To examine the consequence of down-regulated VDR expression we re-analyzed VDR chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) data from LS180 colon cancer cells (GSE31939). This analysis identified 1809 loci that displayed significant (p.adjcolon tumor suppressor, Galactin 4) had significantly shorted disease free survival. These analyses suggest that reduced expression of VDR in colon cancer (but neither loss nor mutation) changes the actions of the VDR by both dampening the expression of tumor suppressors (e.g. LGALS4) whilst either stabilizing or not down-regulating expression of oncogenes (e.g. Carbonic Anhydrase 9 (CA9)). These integrative genomic approaches are relatively generic and applicable to the study of any transcription factor. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Drilling Down: An Examination of the Boom-Crime Relationship in Resource Based Boom Counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Ruddell

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to examine the boomcrime relationship in resourcebased boom counties and to propose socioeconomic and legal measures to reduce the boomtown effect. Methods dialectical approach to cognition of social phenomena allowing to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the totality of objective and subjective factors that determined the choice of the following research methods formallogical comparativelegal survey interview focus groups generalized least squares method. Results The expansion in natural resource development in rural communities has led to a number of social problems in these places. The media community stakeholders as well as law enforcement and human service personnel have reported that the rapid growth in these communities leads to increased crime and other social ills. In order to better understand the boomcrime relationship index crimes in oil and natural gas producing counties in Montana and North Dakota were examined. Comparison of 2012 crime rates in a matched sample of counties revealed that crime rates were higher in oilimpacted counties. A prepost analysis found that violent crime in boom counties increased 18.5 between 2006 and 2012 while decreasing 25.6 in a matched sample of counties that had no oil or gas production. Inconsistent with the media portrayal of these communities as a new quotwild westquot we did not find a significant association between oil or natural gas production and property or violent crime in a series of OLS regression models. Scientific novelty for the first time the article uses index crimes in oil and natural gas producing counties in Montana and North Dakota to reveal the association between the rapid growth of towns and the crime rates. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in research and educational activity as well as for predicting the socialeconomic development of boomtowns.

  18. Evaluation of the educational value of YouTube videos about physical examination of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Samy A; Algrain, Hala A; AlKhelaif, Rana A; AlEshaiwi, Sarah M

    2013-11-13

    A number of studies have evaluated the educational contents of videos on YouTube. However, little analysis has been done on videos about physical examination. This study aimed to analyze YouTube videos about physical examination of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. It was hypothesized that the educational standards of videos on YouTube would vary significantly. During the period from November 2, 2011 to December 2, 2011, YouTube was searched by three assessors for videos covering the clinical examination of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. For each video, the following information was collected: title, authors, duration, number of viewers, and total number of days on YouTube. Using criteria comprising content, technical authority, and pedagogy parameters, videos were rated independently by three assessors and grouped into educationally useful and non-useful videos. A total of 1920 videos were screened. Only relevant videos covering the examination of adults in the English language were identified (n=56). Of these, 20 were found to be relevant to cardiovascular examinations and 36 to respiratory examinations. Further analysis revealed that 9 provided useful information on cardiovascular examinations and 7 on respiratory examinations: scoring mean 14.9 (SD 0.33) and mean 15.0 (SD 0.00), respectively. The other videos, 11 covering cardiovascular and 29 on respiratory examinations, were not useful educationally, scoring mean 11.1 (SD 1.08) and mean 11.2 (SD 1.29), respectively. The differences between these two categories were significant (P.86. A small number of videos about physical examination of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems were identified as educationally useful; these videos can be used by medical students for independent learning and by clinical teachers as learning resources. The scoring system utilized by this study is simple, easy to apply, and could be used by other researchers on similar topics.

  19. Examination of fracture surfaces using focused ion beam milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairney, J.M.; Munroe, P.R.; Schneibel, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    Composite materials consisting of an iron aluminide matrix with composition approximately Fe-40at%Al, reinforced with a volume fraction of 40--70% ceramic particles (TiC, WC, TiB 2 or ZrB 2 ), are currently being developed. Focused ion beam milling is a relatively new tool to materials science. It uses a high resolution (<5nm), energetic beam of gallium ions to selectively sputter regions of a material, whilst also functioning as a scanning ion microscope. The milling accuracy is of the order of the beam size allowing very precise sectioning to be carried out. The focused ion beam can be used to prepare highly localized cross sections which reveal the internal sub-structure of materials, avoiding detrimental processes such as deformation, or closing of existing cracks by mechanical abrasion. An area is milled from the sample such that, upon tilting, the internal structure can be imaged. The focused ion beam therefore offers a unique opportunity to examine cross-sections of the fracture surfaces in FeAl-based composites. In the present study, the focused ion beam was used to obtain cross-sections of fracture surfaces in two composite materials, in order to examine the extent of interfacial debonding and matrix deformation, thus providing more information about the mode of fracture. These cross-sections were prepared at regions where significant debonding was observed

  20. Quality control of outpatient imaging examinations in North Rhine-Westphalia. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, B.; Boettge, M.; Zaehringer, M.; Reinecke, T.; Coburger, S.; Harnischmacher, U.; Luengen, M.; Lauterbach, K.W.; Lehmacher, W.; Lackner, K.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: In the state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW), Germany, a survey was conducted on radiologic examinations ordered by general practitioners (GPs). Part II of this study aims to determine the quality of the process and outcome. The reference standard is the assessment of both radiologists and physicians without board certification in radiology working at a university hospital and in outpatient facilities. Materials and Methods: All GPs in NRW were asked to cooperate. Participating GPs filled out a questionnaire for each patient. The patients recorded the symptoms prompting the imaging examinations. The radiologists or other physicians performing the examinations were asked to provide the images and written reports and to complete a questionnaire. A file was created for each of the 394 patients with image documentation of at least one examination. Each file, which included medical history, physical findings, imaging documentation and written report, was sequentially forwarded to a board-certified radiologist and to a physician without board certification in radiology working in a university hospital and in an outpatient facility. All physicians were requested to complete a structured questionnaire for each file. Results: The referral diagnoses were rated as medically plausible in 81%, the indications for imaging found correct in 76%, the examination techniques considered appropriate in 69%, the clinical question answered in 63%, the interpretation judged medically correct in 50% and all incidental findings documented in 49%. In retrospect, 32% of the examinations were judged superfluous. The sequence of multiple examinations performed on a particular patient was rated as appropriate in 51%. The interpretation revealed specialty-related differences. The plausibility of the referral diagnoses had a significant impact on the appropriateness of subsequent diagnostic investigations. Marked deficits showed sonography, performance by non-radiologists, self

  1. Supercalculators and University Entrance Calculus Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ye Yoon; Thomas, Mike; Kiernan, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Investigates whether the use of computer algebra systems could provide a significant advantage to students taking standard university entrance calculus examinations. Indicates that supercalculators would probably provide a significant advantage, particularly for lower-achieving students. Demonstrates that it is possible to write questions in which…

  2. Bedside examination for vestibular screening in occupational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamysłowska-Szmytke, Ewa; Szostek-Rogula, Sylwia; Śliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of bedside examination for screening of vestibular and balance system for occupational medicine purposes. Study group comprised 165 patients referred to Audiology and Phoniatric Clinic due to vestibular and/or balance problems. Caloric canal paresis of 19% was the cut off value to divide patients into 43 caloric-positive vestibular subjects and 122 caloric-negative patients. The latter group comprised 79 subjects revealing abnormalities of videonystagmographic (VNG) oculomotor tests (central group) and 43 subjects with normal VNG. Vestibular and balance symptoms were collected. Five tests were included to bedside examination: Romberg and Unterberger tests, Head Impulse Test (HIT), Dynamic Visual Acuity (DVA) and gaze nystagmus assessment. Vestibular and balance symptoms were reported by 82% of vestibular, 73% of central and 40% of VNG-normal patients. Thirteen out of 18 VNG-normal but symptomatic subjects (73%) had abnormal tests in clinical assessment. The sensitivity of bedside test set for vestibular pathology was 88% as compared to caloric test and 68% for central pathology as compared to VNG oculomotor tests. The combination of 5 bedside tests reveal satisfactory sensitivity to detect vestibular abnormalities. Bedside examination abnormalities are highly correlated with vestibular/balance symptoms, regardless the normal results of VNG. Thus, this method should be recommended for occupational medicine purposes. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  3. RNA-Seq analysis during the life cycle of Cryptosporidium parvum reveals significant differential gene expression between proliferating stages in the intestine and infectious sporozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippuner, Christoph; Ramakrishnan, Chandra; Basso, Walter U; Schmid, Marc W; Okoniewski, Michal; Smith, Nicholas C; Hässig, Michael; Deplazes, Peter; Hehl, Adrian B

    2018-05-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a major cause of diarrhoea in humans and animals. There are no vaccines and few drugs available to control C. parvum. In this study, we used RNA-Seq to compare gene expression in sporozoites and intracellular stages of C. parvum to identify genes likely to be important for successful completion of the parasite's life cycle and, thereby, possible targets for drugs or vaccines. We identified 3774 protein-encoding transcripts in C. parvum. Applying a stringent cut-off of eight fold for determination of differential expression, we identified 173 genes (26 coding for predicted secreted proteins) upregulated in sporozoites. On the other hand, expression of 1259 genes was upregulated in intestinal stages (merozoites/gamonts) with a gene ontology enrichment for 63 biological processes and upregulation of 117 genes in 23 metabolic pathways. There was no clear stage specificity of expression of AP2-domain containing transcription factors, although sporozoites had a relatively small repertoire of these important regulators. Our RNA-Seq analysis revealed a new calcium-dependent protein kinase, bringing the total number of known calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) in C. parvum to 11. One of these, CDPK1, was expressed in all stages, strengthening the notion that it is a valid drug target. By comparing parasites grown in vivo (which produce bona fide thick-walled oocysts) and in vitro (which are arrested in sexual development prior to oocyst generation) we were able to confirm that genes encoding oocyst wall proteins are expressed in gametocytes and that the proteins are stockpiled rather than generated de novo in zygotes. RNA-Seq analysis of C. parvum revealed genes expressed in a stage-specific manner and others whose expression is required at all stages of development. The functional significance of these can now be addressed through recent advances in transgenics for C. parvum, and may lead to the identification of viable drug and vaccine

  4. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  5. Examination results of medical students with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendree, Jean; Snowling, Margaret J

    2011-02-01

    dyslexia is a learning disorder, the primary sign of which is significant difficulty in learning to read and spell. However, accumulating evidence suggests that many people with dyslexia can overcome their reading difficulties and enjoy high levels of educational success. There is debate about the appropriateness of different forms of summative assessment for people with dyslexia, but there is little research investigating different examination formats, particularly in higher education, including medical education. Currently, medical school examinations comprise a range of different assessments, both written and performance-based, offering an opportunity to compare performance on different formats. This study compared results between students with and without dyslexia on all summative assessment types used at one UK medical school. examination scores were collated for all summative Year 1 and 2 examinations at Hull York Medical School (HYMS) over four cohorts entering from 2004 to 2007. These included scores on two types of forced-choice question (multiple-choice and extended matching question) examinations, on short written answer examinations and on performance in a 16-station objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Results for written answers were gathered separately for basic science questions and for questions involving critical analysis and evidence-based medicine. an overall multivariate analysis of covariance (mancova) on examinations across both years controlling for gender, ethnicity and age on entry indicated that there was no significant overall effect of dyslexia on examination results. Regression analysis further showed that dyslexia was not a significant predictor on any of the examination forms in Year 1 or Year 2. there is no indication that any of the assessment methods used in HYMS, in common with many other medical schools, disadvantage students with dyslexia in comparison with their peers. In the light of these findings, we support

  6. Plato's Theories of Knowledge and Education: an Examination of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plato's Theories of Knowledge and Education: an Examination of the Interpretations of Cloete and Agyemang. ... UJAH: Unizik Journal of Arts and Humanities ... views, this article reveals some serious logical and factual errors in Cloete's interpretations, and thereby clarifies Plato's epistemology and theories of education.

  7. Modeling a Theory-Based Approach to Examine the Influence of Neurocognitive Impairment on HIV Risk Reduction Behaviors Among Drug Users in Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Shrestha, Roman; Copenhaver, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Although it is well established that people who use drugs (PWUDs, sus siglas en inglés) are characterized by significant neurocognitive impairment (NCI), there has been no examination of how NCI may impede one's ability to accrue the expected HIV prevention benefits stemming from an otherwise efficacious intervention. This paper incorporated a theoretical Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills model of health behavior change (IMB) to examine the potential influence of NCI on HIV prevention outcomes as significantly moderating the mediation defined in the original model. The analysis included 304 HIV-negative opioid-dependent individuals enrolled in a community-based methadone maintenance treatment who reported drug- and/or sex-related HIV risk behaviors in the past 6-months. Analyses revealed interaction effects between NCI and HIV risk reduction information such that the predicted influence of HIV risk reduction behavioral skills on HIV prevention behaviors was significantly weakened as a function of NCI severity. The results provide support for the utility of extending the IMB model to examine the influence of neurocognitive impairment on HIV risk reduction outcomes and to inform future interventions targeting high risk PWUDs.

  8. Examination to assess the clinical examination and documentation of spine pathology among orthopedic residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglin, Jack M; Zeller, John L; Egol, Kenneth A; Phillips, Donna P

    2017-12-01

    skills. The interns' documentation in the EMR was then scored for completeness, internal consistency, and inaccuracies. The independent review revealed objective deficits in both the orthopedic interns' history and the physical examination, as well as highlighted trends of inaccurate and incomplete documentation in the corresponding medical record. Communication skills with the patient did not meet expectations. Further, interns tended to overscore themselves, especially with regard to their performance on the physical examination (pphysical examination, and the accuracy and completeness oftheir EMR note. The study provides a valuable exercise for evaluating residents in a multifaceted, multi-milestone manner that more accurately documents residents' clinical strengths and weaknesses. The study demonstrates that orthopedic residents require further instruction on the complexities of the spinal examination. It validates a need for increased systemic support for improving resident documentation through comprehensive education and evaluation modules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Spinal Schmorl's nodes: Sagittal sectional imaging and pathological examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberstein, M.; Opeskin, K.

    1999-01-01

    The presence, location and number of Schmorl's nodes was determined in the thoracolumbar spines of 70 motor vehicle accident victims using radiographic examination of a midline sagittal section and subsequent pathological examinations, including histology. In 28% of spines, a greater number of Schmorl's nodes were identified with radiography, while in 44%, pathological examination revealed a greater number of nodes. The visibility of Schmorl's nodes was enhanced by using a sagittal radiographic approach, and, in contrast to previous work, nodes below 0.5 cm 2 were readily detected. The results of the present study offer an additional imaging technique for postmortem analysis of the spine, and support the use of sagittal MR imaging for the evaluation of this condition. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  10. Significance of deep T-wave inversions in asymptomatic athletes with normal cardiovascular examinations: practical solutions for managing the diagnostic conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M G; Sharma, S; Carré, F; Charron, P; Richard, P; O'Hanlon, R; Prasad, S K; Heidbuchel, H; Brugada, J; Salah, O; Sheppard, M; George, K P; Whyte, G; Hamilton, B; Chalabi, H

    2012-11-01

    Preparticipation screening programmes for underlying cardiac pathologies are now commonplace for many international sporting organisations. However, providing medical clearance for an asymptomatic athlete without a family history of sudden cardiac death (SCD) is especially challenging when the athlete demonstrates particularly abnormal repolarisation patterns, highly suggestive of an inherited cardiomyopathy or channelopathy. Deep T-wave inversions of ≥ 2 contiguous anterior or lateral leads (but not aVR, and III) are of major concern for sports cardiologists who advise referring team physicians, as these ECG alterations are a recognised manifestation of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). Subsequently, inverted T-waves may represent the first and only sign of an inherited heart muscle disease, in the absence of any other features and before structural changes in the heart can be detected. However, to date, there remains little evidence that deep T-wave inversions are always pathognomonic of either a cardiomyopathy or an ion channel disorder in an asymptomatic athlete following long-term follow-up. This paper aims to provide a systematic review of the prevalence of T-wave inversion in athletes and examine T-wave inversion and its relationship to structural heart disease, notably HCM and ARVC with a view to identify young athletes at risk of SCD during sport. Finally, the review proposes clinical management pathways (including genetic testing) for asymptomatic athletes demonstrating significant T-wave inversion with structurally normal hearts.

  11. Probing Genomic Aspects of the Multi-Host Pathogen Clostridium perfringens Reveals Significant Pangenome Diversity, and a Diverse Array of Virulence Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiu, Raymond; Caim, Shabhonam; Alexander, Sarah; Pachori, Purnima; Hall, Lindsay J

    2017-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is an important cause of animal and human infections, however information about the genetic makeup of this pathogenic bacterium is currently limited. In this study, we sought to understand and characterise the genomic variation, pangenomic diversity, and key virulence traits of 56 C. perfringens strains which included 51 public, and 5 newly sequenced and annotated genomes using Whole Genome Sequencing. Our investigation revealed that C. perfringens has an "open" pangenome comprising 11667 genes and 12.6% of core genes, identified as the most divergent single-species Gram-positive bacterial pangenome currently reported. Our computational analyses also defined C. perfringens phylogeny (16S rRNA gene) in relation to some 25 Clostridium species, with C. baratii and C. sardiniense determined to be the closest relatives. Profiling virulence-associated factors confirmed presence of well-characterised C. perfringens -associated exotoxins genes including α-toxin ( plc ), enterotoxin ( cpe ), and Perfringolysin O ( pfo or pfoA ), although interestingly there did not appear to be a close correlation with encoded toxin type and disease phenotype. Furthermore, genomic analysis indicated significant horizontal gene transfer events as defined by presence of prophage genomes, and notably absence of CRISPR defence systems in >70% (40/56) of the strains. In relation to antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, tetracycline resistance genes ( tet ) and anti-defensins genes ( mprF ) were consistently detected in silico ( tet : 75%; mprF : 100%). However, pre-antibiotic era strain genomes did not encode for tet , thus implying antimicrobial selective pressures in C. perfringens evolutionary history over the past 80 years. This study provides new genomic understanding of this genetically divergent multi-host bacterium, and further expands our knowledge on this medically and veterinary important pathogen.

  12. The applied model of imagery use: Examination of moderation and mediation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehn, S; Stavrou, N A M; Young, J A; Morris, T

    2016-08-01

    The applied model of mental imagery use proposed an interaction effect between imagery type and imagery ability. This study had two aims: (a) the examination of imagery ability as a moderating variable between imagery type and dispositional flow, and (b) the testing of alternative mediation models. The sample consisted of 367 athletes from Scotland and Australia, who completed the Sport Imagery Questionnaire, Sport Imagery Ability Questionnaire, and Dispositional Flow Scale-2. Hierarchical regression analysis showed direct effects of imagery use and imagery ability on flow, but no significant interaction. Mediation analysis revealed a significant indirect path, indicating a partially mediated relationship (P = 0.002) between imagery use, imagery ability, and flow. Partial mediation was confirmed when the effect of cognitive imagery use and cognitive imagery ability was tested, and a full mediation model was found between motivational imagery use, motivational imagery ability, and flow. The results are discussed in conjunction with potential future research directions on advancing theory and applications. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. IgG,kappa monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance with AL amyloidosis simulating giant cell arteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pompilian Valer Mihai

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Monoclonal gammopathies complicated by AL amyloidosis can mimic giant cell arteritis (GCA. We hereby present the case of a 63 year old woman in whom symptoms consistent with GCA were the first manifestations of a monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS associated with amyloidosis. A 63 year old woman was admitted for temporal headache, maseterine claudication, neck and shoulder stiffness. She was recently diagnosed with carpal tunnel syndrome. On physical examination she had prominent temporal arteries, macroglosia and orthostatic hypotension. Muscular strength was normal. She had high ESR and CRP; in this clinical context, GCA was suspected. A gamma spike on serum protein electrophoresis raised the suspicion of monoclonal gammopathy (MG. Immunoelectrophoresis revealed monoclonal bands for IgG and kappa chains. Massive deposits of amyloid and no inflammation were found on temporal artery biopsy. Multiple myeloma and lymphoma were ruled out. A diagnosis of AL amyloidosis complicating MGUS was formulated. She did well on therapy with bortezomib, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone. Cases published in medical literature reveal amyloidosis mimicking GCA in the setting of established MGUS. As far as we know, this is the first case of MGUS with IgG and kappa chains in which a GCA-like picture induced by amyloidosis was present from the very onset.

  14. Nervous system examination on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Samy A; Aleshaiwi, Sarah M; Algrain, Hala A; Alkhelaif, Rana A

    2012-12-22

    Web 2.0 sites such as YouTube have become a useful resource for knowledge and are used by medical students as a learning resource. This study aimed at assessing videos covering the nervous system examination on YouTube. A research of YouTube was conducted from 2 November to 2 December 2011 using the following key words "nervous system examination", "nervous system clinical examination", "cranial nerves examination", "CNS examination", "examination of cerebellum", "balance and coordination examination". Only relevant videos in the English language were identified and related URL recorded. For each video, the following information was collected: title, author/s, duration, number of viewers, number of posted comments, and total number of days on YouTube. Using criteria comprising content, technical authority and pedagogy parameters, videos were rated independently by three assessors and grouped into educationally useful and non-educationally useful. A total of 2240 videos were screened; 129 were found to have relevant information to nervous system examination. Analysis revealed that 61 (47%) of the videos provided useful information on the nervous system examination. These videos scored (mean ± SD, 14.9 ± 0.2) and mainly covered examination of the whole nervous system (8 videos, 13%), cranial nerves (42 videos, 69%), upper limbs (6 videos, 10%), lower limbs (3 videos, 5%), balance and co-ordination (2 videos, 3%). The other 68 (53%) videos were not useful educationally; scoring (mean ± SD, 11.1 ± 3.0). The total viewers of all videos was 2,189,434. Useful videos were viewed by 1,050,445 viewers (48% of total viewers). The total viewership per day for useful videos was 1,794.5 and for non-useful videos 1,132.0. The differences between the three assessors were insignificant (less than 0.5 for the mean and 0.3 for the SD). Currently, YouTube provides an adequate resource for learning nervous system examination, which can be used by medical students

  15. Evidence of significant covalent bonding in Au(CN)(2)(-).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Bin; Wang, Yi-Lei; Yang, Jie; Xing, Xiao-Peng; Li, Jun; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2009-11-18

    The Au(CN)(2)(-) ion is the most stable Au compound known for centuries, yet a detailed understanding of its chemical bonding is still lacking. Here we report direct experimental evidence of significant covalent bonding character in the Au-C bonds in Au(CN)(2)(-) using photoelectron spectroscopy and comparisons with its lighter congeners, Ag(CN)(2)(-) and Cu(CN)(2)(-). Vibrational progressions in the Au-C stretching mode were observed for all detachment transitions for Au(CN)(2)(-), in contrast to the atomic-like transitions for Cu(CN)(2)(-), revealing the Au-C covalent bonding character. In addition, rich electronic structural information was obtained for Au(CN)(2)(-) by employing 118 nm detachment photons. Density functional theory and high-level ab initio calculations were carried out to understand the photoelectron spectra and obtain insight into the nature of the chemical bonding in the M(CN)(2)(-) complexes. Significant covalent character in the Au-C bonding due to the strong relativistic effects was revealed in Au(CN)(2)(-), consistent with its high stability.

  16. X-ray examinations during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ippolito, Giuseppe; Hospital Sao Luiz, Sao Paulo, SP; Medeiros, Regina Bitelli; Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo UNIFESP/EPM, SP

    2005-01-01

    X-ray examinations may be necessary during pregnancy for an accurate diagnosis and adequate treatment administration. In these cases, the exposure to ionizing radiation and its effects on the fetus are a major concern to the patient and to the clinician. In fact, most of these examinations are safe and do not represent a significant risk to the fetus. However, the radiologist must know the potential risks to be able to instruct all personnel involved in the care of the patient. (author)

  17. Examination of weight control practices in a non-clinical sample of college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, S; Napolitano, M A

    2012-09-01

    The current study examined healthy weight control practices among a sample of college women enrolled at an urban university (N=715; age=19.87±1.16; 77.2% Caucasian; 13.4% African American, 7.2% Asian, 2.2% other races). Participants completed measures as part of an on-line study about health habits, behaviors, and attitudes. Items from the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire were selected and evaluated with exploratory factor analysis to create a healthy weight control practices scale. Results revealed that college women, regardless of weight status, used a comparable number (four of eight) of practices. Examination of racial differences between Caucasian and African American women revealed that normal weight African American women used significantly fewer strategies than Caucasian women. Of note, greater use of healthy weight control practices was associated with higher cognitive restraint, drive for thinness, minutes of physical activity, and more frequent use of compensatory strategies. Higher scores on measures of binge and disinhibited eating, body dissatisfaction, negative affect, and depressive symptoms were associated with greater use of healthy weight control practices by underweight/normal weight but not by overweight/obese college women. Results suggest that among a sample of college females, a combination of healthy and potentially unhealthy weight control practices occurs. Implications of the findings suggest the need for effective weight management and eating disorder prevention programs for this critical developmental life stage. Such programs should be designed to help students learn how to appropriately use healthy weight control practices, as motivations for use may vary by weight status.

  18. Pure versus combined Merkel cell carcinomas: immunohistochemical evaluation of cellular proteins (p53, Bcl-2, and c-kit) reveals significant overexpression of p53 in combined tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jonathan H; Fleming, Kirsten E; Ly, Thai Yen; Pasternak, Sylvia; Godlewski, Marek; Doucette, Steve; Walsh, Noreen M

    2015-09-01

    Merkel cell polyomavirus is of oncogenic significance in approximately 80% of Merkel cell carcinomas. Morphological subcategories of the tumor differ in regard to viral status, the rare combined type being uniformly virus negative and the predominant pure type being mainly virus positive. Indications that different biological subsets of the tumor exist led us to explore this diversity. In an Eastern Canadian cohort of cases (75 patients; mean age, 76 years [range, 43-91]; male/female ratio, 43:32; 51 [68%] pure and 24 [34%] combined tumors), we semiquantitatively compared the immunohistochemical expression of 3 cellular proteins (p53, Bcl-2, and c-kit) in pure versus combined groups. Viral status was known in a subset of cases. The significant overexpression of p53 in the combined group (mean [SD], 153.8 [117.8] versus 121.6 [77.9]; P = .01) and the increased epidermal expression of this protein (p53 patches) in the same group lend credence to a primary etiologic role for sun damage in these cases. Expression of Bcl-2 and c-kit did not differ significantly between the 2 morphological groups. A relative increase in c-kit expression was significantly associated with a virus-negative status (median [interquartile range], 100 [60-115] versus 70 [0-100]; P = .03). Emerging data reveal divergent biological pathways in Merkel cell carcinoma, each with a characteristic immunohistochemical profile. Virus-positive tumors (all pure) exhibit high retinoblastoma protein and low p53 expression, whereas virus-negative cases (few pure and all combined) show high p53 and relatively high c-kit expression. The potential biological implications of this dichotomy call for consistent stratification of these tumors in future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Number of radiological examinations in Sweden 2005; Radiologiska undersoekningar i Sverige under 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almen, Anja; Richter, Sven; Leitz, Wolfram

    2008-02-15

    An investigation of diagnostic radiology examinations performed in Swedish hospitals for the year 2005 was performed. The investigation revealed the following: - the number of reported investigations was 5,4 million; - conventional x-ray examinations are the most common investigations (approx. 70 %); - the number of computer tomography investigations has increased with 100 % during the last 10 years and is contributing to 55-60 % of the total radiation dose from all examinations; - county hospitals perform most of the examinations, approximately one third; - regional differences can be observed concerning both the number of examinations and how these are distributed amongst the different modalities

  20. Does Gender Matter in Explaining Delinquency and Suicidal Thoughts? An Examination of General Strain Theory in South Korean Youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Minwoo; Kim, Eunyoung

    2017-06-01

    This study attempts to explore the potential extension of general strain theory (GST) by applying the hypotheses proposed by Broidy and Agnew to a sample of South Korean youths. Specifically, this study examines whether particular forms of strain and stressors have differential effects across genders on various deviant outcomes, delinquency, and suicidal thoughts. Multiple regression analyses using longitudinal data of 3,125 South Korean youths revealed mixed support for the GST proposition. Females experienced a higher level of both anger and depression than males. However, the experience of negative emotions is partly gendered in general. This study also found that different negative emotions and strain/stress factors are important and demonstrate gendered pathways in the case of delinquency. However, it also revealed that similar types of strains and stressors and negative emotions were significant and positive for suicidal thoughts for both males and females. Furthermore, a model examining the impacts of conditioning variables on suicidal thoughts highlighted that depression is particularly important in females. These findings indicate that various types of deviant outcomes and strain-stressors provide a fuller understanding of both similarities and differences by gender.

  1. Factors Influencing Cheating Tendency in Examinations Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    200 students were randomly selected from Faculty of Education, University of Calabar for the study. The hypotheses formulated were tested using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient analytical technique. The result of the analysis revealed that self-concept, Intelligence, moral value and test anxiety significantly ...

  2. Examining Physical and Sexual Abuse Histories as Correlates of Suicide Risk Among Firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hom, Melanie A; Matheny, Natalie L; Stanley, Ian H; Rogers, Megan L; Cougle, Jesse R; Joiner, Thomas E

    2017-12-01

    Research indicates that physical and sexual abuse are associated with increased suicide risk; however, these associations have not been investigated among firefighters-an occupational group that has been shown to be at elevated suicide risk. This study examined whether physical and sexual abuse histories are associated with (a) career suicide ideation, plans, and attempts; and (b) current suicide risk (controlling for theoretically relevant symptoms) in this occupational group. A sample of 929 U.S. firefighters completed self-report surveys that assessed lifetime history of physical and sexual abuse; career suicide ideation, plans, and attempts; current suicide risk; and theoretically relevant symptoms. Logistic regression analyses revealed that individuals who reported a history of physical abuse were significantly more likely to report career suicide ideation, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.12, plans, AOR = 13.05, and attempts, AOR = 23.81, than those who did not. A similar pattern of findings emerged for individuals who reported a sexual abuse history, AORs = 7.83, 18.35, and 29.58 respectively. Linear regression analyses revealed that physical and sexual abuse histories each significantly predicted current suicide risk, even after controlling for theoretically relevant symptoms and demographics, pr 2 = .07 and .06, respectively. Firefighters with a history of physical and/or sexual abuse may be at increased risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviors. A history of physical and sexual abuse were each significantly correlated with current suicide risk in this population, even after accounting for the effects of theoretically relevant symptoms. Thus, when conceptualizing suicide risk among firefighters, factors not necessarily related to one's firefighter career should be considered. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  3. Transforming governance or reinforcing hierarchies and competition: examining the public and hidden transcripts of the Global Fund and HIV in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapilashrami, Anuj; McPake, Barbara

    2013-09-01

    Global health initiatives (GHIs) have gained prominence as innovative and effective policy mechanisms to tackle global health priorities. More recent literature reveals governance-related challenges and their unintended health system effects. Much less attention is received by the relationship between these mechanisms, the ideas that underpin them and the country-level practices they generate. The Global Fund has leveraged significant funding and taken a lead in harmonizing disparate efforts to control HIV/AIDS. Its growing influence in recipient countries makes it a useful case to examine this relationship and evaluate the extent to which the dominant public discourse on Global Fund departs from the hidden resistances and conflicts in its operation. Drawing on insights from ethnographic fieldwork and 70 interviews with multiple stakeholders, this article aims to better understand and reveal the public and the hidden transcript of the Global Fund and its activities in India. We argue that while its public transcript abdicates its role in country-level operations, a critical ethnographic examination of the organization and governance of the Fund in India reveals a contrasting scenario. Its organizing principles prompt diverse actors with conflicting agendas to come together in response to the availability of funds. Multiple and discrete projects emerge, each leveraging control and resources and acting as conduits of power. We examine how management of HIV is punctuated with conflicts of power and interests in a competitive environment set off by the Fund protocol and discuss its system-wide effects. The findings also underscore the need for similar ethnographic research on the financing and policy-making architecture of GHIs.

  4. Cystic echinococcosis: prevalence and economic significance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2015 to April 2016 at ELFORA export abattoir to determine the prevalence, cyst viability, organ distribution and economic significance of small ruminant cystic echinococcosis. A total of 850 small ruminants (400 sheep and 450 goats), were examined for the presence of ...

  5. Networks of Food Sharing Reveal the Functional Significance of Multilevel Sociality in Two Hunter-Gatherer Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyble, Mark; Thompson, James; Smith, Daniel; Salali, Gul Deniz; Chaudhary, Nikhil; Page, Abigail E; Vinicuis, Lucio; Mace, Ruth; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg

    2016-08-08

    Like many other mammalian and primate societies [1-4], humans are said to live in multilevel social groups, with individuals situated in a series of hierarchically structured sub-groups [5, 6]. Although this multilevel social organization has been described among contemporary hunter-gatherers [5], questions remain as to the benefits that individuals derive from living in such groups. Here, we show that food sharing among two populations of contemporary hunter-gatherers-the Palanan Agta (Philippines) and Mbendjele BaYaka (Republic of Congo)-reveals similar multilevel social structures, with individuals situated in households, within sharing clusters of 3-4 households, within the wider residential camps, which vary in size. We suggest that these groupings serve to facilitate inter-sexual provisioning, kin provisioning, and risk reduction reciprocity, three levels of cooperation argued to be fundamental in human societies [7, 8]. Humans have a suite of derived life history characteristics including a long childhood and short inter-birth intervals that make offspring energetically demanding [9] and have moved to a dietary niche that often involves the exploitation of difficult to acquire foods with highly variable return rates [10-12]. This means that human foragers face both day-to-day and more long-term energetic deficits that conspire to make humans energetically interdependent. We suggest that a multilevel social organization allows individuals access to both the food sharing partners required to buffer themselves against energetic shortfalls and the cooperative partners required for skill-based tasks such as cooperative foraging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The genetically significant dose from diagnostic radiology in Great Britain in 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darby, S.C.; Kendall, G.M.; Rae, S.; Wall, B.F.

    1980-09-01

    This report is the third in a series concerned with the annual genetically significant dose to the population of Great Britain from diagnostic radiology. It combines information from a frequency survey of diagnostic radiological examinations carried out in Great Britain in 1977 and estimates of gonadal doses for different examination types, together with population and child expectancy data. The annual genetically significant dose from diagnostic radiology carried out in Great Britain in 1977, is estimated to 118 μGy (11.8 millirad) of which 113 μGy (11.3 millirad) is contributed by diagnostic radiology carried out in National Health Service hospitals. There has been a sharp fall in the contribution from obstetric examinations since 1957 when the last national survey was carried out. The contribution from most other examination types is broadly similar and there is little evidence of a change in the overall level of genetically significant dose. This is in spite of an increase in the frequency of radiological examinations per thousand of the population of about 50 per cent. No significant differences were found as between England, Scotland and Wales. The British figure compares favourably with the levels of GSD reported from other countries with developed radiological services. (author)

  7. Transcriptomic analysis of the late stages of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) berry ripening reveals significant induction of ethylene signaling and flavor pathways in the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Grant R; Ghan, Ryan; Schlauch, Karen A; Tillett, Richard L; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ferrarini, Alberto; Delledonne, Massimo; Zenoni, Sara; Fasoli, Marianna; Pezzotti, Mario

    2014-12-19

    Grapevine berry, a nonclimacteric fruit, has three developmental stages; the last one is when berry color and sugar increase. Flavors derived from terpenoid and fatty acid metabolism develop at the very end of this ripening stage. The transcriptomic response of pulp and skin of Cabernet Sauvignon berries in the late stages of ripening between 22 and 37 °Brix was assessed using whole-genome micorarrays. The transcript abundance of approximately 18,000 genes changed with °Brix and tissue type. There were a large number of changes in many gene ontology (GO) categories involving metabolism, signaling and abiotic stress. GO categories reflecting tissue differences were overrepresented in photosynthesis, isoprenoid metabolism and pigment biosynthesis. Detailed analysis of the interaction of the skin and pulp with °Brix revealed that there were statistically significantly higher abundances of transcripts changing with °Brix in the skin that were involved in ethylene signaling, isoprenoid and fatty acid metabolism. Many transcripts were peaking around known optimal fruit stages for flavor production. The transcript abundance of approximately two-thirds of the AP2/ERF superfamily of transcription factors changed during these developmental stages. The transcript abundance of a unique clade of ERF6-type transcription factors had the largest changes in the skin and clustered with genes involved in ethylene, senescence, and fruit flavor production including ACC oxidase, terpene synthases, and lipoxygenases. The transcript abundance of important transcription factors involved in fruit ripening was also higher in the skin. A detailed analysis of the transcriptome dynamics during late stages of ripening of grapevine berries revealed that these berries went through massive transcriptional changes in gene ontology categories involving chemical signaling and metabolism in both the pulp and skin, particularly in the skin. Changes in the transcript abundance of genes involved in

  8. THE PROSPECTS OF E-EXAMINATION IMPLEMENTATION IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayo C. K.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe massive examination leakages, demand for gratification by teachers, bribe-taking by supervisors and invigilators of examinations have become a global phenomenon. This menace has resulted to general fallen standards of education and Nigeria is no exception, particularly among developing nations. Consequent upon this, all Nigerian universities have resorted to conducting post-entrance “Post-JAMB” examination/screening because of lack of confidence in the conduct of the entrance examinations. This paper proposes a model for e-Examination in Nigeria where all applicants are subjected to online entrance examination as a way of curbing the irregularities as proposed by the Joint Admissions Matriculation Board (JAMB, the body saddled with the responsibility of conducting entrance examinations into all the Nigerian universities. This model was designed and tested in Covenant University, one of the private universities in Nigeria. There were 120 questions drawn from English (30, Mathematics (30, General Science (20, Commercial Courses (20, and Religion Knowledge (20, all for one hour duration. Questionnaires were administered to the applicants at the end of the examination to assess their level of ICT literacy, ease of use of the system and the difficulties encountered.Findings revealed that the system has the potentials to eliminate some of the problems that are associated with the traditional methods of examination such as impersonation and other forms of examination malpractices. The system is easy to use and candidates can get use to it with time. The timing of examination can be spaced without compromising the quality and integrity of the examination. However, much is still desired if the system were to be adopted on a national scale, particularly in terms of infrastructural and manpower development. Similarly, the quest for e-Examination can fast track the development of e-Learning facilities in the country with improved access to

  9. Clinical Significance of CK19 Negative Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujisue, Mamiko, E-mail: nishimura.reiki@cityhosp-kumamoto.jp; Nishimura, Reiki; Okumura, Yasuhiro [Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Kumamoto City Hospital, 1-1-60 Kotoh, Kumamoto City, Kumamoto 862-8505 (Japan); Tashima, Rumiko [Department of Surgery, Kumamoto City Hospital, 1-1-60 Kotoh, Kumamoto City, Kumamoto 862-8505 (Japan); Nishiyama, Yasuyuki; Osako, Tomofumi [Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Kumamoto City Hospital, 1-1-60 Kotoh, Kumamoto City, Kumamoto 862-8505 (Japan); Toyozumi, Yasuo; Arima, Nobuyuki [Department of Pathology, Kumamoto City Hospital, 1-1-60 Kotoh, Kumamoto City, Kumamoto 862-8505 (Japan)

    2012-12-21

    Analysis of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) by means of One-Step Nucleic Acid Amplification (OSNA) is gaining widespread use as a quick and accurate method. This assay detects the expression level of cytokeratin 19 (CK19) which is present in some but not all breast tumors. In this study, the clinical significance of negative CK19 was investigated in 219 cases of primary breast cancer. In 179 patients with clinically negative nodes, OSNA and imprint smear cytology of SLN were performed simultaneously. The OSNA revealed a node-positive rate of 24.6%. Negative CK19 correlated significantly with negative ER/PgR and higher Ki-67 values, and marginally with higher nuclear grade and p53 overexpression. The triple negative subtype showed lower CK19 expression. OSNA revealed that one of the negative CK19 cases was actually a false negative but this was corrected with the use of the imprint smear cytology. In conclusion, CK19 negativity reflected the aggressiveness of primary breast cancer. OSNA assay used to analyze SLN was useful, but there is a possibility that it will mistakenly detect false negatives in CK19 negative tumors. Therefore, in tumors with negative CK19, the imprint smear cytology may be more useful in cases with macrometastasis.

