Murata, Chiyoe; Kondo, Takaaki; Tamakoshi, Koji; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Toyoshima, Hideaki
The purpose of this study was to investigate factors related to self-rated health and to mortality among 2490 community-living elderly. Respondents were followed for 7.3 years for all-cause mortality. To compare the relative impact of each variable, we employed logistic regression analysis for self-rated health and Cox hazard analysis for mortality. Cox analysis stratified by gender, follow-up periods, age group, and functional status was also employed. Series of analysis found that factors associated with self-rated health and with mortality were not identical. Psychological factors such as perceived isolation at home or 'ikigai (one aspect of psychological well-being)' were associated with self-rated health only. Age, functional status, and social relations were associated both with self-rated health and mortality after controlling for possible confounders. Illnesses and functional status accounted for 35-40% of variances in the fair/poor self-rated health. Differences by gender and functional status were observed in the factors related to self-rated health. Overall, self-rated health effect on mortality was stronger for people with no functional impairment, for shorter follow-up period, and for young-old age group. Although, illnesses and functional status were major determinants of self-rated health, economical, psychological, and social factors were also related to self-rated health.
Full Text Available Background. Unlike the widely used self rated health, the self rated mental health was found unsuitable as a proxy for mental illness. This paper analyses the relationships between the self ratings of physical health, mental health and overall health, and their association of with the objective indicators for physical and mental health. Design and methods. The study is a secondary analysis of data from a nationwide representative sample of the non-institutionalized adult residents of Israel in 2003 that was collected via computer-assisted personal interview methods [n=4859].Results. The self rated physical health and the self rated mental health were strongly related to each other yet the self rated mental health was not related to chronic physical conditions and the self rated physical health was not related to mental disorders. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, those with positive self rated mental health had 93 times the odds of reporting positive overall health whereas those with positive self rated physical health had 40 times the odds of reporting positive overall health. Conclusions. The self rating of mental health presents a qualitatively different dimension from mental illness. The self rated mental health is two times more important than the self rated physical health in predicting the self rated overall health
McHugh, Joanna Edel; Lawlor, Brian A
Self-rated health, as distinct from objective measures of health, is a clinically informative metric among older adults. The purpose of our study was to examine the cognitive and psychosocial factors associated with self-rated health. 624 participants over the age of 60 were assessed at baseline, and of these, 510 were contacted for a follow-up two years later. Measures of executive function and self-rated health were assessed at baseline, and self-rated health was assessed at follow-up. We employed multiple linear regression analyses to investigate the relationship between executive functioning and self-rated health, while controlling for demographic, psychosocial and biological variables. Controlling for other relevant variables, executive functioning independently and solely predicted self-rated health, both at a cross-sectional level, and also over time. Loneliness was also found to cross-sectionally predict self-rated health, although this relationship was not present at a longitudinal level. Older adults' self-rated health may be related to their executive functioning and to their loneliness. Self-rated health appeared to improve over time, and the extent of this improvement was also related to executive functioning at baseline. Self-rated health may be a judgement made of one's functioning, especially executive functioning, which changes with age and therefore may be particularly salient in the reflections of older adults.
Andersen, Frank Krarup; Christensen, Kaare; Frederiksen, Henrik
AIMS: The aim of this study was to explore and describe self-rated health in middle-aged and elderly Danes using both a cross-sectional and a longitudinal design. Global and (age) comparative self-rated health are examined and compared. METHODS: This study is interview based and comprises data on...