  10. Clinical Significance of CK19 Negative Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Arima

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs by means of One-Step Nucleic Acid Amplification (OSNA is gaining widespread use as a quick and accurate method. This assay detects the expression level of cytokeratin 19 (CK19 which is present in some but not all breast tumors. In this study, the clinical significance of negative CK19 was investigated in 219 cases of primary breast cancer. In 179 patients with clinically negative nodes, OSNA and imprint smear cytology of SLN were performed simultaneously. The OSNA revealed a node-positive rate of 24.6%. Negative CK19 correlated significantly with negative ER/PgR and higher Ki-67 values, and marginally with higher nuclear grade and p53 overexpression. The triple negative subtype showed lower CK19 expression. OSNA revealed that one of the negative CK19 cases was actually a false negative but this was corrected with the use of the imprint smear cytology. In conclusion, CK19 negativity reflected the aggressiveness of primary breast cancer. OSNA assay used to analyze SLN was useful, but there is a possibility that it will mistakenly detect false negatives in CK19 negative tumors. Therefore, in tumors with negative CK19, the imprint smear cytology may be more useful in cases with macrometastasis.

  11. Clinical Significance of CK19 Negative Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisue, Mamiko; Nishimura, Reiki; Okumura, Yasuhiro; Tashima, Rumiko; Nishiyama, Yasuyuki; Osako, Tomofumi; Toyozumi, Yasuo; Arima, Nobuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) by means of One-Step Nucleic Acid Amplification (OSNA) is gaining widespread use as a quick and accurate method. This assay detects the expression level of cytokeratin 19 (CK19) which is present in some but not all breast tumors. In this study, the clinical significance of negative CK19 was investigated in 219 cases of primary breast cancer. In 179 patients with clinically negative nodes, OSNA and imprint smear cytology of SLN were performed simultaneously. The OSNA revealed a node-positive rate of 24.6%. Negative CK19 correlated significantly with negative ER/PgR and higher Ki-67 values, and marginally with higher nuclear grade and p53 overexpression. The triple negative subtype showed lower CK19 expression. OSNA revealed that one of the negative CK19 cases was actually a false negative but this was corrected with the use of the imprint smear cytology. In conclusion, CK19 negativity reflected the aggressiveness of primary breast cancer. OSNA assay used to analyze SLN was useful, but there is a possibility that it will mistakenly detect false negatives in CK19 negative tumors. Therefore, in tumors with negative CK19, the imprint smear cytology may be more useful in cases with macrometastasis

  12. Metallographic examination of EPICOR-II liners from Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Spaletta, H.W.

    1985-01-01

    Materials from selected EPICOR-II prefilter liners were collected and examined as part of the EPICOR and Waste Research and Disposition Program sponsored by the Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The intent of that examination was to define the internal condition of liners and ensure that liners could be stored at INEL for ten years. This paper discusses the liner-integrity examination and presents the results of these examinations. Metallurgical examination of sections removed from the liners revealed no evidence of pitting or pitting-type corrosion. Measurements of wall thickness indicate that material was missing from the wall of PF-3 in an area where the protective coating had been removed to form a conductivity patch. If it is assumed that all thinning of the wall in that area is caused by corrosion, the liners will have a lifetime of approximately 50 years. 12 figures

  13. Virtually naked: virtual environment reveals sex-dependent nature of skin disclosure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Lomanowska

    Full Text Available The human tendency to reveal or cover naked skin reflects a competition between the individual propensity for social interactions related to sexual appeal and interpersonal touch versus climatic, environmental, physical, and cultural constraints. However, due to the ubiquitous nature of these constraints, isolating on a large scale the spontaneous human tendency to reveal naked skin has remained impossible. Using the online 3-dimensional virtual world of Second Life, we examined spontaneous human skin-covering behavior unhindered by real-world climatic, environmental, and physical variables. Analysis of hundreds of avatars revealed that virtual females disclose substantially more naked skin than virtual males. This phenomenon was not related to avatar hypersexualization as evaluated by measurement of sexually dimorphic body proportions. Furthermore, analysis of skin-covering behavior of a population of culturally homogeneous avatars indicated that the propensity of female avatars to reveal naked skin persisted despite explicit cultural norms promoting less revealing attire. These findings have implications for further understanding how sex-specific aspects of skin disclosure influence human social interactions in both virtual and real settings.

  14. Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction: reducing dose while preserving image quality in the pediatric head CT examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Colin D; Watcharotone, Kuanwong; Ibrahim, Mohannad; Christodoulou, Emmanuel; Baer, Aaron H; Parmar, Hemant A

    2014-08-01

    Over the last decade there has been escalating concern regarding the increasing radiation exposure stemming from CT exams, particularly in children. Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) is a relatively new and promising tool to reduce radiation dose while preserving image quality. While encouraging results have been found in adult head and chest and body imaging, validation of this technique in pediatric population is limited. The objective of our study was to retrospectively compare the image quality and radiation dose of pediatric head CT examinations obtained with ASIR compared to pediatric head CT examinations without ASIR in a large patient population. Retrospective analysis was performed on 82 pediatric head CT examinations. This group included 33 pediatric head CT examinations obtained with ASIR and 49 pediatric head CT examinations without ASIR. Computed tomography dose index (CTDIvol) was recorded on all examinations. Quantitative analysis consisted of standardized measurement of attenuation and the standard deviation at the bilateral centrum semiovale and cerebellar white matter to evaluate objective noise. Qualitative analysis consisted of independent assessment by two radiologists in a blinded manner of gray-white differentiation, sharpness and overall diagnostic quality. The average CTDIvol value of the ASIR group was 21.8 mGy (SD = 4.0) while the average CTDIvol for the non-ASIR group was 29.7 mGy (SD = 13.8), reflecting a statistically significant reduction in CTDIvol in the ASIR group (P ASIR group as compared to the 3- to 12-year-old non-ASIR group (21.5 mGy vs. 30.0 mGy; P = 0.004) as well as statistically significant reductions in CTDI for the >12-year-old ASIR group as compared to the >12-year-old non-ASIR group (29.7 mGy vs. 49.9 mGy; P = 0.0002). Quantitative analysis revealed no significant difference in the homogeneity of variance in the ASIR group compared to the non-ASIR group. Radiologist assessment of

  15. Bullying in Academe: Prevalent, Significant, and Incessant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassell, Macgorine A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the top-down perspective of bullying and mobbing of professors by analyzing why it is prevalent, significant, and incessant and then proposes a framework to produce a caring, respectful, and safe environment for professors to engage in their teaching, scholarship, and service. The author suggests that the failure of…

  16. The Westward Movement of Chinese Export Harbour Views : Significant Paintings with a Social Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der R.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Article (Chapter) in proceedings of the First Rombouts Graduate Conference Globalization and Glocalization in China, at Leiden University, held in Leiden on 6 and 7 September 2011. This article offers a closer examination of Chinese export harbour views and, in doing so, reveals that waterfronts and

  17. Probing Genomic Aspects of the Multi-Host Pathogen Clostridium perfringens Reveals Significant Pangenome Diversity, and a Diverse Array of Virulence Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Kiu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens is an important cause of animal and human infections, however information about the genetic makeup of this pathogenic bacterium is currently limited. In this study, we sought to understand and characterise the genomic variation, pangenomic diversity, and key virulence traits of 56 C. perfringens strains which included 51 public, and 5 newly sequenced and annotated genomes using Whole Genome Sequencing. Our investigation revealed that C. perfringens has an “open” pangenome comprising 11667 genes and 12.6% of core genes, identified as the most divergent single-species Gram-positive bacterial pangenome currently reported. Our computational analyses also defined C. perfringens phylogeny (16S rRNA gene in relation to some 25 Clostridium species, with C. baratii and C. sardiniense determined to be the closest relatives. Profiling virulence-associated factors confirmed presence of well-characterised C. perfringens-associated exotoxins genes including α-toxin (plc, enterotoxin (cpe, and Perfringolysin O (pfo or pfoA, although interestingly there did not appear to be a close correlation with encoded toxin type and disease phenotype. Furthermore, genomic analysis indicated significant horizontal gene transfer events as defined by presence of prophage genomes, and notably absence of CRISPR defence systems in >70% (40/56 of the strains. In relation to antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, tetracycline resistance genes (tet and anti-defensins genes (mprF were consistently detected in silico (tet: 75%; mprF: 100%. However, pre-antibiotic era strain genomes did not encode for tet, thus implying antimicrobial selective pressures in C. perfringens evolutionary history over the past 80 years. This study provides new genomic understanding of this genetically divergent multi-host bacterium, and further expands our knowledge on this medically and veterinary important pathogen.

  18. Significant strain accumulation between the deformation front and landward out-of-sequence thrusts in accretionary wedge of SW Taiwan revealed by cGPS and SAR interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    High strain accumulation across the fold-and-thrust belt in Southwestern Taiwan are revealed by the Continuous GPS (cGPS) and SAR interferometry. This high strain is generally accommodated by the major active structures in fold-and-thrust belt of western Foothills in SW Taiwan connected to the accretionary wedge in the incipient are-continent collision zone. The active structures across the high strain accumulation include the deformation front around the Tainan Tableland, the Hochiali, Hsiaokangshan, Fangshan and Chishan faults. Among these active structures, the deformation pattern revealed from cGPS and SAR interferometry suggest that the Fangshan transfer fault may be a left-lateral fault zone with thrust component accommodating the westward differential motion of thrust sheets on both side of the fault. In addition, the Chishan fault connected to the splay fault bordering the lower-slope and upper-slope of the accretionary wedge which could be the major seismogenic fault and an out-of-sequence thrust fault in SW Taiwan. The big earthquakes resulted from the reactivation of out-of-sequence thrusts have been observed along the Nankai accretionary wedge, thus the assessment of the major seismogenic structures by strain accumulation between the frontal décollement and out-of-sequence thrusts is a crucial topic. According to the background seismicity, the low seismicity and mid-crust to mantle events are observed inland and the lower- and upper- slope domain offshore SW Taiwan, which rheologically implies the upper crust of the accretionary wedge is more or less aseimic. This result may suggest that the excess fluid pressure from the accretionary wedge not only has significantly weakened the prism materials as well as major fault zone, but also makes the accretionary wedge landward extension, which is why the low seismicity is observed in SW Taiwan area. Key words: Continuous GPS, SAR interferometry, strain rate, out-of-sequence thrust.

  19. Significance of the combined tests application in serum and liquor of patients with suspected neurosyphilis

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    Mirković Mihailo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tertiary syphilis develops in 8-40% of untreated patients. It is most commonly manifested in the form of neurosyphilis, which can be asymptomatic taking the form of tabes dorsalis or progressive paralyze. Nowadays, in the developed countries, progressive paralyze is a rather rare disease, although the incidence of this disease has been rising within the last decades. Case report. We reported a 74-year-old male with the clinical image of dementia showing psychotic symptoms. On cytobiochemical examination of cerebrospinal liquor, hyperproteinorhacmia of 0.70 g/l with the normal number of cells was revealed. Computed tomography of the brain showed the marked cortical cerebral and cerebellar reduction changes with multiple ischemic lesions. Within a routine examination of patients with demention, we performed serologic reactions to syphilis out of which the Veneral Disease Researc Laboratory (VDRL test in serum and liquor was unreactive, while the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPNA test in serum and liquor was positive. Positivity in serum and liquor was additionally confirmed by the Western blot method and fluoroscent treponema antibody (FTA test. The treatment with benzathine fenylpenicilline 2.4 g once weekly resulted in significant improving the psychotic symptoms of the disease even after two weeks. Conclusion. This case report showed that within the differential diagnostics in patients with demention or psychotic disorder it is obligatory to consider syphilis of the nervous system, as well as to apply a combination of various tests which, besides the typical liquor findings, significantly improve the accuracy of diagnosis. Such approach is especially important regarding the fact that neurosyphilis can remain clinically quite asymptomatic for a long period, which could lead to late therapy, while, on the contrary, an adequate and timely treatment can contribute to a significant recovery of any patients.

  20. Genomic profiling of plasmablastic lymphoma using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH: revealing significant overlapping genomic lesions with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xin-Yan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmablastic lymphoma (PL is a subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL. Studies have suggested that tumors with PL morphology represent a group of neoplasms with clinopathologic characteristics corresponding to different entities including extramedullary plasmablastic tumors associated with plasma cell myeloma (PCM. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the genetic similarities and differences among PL, DLBCL (AIDS-related and non AIDS-related and PCM using array-based comparative genomic hybridization. Results Examination of genomic data in PL revealed that the most frequent segmental gain (> 40% include: 1p36.11-1p36.33, 1p34.1-1p36.13, 1q21.1-1q23.1, 7q11.2-7q11.23, 11q12-11q13.2 and 22q12.2-22q13.3. This correlated with segmental gains occurring in high frequency in DLBCL (AIDS-related and non AIDS-related cases. There were some segmental gains and some segmental loss that occurred in PL but not in the other types of lymphoma suggesting that these foci may contain genes responsible for the differentiation of this lymphoma. Additionally, some segmental gains and some segmental loss occurred only in PL and AIDS associated DLBCL suggesting that these foci may be associated with HIV infection. Furthermore, some segmental gains and some segmental loss occurred only in PL and PCM suggesting that these lesions may be related to plasmacytic differentiation. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, the current study represents the first genomic exploration of PL. The genomic aberration pattern of PL appears to be more similar to that of DLBCL (AIDS-related or non AIDS-related than to PCM. Our findings suggest that PL may remain best classified as a subtype of DLBCL at least at the genome level.

  1. Examining Difference in Immigration Stress, Acculturation Stress and Mental Health Outcomes in Six Hispanic/Latino Nativity and Regional Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Richard C; Gattamorta, Karina A; Berger-Cardoso, Jodi

    2018-02-27

    Little is known about the specific behavioral health impact of acculturation stressors that affect Hispanic/Latino immigrant sub-groups. These immigration-related stressors and traumatic events may have differential impact on depression depending on country/region of origin. Using a measure of immigration and acculturation stress, the current study sought to determine differences in the impact of stress on six sub-groups of Hispanic immigrants. Data on stress and depression were examined using a large, representative adult immigrant sample (N = 641). Controlling for age, gender and years in the US, factorial analysis of covariance revealed significant differences on total Hispanic Stress Inventory 2 (HSI2) stress appraisal scores based on country/region of origin. Pair wise comparisons between country/region of origin groups revealed that Mexicans had higher levels of stress compared to Cuban or Dominican immigrants. Several patterns of differential stress were also found within sub-domains of the HSI2. Using regression models, HSI2 stress appraisals and their interaction with country of origin proved to not be significant predictors of depression (PHQ9), while gender and age were significant. Differences in HSI2 stress that are based on nativity may be moderated by cultural resilience that ultimately serves a protective role to prevent the onset of depression.

  2. What proverb understanding reveals about how people think.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, R W; Beitel, D

    1995-07-01

    The ability to understand proverbial sayings, such as a rolling stone gathers no moss, has been of great interest to researchers in many areas of psychology. Most psychologists assume that understanding the figurative meanings of proverbs requires various kinds of higher order cognitive abilities. The authors review the findings on proverb interpretation to examine the question of what proverb use and understanding reveals about the ways normal and dysfunctional individuals think. The widely held idea that failure to provide a figurative interpretation of a proverb necessarily reflects a deficit in specialized abstract thinking is rejected. Moreover, the ability to correctly explain what a proverb means does not necessarily imply that an individual can think abstractly. Various empirical evidence, nonetheless, suggests that the ability to understand many proverbs reveals the presence of metaphorical schemes that are ubiquitous in everyday thought.

  3. Social anxiety symptoms and suicidal ideation in a clinical sample of early adolescents: examining loneliness and social support as longitudinal mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Michelle; Prinstein, Mitchell J; Simon, Valerie; Spirito, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    Recent research has shown that social anxiety may be related to increased risk for suicidal ideation in teens, although this research largely has been cross-sectional and has not examined potential mediators of this relationship. A clinical sample of 144 early adolescents (72 % female; 12-15 years old) was assessed during psychiatric inpatient hospitalization and followed up at 9 and 18 months post-baseline. Symptoms of social anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation, loneliness, and perceived social support were assessed via structured interviews and self-report instruments. Structural equation modeling revealed a significant direct relationship between social anxiety symptoms at baseline and suicidal ideation at 18 months post-baseline, even after controlling for baseline depressive symptoms and ideation. A second multiple mediation model revealed that baseline social anxiety had a significant indirect effect on suicidal ideation at 18 months post-baseline through loneliness at 9 months post-baseline. Social anxiety did not have a significant indirect effect on suicidal ideation through perceived social support from either parents or close friends. Findings suggest that loneliness may be particularly implicated in the relationship between social anxiety and suicidality in teens. Clinicians should assess and address feelings of loneliness when treating socially anxious adolescents.

  4. A Social-Cognitive Theoretical Framework for Examining Music Teacher Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Edward

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine a diverse range of research literature to provide a social-cognitive theoretical framework as a foundation for definition of identity construction in the music teacher education program. The review of literature may reveal a theoretical framework based around tenets of commonly studied constructs in the…

  5. Clinical significance of anismus in encopresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catto-Smith, A G; Nolan, T M; Coffey, C M

    1998-09-01

    Treatments designed to relieve paradoxical contraction of the anal sphincters during defecation (anismus) have had limited success in children with encopresis. This has raised doubts as to the clinical relevance of this diagnosis in childhood as anorectal dysfunction. Our aim was to determine whether, in patients who had treatment-resistant encopresis, the presence of electromyographic anismus was associated with increased faecal retention. Sixty-eight children with soiling (mean age 8.7+/-2.06 years) were assessed by clinical examination, abdominal radiography and then with anorectal manometry. Patients with electromyographic anismus (n=32; 47%) had significantly increased radiographic rectal faecal retention and were significantly less likely to be able to defecate water-filled balloons. There were no significant differences in response to prior therapy, history of primary encopresis, behavioural adjustment or in sociodemographic data. Our results suggest that electromyographic anismus is associated with obstructed defecation and faecal retention.

  6. Conflict Narratives in Middle Childhood: The Social, Emotional, and Moral Significance of Story-Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Marsha D.; Davidson, Alice J.

    2017-01-01

    "Conflict Narratives in Middle Childhood" presents evidence from twenty years of research, examining nearly 3,000 narratives from 1,600 children in eight settings in two countries about their own experiences with interpersonal conflict. Close readings, combined with systematic analysis of dozens of features of the stories reveal that…

  7. Cross-hemispheric dopamine projections have functional significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Megan E.; Mikhailova, Maria A.; Bass, Caroline E.; Takmakov, Pavel; Gainetdinov, Raul R.; Budygin, Evgeny A.; Wightman, R. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine signaling occurs on a subsecond timescale, and its dysregulation is implicated in pathologies ranging from drug addiction to Parkinson’s disease. Anatomic evidence suggests that some dopamine neurons have cross-hemispheric projections, but the significance of these projections is unknown. Here we report unprecedented interhemispheric communication in the midbrain dopamine system of awake and anesthetized rats. In the anesthetized rats, optogenetic and electrical stimulation of dopamine cells elicited physiologically relevant dopamine release in the contralateral striatum. Contralateral release differed between the dorsal and ventral striatum owing to differential regulation by D2-like receptors. In the freely moving animals, simultaneous bilateral measurements revealed that dopamine release synchronizes between hemispheres and intact, contralateral projections can release dopamine in the midbrain of 6-hydroxydopamine–lesioned rats. These experiments are the first, to our knowledge, to show cross-hemispheric synchronicity in dopamine signaling and support a functional role for contralateral projections. In addition, our data reveal that psychostimulants, such as amphetamine, promote the coupling of dopamine transients between hemispheres. PMID:27298371

  8. Radiographic examination of the hoof joint and navicular bone for the reason of prepurchase examination of the horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zert, Z.; Sterc, J.; Bartunkova, H.

    2002-01-01

    The optimal radiographic examination of the equine hoofjoint and navicular bone requires lateral, dorsopalmar and oblique proximodistal-palmarodistal (tangential) projections. The radiographic method used and the choice of the material are crucial elements for the image quality and the usefulness of the examination. It is not always easy to obtain precise lateral view, which can help in detection of changes on the flexor surface, disclose interior structure of navicular bone, as well as facilitates observation of dorsal aspect of the hoof joint. The dorsopalmar projection can provide nearly complete information about the borders of the navicular bone and its relationship to the adjacent structures. The 55 deg PP-PD projection reveals once again flexor surface and the interior structure of navicular bone without any superposition. This projection allows demonstration of early structural changes (namely sclerosis) in the transitional zone of the facies flexora bone plate and the navicular spongious bone

  9. Neutron radiography examination of objects belonging to the cultural heritage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rant, Joze; Milic, Zoran; Istenic, Janka; Knific, Timotej; Lengar, Igor; Rant, Andrej

    2006-01-01

    Examination of the internal structure and composition of cultural object is extremely important for its conservation and should be carried out before conservation is planned. Knowledge of the internal structure of an object is also important for the study of ancient manufacturing technologies and sometimes also for determination of its function. In the examination of the interior structure and composition of cultural objects often only methods involving non-destructive examination (NDE) are acceptable. The shape, structure and condition of metal parts can be revealed, e.g. by conventional X-ray Radiography (XR), or computed tomography (CT), while Neutron Radiography (NR) primarily helps to detect the presence of organic materials and in their identification. In the paper some typical examples of the use of NR in the examination of the internal structure of selected cultural objects are presented. The examination of these objects by NDE techniques was an integral part of their conservation process, as well as of their study by archaeologists and historians

  10. Examining cultural, social, and self-related aspects of stigma in relation to sexual assault and trauma symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitz, Mandi F; Williams, Stacey L; Rife, Sean C; Cantrell, Peggy

    2015-05-01

    The current study investigated a model explaining sexual assault victims' severity of trauma symptoms that incorporated multiple stigma constructs. Integrating the sexual assault literature with the stigma literature, this study sought to better understand trauma-related outcomes of sexual assault by examining three levels of stigma-cultural, social, and self. Results showed self-stigma was significantly and positively related to trauma symptom severity. Thus, results revealed that the internalized aspect of stigma served as a mechanism in the relation between sexual assault severity and increased levels of trauma symptom severity, highlighting the importance of assessing self-stigma in women reporting sexual assault experiences. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. The Remotely Operated Nondestructive Examination System for Examining the Knuckle Region of Hanford's Double Shell Waste Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, Susan L.; Pardini, Allan F.; Donald Thompson and Dale Chimenti

    2005-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed a technology to address the examination requirements associated with the knuckle region of Hanford's double shell waste tanks. This examination poses a significant technical challenge because the area that requires examination is in a confined space, high radiation region and is not accessible using conventional measurement techniques. This paper describes the development, deployment, and modification of the remotely operated nondestructive examination (RONDE) system that utilizes a technique known as Synthetic Aperture Focusing (SAFT). The system detects stress corrosion cracking in the high stress region of the knuckle and characterizes the crack with tandem SAFT. PNNL has qualified the system to perform inspections on the entire knuckle region of Hanford's double shell waste tanks

  12. Examining reproducibility in psychology : A hybrid method for combining a statistically significant original study and a replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Aert, R.C.M.; Van Assen, M.A.L.M.

    2018-01-01

    The unrealistically high rate of positive results within psychology has increased the attention to replication research. However, researchers who conduct a replication and want to statistically combine the results of their replication with a statistically significant original study encounter

  13. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Different Silk Yields of Two Silkworm Strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Li

    Full Text Available Cocoon and silk yields are the most important characteristics of sericulture. However, few studies have examined the genes that modulate these features. Further studies of these genes will be useful for improving the products of sericulture. JingSong (JS and Lan10 (L10 are two strains having significantly different cocoon and silk yields. In the current study, RNA-Seq and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR were performed on both strains in order to determine divergence of the silk gland, which controls silk biosynthesis in silkworms. Compared with L10, JS had 1375 differentially expressed genes (DEGs; 738 up-regulated genes and 673 down-regulated genes. Nine enriched gene ontology (GO terms were identified by GO enrichment analysis based on these DEGs. KEGG enrichment analysis results showed that the DEGs were enriched in three pathways, which were mainly associated with the processing and biosynthesis of proteins. The representative genes in the enrichment pathways and ten significant DEGs were further verified by qPCR, the results of which were consistent with the RNA-Seq data. Our study has revealed differences in silk glands between the two silkworm strains and provides a perspective for understanding the molecular mechanisms determining silk yield.

  14. Exploring Management Strategies to Reduce Cheating in Written Examinations: Case Study of Midlands State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taderera, Ever; Nyikahadzoi, Loveness; Matamande, Wilson; Mandimika, Elinah

    2014-01-01

    This study was concerned about cheating in written examinations at Midlands State University (MSU). The study revealed that both male and female students cheat in written examination; business studies students cheat more than other faculties, and younger (lower class) students cheat more than (upper class) older students. Factors influencing…

  15. Prognostic and clinicopathological significance of platelet to lymphocyte ratio in esophageal cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Juhong; Zhang, Peng; Sun, Yue; Peng, Ping; Huang, Yu

    2018-03-01

    The prognostic and clinicopathological significance of the platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) has been studied in various cancers. However, studies examining the role of PLR in esophageal cancer have not yielded consistent results. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to study the prognostic and clinicopathological significance of PLR in esophageal cancer patients. We performed a literature search in three major databases: PubMed, Web of Science and Embase (up until May 1, 2017). The clinicopathologic significance of PLR and its prognostic significance were analyzed. Our meta-analysis consisted of 13 studies with 4,621 patients. The pooled hazard ratios (HRs) showed that a high PLR was associated with poor survival of esophageal cancer [HR =1.283; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.173-1.404; Panalysis revealed that elevated PLR was associated with poor survival in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (HR =1.281; 95% CI: 1.098-1.493; P=0.002). The pooled odds ratio (OR) indicated that high PLR was also associated with the depth of tumor invasion (OR =1.543, 95% CI: 1.269-1.876, P<0.001), lymph node metastasis (OR =1.427, 95% CI: 1.195-1.705, P<0.001), tumor length (OR =1.81, 95% CI: 1.331-2.461, P<0.001), and Tumor stage (OR =1.459, 95% CI: 1.235-1.724, P<0.001). Our results demonstrate that elevated PLR was significantly associated with poor prognosis of esophageal cancer. Furthermore, the high PLR might predict worse clinicopathological features of esophageal cancer patients.

  16. Targeted Gene-Silencing Reveals the Functional Significance of Myocardin Signaling in the Failing Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrado, Mario; Iglesias, Raquel; Centeno, Alberto; López, Eduardo; Mikhailov, Alexander T.

    2011-01-01

    Background Myocardin (MYOCD), a potent transcriptional coactivator of smooth muscle (SM) and cardiac genes, is upregulated in failing myocardium in animal models and human end-stage heart failure (HF). However, the molecular and functional consequences of myocd upregulation in HF are still unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings The goal of the present study was to investigate if targeted inhibition of upregulated expression of myocd could influence failing heart gene expression and function. To this end, we used the doxorubicin (Dox)-induced diastolic HF (DHF) model in neonatal piglets, in which, as we show, not only myocd but also myocd-dependent SM-marker genes are highly activated in failing left ventricular (LV) myocardium. In this model, intra-myocardial delivery of short-hairpin RNAs, designed to target myocd variants expressed in porcine heart, leads on day 2 post-delivery to: (1) a decrease in the activated expression of myocd and myocd-dependent SM-marker genes in failing myocardium to levels seen in healthy control animals, (2) amelioration of impaired diastolic dysfunction, and (3) higher survival rates of DHF piglets. The posterior restoration of elevated myocd expression (on day 7 post-delivery) led to overexpression of myocd-dependent SM-marker genes in failing LV-myocardium that was associated with a return to altered diastolic function. Conclusions/Significance These data provide the first evidence that a moderate inhibition (e.g., normalization) of the activated MYOCD signaling in the diseased heart may be promising from a therapeutic point of view. PMID:22028870

  17. Targeted gene-silencing reveals the functional significance of myocardin signaling in the failing heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Torrado

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Myocardin (MYOCD, a potent transcriptional coactivator of smooth muscle (SM and cardiac genes, is upregulated in failing myocardium in animal models and human end-stage heart failure (HF. However, the molecular and functional consequences of myocd upregulation in HF are still unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The goal of the present study was to investigate if targeted inhibition of upregulated expression of myocd could influence failing heart gene expression and function. To this end, we used the doxorubicin (Dox-induced diastolic HF (DHF model in neonatal piglets, in which, as we show, not only myocd but also myocd-dependent SM-marker genes are highly activated in failing left ventricular (LV myocardium. In this model, intra-myocardial delivery of short-hairpin RNAs, designed to target myocd variants expressed in porcine heart, leads on day 2 post-delivery to: (1 a decrease in the activated expression of myocd and myocd-dependent SM-marker genes in failing myocardium to levels seen in healthy control animals, (2 amelioration of impaired diastolic dysfunction, and (3 higher survival rates of DHF piglets. The posterior restoration of elevated myocd expression (on day 7 post-delivery led to overexpression of myocd-dependent SM-marker genes in failing LV-myocardium that was associated with a return to altered diastolic function. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data provide the first evidence that a moderate inhibition (e.g., normalization of the activated MYOCD signaling in the diseased heart may be promising from a therapeutic point of view.

  18. Experiences and Factors that Influence Potassium Hydroxide Examination by Microscopists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyaratavej, Sumanas; Pattanaprichakul, Penvadee; Srisuma, Sorachai; Leeyaphan, Charussri

    2016-01-01

    Potassium hydroxide(KOH)examination is commonly used in dermatological practice. Despite its simplicity, rapidity, and minimal invasiveness, experience in specimen collection, preparation, and interpretation is extremely important. To determine the ability to interpret KOH examination of six microscopists with different levels of experience within the Department of Dermatology. Six volunteer microscopists, who have different experiences in KOH examination in terms of specimens per week(SPW), were assigned to prepare and examine 10 unknown slides of skin scrapings. All participants were then paired into three groups and exchanged the slides set to their partner in each group for a second round of slides interpretation. Results of examinations were classified as correct, false negative, false positive, and misinterpretation. The highly experienced microscopists achieved more correct answers than the fairly experienced group in both sessions. There was a significant positive correlation between SPW(r=1.0, Spearman rank, p=0.01)and the correct answers; and a significant negative correlation between SPW and misinterpretation(r= -1.0, Spearman rank, p<0.01), exclusively for the second session. A small number of volunteer microscopists was enrolled in this study. Experience in routine slide examination and time spent during examination were significant factors for accurate interpretation of KOH examination. Positive correlation between experience and correct answers, and negative correlation between experience and misinterpretation were particularly observed under limited examination time.

  19. Species Richness and Diversity Reveal that Human-Modified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Family diversity and richness showed no significant differences across the sites. The spider species consisted of primarily three functional groups: ground wanderers, web builders and plant wanderers, and showed no within-group differences in abundance between sites. Similarity index between the study sites revealed a ...

  20. Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction: reducing dose while preserving image quality in the pediatric head CT examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKnight, Colin D.; Watcharotone, Kuanwong; Ibrahim, Mohannad; Christodoulou, Emmanuel; Baer, Aaron H.; Parmar, Hemant A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade there has been escalating concern regarding the increasing radiation exposure stemming from CT exams, particularly in children. Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) is a relatively new and promising tool to reduce radiation dose while preserving image quality. While encouraging results have been found in adult head and chest and body imaging, validation of this technique in pediatric population is limited. The objective of our study was to retrospectively compare the image quality and radiation dose of pediatric head CT examinations obtained with ASIR compared to pediatric head CT examinations without ASIR in a large patient population. Retrospective analysis was performed on 82 pediatric head CT examinations. This group included 33 pediatric head CT examinations obtained with ASIR and 49 pediatric head CT examinations without ASIR. Computed tomography dose index (CTDI vol ) was recorded on all examinations. Quantitative analysis consisted of standardized measurement of attenuation and the standard deviation at the bilateral centrum semiovale and cerebellar white matter to evaluate objective noise. Qualitative analysis consisted of independent assessment by two radiologists in a blinded manner of gray-white differentiation, sharpness and overall diagnostic quality. The average CTDI vol value of the ASIR group was 21.8 mGy (SD = 4.0) while the average CTDI vol for the non-ASIR group was 29.7 mGy (SD = 13.8), reflecting a statistically significant reduction in CTDI vol in the ASIR group (P 12-year-old ASIR group as compared to the >12-year-old non-ASIR group (29.7 mGy vs. 49.9 mGy; P = 0.0002). Quantitative analysis revealed no significant difference in the homogeneity of variance in the ASIR group compared to the non-ASIR group. Radiologist assessment of gray-white differentiation, sharpness and overall diagnostic quality in ASIR examinations was not substantially different compared to non-ASIR examinations. The use of ASIR in

  1. Midface swelling reveals nasofrontal dermal sinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houneida, Zaghouani Ben Alaya; Manel, Limeme; Latifa, Harzallah; Habib, Amara; Dejla, Bakir; Chekib, Kraiem

    2012-01-01

    Nasofrontal dermal sinuses are very rare and generally occur in children. This congenital malformation can be revealed by midface swelling, which can be complicated by local infection or neuromeningitis. Such complications make the dermal sinus a life-threatening disease. Two cases of nasofrontal dermal sinuses are reported in this work. The first case is an 11-month-old girl who presented with left orbitonasal soft tissue swelling accompanied by inflammation. Physical examination found fever, left orbitonasal thickening, and a puncture hole letting out pus. Computed tomography revealed microabscesses located at the left orbitonasal soft tissues, a frontal bone defect, and an intracranial cyst. Magnetic resonance imaging showed the transosseous tract between the glabella and the brain and affirmed the epidermoid nature of the intracranial cyst. The second case is a 7-year-old girl who presented with a nasofrontal non-progressive mass that intermittently secreted a yellow liquid through an external orifice located at the glabella. MRI revealed a cystic mass located in the deep layer of the glabellar skin related to an epidermoid cyst with a nasofrontal dermal sinus tract. In both cases, surgical excision was performed, and pathological confirmation was made for the diagnoses of dermal sinuses. The postoperative course was favorable. Through these cases, the authors stress the role of imaging methods in confirming the diagnosis and looking for associated cysts (dermoid and epidermoid) to improve recognition of this rare disease. Knowledge of the typical clinical presentations, imaging manifestations, and most common sites of occurrence of this malformation are needed to formulate a differential diagnosis.

  2. Contribution and significance of Heidelberg retinal tomography II in diagnostics of ocular hypertension and its conversion into primary open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Vujica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. A term 'ocular hypertension' is used when IOP is found to be > 21 mmHg on two consecutive occasions, in the absence of detectable glaucomatous damage. The aim of this study was to determine the significance and contribution of Heidelberg Retinal Tomography II (HRT II results that show very early, subtle changes in retinal neurofibre layers (RNFL in the optic nerve head that are specific for glaucoma itself (the loss of neuroretinal rim area and an increase of Cup/Disc ratio, but are not possible to register by an ophthalmoscope. Also, when the results of the functional tests remain unchanged, that confirms the conversion of ocular hypertension into glaucoma. Methods. During a 5-year study period (2002-2007, 29 patients with ocular hypertension were examined. The frequency of control examinations, based on the presence of risk factors for glaucoma development, was 3-6 months. The examination also included IOP measurements with Goldmann Applanation Tonometry (GAT, central corneal thickness (CCT determination by pachymetry, the examination of chamber angle using indirect gonioscopy, visual field tests by computerized perimetry and also papillae nervi optici (PNO examination by using HRT II. The application of HRT II enables a great number of stereometric parameters of optic disc, the most important being the rim area and Cup/Disc (C/D ratio, which was followed during the control examination by each segment, as well as PNO in global. Results. In the examination period, three cases of conversion of ocular hypertension into a primary open-angle glaucoma were found. In the group of patients with ocular hypertension, HRT II results after six months did not show a significant increase in C/D ratio. No significant loss of rim area or rim volume was found either. In three cases of conversion, HRT II results after 3 months showed an increase of C/D ratio and also a significant loss in rim volume at first examination (0.413 comparing to the

  3. Forensic Image Analyses of Skin and Underlying Muscles as a Tool for Postmortem Interval Delimitation: Histopathologic Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nahass, El-Shaymaa; Moselhy, Walaa A; Hassan, Nour El-Houda Y

    2017-06-01

    One of the biggest challenges for forensic pathologists is to diagnose the postmortem interval (PMI) delimitation; therefore, the aim of this study was to use a routine histopathologic examination and quantitative analysis to obtain an accurate diagnosis of PMI. The current study was done by using 24 adult male albino rats divided into 8 groups based on the scarification schedule (0, 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 48, and 72 hours PMI). Skin specimens were collected and subjected to a routine histopathologic processing. Examination of hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections from the skin, its appendages and underlying muscles were carried out. Morphometric analysis of epidermal nuclear chromatin intensities and area percentages, reticular dermis integrated density, and sebaceous gland nuclei areas and chromatin condensation was done. Progressive histopathologic changes could be detected in epidermis, dermis, hypodermis, underlying muscles including nerve endings, and red blood cells in relation to hours PMI. Significant difference was found in epidermal nuclear chromatin intensities at different-hours PMI (at P PMI. Quantitative analysis of measurements of dermal collagen area percentages revealed a high significant difference between 0 hours PMI and 24 to 72 hours PMI (P PMI increases, sebaceous gland nuclei and nuclear chromatin condensation showed a dramatic decrease. Significant differences of sebaceous gland nuclei areas between 0 hours and different-hours PMI (P PMI.

  4. [Encopresis revealing myotonic dystrophy in 2 children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avez-Couturier, J; Michaud, L; Cuisset, J-M; Lamblin, M-D; Dolhem, P; Turck, D; Vallée, L; Gottrand, F

    2009-05-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms are very frequent in myotonic dystrophy but largely unrecognized. They can be the revealing factors of the disease. We report 2 cases of 10 and 17-year-old children with persistent encopresis starting at the age of 3 and 5 years in spite of laxative treatment. Neurological examination and anorectal manometry provided the diagnosis of myotonic dystrophy. Procainamide treatment was introduced and the digestive symptoms improved. Any child with encopresis should have complete evaluation to rule out the diagnosis of myotonic dystrophy and physicians should look for upper and/or lower gastrointestinal symptoms in every patient with myotonic dystrophy.

  5. Radiation Sterilization of Naturual Rubber Examination Gloves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jetawattana, S.; Na-Ranong, N.; Kajornchaiyakul, V.

    1998-01-01

    The sterilization dose setting by ISO 11137 method 1 was conducted for natural rubber examination gloves provided by a local factory. The suitable sterilization dose for an average product bioburden falls between 20 - 25 kilogray. Maximum dose of 25 or 50 kilogray results in no changes of tensile s and elongation at break. Samples of examination glove were irradiated using various doses between 10 - 50 kilogray. Analysis of soluble protein content using modified Lowry method was carried out and the results revealed that irradiation did not affect the decrement of soluble protein content in this case. However, thin film samples were prepared in laboratory and treated in the same procedure. The results were also the same. The results did not show any correlation. Two factors are possibly presumed : un consistency of samples and the irradiation of finished products could not affect those soluble proteins in rubber gloves

  6. Multiple physical healthcare needs among outpatients with schizophrenia: findings from a health examination study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskelinen, Saana; Sailas, Eila; Joutsenniemi, Kaisla; Holi, Matti; Koskela, Tuomas H; Suvisaari, Jaana

    2017-08-01

    Despite the abundant literature on physical comorbidity, the full range of the concurrent somatic healthcare needs among individuals with schizophrenia has rarely been studied. This observational study aimed to assess the distressing somatic symptoms and needs for physical health interventions in outpatients with schizophrenia, and factors predicting those needs. A structured, comprehensive health examination was carried out, including a visit to a nurse and a general practitioner on 275 outpatients with schizophrenia. The required interventions were classified by type of disease. Logistic regression was used to assess the influence of sociodemographic factors, lifestyle, functional limitations, factors related to psychiatric disorder, and healthcare use on the need for interventions. In total, 44.9% of the patients (mean age 44.9 years) reported somatic symptoms affecting daily life; 87.6% needed specific interventions for a disease or condition, most commonly for cardiovascular, dermatological, dental, ophthalmological, and gastrointestinal conditions, and for altered glucose homeostasis. Smoking and obesity predicted significantly a need of any intervention, but the predictors varied in each disease category. Strikingly, use of general practitioner services during the previous year did not reduce the need for interventions. Health examinations for outpatients with schizophrenia revealed numerous physical healthcare needs. The health examinations for patients with schizophrenia should contain a medical history taking and a physical examination, in addition to basic measurements and laboratory tests. Prevention and treatment of obesity and smoking should be given priority in order to diminish somatic comorbidities in schizophrenia.

  7. Ultrasonographic examination of plantar fasciitis: a comparison of patient positions during examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jae Hoon; Lee, Choong Woo; Park, ChanJoo; Kim, Yoon-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Musculoskeletal ultrasound is a non-invasive and low-cost modality for real-time visualisation of the plantar fascia. Ultrasound examination for plantar fasciitis is generally performed with the patient in a prone position, although the rational for using a prone position has not been validated. The aim of the study was to investigate if ultrasound examination in a supine position, which is more comfortable than the prone position, is valid. We conducted a prospective study of 30 participants with plantar fasciitis, 8 men (27 %) and 22 women (73 %), with a mean age of 53.9 ± 12.6 (range, 32 to 77) years, and an equal distribution of left and right feet. The plantar heel was divided into three portions for ultrasound examination: medial, central and lateral. Two measurements of plantar fascia thickness were obtained for each portion, with participants in 2 positions (supine and prone) and for 2 ankle postures (neutral and 15° of plantarflexion). Mean measurements of plantar fascia thickness were compared between the two positions (Wilcoxon signed rank tests for non-normally distributed data and paired t-tests for normally distributed data). Participants were asked to report their preferred position for examination, supine or prone. The measured thickness was comparable for both supine and prone positions, for both ankle postures, neutral and 15° of plantarflexion (p > 0.05). A specific self-reported preferred position was not identified. Ultrasound examination of plantar fasciitis can be performed in the supine position without any significant difference in measurement compared to examination in the conventional prone position. The Catholic Medical Center Office of Human Research Protection Program (CMC-OHRP)/Institutional Review Board approved the current study (Approval No. KC12DISI0338), and all participants provided their written informed consent for participation and publication.

  8. Examining Volunteer Motivations and Recruitment Strategies For Engagement in Urban Forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Moskell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies in urban forestry have examined the motivations of urban forestry volunteers. In this research, two social psychological theories (Volunteer Functions Inventory and Volunteer Process Model are utilized to examine motivations for participating in tree planting activities. The Volunteer Functions Inventory can be used to examine the needs, goals and motivations that individuals seek to fulfill through volunteerism. The Volunteer Process Model sheds light on the antecedents, experiences and consequences of volunteerism at multiple levels (individual, interpersonal, organizational, societal. An understanding of volunteer motivations can aid practitioners in the development and implementation of participatory urban forestry programs that are attractive to stakeholders. We conducted a survey of volunteers who participated in a MillionTreesNYC volunteer planting event and a focus group of urban forestry practitioners. Survey results reveal that volunteers have varied motivations and a limited knowledge of the community level impacts of trees. Results from the focus group reveal that providing education about the benefits of trees and maintaining long-term communication with volunteers are frequently used strategies for engagement. However, the public’s lack of knowledge about urban forestry and an inability to connect to audiences are practitioner-identified challenges for recruiting stakeholders to participate in their programs.

  9. Hotel Business Advertising Specificity and Its Psychological Examination Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Kurbatskaya, Tatyana Borisovna; Dobrotvorskaya, Svetlana Georgievna; Ustin, Pavel Nikolayevich

    2016-01-01

    The article substantiates the need of the preliminary psychological examination of advertising. An overview and analysis of contemporary conceptual lines of the hotel advertising are given in the article. Features of advertising messages are shown on the example of some hotels. The effects arising from the improper construction of the advertising composition are given. Conclusions, revealing features of advertising strategies in the hotel business, in contrast to advertising in the commodity ...

  10. Longitudinal split of the posterior cruciate ligament: description of a new MR finding and evaluation of its potential clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, J.H. [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, H.W., E-mail: chung@amc.seoul.k [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, J.W. [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, B.K.; Lee, S.H.; Shin, M.J. [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    Aim: To evaluate the clinical significance of the intra-substance longitudinal split of the posterior cruciate ligament (LS-PCL) and to evaluate its potential clinical significance on MRI. Materials and methods: The databases of two centres were searched for LS-PCL, 6917 knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations undertaken were retrospectively reviewed. LS-PCL was defined as increased signal intensity in a PCL in the longitudinal direction, but with an intact ligament outer surface on MRI. Twelve patients were enrolled in this study. Available arthroscopic results, degree of posterior knee instability, and changes in MRI findings, or the degree of instability during follow-up (FU), were reviewed from the patients medical records and via their MRI images. MRI images were reviewed by two musculoskeletal radiologists in consensus for presence and location of LS-PCL and any combined injuries: menisci lesions, ligament injuries, and bone marrow changes. Results: Seven of 12 patients (58.3%) had morphological or functional evidence of PCL injury or insufficiency according to the change of posterior instability on FU stress testing (n = 3), insufficiency during arthroscopy (n = 2), or decreased extent and altered shape of the PCL split on the FU MRI (n = 3). One patient revealed both change of posterior instability on FU stress testing and insufficiency during arthroscopy. Combined injuries were revealed in seven patients. Five patients had isolated LS-PCL: two patients underwent arthroscopic PCL reconstructions; and another three patients revealed knee instability on stress testing. Conclusion: Although LS-PCL has not been described before, it can be a type of partial tear of the PCL, which causes PCL insufficiency.

  11. [Significance of roentgen cinematography in the diagnosis of functional disorders of the pharyngo-esophageal junction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustiny, N; wolfensberger, M; Brühlmann, W

    1984-12-01

    Dysfunction of the pharyngo-oesophageal sphincter may escape detection by clinical examination, endoscopy, and routine barium studies. Cineradiographic examination of 300 patients with unexplained dysphagia revealed 57 cases of pharyngo-oesophageal dysfunction. In 25 cases an underlying disorder could be found, and 32 cases were considered idiopathic. Radiologically 3 types of dysfunction may be distinguished, namely late opening, incomplete relaxation, and early contraction of the pharyngo-oesophageal sphincter. Cineradiography was found to be an easy and reliable method of detecting pharyngo-oesophageal sphincter dysfunction.

  12. Revealing Students' Cognitive Structure about Physical and Chemical Change: Use of a Word Association Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirir, Hasene Esra; Demirkol, Hatice

    2018-01-01

    The current study aimed at examining the utility of a word association test in revealing students' cognitive structure in a specific chemistry topic through a word association test. The participants were 153 6th graders in a western Turkish city. The results revealed that the word association test serves a useful purpose in exploring the students'…

  13. A novel approach to sonographic examination in a patient with a calf muscle tear: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Carl PC

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Rupture of the distal musculotendinous junction of the medial head of the gastrocnemius, also known as "tennis leg", can be readily examined using a soft tissue ultrasound. Loss of muscle fiber continuity and the occurrence of bloody fluid accumulation can be observed using ultrasound with the patient in the prone position; however, some cases may have normal ultrasound findings in this conventional position. We report a case of a middle-aged man with tennis leg. Ultrasound examination had normal findings during the first two attempts. During the third attempt, with the patient's calf muscles examined in an unconventional knee flexed position, sonographic findings resembling tennis leg were detected. Case presentation A 60-year-old man in good health visited our rehabilitation clinic complaining of left calf muscle pain. On suspicion of a ruptured left medial head gastrocnemius muscle, a soft tissue ultrasound examination was performed. An ultrasound examination revealed symmetrical findings of bilateral calf muscles without evidence of muscle rupture. A roentgenogram of the left lower limb did not reveal any bony lesions. An ultrasound examination one week later also revealed negative sonographic findings. However, he still complained of persistent pain in his left calf area. A different ultrasound examination approach was then performed with the patient lying in the supine position with his knee flexed at 90 degrees. The transducer was then placed pointing upwards to examine the muscles and well-defined anechoic fluid collections with areas of hypoechoic surroundings were observed. Conclusion For patients suffering from calf muscle area pain and suspicion of tennis leg, a soft tissue ultrasound is a simple tool to confirm the diagnosis. However, in the case of negative sonographic findings, we recommend trying a different positional approach to examine the calf muscles by ultrasound before the diagnosis of tennis leg can

  14. A novel approach to sonographic examination in a patient with a calf muscle tear: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Carl Pc; Tang, Simon Ft; Hsu, Chih-Chin; Chen, Ruo Li; Hsu, Rex Ch; Wu, Chin-Wen; Chen, Max Jl

    2009-06-25

    Rupture of the distal musculotendinous junction of the medial head of the gastrocnemius, also known as "tennis leg", can be readily examined using a soft tissue ultrasound. Loss of muscle fiber continuity and the occurrence of bloody fluid accumulation can be observed using ultrasound with the patient in the prone position; however, some cases may have normal ultrasound findings in this conventional position. We report a case of a middle-aged man with tennis leg. Ultrasound examination had normal findings during the first two attempts. During the third attempt, with the patient's calf muscles examined in an unconventional knee flexed position, sonographic findings resembling tennis leg were detected. A 60-year-old man in good health visited our rehabilitation clinic complaining of left calf muscle pain. On suspicion of a ruptured left medial head gastrocnemius muscle, a soft tissue ultrasound examination was performed. An ultrasound examination revealed symmetrical findings of bilateral calf muscles without evidence of muscle rupture. A roentgenogram of the left lower limb did not reveal any bony lesions. An ultrasound examination one week later also revealed negative sonographic findings. However, he still complained of persistent pain in his left calf area. A different ultrasound examination approach was then performed with the patient lying in the supine position with his knee flexed at 90 degrees. The transducer was then placed pointing upwards to examine the muscles and well-defined anechoic fluid collections with areas of hypoechoic surroundings were observed. For patients suffering from calf muscle area pain and suspicion of tennis leg, a soft tissue ultrasound is a simple tool to confirm the diagnosis. However, in the case of negative sonographic findings, we recommend trying a different positional approach to examine the calf muscles by ultrasound before the diagnosis of tennis leg can be ruled out.

  15. How Is Examination Stress Experienced by Secondary Students Preparing for Their General Certificate of Secondary Education Examinations and How Can It Be Explained?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, David William

    2011-01-01

    High stakes examinations have been identified as a significant source of stress for secondary school students; however, there is little data accounting for, and explaining, the experiences of examination stress. This study aimed to further the understanding of examination stress in secondary school students by conducting interviews with 34…

  16. Correlation of United States Medical Licensing Examination and Internal Medicine In-Training Examination performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Jose A; Greer, Sharon

    2009-12-01

    The Internal Medicine In-Training Examination (ITE) is administered during residency training in the United States as a self-assessment and program assessment tool. Performance on this exam correlates with outcome on the American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying examination. Internal Medicine Program Directors use the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) to make decisions in recruitment of potential applicants. This study was done to determine a correlation of USMLE Steps 1, 2 and 3 results with ITE scores in each level of Internal Medicine training. A retrospective review of all residents graduating from an Internal Medicine program from 1999 to 2006 was done. Subjects included had data for all USMLE Steps and ITE during all years of training. Thirty-one subjects were included in the study. Correlations of USMLE Steps 1, 2 and 3 were done with ITE scores (percent correct) in each year of training. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was determined for each pairing and a t test to determine statistical significance of the correlation was done. Statistical significance was defined as P value ITE percent correct in PGY I, II and III were 0.46, 0.55 and 0.51 respectively. Corresponding r values for USMLE Step 2 and ITE percent correct were 0.79, 0.70 and 0.72; for USMLE Step 3 these values were 0.51, 0.37 and 0.51 respectively for each training year. USMLE scores are correlated with ITE scores. This correlation was strongest for USMLE Step 2.

  17. Interest in screening examinations among cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humeniuk Ewa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the influence of socio-demographic variables on attendance rate at screening examinations in cancer patients. Material and methods. The research group comprised of 100 cancer patients. The method applied in the research was a diagnostic survey. The research instrument was the authors‘ own questionnaire specially compiled to measure cancer patients‘ interest in screening examinations. The research material was analysed with the statistical packet STATISTICA 12 and Microsoft Office Excel software. Significance level was assumed at p<0.05 to determine statistically significant differences and dependencies. A Chi2 test was used in the research. Results. The surveyed patients mostly did not participate in screening examinations aimed at diagnosing cancer (66%. Their Age (p=0.05, gender (p=0.003 and place of residence (p=0.04 determined their participation rate in screening tests. The patients‘ marital status (p=0.47, education (p=0.85 and economic status (p=0.13 did not affect their willingness to attend screening examinations. Conclusions. The process of cancer incidence and death rate limitation requires greater participation of the population in prevention programmes.

  18. Using food as a reward: An examination of parental reward practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lindsey; Marx, Jenna M; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R

    2018-01-01

    Eating patterns and taste preferences are often established early in life. Many studies have examined how parental feeding practices may affect children's outcomes, including food intake and preference. The current study focused on a common food parenting practice, using food as a reward, and used Latent Profile Analysis (LPA) to examine whether mothers (n = 376) and fathers (n = 117) of children ages 2.8 to 7.5 (M = 4.7; SD = 1.1) grouped into profiles (i.e., subgroups) based on how they use of food as a reward. The 4-class model was the best-fitting LPA model, with resulting classes based on both the frequency and type of reward used. Classes were: infrequent reward (33%), tangible reward (21%), food reward (27%), and frequent reward (19%). The current study also explored whether children's eating styles (emotional overeating, rood fussiness, food responsiveness, and satiety responsiveness) and parenting style (Authoritative, Authoritarian, and Permissive) varied by reward profile. Analyses of Variance (ANOVA) revealed that the four profiles differed significantly for all outcome variables except satiety responsiveness. It appears that the use of tangible and food-based rewards have important implications in food parenting. More research is needed to better understand how the different rewarding practices affect additional child outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Examination of competitive lanthanide sorption onto smectites and its significance in the management of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galunin, Evgeny [Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Alba, Maria D. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas - Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Americo Vespucio 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Santos, Maria J. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina, PR 86051-990 (Brazil); Abrao, Taufik [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas - Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Americo Vespucio 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Vidal, Miquel, E-mail: miquel.vidal@ub.edu [Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-02-28

    The competitive effect of La and Lu (analogues of radionuclides appearing in radioactive waste) in the sorption in four smectites was examined. Sorption and desorption distribution coefficients (K{sub d}; K{sub d,des}), and desorption rates (R{sub des}) were determined from batch tests in two media: deionized water and, to consider the influence of cement leachates, 0.02 mol L{sup -1} Ca. The competitive effect was lower when high-affinity sites were available, as in the water medium at the lowest range of initial lanthanide concentration, with high K{sub d} for La and for Lu (5-63 x 10{sup 4} L kg{sup -1}). Lower K{sub d} was measured at higher initial concentrations and in the Ca medium, where Lu showed a stronger competitive effect. This was confirmed by fitting the sorption data to a two-solute Langmuir isotherm. The desorption data indicated that sorption was virtually irreversible for the scenarios with high sorption, with an excellent correlation between K{sub d} and K{sub d,des} (R{sup 2} around 0.9 for the two lanthanides). Assuming that radioactive waste is a mixture of radionuclides, and that Ca ions will be provided by the cement leachates, this would reduce the retention capacity of clay engineered barriers.

  20. Genome Wide Expression Profiling of Cancer Cell Lines Cultured in Microgravity Reveals Significant Dysregulation of Cell Cycle and MicroRNA Gene Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Vidyasekar

    Full Text Available Zero gravity causes several changes in metabolic and functional aspects of the human body and experiments in space flight have demonstrated alterations in cancer growth and progression. This study reports the genome wide expression profiling of a colorectal cancer cell line-DLD-1, and a lymphoblast leukemic cell line-MOLT-4, under simulated microgravity in an effort to understand central processes and cellular functions that are dysregulated among both cell lines. Altered cell morphology, reduced cell viability and an aberrant cell cycle profile in comparison to their static controls were observed in both cell lines under microgravity. The process of cell cycle in DLD-1 cells was markedly affected with reduced viability, reduced colony forming ability, an apoptotic population and dysregulation of cell cycle genes, oncogenes, and cancer progression and prognostic markers. DNA microarray analysis revealed 1801 (upregulated and 2542 (downregulated genes (>2 fold in DLD-1 cultures under microgravity while MOLT-4 cultures differentially expressed 349 (upregulated and 444 (downregulated genes (>2 fold under microgravity. The loss in cell proliferative capacity was corroborated with the downregulation of the cell cycle process as demonstrated by functional clustering of DNA microarray data using gene ontology terms. The genome wide expression profile also showed significant dysregulation of post transcriptional gene silencing machinery and multiple microRNA host genes that are potential tumor suppressors and proto-oncogenes including MIR22HG, MIR17HG and MIR21HG. The MIR22HG, a tumor-suppressor gene was one of the highest upregulated genes in the microarray data showing a 4.4 log fold upregulation under microgravity. Real time PCR validated the dysregulation in the host gene by demonstrating a 4.18 log fold upregulation of the miR-22 microRNA. Microarray data also showed dysregulation of direct targets of miR-22, SP1, CDK6 and CCNA2.

  1. Motivated to do well: an examination of the relationships between motivation, effort, and cognitive performance in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foussias, G; Siddiqui, I; Fervaha, G; Mann, S; McDonald, K; Agid, O; Zakzanis, K K; Remington, G

    2015-08-01

    The uncertain relationship between negative symptoms, and specifically motivational deficits, with cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia is in need of further elucidation as it pertains to the interpretation of cognitive test results. Findings to date have suggested a possible mediating role of motivational deficits on cognitive test measures, although findings from formal examinations of effort using performance validity measures have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between motivation, effort exerted during cognitive testing, and cognitive performance in schizophrenia. Sixty-nine outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were evaluated for psychopathology, severity of motivational deficits, effort exerted during cognitive testing, and cognitive performance. Motivation and degree of effort exerted during cognitive testing were significantly related to cognitive performance, specifically verbal fluency, verbal and working memory, attention and processing speed, and reasoning and problem solving. Further, effort accounted for 15% of the variance in cognitive performance, and partially mediated the relationship between motivation and cognitive performance. Examining cognitive performance profiles for individuals exerting normal or reduced effort revealed significant differences in global cognition, as well as attention/processing speed and reasoning and problem solving. These findings suggest that cognitive domains may be differentially affected by impairments in motivation and effort, and highlight the importance of understanding the interplay between motivation and cognitive performance deficits, which may guide the appropriate selection of symptom targets for promoting recovery in patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Light and electron microscopy of the European beaver (Castor fiber) stomach reveal unique morphological features with possible general biological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziółkowska, Natalia; Lewczuk, Bogdan; Petryński, Wojciech; Palkowska, Katarzyna; Prusik, Magdalena; Targońska, Krystyna; Giżejewski, Zygmunt; Przybylska-Gornowicz, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Anatomical, histological, and ultrastructural studies of the European beaver stomach revealed several unique morphological features. The prominent attribute of its gross morphology was the cardiogastric gland (CGG), located near the oesophageal entrance. Light microscopy showed that the CGG was formed by invaginations of the mucosa into the submucosa, which contained densely packed proper gastric glands comprised primarily of parietal and chief cells. Mucous neck cells represented beaver stomach was the presence of specific mucus with a thickness up to 950 µm (in frozen, unfixed sections) that coated the mucosa. Our observations suggest that the formation of this mucus is complex and includes the secretory granule accumulation in the cytoplasm of pit cells, the granule aggregation inside cells, and the incorporation of degenerating cells into the mucus.

  3. Social Anxiety Symptoms and Suicidal Ideation in a Clinical Sample of Early Adolescents: Examining Loneliness and Social Support as Longitudinal Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Simon, Valerie; Spirito, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has shown that social anxiety may be related to increased risk for suicidal ideation in teens, although this research largely has been cross-sectional and has not examined potential mediators of this relationship. A clinical sample of 144 early adolescents (72 % female; 12–15 years old) was assessed during psychiatric inpatient hospitalization and followed up at 9 and 18 months post-baseline. Symptoms of social anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation, loneliness, and perceived social support were assessed via structured interviews and self-report instruments. Structural equation modeling revealed a significant direct relationship between social anxiety symptoms at baseline and suicidal ideation at 18 months post-baseline, even after controlling for baseline depressive symptoms and ideation. A second multiple mediation model revealed that baseline social anxiety had a significant indirect effect on suicidal ideation at 18 months post-baseline through loneliness at 9 months post-baseline. Social anxiety did not have a significant indirect effect on suicidal ideation through perceived social support from either parents or close friends. Findings suggest that loneliness may be particularly implicated in the relationship between social anxiety and suicidality in teens. Clinicians should assess and address feelings of loneliness when treating socially anxious adolescents. PMID:24390470

  4. Predictive value of the korean academy of family medicine in-training examination for certifying examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jung-Jin; Kim, Ji-Yong

    2011-09-01

    In-training examination (ITE) is a cognitive examination similar to the written test, but it is different from the Clinical Practice Examination of the Korean Academy of Family Medicine (KAFM) Certification Examination (CE). The objective of this is to estimate the positive predictive value of the KAFM-ITE for identifying residents at risk for poor performance on the three types of KAFM-CE. 372 residents who completed the KAFM-CE in 2011 were included. We compared the mean KAFM-CE scores with ITE experience. We evaluated the correlation and the positive predictive value (PPV) of ITE for the multiple choice question (MCQ) scores of 1st written test & 2nd slide examination, the total clinical practice examination scores, and the total sum of 2nd test. 275 out of 372 residents completed ITE. Those who completed ITE had significantly higher MCQ scores of 1st written test than those who did not. The correlation of ITE scores with 1st written MCQ (0.627) was found to be the highest among the other kinds of CE. The PPV of the ITE score for 1st written MCQ scores was 0.672. The PPV of the ITE score ranged from 0.376 to 0.502. The score of the KAFM ITE has acceptable positive predictive value that could be used as a part of comprehensive evaluation system for residents in cognitive field.

  5. Dosimetric significance of cytogenetic examinations in human accidental over exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doloy-Biola, M.T.; Lego, R.; Ducatez, G.; Lepetit, J.; Bourguignon, M.

    1975-01-01

    The damage to 13 workers following accidental exposures was assessed from lymphocyte chromosomal aberrations, and the results compared with those supplied by physical dosimetry and the clinical syndromes [fr

  6. Report on the results of the fifth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in the South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Kenji; Hirata, Katsumi; Chiyoda, Shin; Moteki, Noriyuki; Ishino, Makoto; Hirai, Motohisa; Fukumoto, Masayuki.

    1993-01-01

    From October 20 to Novermber 6, 1992, medical examination was made in A-bomb survivors living in Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia, Peru and Paraguay. A total of 198 A-bomb survivors were identified in these 5 countries. Among them, 106 (53.5%) participated in the present medical examination, consisting of 49 men and 57 women. Seventy-two and 34 persons came from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, respectively. A mean age was 63.5±8.5 years for men and 63.8±7.3 years for women. The acquisition rate of A-bomb survivors' handbook was 51.9%. Medical questionnaires revealed surgical treatment for cancer in 4 persons. Subjective symptoms included fatigue, heat exhaustion, decreased body strength, and sensation of numbness. Laboratory findings revealed hypertension in 36 persons (38.3%), the necessity of ECG in 7 (6.5%), abnormal GOT in 5 (5.3%) and abnormal GPT in 2 (2.1%), hypercholesteremia in 20 (21.3%), hyperuricemia in 14 (14.9%), and high levels of fasting glucose in 10 (10.6%). The present medical examination revealed that 38 persons (35.8%) were required to take detailed examination and that common diseases were hypertension, hyperlipemia, hyperuricemia and cardiovascular diseases. (N.K.)

  7. Arcuate foramen and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cakmark, O.; Gurdal, E.; Cavdar, S.; Ekinci, G.; Yildiz, E.

    2005-01-01

    The present study determines the degree of ossification of the posterior atlanto-occipital membrane in dry bone, plane lateral cervical spine radiographs and computer tomography (CT). The average length, width and the area of the arcuate foramen were measured on dry bone and on cervical CT. Further, age, gender and complaints of the patients of shoulder and arm pain, neck pain, headache, vertigo, and lacrimation in relation to the presence of bony complete or incomplete arcuate foramen were evaluated. From February 2004 to January 2005 60 dry atlases were obtained from the Anatomy Department, University of Marmara, Istanbul, Turkey and 416 lateral cervical spine radiographs were obtained from the Radiology department for neurological and orthopedic evaluations. Each complete arcuate foramen was calculated with the aid of Clemex Vision PE demo version computer program. Among the 60 dry atlases examined 7 (11.7%) had complete and 2 (3.3 %) had incomplete bony bridge formation. Of the 416 plane lateral cervical spine radiographs examined, 30 (7.2%) had complete and 26 (6.25%) had incomplete bony bridge formation. Of the 30 complete arcuate foramen 24 (80%) were females and 6 (20%) were males. The frequency of having a complete arcuate foramen in females was 8.45%, and in males it was 4.55%. Further, of the 26 incomplete arcuate foramen 20 (76.9%) were females and 6 (23.1%) were males. The frequency of having an incomplete arcuate foramen in females was 7%, and in males was 4.55%. The statistical evaluations showed that patients with complete arcuate foramen had significant complaints of shoulder-arm pain (p=0.0072), neck pain (p=0.0072) and vertigo (p=0.0598) compared to patients with incomplete arcuate foramen. The patients with complete arcuate foramen had a headache ratio of 12:30 and this ratio was 2:26 in patients with incomplete arcuate foramen and the difference between complete and incomplete arcuate foramen was statistically significant (p=0.0062). Further

  8. Usefulness of panoramic radiograph for the improvement of periodic oral examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, MinJung; Choi, Bo Ram; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and utility of panoramic radiograph for the improvement of the periodic oral examinations. Clinical examinations and panoramic examinations were done for the 242 subjects of oral examinations. The results of panoramic radiograph interpretation were compared with the clinical findings. Two questionnaires were created. One was carried out before the panoramic examination and the other done afterwards, to find out the subjects cognition and satisfaction for the clinical and panoramic examinations. Results : 1. Panoramic findings showed a higher detection rate of 31.9% for periodontal diseases, and 23.1% for dental caries than clinical findings. 2. The additional abnormalities detected through panoramic examinations were impacted tooth in 81 subjects (33.6%), maxillary sinus abnormalities in 28 subjects (11.6%), condylar abnormalities in 5 subjects (2.1%), congenital and acquired dental anormalies in 59 subjects (24.5%), and other miscellaneous abnormalities in 34 subjects (14.1%). 3. 164 subjects (67.8%) were satisfied with the current periodic oral examination, and 75 subjects (31.1%) hoped for better accuracy. 4. In the first and second questionnaire, 154 subjects (67.0%) and 163 subjects (70.6%) responded respectively that panoramic examination was necessary, and 193 subjects (83.2%) responded that it actually helped. The panoramic examination was revealed to improve the effectiveness of the periodic oral examination and to increase the satisfaction of the subjects of examination.

  9. Life-table studies revealed significant effects of deforestation on the development and survivorship of Anopheles minimus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Guofa; Zhong, Daibin; Wang, Xiaoling; Wang, Ying; Yang, Zhaoqing; Cui, Liwang; Yan, Guiyun

    2016-06-06

    Many developing countries are experiencing rapid ecological changes such as deforestation and shifting agricultural practices. These environmental changes may have an important consequence on malaria due to their impact on vector survival and reproduction. Despite intensive deforestation and malaria transmission in the China-Myanmar border area, the impact of deforestation on malaria vectors in the border area is unknown. We conducted life table studies on Anopheles minimus larvae to determine the pupation rate and development time in microcosms under deforested, banana plantation, and forested environments. The pupation rate of An. minimus was 3.8 % in the forested environment. It was significantly increased to 12.5 % in banana plantations and to 52.5 % in the deforested area. Deforestation reduced larval-to-pupal development time by 1.9-3.3 days. Food supplementation to aquatic habitats in forested environments and banana plantations significantly increased larval survival rate to a similar level as in the deforested environment. Deforestation enhanced the survival and development of An. minimus larvae, a major malaria vector in the China-Myanmar border area. Experimental determination of the life table parameters on mosquito larvae under a variety of environmental conditions is valuable to model malaria transmission dynamics and impact by climate and environmental changes.

  10. Core-level photoemission revealing the Mott transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyeong-Do; Noh, Han-Jin; Kim, K.H.; Oh, S.-J.

    2005-01-01

    Ru 3d core-level X-ray photoemission spectra of various ruthenates are examined. They show in general two-peak structures, which can be assigned as the screened and unscreened peaks. The screened peak is absent in a Mott insulator, but develops into a main peak as the correlation strength becomes weak. This spectral behavior is well explained by the dynamical mean-field theory calculation for the single-band Hubbard model with the on-site core-hole potential using the exact diagonalization method. The new mechanism of the core-level photoemission satellite can be utilized to reveal the Mott transition phenomenon in various strongly correlated electron systems

  11. [Mini-Mental State Examination: Screening and Diagnosis of Cognitive Decline, Using New Normative Data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Isabel; Duro, Diana; Lemos, Raquel; Costa, Vanessa; Pereira, Miguel; Simões, Mário R; Freitas, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    The Mini-Mental State Examination is the most commonly used cognitive screening test. In Portugal, the cut-off scores are defined according to literacy groups, but different proposals have been recommended by more representative studies. We therefore propose to confirm the influence of demographical variables, such as age and education, in the subjectâs performance; evaluating the discriminant ability of the new normative data; and to further examine the diagnostic acuity of the validated cut-off scoring for mild cognitive impairment and for the most prevalent types of dementia. Our study includes 1 441 educated subjects, divided into seven subgroups: Mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, community-controls and memory clinic-controls. Altogether age and education explain 10.4% of the Mini-Mental State Examination results variance, with both variables contributing significantly to the resultsâ prediction. The diagnostic acuity based on the most recent normative data was always higher than the one obtained through the validation cut-off scoring, revealing an overall excellent specificity (superior to 90%) and different sensitivity values: excellent for mild Alzheimer's disease (91%), good for dementia with Lewy Bodies (78%) and low for mild cognitive impairment (65%), frontotemporal dementia and vascular dementia (55%). The performance on the Mini-Mental State Examination is influenced by age and education, supporting the use of normative data that consider those variables. With this approach, the Mini-Mental State Examination could be a sensitive and specific instrument for the Alzheimer's disease screening among all healthcare levels. Nevertheless, its diagnostic acuity is limited in other conditions frequently seen in memory clinics, such as Mild Cognitive Impairment and other types of dementia.

  12. An examination of the factors affecting consumer’s purchase decision in the Malaysian retail market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Rajeh Hanaysha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of corporate social responsibility, social media marketing, sales promotion, store environment and perceived value on a purchase decision in the retail sector. Design/methodology/approach – A quantitative research methodology was used and the data were collected from 278 customers of retail stores in Malaysia. The collected data were analysed using SPSS 19 and structural equation modelling on AMOS. Findings – The findings showed that corporate social responsibility has significant positive effects on a purchase decision, whereas sales promotion has a negative effect on purchase decision. The outcomes of this study also indicated that store environment has a significant positive effect on consumers’ purchase decisions. Contrary to expectations, the findings revealed that the effect of social media marketing on purchase decision is insignificant. Finally, the results showed that perceived value has a significant positive effect on a purchase decision. Originality/value – The findings of this study contribute to an understanding of the importance of the selected factors in affecting a consumer’s purchase decision in the retail industry.

  13. ENGLISH IN INDONESIAN ISLAMIC HIGHER EDUCATION: Examining The Relationship between Performance in The Yes/No Test and Reading Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahiruddin Sahiruddin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between performance in the Yes/No test of English recognition vocabulary and reading skills in Indonesian Islamic learners of English as a foreign language (EFL. Participants in the study were 83 Indonesian undergraduate students, comprising an Advanced group (n=41 and Intermediate group (n=42 of EFL learners enrolled in the English department at the State Islamic University (UIN of Malang, Indonesia. All participants completed both tests. The results reveal that the hits accuracy performance between the Advanced EFL group and the Intermediate EFL group was statistically significant, indicating that Yes/No test performance, in context of hits accuracy, did discriminate between levels of English proficiency. However, the differences disappeared with corrected scores since both groups indicated a high false alarm rate. In addition, this study also reveals that there was no evidence of a relationship between Yes/No performance and reading scores. Several pedagogical implications for EFL language teachers are discussed.

  14. OSCEs for undergraduate clinical examination in orthopaedics: inter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... D (Group 2) was 8.625. The p-value was 0.001148 (95% confidence interval). Conclusion: There was statistically significant inter-examiner variability. We recommend that for all OSCE exams, examiners be paired with a deliberate attempt to pair a “Hawk” with a “Dove”. Statistical correction of biases is also recommended.

  15. Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences Examination as a Predictor of Student Performance during Clinical Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, William E.; Campbell, William H.

    1984-01-01

    A comparison of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences Examination (BPSE) results with student performance evaluations in core clerkships, institutional and community externships, didactic and clinical courses, and related basic science coursework revealed the BPSE does not predict student performance during clinical instruction. (MSE)

  16. Brief Group Psychoeducation for Bulimia Nervosa: Assessing the Clinical Significance of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ron; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Brief intervention designed to promote symptom management was completed by 41 women with bulimia nervosa. Findings revealed diversity of outcomes that individuals reported following participation in intervention. Found differential reporting of clinically significant change in favor of specific eating psychopathology relative to personality…

  17. Nervous system examination on YouTube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azer Samy A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Web 2.0 sites such as YouTube have become a useful resource for knowledge and are used by medical students as a learning resource. This study aimed at assessing videos covering the nervous system examination on YouTube. Methods A research of YouTube was conducted from 2 November to 2 December 2011 using the following key words “nervous system examination”, “nervous system clinical examination”, “cranial nerves examination”, “CNS examination”, “examination of cerebellum”, “balance and coordination examination”. Only relevant videos in the English language were identified and related URL recorded. For each video, the following information was collected: title, author/s, duration, number of viewers, number of posted comments, and total number of days on YouTube. Using criteria comprising content, technical authority and pedagogy parameters, videos were rated independently by three assessors and grouped into educationally useful and non-educationally useful. Results A total of 2240 videos were screened; 129 were found to have relevant information to nervous system examination. Analysis revealed that 61 (47% of the videos provided useful information on the nervous system examination. These videos scored (mean ± SD, 14.9 ± 0.2 and mainly covered examination of the whole nervous system (8 videos, 13%, cranial nerves (42 videos, 69%, upper limbs (6 videos, 10%, lower limbs (3 videos, 5%, balance and co-ordination (2 videos, 3%. The other 68 (53% videos were not useful educationally; scoring (mean ± SD, 11.1 ± 3.0. The total viewers of all videos was 2,189,434. Useful videos were viewed by 1,050,445 viewers (48% of total viewers. The total viewership per day for useful videos was 1,794.5 and for non-useful videos 1,132.0. The differences between the three assessors were insignificant (less than 0.5 for the mean and 0.3 for the SD. Conclusions Currently, YouTube provides an adequate resource

  18. Nervous system examination on YouTube

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Web 2.0 sites such as YouTube have become a useful resource for knowledge and are used by medical students as a learning resource. This study aimed at assessing videos covering the nervous system examination on YouTube. Methods A research of YouTube was conducted from 2 November to 2 December 2011 using the following key words “nervous system examination”, “nervous system clinical examination”, “cranial nerves examination”, “CNS examination”, “examination of cerebellum”, “balance and coordination examination”. Only relevant videos in the English language were identified and related URL recorded. For each video, the following information was collected: title, author/s, duration, number of viewers, number of posted comments, and total number of days on YouTube. Using criteria comprising content, technical authority and pedagogy parameters, videos were rated independently by three assessors and grouped into educationally useful and non-educationally useful. Results A total of 2240 videos were screened; 129 were found to have relevant information to nervous system examination. Analysis revealed that 61 (47%) of the videos provided useful information on the nervous system examination. These videos scored (mean ± SD, 14.9 ± 0.2) and mainly covered examination of the whole nervous system (8 videos, 13%), cranial nerves (42 videos, 69%), upper limbs (6 videos, 10%), lower limbs (3 videos, 5%), balance and co-ordination (2 videos, 3%). The other 68 (53%) videos were not useful educationally; scoring (mean ± SD, 11.1 ± 3.0). The total viewers of all videos was 2,189,434. Useful videos were viewed by 1,050,445 viewers (48% of total viewers). The total viewership per day for useful videos was 1,794.5 and for non-useful videos 1,132.0. The differences between the three assessors were insignificant (less than 0.5 for the mean and 0.3 for the SD). Conclusions Currently, YouTube provides an adequate resource for learning

  19. Guidelines for destructive examination of potential MIC [microbiologically influenced corrosion]-related failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borenstein, S.S.

    1989-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is recognized as a major cause of pitting corrosion failures in natural waters. In order to alleviate the problem, it is important to establish the exact cause of corrosion. If there is a possibility that the failure is due to MIC, a particularly careful failure analysis must be conducted. MIC can be misdiagnosed as attack due to conventional chloride crevice/pitting corrosion unless specialized techniques are used. Certain techniques generally must be employed, including a careful visual examination, is situ bacterial sampling of residual water, bacterial analysis for corrosion products, radiographic examinations, and metallographic examinations. Other techniques may be necessary, or may be very helpful in the analysis, including culture growth, scanning electron microscopy, and ultrasonic examinations. Metallographic examinations can reveal MIC characteristics such as selective pitting of one phase in duplex stainless steel weldments. The methods of failure analysis and their importance are addressed, including each of the steps in the nondestructive examinations and destructive analyses

  20. Dental Care Utilization for Examination and Regional Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cheol-Sin; Han, Sun-Young; Lee, Seung Eun; Kang, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Chul-Woung

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Receiving proper dental care plays a significant role in maintaining good oral health. We investigated the relationship between regional deprivation and dental care utilization. Methods: Multilevel logistic regression was used to identify the relationship between the regional deprivation level and dental care utilization purpose, adjusting for individual-level variables, in adults aged 19+ in the 2008 Korean Community Health Survey (n=220 258). Results: Among Korean adults, 12.8% used dental care to undergo examination and 21.0% visited a dentist for other reasons. In the final model, regional deprivation level was associated with significant variations in dental care utilization for examination (pdental care utilization for other reasons in the final model. Conclusions: This study’s findings suggest that policy interventions should be considered to reduce regional variations in rates of dental care utilization for examination. PMID:26265665

  1. House prices and the macroeconomic environment in Turkey: The examination of a dynamic relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yıldırım Mustafa Ozan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the dynamic relationship between house prices, income, interest rates, housing permits, and share prices in Turkey, using Structural Vector Autoregressive (SVAR models. This paper uses both monthly and quarterly data for the Turkish economy and applies four different SVAR models to reveal this dynamic relationship over the 2003-2016 period. The results show statistically significant and substantial relationships between the variables. The analysis also shows that house prices and housing permits as housing market variables are very sensitive to monetary policy and income shocks. The key finding of the study for policymakers is that a change in mortgage rates is the factor that most changes house prices. The study also shows that the housing market plays an important role in transferring monetary policy to the real economy in Turkey.

  2. Therapeutic Value of the Periodic Health Examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lincoln, T. A.; Hurt, H. B.