Supranowicz, Piotr; Wysocki, Mirosław J; Car, Justyna; Debska, Anna; Gebska-Kuczerowska, Anita
Self-rated health is a one-point measure commonly used for recognising subjectively perceived health and covering a wide range of individual's health aspects. The aim of our study was to examine the extent to which self-rated health reflects the differences due to demographic characteristics, physical, psychical and social well-being, health disorders, occurrence of chronic disease and negative life events in Polish social and cultural conditions. Data were collected by non-addressed questionnaire methods from 402 Warsaw inhabitants. The questionnaire contained the questions concerning self-rated health, physical, psychical and social well-being, the use of health care services, occurrence of chronic disease and contact with negative life events. The analysis showed that worse self-rated health increased exponentially with age and less sharply with lower level of education. Pensioners were more likely to assess their own health worse then employed or students. Such difference was not found for unemployed. Compared to married, the self-rated health of divorced or widowed respondents was lower. Gender does not differentiate self-rated health. In regard to well-being, self-rated health linearly decreased for physical well-being, for social and, especially, for psychical well-being the differences were significant, but more complicated. Hospitalisation, especially repeated, strongly determined worse self-rated health. In contrast, relationship between self-rated health and sickness absence or frequency of contact with physician were lower. Chronic diseases substantially increased the risk of poorer self-rated health, and their co-morbidity increased the risk exponentially. The patients with cancer were the group, in which the risk several times exceeded that reported for the patients of other diseases. Regarding negative life events, only experience with violence and financial difficulties were resulted in worse self-rated health. Our findings confirmed the usefulness
Flávia Silva Arbex Borim
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the association between negative self-rated health and indicators of health, wellbeing and sociodemographic variables in older adults. METHODS Cross-sectional study that used data from a population-based health survey with a probability cluster sample that was carried out in Campinas, SP, Southeastern Brazil,, in 2008 and 2009. The participants were older adults (≥ 60 years and the dependent variable was self-rated health, categorized as: excellent, very good, good, bad and very bad. The adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated by means of Poisson multiple regression. RESULTS The highest prevalences of bad/very bad self-rated health were observed in the individuals who never attended school, in those with lower level of schooling, with monthly per capita family income lower than one minimum salary. Individuals who scored five or more in the physical health indicator also had bad self-rated health, as well as those who scored five or more in the Self-Reporting Questionnaire 20 and those who did not refer feeling happiness all the time. CONCLUSIONS The independent effects of material life conditions, physical and mental health and subjective wellbeing, observed in self-rated health, suggest that older adults can benefit by health policies supported by a global and integrative view of old age.
Greiner, P A; Snowdon, D A; Greiner, L H
Self-rated function is a new global measure. Previous findings suggest that self-rated function predicts future functional decline and is strongly associated with all-cause mortality. We hypothesized that the strength of the relationship of self-rated function to all-cause mortality was in part due to functional decline, such as would occur with brain infarcts. Self-ratings of function and health (on a 5-point scale, ranging from excellent to poor) were assessed annually on 630 participants in the Nun Study. Mortality surveillance extended from October 31, 1991 to March 1, 1998, and, among those who died, neuropathological examination determined postmortem evidence of brain infarcts. Cox regression modeling with self-rated function and health as time-dependent covariates and stratification by assessment period were used in these analyses. Self-rated function and health ratings of good, fair, and poor were significantly associated with doubling of the risk of mortality, compared with ratings of very good and excellent. Self-rated function ratings of fair or poor were associated with a threefold increase in the risk of mortality with brain infarcts, but self-rated function and health ratings of fair and poor were comparable in their association with all-cause mortality and mortality without brain infarcts. Self-rated function was significantly associated with mortality with brain infarcts, suggesting that brain infarcts may be experienced as functional loss but not recognized or labeled as disease. Our results suggest that self-rated function and health should be explored simultaneously in future research.
Štefan, Lovro; Juranko, Dora; Prosoli, Rebeka; Barić, Renata; Sporiš, Goran
This study aimed to determine the associations between the self-reported sleep duration and self-rated health in young adults. In this cross-sectional study, participants were 689 young adults (mean age 20 ± 1.35 years, 49.8% female). Sleep duration and self-rated health, as the main outcome of interest, were measured as self-reported. As potential covariates, we included sex, age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, sedentary behavior, psychological distress, and body mass index. Approximately 30% of participants slept 7-8 hours, 17.4% were short sleepers (categories 10 hours of sleep). In an unadjusted model, compared with the reference category (7-8 hours of sleep), those who slept health. In an adjusted model, short (sleep (> 10 hours) were both associated with poor self-rated health. Our results suggest that both short ( 10 hours) sleepers have lower odds of having good self-rated health after adjusting for potential covariates. Health professionals should pay more attention to young adults, who have both short and long period of sleep, in order to prevent health problems and potential acute or chronic diseases. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Full Text Available Abstract Background The independent effects of stress on the health of primary care patients might be different for different types of clinic populations. This study examines these relationships in a low-income female population of patients attending a family planning clinic. Methods This study investigated the relevance of different sources of personal stress and social support to self-rated health, adjusting for mental health, health behavior and demographic characteristics of subjects. Five hundred women who attended family planning clinics were surveyed and 345 completed the form for a response rate of 72 percent. Results Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that liking oneself was related to good self-rated health (Odds ratio = 7.11, but stress or support from children, parents, friends, churches or spouses were not significant. White non-Hispanic and non-white non-Hispanic respondents had lower odds of reporting good self-rated health than Hispanic respondents (odds ratios were 2.87 and 2.81, respectively. Exercising five or more days per week also was related to good self-rated health. Smoking 20 or more cigarettes per day, and obese III were negatively related to good self-rated health (odds ratios were .19 and .22, respectively with corresponding p-values equal to .0043 and .0332. Conclusions Among younger low-income women, addressing low self-esteem might improve health status.
Eriksen, Louise; Curtis, Tine; Grønbæk, Morten
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the joint association between self-reported physical activity as well as cardiorespiratory fitness and self-rated health among healthy women and men. METHOD: Data from 10,416 participants in The Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008 which took part in 13 Danish...... municipalities were analyzed. Leisure time physical activity level and self-rated health were based on self-reported questionnaire data. Optimal self-rated health was defined as "very good" or "good" self-rated health. Cardiorespiratory fitness (mL O2·min(-1)·kg(-1)) was estimated from maximal power output...... in a maximal cycle exercise test. RESULTS: A strong dose-response relation between cardiorespiratory fitness and self-rated health as well as between physical activity level and self-rated health among both women and men was found. Within categories of physical activity, odds ratios for optimal self...
McDonough, Peggy; Berglund, Pat
This paper investigates the dynamic relationship between poverty histories and self-rated health trajectories. We are interested in patterns of change in individuals' health over time and the ways in which such patterns are structured by continuity and change in poverty experiences. Data, collected for adults aged 25 and older in 1984 (N = 7,258), are from the 1968-1996 annual waves of Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). Individual growth curves allow us to investigate health trajectories as continuous processes, as well as individual and group heterogeneity in these trajectories. We find that, on average, health deteriorates slowly over time, but there is significant variation in health in 1984 and the rate at which health declines. Histories of poverty partly accounted for the sources of individual differences in self-rated health in 1984, but they were not related to health change over time. Although increasing incomes were better for self-rated health than falling incomes, current economic circumstances did not erase the health effects of earlier poverty experiences.
Eriksen, Louise; Curtis, Tine; Grønbæk, Morten; Helge, Jørn W; Tolstrup, Janne S
To investigate the joint association between self-reported physical activity as well as cardiorespiratory fitness and self-rated health among healthy women and men. Data from 10,416 participants in The Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008 which took part in 13 Danish municipalities were analyzed. Leisure time physical activity level and self-rated health were based on self-reported questionnaire data. Optimal self-rated health was defined as "very good" or "good" self-rated health. Cardiorespiratory fitness (mL O2·min(-1)·kg(-1)) was estimated from maximal power output in a maximal cycle exercise test. A strong dose-response relation between cardiorespiratory fitness and self-rated health as well as between physical activity level and self-rated health among both women and men was found. Within categories of physical activity, odds ratios for optimal self-rated health increased with increasing categories of cardiorespiratory fitness, and vice versa. Hence, participants who were moderately/vigorously physically active and had a high cardiorespiratory fitness had the highest odds ratio for optimal self-rated health compared with sedentary participants with low cardiorespiratory fitness (odds ratio=12.2, 95% confidence interval: 9.3-16.1). Although reluctant to conclude on causality, this study suggests that an active lifestyle as well as good cardiorespiratory fitness probably increase self-rated health. © 2013.
Kim, Bum Jung; Harris, Lesley Maradik
The objective of this article is to investigate determinants of self-rated health and describe their association with social capital and socioeconomic characteristics among older Korean immigrants. A cross-sectional study of 205 older Korean immigrants (aged 60 years and older) was conducted in Los Angeles county. Independent variables included age, gender, marital status, income of the older Koreans, and social capital included social norms, trust, partnership with the community, information sharing, and political participation. Self-rated health was the dependent variable. Descriptive analyses were done to show group differences in self-rated health and logistic regression analyses to identify determinants of self-rated health. Gender (male), high income, and high levels of information sharing were significant determinants of high self-rated health status among older Korean immigrants. This population-based study provides empirical evidence that gender, income, and information sharing are directly associated with the self-rated health status of older Korean immigrants.
Greiner, P A; Snowdon, D A; Greiner, L H
We investigated the relationship of self-rated function (i.e., the ability to take care of oneself) and self-rated health to concurrent functional ability, functional decline, and mortality in participants in the Nun Study, a longitudinal study of aging and Alzheimer's disease. A total of 629 of the 678 study participants self-rated their function and health and completed an initial functional assessment in 1991-93. Survivors completed a second assessment in 1993-94. Overall, self-rated function had a stronger relationship to functional ability at the first assessment and to functional decline between the first and second assessments than did self-rated health. Self-rated function also had a stronger relationship to mortality than did self-rated health. Self-rated function may be a better marker of global function than is self-rated health and may be a useful addition to clinical assessment and scientific investigation of the relationships among function, health, and disease.