    1965-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been conducting periodic health examinations on all of its employees for over 10 years. The original purpose of this program was the early detection of disease to be followed by referral or appropriate counseling. Because of the relatively young age of this group, we expected that this service would be of greatest benefit to only the small percentage who had significant findings. However, over this 10 year period we have been increasingly impressed that those who had no significant findings have expressed almost as much enthusiasm and gratitude as those in whom we found early but potentially serious disease. This response caused us to look more critically at the reasons for this favorable reaction. As a result, we have become convinced that these examinations have an important therapeutic value to the healthy, as well as the sick, and that this fact should be considered in their justification. A health examination can quite properly be considered therapeutic, even though no disease is found or treated, providing it "serves" or meets some of the needs of the person being examined. After all, the literal definition of the word therapeutic is service, since it is derived from the Greek word therapeutikos, which means an attendant or servant.

  3. Health Medical Examination and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Hwan Kim

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a highly prevalent condition that cannot be cured but can be controlled by health management. Health management not only includes regulation of drinking, smoking, and physical activity but also health medical examinations. However, health medical examinations at private medical facilities involve high cost, limiting continuous and regular examination. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of MetS and health management behavior according to the number of health medical examinations conducted in 14 years. According to the number of health medical examinations undertaken each year from 1999 to 2012, in 2012, 21,803 visitors (14,511 men and 7,292 women from a health medical examination center at a private medical facility were assigned to low- (3–5 health examinations in 14 years, middle- (6–10 health examinations in 14 years, and high-frequency groups (11–14 health examinations during 14 years. MetS was evaluated according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program and Adult Treatment Panel III and waist circumference was measured according to the standard for Asians by the World Health Organization. Odds ratio (OR was calculated by logistic regression analysis. Blood pressure tended to decrease to 124.5 vs. 123.9 vs. 123.5 in the low-, middle-, and high-frequency groups in men, respectively. In addition, middle- and high-frequency groups demonstrated better total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and systolic blood pressure compared with the low-frequency group. The prevalence of MetS demonstrated no significance before adjusting for variables in men, and high-frequency examinees demonstrated 18% low OR values (0.823, p<0.001 after adjusting for age. OR was 0.868 (p=0.015 when adjusted for age, other socioeconomic factors, and health behavior. In women, the prevalence of MetS demonstrated significantly high OR of 1.205 (p=0.007 and 1.300 (p=0.008 in

  4. Integrated genomic and immunophenotypic classification of pancreatic cancer reveals three distinct subtypes with prognostic/predictive significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartenberg, Martin; Cibin, Silvia; Zlobec, Inti; Vassella, Erik; Eppenberger-Castori, Serenella M M; Terracciano, Luigi; Eichmann, Micha; Worni, Mathias; Gloor, Beat; Perren, Aurel; Karamitopoulou, Eva

    2018-04-16

    Current clinical classification of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is unable to predict prognosis or response to chemo- or immunotherapy and does not take into account the host reaction to PDAC-cells. Our aim is to classify PDAC according to host- and tumor-related factors into clinically/biologically relevant subtypes by integrating molecular and microenvironmental findings. A well-characterized PDAC-cohort (n=110) underwent next-generation sequencing with a hotspot cancer panel, while Next-generation Tissue-Microarrays were immunostained for CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, PD-L1, p63, hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor (RHAMM) and DNA mismatch-repair proteins. Previous data on FOXP3 were integrated. Immune-cell counts and protein expression were correlated with tumor-derived driver mutations, clinicopathologic features (TNM 8. 2017), survival and epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT)-like tumor budding.  Results: Three PDAC-subtypes were identified: the "immune-escape" (54%), poor in T- and B-cells and enriched in FOXP3+Tregs, with high-grade budding, frequent CDKN2A- , SMAD4- and PIK3CA-mutations and poor outcome; the "immune-rich" (35%), rich in T- and B-cells and poorer in FOXP3+Tregs, with infrequent budding, lower CDKN2A- and PIK3CA-mutation rate and better outcome and a subpopulation with tertiary lymphoid tissue (TLT), mutations in DNA damage response genes (STK11, ATM) and the best outcome; and the "immune-exhausted" (11%) with immunogenic microenvironment and two subpopulations: one with PD-L1-expression and high PIK3CA-mutation rate and a microsatellite-unstable subpopulation with high prevalence of JAK3-mutations. The combination of low budding, low stromal FOXP3-counts, presence of TLTs and absence of CDKN2A-mutations confers significant survival advantage in PDAC-patients. Immune host responses correlate with tumor characteristics leading to morphologically recognizable PDAC-subtypes with prognostic/predictive significance. Copyright ©2018

  5. A Validation Study of the Japanese Version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised

    OpenAIRE

    dos Santos Kawata, Kelssy Hitomi; Hashimoto, Ryusaku; Nishio, Yoshiyuki; Hayashi, Atsuko; Ogawa, Nanayo; Kanno, Shigenori; Hiraoka, Kotaro; Yokoi, Kayoko; Iizuka, Osamu; Mori, Etsuro

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the Japanese version of the Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R) [Mori: Japanese Edition of Hodges JR’s Cognitive Assessment for Clinicians, 2010] designed to detect dementia, and to compare its diagnostic accuracy with that of the Mini-Mental State Examination. The ACE-R was administered to 85 healthy individuals and 126 patients with dementia. The reliability assessment revealed a strong correlation in both groups. The internal consistenc...

  6. Effect of decision making on ultrasonic examination performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.H.

    1992-05-01

    A decision aid was developed to overcome examiner limitations in information processing and decision making during ultrasonic examinations. The aid provided a means of noting signal characteristics as they were observed during the examination, and of presenting them simultaneously for decision making. The aid also served as a way of providing detailed feedback on examination performance during training. The aid was incorporated into worksheets used for the conduct of practice examinations during ultrasonic examination training. To support the introduction and use of the decision aid, one hour of supplementary training was inserted in an existing 64-hour training course on ultrasonic detection of defects. This study represented a modest step in improving the performance of ultrasonic examinations in nuclear power plants. Findings indicated that aided decision making supported by limited training can significantly improve ultrasonic detection performance

  7. MOTIVATIONAL CLUSTER PROFILES OF ADOLESCENT ATHLETES: AN EXAMINATION OF DIFFERENCES IN PHYSICAL-SELF PERCEPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Çağlar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of the present study was to identify motivational profiles of adolescent athletes using cluster analysis in non-Western culture. A second purpose was to examine relationships between physical self-perception differences of adolescent athletes and motivational profiles. One hundred and thirty six male (Mage = 17.46, SD = 1.25 years and 80 female adolescent athletes (Mage = 17.61, SD = 1.19 years from a variety of team sports including basketball, soccer, volleyball, and handball volunteered to participate in this study. The Sport Motivation Scale (SMS and Physical Self-Perception Profile (PSPP were administered to all participants. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed a four-cluster solution for this sample: amotivated, low motivated, moderate motivated, and highly motivated. A 4 x 5 (Cluster x PSPP Subscales MANOVA revealed no significant main effect of motivational clusters on physical self-perception levels (p > 0.05. As a result, findings of the present study showed that motivational types of the adolescent athletes constituted four different motivational clusters. Highly and moderate motivated athletes consistently scored higher than amotivated athletes on the perceived sport competence, physical condition, and physical self-worth subscales of PSPP. This study identified motivational profiles of competitive youth-sport participants

  8. The significance of Epstein Barr Virus (EBV & DNA Topoisomerase II alpha (DNA-Topo II alpha immunoreactivity in normal oral mucosa, Oral Epithelial Dysplasia (OED and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Mohamed M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Head and neck cancer including oral cancer is considered to develop by accumulated genetic alterations and the major pathway is cancerization from lesions such as intraepithelial dysplasia in oral leukoplakia and erythroplakia. The relationship of proliferation markers with the grading of dysplasia is uncertain. The involvement of EBV in oral carcinogenesis is not fully understood. Aim The present study was designed to investigate the role of EBV and DNA Topoisomerase II∝ (DNA-Topo II∝ during oral carcinogenesis and to examine the prognostic significance of these protein expressions in OSCCs. Methods Using specific antibodies for EBV and DNA-Topo II∝, we examined protein expressions in archival lesion tissues from 16 patients with oral epithelial dysplasia, 22 oral squamous cell carcinoma and 20 normal oral mucosa by immunohistochemistry. Clinical information was obtained through the computerized retrospective database from the tumor registry. Results DNA-Topo II∝ was expressed in all examined specimens. Analysis of Variance ANOVA revealed highly significant difference (P 0.05 in inferior surface of tongue and in hard palatal tissues. Significant differences were observed between OEDs and NSE (P Conclusion EBV and DNA Topo II-αLI expression are possible indicators in oral carcinogenesis and may be valuable diagnostic and prognostic indices in oral carcinoma.

  9. Unilateral proptosis revealing a fronto-ethmoidal mucocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajmi, Houda; Hmaied, Wassim; Ben Jalel, Wady; Ben Romdhane, Khaoula; Chelly, Zied; El Fekih, Lamia

    2017-06-01

    Backgroud: The fronto-ethmoidal mucocele is a benign condition leading commonly to limited eye movement or ocular pain but it could also induce visual acuity impairment by compressing the optic nerve Aim: To discuss, through a case report, different ophthalmologic manifestations of the fronto-ethmoidalmucocele. Reported case: A 46-years-old man with no general history consulted for a bilateral ocular redness and itching. He reported, however, a mild protrusion of his left globe evolving for oneyear. The clinical examination revealed a unilateral proptosis in the left eye with a discrete limitation of theadduction. A brain and orbital computer tomography (CT)and a magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)revealed a grade I exophthalmos caused by an oval formation of fluid density in the left anterior and posterior ethmoidal cells in addition to the frontal sinus,driving theeyeball and internal oculomotor muscles back and out.The patient was referred to otorhinolaryngology department for a precocious surgical management. The ophtalmologic manifestations of the disease depend on the location, the size of the formation and involvement of adjacent structures. The loss of vision and the apex syndrome due to the compressionof the ocular globe are the most serious complications.

  10. Photocoagulation treatment for clinically significant radiation macular oedema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinyoun, J.L.; Zamber, R.W.; Lawrence, B.S.; Barlow, W.E.; Arnold, A.M. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Macular oedema is a leading cause of vision loss in patients with radiation retinopathy. In an effort to find an effective treatment for this vision threatening complication, 12 eyes (eight patients) were treated with photocoagulation for clinically significant radiation macular oedema (CSRMO) defined as central macular thickening, exudates threatening the macular centre, or one disc area of thickening in the macula. Median visual acuity improved from 20/100 pre-operatively to 20/90 at the initial post-operative examination (mean follow up 5 months) and to 20/75 at the final post-operative examination (mean follow up 39 months). At the final post-operative examination, visual acuity had improved in eight (67%) eyes and six (50%) eyes had complete resolution of the CSRMO; two (17%) other eyes had improved anatomically in that fewer CSRMO criteria were present. These results suggest that macular photocoagulation is effective in decreasing macular oedema and improving vision in eyes with CSRMO. (author).

  11. Photocoagulation treatment for clinically significant radiation macular oedema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinyoun, J.L.; Zamber, R.W.; Lawrence, B.S.; Barlow, W.E.; Arnold, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    Macular oedema is a leading cause of vision loss in patients with radiation retinopathy. In an effort to find an effective treatment for this vision threatening complication, 12 eyes (eight patients) were treated with photocoagulation for clinically significant radiation macular oedema (CSRMO) defined as central macular thickening, exudates threatening the macular centre, or one disc area of thickening in the macula. Median visual acuity improved from 20/100 pre-operatively to 20/90 at the initial post-operative examination (mean follow up 5 months) and to 20/75 at the final post-operative examination (mean follow up 39 months). At the final post-operative examination, visual acuity had improved in eight (67%) eyes and six (50%) eyes had complete resolution of the CSRMO; two (17%) other eyes had improved anatomically in that fewer CSRMO criteria were present. These results suggest that macular photocoagulation is effective in decreasing macular oedema and improving vision in eyes with CSRMO. (author)

  12. Reproducibility of Dynamic Computed Tomography Brain Perfusion Measurements in Patients with Significant Carotid Artery Stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafin, Z.; Kotarski, M.; Karolkiewicz, M.; Mindykowski, R.; Lasek, W.; Molski, S.; Gajdzinska, M.; Nowak-Nowacka, A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Perfusion computed tomography (PCT) determination is a minimally invasive and widely available technique for brain blood flow assessment, but its application may be restricted by large variation of results. Purpose: To determine the intraobserver, interobserver, and inter examination variability of brain PCT absolute measurements in patients with significant carotid artery stenosis (CAS), and to evaluate the effect of the use of relative perfusion values on PCT reproducibility. Material and Methods: PCT imaging was completed in 61 patients before endarterectomy, and in 38 of these within 4 weeks after treatment. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), time to peak (TTP), and peak enhancement intensity (PEI) were calculated with the maximum slope method. Inter examination variability was evaluated based on perfusion of hemisphere contralateral to the treated CAS, from repeated examinations. Interobserver and intraobserver variability were established for the untreated side, based on pretreatment examination. Results: Interobserver and intraobserver variability were highest for CBF measurement (28.8% and 32.5%, respectively), and inter examination variability was the highest for CBV (24.1%). Intraobserver and interobserver variability were higher for absolute perfusion values compared with their respective ratios for CBF and TTP. The only statistically significant difference between perfusion values measured by two observers was for CBF (mean 78.3 vs. 67.5 ml/100 g/min). The inter examination variability of TTP (12.1%) was significantly lower than the variability of other absolute perfusion measures, and the inter examination variability of ratios was significantly lower than absolute values for all the parameters. Conclusion: In longitudinal studies of patients with chronic cerebral ischemia, PCT ratios and either TTP or CBV are more suitable measures than absolute CBF values, because of their considerably lower inter- and intraobserver

  13. Reproducibility of Dynamic Computed Tomography Brain Perfusion Measurements in Patients with Significant Carotid Artery Stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafin, Z.; Kotarski, M.; Karolkiewicz, M.; Mindykowski, R.; Lasek, W.; Molski, S.; Gajdzinska, M.; Nowak-Nowacka, A. (Dept. of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, and Dept. of General and Vascular Surgery, Nicolaus Copernicus Univ., Collegium Medicum, Bydgoszcz (Poland))

    2009-02-15

    Background: Perfusion computed tomography (PCT) determination is a minimally invasive and widely available technique for brain blood flow assessment, but its application may be restricted by large variation of results. Purpose: To determine the intraobserver, interobserver, and inter examination variability of brain PCT absolute measurements in patients with significant carotid artery stenosis (CAS), and to evaluate the effect of the use of relative perfusion values on PCT reproducibility. Material and Methods: PCT imaging was completed in 61 patients before endarterectomy, and in 38 of these within 4 weeks after treatment. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), time to peak (TTP), and peak enhancement intensity (PEI) were calculated with the maximum slope method. Inter examination variability was evaluated based on perfusion of hemisphere contralateral to the treated CAS, from repeated examinations. Interobserver and intraobserver variability were established for the untreated side, based on pretreatment examination. Results: Interobserver and intraobserver variability were highest for CBF measurement (28.8% and 32.5%, respectively), and inter examination variability was the highest for CBV (24.1%). Intraobserver and interobserver variability were higher for absolute perfusion values compared with their respective ratios for CBF and TTP. The only statistically significant difference between perfusion values measured by two observers was for CBF (mean 78.3 vs. 67.5 ml/100 g/min). The inter examination variability of TTP (12.1%) was significantly lower than the variability of other absolute perfusion measures, and the inter examination variability of ratios was significantly lower than absolute values for all the parameters. Conclusion: In longitudinal studies of patients with chronic cerebral ischemia, PCT ratios and either TTP or CBV are more suitable measures than absolute CBF values, because of their considerably lower inter- and intraobserver

  14. Sources of stress for breast cancer survivors involved in dragon boating: examining associations with treatment characteristics and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadd, Valerie; Sabiston, Catherine M; McDonough, Meghan H; Crocker, Peter R E

    2010-07-01

    This study sought to (1) identify common stressors faced by breast cancer survivors involved in dragon boating, (2) examine the conceptual and statistical factor groupings of the stressors, (3) identify differences in stressor factors based on treatment characteristics, and (4) examine the associations between stressor factors and two indicators of self-esteem. Survivors (n = 470) involved in dragon boating completed a survey assessing stressor frequency, stressor intensity, stressor valence, physical self-worth, and global self-esteem, along with demographic and cancer treatment information. An exploratory factor analyses (EFA) using maximum likelihood extraction with oblique rotation revealed a four-factor solution that included physical, emotional, social, and exercise-related stressors. Exercise-related stressors were reported more frequently and intensely but were appraised positively by most survivors. The physical, emotional, and social stressors were perceived predominantly as negative. Findings also revealed that physical and emotional stressors and exercise-related stressors were correlates of physical self-worth (R(2) = 0.26). Emotional, social, and exercise-related stressors were significant correlates of global self-esteem (R(2) = 0.11). Cancer treatments were also associated with the experience of stressors, with the strongest effects reported for chemotherapy treatment. Overall, the results demonstrate that participants experienced many stressors but that exercise-related stressors were viewed as more adaptive and were positive correlates of self-esteem processes.

  15. Examining the Impact of Maternal Health, Race, and Socioeconomic Status on Daughter's Self-Rated Health Over Three Decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shippee, Tetyana P; Rowan, Kathleen; Sivagnanam, Kamesh; Oakes, J Michael

    2015-09-01

    This study examines the role of mother's health and socioeconomic status on daughter's self-rated health using data spanning three decades from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Mature Women and Young Women (N = 1,848 matched mother-daughter pairs; 1,201 White and 647 African American). Using nested growth curve models, we investigated whether mother's self-rated health affected the daughter's self-rated health and whether socioeconomic status mediated this relationship. Mother's health significantly influenced daughters' self-rated health, but the findings were mediated by mother's socioeconomic status. African American daughters reported lower self-rated health and experienced more decline over time compared with White daughters, accounting for mother's and daughter's covariates. Our findings reveal maternal health and resources as a significant predictor of daughters' self-rated health and confirm the role of socioeconomic status and racial disparities over time. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Examination of association to autism of common genetic variationin genes related to dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B M; Schnetz-Boutaud, N; Bartlett, J; Wright, H H; Abramson, R K; Cuccaro, M L; Gilbert, J R; Pericak-Vance, M A; Haines, J L

    2008-12-01

    Autism is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a triad of complications. Autistic individuals display significant disturbances in language and reciprocal social interactions, combined with repetitive and stereotypic behaviors. Prevalence studies suggest that autism is more common than originally believed, with recent estimates citing a rate of one in 150. Although multiple genetic linkage and association studies have yielded multiple suggestive genes or chromosomal regions, a specific risk locus has yet to be identified and widely confirmed. Because many etiologies have been suggested for this complex syndrome, we hypothesize that one of the difficulties in identifying autism genes is that multiple genetic variants may be required to significantly increase the risk of developing autism. Thus, we took the alternative approach of examining 14 prominent dopamine pathway candidate genes for detailed study by genotyping 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Although we did observe a nominally significant association for rs2239535 (P=0.008) on chromosome 20, single-locus analysis did not reveal any results as significant after correction for multiple comparisons. No significant interaction was identified when Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction was employed to test specifically for multilocus effects. Although genome-wide linkage scans in autism have provided support for linkage to various loci along the dopamine pathway, our study does not provide strong evidence of linkage or association to any specific gene or combination of genes within the pathway. These results demonstrate that common genetic variation within the tested genes located within this pathway at most play a minor to moderate role in overall autism pathogenesis.

  17. Naming patterns reveal cultural values: patronyms, matronyms, and the U.S. culture of honor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan P; Carvallo, Mauricio; Imura, Mikiko

    2014-02-01

    Four studies examined the hypothesis that honor norms would be associated with a pronounced use of patronyms, but not matronyms, for naming children. Study 1 shows that men who endorse honor values expressed a stronger desire to use patronyms (but not matronyms) for future children, an association that was mediated by patriarchal attitudes. Study 2 presents an indirect method for assessing state patronym and matronym levels. As expected, patronym scores were significantly higher in honor states and were associated with a wide range of variables linked previously to honor-related dynamics. Study 3a shows that following the terrorist attacks of 9/11, patronyms increased in honor states, but not in non-honor states. Likewise, priming men with a fictitious terrorist attack (Study 3b) increased the association between honor ideology and patronym preferences. Together, these studies reveal a subtle social signal that reflects the masculine values of an honor culture.

  18. Development and functional significance of dorsal air bags in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histological examination of the air bags showed that they were integumentary structures composed of an outer epidermis and an inner dermis. The air bags were not connected to the respiratory system. The body temperature (Tb) of Monteiro's Hornbill nestlings increased significantly with increasing age. Comparisons of ...

  19. When Inclusion Is Innovation: An Examination of Administrator Perspectives on Inclusion in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bi Ying; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth

    2011-01-01

    This article examines administrator perspectives of innovative services for the inclusion of young children with disabilities in regular preschool classrooms in China. Twelve directors from 12 pilot inclusion preschools in Beijing participated in this study. Qualitative interview results revealed the following subthemes: definition, advocacy,…

  20. The moderating impact of interacting with distressed families of decedents on trauma exposure in medical examiner personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jennifer A; Delahanty, Douglas L; Schwartz, Joseph; Murani, Kristina; Brondolo, Elizabeth

    2016-11-01

    Prior research has examined the incidence of posttraumatic stress stemming from either direct or indirect trauma exposure in employees of high-risk occupations. However, few studies have examined the contribution of both direct and indirect trauma exposure in high-risk groups. One particularly salient indirect trauma often endorsed as the most stressful by many occupational groups is interacting with distressed family members of victims of crime, illness, or accidents. The present study examined the extent to which interacting with distressed families moderated the impact of cumulative potentially traumatic event (PTE) exposure on depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in 245 employees of medical examiner (ME) offices. Employees from 9 ME office sites in the United States participated in an online survey investigating the frequency of work place PTE exposures (direct and indirect) and mental health outcomes. Results revealed that cumulative PTE exposure was associated with higher PTSD symptoms (PTSS) for employees who had higher frequency of exposure to distressed family members. After controlling for cumulative and direct PTE exposure, gender, and office site, exposure to distressed families was significantly associated with depressive symptoms, but not PTSS. Findings of our research underscore the need for training employees in high-risk occupations to manage their reactions to exposure to distraught family members. Employee training may buffer risk for developing PTSD and depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. PLACE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF LATINISMS IN THE SLOVAK VOCABULARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Karabová

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary of any language undergoes a natural evolution. In many cases this centuries-long process is related to several factors, including the penetration of new words into the language lexis. Similarly, the historical development of the Slovak language and its enhancement can be observed by examining the adoption of words from other languages. At a time when Latin was the only official language as well as the language of scholars and religious institutions in the Hungarian Kingdom, the penetration of Latinisms into the lexis of the old Slovak was significant. This trend was still evident in the 18th and 19th centuries marked by the beginning revivalist efforts. Domestication of adopted words - that initially stood at the edge of the language standard - was significantly influenced by innovative trends and technologies. The study does not primarily examine penetration of foreign words from modern languages, but it aims to analyse the process of naturalisation of Latinisms in Slovak and their use at different language levels.

  2. Capsule HRB-15B postirradiation examination report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketterer, J.W.; Bullock, R.E.

    1981-06-01

    Capsule HRB-15B design tested 184 thin graphite trays containing unbonded fuel particles to peak exposures of 6.6 x 10 25 n/m 2 (E > 29 fJ)/sub HTGR/ fast fluence, approx. 27% fissions per initial metal atom (FIMA) fissile burnup, and 6% FIMA fertile burnup at nominal time-averaged temperatures of 815 to 915 0 C. The capsule tested a variety of low-enriched uranium (approx. 19.5% U-235) fissile particle types, including UC 2 , UC/sub x/O/sub y/, UO 2 , zirconium-buffered UO 2 (referred to in this report as UO 2 /sup *), and 1:1(Th,U)O 2 with both TRISO and silicon-BISO coatings. All fertile particles were ThO 2 with BISO, silicon-BISO, or TRISO coatings. The findings indicated that all TRISO particles retained virtually all of their fission product inventories, except small quantities of silver, at these irradiation temperatures, while some of the silicon-BISO particles released significant amounts of both silver and cesium. No kernel migration, pressure vessel, or outer pyrolytic carbon (OPyC) failures were observed in the fuel particles, which had total diameters of 2 /sup */ particles exhibited no detrimental irradiation effects, but they contained pure carbon precipitates in the kernels after irradiation which were not observed in the undoped UO 2 particles. Postirradiation examination revealed no differences in the irradiation performance of three UC/sub x/O/sub y/ kernel types with varying oxygen/uranium ratios

  3. Leveraging Algal Omics to Reveal Potential Targets for Augmenting TAG Accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guarnieri, Michael T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pienkos, Philip T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arora, Neha [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee; Pruthi, Vikas [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee; Poluri, Krishna Mohan [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

    2018-04-18

    Ongoing global efforts to commercialize microalgal biofuels have expedited the use of multi-omics techniques to gain insights into lipid biosynthetic pathways. Functional genomics analyses have recently been employed to complement existing sequence-level omics studies, shedding light on the dynamics of lipid synthesis and its interplay with other cellular metabolic pathways, thus revealing possible targets for metabolic engineering. Here, we review the current status of algal omics studies to reveal potential targets to augment TAG accumulation in various microalgae. This review specifically aims to examine and catalog systems level data related to stress-induced TAG accumulation in oleaginous microalgae and inform future metabolic engineering strategies to develop strains with enhanced bioproductivity, which could pave a path for sustainable green energy.

  4. Meditation effects within the hippocampal complex revealed by voxel-based morphometry and cytoarchitectonic probabilistic mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen eLuders

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Scientific studies addressing anatomical variations in meditators’ brains have emerged rapidly over the last few years, where significant links are most frequently reported with respect to gray matter (GM. To advance prior work, this study examined GM characteristics in a large sample of 100 subjects (50 meditators, 50 controls, where meditators have been practicing close to twenty years, on average. A standard, whole-brain voxel-based morphometry approach was applied and revealed significant meditation effects in the vicinity of the hippocampus, showing more GM in meditators than in controls as well as positive correlations with the number of years practiced. However, the hippocampal complex is regionally segregated by architecture, connectivity, and functional relevance. Thus, to establish differential effects within the hippocampal formation (cornu ammonis, fascia dentate, entorhinal cortex, subiculum as well as the hippocampal-amygdaloid transition area, we utilized refined cytoarchitectonic probabilistic maps of (peri- hippocampal subsections. Significant meditation effects were observed within the subiculum specifically. Since the subiculum is known to play a key role in stress regulation and meditation is an established form of stress reduction, these GM findings may reflect neuronal preservation in long-term meditators – perhaps due to an attenuated release of stress hormones and decreased neurotoxicity.

  5. Meditation effects within the hippocampal complex revealed by voxel-based morphometry and cytoarchitectonic probabilistic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luders, Eileen; Kurth, Florian; Toga, Arthur W.; Narr, Katherine L.; Gaser, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Scientific studies addressing anatomical variations in meditators' brains have emerged rapidly over the last few years, where significant links are most frequently reported with respect to gray matter (GM). To advance prior work, this study examined GM characteristics in a large sample of 100 subjects (50 meditators, 50 controls), where meditators have been practicing close to 20 years, on average. A standard, whole-brain voxel-based morphometry approach was applied and revealed significant meditation effects in the vicinity of the hippocampus, showing more GM in meditators than in controls as well as positive correlations with the number of years practiced. However, the hippocampal complex is regionally segregated by architecture, connectivity, and functional relevance. Thus, to establish differential effects within the hippocampal formation (cornu ammonis, fascia dentata, entorhinal cortex, subiculum) as well as the hippocampal-amygdaloid transition area, we utilized refined cytoarchitectonic probabilistic maps of (peri-) hippocampal subsections. Significant meditation effects were observed within the subiculum specifically. Since the subiculum is known to play a key role in stress regulation and meditation is an established form of stress reduction, these GM findings may reflect neuronal preservation in long-term meditators—perhaps due to an attenuated release of stress hormones and decreased neurotoxicity. PMID:23847572

  6. Assessment of the age for a preventive ultrasonographic examination of the prostate in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantziaras, G; Alonge, S; Faustini, M; Luvoni, G C

    2017-09-15

    The prostate commonly develops benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in dogs over 5 years, while in aged dogs other pathological findings might be revealed by ultrasonographic exam. The aim of the present study was to estimate the most suitable age for a preventive ultrasonographic examination of the prostate in the dog. The prostate of 1003 intact male dogs of 64 different breeds, of different ages (1-18 years) and bodyweights (2-55 kg) was evaluated with ultrasound, irrespective of the reason for clinical examination. The age of each dog was expressed as the ratio between the actual age and the maximum longevity expected for the breed. Dogs were divided in two groups based on breeds' life expectancy as short life (SL) and long life (LL). The size of the prostate (normal, enlarged or small) and the presence of abnormal sonographic findings were recorded for each dog. The results of the present study indicate that the most suitable age for a preventive ultrasonographic exam of the prostate in the dog is approximately at 40% of its expected longevity, both in short and long life breeds, because at this age there is a strong possibility to be able to detect abnormal prostatic findings. In 47.5% of the dogs at least one abnormal finding of the prostate was revealed by ultrasonographic exam, while dogs with long life expectancy showed a significantly higher prevalence of abnormalities, than dogs with short life expectancy. The most frequent findings were the increase of prostatic size (33.5%) and the presence of at least one cyst (33.6%), with no difference between SL and LL dogs. In conclusion, a preventive examination of the prostate starting at 40% of expected longevity in dogs of short and long life breeds is strongly recommended for early detection of abnormalities, for scheduling specific follow up and for suggesting effective therapeutic protocols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Moral significance of phenomenal consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Neil; Savulescu, Julian

    2009-01-01

    Recent work in neuroimaging suggests that some patients diagnosed as being in the persistent vegetative state are actually conscious. In this paper, we critically examine this new evidence. We argue that though it remains open to alternative interpretations, it strongly suggests the presence of consciousness in some patients. However, we argue that its ethical significance is less than many people seem to think. There are several different kinds of consciousness, and though all kinds of consciousness have some ethical significance, different kinds underwrite different kinds of moral value. Demonstrating that patients have phenomenal consciousness--conscious states with some kind of qualitative feel to them--shows that they are moral patients, whose welfare must be taken into consideration. But only if they are subjects of a sophisticated kind of access consciousness--where access consciousness entails global availability of information to cognitive systems--are they persons, in the technical sense of the word employed by philosophers. In this sense, being a person is having the full moral status of ordinary human beings. We call for further research which might settle whether patients who manifest signs of consciousness possess the sophisticated kind of access consciousness required for personhood.

  8. Relationship between candidate communication ability and oral certification examination scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunz, Mary E; Bashook, Philip G

    2008-12-01

    Structured case-based oral examinations are widely used in medical certifying examinations in the USA. These orals assess the candidate's decision-making skills using real or realistic patient cases. Frequently mentioned but not empirically evaluated is the potential bias introduced by the candidate's communication ability. This study aimed to assess the relationship between candidate communication ability and medical certification oral examination scores. Non-doctor communication observers rated a random sample of 90 candidates on communication ability during a medical oral certification examination. The multi-facet Rasch model was used to analyse the communication survey and the oral examination data. The multi-facet model accounts for observer and examiner severity bias. anova was used to measure differences in communication ability between passing and failing candidates and candidates grouped by level of communication ability. Pearson's correlations were used to compare candidate communication ability and oral certification examination performance. Candidate separation reliability values for the communication survey and the oral examination were 0.85 and 0.97, respectively, suggesting accurate candidate measurement. The correlation between communication scores and oral examination scores was 0.10. No significant difference was found between passing and failing candidates for measured communication ability. When candidates were grouped by high, moderate and low communication ability, there was no significant difference in their oral certification examination performance. Candidates' communication ability has little relationship to candidate performance on high-stakes, case-based oral examinations. Examiners for this certifying examination focused on assessing candidate decision-making ability and were not influenced by candidate communication ability.

  9. Working in Separate Silos? What Citation Patterns Reveal about Higher Education Research Internationally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tight, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Higher education research is a growing, inter-disciplinary and increasingly international field of study. This article examines the citation patterns of articles published in six leading higher education journals--three published in the United States and three published elsewhere in the world--for what they reveal about the development of this…

  10. Meaning Making: What Reflective Essays Reveal about Biology Students' Conceptions about Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balgopal, Meena M.; Montplaisir, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    The process of reflective writing can play a central role in making meaning as learners process new information and connect it to prior knowledge. An examination of the written discourse can therefore be revealing of learners' cognitive understanding and affective (beliefs, feelings, motivation to learn) responses to concepts. Despite reflective…

  11. Violence in Music Videos: Examining the Prevalence and Context of Physical Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stacy L.; Boyson, Aaron R.

    2002-01-01

    Examines violence in music video programming. Reveals that 15% of music videos feature violence, and most of that aggression is sanitized, not chastised, and presented in realistic contexts. Discusses the findings in terms of the risk that exposure to violence in each channel and genre may be posing to viewers' learning of aggression, fear, and…

  12. Whole-genome sequencing reveals a potential causal mutation for dwarfism in the Miniature Shetland pony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Julia; Gast, Alana Christina; Schrimpf, Rahel; Rau, Janina; Eikelberg, Deborah; Beineke, Andreas; Hellige, Maren; Distl, Ottmar

    2017-04-01

    The Miniature Shetland pony represents a horse breed with an extremely small body size. Clinical examination of a dwarf Miniature Shetland pony revealed a lowered size at the withers, malformed skull and brachygnathia superior. Computed tomography (CT) showed a shortened maxilla and a cleft of the hard and soft palate which protruded into the nasal passage leading to breathing difficulties. Pathological examination confirmed these findings but did not reveal histopathological signs of premature ossification in limbs or cranial sutures. Whole-genome sequencing of this dwarf Miniature Shetland pony and comparative sequence analysis using 26 reference equids from NCBI Sequence Read Archive revealed three probably damaging missense variants which could be exclusively found in the affected foal. Validation of these three missense mutations in 159 control horses from different horse breeds and five donkeys revealed only the aggrecan (ACAN)-associated g.94370258G>C variant as homozygous wild-type in all control samples. The dwarf Miniature Shetland pony had the homozygous mutant genotype C/C of the ACAN:g.94370258G>C variant and the normal parents were heterozygous G/C. An unaffected full sib and 3/5 unaffected half-sibs were heterozygous G/C for the ACAN:g.94370258G>C variant. In summary, we could demonstrate a dwarf phenotype in a miniature pony breed perfectly associated with a missense mutation within the ACAN gene.

  13. Sexual dimorphism of the incidence of significant relationships between selected parameters of feet and characteristics of trunk in adolescents aged 14 – 18 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Mrozkowiak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary Introduction. Symmetry, asymmetry, mutual relationships and concomitance have become a subject of interest of numerous researchers. The analysis of the findings obtained in the own study conducted among adolescents aged 14-18 years revealed an incidental nature and randomness of the distribution of significant correlations in each age and gender range, which made it impossible to show any regularities or dependencies between the measured parameters. Material and method. The examinations carried out in the group of teenagers aged 14 to 18 years recorded 2,343 observations, including 1,148 girls and 1,195 boys, concerning the size of 89 parameters describing trunk and feet. The station for an assessment of selected features using the photogrammetric method consisted of a computer, a card, software, a display monitor, a printer and a projection-reception device with a camera.     Findings 1. The number of feet parameters revealing significant relationships with trunk parameters which differentiated the female gender from the male one was greater; likewise, the features in women revealed a more frequent relationship. Additionally, female sex was differentiated by morphological traits, the abnormal positioning of toes and the longitudinal arch of feet. 2. The number of trunk parameters correlating with foot parameters was observed to be bigger in the female gender than in the male one. The parameters in female subjects showed more relationships and the parameters which differentiated female sex included the frontal plane and the sagittal plane to a lesser extent, whereas male gender was characterized by the sagittal plane.

  14. Neuter is not common in Dutch: eye movements reveal asymmetrical gender processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loerts, Hanneke; Wieling, Martijn; Schmid, Monika S

    2013-12-01

    Native speakers of languages with transparent gender systems can use gender cues to anticipate upcoming words. To examine whether this also holds true for a non-transparent two-way gender system, i.e. Dutch, eye movements were monitored as participants followed spoken instructions to click on one of four displayed items on a screen (e.g., Klik op [Formula: see text] rode appel [Formula: see text], 'Click on the[Formula: see text] red apple[Formula: see text]'). The items contained the target, a colour- and/or gender-matching competitor, and two unrelated distractors. A mixed-effects regression analysis revealed that the presence of a colour-matching and/or gender-matching competitor significantly slowed the process of finding the target. The gender effect, however, was only observed for common nouns, reflecting the fact that neuter gender-marking cannot disambiguate as all Dutch nouns become neuter when used as diminutives. The gender effect for common nouns occurred before noun onset, suggesting that gender information is, at least partially, activated automatically before encountering the noun.

  15. Alterations in Normal Aging Revealed by Cortical Brain Network Constructed Using IBASPM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wan; Yang, Chunlan; Shi, Feng; Wang, Qun; Wu, Shuicai; Lu, Wangsheng; Li, Shaowu; Nie, Yingnan; Zhang, Xin

    2018-04-16

    Normal aging has been linked with the decline of cognitive functions, such as memory and executive skills. One of the prominent approaches to investigate the age-related alterations in the brain is by examining the cortical brain connectome. IBASPM is a toolkit to realize individual atlas-based volume measurement. Hence, this study seeks to determine what further alterations can be revealed by cortical brain networks formed by IBASPM-extracted regional gray matter volumes. We found the reduced strength of connections between the superior temporal pole and middle temporal pole in the right hemisphere, global hubs as the left fusiform gyrus and right Rolandic operculum in the young and aging groups, respectively, and significantly reduced inter-module connection of one module in the aging group. These new findings are consistent with the phenomenon of normal aging mentioned in previous studies and suggest that brain network built with the IBASPM could provide supplementary information to some extent. The individualization of morphometric features extraction deserved to be given more attention in future cortical brain network research.

  16. Glycoprotein profiles of macrophages at different stages of activation as revealed by lectin binding after electrophoretic separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimura, T; North, S M; Nicolson, G L

    1987-01-01

    Glycoprotein profiles of rat macrophages (M phi) at different stages of activation were studied by examining the reactivity of various lectins to the glycoproteins separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Ricinus communis agglutinin 1 (RCA1) revealed several components including glycoproteins of Mr 160 kDa and 65 kDa prominent in resident M phi. A pokeweed mitogen (PWM) isolectin, Pa-4, recognizes branched poly(N-acetyllactosamine)-type carbohydrate chains, and revealed a significant increase in glycoproteins of Mr ranging from 70 kDa to 150 kDa on thioglycolate-elicited M phi. Increased reactivity of PWM to thioglycolate-elicited M phi was observed by direct binding of 125I-labeled Pa-4 to intact or glutaraldehyde-fixed M phi. Histochemical staining of formaldehyde-fixed M phi in vitro with biotinylated Pa-4 was consistent with the gel analysis, that is, resident M phi had no reactivity while thioglycolate-elicited M phi showed slight reactivity. Alveolar and intratumoral M phi bound more Pa-4 than resident or thioglycolate-elicited M phi. The PWM isolectin may therefore serve as a marker for an early stage of M phi activation.