Reyes Fernández, Benjamín; Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli
Objective: The study examined the relationship of self-rated health and self-rated economic situation with depressed mood, and life satisfaction as mediator of this relationship among older adults in Costa Rica. Method: A longitudinal study was conducted with a subsample (N = 1,618) from the Costa Rican Longevity and Healthy Aging Study (CRELES). Self-rated health, self-rated economic situation, depressed mood, and life satisfaction were measured at baseline, and depressed mood was reassessed 18 months later. Putative mechanisms for changes in depressed mood were examined by means of conditional process analysis. Results: Self-rated health was negatively associated to depressed mood. This effect took place via life satisfaction. An interaction showed that better economic situation compensated the effect of a low self-rated health on life satisfaction. Discussion: This study suggests that subjective variables such as self-rated health, economic situation, and life satisfaction should be considered when addressing the onset of depressed mood. PMID:26092651
Luiz Sérgio Silva
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between exposure to adverse psychosocial working conditions and poor self-rated health among bank employees. METHODS: A cross-sectional study including a sample of 2,054 employees of a government bank was conducted in 2008. Self-rated health was assessed by a single question: "In general, would you say your health is (...." Exposure to adverse psychosocial working conditions was evaluated by the effort-reward imbalance model and the demand-control model. Information on other independent variables was obtained through a self-administered semi-structured questionnaire. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed and odds ratio calculated to assess independent associations between adverse psychosocial working conditions and poor self-rated health. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of poor self-rated health was 9%, with no significant gender difference. Exposure to high demand and low control environment at work was associated with poor self-rated health. Employees with high effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment also reported poor self-rated health, with a dose-response relationship. Social support at work was inversely related to poor self-rated health, with a dose-response relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to adverse psychosocial work factors assessed based on the effort-reward imbalance model and the demand-control model is independently associated with poor self-rated health among the workers studied.
Page, Randy M; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn
Despite the popularity of self-rated health (SRH) in Western countries as a useful public health tool, it has only rarely been used in Asian countries. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether measures of psychosocial functioning and health-related factors differ according to SRH in a school-based sample of Thai adolescents. The survey was given to 2519 adolescents attending 10 coeducational secondary high schools in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand and included measures of psychosocial functioning (loneliness, hopelessness, shyness, perceptions of social status, self-rated happiness, and perception of physical attractiveness) and certain health-related factors (height/weight, physical activity, eating breakfast, sleep). The proportion of boys (5.1%) reporting that they were not healthy was similar to the proportion of girls (4.6%) making the same rating. These adolescents showed a pattern of overall poor health risk. Compared to adolescent peers who rated their health as healthy or very healthy, they were less physically active, got less sleep, were more likely to be overweight, and scored lower on loneliness, shyness, hopelessness, and self-rated happiness. The present pattern of poor health risk warrants attention and supports the merit of using SRH in adolescent health assessment. SRH is easy to obtain and simple to assess and single-item assessments of SRH appear to be valid measures of health status in adults and adolescent. Interventions, such as health counseling, mental health counseling, and health education, can target adolescents who rate themselves as 'not healthy' or report poor health status.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite extensive use of self-rated health questions in youth studies, little is known about what such questions capture among adolescents. Hence, the aim of this study was to explore how adolescents interpret and reason when answering a question about self-rated health. Methods A qualitative study using think-aloud interviews explored the question, “How do you feel most of the time?”, using five response options (“Very good”, “Rather good”, “Neither good, nor bad”, “Rather bad”, and “Very bad”. The study involved 58 adolescents (29 boys and 29 girls in lower secondary school (7th grade and upper secondary school (12th grade in Sweden. Results Respondents’ interpretations of the question about how they felt included social, mental, and physical aspects. Gender differences were found primarily in that girls emphasized stressors, while age differences were reflected mainly in the older respondents’ inclusion of a wider variety of influences on their assessments. The five response options all demonstrated differences in self-rated health, and the respondents’ understanding of the middle option, “Neither good, nor bad”, varied widely. In the answering of potential sensitive survey questions, rationales for providing honest or biased answers were described. Conclusions The use of a self-rated health question including the word ‘feel’ captured a holistic view of health among adolescents. Differences amongst response options should be acknowledged when analyzing self-rated health questions. If anonymity is not feasible when answering questions on self-rated health, a high level of privacy is recommended to increase the likelihood of reliability.
Spein, Anna Rita; Pedersen, Cecilia Petrine; Silviken, Anne Cathrine
Self-rated health (SRH) and associated risk and protective correlates were investigated among two indigenous adolescent populations, Greenlandic Inuit and Norwegian Sami.......Self-rated health (SRH) and associated risk and protective correlates were investigated among two indigenous adolescent populations, Greenlandic Inuit and Norwegian Sami....
Verhaeghe, Pieter-Paul; Tampubolon, Gindo
Individual social capital is increasingly considered to be an important determinant of an individual's health. This study examines the extent to which individual social capital is associated with self-rated health and the extent to which individual social capital mediates t.he relationship between neighbourhood deprivation and self-rated health in an English sample. Individual social capital was conceptualized and operationalized in both the social cohesion- and network resource tradition, using measures of generalized trust, social participation and social network resources. Network resources were measured with the position generator. Multilevel analyses were applied to wave 2 and 3 of the Taking Part Surveys of England, which consist of face-to-face interviews among the adult population in England (N(i) = 25,366 respondents, N(j) = 12,388 neighbourhoods). The results indicate that generalized trust, participation with friends and relatives and having network members from the salariat class are positively associated with self-rated health. Having network members from the working class is, however, negatively related to self-rated health. Moreover, these social capital elements are partly mediating the negative relationship between neighbourhood deprivation and self-rated health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Phung, Thien Kieu Thi; Siersma, Volkert; Vogel, Asmus
OBJECTIVE: Self-assessment of health is a strong and independent predictor of mortality for cognitively intact people. Because the ability of patients with dementia to rate their own health is questionable, caregiver-rated health for patients may serve as a proxy. The authors aimed to validate...... and compare self- and caregiver-rated health for patients with dementia as independent predictors of patient mortality. METHODS: This was a post-hoc analysis of data from The Danish Alzheimer's Disease Intervention Study, a randomized controlled trial of psychosocial intervention for 330 patients with mild...... dementia and their caregivers with a 36-month follow-up. Patients and caregivers rated patients' health on the Euro Quality of Life Visual Analog Scale (EQ-VAS) from 0 (worst) to 100 (best). The ability of self- and caregiver-rated health for the patient to predict patient mortality was analyzed as hazard...
Shippee, Tetyana P; Rowan, Kathleen; Sivagnanam, Kamesh; Oakes, J Michael
This study examines the role of mother's health and socioeconomic status on daughter's self-rated health using data spanning three decades from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Mature Women and Young Women (N = 1,848 matched mother-daughter pairs; 1,201 White and 647 African American). Using nested growth curve models, we investigated whether mother's self-rated health affected the daughter's self-rated health and whether socioeconomic status mediated this relationship. Mother's health significantly influenced daughters' self-rated health, but the findings were mediated by mother's socioeconomic status. African American daughters reported lower self-rated health and experienced more decline over time compared with White daughters, accounting for mother's and daughter's covariates. Our findings reveal maternal health and resources as a significant predictor of daughters' self-rated health and confirm the role of socioeconomic status and racial disparities over time. © The Author(s) 2015.
Devillé, W.; Westert, G.
Background: Self-rated health is a good predictor of health, morbidity and use of care. Self-rated health is also a responsive measure to changes in health. It can be measured by one simple question. As such it is included in many surveys in many countries, making measuring of general health
Bouchalová, M; Kukla, L; Okrajek, P
The subject of self-rated health status of women in fertile age has not yet been investigated in our country. As our study is longitudinal and the same questions-questionnaire items regarding self-rated health of the monitored women are repeated in each investigation phase, we are able to not only find out which factors are related but also verify how this relationship evolves with their ageing, life situation changes and growing up of their children. Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Masaryk University, Brno. Pregnant women from the Brno part of ELSPAC study rated their health status for the time period before becoming pregnant, for the first months of pregnancy and for the half of pregnancy. On the four-grade scale of self-reported health status the associations with their personal health-history (from prenatal questionnaires and prenatal and obstetrician health-care network) were investigated. The monitored women rated their pre-pregnancy health-status increasingly worse with increasing age and weight, increasing morbidity, increasing medicine consumption and with increasing number of injuries. Also their parents, siblings and children were more often ill and more often admitted in hospitals as in-patients. These women required more specialized care starting in their childhood, suffered more from infectious diseases, operations, injuries, stresses and break-ups of their original families. Their misunderstanding with parents was occurred with higher frequency, their upbringing was more strict, they suffered from school failures more often, they had problems with the police and premature pregnancies. According to the mothers education, especially the daughters of college educated women felt subjectively worse. Also women with basic level of education, problems at work, financial troubles, those who had many children and less adults in their household rated their health worse. They were also unemployed and dissatisfied with their housing
Farkas, Jerneja; Pahor, Majda; Zaletel-Kragelj, Lijana
Self-rated health can be influenced by several characteristics of the social environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between self-rated health and self-assessed social class in Slovenian adult population. The study was based on the Countrywide Integrated Non-communicable Diseases Intervention Health Monitor database. During 2004, 8,741/15,297 (57.1%) participants aged 25-64 years returned posted self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to determine unadjusted and adjusted estimates of association between poor self-rated health and self-assessed social class. Poor self-rated health was reported by 9.6% of participants with a decrease from lower to upper-middle/upper self-assessed social class (35.9 vs. 3.7%). Logistic regression showed significant association between self-rated health and all self-assessed social classes. In an adjusted model, poor self-rated health remained associated with self-assessed social class (odds ratio for lower vs. upper-middle/upper self-assessed social class 4.23, 95% confidence interval 2.46-7.25; P social classes. Participants from lower self-assessed social class reported poor self-rated health most often and should comprise the focus of multisectoral interventions.