  17. Stable carbon isotope analysis reveals widespread drought stress in boreal black spruce forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Xanthe J; Mack, Michelle C; Johnstone, Jill F

    2015-08-01

    Unprecedented rates of climate warming over the past century have resulted in increased forest stress and mortality worldwide. Decreased tree growth in association with increasing temperatures is generally accepted as a signal of temperature-induced drought stress. However, variations in tree growth alone do not reveal the physiological mechanisms behind recent changes in tree growth. Examining stable carbon isotope composition of tree rings in addition to tree growth can provide a secondary line of evidence for physiological drought stress. In this study, we examined patterns of black spruce growth and carbon isotopic composition in tree rings in response to climate warming and drying in the boreal forest of interior Alaska. We examined trees at three nested scales: landscape, toposequence, and a subsample of trees within the toposequence. At each scale, we studied the potential effects of differences in microclimate and moisture availability by sampling on northern and southern aspects. We found that black spruce radial growth responded negatively to monthly metrics of temperature at all examined scales, and we examined ∆(13)C responses on a subsample of trees as representative of the wider region. The negative ∆(13)C responses to temperature reveal that black spruce trees are experiencing moisture stress on both northern and southern aspects. Contrary to our expectations, ∆(13)C from trees on the northern aspect exhibited the strongest drought signal. Our results highlight the prominence of drought stress in the boreal forest of interior Alaska. We conclude that if temperatures continue to warm, we can expect drought-induced productivity declines across large regions of the boreal forest, even for trees located in cool and moist landscape positions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Short communication: final year students' deficits in physical examination skills performance in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautter, Markus; Diefenbacher, Katja; Koehl-Hackert, Nadja; Buss, Beate; Nagelmann, Lars; Herzog, Wolfgang; Jünger, Jana; Nikendei, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The physical examination of patients is an important diagnostic competence, but little is known about the examination skills of final-year medical students. To investigate physical examination skills of final-year medical students. In a cross-sectional study, 40 final-year students were asked to perform a detailed physical examination on standardized patients. Their performances were video-recorded and rated by independent video assessors. Video ratings showed a mean success rate of 40.1 % (SD 8.2). As regards accompanying doctor-patient communication, final-year students achieved a mean of no more than 36.7 % (SD 8.9) in the appropriate use of the corresponding communication items. Our study revealed severe deficits among final-year medical students in performing a detailed physical examination on a standardized patient. Thus, physical examination skills training should aim to improve these deficits while also paying attention to communicative aspects. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  19. Examining postconcussion symptoms of dizziness and imbalance on neurocognitive performance in collegiate football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honaker, Julie A; Lester, Houston F; Patterson, Jessie N; Jones, Sherri M

    2014-07-01

    This study examined the effects of symptom reports of dizziness and imbalance on cognitive function in concussed collegiate football players. Retrospective, descriptive. University athletic medicine facility. Twenty-seven collegiate football players were included in the final analysis: 16 with symptoms of dizziness/imbalance resulting from concussion and 11 without dizziness/imbalance resulting from concussion. Participants completed the Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) at baseline, at 1 to 2 days postconcussion and 5 to 7 days postconcussion. The ImPACT neurocognitive assessment consists of 6 modules, yielding 4 composite scores: verbal memory, visual memory, visual-motor processing speed, and reaction time. In addition, it includes a postconcussion symptom scale total score. Results revealed that participants with reports of dizziness and imbalance had significantly lower scores on the ImPACT composite scores; however, these individuals also had an overall higher symptom inventory. When accounting for the additional postconcussion symptoms, time was the only significant effect. Dizziness and imbalance are common symptoms postconcussion; however, these symptoms did not predict performance on acute ImPACT scores. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms causing postconcussion symptoms, including symptoms of dizziness and imbalance, and influence on outcomes postconcussion.

  20. fMRI of Simultaneous Interpretation Reveals the Neural Basis of Extreme Language Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervais-Adelman, Alexis; Moser-Mercer, Barbara; Michel, Christoph M; Golestani, Narly

    2015-12-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural basis of extreme multilingual language control in a group of 50 multilingual participants. Comparing brain responses arising during simultaneous interpretation (SI) with those arising during simultaneous repetition revealed activation of regions known to be involved in speech perception and production, alongside a network incorporating the caudate nucleus that is known to be implicated in domain-general cognitive control. The similarity between the networks underlying bilingual language control and general executive control supports the notion that the frequently reported bilingual advantage on executive tasks stems from the day-to-day demands of language control in the multilingual brain. We examined neural correlates of the management of simultaneity by correlating brain activity during interpretation with the duration of simultaneous speaking and hearing. This analysis showed significant modulation of the putamen by the duration of simultaneity. Our findings suggest that, during SI, the caudate nucleus is implicated in the overarching selection and control of the lexico-semantic system, while the putamen is implicated in ongoing control of language output. These findings provide the first clear dissociation of specific dorsal striatum structures in polyglot language control, roles that are consistent with previously described involvement of these regions in nonlinguistic executive control. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. An Examination of the Multi-Faceted Motivation System in Healthy Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Da Silva

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Amotivation is a prevalent symptom in schizophrenia (SZ and depression (MDD, and is linked to poor functional outcomes in affected individuals. Conceptualizations of motivation have outlined a multi-faceted construct comprised of reward responsiveness, reward expectancy, reward valuation, effort valuation, and action selection/preference-based decision making. To date, findings from studies utilizing variable-centered approaches to examining isolated facets of motivation in SZ and MDD have been inconsistent. Thus, the present study adopted a person-centered approach, and comprehensively examined the reward system in a non-clinical sample in an attempt to explore potential subtypes of motivation impairments, while minimizing the effects of illness-related confounds.Methods: Ninety-six healthy undergraduate students were evaluated for amotivation, schizotypal traits, depressive symptoms, and cognition, and administered objective computerized tasks to measure the different facets of motivation. Cluster analysis was performed to explore subgroups of individuals based on similar motivation task performance. Additionally, correlational analyses were conducted in order to examine inter-relationships between motivation facets, and relations between clinical measures and facets of motivation.Results: Cluster analysis identified two subgroups of individuals with differential motivation performance profiles. Correlational analyses revealed that reward responsiveness was associated with amotivation, depressive symptoms, and negative schizotypy. Further, significant inter-correlations were found between reward responsiveness and reward expectancy, as well as between reward valuation and effort valuation.Conclusions: Our results mark important steps forward in understanding motivation in a non-clinical sample, and guide future dimensional and comprehensive analyses of the multi-faceted reward system. It remains to be seen whether these patterns of

  2. An Examination of the Multi-Faceted Motivation System in Healthy Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Susana; Apatsidou, Areti; Saperia, Sarah; Siddiqui, Ishraq; Jeffay, Eliyas; Voineskos, Aristotle N; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Remington, Gary; Zakzanis, Konstantine K; Foussias, George

    2018-01-01

    Background: Amotivation is a prevalent symptom in schizophrenia (SZ) and depression (MDD), and is linked to poor functional outcomes in affected individuals. Conceptualizations of motivation have outlined a multi-faceted construct comprised of reward responsiveness, reward expectancy, reward valuation, effort valuation, and action selection/preference-based decision making. To date, findings from studies utilizing variable-centered approaches to examining isolated facets of motivation in SZ and MDD have been inconsistent. Thus, the present study adopted a person-centered approach, and comprehensively examined the reward system in a non-clinical sample in an attempt to explore potential subtypes of motivation impairments, while minimizing the effects of illness-related confounds. Methods: Ninety-six healthy undergraduate students were evaluated for amotivation, schizotypal traits, depressive symptoms, and cognition, and administered objective computerized tasks to measure the different facets of motivation. Cluster analysis was performed to explore subgroups of individuals based on similar motivation task performance. Additionally, correlational analyses were conducted in order to examine inter-relationships between motivation facets, and relations between clinical measures and facets of motivation. Results: Cluster analysis identified two subgroups of individuals with differential motivation performance profiles. Correlational analyses revealed that reward responsiveness was associated with amotivation, depressive symptoms, and negative schizotypy. Further, significant inter-correlations were found between reward responsiveness and reward expectancy, as well as between reward valuation and effort valuation. Conclusions: Our results mark important steps forward in understanding motivation in a non-clinical sample, and guide future dimensional and comprehensive analyses of the multi-faceted reward system. It remains to be seen whether these patterns of results will

  3. Radiologic examination and measurement of the wrist and distal radio-ulnar joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toernvall, A.H.; Ekenstam, F. af; Hagert, C.G.; Irstam, L.; Sahlgrenska Sjukhuset, Goeteborg; Uppsala Univ.

    1986-01-01

    Following fractures of the distal radius, a relatively high incidence of complications is caused by malalignment in the distal radio-ulnar (DRU) joint; recent anatomic and clinical investigations have shown a congruity of that joint to be of significant importance for restoring the function of the wrist. The radius forms a moderately arched bone, which moves around the ulna in pronation and supination. Biomechanically, the ulna may be regarded as the pillar around which the radius moves. In an anatomic investigation of 5 arm specimens, we have shown that the maximum cartilage contact in the DRU joint between the ulna head and the distal radius occurs in the neutral rotation position. A proposed routine examination method of the wrist and forearm includes a true antero-posterior and a lateral projection of the radius and the ulna, performed with the forearm and wrist in a neutral rotation, a neutral wrist deviation and with the elbow angled 90 degrees. Such an examination implies a standardized and reproducible method. In a radioanatomic investigation, a series of 50 healthy wrists and forearms were examined. A simple measuring technique is presented, applicable to the DRU joint and wrist favouring the ulna as the bone through which a reproducible long axis of the forearm/wrist may be drawn. It is suggested that the length of the radius should be judged relative to the ulna. Ulnar head inclination and radio-ulnar angle are new concepts, being major characteristics of the DRU joint. These angles of the right and left wrist were equal and no difference was found between the sexes. Minor alterations of the distal radius may be revealed when estimating these angles. (orig.)

  4. Magnetic resonance tomography in comprehensive examination of epileptic children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akberov, R.F.; Mikhajlov, I.M.; Chernova, G.G.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presets the results of examining 100 children suffering from various epilepsies by magnetic resonance tomography, which determined a morphological substrate of the disease in 26%. The findings were compared with the clinical picture and the results of routine study tools (skull X-ray, EEC). The diagnostic value of the techniques applied was defined. Jt is concluded that a set of diagnostic tools rather than individual techniques should be applied to reveal etiological and pathogenetic factors of the disease. 5 refs., 6 figs

  5. Evaluation of effect of self-examination and physical examination on breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Lotfi Mohammad; Mahmoud, Noori; Miller, Anthony B; Iraj, Harrirchi; Mohsen, Mirzaei; Majid, Jafarizadea; Reza, Sadeghian Mohammad; Mojgan, Minosepehr

    2015-08-01

    Breast cancer is the number one cancer of women in the world. More than 90% of breast cancers can be cured with early diagnosis followed by effective multimodality treatment. The efficacy of screening by breast self-examination (BSE) and breast physical examination (BPx) is best evaluated using randomized screening trials. A total of 12,660 women aged 35-64 years, 6330 in the intervention group and 6330 in the control group, were randomly selected from four areas of Yazd city, I.R. of Iran. The number of detected cancers along with kind of cancer, staging of cancer, the route of detected cancer and the number of deaths during the first 5 years of the study were collected and analyzed. No significance difference between the two groups was seen in respect to socio-demographic and socio-economic variables (P > 0.05). Subjects in the intervention group had a response rate of 83.5% for attending the health center and 80.2% for visiting the assigned surgeon. A total of 31 and 13 new cases of breast cancer were identified in the intervention and control groups, respectively, of which 48.5% of cases in the intervention group were breast cancer in the two groups with a ratio of 2.4 was observed. BSE & BPx have a significant effect in detecting breast cancers at early stages (<3) suggesting they are effective screening tests with high availability and low costs that can be applied at the community level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Examination of the lungs in bronchial asthma by means of roentgenopneumopolygraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babij, Ya.S.; Bezhenar, A.A.; Gladkij, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    Roentgenopneumopolygraphy (RPPG) was used to examine 48 patients with bronchial asthma and all patients showed a reduction of one or several indices of zonal ventilation and / or biomechanics of the respiratory act. Inhalation of bronchoiytics improved all indices of RPPG. But most patients revealed local disorders of ventilation resistant to the effect of broncholytic agents. Local therapy of the corresponding lung regions produced a positive effect

  7. THRESHOLD OF SIGNIFICANCE IN STRESS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena RUSE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Stress management is the individual's ability to handle any situation, external conditions, to match the demands of the external environment. The researchers revealed several stages in the stress response. A first phase was called ‘‘alert reaction'' or ‘‘immediate reaction to stress‘‘, phase in which there are physiological modifications and manifestations that occur under psychological aspect. Adaptation phase is the phase in which the reactions from the first phase diminishes or disappears. Exhaustion phase is related to the diversity of stress factors and time and may exceed the resources of the human body to adapt. Influencing factors may be: limited, cognitive, perceptual, and a priori. But there is a threshold of significance in stress management. Once the reaction to external stimuli occurs, awareness is needed. The capability effect occurs, any side effect goes away and comes out the ''I AM'' effect.

  8. Meta-Analysis Reveals Significant Association of the 3'-UTR VNTR in SLC6A3 with Alcohol Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yunlong; Fan, Rongli; Li, Ming D

    2016-07-01

    Although many studies have analyzed the association of 3'-untranslated region variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in SLC6A3 with alcohol dependence (AD), the results remain controversial. This study aimed to determine whether this variant indeed has any genetic effect on AD by integrating 17 reported studies with 5,929 participants included. The A9-dominant genetic model that considers A9-repeat and non-A9 repeat as 2 genotypes and compared their frequencies in alcoholics with that in controls was adopted. Considering the potential influence of ethnicity, differences in diagnostic criteria of AD, and alcoholic subgroups, stratified meta-analyses were conducted. There existed no evidence for the presence of heterogeneity among the studied samples, indicating the results under the fixed-effects model are acceptable. We found a significant association of VNTR A9 genotypes with AD in all ethnic populations (pooled odds ratio [OR] 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00, 1.25; p = 0.045) and the Caucasian population (pooled OR 1.15; 95% CI 1.01, 1.31; p = 0.036). We also found VNTR A9 genotypes to be significantly associated with alcoholism as defined by the DSM-IV criteria (pooled OR 1.18; 95% CI 1.03, 1.36; p = 0.02). Further, we found a significant association between VNTR A9 genotypes and alcoholism associated with alcohol withdrawal seizure or delirium tremens (pooled OR 1.55; 95% CI 1.24, 1.92; p = 1.0 × 10(-4) ). In all these meta-analyses, no evidence of publication bias was detected. We concluded that the VNTR polymorphism has an important role in the etiology of AD, and individuals with at least 1 A9 allele are more likely to be dependent on alcohol than persons carrying the non-A9 allele. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  9. Examining Cognitive Status of Elderly Iranians: Farsi Version of the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaeipour, Manouchehr; Andrew, Melissa K

    2013-02-27

    The Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS) is an expanded and modified version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Research demonstrates that the reliability, validity, specificity, and sensitivity of the 3MS are superior to that of the MMSE in detecting cognitive impairment. The Farsi version of the 3MS (F-3MS) was examined as a screening tool for dementia among elderly Iranians. The F-3MS and the Clock Drawing Test (CDT) were administered to 58 patients with dementia and 145 control subjects with normal cognition, aged 60 to 85 years. The difference between groups on the mean total scores of the F-3MS was statistically significant (dementia = 60.65 ± 9.89, control = 80.73 ± 8.26; df = 201, t = 14.75, p validity of the F-3MS. The F-3MS can be used as a valid and reliable measure for dementia screening among elderly Iranians.

  10. Neural correlates of the LSD experience revealed by multimodal neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, Robin L; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh; Roseman, Leor; Kaelen, Mendel; Droog, Wouter; Murphy, Kevin; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Schenberg, Eduardo E; Nest, Timothy; Orban, Csaba; Leech, Robert; Williams, Luke T; Williams, Tim M; Bolstridge, Mark; Sessa, Ben; McGonigle, John; Sereno, Martin I; Nichols, David; Hellyer, Peter J; Hobden, Peter; Evans, John; Singh, Krish D; Wise, Richard G; Curran, H Valerie; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J

    2016-04-26

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is the prototypical psychedelic drug, but its effects on the human brain have never been studied before with modern neuroimaging. Here, three complementary neuroimaging techniques: arterial spin labeling (ASL), blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) measures, and magnetoencephalography (MEG), implemented during resting state conditions, revealed marked changes in brain activity after LSD that correlated strongly with its characteristic psychological effects. Increased visual cortex cerebral blood flow (CBF), decreased visual cortex alpha power, and a greatly expanded primary visual cortex (V1) functional connectivity profile correlated strongly with ratings of visual hallucinations, implying that intrinsic brain activity exerts greater influence on visual processing in the psychedelic state, thereby defining its hallucinatory quality. LSD's marked effects on the visual cortex did not significantly correlate with the drug's other characteristic effects on consciousness, however. Rather, decreased connectivity between the parahippocampus and retrosplenial cortex (RSC) correlated strongly with ratings of "ego-dissolution" and "altered meaning," implying the importance of this particular circuit for the maintenance of "self" or "ego" and its processing of "meaning." Strong relationships were also found between the different imaging metrics, enabling firmer inferences to be made about their functional significance. This uniquely comprehensive examination of the LSD state represents an important advance in scientific research with psychedelic drugs at a time of growing interest in their scientific and therapeutic value. The present results contribute important new insights into the characteristic hallucinatory and consciousness-altering properties of psychedelics that inform on how they can model certain pathological states and potentially treat others.

  11. Genetic variation in Phoca vitulina (the harbour seal) revealed by DNA fingerprinting and RAPDs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappe, A.L.; van de Zande, L.; Vedder, E.J.; Bijlsma, R.; van Delden, Wilke

    Genetic variation in two harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) populations from the Dutch Wadden Sea and Scotland was examined by RAPD analysis and DNA fingerprinting. For comparison a population of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) was studied. The RAPD method revealed a very low number of polymorphic bands.

  12. Examining significant factors in micro and small enterprises performance: case study in Amhara region, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkos, Tomas; Zegeye, Muluken; Tilahun, Shimelis; Avvari, Muralidhar

    2017-07-01

    Furniture manufacturing micro and small enterprises are confronted with several factors that affect their performance. Some enterprises fail to sustain, some others remain for long period of time without transforming, and most are producing similar and non-standard products. The main aim of this manuscript is on improving the performance and contribution of MSEs by analyzing impact of significant internal and external factors. Data was collected via a questionnaire, group discussion with experts and interviewing process. Randomly selected eight representative main cities of Amhara region with 120 furniture manufacturing enterprises are considered. Data analysis and presentation was made using SPSS tools (correlation, proximity, and T test) and impact-effort analysis matrix tool. The correlation analysis shows that politico-legal with infrastructure, leadership with entrepreneurship skills and finance and credit with marketing factors are those factors, which result in high correlation with Pearson correlation values of r = 0.988, 0.983, and 0.939, respectively. The study investigates that the most critical factors faced by MSEs are work premises, access to finance, infrastructure, entrepreneurship and business managerial problems. The impact of these factors is found to be high and is confirmed by the 50% drop-out rate in 2014/2015. Furthermore, more than 25% work time losses due to power interruption daily and around 65% work premises problems challenged MSEs. Further, an impact-effort matrix was developed to help the MSEs to prioritize the affecting factors.

  13. A novel method for RNA extraction from FFPE samples reveals significant differences in biomarker expression between orthotopic and subcutaneous pancreatic cancer patient-derived xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Malachia; Adamian, Yvess; Brown, Mark; Maawy, Ali; Chang, Alexander; Lee, Jacqueline; Gharibi, Armen; Katz, Matthew H; Fleming, Jason; Hoffman, Robert M; Bouvet, Michael; Doebler, Robert; Kelber, Jonathan A

    2017-01-24

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) can identify and validate new biomarkers of cancer onset, progression and therapy resistance. Substantial archives of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) cancer samples from patients represent a rich resource for linking molecular signatures to clinical data. However, performing NGS on FFPE samples is limited by poor RNA purification methods. To address this hurdle, we developed an improved methodology for extracting high-quality RNA from FFPE samples. By briefly integrating a newly-designed micro-homogenizing (mH) tool with commercially available FFPE RNA extraction protocols, RNA recovery is increased by approximately 3-fold while maintaining standard A260/A280 ratios and RNA quality index (RQI) values. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the mH-purified FFPE RNAs are longer and of higher integrity. Previous studies have suggested that pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) gene expression signatures vary significantly under in vitro versus in vivo and in vivo subcutaneous versus orthotopic conditions. By using our improved mH-based method, we were able to preserve established expression patterns of KRas-dependency genes within these three unique microenvironments. Finally, expression analysis of novel biomarkers in KRas mutant PDAC samples revealed that PEAK1 decreases and MST1R increases by over 100-fold in orthotopic versus subcutaneous microenvironments. Interestingly, however, only PEAK1 levels remain elevated in orthotopically grown KRas wild-type PDAC cells. These results demonstrate the critical nature of the orthotopic tumor microenvironment when evaluating the clinical relevance of new biomarkers in cells or patient-derived samples. Furthermore, this new mH-based FFPE RNA extraction method has the potential to enhance and expand future FFPE-RNA-NGS cancer biomarker studies.

  14. Examination of Estate Marketing Practices in Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Oyewale Oyedeji

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Estate marketing is an aspect of the profession of Estate Surveying and Valuation in Nigeria. Previous studies on estate marketing identified that there are challenges affecting estate marketing and the resultant effect on these challenges affects the credibility of the profession of Estate Surveying and Valuation in Nigeria. This necessitates the need to examine the practice of estate marketing in Nigeria. This study examined estate marketing practice among estate surveyors and valuers in Ikeja, Lagos Nigeria. The sample size for the study is the 64 registered Estate Surveying and Valuation firms in the study area. Data gathered were analyzed using descriptive statistics and 5-point likert ordinal scale. Findings from the study revealed that the use of brochure or bulletin is the most common estate marketing method in the study area. Also, it was revealed from the study that the use of press is the most cost effective method of estate marketing in the study area. The study identified the various challenges of estate marketing. However, collection of double professional fees is the most prevalent challenge of estate marketing in the study area. Finally, aggressive marketing which leads to unethical practices is the most prevalent mitigating measures adopted by Estate Surveyors and Valuers in the study area. Recommendations were made on how to review the ethical regulations guiding the practice of Estate Surveying and Valuation which will consequently improve marketing in the study area.

  15. The radiographic examination of the colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrix, T.R.; Saba, G.P. II.

    1980-01-01

    To provide medical and scientific background on certain selected technologies generally considered to be of particular significance, the National Center for Health Care Technology commissioned a series of overview papers, one of which is entitled 'The Radiographic Examination of the Colon.' These overviews are likely to be of most immediate interest to clinicians and biomedical scientists; they also may provide valuable background for assessments undertaken by the Center and for exploring the broad societal implications of health care technologies. Barium enema is the most available and widely used technique for examining the colon. It is often a routine part of the gastrointestinal work-up regardless of the suspected basis, anatomical or functional, of the patient's symptoms. Indeed, common practice is not to entertain a diagnosis of functional disorder before excluding all reasonable possibility of an anatomical abnormality. Barium enema is one of the most frequently ordered radiographic examinations

  16. Examination of factors which may contribute to the underrepresentation of African American teachers certified in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rita C. F.

    Throughout this country the student population is becoming increasingly diverse, yet the teacher population does not reflect this diversity. This lack of diversity in the teacher population deprives students of color from having role models of the same race/ethnicity who look like them and who might have experiences which are similar to theirs (Epstein, 2005; Nettles & Perna, 1997). Having role models from their own race in the classroom could have a positive impact on students' attitudes about science (Perine, 2003), and facilitate their learning of the subject matter, and give students an incentive to do well in school (Vegas, Murnane, & Willett, 2001). In 2000, a national survey study of math and science teachers was conducted (Horizon Research, 2001). The majority of biology (90%), chemistry (93%), and physics (94%) teachers who participated in the study were White. Findings of the study revealed that only 55% to 60% of these teachers considered themselves well prepared to effectively teach a culturally diverse student population (Banilower, 2002; Smith, 2002; Wood, 2002). The majority of the teacher pool, which is White, prefer not to teach in urban communities as they have a preference for teaching jobs in the nonurban communities that are similar to those in which they were raised (Boyd, Lankford, Loeb, & Wyckoff, 2005; Epstein, 2005). The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine factors that may contribute to the underrepresentation of African American teachers certified in science. More specifically, it was decided to examine the high school experiences of in-service teachers. Study participants were teachers and other certificated faculty in two school districts located in the southern portion of the United States. Findings of the study revealed a statistically significant relationship between a teacher's decision to become certified in science and the following high school experiences: teachers and guidance counselors encouraging students to

  17. Health examination for A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Chikako

    1996-01-01

    The health examination for A-bomb survivors by national, prefectural and city administrations was described and discussed on its general concept, history, time change of examinee number, improvement of examination, prevalence of individual diseases, significance of cancer examinations, examinees' point of view and future problems. Subjects were the survivors living in Hiroshima city: in 1994, their number was 100,188, whose ages were 63 y in average for males consisting of 39.5% and 67 y for females of 60.5%. The examination was begun in 1957 on the law for medical care for the survivors firstly and then systematically in 1961. From 1965, it was performed 4 times a year, and in 1988, one examination in the four was made for cancer. Authors' Center examined previously 90% but recently 70% of the examinees. The remainder underwent the examination in other medical facilities. Tests are blood analysis, electrocardiography and computed radiography of chest with imaging plate, of which data have been accumulated either in photodisc or in host computer. From 1973 to 1993, the cardiovascular diseases increased from 6.1% to 26.9%, metabolic and endocrinic ones like diabetes, 3.6% to 19.7%, and bowel ones, 0.9% to 12.3%. Correlations of these diseases with A-bomb irradiation are not elucidated and possibly poor. Five classes of cancer examinations are performed but the examinee rate in the survivors is as low as 7.6-21.8% (1993). The cancer of the large intestine is increasing. The overall examinee rates in the survivors were 70.6% in 1965-1967, 69.5% in 1976-1977 and 58.2% in 1990. In conclusion, how to examine the survivors, who are getting older, as many as possible is the future problem. (H.O.)

  18. ABR Core examination preparation: results of a survey of fourth-year radiology residents who took the 2013 examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Anup S; Grajo, Joseph R; Decker, Summer; Heitkamp, Darel E; DeStigter, Kristen K; Mezwa, Duane G; Deitte, Lori

    2015-01-01

    A survey was administered to fourth-year radiology residents after receiving their results from the first American Board of Radiology (ABR) Core examination in 2013. The purpose was to gather information regarding resources and study strategies to share with program directors and future resident classes. An online survey was distributed to examinees nationwide. The survey included free-response and multiple choice questions that covered examination results, perceived value of enumerated study resources, case-based and didactic teaching conferences, board reviews, study materials for noninterpretive skills, multidisciplinary conference attendance, and free-form comments. Two hundred sixty-six of 1186 residents who took the Core examination responded to the survey. Some resources demonstrated a significant difference in perceived value between residents who passed the examination and residents who failed, including internal board reviews (1.10, P multiple choice questions, audience response, and integration of clinical physics and patient safety topics compared to residents who failed. Radiology residents and residency programs have adapted their preparations for the ABR Core examination in a variety of ways. Certain practices and study tools, including daily conferences and internal board reviews, had greater perceived value by residents who passed the examination than by residents who failed. This survey provides insights that can be used to assess and modify current preparation strategies for the ABR Core examination. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Data integration reveals key homeostatic mechanisms following low dose radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilton, Susan C.; Matzke, Melissa M. [Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99338 (United States); Sowa, Marianne B.; Stenoien, David L.; Weber, Thomas J. [Health Impacts and Exposure Science, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99338 (United States); Morgan, William F. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99338 (United States); Waters, Katrina M., E-mail: katrina.waters@pnnl.gov [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99338 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    The goal of this study was to define pathways regulated by low dose radiation to understand how biological systems respond to subtle perturbations in their environment and prioritize pathways for human health assessment. Using an in vitro 3-D human full thickness skin model, we have examined the temporal response of dermal and epidermal layers to 10 cGy X-ray using transcriptomic, proteomic, phosphoproteomic and metabolomic platforms. Bioinformatics analysis of each dataset independently revealed potential signaling mechanisms affected by low dose radiation, and integrating data shed additional insight into the mechanisms regulating low dose responses in human tissue. We examined direct interactions among datasets (top down approach) and defined several hubs as significant regulators, including transcription factors (YY1, MYC and CREB1), kinases (CDK2, PLK1) and a protease (MMP2). These data indicate a shift in response across time — with an increase in DNA repair, tissue remodeling and repression of cell proliferation acutely (24–72 h). Pathway-based integration (bottom up approach) identified common molecular and pathway responses to low dose radiation, including oxidative stress, nitric oxide signaling and transcriptional regulation through the SP1 factor that would not have been identified by the individual data sets. Significant regulation of key downstream metabolites of nitrative stress was measured within these pathways. Among the features identified in our study, the regulation of MMP2 and SP1 was experimentally validated. Our results demonstrate the advantage of data integration to broadly define the pathways and networks that represent the mechanisms by which complex biological systems respond to perturbation. - Highlights: • Low dose ionizing radiation altered homeostasis in 3D skin tissue model. • Global gene/protein/metabolite data integrated using complementary statistical approaches • Time and location-specific change in matrix regulation

  20. Usefulness of radiological examination of uranium (central nervous system) in diagnosis of mental disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosinska-Mika, M.

    1991-01-01

    Usefulness of radiological examination of uranium in diagnosis of mental disorders (schizophrenia, affective psychosis, senile psychosis, chronic alcoholism, reactive psychosis) was proved in this study. Especially computerized tomography seems to be useful in revealing of organic background for mental disorders. (author). 123 refs, 32 tabs

  1. Corruption Significantly Increases the Capital Cost of Power Plants in Developing Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Biswajit Debnath

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Emerging economies with rapidly growing population and energy demand, own some of the most expensive power plants in the world. We hypothesized that corruption has a relationship with the capital cost of power plants in developing countries such as Bangladesh. For this study, we analyzed the capital cost of 61 operational and planned power plants in Bangladesh. Initial comparison study revealed that the mean capital cost of a power plant in Bangladesh is twice than that of the global average. Then, the statistical analysis revealed a significant correlation between corruption and the cost of power plants, indicating that higher corruption leads to greater capital cost. The high up-front cost can be a significant burden on the economy, at present and in the future, as most are financed through international loans with extended repayment terms. There is, therefore, an urgent need for the review of the procurement and due diligence process of establishing power plants, and for the implementation of a more transparent system to mitigate adverse effects of corruption on megaprojects.

  2. Integrative Analysis of Subcellular Quantitative Proteomics Studies Reveals Functional Cytoskeleton Membrane-Lipid Raft Interactions in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Anup D; Inder, Kerry L; Shah, Alok K; Cristino, Alexandre S; McKie, Arthur B; Gabra, Hani; Davis, Melissa J; Hill, Michelle M

    2016-10-07

    Lipid rafts are dynamic membrane microdomains that orchestrate molecular interactions and are implicated in cancer development. To understand the functions of lipid rafts in cancer, we performed an integrated analysis of quantitative lipid raft proteomics data sets modeling progression in breast cancer, melanoma, and renal cell carcinoma. This analysis revealed that cancer development is associated with increased membrane raft-cytoskeleton interactions, with ∼40% of elevated lipid raft proteins being cytoskeletal components. Previous studies suggest a potential functional role for the raft-cytoskeleton in the action of the putative tumor suppressors PTRF/Cavin-1 and Merlin. To extend the observation, we examined lipid raft proteome modulation by an unrelated tumor suppressor opioid binding protein cell-adhesion molecule (OPCML) in ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells. In agreement with the other model systems, quantitative proteomics revealed that 39% of OPCML-depleted lipid raft proteins are cytoskeletal components, with microfilaments and intermediate filaments specifically down-regulated. Furthermore, protein-protein interaction network and simulation analysis showed significantly higher interactions among cancer raft proteins compared with general human raft proteins. Collectively, these results suggest increased cytoskeleton-mediated stabilization of lipid raft domains with greater molecular interactions as a common, functional, and reversible feature of cancer cells.

  3. Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms and Self-Esteem in Latino Youths: Examining the Role of Gender and Perceived Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiders, Katharine H.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Derlan, Chelsea L.

    2013-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examined changes in Latino adolescents' (N = 323, M age = 15.31 years) self-esteem and depressive symptoms across the high school years. Differences in trajectories were examined by gender and perceived ethnic discrimination. Findings revealed that self-esteem increased across high school for both male adolescents…

  4. Individual plant examination program aspirations and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flack, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    An Individual Plant Examination (IPE) is a systematic examination of a nuclear power plant for vulnerabilities, or risk significant contributors. By mid 1994, all licensees of commercial nuclear power plants will have performed an IPE on their units. To date, the NRC staff has received sixty-three (80%) of the seventy-eight expected IPE submittals. Twelve IPE reviews are now complete, with twenty-two in various stages of review. This paper provides a preliminary overview and comparison of licensees IPEs to Commission objectives. Insights and findings stemming from the review program are also presented

  5. Increased frequency of retinopathy of prematurity over the last decade and significant regional differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmström, Gerd; Tornqvist, Kristina; Al-Hawasi, Abbas; Nilsson, Åsa; Wallin, Agneta; Hellström, Ann

    2018-03-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) causes childhood blindness globally in prematurely born infants. Although increased levels of oxygen supply lead to increased survival and reduced frequency of cerebral palsy, increased incidence of ROP is reported. With the help of a Swedish register for ROP, SWEDROP, national and regional incidences of ROP and frequencies of treatment were evaluated from 2008 to 2015 (n = 5734), as well as before and after targets of provided oxygen changed from 85-89% to 91-95% in 2014. Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) was found in 31.9% (1829/5734) of all infants with a gestational age (GA) of <31 weeks at birth and 5.7% of the infants (329/5734) had been treated for ROP. Analyses of the national data revealed an increased incidence of ROP during the 8-year study period (p = 0.003), but there was no significant increase in the frequency of treatment. There were significant differences between the seven health regions of Sweden, regarding both incidence of ROP and frequency of treatment (p < 0.001). Comparison of regional data before and after the new oxygen targets revealed a significant increase in treated ROP in one region [OR: 2.24 (CI: 1.11-4.49), p = 0.024] and a borderline increase in one other [OR: 3.08 (CI: 0.99-9.60), p = 0.052]. The Swedish national ROP register revealed an increased incidence of ROP during an 8-year period and significant regional differences regarding the incidence of ROP and frequency of treatment. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Experience with qualification examinations of workers handling ionizing radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skokanova, K.

    1976-01-01

    The organization is described of examinations which have to be passed by supervising staff and workers using radioactive ionizing radiation sources. The requirements are listed of the examination in which these workers have to prove their professional knowledge and skills. The said examinations significantly contribute to the establishment of a system of safeguards at workplaces using ionizing radiation sources and may help economize operations at these workplaces

  7. Parental attachment style: examination of links with parent secure base provision and adolescent secure base use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jason D; Cassidy, Jude

    2014-01-01

    The secure base construct represents one of attachment theory's most important contributions to our understanding of parent-child relationships and child development. The present study represents the first examination of how parents' self-reported attachment styles relate to parental secure base provision and adolescent (mean age = 16.6 years, SE = .59) secure base use during an observed parent-adolescent interaction. Further, the present study is the first to examine how fathers', as well as mothers', attachment styles relate to observed behavior in a parent-child interaction. At the bivariate level, maternal avoidance, but not anxiety, was negatively associated with observed adolescent secure base use. In addition, path analysis revealed that maternal avoidance was indirectly related to less adolescent secure base use through mothers' self-reported hostile behavior toward their adolescents and through adolescents' less positive perceptions of their mothers. Further, paternal anxiety, but not avoidance, was indirectly related to less adolescent secure base use through fathers' self-reported hostile behavior toward their adolescents. No significant findings emerged in relation to parental secure base provision. We discuss these results in the context of attachment theory and suggest directions for future research.

  8. Lifestyle of people aged 60+ who report for preventive examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Szamocka

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the lifestyle of people aged 60+ who reported for a screening examination for the early detection of colorectal cancer. The group consisted of 100 people aged 60+ who underwent a screening examination for the early detection of colorectal cancer conducted at the Clinic of Gastroenterology and Nutrition Disorders, the Jan Biziel University Hospital no. 2 in Bydgoszcz, Poland. Every participant filled two surveys, one concerning their current and past lifestyle and the other assessing their eligibility for colonoscopy screening. Every participant underwent a physical examination and anamnesis, during which basic anthropometric parameters, including body weight (kg and height (cm, were assessed, followed by colonoscopy screening. Statistical analysis was conducted using STATISTICA PL 13 computer software from StatSoft and the results were considered as statistically significant at p<0.05. The mean overall value of the participants’ BMI was 27.8 ± 6.5 kg/m2, which indicated overweight in accordance with the WHO criteria. By categorizing the BMI measurements, it was shown that women were twice more likely to have a correct body weight compared to men (33% vs. 15% and had a lower incidence of obesity (20% vs. 26%. Daily physical activity was practiced by 13% of the participants, while sedentary lifestyle was reported by nearly one-third of them. 70% of the surveyed group spent 2 to 3 hours per day watching TV or using a computer. Nutrition analysis demonstrated that almost 60% of the patients implemented modifications to their diet. Colonoscopy screening conducted in people aged 60+ revealed the presence of colorectal abnormalities in 44% of the participants, including 6 cases of colorectal cancer. The results of the study indicated cases of inappropriate diet, food quality and nutritional status, as well as other errors in health-related behavior. The identification of the discovered problems should encourage the Polish health

  9. T-2 mycotoxin treatment of newborn rat pups does not significantly affect nervous system functions in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varró, Petra; Béldi, Melinda; Kovács, Melinda; Világi, Ildikó

    2018-03-01

    T-2 toxin is primarily produced by Fusarium sp. abundant under temperate climatic conditions. Its main harmful effect is the inhibition of protein synthesis. Causing oxidative stress, it also promotes lipid peroxidation and changes plasma membrane phospholipid composition; this may lead to nervous system alterations. The aim of the present study was to examine whether a single dose of T-2 toxin administered at newborn age has any long-lasting effects on nervous system functions. Rat pups were treated on the first postnatal day with a single intraperitoneal dose of T-2 toxin (0.2 mg/bwkg). Body weight of treated pups was lower during the second and third week of life, compared to littermates; later, weight gain was recovered. At young adulthood, behavior was tested in the open field, and no difference was observed between treated and control rats. Field potential recordings from somatosensory cortex and hippocampus slices did not reveal any significant difference in neuronal network functions. In case of neocortical field EPSP, the shape was slightly different in treated pups. Long-term synaptic plasticity was also comparable in both groups. Seizure susceptibility of the slices was not different, either. In conclusion, T-2 toxin did not significantly affect basic nervous system functions at this dose.

  10. How Does the Linguistic Distance Between Spoken and Standard Language in Arabic Affect Recall and Recognition Performances During Verbal Memory Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Haitham

    2017-06-01

    The current research examined how Arabic diglossia affects verbal learning memory. Thirty native Arab college students were tested using auditory verbal memory test that was adapted according to the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and developed in three versions: Pure spoken language version (SL), pure standard language version (SA), and phonologically similar version (PS). The result showed that for immediate free-recall, the performances were better for the SL and the PS conditions compared to the SA one. However, for the parts of delayed recall and recognition, the results did not reveal any significant consistent effect of diglossia. Accordingly, it was suggested that diglossia has a significant effect on the storage and short term memory functions but not on long term memory functions. The results were discussed in light of different approaches in the field of bilingual memory.

  11. Tax Policy Trends: Republicans Reveal Proposed Tax Overhaul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Bazel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available REPUBLICANS REVEAL PROPOSED TAX OVERHAUL The White House and Congressional Republicans have revealed their much-anticipated proposal for reform of the U.S. personal and corporate tax systems. The proposal titled, “UNIFIED FRAMEWORK FOR FIXING OUR BROKEN TAX CODE” outlines a number of central policy changes, which will significantly alter the U.S. corporate tax system. The proposal includes a top federal marginal rate reduction for the sole proprietorships, partnerships and S corporation—small business equivalents— from 39.6% to 25% (state income tax rates would no longer be deductible. Large corporations would also see a meaningful federal rate reduction given the proposed drop in the federal corporate income tax rate from 35% to 20%. Additionally, the proposal includes a generous temporary measure intended to stimulate investment, full capital expensing for machinery with a partial limitation of interest deductions.