von dem Knesebeck, Olaf; Geyer, Siegfried
The analyses focus on three aims: (1) to explore the associations between education and emotional support in 22 European countries, (2) to explore the associations between emotional support and self-rated health in the European countries, and (3) to analyse whether the association between education and self-rated health can be partly explained by emotional support. The study uses data from the European Social Survey 2003. Probability sampling from all private residents aged 15 years and older was applied in all countries. The European Social Survey includes 42,359 cases. Persons under age 25 were excluded to minimise the number of respondents whose education was not complete. Education was coded according to the International Standard Classification of Education. Perceived emotional support was assessed by the availability of a confidant with whom one can discuss intimate and personal matters with. Self-rated health was used as health indicator. Results of multiple logistic regression analyses show that emotional support is positively associated with education among women and men in most European countries. However, the magnitude of the association varies according to country and gender. Emotional support is positively associated with self-rated health. Again, gender and country differences in the association were observed. Emotional support explains little of the educational differences in self-rated health among women and men in most European countries. Results indicate that it is important to consider socio-economic factors like education and country-specific contexts in studies on health effects of emotional support.
Krueger, Patrick M; Dovel, Kathryn; Denney, Justin T
Existing research has found a positive association between countries' level of democratic governance and the health of their populations, although that research is limited by the use of data from small numbers of high-income countries or aggregate data that do not assess individual-level health outcomes. We extend prior research by using multilevel World Health Survey (2002-2004) data on 313,554 individuals in 67 countries, and find that the positive association between democratic governance and self-rated health persists after adjusting for both individual- and country-level confounders. However, the mechanisms linking democracy and self-rated health remain unclear. Individual-level measures of socioeconomic status, and country-level measures of economic inequality and investments in public health and education, do not significantly mediate the association between democratic governance and self-rated health. The persistent association between democratic governance and health suggests that the political organization of societies may be an important upstream determinant of population health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, Hui-Min; Qiao, Zhao-Wei; Xia, Chang-Liang; Li, Liang-Yu
In this article, a novel self-regulating and self-evolving particle swarm optimizer (SSPSO) is proposed. Learning from the idea of direction reversal, self-regulating behaviour is a modified position update rule for particles, according to which the algorithm improves the best position to accelerate convergence in situations where the traditional update rule does not work. Borrowing the idea of mutation from evolutionary computation, self-evolving behaviour acts on the current best particle in the swarm to prevent the algorithm from prematurely converging. The performance of SSPSO and four other improved particle swarm optimizers is numerically evaluated by unimodal, multimodal and rotated multimodal benchmark functions. The effectiveness of SSPSO in solving real-world problems is shown by the magnetic optimization of a Halbach-based permanent magnet machine. The results show that SSPSO has good convergence performance and high reliability, and is well matched to actual problems.
Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa
Full Text Available Self-rated health is influenced by socioeconomic circumstances, but related differences in its structure have received little attention. The objective of this study was to examine whether self-rated health structure differs according to socioeconomic circumstances in later life. The study included 1,505 individuals (86.4% residing in Bambui and aged 60 years or older. Correlates of self-rated health among lower-income older adults (monthly household income < US$ 240.00 and higher-income seniors were assessed. Social network stood out as a major factor in the structure of self-rated health among the poorest. Psychological distress was independently associated with worse self-rated health among the poorest, while perceptions by the wealthiest were broader, including psychological distress, insomnia, Trypanosoma cruzi infection, use of medications, and access to health services. Physician visits and hospitalizations were associated with self-rated health in both groups. Our results show important differences in the structure of self-rated health according to socioeconomic circumstances and reinforce the need for policies to reduce health inequalities in later life.
Lovell, Sarah A; Gray, Andrew R; Boucher, Sara E
Community-level interventions dominate contemporary public health responses to health inequalities as a lack of political will has discouraged action at a structural level. Health promoters commonly leverage community capacity to achieve programme goals, yet the health implications of low community capacity are unknown. In this study, we analyse perceptions of community capacity at the individual-level to explore how place-based understandings of identity and connectedness are associated with self-rated health. We examine associations between individual community capacity, self-rated health and income using a cross-sectional survey that was disseminated to 303 residents of four small (populations 1500-2000) New Zealand towns. Evidence indicating a relationship between individual community capacity and self-reported health was unconvincing once the effects of income were incorporated. That is, people who rated their community's capacity higher did not have better self-rated health. Much stronger evidence supported the relationship between income and both higher individual community capacity and higher self-rated health. We conclude that individual community capacity may mediate the positive association between income and health, however, overall we find no evidence suggesting that intervening to enhance individual community capacity is likely to improve health outcomes.