  12. Magnetic resonance appearance of monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance and multiple myeloma. The GRI Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellaïche, L; Laredo, J D; Lioté, F; Koeger, A C; Hamze, B; Ziza, J M; Pertuiset, E; Bardin, T; Tubiana, J M

    1997-11-01

    A prospective multicenter study. To evaluate the use of magnetic resonance imaging, in the differentiation between monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance and multiple myeloma. Although multiple myeloma has been studied extensively with magnetic resonance imaging, to the authors' knowledge, no study has evaluated the clinical interest of magnetic resonance imaging in the differentiation between monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance and multiple myeloma. The magnetic resonance examinations of the thoracolumbar spine in 24 patients with newly diagnosed monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance were compared with those performed in 44 patients with newly diagnosed nontreated multiple myeloma. All findings on magnetic resonance examination performed in patients with monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance were normal, whereas findings on 38 (86%) of the 44 magnetic resonance examinations performed in patients with multiple myeloma were abnormal. Magnetic resonance imaging can be considered as an additional diagnostic tool in differentiating between monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance and multiple myeloma, which may be helpful when routine criteria are not sufficient. An abnormal finding on magnetic resonance examination in a patient with monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance should suggest the diagnosis of multiple myeloma after other causes of marrow signal abnormalities are excluded. Magnetic resonance imaging also may be proposed in the long-term follow-up of monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance when a new biologic or clinical event suggests the diagnosis of malignant monoclonal gammopathy.

  13. Safety climate and injuries: an examination of theoretical and empirical relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beus, Jeremy M; Payne, Stephanie C; Bergman, Mindy E; Arthur, Winfred

    2010-07-01

    Our purpose in this study was to meta-analytically address several theoretical and empirical issues regarding the relationships between safety climate and injuries. First, we distinguished between extant safety climate-->injury and injury-->safety climate relationships for both organizational and psychological safety climates. Second, we examined several potential moderators of these relationships. Meta-analyses revealed that injuries were more predictive of organizational safety climate than safety climate was predictive of injuries. Additionally, the injury-->safety climate relationship was stronger for organizational climate than for psychological climate. Moderator analyses revealed that the degree of content contamination in safety climate measures inflated effects, whereas measurement deficiency attenuated effects. Additionally, moderator analyses showed that as the time period over which injuries were assessed lengthened, the safety climate-->injury relationship was attenuated. Supplemental meta-analyses of specific safety climate dimensions also revealed that perceived management commitment to safety is the most robust predictor of occupational injuries. Contrary to expectations, the operationalization of injuries did not meaningfully moderate safety climate-injury relationships. Implications and recommendations for future research and practice are discussed.

  14. Clinical significance of perceptible fetal motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn, W F

    1980-09-15

    The monitoring of fetal activity during the last trimester of pregnancy has been proposed to be useful in assessing fetal welfare. The maternal perception of fetal activity was tested among 82 patients using real-time ultrasonography. All perceived fetal movements were visualized on the scanner and involved motion of the lower limbs. Conversely, 82% of all visualized motions of fetal limbs were perceived by the patients. All combined motions of fetal trunk with limbs were preceived by the patients and described as strong movements, whereas clusters of isolated, weak motions of the fetal limbs were less accurately perceived (56% accuracy). The number of fetal movements perceived during the 15-minute test period was significantly (p fetal motion was present (44 of 45 cases) than when it was absent (five of 10 cases). These findings reveal that perceived fetal motion is: (1) reliable; (2) related to the strength of lower limb motion; (3) increased with ruptured amniotic membranes; and (4) reassuring if considered to be active.

  15. Prognostic significance of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) over expression in urothelial carcinoma of urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Atif Ali; Hussain, Zubaida Fida; Irfan, Muhammad; Khan, Erum Yousuf; Faridi, Naveen; Naqvi, Hanna; Khan, Amir; Edhi, Muhammad Muzzammil

    2018-06-07

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been shown to have abnormal expression in many human cancers and is considered as a marker of poor prognosis. Frequency of over expression in bladder cancer has not been studied in our population; therefore we aimed to evaluate the frequency and prognostic significance of EGFR immunohistochemical expression in locoregional population. We performed EGFR immunohistochemistry on 126 cases of bladder cancer and association of EGFR expression with tumor grade, lamina propria invasion, deep muscle invasion and recurrence of disease was evaluated. High EGFR expression was noted in 26.2% (33 cases), 15.1% (19 cases) and 58.7% (74 cases) revealed low and no EGFR expression respectively. Significant association of EGFR expression was noted with tumor grade, lamina propria invasion, deep muscle invasion and recurrence status while no significant association was seen with age, gender and overall survival. Kaplan- Meier curves revealed significant association of EGFR expression with recurrence while no significant association was seen with overall survival. Significant association of EGFR overexpression with tumor grade, muscularis propria invasion and recurrence signifies its prognostic value; therefore EGFR can be used as a prognostic biomarker in Urothelial bladder carcinoma.

  16. Citrobacter rodentium is an unstable pathogen showing evidence of significant genomic flux.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola K Petty

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Citrobacter rodentium is a natural mouse pathogen that causes attaching and effacing (A/E lesions. It shares a common virulence strategy with the clinically significant human A/E pathogens enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC and is widely used to model this route of pathogenesis. We previously reported the complete genome sequence of C. rodentium ICC168, where we found that the genome displayed many characteristics of a newly evolved pathogen. In this study, through PFGE, sequencing of isolates showing variation, whole genome transcriptome analysis and examination of the mobile genetic elements, we found that, consistent with our previous hypothesis, the genome of C. rodentium is unstable as a result of repeat-mediated, large-scale genome recombination and because of active transposition of mobile genetic elements such as the prophages. We sequenced an additional C. rodentium strain, EX-33, to reveal that the reference strain ICC168 is representative of the species and that most of the inactivating mutations were common to both isolates and likely to have occurred early on in the evolution of this pathogen. We draw parallels with the evolution of other bacterial pathogens and conclude that C. rodentium is a recently evolved pathogen that may have emerged alongside the development of inbred mice as a model for human disease.

  17. Randomized controlled trial of peer mentoring for individuals with traumatic brain injury and their significant others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Robin A; Rapport, Lisa J; Wertheimer, Jeffrey; Koviak, Carole

    2012-08-01

    To examine the efficacy of a peer-mentoring program for persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and their significant others, and to determine the relationship of this mentoring program to 3 main outcomes: (1) emotional well-being; (2) post-TBI quality of life; and (3) community integration. Randomized controlled trial. Midwestern rehabilitation hospital. Persons with TBI (n=96) and significant others/caregivers (n=62). Persons with TBI and friends/caregivers who knew the person prior to their injury were randomly assigned to a treatment (mentored) or no-treatment (no mentoring) control group immediately prior to discharge from the rehabilitation unit and were mentored for up to 2 years. Peer Mentoring Questionnaire; Brief Symptom Inventory-18; Family Assessment Device; Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations; Short Michigan Alcohol Screening Test; Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey; and Community Integration Measure. Eighty-eight percent of individuals who were involved in the mentoring program reported positive experiences. t tests revealed that among persons with TBI, individuals who received mentoring had significantly better behavioral control and less chaos in the living environment (P=.04), lower alcohol use (P=.01), less emotion-focused (P=.04) and avoidance coping (P=.03), and good physical quality of life (P=.04) compared with those who did not receive mentoring. Among significant others, mentored individuals demonstrated greater community integration (P=.03) than the nonmentored control group. Mentoring can be an effective way to benefit mood and healthy coping after TBI, and it can help to prevent maladaptive behaviors, such as substance abuse and behavioral dyscontrol, in the living situation. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Surry steam generator - examination and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.A.; Doctor, P.G.; Ferris, R.H.

    1985-10-01

    This report summarizes research conducted during the fourth year of the five year Steam Generator Group Project. During this period the project conducted numerous nondestructive examination (NDE) round robin inspections of the original Surry 2A steam generator. They included data acquisition/analysis and analysis-only round robins using multifrequency bobbin coil eddy current tests. In addition, the generator was nondestructively examined by alternate or advanced techniques including ultrasonics, optical fiber, profilometry and special eddy current instrumentation. The round robin interpretation data were compared. To validate the NDE results and for tube integrity testing, a selection of tubing samples, determined to be representative of the generator, was designated for removal. Initial sample removals from the generator included three sections of tube sheet, two sections of support plate and encompassed tubes, and a number of straight and U-bend tubing sections. Metallographic examination of these sections was initiated. Details of significant results are presented in the following paper. 13 figs

  19. Surry steam generator - examination and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, R A; Doctor, P G; Ferris, R H

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted during the fourth year of the five year Steam Generator Group Project. During this period the project conducted numerous nondestructive examination (NDE) round robin inspections of the original Surry 2A steam generator. They included data acquisition/analysis and analysis-only round robins using multifrequency bobbin coil eddy current tests. In addition, the generator was nondestructively examined by alternate or advanced techniques including ultrasonics, optical fiber, profilometry and special eddy current instrumentation. The round robin interpretation data were compared. To validate the NDE results and for tube integrity testing, a selection of tubing samples, determined to be representative of the generator, was designated for removal. Initial sample removals from the generator included three sections of tube sheet, two sections of support plate and encompassed tubes, and a number of straight and U-bend tubing sections. Metallographic examination of these sections was initiated. Details of significant results are presented in the following paper.

  20. Neuropsychological significance of areas of high signal intensity on brain MRIs of children with neurofibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, B D; Slopis, J M; Schomer, D; Jackson, E F; Levy, B M

    1996-06-01

    Of children with neurofibromatosis (NF), 40% have a cognitive or learning impairment. Approximately 60% also have anomalous areas of high signal intensity on T2-weighted brain MRIs. The association of these hyperintensities and neuropsychological status is not fully understood. We administered a battery of neuropsychological tests and a standard clinical MRI to determine the impact of hyperintensity presence, number, and location on cognitive status in 84 children (8 to 16 years) with NF type 1. These children underwent standard clinical MRI using a GE 1.5-tesla scanner (except one child who was examined with a 1.0-tesla scanner). We conducted three types of analyses: Hyperintensity presence or absence.-Scores of children with (55%) and without hyperintensities (45%) were compared using t tests. No statistically significant differences between groups in intellectual functioning or any neuropsychological variable were found. Number of hyperintensities-The number of hyperintensity locations per child ranged from one to five (mean = 2.22). Pearson correlations revealed no significant association between the number of hyperintensities and neuropsychological performance. Location of hyperintensities-In four of the five locations studied, no statistically significant differences were found between scores of children with a hyperintensity in an area and those with one elsewhere. However, mean scores for IQ, Memory, Motor, Distractibility, and Attention domains for children with hyperintensities in the thalamus were significantly lower than scores for those with hyperintensities elsewhere. These results suggest that the simple presence or absence of hyperintensities, or their total number, is not as important as their anatomic location for detecting their relationship with neuropsychological status. Taking location into account, hyperintensities in the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, brainstem, or cerebellum seem to have no impact on neuropsychological functioning

  1. Transcriptomic variation in a coral reveals pathways of clonal organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    K Bay, Line; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn; Jarmer, Hanne Østergaard

    2009-01-01

    A microarray study was undertaken to examine the potential for clonal gene expression variation in a branching reef building coral, Acropora millepora. The role of small-scale gradients in light and water flow was examined by comparing gene expression levels between branch elevation (tip and base......) and position (centre and edge) of replicate coral colonies (n=3). Analyses of variance revealed that almost 60% of variation in gene expression was present between colonies and 34 genes were considered differentially expressed between colonies (minimum P=6.5 x 10(-4)). These genes are associated with energy...... of corymbose-like branching coral colonies such as A. millepora. Four genes were differentially expressed between the tip and base of branches (P=3.239 x 10(-4)) and were associated with lysosome lipase activity and fluorescence, suggesting that branch tips may encounter higher pathogen loads or levels...

  2. A Qualitative Investigation of the Significance of Companion Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, Nandini; Haney, Colleen J

    2015-09-01

    Using a qualitative design, the purpose of this study was to examine how people describe their relationship with their dog and what they do that suggest this bond represents a meaningful relationship. Dog owners (N = 27) aged 19 years and older were invited to participate in one of seven focus group discussions. A qualitative content analysis revealed the presence of three themes: (a) the impact of dogs on interpersonal relationships, (b) dogs as subjective beings, and (c) psychological and health benefits of dogs. The second theme reflects the personal agency of dogs and their unique contributions to the human-dog relationship. These themes are discussed in light of the current research in the field. The findings suggest implications for counseling research and practice in improving the health and well-being of dog owners. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Predator-prey interaction reveals local effects of high-altitude insect migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-altitude nocturnal insect migrations represent significant pulses of resources, yet are difficult to study and poorly understood. Predator-prey interactions, specifically migratory moth consumption by high-flying bats, potentially reveal flows of migratory insects across a landscape. In North...

  4. Examining Impulse-Variability in Kicking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Andrew; Molina, Sergio L; McKibben, Jonathon; Stodden, David F

    2016-07-01

    This study examined variability in kicking speed and spatial accuracy to test the impulse-variability theory prediction of an inverted-U function and the speed-accuracy trade-off. Twenty-eight 18- to 25-year-old adults kicked a playground ball at various percentages (50-100%) of their maximum speed at a wall target. Speed variability and spatial error were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA with built-in polynomial contrasts. Results indicated a significant inverse linear trajectory for speed variability (p < .001, η2= .345) where 50% and 60% maximum speed had significantly higher variability than the 100% condition. A significant quadratic fit was found for spatial error scores of mean radial error (p < .0001, η2 = .474) and subject-centroid radial error (p < .0001, η2 = .453). Findings suggest variability and accuracy of multijoint, ballistic skill performance may not follow the general principles of impulse-variability theory or the speed-accuracy trade-off.

  5. Examining Maternal Psychopathology, Family Functioning and Coping Skills in Childhood Obesity: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Miriam; Sepulveda, Ana R; Lacruz, Tatiana; Parks, Melissa; Real, Beatriz; Martin-Peinador, Yolanda; Román, Francisco J

    2017-09-01

    The shared family environment is an important risk factor in the development of childhood obesity. This study aims to examine differences in maternal psychopathology, family functioning, expressed emotion and coping skills between families of a child with obesity and those with a normal-weight child. This case-control study consisted of 50 mothers with a child (age 8-12 years) with obesity (p ≥ 97) and a control group of 50 mothers of a child with normal weight (p obesity showed significant differences in levels of trait anxiety, criticism and over-protectiveness, and maladaptive coping skills. Structural equation modelling revealed that the mothers' psychopathology predicted children's body mass index (BMI) z-scores through expressed emotion and maladaptive coping scores. There were significant direct and indirect relations among maternal BMI, psychopathology, expressed emotion and coping, which all together explained 26.5% of variance of children's BMI z-scores. Considering this relation between maternal variables and child weight status, childhood obesity intervention programs may benefit from targeting maternal BMI, psychopathology, expressed emotion and coping skills. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  6. Radiation exposure of the Italian population due to medical diagnostic examinations in 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benassai, S.; Curatolo, M.; Dobici, F.; Indovina, P.L.; Pugliani, L.; Salvadori, P.

    1977-01-01

    The genetically significant dose received by the Italian population in 1975 due to the diagnostic X-ray examinations and radiopharmaceuticals was investigated and the results are presented. Concerning the diagnostic X-ray examinations the data were obtained by a representative sample and extrapolated over the whole population with reference to the over-all X-ray film consumption. From the reported data it can be concluded that about 50% of population was subjected to X-ray examinations and the genetically significant dose amounts to about 30 mrem. With reference to diagnostic use of radiopharmaceuticals the number of collected data was so large to be considered as representative of the situation. From the collected data it can be concluded that about 10% of population was subjected to these examinations and that the genetically significant dose is less than 2 mrem. Both for diagnostic X-ray examinations and use of radiopharmaceuticals results are here presented for the distribution of different uses and examinations. The genetically significant dose to which the Italian population was exposed in 1975 can be said to be of the order of 30 mrem. In view of lowering this dose some indications are presented with reference both to the legislative and technical measures

  7. General practitioners' willingness to request plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryynaenen, Olli-Pekka; Lehtovirta, Jukka; Soimakallio, Seppo; Takala, Jorma

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To examine general practitioners' attitudes to plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations. Design: A postal questionnaire consisting of questions on background data and doctors' opinions about plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations, as well as eight vignettes (imaginary patient cases) presenting indications for lumbar radiography, and five vignettes focusing on the doctors' willingness to request lumbar radiography on the basis of patients' age and duration of symptoms. The data were analysed according to the doctor's age, sex, workplace and the medical school of graduation. Setting: Finland. Subjects: Six hundred and fifteen randomly selected physicians working in primary health care (64% of original target group). Results: The vignettes revealed that the use of plain lumbar radiographic examination varied between 26 and 88%. Patient's age and radiation protection were the most prominent factors influencing doctors' decisions to request lumbar radiographies. Only slight differences were observed between the attitudes of male and female doctors, as well as between young and older doctors. Doctors' willingness to request lumbar radiographies increased with the patient's age in most vignettes. The duration of patients' symptoms had a dramatic effect on the doctor's decision: in all vignettes, doctors were more likely to request lumbar radiography when patient's symptoms had exceeded 4 weeks. Conclusions: General practitioners commonly use plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations, despite its limited value in the diagnosis of low back pain. Further consensus and medical education is needed to clarify the indications for plain lumbar radiographic examination

  8. Inter fraction variations in rectum and bladder volumes and dose distributions during high dose rate brachytherapy treatment of the uterine cervix investigated by repetitive CT-examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellebust, Taran Paulsen; Dale, Einar; Skjoensberg, Ane; Olsen, Dag Rune

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate variation of dose to organs at risk for patients receiving fractionated high dose rate gynaecological brachytherapy by using CT-based 3D treatment planning and dose-volume histograms (DVH). Materials and methods: Fourteen patients with cancer of the uterine cervix underwent three to six CT examinations (mean 4.9) during their course of high-dose-rate brachytherapy using radiographically compatible applicators. The rectal and bladder walls were delineated and DVHs were calculated. Results: Inter fraction variation of the bladder volume (CV mean =44.1%) was significantly larger than the inter fraction variation of the mean dose (CV mean =19.9%, P=0.005) and the maximum dose (CV mean =17.5%, P=0.003) of the bladder wall. The same trend was seen for rectum, although the figures were not significantly different. Performing CT examinations at four of seven brachytherapy fractions reduced the uncertainty to 4 and 7% for the bladder and rectal doses, respectively. A linear regression analysis showed a significant, negative relationship between time after treatment start and the whole bladder volume (P=0.018), whereas no correlation was found for the rectum. For both rectum and bladder a linear regression analysis revealed a significant, negative relationship between the whole volume and median dose (P<0.05). Conclusion: Preferably a CT examination should be provided at every fraction. However, this is logistically unfeasible in most institutions. To obtain reliable DVHs the patients will in the future undergo 3-4 CT examinations during the course of brachytherapy at our institution. Since this study showed an association between large bladder volumes and dose reductions, the patients will be treated with a standardized bladder volume

  9. Clinicopathological correlation and prognostic significance of sonic hedgehog protein overexpression in human gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yanyang; Li, Fang; Tang, Bo; Shi, Yan; Hao, Yingxue; Yu, Peiwu

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the expression of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) protein in gastric cancer, and correlated it with clinicopathological parameters. The prognostic significance of Shh protein was analyzed. Shh protein expression was evaluated in 113 cases of gastric cancer and 60 cases of normal gastric mucosa. The immunoreactivity was scored semi quantitatively as: 0 = absent; 1 = weak; 2 = moderate; and 3 = strong. All cases were further classified into two groups, namely non-overexpression group with score 0 or 1, and overexpression group with score 2 or 3. The overexpression of Shh protein was correlated with clinicopathological parameters. Survival analysis was then performed to determine the Shh protein prognostic significance in gastric cancer. In immunohistochemistry study, nineteen (31.7%) normal gastric mucosa revealed Shh protein overexpression, while eighty-one (71.7%) gastric cancer revealed overexpression. The expression of Shh protein were significantly higher in gastric cancer tissues than in normal gastric mucosa (P overexpression and non-expression groups P = 0.168 and 0.071). However, Shh overexpression emerged as a significant independent prognostic factor in multivariate Cox regression analysis (hazard ratio 1.187, P = 0.041). Shh protein expression is upregulated and is statistically correlated with age, tumor differentiation, depth of invasion, pathologic staging, and nodal metastasis. The Shh protein overexpression is a significant independent prognostic factor in multivariate Cox regression analysis in gastric cancer.

  10. Motivational predictors of coping with academic examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, Julie; Stephan, Yannick; Maiano, Christophe; Le Scanff, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The present study focused on the motivational predictors of coping with academic examination through the test of the contribution of self-determination for academic studies and achievement goals. Coping strategies, academic motivation and achievement goals were assessed among 199 undergraduate students. Regression analysis revealed that problem-focused coping is positively predicted by identified regulation and negatively by amotivation, whereas emotion-focused coping is positively predicted by introjected regulation and amotivation. Mastery approach goals contributed positively to problem-focused coping. Identified regulation and mastery approach goals made a unique positive contribution to problem-focused coping, and amotivation was negatively related. Students' coping actions may vary according to both the reasons why they engage in academic studies and the goals they pursue in this setting.

  11. Dilatometric examination of moulds with plaster binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nadolski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations concerning thermal expansion of moulding materials with plaster binder have been performed for two mixture compositionsof Authors’ own design, as well as for the material used in jewellery industry under the Prima-Cast trade name, and for ThermoMold 1200moulding material. The results of dilatometric examinations of these materials, carried out within the temperature range from about 20°Cto 650°C by means of the DA-3 automatic dilatometer, have been compared. An analysis of this comparison has revealed that it is thematrix composition which is decisive for the magnitude of dimensional changes of moulds, and that applying components which do notexhibit polymorphic transformations reduces dimensional changes of a mould during its thermal treatment.

  12. Examining corporate reputation judgments with generalizability theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highhouse, Scott; Broadfoot, Alison; Yugo, Jennifer E; Devendorf, Shelba A

    2009-05-01

    The researchers used generalizability theory to examine whether reputation judgments about corporations function in a manner consistent with contemporary theory in the corporate-reputation literature. University professors (n = 86) of finance, marketing, and human resources management made repeated judgments about the general reputations of highly visible American companies. Minimal variability in the judgments is explained by items, time, persons, and field of specialization. Moreover, experts from the different specializations reveal considerable agreement in how they weigh different aspects of corporate performance in arriving at their global reputation judgments. The results generally support the theory of the reputation construct and suggest that stable estimates of global reputation can be achieved with a small number of items and experts. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of muscle tone distribution in premature babies based on PodoBaby podoscope examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stępowska Jolanta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the study was to assess load surface with regard to muscle tone distribution of premature infants compared to full-term infants. Material and methods: Twenty-four infants aged 3-6 months (adjusted age were examined, including 12 premature infants (born before 37 weeks and 12 full-term infants. The study was carried out at the Children’s Memorial Health Institute in Warsaw in the period from January to June 2016. The study involved interviews with the infants’ parents and examinations of infants in a supine and prone position performed on PodoBaby digital podoscope. Support surface, i.e. the loading on the left and right side of the body and the length of trunk sides were analysed. Statistical analysis was performed with the use of Statistica v.12 software and Student’s t-test. Results: No significant differences between premature infants and full-term infants regarding the loading on the right side measured in a supine position were revealed (analogous lack of differences was noted on the left side and in a prone position. In a prone position, the correlation between support surface and the length of trunk sides was noted, i.e. the loaded side of the trunk was lengthened, while the unloaded side was shortened. Conclusions: Considerable asymmetry of the loads of trunk sides was noted in premature infants, while in the case of full-term infants, the values of loads were close to symmetry. An examination with the use of PodoBaby podoscope may be applied in early diagnostics in pediatric rehabilitation.

  14. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR ENHANCING STRATEGIC AND TACTICAL PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Jalal Karim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Management Information Systems (MIS is the key factor to facilitate and attain efficient decision making in an organization. This research explores the extent to which management information systems implemented to make successful decisions at two selected financial organizations. The research examined whether the selected financial institutions of Bahrain vary as to the use of Management Information Systems leadership of decision making for strategic and tactical planning purposes. The research adapted the quantitative research design to examine two research hypotheses. A total of 190 forms were equally distributed to those who are working at different management levels at the selected organizations. The results of the research showed that MIS was primarily used to enhance strategic planning in both financial institutions. The regression analysis revealed that Tactical planning is found to have no effect on Decision Making, while Strategic planning has a clear effect on the Decision Making Effectiveness in both organizations

  15. Examination Management and Examination Malpractice: The Nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunji, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Examination malpractice or cheating has become a global phenomenon. In different countries of the world today, developed and developing, academic dishonesty especially cheating in examinations has heightened and taken frightening dimension. In many countries of the world this phenomenon has become a serious matter of concern that has left many…

  16. KEY RESULTS FROM IRRADIATION AND POST-IRRADIATION EXAMINATION OF AGR-1 UCO TRISO FUEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demkowicz, Paul A.; Hunn, John D.; Petti, David A.; Morris, Robert N.

    2016-11-01

    The AGR-1 irradiation experiment was performed as the first test of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel in the US Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program. The experiment consisted of 72 right cylinder fuel compacts containing approximately 3×105 coated fuel particles with uranium oxide/uranium carbide (UCO) fuel kernels. The fuel was irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor for a total of 620 effective full power days. Fuel burnup ranged from 11.3 to 19.6% fissions per initial metal atom and time average, volume average irradiation temperatures of the individual compacts ranged from 955 to 1136°C. This paper focuses on key results from the irradiation and post-irradiation examination, which revealed a robust fuel with excellent performance characteristics under the conditions tested and have significantly improved the understanding of UCO coated particle fuel irradiation behavior within the US program. The fuel exhibited a very low incidence of TRISO coating failure during irradiation and post-irradiation safety testing at temperatures up to 1800°C. Advanced PIE methods have allowed particles with SiC coating failure to be isolated and meticulously examined, which has elucidated the specific causes of SiC failure in these specimens. The level of fission product release from the fuel during irradiation and post-irradiation safety testing has been studied in detail. Results indicated very low release of krypton and cesium through intact SiC and modest release of europium and strontium, while also confirming the potential for significant silver release through the coatings depending on irradiation conditions. Focused study of fission products within the coating layers of irradiated particles down to nanometer length scales has provided new insights into fission product transport through the coating layers and the role various fission products may have on coating integrity. The broader implications of these results and the application of

  17. Significance of urinary full-length megalin in patients with IgA nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuto Seki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Megalin is highly expressed at the apical membranes of proximal tubular epithelial cells. A urinary full-length megalin (C-megalin assay is linked to the severity of diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes. This study examined the relationship between levels of urinary C-megalin and histological findings in adult patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Urine samples voided in the morning on the day of renal biopsy were obtained from 73 patients with IgAN (29 men and 44 women; mean age, 33 years and 5 patients with membranous nephropathy (MN. Renal pathologic variables were analyzed using the Oxford classification of IgAN, the Shigematsu classification and the Clinical Guidelines of IgAN in Japan. The levels of urinary C-megalin were measured by sandwich ELISA. RESULTS: Histological analysis based on the Oxford classification revealed that the levels of urinary C-megalin were correlated with mesangial hypercellularity in IgAN patients (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.04-3.27, P<0.05. There was a significant correlation between the levels of urinary C-megalin and the severity of chronic extracapillary abnormalities according to the Shigematsu classification in IgAN patients (β = 0.33, P = 0.008. The levels of urinary C-megalin were significantly higher in all risk levels of IgAN patients requiring dialysis using the Clinical Guidelines of IgAN in Japan than in the control group. The levels of urinary C-megalin were significantly higher in the high risk and very high risk grades than in the low risk grade (P<0.05. The levels of urinary C-megalin were significantly higher in MN patients compared to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: The levels of urinary C-megalin are associated with histological abnormalities in adult IgAN patients. There is a possibility that urinary C-megalin is an independent predictor of disease progression of IgAN. In addition, our results suggest that

  18. Clinical significance of gamma camera renography in chronic renal insufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudczak, R.; Frischauf, H.; Kletter, K.

    1980-01-01

    Gamma camera renography allows, together with renal imaging, an evaluation of individual renal function. For these examinations, I 123 orthoiodohippurate is preferred and most widely used. The results on patients with chronic renal insufficiency, including urologic and posttransplantation patients, are reported. Whereas the method is of clinical significance in evaluating posttransplantation complications and in assessing individual kidney function preoperatively in urology, as well as in monitoring therapeutic effects in the early period of renal disease, it is of limited diagnostic value in chronic renal insufficiency. In this latter regard, clinical and laboratory examinations are of primary importance. (author)

  19. Assessment of structured physical examination skills training using a retro-pre-questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piryani, Rano Mal; Shankar, P Ravi; Piryani, Suneel; Thapa, Trilok Pati; Karki, Balmansingh; Khakurel, Mahesh Prasad; Bhandary, Shital

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of physical examination skills (PES) training is very rarely assessed using the "post-then-pre" approach. In this study, a retro-pre-questionnaire was used to study the effect of structured physical examination skills training (SPEST) imparted to second-year undergraduate medical students. KIST Medical College (KISTMC) affiliated to Tribhuvan University Nepal admitted its first batch of MBBS students in November 2008. The university curriculum recommends the involvement of Medicine and Surgery Departments in PES training, but the methods for teaching and assessment are not well defined. KISTMC has made training more structured and involved the Medicine, Surgery, Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Orthopaedics, ENT, Ophthalmology, Paediatrics, and Family Medicine Departments. SPEST includes the teaching/learning of basic PES for 210 minutes once a week for 28 weeks. Self-assessment is done by using a retro-pre-questionnaire at the end of the last session of training, and these data are analysed using SPSS. Out of 100 students, 98 participated in the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE); 82 completed the retro-pre-questionnaire. Forty-six skills representing various systems were selected for inclusion in the retro-pre-questionnaire from among the many skills taught in different departments. The average perceived skills score (maximum score, 46×4=184) before training was 15.9 and increased to 116.5 after training. The increase was statistically significant upon the application of a paired t-test. The students perceived that their level of skills improved after the training. The retro-pre- instrument seems to be useful for assessing the learners' self-reported changes in PES after training if a large number of skills need to be assessed. However, it should be noted that although a retro-pre-questionnaire may reveal valuable information, it is not a substitute for an objective measure or gold standard.

  20. Intracranial Hemorrhage Revealing Pseudohypoparathyroidism as a Cause of Fahr Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Swami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudohypoparathyroidism is an infrequently encountered disease. It is one of the causes of Fahr syndrome which also is a rare clinical entity caused by multiple diseases. A 4-year-old man hospitalized for sudden onset left hemiparesis and hypertension was diagnosed to have right thalamic and midbrain hemorrhage on plain CT scan of the head which also revealed co-existent extensive intracranial calcifications involving the basal ganglia and cerebellum bilaterally. General physical examination revealed features of Albright hereditary osteodystrophy, goitre, hypertension, left hemiparesis, and signs of cerebellar dysfunction. Laboratory findings suggested hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia along with high TSH, low FT4, low FT3, and high anti-TPO antibody. Though bilateral intracranial calcifications are usually encountered as an incidental radiological finding in the CT scan of brain, in this case, the patient admitted for thalamic and midbrain hemorrhage was on investigation for associated intracranial calcification, and goitre was also found to have coexisting pseudohypoparathyroidism and autoimmune hypothyroidism.

  1. Remembering pain after surgery: a longitudinal examination of the role of pain catastrophizing in children's and parents' recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Melanie; Rabbitts, Jennifer A; Tai, Gabrielle G; Palermo, Tonya M

    2015-05-01

    Children's memories for pain play a powerful role in their pain experiences. Parents' memories may also influence children's pain experiences, by influencing parent-child interactions about pain and children's cognitions and behaviors. Pain catastrophizing of children and parents has been implicated as a factor underlying memory biases; however, this has not been empirically examined. The current longitudinal study is the first to examine the role of pain catastrophizing of children and parents in the development of their pain memories after surgery. Participants were 49 youth (32 girls) aged 10 to 18 years undergoing major surgery and their parents. One week before surgery, children and parents completed measures of pain catastrophizing. Two weeks after surgery (the acute recovery period), children and parents completed measures of child pain intensity and affect. Two to 4 months after surgery, children's and parents' memories of child pain intensity and affect were elicited. Hierarchical linear regression models revealed that over and above covariates, parent catastrophizing about their child's pain (magnification, rumination) accounted for a significant portion of variance in children's affective and parents' sensory pain memories. Although parent catastrophizing had a direct effect on pain memories, mediation analyses revealed that child catastrophizing (helplessness) indirectly influenced children's and parents' pain memories through the child's postoperative pain experience. Findings highlight that aspects of catastrophic thinking about child pain before surgery are linked to distressing pain memories several months later. Although both child and parent catastrophizing influence pain memory development, parent catastrophizing is most influential to both children's and parents' evolving cognitions about child pain.

  2. Examining the Interplay Among Family, Culture, and Latina Teen Suicidal Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Gulbas, Lauren E.; Zayas, Luis H.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we explored the relationships among culture, family, and attempted suicide by U.S. Latinas. We analyzed qualitative interviews conducted with Latina teen suicide attempters (n = 10) and their parents. We also incorporated data collected from adolescents with no reported history of self-harm (n = 10) and their parents to examine why some individuals turned to suicide under similar experiences of cultural conflict. Our results revealed that Latina teens who attempted suicide la...

  3. Surgical anatomy of the pyramidal lobe and its significance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In diffuse thyroid diseases, the lobes were always pathologically involved and significantly longer. Conclusion. Since the pyramidal lobe is a normal component of the thyroid gland, of varying position and size, with pathological changes in benign and malignant diseases, it should always be examined during thyroid surgery ...

  4. K -shell decomposition reveals hierarchical cortical organization of the human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahav, Nir; Ksherim, Baruch; Havlin, Shlomo; Ben-Simon, Eti; Maron-Katz, Adi; Cohen, Reuven

    2016-01-01

    In recent years numerous attempts to understand the human brain were undertaken from a network point of view. A network framework takes into account the relationships between the different parts of the system and enables to examine how global and complex functions might emerge from network topology. Previous work revealed that the human brain features ‘small world’ characteristics and that cortical hubs tend to interconnect among themselves. However, in order to fully understand the topological structure of hubs, and how their profile reflect the brain’s global functional organization, one needs to go beyond the properties of a specific hub and examine the various structural layers that make up the network. To address this topic further, we applied an analysis known in statistical physics and network theory as k-shell decomposition analysis. The analysis was applied on a human cortical network, derived from MRI/DSI data of six participants. Such analysis enables us to portray a detailed account of cortical connectivity focusing on different neighborhoods of inter-connected layers across the cortex. Our findings reveal that the human cortex is highly connected and efficient, and unlike the internet network contains no isolated nodes. The cortical network is comprised of a nucleus alongside shells of increasing connectivity that formed one connected giant component, revealing the human brain’s global functional organization. All these components were further categorized into three hierarchies in accordance with their connectivity profile, with each hierarchy reflecting different functional roles. Such a model may explain an efficient flow of information from the lowest hierarchy to the highest one, with each step enabling increased data integration. At the top, the highest hierarchy (the nucleus) serves as a global interconnected collective and demonstrates high correlation with consciousness related regions, suggesting that the nucleus might serve as a

  5. It's complicated: Examining smokers' relationships with their cigarette brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah E; Coleman, Blair N; Schmitt, Carol L

    2016-12-01

    Despite increased restrictions and taxes, decreased social acceptability, and widespread awareness of the harms of tobacco use, many in the U.S. continue to smoke cigarettes. Thus, understanding smokers' attitudes and motivations remains an important goal. This study adopts the consumer psychology concept of brand relationship to provide a new lens through which to examine smokers' attitudes about their cigarette use. Twelve focus groups (N = 143) were conducted with adult cigarette smokers from September to November, 2013. Using a semistructured moderator guide and "top of mind" worksheets, the discussion examined participants' attitudes toward (a) their own cigarette brand and (b) tobacco companies in general. Data were coded and analyzed following principles of thematic analysis. Adult smokers reported positive attitudes toward their cigarette brand, as their brand was strongly associated with the positive experience of smoking (e.g., satisfying craving and relief from withdrawal). In contrast, thinking about tobacco companies in general evoked negative reactions, revealing overwhelmingly negative attitudes toward the industry. Findings reveal a complicated relationship between smokers and their cigarette brand: simultaneously embracing their cigarettes and rejecting the industry that makes them. Taken together, these data suggest smokers maintain largely positive brand relationships, diverting negative feelings about smoking toward the tobacco industry. Finally, they highlight the synergy between branding and the subjective smoking experience, whereby positive brand attitudes are reinforced through withdrawal relief. Ultimately, this information could inform a more complete understanding of how smokers interpret and respond to tobacco communications, including marketing from their brand. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Hyperthyroidism and Graves' disease: Is an ultrasound examination needed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshminarayanan Varadhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of our study was to assess the limitation of clinical examination in determining the morphology of thyroid gland in patients with hyperthyroidism and its implications. Methods: A retrospective analysis of consecutive patients with hyperthyroidism seen in a tertiary endocrine clinic were analyzed. Sub-analysis was performed on patients with proven Graves' disease. Results: Of the 133 patients included in this study with hyperthyroidism, 60 (45% patients had significant nodularity on ultrasound (US. However, only 67% of these were identified on clinical examination. In patients with confirmed Graves' disease (n = 73, the discordance between US and clinical examination was very similar (18 of 30 patients, 60%. Conclusion: US should form an essential part of the evaluation of hyperthyroidism as the morphology of thyroid gland could be variable and nodules in these glands would also need to be appropriately investigated. This would also significantly influence decision-making and appropriate immediate and follow-up management plan.

  7. A Case-Control Study and Meta-Analysis Reveal BDNF Val66Met Is a Possible Risk Factor for PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Bruenig

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a debilitating condition that develops in some people after exposure to a traumatic event. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is highly expressed in the mammalian brain and is thought to be involved in learning and memory processes. A nonsynonymous polymorphism in the BDNF gene, rs6265 (Val66Met, has been hypothesised to be associated with PTSD. Association studies examining the Val66Met polymorphism and PTSD have been inconclusive, likely due to the variability in type of trauma exposure analysed. Vietnam veterans (n=257 screened for PTSD and controlled for trauma exposure were genotyped for BDNF Val66Met. The association was not significant so we incorporated our data into a meta-analysis to obtain greater statistical power. A comprehensive search of more than 1237 articles revealed eight additional studies suitable for meta-analysis (n=3625. A random-effects meta-analysis observed a potential protective factor of the Val/Val genotype. After removing two studies with violation of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, findings for the Val/Val genotype reached significance. Subgroup analyses confirmed a trend for this finding. Limitations of some studies that inform this meta-analysis include poorly screened controls and a lack of examination of population stratification. Effectively designed studies should inform this line of research in the future.

  8. A Generational Examination of Instructional Facebook Use and the Effects on Perceived Instructor Immediacy, Credibility and Student Affective Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enskat, Aaron; Hunt, Stephen K.; Hooker, John F.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined Millennial student perceptions of use of social networking, specifically Facebook, by instructors. Two independent variables were examined: instructor age (Baby Boomer or Millennial) and use of Facebook (utilising a course group site through the service versus not using the service at all). Results revealed that Baby Boomer…

  9. Risk assessment of medical exposure in X-ray examinations of children

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    I. G. Shatsky

    2017-01-01

    that the risk dependence on the sex and age is significant. For a number of examinations ,the gender dependence prevail; higher risks are intrinsic to female. For others examinations, a strong dependence on the age was revealed, such as an increase of the risk for the middle age group of children (10-14 years compared to the younger and older groups.

  10. Death, Catastrophe, and the Significance of Tragedy

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    Jennifer Ballengee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This NANO note will examine the tension between representation, memorial, and the catastrophe of death that emerges in the space of tragedy, as the problem arises in two quite different works: Oedipus at Colonus, a fairly typical fifth-century Greek tragedy, and Falling Man, Don DeLillo’s novel that, in its attempt to address the events of 9/11, reflects in form and subject matter many of Aristotle’s terms of tragic representation. It is not the intent of this note to engage with the recent proliferation of work in “performance theory.” Rather than being concerned with an imagined exchange between audience and actor, this study examines how the supplementary relationship of gesture and speech in tragedy disrupts the public/private distinction, and how this articulation effects and enables the public memorialization of death. Thus, this paper will consider the representation of death as an event whose catastrophic, and somewhat mysterious, collision of the public and the private lends it its tragic significance.

  11. Leukoaraiosis significantly worsens driving performance of ordinary older drivers.

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    Kimihiko Nakano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leukoaraiosis is defined as extracellular space caused mainly by atherosclerotic or demyelinated changes in the brain tissue and is commonly found in the brains of healthy older people. A significant association between leukoaraiosis and traffic crashes was reported in our previous study; however, the reason for this is still unclear. METHOD: This paper presents a comprehensive evaluation of driving performance in ordinary older drivers with leukoaraiosis. First, the degree of leukoaraiosis was examined in 33 participants, who underwent an actual-vehicle driving examination on a standard driving course, and a driver skill rating was also collected while the driver carried out a paced auditory serial addition test, which is a calculating task given verbally. At the same time, a steering entropy method was used to estimate steering operation performance. RESULTS: The experimental results indicated that a normal older driver with leukoaraiosis was readily affected by external disturbances and made more operation errors and steered less smoothly than one without leukoaraiosis during driving; at the same time, their steering skill significantly deteriorated. CONCLUSIONS: Leukoaraiosis worsens the driving performance of older drivers because of their increased vulnerability to distraction.

  12. Systematic and Engaging Early Literacy: Examining the Effects of Paraeducator Implemented Early Literacy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Gary E.; Hall-Kenyon, Kendra M.; Culatta, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effect of explicit and engaging supplemental early literacy instruction on at-risk kindergarten children's literacy development. Sixty-three kindergarten-aged children who had been ranked in the lowest 20th percentile on basic literacy skills participated in this study (38 treatment). Results reveal that children who…

  13. Health Examination by PET. (1) Cancer Examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, Koichi

    2006-01-01

    Cancer examination by positron emission tomography (PET) started in Japan in 1994 and has been rapidly popularized. This paper describes author's experience of the examination in his hospital along the recent Japanese guideline for the PET cancer examination. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is intravenously injected at 3.7 (or 4.6, for diabetic patients) MBq/kg after 4-5 hr fasting and 40 min later, imaging is conducted with additional delayed scan at 2 hr to reduce the possible false positive. Image is taken by the equipment with PET-specific camera, of which quality assurance (QA) is maintained according to the guideline, and 3D image is constructed by the ordered subset expectation maximization method. Number of examinees during 4.5 years are 18,210 (M/F=9,735/8,475), and 236 (1.3%), together with use of other test measures like ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), biochemical marker and occult blood as well, are found to have cancer of thyroid, large bowel, lung, breast and others. The false negative rate by PET alone is 78/236 (33%) for cancer. PET examination has problems of image reading and specificity of organs, and tasks of informed consent, test cost, increased exchange of information and radiation exposure. However, PET cancer examination will be established as a routine diagnostic tool when the accumulated evidence of early cancer detection is shown useful for improving the survival rate and for reducing the medicare cost. (T.I.)

  14. How frequent are eating disturbances in the population? Norms of the eating disorder examination-questionnaire.

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    Anja Hilbert

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q is a self-report instrument assessing the specific psychopathology and key behaviors of eating disorders. This study sought to determine the prevalence of eating disturbances, and to provide psychometric properties and norms of the EDE-Q, in a representative German population sample. METHODS: A total of 2520 individuals (1166 men, 1354 women were assessed with the EDE-Q. RESULTS: Eating disorder psychopathology was higher and most key behaviors were more prevalent in women than in men. Psychopathology declined with age ≥65 in both sexes, and showed a peak at age 55-64 in men. Overall, 5.9% of the women and 1.5% of the men revealed eating disturbances. The prevalence of eating disturbances decreased with age in women and was significantly higher in obese than in normal-weight individuals. Psychometric analyses showed favorable item characteristics. Internal consistencies of EDE-Q composite scores were ≥.80 for women and ≥.70 for men. The factor structure of the EDE-Q was partially reproduced. Sex- and age-specific population norms are reported. DISCUSSION: This study provides population norms of the EDE-Q for both sexes and across the age range, demonstrates demographic variations in symptomatology, and reveals satisfactory psychometric properties. Further research is warranted on eating disturbances in older adults.

  15. Post-irradiation examinations of THERMHET composite fuels for transmutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noirot, J.; Desgranges, L.; Chauvin, N.; Georgenthum, V.

    2003-07-01

    The thermal behaviour of composite targets dedicated to minor actinide transmutation was studied using THERMHET (thermal behaviour of heterogeneous fuel) irradiation in the SILOE reactor. Three inert matrix fuel designs were tested (macro-mass, jingle and microdispersion) all with a MgAl 2O 4 spinel inert matrix and around 40% weight of UO 2 to simulate minor actinide inclusions. The post-irradiation examinations led to a new interpretation of the temperature measurement by thermocouples located in the central hole of the pellets. A major change in the micro-dispersed structure was detected. The examinations enabled us to understand the behaviour of the spinel during the different stages of irradiation. They revealed an amorphisation at low temperature and then a nano re-crystallisation at high temperature of the spinel in the micro-dispersed case. These results, together with those obtained in the MATINA irradiation of an equivalent structure, show the importance of the irradiation temperature on spinel behaviour.

  16. Post-irradiation examinations of THERMHET composite fuels for transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noirot, J. E-mail: jnoirot@cea.fr; Desgranges, L.; Chauvin, N.; Georgenthum, V

    2003-07-01

    The thermal behaviour of composite targets dedicated to minor actinide transmutation was studied using THERMHET (thermal behaviour of heterogeneous fuel) irradiation in the SILOE reactor. Three inert matrix fuel designs were tested (macro-mass, jingle and microdispersion) all with a MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel inert matrix and around 40% weight of UO{sub 2} to simulate minor actinide inclusions. The post-irradiation examinations led to a new interpretation of the temperature measurement by thermocouples located in the central hole of the pellets. A major change in the micro-dispersed structure was detected. The examinations enabled us to understand the behaviour of the spinel during the different stages of irradiation. They revealed an amorphisation at low temperature and then a nano re-crystallisation at high temperature of the spinel in the micro-dispersed case. These results, together with those obtained in the MATINA irradiation of an equivalent structure, show the importance of the irradiation temperature on spinel behaviour.

  17. Post-irradiation examinations of THERMHET composite fuels for transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noirot, J.; Desgranges, L.; Chauvin, N.; Georgenthum, V.

    2003-01-01

    The thermal behaviour of composite targets dedicated to minor actinide transmutation was studied using THERMHET (thermal behaviour of heterogeneous fuel) irradiation in the SILOE reactor. Three inert matrix fuel designs were tested (macro-mass, jingle and microdispersion) all with a MgAl 2 O 4 spinel inert matrix and around 40% weight of UO 2 to simulate minor actinide inclusions. The post-irradiation examinations led to a new interpretation of the temperature measurement by thermocouples located in the central hole of the pellets. A major change in the micro-dispersed structure was detected. The examinations enabled us to understand the behaviour of the spinel during the different stages of irradiation. They revealed an amorphisation at low temperature and then a nano re-crystallisation at high temperature of the spinel in the micro-dispersed case. These results, together with those obtained in the MATINA irradiation of an equivalent structure, show the importance of the irradiation temperature on spinel behaviour

  18. Gonadal dose in routine diagnostic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, J.; Koen, J.A.; Akkermans, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    Gonadal doses caused by stray radiation produced during radiodiagnostic investigations were measured with thermoluminescent dosemeters in various hospitals in the Netherlands. Significantly different gonadal doses were measured depending upon the hospital where the investigations were carried out. The mean dose of an examination type in one country can only be determined with any accuracy if measurements in a large number of hospitals are performed

  19. Adaptation to High Ethanol Reveals Complex Evolutionary Pathways.

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    Karin Voordeckers

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tolerance to high levels of ethanol is an ecologically and industrially relevant phenotype of microbes, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this complex trait remain largely unknown. Here, we use long-term experimental evolution of isogenic yeast populations of different initial ploidy to study adaptation to increasing levels of ethanol. Whole-genome sequencing of more than 30 evolved populations and over 100 adapted clones isolated throughout this two-year evolution experiment revealed how a complex interplay of de novo single nucleotide mutations, copy number variation, ploidy changes, mutator phenotypes, and clonal interference led to a significant increase in ethanol tolerance. Although the specific mutations differ between different evolved lineages, application of a novel computational pipeline, PheNetic, revealed that many mutations target functional modules involved in stress response, cell cycle regulation, DNA repair and respiration. Measuring the fitness effects of selected mutations introduced in non-evolved ethanol-sensitive cells revealed several adaptive mutations that had previously not been implicated in ethanol tolerance, including mutations in PRT1, VPS70 and MEX67. Interestingly, variation in VPS70 was recently identified as a QTL for ethanol tolerance in an industrial bio-ethanol strain. Taken together, our results show how, in contrast to adaptation to some other stresses, adaptation to a continuous complex and severe stress involves interplay of different evolutionary mechanisms. In addition, our study reveals functional modules involved in ethanol resistance and identifies several mutations that could help to improve the ethanol tolerance of industrial yeasts.

  20. SNP analyses of growth factor genes EGF, TGFβ-1, and HGF reveal haplotypic association of EGF with autism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoda, Takao; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Yamada, Kazuo; Thanseem, Ismail; Anitha, Ayyappan; Suda, Shiro; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Hattori, Eiji; Toyota, Tomoko; Miyachi, Taishi; Iwata, Yasuhide; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Matsuzaki, Hideo; Kawai, Masayoshi; Sekine, Yoshimoto; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Sugihara, Gen-ichi; Ouchi, Yasuomi; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Takei, Nori; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Mori, Norio

    2007-01-01

    Autism is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosed in early childhood. Growth factors have been found to play a key role in the cellular differentiation and proliferation of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is detected in several regions of the developing and adult brain, where, it enhances the differentiation, maturation, and survival of a variety of neurons. Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) isoforms play an important role in neuronal survival, and the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has been shown to exhibit neurotrophic activity. We examined the association of EGF, TGFβ1, and HGF genes with autism, in a trio association study, using DNA samples from families recruited to the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange; 252 trios with a male offspring scored for autism were selected for the study. Transmission disequilibrium test revealed significant haplotypic association of EGF with autism. No significant SNP or haplotypic associations were observed for TGFβ1 or HGF. Given the role of EGF in brain and neuronal development, we suggest a possible role of EGF in the pathogenesis of autism

  1. Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and Clinical Impairment Assessment (CIA): clinical norms and functional impairment in male and female adults with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, Camilla Lindvall; Stedal, Kristin; Rø, Øyvind

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to collect clinical normative data for the Clinical Impairment Assessment questionnaire (CIA) and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) from adult patients with eating disorders (EDs). This study also examined unique contributions of eating disorder (ED) symptoms on levels of ED-related impairment. A sample of 667 patients, 620 females and 47 males, was recruited from six specialist centres across Norway. The majority of the sample (40.3%) was diagnosed with eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS), 34.5% had bulimia nervosa (BN), and 25.2% were diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (AN). There were significant differences for global EDE-Q and CIA scores between females and males. In the female sample, significant differences were found on several EDE-Q sub-scales between the AN and BN group, and between the AN and EDNOS group. No significant differences were found between the diagnostic groups on the CIA. In the male sample, no significant differences were found between diagnostic groups on the EDE-Q or CIA. A multiple regression analysis revealed that 46.8% of the variance in impairment as measured by the CIA was accounted for by ED symptoms. Body mass index, Eating Concern, Shape/Weight Concern, and binge eating served as significant, unique predictors of impairment. The results from the present study contribute to the interpretation of EDE-Q and CIA scores in ED samples.

  2. Significance of bone marrow histology in the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younis, U.; Saba, K.; Aijaz, J.; Bukhari, M.H.; Naeem, S.

    2011-01-01

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease. The precise diagnosis requires a careful morphological examination of a well pre-pared bone marrow aspirate along with flow cytometry and genetic analysis wherever required. Traditionally, bone marrow biopsy has not been considered an essential diagnostic modality for AML. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic as well as prognostic significance of bone marrow histology in patient with acute myeloid leukemia. Forty (40) patients of AML underwent a bone marrow examination including an aspirate and a trephine biopsy. Air dried films of peripheral blood and aspirates were fixed in methanol and stained with Giemsa. The following cytochemical stains were also applied: PAS, Myeloperoxidase, Non specific esterase, Chloracetate Esterase and Acid Phosphatase, and SBB. Bone marrow biopsy specimens were obtained from post superior iliac crest with a manual trephine and were processed in plastic after decalcification. Results: In all the cases there were better diagnostic clues through histological examination of bone marrow particularly in assessing the cellularity, degree of fibrosis, extent of blast infiltration, percentage of inflammatory cells, dysplastic changes and residual haematopoiesis. All these features were better noted in histological examination of core biopsy. The histological examination provided information additional to that provided by aspirate smears about the bone marrow changes in AML and suggested that some of the features may also have pro-gnostic significance in addition to diagnostic importance. (author)

  3. Simultaneous profiling of seed-associated bacteria and fungi reveals antagonistic interactions between microorganisms within a shared epiphytic microbiome on Triticum and Brassica seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links, Matthew G; Demeke, Tigst; Gräfenhan, Tom; Hill, Janet E; Hemmingsen, Sean M; Dumonceaux, Tim J

    2014-01-01

    In order to address the hypothesis that seeds from ecologically and geographically diverse plants harbor characteristic epiphytic microbiota, we characterized the bacterial and fungal microbiota associated with Triticum and Brassica seed surfaces. The total microbial complement was determined by amplification and sequencing of a fragment of chaperonin 60 (cpn60). Specific microorganisms were quantified by qPCR. Bacteria and fungi corresponding to operational taxonomic units (OTU) that were identified in the sequencing study were isolated and their interactions examined. A total of 5477 OTU were observed from seed washes. Neither total epiphytic bacterial load nor community richness/evenness was significantly different between the seed types; 578 OTU were shared among all samples at a variety of abundances. Hierarchical clustering revealed that 203 were significantly different in abundance on Triticum seeds compared with Brassica. Microorganisms isolated from seeds showed 99–100% identity between the cpn60 sequences of the isolates and the OTU sequences from this shared microbiome. Bacterial strains identified as Pantoea agglomerans had antagonistic properties toward one of the fungal isolates (Alternaria sp.), providing a possible explanation for their reciprocal abundances on both Triticum and Brassica seeds. cpn60 enabled the simultaneous profiling of bacterial and fungal microbiota and revealed a core seed-associated microbiota shared between diverse plant genera. PMID:24444052

  4. Is primary care access to CT brain examinations effective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benamore, R.E.; Wright, D.; Britton, I.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Primary care access to CT head examinations could enable common neurological conditions to be managed within primary care. Outcome data from the first 8 years of a local service were used to identify effective referral criteria. METHODS: Primary care head CT results from 1 March 1995 to 31 October 2003 were categorized as normal, incidental or significant findings. Normal reports were cross-referenced for referral to secondary care. Case notes with incidental or significant CT findings were reviewed for secondary care attendance and outcome. RESULTS: Records of 1403/1645 CT head examinations (85%) were available for review. Of these 1403, 951 (67.8%) returned normal findings, 317 (22.6%) incidental findings and 135 (9.6%) significant findings. The commonest indication for referral was investigation of headaches (46.6%). Of the total 533 patients under 50 years of age, 13 (2.4%) yielded significant findings and all 13 showed other features in addition to headache. Of 314 cases presenting with focal neurology, 83 (26.4%) showed significant findings. 314 patients were referred from primary to secondary care. 189 had normal scans and 74 had findings described as incidental. 60% of secondary care referrals were for normal CT scans. In patients with focal neurology, 90 of 314 were referred, allowing 71% to be managed in primary care. Yield was also 0% for headaches, dizziness, visual disturbance or nausea and vomiting. CONCLUSION: Primary care access to CT brain examinations is effective for patients with focal neurology, neurological symptoms or a known malignancy, but not for patients aged less than 50 years, or with uncomplicated headaches, dizziness or diplopia

  5. Is primary care access to CT brain examinations effective?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benamore, R.E. [Department of Radiology, Pilgrim Hospital, Boston (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: rachelbenamore@doctors.org.uk; Wright, D. [Department of Radiology, Pilgrim Hospital, Boston (United Kingdom); Britton, I. [Department of Radiology, Pilgrim Hospital, Boston (United Kingdom)

    2005-10-01

    AIM: Primary care access to CT head examinations could enable common neurological conditions to be managed within primary care. Outcome data from the first 8 years of a local service were used to identify effective referral criteria. METHODS: Primary care head CT results from 1 March 1995 to 31 October 2003 were categorized as normal, incidental or significant findings. Normal reports were cross-referenced for referral to secondary care. Case notes with incidental or significant CT findings were reviewed for secondary care attendance and outcome. RESULTS: Records of 1403/1645 CT head examinations (85%) were available for review. Of these 1403, 951 (67.8%) returned normal findings, 317 (22.6%) incidental findings and 135 (9.6%) significant findings. The commonest indication for referral was investigation of headaches (46.6%). Of the total 533 patients under 50 years of age, 13 (2.4%) yielded significant findings and all 13 showed other features in addition to headache. Of 314 cases presenting with focal neurology, 83 (26.4%) showed significant findings. 314 patients were referred from primary to secondary care. 189 had normal scans and 74 had findings described as incidental. 60% of secondary care referrals were for normal CT scans. In patients with focal neurology, 90 of 314 were referred, allowing 71% to be managed in primary care. Yield was also 0% for headaches, dizziness, visual disturbance or nausea and vomiting. CONCLUSION: Primary care access to CT brain examinations is effective for patients with focal neurology, neurological symptoms or a known malignancy, but not for patients aged less than 50 years, or with uncomplicated headaches, dizziness or diplopia.

  6. MicroRNA expression data reveals a signature of kidney damage following ischemia reperfusion injury.

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    Michael D Shapiro

    Full Text Available Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI is a leading cause of acute kidney injury, a common problem worldwide associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We have recently examined the role of microRNAs (miRs in renal IRI using expression profiling. Here we conducted mathematical analyses to determine if differential expression of miRs can be used to define a biomarker of renal IRI. Principal component analysis (PCA was combined with spherical geometry to determine whether samples that underwent renal injury as a result of IRI can be distinguished from controls based on alterations in miR expression using our data set consisting of time series measuring 571 miRs. Using PCA, we examined whether changes in miR expression in the kidney following IRI have a distinct direction when compared to controls based on the trajectory of the first three principal components (PCs for our time series. We then used Monte Carlo methods and spherical geometry to assess the statistical significance of these directions. We hypothesized that if IRI and control samples exhibit distinct directions, then miR expression can be used as a biomarker of injury. Our data reveal that the pattern of miR expression in the kidney following IRI has a distinct direction based on the trajectory of the first three PCs and can be distinguished from changes observed in sham controls. Analyses of samples from immunodeficient mice indicated that the changes in miR expression observed following IRI were lymphocyte independent, and therefore represent a kidney intrinsic response to injury. Together, these data strongly support the notion that IRI results in distinct changes in miR expression that can be used as a biomarker of injury.

  7. Genetic patterns in European geometrid moths revealed by the Barcode Index Number (BIN system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Hausmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The geometrid moths of Europe are one of the best investigated insect groups in traditional taxonomy making them an ideal model group to test the accuracy of the Barcode Index Number (BIN system of BOLD (Barcode of Life Datasystems, a method that supports automated, rapid species delineation and identification. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study provides a DNA barcode library for 219 of the 249 European geometrid moth species (88% in five selected subfamilies. The data set includes COI sequences for 2130 specimens. Most species (93% were found to possess diagnostic barcode sequences at the European level while only three species pairs (3% were genetically indistinguishable in areas of sympatry. As a consequence, 97% of the European species we examined were unequivocally discriminated by barcodes within their natural areas of distribution. We found a 1:1 correspondence between BINs and traditionally recognized species for 67% of these species. Another 17% of the species (15 pairs, three triads shared BINs, while specimens from the remaining species (18% were divided among two or more BINs. Five of these species are mixtures, both sharing and splitting BINs. For 82% of the species with two or more BINs, the genetic splits involved allopatric populations, many of which have previously been hypothesized to represent distinct species or subspecies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study confirms the effectiveness of DNA barcoding as a tool for species identification and illustrates the potential of the BIN system to characterize formal genetic units independently of an existing classification. This suggests the system can be used to efficiently assess the biodiversity of large, poorly known assemblages of organisms. For the moths examined in this study, cases of discordance between traditionally recognized species and BINs arose from several causes including overlooked species, synonymy, and cases where DNA barcodes revealed

  8. Breast Cancer Epidemiology of the Working-Age Female Population Reveals Significant Implications for the South Korean Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Se Kyung; Lee, Jeong Eon; Kim, Seok Won; Nam, Seok Jin; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Ahn, Jin-Seok; Park, Won; Yu, Jonghan; Park, Yeon Hee

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the economic loss due to the diagnosis of breast cancer within the female South Korean working-age population. A population-based cost analysis was performed for cancer-related diagnoses between 1999 and 2014, using respective public government funded databases. Among the five most common cancers, breast cancer mortality was strongly associated with the growth in gross domestic product between 1999 and 2014 (R=0.98). In the female population, breast cancer represented the greatest productivity loss among all cancers, which was a consequence of the peak in the incidence of breast cancer during mid-working age in the working-age population, in addition to being the most common and fastest growing cancer among South Korean women. Our study shows that breast cancer not only represents a significant disease burden for individual patients, but also contributes a real, nonnegligible loss in productivity in the South Korean economy.

  9. Children’s experience of going through an acute radiographic examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Björkman, B.; Almqvist, L.; Sigstedt, B.; Enskär, K.

    2012-01-01

    Children’s experience of radiographic examinations remains largely unexplored, although most radiographers examine children on a daily basis. In order to provide the high quality care that meets the needs of patients it was considered important to undertake research focused upon the patients’ experience of radiographic practice. The aim of the study was to investigate children’s experiences undergoing a radiographic examination for a suspected fracture. Inclusion criteria were Swedish-speaking children between 3 and 15 years of age who were submitted for a radiographic examination with an acute condition of the upper or lower extremity. Patients were informed of the study and together with the escorting parent or relative asked for consent to participate. During the examination the child was videotaped and immediately after, the child was interviewed in a nearby facility. The interview contained open-ended questions and was conducted while watching the videotape together with the child and their parent or relative and the researcher. Qualitative content analysis was used in analyzing the collected data. The analysis resulted in two categories – “feeling uncomfortable” and “feeling confident”. The subcategories contained in these categories were “pain in relation to injury and examination”, “the waiting time is strenuous”, “worries for the future and consequences of the injury”, “confidence in parental presence”, “confidence in radiographic staff and examination procedure”, and finally “recognition entails familiarity”. The results revealed that for the younger children, the experience of undergoing an acute radiographic examination was associated with pain and anxiety, but for the older children, the anxiety was more connected to whether the injury had caused a fracture and any anticipated future consequences or complications.

  10. Accelerating the transit time of barium sulphate suspensions in small bowel examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, David S.; Roger, Mark D.; Allan, Paul L.; Murchison, John T.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether hyperosmolar and effervescent agents proven individually to accelerate transit time in the barium small bowel examination have an additive effect when combined, surpassing that of either agent alone. Materials and methods: One hundred and forty-nine patients were randomised to four groups. Three hundred milliliters of barium sulphate alone was given to the first group. Fifteen milliliters of iodinated hyperosmolar contrast agent (Gastrografin, meglumine/sodium diatrizoate, Schering) was given in addition to barium sulphate to the second group while six packets of effervescent granules (Carbex, Ferring) were added for the third group. The final group was given a combination of both additives and barium sulphate. The time taken following ingestion for the contrast column to reach the caecum, as assessed by frequent interval fluoroscopy, was recorded. A subgroup of 32 patients were selected randomly from the four groups, 8 from each and assessed for quality of examination. Statistical assessments were made using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: One hundred and nineteen patients were analysed after exclusions. The addition of accelerant to barium sulphate, both individually and in combination significantly reduced the small bowel transit time (p < 0.001). No significant difference existed between the additives when used with barium alone. The combined group had significantly faster transit times compared to the hyperosmolar group (p = 0.02). Differences between combined and effervescent groups tended towards significance (p = 0.09). No significant difference existed between groups when examination quality was assessed. Conclusion: These results suggest that the addition of combined effervescent and hyperosmolar agents to the barium suspension may significantly shorten the small bowel transit time without adversely affecting examination quality. This has implications for patient acceptability of the examination as well as

  11. Examining the Effects of Reflective Journals on Students’ Growth Mindset: A Case Study of Tertiary Level EFL Students in the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinda Hussein

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study reported in this paper was to examine the effects of reflective journals on students' learning, how they foster students' growth mindset, and the students' own perceptions of the journaling process. To this end, 15 students enrolled in an introduction to nutrition course participated in writing reflective journals about their eating habits with respect to the course content. This research used a qualitative instrumental case study design and the required data were collected from students' journals and focus group interviews. A content analysis approach was employed to examine the journals and this indicated that reflective writing improves learners' conceptual understanding of the course, promotes growth mindset, and helps shed light on the students' inner thoughts. The finding of this study revealed that reflective journal writing has a significant impact on EFL learners' understanding of concepts and on fostering growth mindset.

  12. Metabonomics-based analysis of Brachyspira pilosicoli's response to tiamulin reveals metabolic activity despite significant growth inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roy, Caroline Ivanne; Passey, Jade Louise; Woodward, Martin John; La Ragione, Roberto Marcello; Claus, Sandrine Paule

    2017-06-01

    Pathogenic anaerobes Brachyspira spp. are responsible for an increasing number of Intestinal Spirochaetosis (IS) cases in livestock against which few approved treatments are available. Tiamulin is used to treat swine dysentery caused by Brachyspira spp. and recently has been used to handle avian intestinal spirochaetosis (AIS). The therapeutic dose used in chickens requires further evaluation since cases of bacterial resistance to tiamulin have been reported. In this study, we evaluated the impact of tiamulin at varying concentrations on the metabolism of B. pilosicoli using a 1 H-NMR-based metabonomics approach allowing the capture of the overall bacterial metabolic response to antibiotic treatment. Based on growth curve studies, tiamulin impacted bacterial growth even at very low concentration (0.008 μg/mL) although its metabolic activity was barely affected 72 h post exposure to antibiotic treatment. Only the highest dose of tiamulin tested (0.250 μg/mL) caused a major metabolic shift. Results showed that below this concentration, bacteria could maintain a normal metabolic trajectory despite significant growth inhibition by the antibiotic, which may contribute to disease reemergence post antibiotic treatment. Indeed, we confirmed that B. pilosicoli remained viable even after exposition to the highest antibiotic dose. This paper stresses the need to ensure new evaluation of bacterial viability post bacteriostatic exposure such as tiamulin to guarantee treatment efficacy and decrease antibiotic resistance development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. In vitro bioassays reveal that additives are significant contributors to the toxicity of commercial household pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Merwe, Jason P; Neale, Peta A; Melvin, Steven D; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2018-06-01

    Pesticides commonly used around households can contain additives of unknown concentrations and toxicity. Given the likelihood of these chemicals washing into urban waterways, it is important to understand the effects that these additives may have on aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to compare the toxicity of commercially available household pesticides to that of the active ingredient(s) alone. The toxicity of five household pesticides (three herbicides and two insecticides) was investigated using a bacterial cytotoxicity bioassay and an algal photosynthesis bioassay. The commercial products were up to an order of magnitude more toxic than the active ingredient(s) alone. In addition, two commercial products with the same listed active ingredients in the same ratio had a 600× difference in potency. These results clearly demonstrate that additives in commercial formulations are significant contributors to the toxicity of household pesticides. The toxicity of pesticides in aquatic systems is therefore likely underestimated by conventional chemical monitoring and risk assessment when only the active ingredients are considered. Regulators and customers should require more clarity from pesticide manufacturers about the nature and concentrations of not only the active ingredients, but also additives used in commercial formulations. In addition, monitoring programmes and chemical risk assessments schemes should develop a structured approach to assessing the toxic effects of commercial formulations, including additives, rather than simply those of the listed active ingredients. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Brain drain? An examination of stereotype threat effects during training on knowledge acquisition and organizational effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, James A

    2017-02-01

    Stereotype threat describes a situation in which individuals are faced with the risk of upholding a negative stereotype about their subgroup based on their actions. Empirical work in this area has primarily examined the impact of negative stereotypes on performance for threatened individuals. However, this body of research seldom acknowledges that performance is a function of learning-which may also be impaired by pervasive group stereotypes. This study presents evidence from a 3-day self-guided training program demonstrating that stereotype threat impairs acquisition of cognitive learning outcomes for females facing a negative group stereotype. Using hierarchical Bayesian modeling, results revealed that stereotyped females demonstrated poorer declarative knowledge acquisition, spent less time reflecting on learning activities, and developed less efficiently organized knowledge structures compared with females in a control condition. Findings from a Bayesian mediation model also suggested that despite stereotyped individuals "working harder" to perform well, their underachievement was largely attributable to failures in learning to "work smarter." Building upon these empirical results, a computational model and computer simulation is also presented to demonstrate the practical significance of stereotype-induced impairments to learning on the development of an organization's human capital resources and capabilities. The simulation results show that even the presence of small effects of stereotype threat during learning/training have the potential to exert a significant negative impact on an organization's performance potential. Implications for future research and practice examining stereotype threat during learning are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Examining parents' ratings of middle-school students' academic self-regulation using principal axis factoring analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peggy P; Cleary, Timothy J; Lui, Angela M

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of a parent rating scale, the Self-Regulation Strategy Inventory: Parent Rating Scale (SRSI-PRS), using a sample of 451 parents of sixth- and seventh-grade middle-school students. Principal axis factoring (PAF) analysis revealed a 3-factor structure for the 23-item SRSI-PRS: (a) Managing Behavior and Learning (α = .92), (b) Maladaptive Regulatory Behaviors (α = .76), and (c) Managing Environment (α = .84). The majority of the observed relations between these 3 subscales, and the SRSI-SR, student motivation beliefs, and student mathematics grades were statistically significant and in the small to medium range. After controlling for various student variables and motivation indices of parental involvement, 2 SRSI-PRS factors (Managing Behavior and Learning, Maladaptive Regulatory Behaviors) reliably predicted students' achievement in their mathematics course. This study provides initial support for the validity and reliability of the SRSI-PRS and underscores the advantages of obtaining parental ratings of students' SRL behaviors. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. The significance of belief and expectancy within the spiritual healing encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, D P

    1995-07-01

    Historically, traditional cultures recognized the importance of belief and expectancy within the healing encounter and created complex rituals and ceremonies designed to elicit or foster the expectancy and participation of both the healer and patient, as well as the community as a whole. This holistic approach to health care was a fundamental component in the spiritual healing rituals of virtually all traditional native cultures. The focus of the current study was to assess the impact of healer and patient expectations on mental and physical health parameters following a spiritual healing session. A pre-post methodological design which incorporated extensive psychophysiological health outcome measures along with independent medical diagnoses was utilized. The study was conducted in a northern California suburb of Marin County utilizing an American-born spiritual healer trained in the Philippines. The results indicated that there was a statistically significant difference between the pre-treatment and post-treatment scores for all fourteen dependent variables examined. The data also demonstrated a significant difference between the high versus low expectancy subjects for both patient and healer groups, as well as a significant relationship between high expectancy in patients and healer and the effectiveness of the spiritual healing encounter. The results of the study therefore suggest that high healer and patient expectancy may be important elements which can serve as both predictors as well as facilitators of the healing process. The degree of bonding or communication between the healer and patient was postulated as an important factor in this regard. Due to the fact that a majority of the conditions reported (75%) were organic disorders that would not commonly disappear within the 3 week time frame of the study, the significant results obtained suggest that spiritual healing in combination with traditional allopathic medicine may have the potential to be an

  17. [Evolution of worker's health in the social security medical examination in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto Júnior, Afrânio Gomes; Braga, Ana Maria Cheble Bahia; Roselli-Cruz, Amadeu

    2012-10-01

    In order to analyze the practice of the social security medical examination starting from the introduction of the worker's health paradigms, data was gathered on the granting of social security disability benefits to assess worker illness based on notification of work-related accidents in the cement industries of Rio de Janeiro. From 2007 to 2009 there was only one notification, which involved a worker handling toxic waste instead of the energy matrix. However, the analysis revealed sources and mechanisms of illness overlooked in the social security medical examination, which is still focused on the one-cause-only logic of occupational medicine. To achieve the worker's health paradigms, changes are required to alter the way of conducting the social security medical examination, by re-establishing partnerships, training human resources, adopting epidemiological indicators, as well as setting and assessing social security goals that transcend the mere granting of disability benefits.

  18. Brazilian young dental practitioners' use and acceptance of digital radiographic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovaris, Karla; De Faria Vasconcelos, Karla; Do Nascimento, Eduarda Helena Leandro; Oliveira, Matheus Lima; Freitas, Deborah Queiroz; Haiter-Neto, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use and acceptance of digital radiographic examinations by Brazilian dental practitioners in daily practice and to evaluate the advances that have occurred over the past 5 years. Dental practitioners enrolled in extension courses at the Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, Brazil, responded to a self-administered questionnaire in the years 2011 and 2015. They were asked about sociodemographic factors and their knowledge and use of digital radiographic examinations. Descriptive analysis was performed, as well as the chi-square and Fisher exact tests, with a significance level of 5% (α=0.05). A total of 181 participants responded to the questionnaire in the years 2011 and 2015. Most of the respondents worked in private practice, had graduated within the last 5 years, and were between 20 and 30 years old. In 2011, 55.6% of respondents reported having ever used digital radiographic examinations, while in 2015 this number increased significantly to 85.4% (p<.0001), out of which 71.4% preferred it to conventional images. Moreover, 21.4% of respondents reported having used digital radiographic examinations for more than 3 years. A significant increase in use of intraoral digital radiography (p=0.0316) was observed in 2015. In both years, image quality and high cost were indicated, respectively, as the main advantage and disadvantage of digital radiographic examinations. This study showed that digital radiology has become more common in Brazil over the past 5 years. Most of the Brazilian dental practitioners evaluated in 2015 used digital radiographic examinations

  19. Brazilian young dental practitioners' use and acceptance of digital radiographic examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovaris, Karla; de Faria Vasconcelos, Karla; do Nascimento, Eduarda Helena Leandro; Oliveira, Matheus Lima; Freitas, Deborah Queiroz; Haiter-Neto, Francisco

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use and acceptance of digital radiographic examinations by Brazilian dental practitioners in daily practice and to evaluate the advances that have occurred over the past 5 years. Dental practitioners enrolled in extension courses at the Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, Brazil, responded to a self-administered questionnaire in the years 2011 and 2015. They were asked about sociodemographic factors and their knowledge and use of digital radiographic examinations. Descriptive analysis was performed, as well as the chi-square and Fisher exact tests, with a significance level of 5% (α=0.05). A total of 181 participants responded to the questionnaire in the years 2011 and 2015. Most of the respondents worked in private practice, had graduated within the last 5 years, and were between 20 and 30 years old. In 2011, 55.6% of respondents reported having ever used digital radiographic examinations, while in 2015 this number increased significantly to 85.4% (p<.0001), out of which 71.4% preferred it to conventional images. Moreover, 21.4% of respondents reported having used digital radiographic examinations for more than 3 years. A significant increase in use of intraoral digital radiography (p=0.0316) was observed in 2015. In both years, image quality and high cost were indicated, respectively, as the main advantage and disadvantage of digital radiographic examinations. This study showed that digital radiology has become more common in Brazil over the past 5 years. Most of the Brazilian dental practitioners evaluated in 2015 used digital radiographic examinations.

  20. Sociocultural factors associated with breast self-examination among Iranian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Abolhasan Naghibi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the ways to fight breast cancer and reduce deaths hazard due to early detection is one of early detection programs in women's breast self- examination. Examining breast by oneself increase individuals knowledge of her breast health that helps in detecting breast cancer early. Different cultural, social, family and individual factors play roles in women's behavior about breast self- examination applying PEN-3 model in this study is to analyze factors influencing on breast self-examination. The research is a descriptive- analytical, cross-sectional type. Research community consists of women at fertility age of 20-49 in sari. Sample volume is 415 individuals and sampling method is cluster method. In this study, a 50-item questionnaire based on PEN-3 was used. Questions were answered by Likert scoring method. Questionnaire was gathered by personal presence of questioners. Data was analyzed via descriptive statistics and logistic regression methods. Based on the study findings, the most significant positive behaviors related to perceptual factors included effectiveness of disease background in family and relatives (73%, believing in breast self- examination for pursuing health (93% and the most important negative behaviors were shyness and modesty (83.9% and increased worry (78.9%. The most remarkable positive behaviors regarding enabling factors covered the skill to do breast examination oneself (35.2%, the availability of health and therapeutic centers (80.7% and the most significant negative behavior was being busy and lack of time (85.3%. The most important positive behavior about nurturing factors included family consent (68.9% and the most significant negative one was the inappropriate treatment of health and therapeutic personnel (61.8%. In this study, there is a meaningful difference between employment ages, education with PEN-3 model constituents. Since behaviors due to enabling and nurturing perceptual factors have been important in

  1. Ontogeny of hepatic energy metabolism genes in mice as revealed by RNA-sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen J Renaud

    Full Text Available The liver plays a central role in metabolic homeostasis by coordinating synthesis, storage, breakdown, and redistribution of nutrients. Hepatic energy metabolism is dynamically regulated throughout different life stages due to different demands for energy during growth and development. However, changes in gene expression patterns throughout ontogeny for factors important in hepatic energy metabolism are not well understood. We performed detailed transcript analysis of energy metabolism genes during various stages of liver development in mice. Livers from male C57BL/6J mice were collected at twelve ages, including perinatal and postnatal time points (n = 3/age. The mRNA was quantified by RNA-Sequencing, with transcript abundance estimated by Cufflinks. One thousand sixty energy metabolism genes were examined; 794 were above detection, of which 627 were significantly changed during at least one developmental age compared to adult liver. Two-way hierarchical clustering revealed three major clusters dependent on age: GD17.5-Day 5 (perinatal-enriched, Day 10-Day 20 (pre-weaning-enriched, and Day 25-Day 60 (adolescence/adulthood-enriched. Clustering analysis of cumulative mRNA expression values for individual pathways of energy metabolism revealed three patterns of enrichment: glycolysis, ketogenesis, and glycogenesis were all perinatally-enriched; glycogenolysis was the only pathway enriched during pre-weaning ages; whereas lipid droplet metabolism, cholesterol and bile acid metabolism, gluconeogenesis, and lipid metabolism were all enriched in adolescence/adulthood. This study reveals novel findings such as the divergent expression of the fatty acid β-oxidation enzymes Acyl-CoA oxidase 1 and Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a, indicating a switch from mitochondrial to peroxisomal β-oxidation after weaning; as well as the dynamic ontogeny of genes implicated in obesity such as Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 and Elongation of very long chain fatty

  2. The Level of Difficulty and Discrimination Power of the Basic Knowledge and Skills Examination (EXHCOBA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Backhoff Escudero

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The Basic Knowledge and Skills Examination (EXHCOBA is one of the few great-scale examinations in Mexico which has been publishing its psychometric parameters.  In this paper we describe the  item analysis results, regarding the exam’s difficulty level and discrimination power.  Results show that most of the items have a medium difficulty and a high discrimination power.  They also reveal that the mathematics items have better discrimination power levels than the ones which belong to social science.

  3. Examining Citizens’ Contact to Local Public Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Bente

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective - This study aims to explore the communication process within local public administration as a determinant of citizens` satisfaction. Prior work - Several authors had examined if having contact with certain service providers will affect people’s attitudes toward the service quality, but the researchers have not focused yet on the effect of citizens` contact to local authorities on satisfaction. Approach - This research seeks to address this field using an exploratory approach. Following a quantitative methodological approach, a survey was applied to a sample of 380 citizens within Western Romanian. Findings - By analyzing data it was possible to determine citizen satisfaction and to assess its relationship with costumer contact. In addition it was revealed that in Crisana Region city hall is the most frequented local public institution. Implications – The results showed a negative effect of frequency of access to local authorities on overall customer satisfaction. The effect of citizens` contact to local authorities received less attention from the academic researchers, as a need in the literature is to expand this field. Value - This research is the first to specifically examine the contact to local authorities and the effect of frequency of addressing on citizen satisfaction within Crisana Region.