Krokavcova, Martina; Nagyova, Iveta; Van Dijk, Jitse P; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gavelova, Miriam; Middel, Berrie; Szilasiova, Jarmila; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Groothoff, Johan W
The aim is to explore the association between self-rated health and employment status in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) when controlling for age, gender, functional disability, disease duration, anxiety and depression. One hundred eighty-four people with MS completed a sociodemographic questionnaire that included questions on employment status, the first item of the Short Form-36 Health Survey and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Functional disability was assessed using the Expanded Disability Status Scale. The probability of good self-rated health in employed persons was investigated using stepwise logistic regression analyses. Patients with MS who reported good self-rated health were 2.46 times more likely to be employed (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-5.59). Patients without anxiety were 2.64 times more likely to be employed (95%CI: 1.23-5.67). Patients with higher EDSS scores were 0.49 times less likely to be employed (95%CI: 0.33-0.70). Age, gender, disease duration and the presence of depression did not show an increased chance of patient employment. Patients with MS with good self-rated health are more likely to be employed, even after adjusting for age, gender, education, functional disability, disease duration, depression and anxiety. Dependent on the findings of longitudinal studies unravelling the relevant causal pahways, self-rated health might be used as a quick and cheap prognostic marker, which could warn about the possible loss of employment, or changes in functional disability.
Aguilar-Palacio, I; Carrera-Lasfuentes, P; Sánchez-Recio, R; Alonso, J P; Rabanaque, M J
Employment status and economic recession have been associated with negative effects on self-rated health, and this effect differs by gender. We analysed the effects of the Spanish economic recession in terms of self-rated health, its differential effect among genders and its influence on gender gap. Repeated cross-sectional study using Spanish health surveys (2001-2014). Logistic regression models were conducted to explore the association between self-rated health and employment status and its evolution over time and gender. To test the impact of the economic recession, pooled data regression models were conducted. In this study, we considered 104,577 subjects. During the last 15 years, women have entered the labour market, leading to wide changes in the Spanish traditional family roles. Instead of an increasing proportion of women workers, gender employment differences persist. Therefore, in 2014, the prevalence of workers was 55.77% in men, whereas in women, it was 44.01%. Self-rated health trends during the economic recession differ by gender, with women improving slightly their self-rated health from a low self-rated health prevalence of 38.76% in 2001 to 33.78% in 2014. On the contrary, men seem more vulnerable to employment circumstances, which have led to substantial reduction in the gender gap. Although a gender gap persists, the change in socio-economic roles seems to increase women's self-rated health, reducing this gap. It is important to promote women's labour market inclusion, even in economic recession periods. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ree, Eline; Odeen, Magnus; Eriksen, Hege R; Indahl, Aage; Ihlebæk, Camilla; Hetland, Jørn; Harris, Anette
The associations between socioeconomic status (SES), physical and psychosocial workload and health are well documented. According to The Cognitive Activation Theory of Stress (CATS), learned response outcome expectancies (coping, helplessness, and hopelessness) are also important contributors to health. This is in part as independent factors for health, but coping may also function as a buffer against the impact different demands have on health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative effect of SES (as measured by level of education), physical workload, and response outcome expectancies on subjective health complaints (SHC) and self-rated health, and if response outcome expectancies mediate the effects of education and physical workload on SHC and self-rated health. A survey was carried out among 1,746 Norwegian municipal employees (mean age 44.2, 81 % females). Structural Equation Models with SHC and self-rated health as outcomes were conducted. Education, physical workload, and response outcome expectancies, were the independent 28 variables in the model. Helplessness/hopelessness had a stronger direct effect on self-rated health and SHC than education and physical workload, for both men and women. Helplessness/hopelessness fully mediated the effect of physical workload on SHC for men (0.121), and mediated 30 % of a total effect of 0.247 for women. For women, education had a small but significant indirect effect through helplessness/hopelessness on self-rated health (0.040) and SHC (-0.040), but no direct effects were found. For men, there was no effect of education on SHC, and only a direct effect on self-rated health (0.134). The results indicated that helplessness/hopelessness is more important for SHC and health than well-established measures on SES such as years of education and perceived physical workload in this sample. Helplessness/hopelessness seems to function as a mechanism between physical workload and health.