  4. Examining weight concern and delay discounting in adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamotharan, Sneha; Lange, Krista; Ramos, Ashley; Fields, Sherecce

    2016-04-01

    Pediatric obesity is a growing public health concern that contributes to high rates of negative long-term physical and mental health outcomes. Research focused on identifying risk for pediatric obesity has linked delay discounting, or an inclination for immediate rewards, as well as weight concern to individuals with greater Body Mass Index (BMI). The current study seeks to fill a void in the literature by examining how these two variables interact to promote higher BMI in female adolescents. Adolescent (n=60) females between the ages of 13-19years (mage=17.45, SD=1.74) of age completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and the Delay Discounting Questionnaire. A mediation model examined whether delay discounting accounted for the relationship between weight concern and BMI. Results indicate that in the current study weight concern was negatively related to delay discounting and delay discounting was negatively related to BMI. The overall model revealed that a partial mediation occurred [b=1.28, t(60)=4.92, pconcerns contribute to greater BMI. Nevertheless, the results indicate that prevention and interventions should identify females with high levels of both weight concern and impulsivity as an increased risk for experiencing pediatric obesity and long-term negative health outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Modified double contrast-enhanced examination of the stomach of adipose patients after vertical gastroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raissaki, M.T.; Prassopoulos, P.; Hatjidakis, A.A.; Christodoulakis, M.; Melissas, J.; Gourtsoyiannis, N.C.

    1995-01-01

    The study reported covers 28 patients who were examined once by radiology before surgery, and twice after surgery. The first post-surgery examination was done on days 5-7, the second during the 4th until 6th month after surgery. For the first examination, water-soluble contrast agent was initially applied, then barium containing contrast agent. The second examination was done by modified double contrast technique. The most frequent, pre-surgery findings revealed gastro-esophageal reflux in 13 patients. The first post-surgery control detected a somastenosis in 2 patients, while the second control examination detected complications of various nature in 11 patients and gastro-esophageal reflux in 5 patients. In 6 patients, discrepancy between clinical and radiological findings was stated. The pouch size did not correlate with the frequency of complications, or with the body-to-mass index decrease. The examination method proposed in this article yields pre-surgery information on the anatomy of the stomach, more accurate dewscription of post-surgery complications, and better evaluation of the antireflux effect of the vertical gastroplasty. (orig.) [de

  6. A Simple Exercise Reveals the Way Students Think about Scientific Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruebush, Laura; Sulikowski, Michelle; North, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Scientific modeling is an integral part of contemporary science, yet many students have little understanding of how models are developed, validated, and used to predict and explain phenomena. A simple modeling exercise led to significant gains in understanding key attributes of scientific modeling while revealing some stubborn misconceptions.…

  7. Neurolinguistic Programming Examined: Imagery, Sensory Mode, and Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, Donald K.; Daniell, Jennifer

    1984-01-01

    Tested Neurolinguistic Programming (NLP) assumptions by examining intercorrelations among response times of students (N=64) for extracting visual, auditory, and kinesthetic information from alphabetic images. Large positive intercorrelations were obtained, the only outcome not compatible with NLP. Good visualizers were significantly better in…

  8. Aetiology and pathogenesis of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in cats by histological examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessely, Marlis; Reese, Sven; Schnabl-Feichter, Eva

    2017-06-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine histologically intact and ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments in cats, in order to evaluate whether degeneration is a prerequisite for rupture. Methods We performed a histological examination of 50 intact and 19 ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments in cadaver or client-owned cats, respectively, using light microscopy. Cats with stifle pathology were further divided into five age groups in order to investigate the relationship of changes in the ligament with lifespan. Cats with ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments were divided into two groups according to medical history (with presumed history of trauma or without any known history of trauma) in order to investigate the relationship of ligament rupture with a traumatic event. Data from 200 healthy cats were selected randomly and reviewed to make a statistical comparison of cats with and without cranial cruciate ligament rupture (reference group). Results On histological examination, the intact cranial cruciate ligaments showed basic parallel arrangement of the collagen fibres, with no relation to age. While cats of a more advanced age showed fibrocartilage in the middle of the cranial cruciate ligament - a likely physiological reaction to compression forces over the lifespan - degenerative changes within the fibrocartilage were absent in all cases, regardless of age or rupture status. Cats suffering from cranial cruciate ligament rupture without history of trauma were significantly older than cats in the reference group. Conclusions and relevance This study showed that differentiation of fibrocartilage in the middle of the cranial cruciate ligament is likely a physiological reaction to compressive forces and not a degenerative change associated with greater risk of rupture in advanced age. This finding in cats is distinct from the known decrease in differentiation of fibrocartilage in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture. Furthermore, the histological examination

  9. Adaptive Genetic Divergence Despite Significant Isolation-by-Distance in Populations of Taiwan Cow-Tail Fir (Keteleeria davidiana var. formosana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Kai-Ming; Chang, Chung-Te; Chung, Jeng-Der; Chiang, Yu-Chung; Hwang, Shih-Ying

    2018-01-01

    Double digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq) is a tool for delivering genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for non-model organisms useful in resolving fine-scale population structure and detecting signatures of selection. This study performs population genetic analysis, based on ddRADseq data, of a coniferous species, Keteleeria davidiana var. formosana , disjunctly distributed in northern and southern Taiwan, for investigation of population adaptive divergence in response to environmental heterogeneity. A total of 13,914 SNPs were detected and used to assess genetic diversity, F ST outlier detection, population genetic structure, and individual assignments of five populations (62 individuals) of K. davidiana var. formosana . Principal component analysis (PCA), individual assignments, and the neighbor-joining tree were successful in differentiating individuals between northern and southern populations of K. davidiana var. formosana , but apparent gene flow between the southern DW30 population and northern populations was also revealed. Fifteen of 23 highly differentiated SNPs identified were found to be strongly associated with environmental variables, suggesting isolation-by-environment (IBE). However, multiple matrix regression with randomization analysis revealed strong IBE as well as significant isolation-by-distance. Environmental impacts on divergence were found between populations of the North and South regions and also between the two southern neighboring populations. BLASTN annotation of the sequences flanking outlier SNPs gave significant hits for three of 23 markers that might have biological relevance to mitochondrial homeostasis involved in the survival of locally adapted lineages. Species delimitation between K. davidiana var. formosana and its ancestor, K. davidiana , was also examined (72 individuals). This study has produced highly informative population genomic data for the understanding of population

  10. Adaptive Genetic Divergence Despite Significant Isolation-by-Distance in Populations of Taiwan Cow-Tail Fir (Keteleeria davidiana var. formosana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Ming Shih

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Double digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq is a tool for delivering genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers for non-model organisms useful in resolving fine-scale population structure and detecting signatures of selection. This study performs population genetic analysis, based on ddRADseq data, of a coniferous species, Keteleeria davidiana var. formosana, disjunctly distributed in northern and southern Taiwan, for investigation of population adaptive divergence in response to environmental heterogeneity. A total of 13,914 SNPs were detected and used to assess genetic diversity, FST outlier detection, population genetic structure, and individual assignments of five populations (62 individuals of K. davidiana var. formosana. Principal component analysis (PCA, individual assignments, and the neighbor-joining tree were successful in differentiating individuals between northern and southern populations of K. davidiana var. formosana, but apparent gene flow between the southern DW30 population and northern populations was also revealed. Fifteen of 23 highly differentiated SNPs identified were found to be strongly associated with environmental variables, suggesting isolation-by-environment (IBE. However, multiple matrix regression with randomization analysis revealed strong IBE as well as significant isolation-by-distance. Environmental impacts on divergence were found between populations of the North and South regions and also between the two southern neighboring populations. BLASTN annotation of the sequences flanking outlier SNPs gave significant hits for three of 23 markers that might have biological relevance to mitochondrial homeostasis involved in the survival of locally adapted lineages. Species delimitation between K. davidiana var. formosana and its ancestor, K. davidiana, was also examined (72 individuals. This study has produced highly informative population genomic data for the understanding of

  11. Disease-specific direct-to-consumer advertising of pharmaceuticals: An examination of endorser type and gender effects on consumers' attitudes and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutada, Nilesh S; Rollins, Brent L

    2015-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising is still a controversial topic for pharmaceutical manufacturers' and researchers, and while numerous studies have examined the DTC phenomenon, little research has examined the effect of gender, particularly gender of the endorser and consumer. The objective of this research was to assess the impact of the endorser (celebrity vs. expert vs. non-celebrity) and gender - both gender of the endorser and gender of the consumer - on consumers' attitudes and behaviors in response to a print disease-specific direct-to-consumer advertisement. Using Qualtrics consumer panel, data were obtained for 514 US adults (age 18 years and above) who demonstrated at least minimal symptoms of depression and need for monitoring based on the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) score. Data were analyzed using a 3 (Endorser Type: Celebrity/Expert/Non-Celebrity) × 2 (Endorser Gender: Male/Female) × 2 (Consumer Gender: Male/Female) full factorial between subjects multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and necessary univariate analysis. Only the type of the endorser (celebrity vs. expert vs. non-celebrity) used in the ad had a significant main effect on the dependent variables. Further univariate analyses revealed that, of the several dependent variables, endorser type had a significant influence only on attitude towards the ad, attention paid to the ad, and endorser credibility, with gender being non-significant in all cases. Expert endorser generated significantly more favorable levels of attitude towards the ad, and endorser credibility compared to the non-celebrity endorser. Celebrity endorser attracted more consumer attention towards the ad and generated favorable endorser credibility perceptions compared to the non-celebrity endorser. However, celebrity and expert endorsers did not significantly differ from each other on the abovementioned ad effectiveness variables. Lastly, endorser gender and consumer gender did not have a significant influence

  12. [Research reveals a market for a veterinary behaviour clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonckheer-Sheehy, Valerie; Endenburg, Nienke

    2009-11-01

    An enquiry into the requirement of a university veterinary behaviour clinic in The Netherlands revealed that there is a clear call for such a service. The specific demands and wishes of first line practicing veterinarians and companion animal owners were investigated. The research revealed that veterinarians are regular confronted with behaviour problems in companion animals and that they are willing to refer these cases to the University. They also expressed their need for access to continuing professional development opportunities in the field of veterinary behavioural medicine (which is something that most veterinary behaviour clinics associated with veterinary faculties provide). The demand from companion animal owners was also examined. It can be concluded that a large number of them had animals with behaviour problems and that they were willing to seek veterinary advice on these matters. In response to the above mentioned demands the University of Utrecht will open a veterinary behaviour clinic, providing high quality service for animals, their owners and the referring veterinarians. This service will be based on sound scientific practice and delivered by both veterinarians specialised in this field and recognised animal behaviour therapists.

  13. Temporomandibular joint examination reviewed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Guarda Nardini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ it’s a joint closely related to the skull base, the spine, and the jaws; all these anatomical structures must be taken in consideration when evaluating pain involving the tmj. In order to detect patients affected by pathology or dysfunctions of the tmj, physical examination is of great value in orienting the diagnosis. Inspection must consider the symmetry of the body, the dental status and the type of occlusion. Palpation is a way to assess contractiont involving the muscles of the masticatory system and of the neck. Auscultation, based on articular noise provides means to determine whether we are dealing with degeneration of the joint or a dislocation of the intrarticular disc. In order to confirm the diagnosis obtained with the clinical evaluation, it’s useful to perform imaging techniques as opt, tomography and TC of the tmj and electromyokineosiography – index of the mandibular functionality and of the muscles status. MRI and dynamic MRI are among the non invasive exams which give the greatest amount of information, regarding the disc position and the joint degeneration. Arthroscopy is an invasive technique that allows early diagnosis of degeneration and is helpful to reveal early inflammatory processes of the joint.

  14. Radiologic examination and measurement of the wrist and distal radio-ulnar joint. New aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toernvall, A.H.; Ekenstam, F. af; Hagert, C.G.; Irstam, L.

    Following fractures of the distal radius, a relatively high incidence of complications is caused by malalignment in the distal radio-ulnar (DRU) joint; recent anatomic and clinical investigations have shown a congruity of that joint to be of significant importance for restoring the function of the wrist. The radius forms a moderately arched bone, which moves around the ulna in pronation and supination. Biomechanically, the ulna may be regarded as the pillar around which the radius moves. In an anatomic investigation of 5 arm specimens, we have shown that the maximum cartilage contact in the DRU joint between the ulna head and the distal radius occurs in the neutral rotation position. A proposed routine examination method of the wrist and forearm includes a true antero-posterior and a lateral projection of the radius and the ulna, performed with the forearm and wrist in a neutral rotation, a neutral wrist deviation and with the elbow angled 90 degrees. Such an examination implies a standardized and reproducible method. In a radioanatomic investigation, a series of 50 healthy wrists and forearms were examined. A simple measuring technique is presented, applicable to the DRU joint and wrist favouring the ulna as the bone through which a reproducible long axis of the forearm/wrist may be drawn. It is suggested that the length of the radius should be judged relative to the ulna. Ulnar head inclination and radio-ulnar angle are new concepts, being major characteristics of the DRU joint. These angles of the right and left wrist were equal and no difference was found between the sexes. Minor alterations of the distal radius may be revealed when estimating these angles.

  15. PA positioning significantly reduces testicular dose during sacroiliac joint radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekis, Nejc [Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mc Entee, Mark F., E-mail: mark.mcentee@ucd.i [School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin 4 (Ireland); Stegnar, Peter [Jozef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2010-11-15

    Radiation dose to the testes in the antero-posterior (AP) and postero-anterior (PA) projection of the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) was measured with and without a scrotal shield. Entrance surface dose, the dose received by the testicles and the dose area product (DAP) was used. DAP measurements revealed the dose received by the phantom in the PA position is 12.6% lower than the AP (p {<=} 0.009) with no statistically significant reduction in image quality (p {<=} 0.483). The dose received by the testes in the PA projection in SIJ imaging is 93.1% lower than the AP projection when not using protection (p {<=} 0.020) and 94.9% lower with protection (p {<=} 0.019). The dose received by the testicles was not changed by the use of a scrotal shield in the AP position (p {<=} 0.559); but was lowered by its use in the PA (p {<=} 0.058). Use of the PA projection in SIJ imaging significantly lowers, the dose received by the testes compared to the AP projection without significant loss of image quality.

  16. Training directionally selective motion pathways can significantly improve reading efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Teri

    2004-06-01

    This study examined whether perceptual learning at early levels of visual processing would facilitate learning at higher levels of processing. This was examined by determining whether training the motion pathways by practicing leftright movement discrimination, as found previously, would improve the reading skills of inefficient readers significantly more than another computer game, a word discrimination game, or the reading program offered by the school. This controlled validation study found that practicing left-right movement discrimination 5-10 minutes twice a week (rapidly) for 15 weeks doubled reading fluency, and significantly improved all reading skills by more than one grade level, whereas inefficient readers in the control groups barely improved on these reading skills. In contrast to previous studies of perceptual learning, these experiments show that perceptual learning of direction discrimination significantly improved reading skills determined at higher levels of cognitive processing, thereby being generalized to a new task. The deficits in reading performance and attentional focus experienced by the person who struggles when reading are suggested to result from an information overload, resulting from timing deficits in the direction-selectivity network proposed by Russell De Valois et al. (2000), that following practice on direction discrimination goes away. This study found that practicing direction discrimination rapidly transitions the inefficient 7-year-old reader to an efficient reader.

  17. Zinc release from Schaffer collaterals and its significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Atsushi; Nakajima, Satoko; Fuke, Sayuri; Sakurada, Naomi; Minami, Akira; Oku, Naoto

    2006-02-15

    On the basis of the evidence that approximately 45% of Schaffer collateral boutons are zinc-positive, zinc release from Schaffer collaterals and its action were examined in hippocampal slices. When zinc release from Schaffer collaterals was examined using ZnAF-2, a membrane-impermeable zinc indicator, ZnAF-2 signal in the stratum radiatum of the CA1 was increased by tetanic stimuli at 100 Hz for 1s, suggesting that zinc is released from Schaffer collaterals in a calcium- and impulse-dependent manner. An in vivo microdialysis experiment indicated that the perfusion with 10 microM zinc significantly decreases extracellular glutamate concentration in the CA1. When tetanic stimuli at 100 Hz for 5s were delivered to the dentate granule cells, the increase in calcium signal in the stratum radiatum of the CA1, as well as in the stratum lucidum of the CA3, was attenuated by addition of 10 microM zinc, while enhanced by addition of 1mM CaEDTA, a membrane-impermeable zinc chelator. The increase in calcium signal in the CA1, in which Schaffer collateral synapses exist, during delivery of tetanic stimuli at 100 Hz for 1s to the Schaffer collateral-commissural pathway was also significantly enhanced by addition of 1mM CaEDTA. These results suggest that zinc released from Schaffer collaterals suppressively modulates presynaptic and postsynaptic calcium signaling in the CA1, followed by the suppression of glutamate release.

  18. Dimensions of adult attachment are significantly associated with specific affective temperament constellations in a Hungarian university sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Andras; Papp, Barbara; Gonda, Xenia; Dome, Peter; Rihmer, Zoltan

    2016-02-01

    Related to emotion regulation and mental health, adult attachment and affective temperaments are relevant research topics of contemporary psychiatry and clinical psychology. However, to date, only one study investigated the relationship between these two constructs. Thus, we aimed to further reveal adult attachment's association with affective temperaments. Affective temperament and adult attachment dimensions of 1469 Hungarian university students were assessed with self-report measures (Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa and San Diego autoquestionnaire and Experiences in Close Relationships Scale, respectively). Age and measured variables were compared between genders with ANOVAs. Associations between attachment dimensions and affective temperaments were examined with Pearson's correlations and partial correlations; the moderation effect of age and gender on these relationships was tested with PROCESS macro. Using Fisher r-to-z transformation, we also compared our results with the findings of the previous study. Cohen's ds were used to report effect size and Cronbach's alphas were computed as indices of internal reliability. Significant correlations were found between attachment dimensions and affective temperaments. Correlations were especially robust between attachment anxiety and depressive, cyclothymic and anxious temperaments. Contrasted with the results of the previous study, hyperthymic temperament was negatively related to attachment avoidance and anxious temperament was significantly more strongly correlated with attachment anxiety in our study. We used a previous version of the adult attachment measure. Our sample differed from the target sample in several ways. Participants were not screened for mental disorders. Findings highlight that adult attachment dimensions are significantly associated with affective temperaments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Children’s pain and distress while undergoing an acute radiographic examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Björkman, B.; Nilsson, S.; Sigstedt, B.; Enskär, K.

    2012-01-01

    Pain has been highlighted as a main concern for children in conjunction with an acute radiographic examination. The aim of this study was to further investigate children’s pain and distress while undergoing an acute radiographic examination. The study comprised 29 participants with an age range of 5–15 years who were injured and submitted to an acute radiographic examination of the upper or lower extremity when the question at issue was fracture. The Coloured Analogue Scale (CAS) and the Facial Affective Scale (FAS) were used as self-reporting scales to measure the children’s pain and distress. The Face, Legs, Activity, Cry and Consolability Behavioural scale (FLACC) was used as an observation tool to assess behaviours associated with pain in children. Descriptive statistics were used when analysing the scores, and the results showed that children experience pain and distress in conjunction with a radiographic examination after an injury. Spearman’s correlation was used to compare variables, and significant correlations were obtained between the self-reported pain and the observed pain behaviour. Fischer’s Exact test was used to compare groups, and when using the cut-off 3.0 on the self-reporting scale no significant correlation was found concerning the pain reported by children diagnosed with and without a fracture. No significant correlations were found concerning the self-reported distress and pain either, regardless of whether it was a first-time visit and whether a parent was near during the examination.

  20. The effectiveness of immediate feedback during the objective structured clinical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, R V; Rivington, R N; Calcutt, L E; Hart, I R

    1989-03-01

    Using eight different physical examination or technical stations, 400 examinations were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of immediate feedback during the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). The test group comprised 50 medical students who underwent a standard 4-minute examination followed by 2 minutes of feedback. Immediately following feedback the students repeated an identical 4-minute examination scored by the same examiners. The control group consisted of 50 students from the same class who underwent an identical testing sequence, but instead of receiving feedback, they were instructed to continue their examinations for an additional 2 minutes before repeating the stations. Simple repetition of the task did not significantly improve score (mean increase 2.0%, NS). Extending the testing period from 4 to 6 minutes resulted in a small but significant increase in score (mean 6.7%, P less than 0.001). However, there was a much larger increase in the scores obtained following 2 minutes of immediate feedback compared to pre-feedback performance (mean 26.3%, P less than 0.0001). The majority of students and examiners felt that feedback, as administered in this study, was valuable both as a learning and teaching experience. Short periods of immediate feedback during an OSCE are practical and can improve competency in the performance of criterion-based tasks, at least over the short term. In addition, such feedback provides students with valuable self-assessment that may stimulate further learning.

  1. The primary empty sella in children and its significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokiguchi, Susumu; Tsuchiya, Toshiaki; Ito, Jusuke

    1983-01-01

    The primary empty sella has been thought to be rare in children; only a few children have been described in the literature. The majority of such cases have been associated with congenital anomalies, optic atrophies, or cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrheas. We now report four cases of the primary empty sella in children. Two of the patients(Case 1 and Case 3) were prepubescent and had primary generalized epilepsy, while Case 2 and Case 4 complained of attacks of vascular headache and peri-orbital pain respectively. None of them showed any clinical evidence of endocrine disturbance. Ophthalmological examination revealed no abnormalities. The association of the primary empty sella with such disorders as primary epilepsy, attacks of vascular headache, and peri-orbital pain were thought to be almost certainly coincidental; the possibility was suggested that the empty sella might be present in children as an anatomical variant or as an acquired process in a certain percentage of them. (author)

  2. Clinical significance of subchondral cortical signal intensities in osteoarthritis of knee joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Eijiro; Torisu, Takehiko; Nakamura, Taro; Masumi, Shogo [Oita Medical Univ., Hazama (Japan); Tomari, Kazuhide; Asao, Tunenori; Takagi, Kazuhiro

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the abnormal intensity in medial femoral condyle on MR imaging in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Eighty knees of fifty-eight patients with osteoarthritis of the knee were underwent plain radiography and MR imaging. According to the extension of the abnormal low intensity on T{sub 1} weighted images in medial femoral chondyle, all cases were classified into four types (no exist: 30.0%, small: 30.0%, middle: 30.0%, large: 10.0%). The extension of the abnormal low intensity was closely related to radiographic stage and femoral tibial angle. After radiological examination, in thirteen knees, the biopsy of the abnormal low intensity area on T{sub 1} weighted MR imaging was performed at the time of total knee arthroplasty. Pathological examination revealed that the causative factor of abnormal low intensity on T{sub 1} weighted MR imaging in the medial femoral condyle was trabecular hypertrophy. Our results suggest that the abnormal low intensity on T{sub 1} weighted MR imaging reflects the loading force. (author)

  3. Clinical significance of subchondral cortical signal intensities in osteoarthritis of knee joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Eijiro; Torisu, Takehiko; Nakamura, Taro; Masumi, Shogo; Tomari, Kazuhide; Asao, Tunenori; Takagi, Kazuhiro.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the abnormal intensity in medial femoral condyle on MR imaging in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Eighty knees of fifty-eight patients with osteoarthritis of the knee were underwent plain radiography and MR imaging. According to the extension of the abnormal low intensity on T 1 weighted images in medial femoral chondyle, all cases were classified into four types (no exist: 30.0%, small: 30.0%, middle: 30.0%, large: 10.0%). The extension of the abnormal low intensity was closely related to radiographic stage and femoral tibial angle. After radiological examination, in thirteen knees, the biopsy of the abnormal low intensity area on T 1 weighted MR imaging was performed at the time of total knee arthroplasty. Pathological examination revealed that the causative factor of abnormal low intensity on T 1 weighted MR imaging in the medial femoral condyle was trabecular hypertrophy. Our results suggest that the abnormal low intensity on T 1 weighted MR imaging reflects the loading force. (author)

  4. Trajectories of depressive symptoms and self-esteem in Latino youths: examining the role of gender and perceived discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiders, Katharine H; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Derlan, Chelsea L

    2013-05-01

    The current longitudinal study examined changes in Latino adolescents' (N = 323, M age = 15.31 years) self-esteem and depressive symptoms across the high school years. Differences in trajectories were examined by gender and perceived ethnic discrimination. Findings revealed that self-esteem increased across high school for both male adolescents and female adolescents. Depressive symptoms, however, showed differences by gender, with female adolescents reporting a decline in depressive symptoms across high school and male adolescents reporting no change. Perceived ethnic discrimination emerged as an important predictor of male adolescents' self-esteem in early high school and predicted changes in self-esteem growth for male adolescents and female adolescents across the high school years. Perceived ethnic discrimination also emerged as a significant predictor of adolescents' depressive symptoms in early high school but did not relate to changes in symptoms across time. Together, findings suggest that Latino adolescents experience positive changes in psychological adjustment across this developmental time. Experiences of ethnic discrimination, however, have the potential of placing adolescents at risk for maladjustment over time. These findings inform our understanding of Latino youth development and point to the importance of early high school years in youths' psychological functioning.

  5. A comparison of published methods of calculation of defect significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingham, T.; Harrison, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents some of the results obtained in a round-robin calculational exercise organised by the OECD Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI). The exercise was initiated to examine practical aspects of using documented elastic-plastic fracture mechanics methods to calculate defect significance. The extent to which the objectives of the exercise were met is illustrated using solutions to 'standard' problems produced by UKAEA and CEGB using the methods given in ASME XI, Appendix A, BSI PD6493, and the CEGB R/H/R6 Document. Differences in critical or tolerable defect size defined using these procedures are examined in terms of their different treatments and reasons for discrepancies are discussed. (author)

  6. SNP analyses of growth factor genes EGF, TGF{beta}-1, and HGF reveal haplotypic association of EGF with autism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyoda, Takao; Thanseem, Ismail; Kawai, Masayoshi; Sekine, Yoshimoto [Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Anitha, Ayyappan; Suda, Shiro [Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Yamada, Kazuo [Laboratory of Molecular Psychiatry, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Saitama (Japan); Tsujii, Masatsugu [Faculty of Sociology, Chukyo University, Toyota, Aichi (Japan); [The Osaka-Hamamatsu Joint Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu (Japan); Iwayama, Yoshimi; Hattori, Eiji; Toyota, Tomoko; Yoshikawa, Takeo [Laboratory of Molecular Psychiatry, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Saitama (Japan); Miyachi, Taishi; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Sugihara, Gen-ichi; Matsuzaki, Hideo [The Osaka-Hamamatsu Joint Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu (Japan); Iwata, Yasuhide; Suzuki, Katsuaki [Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Mori, Norio [Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); [The Osaka-Hamamatsu Joint Research Center for Child Mental Development, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University (Japan); Ouchi, Yasuomi [The Osaka-Hamamatsu Joint Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu (Japan); [The Positron Medical Center, Hamamatsu Medical Center, Hamamatsu (Japan); Sugiyama, Toshiro [Aichi Children' s Health and Medical Center, Obu, Aichi (Japan); Takei, Nori [The Osaka-Hamamatsu Joint Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu (Japan)

    2007-09-07

    Autism is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosed in early childhood. Growth factors have been found to play a key role in the cellular differentiation and proliferation of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is detected in several regions of the developing and adult brain, where, it enhances the differentiation, maturation, and survival of a variety of neurons. Transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF{beta}) isoforms play an important role in neuronal survival, and the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has been shown to exhibit neurotrophic activity. We examined the association of EGF, TGF{beta}1, and HGF genes with autism, in a trio association study, using DNA samples from families recruited to the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange; 252 trios with a male offspring scored for autism were selected for the study. Transmission disequilibrium test revealed significant haplotypic association of EGF with autism. No significant SNP or haplotypic associations were observed for TGF{beta}1 or HGF. Given the role of EGF in brain and neuronal development, we suggest a possible role of EGF in the pathogenesis of autism.

  7. Carotid endarterectomy significantly improves postoperative laryngeal sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Georg Philipp; Tomazic, Peter Valentin; Vasicek, Sarah; Graupp, Matthias; Gugatschka, Markus; Baumann, Anneliese; Konstantiniuk, Peter; Koter, Stephan Herwig

    2016-11-01

    Iatrogenic injury of the vagus nerve or its branches during carotid endarterectomy (CEA) can result in globus sensation, dysphagia, and even vocal fold immobility. Knowledge of morphologic and functional laryngopharyngeal outcomes after CEA is poor. The present study was performed to determine potential iatrogenic damage to the laryngeal innervation after CEA. An area of particular interest was the supraglottic sensory threshold, which was examined by Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing With Sensory Testing (FEESST; Pentax Medical Company, Montvale, NJ), a validated and safe method for the determination of the motor and sensory components of swallowing. FEESST was used preoperatively in 32 patients scheduled to undergo CEA and twice postoperatively to examine the motor and sensory components of swallowing. In this endolaryngeal examination, laryngopharyngeal sensory thresholds (in mm Hg) were defined as normal at 6.0 mm Hg APP, with a value >10.0 mm Hg APP indicating abolished laryngeal adductor reflex. Acoustic voice parameters were also analyzed for further functional changes of the larynx. The mean ± standard deviation preoperative FEESST measures showed no significant differences (P = .065) between the operated-on side (6.73 ± 1.73 mm Hg) and the opposite side (5.83 ± 1.68 mm Hg). At 2 days postoperatively, the threshold increased (P = .001) to 7.62 ± 1.98 mm Hg on the operated-on side. A laryngopharyngeal mucosal hematoma on the operated side was endoscopically detectable in eight patients (30.8%); in these patients, we found a markedly elevated (P = .021) measure of 9.50 ± 0.93 mm Hg. On the opposite (nonoperated-on) side of the laryngopharynx, the thresholds remained at the same level as preoperatively over all assessments (P >.05), whereas the differences between the operated and nonoperated-on sides and the hematoma and nonhematoma groups were highly significant (P = .004 and P = .001, respectively). Surprisingly, the

  8. Examination of cyberbullying experiences among Turkish students from different school types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçu, Cigdem; Erdur-Baker, Ozgür; Capa-Aydin, Yeşim

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the nature of cyberbullying experiences among public and private school students in Turkey. One hundred eighty-three participants between the ages of 14 and 15 were recruited for the study. Participants were asked to respond to questionnaires measuring demographic information, usage frequency of Internet-mediated communication tools (IMCT), and cyberbullying experience (as a victim and as a bully). Participants who reported cyberbullying victimization were also asked how they felt and whether they sought help after such experiences. Results indicated that public school students were more likely than private school students to report being cyberbullies and cybervictims despite that private school students were more likely than public school students to report more frequent usage of IMCT. The findings of the logistic regression analyses indicated that usage frequency of IMCT was a significant predictor of cyberbullying/victimization for public school students but not for private school students. While victims from private school revealed that they did not mind the cyberbullying experience because they thought it was a joke, victims from public school reported that they felt angry when they experienced cyberbullying. Both public and private schools indicated that friends were their first choice for help.

  9. Dynamic Metabolomics Reveals that Insulin Primes the Adipocyte for Glucose Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Krycer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Insulin triggers an extensive signaling cascade to coordinate adipocyte glucose metabolism. It is considered that the major role of insulin is to provide anabolic substrates by activating GLUT4-dependent glucose uptake. However, insulin stimulates phosphorylation of many metabolic proteins. To examine the implications of this on glucose metabolism, we performed dynamic tracer metabolomics in cultured adipocytes treated with insulin. Temporal analysis of metabolite concentrations and tracer labeling revealed rapid and distinct changes in glucose metabolism, favoring specific glycolytic branch points and pyruvate anaplerosis. Integrating dynamic metabolomics and phosphoproteomics data revealed that insulin-dependent phosphorylation of anabolic enzymes occurred prior to substrate accumulation. Indeed, glycogen synthesis was activated independently of glucose supply. We refer to this phenomenon as metabolic priming, whereby insulin signaling creates a demand-driven system to “pull” glucose into specific anabolic pathways. This complements the supply-driven regulation of anabolism by substrate accumulation and highlights an additional role for insulin action in adipocyte glucose metabolism.

  10. Protein-carbohydrate complex reveals circulating metastatic cells in a microfluidic assay

    KAUST Repository

    Simone, Giuseppina

    2013-02-11

    Advances in carbohydrate sequencing technologies reveal the tremendous complexity of the glycome and the role that glycomics might have to bring insight into the biological functions. Carbohydrate-protein interactions, in particular, are known to be crucial to most mammalian physiological processes as mediators of cell adhesion and metastasis, signal transducers, and organizers of protein interactions. An assay is developed here to mimic the multivalency of biological complexes that selectively and sensitively detect carbohydrate-protein interactions. The binding of β-galactosides and galectin-3 - a protein that is correlated to the progress of tumor and metastasis - is examined. The efficiency of the assay is related to the expression of the receptor while anchoring to the interaction\\'s strength. Comparative binding experiments reveal molecular binding preferences. This study establishes that the assay is robust to isolate metastatic cells from colon affected patients and paves the way to personalized medicine. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Protein-carbohydrate complex reveals circulating metastatic cells in a microfluidic assay

    KAUST Repository

    Simone, Giuseppina; Malara, Natalia Maria; Trunzo, Valentina; Perozziello, Gerardo; Neužil, Pavel; Francardi, Marco; Roveda, Laura; Renne, Maria; Prati, Ubaldo; Mollace, Vincenzo; Manz, Andreas; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in carbohydrate sequencing technologies reveal the tremendous complexity of the glycome and the role that glycomics might have to bring insight into the biological functions. Carbohydrate-protein interactions, in particular, are known to be crucial to most mammalian physiological processes as mediators of cell adhesion and metastasis, signal transducers, and organizers of protein interactions. An assay is developed here to mimic the multivalency of biological complexes that selectively and sensitively detect carbohydrate-protein interactions. The binding of β-galactosides and galectin-3 - a protein that is correlated to the progress of tumor and metastasis - is examined. The efficiency of the assay is related to the expression of the receptor while anchoring to the interaction's strength. Comparative binding experiments reveal molecular binding preferences. This study establishes that the assay is robust to isolate metastatic cells from colon affected patients and paves the way to personalized medicine. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Molecular modelling studies of kdr mutations in voltage gated sodium channel revealed significant conformational variations contributing to insecticide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellapu, Nanda Kumar; Gopal, Jeyakodi; Kasinathan, Gunasekaran; Purushothaman, Jambulingam

    2018-06-01

    Voltage gated sodium channels (VGSC) of mosquito vectors are the primary targets of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and other synthetic pyrethroids used in public health programmes. The knockdown resistant (kdr) mutations in VGSC are associated with the insecticide resistance especially in Anophelines. The present study is aimed to emphasize and demarcate the impact of three kdr-mutations such as L1014S, L1014F and L1014H on insecticide resistance. The membrane model of sodium transport domain of VGSC (STD-VGSC) was constructed using de novo approach based on domain and trans-membrane predictions. The comparative molecular modelling studies of wild type and mutant models of STD-VGSC revealed that L1014F mutant was observed to be near native to the wild type model in all the respects, but, L1014S and L1014H mutations showed drastic variations in the energy levels, root mean square fluctuations (RMSF) that resulted in conformational variations. The predicted binding sites also showed variable cavity volumes and RMSF in L1014S and L1014H mutants. Further, DDT also found be bound in near native manner to wild type in L1014F mutant and with variable orientation and affinities in L1014S and L1014H mutants. The variations and fluctuations observed in mutant structures explained that each mutation has its specific impact on the conformation of VGSC and its binding with DDT. The study provides new insights into the structure-function-correlations of mutant STD-VGSC structures and demonstrates the role and effects of kdr mutations on insecticide resistance in mosquito vectors.

  13. [Significance of early diagnosis of posterior urethral valves in fetus for further development - own experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemień, Grażyna; Szmigielska, Agnieszka; Wawer, Zofia; Roszkowska-Blaim, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of posterior urethral valves is estimated to be from 3:1000 to 8:1000 and this is one of the most common causes of obstruction of urinary tract in boys. About 13-17% of children with posterior urethral valves develop end stage renal failure. We present a  6-month-old boy with late diagnosis of posterior urtehral valves. Antenatal ultrasound investigation of the urinary tract was normal. A small degree of oligohydramnios was found during delivery. At the age of six months the boy was admitted to hospital because of urinary tract infection, hypertension (130/90 mmHg) and acute kidney injury (urea - 46 mg/dL, creatinine - 1.1 mg/dL, GFR - 35.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 ). Bilateral hydronephrosis and megaureters, low-capacity bladder with hypertrophied wall were seen on ultrasound examination. Voiding cystourethrograhy revealed vesicoureteral refluxes (III/V), hypertrophy of the bladder wall with numerous diverticula and dilated posterior urethra. During urethroscopy urethral valves were resected. Increased intravesical pressure (leak point up to 305 cm H2 O) was found on urodynamic test. Renal scintigraphy (99mTc-EC) revealed decreased intake of isotope in the left kidney (5%), and the right kidney intake was 95% ERPF. The patient was qualified for left-sided nephrectomy, which was postponed because of high leak point and high risk of worsening of vesicoureteral reflux to right kidney after nephrectomy. Anticholinergic and α-blocker treatment was started. At the age of 11 months left-side nephrectomy was performed because of recurrent urinary tract infections. After 3.5-year follow-up blood pressure, physical development, kidney function tests, and urinalysis are normal. Additionally to this investigation the significance of early diagnosis including prenatal (PUV) for further development as well as further therapeutic procedure is discussed.

  14. Pushing typists back on the learning curve: revealing chunking in skilled typewriting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Motonori; Logan, Gordon D

    2014-04-01

    Theories of skilled performance propose that highly trained skills involve hierarchically structured control processes. The present study examined and demonstrated hierarchical control at several levels of processing in skilled typewriting. In the first two experiments, we scrambled the order of letters in words to prevent skilled typists from chunking letters, and compared typing words and scrambled words. Experiment 1 manipulated stimulus quality to reveal chunking in perception, and Experiment 2 manipulated concurrent memory load to reveal chunking in short-term memory (STM). Both experiments manipulated the number of letters in words and nonwords to reveal chunking in motor planning. In the next two experiments, we degraded typing skill by altering the usual haptic feedback by using a laser-projection keyboard, so that typists had to monitor keystrokes. Neither the number of motor chunks (Experiment 3) nor the number of STM items (Experiment 4) was influenced by the manipulation. The results indicate that the utilization of hierarchical control depends on whether the input allows chunking but not on whether the output is generated automatically. We consider the role of automaticity in hierarchical control of skilled performance.

  15. Role of scintigraphy and computer-assisted tomography in brain examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akerman, M.; Oproiu, A.; Comoy, C.; Guiot, G.

    1981-01-01

    To assess the role of computer-assisted tomography (CAT) and scintigraphy in brain exploration, the authors analysed: (1) the diagnostic effectiveness of the two methods in 300 patients examined over a period of seven months; (2) the role assigned to each investigation in 169 patients operated on for intracranial lesion during the same period. The isotopic brain examination always included an initial angiographic study after the intravenous injection of a technetium compound. Study of the circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid was made with 111 In-DTPA. The detection efficiency of CAT is higher than for scintigraphy in expansive processes, whereas, conversely, in cerebrovascular accidents of ischaemic origin, isotope angiography coupled with static imaging enables one to gain more information on cerebral perfusion than CAT. Similarly, when studying the cerebrospinal fluid, scintigraphy provides a greater amount of specific data on the mechanisms governing hydrocephalus, the mode of operation of a shunt, or the site of a cerebrospinal fluid fistula. Within a neurosurgical context, CAT by and large takes precedence in brain examination, but the investigation is usually acco