Sarah A. Lovell
Full Text Available Community-level interventions dominate contemporary public health responses to health inequalities as a lack of political will has discouraged action at a structural level. Health promoters commonly leverage community capacity to achieve programme goals, yet the health implications of low community capacity are unknown. In this study, we analyse perceptions of community capacity at the individual-level to explore how place-based understandings of identity and connectedness are associated with self-rated health. We examine associations between individual community capacity, self-rated health and income using a cross-sectional survey that was disseminated to 303 residents of four small (populations 1500–2000 New Zealand towns. Evidence indicating a relationship between individual community capacity and self-reported health was unconvincing once the effects of income were incorporated. That is, people who rated their community's capacity higher did not have better self-rated health. Much stronger evidence supported the relationship between income and both higher individual community capacity and higher self-rated health. We conclude that individual community capacity may mediate the positive association between income and health, however, overall we find no evidence suggesting that intervening to enhance individual community capacity is likely to improve health outcomes.
Pedersen, Pia V; Grønbæk, Morten; Curtis, Tine
Previous studies of self-rated health among socially marginalized people provide insufficient understandings of what influences their self-rated health. This study aimed to examine how disadvantaged life circumstances (homelessness, substance abuse, poverty) and general well-being were associated with poor self-rated health among the socially marginalized. In a nationwide survey in Denmark, 1348 users of shelters, drop-in centres, treatment centres and social psychiatric centres answered a self-administered questionnaire. We analysed data using logistic regression. Disadvantaged life circumstances and well-being were associated with self-rated health, also when controlling for illness, mental disorder and age. Male respondents exposed to two or more disadvantaged life circumstances had higher odds of poor self-rated health [odds ratio (OR): 2.96; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.80-4.87] than males exposed to fewer disadvantages. A low sense of personal well-being implied higher odds of poor self-rated health among both men and women. Among men, not showering regularly (OR: 1.81; 95% CI: 1.17-2.79), and among women, not eating varied food (OR: 2.24; 95% CI: 1.20-4.20) and exposure to physical violence (borderline significant) implied higher odds of poor self-rated health. Male and female respondents reporting lack of sleep and loneliness (borderline significant among women) had higher odds of poor self-rated health. The poor self-rated health among socially marginalized is strongly associated with massive social problems, poor living conditions and poor well-being. This study elucidates the need for more broadly based and holistic initiatives by both the health sector and the social services, incorporating health promotion initiatives into social work.
Kwon, Kimin; Park, Jae Bum; Lee, Kyung-Jong; Cho, Yoon-Sik
This research was conducted with an aim of determining the association between employment status and self-rated health. Using the data from the Third Korean Working Conditions Survey conducted in 2011, We included data from 34,783 respondents, excluding employers, self-employed workers, unpaid family workers, others. Self-rated health was compared according to employment status and a logistic regression analysis was performed. Among the 34,783 workers, the number of permanent and non-permanent workers was 27,564 (79.2 %) and 7,219 (20.8 %). The risk that the self-rated health of non-permanent workers was poor was 1.20 times higher when both socio-demographic factors, work environment and work hazards were corrected. In this study, perceived health was found to be worse in the non-permanent workers than permanent workers. Additional research should investigate whether other factors mediate the relationship between employment status and perceived health.
Gu, Danan; Zhu, Haiyan; Brown, Tyson; Hoenig, Helen; Zeng, Yi
Objective To investigate factors associated with tourism experiences, and the association between tourism experiences and subsequent self-rated health. Method Multilevel logistic regression models and four waves of panel data from a large nationally representative survey of older adults in China were employed. Results Those who had a tourism experience tended to be younger, men, urban residents, have a higher socioeconomic status (SES), and frequently participate in leisure activities and exercise. However, controlling for SES, women were more likely than men to have a tourism experience. Notably, tourism was negatively associated with poor self-rated health and the association was robust to adjustments for a wide range of confounders. Discussion The net beneficial impact of tourism on self-rated health may operate through several mechanisms such as improvements in tourists’ cognitive functioning, healthy lifestyles, self-esteen, family and social relations, and psychological and spirtual well-being. Tourism participation is an effective way to promote healthy aging. PMID:26486781
Gu, Danan; Zhu, Haiyan; Brown, Tyson; Hoenig, Helen; Zeng, Yi
To investigate factors associated with tourism experiences, and the association between tourism experiences and subsequent self-rated health. Multilevel logistic regression models and four waves of panel data from a large nationally representative survey of older adults in China were employed. Those who had a tourism experience tended to be younger, men, urban residents, have a higher socioeconomic status (SES), and frequently participate in leisure activities and exercise. However, controlling for SES, women were more likely than men to have a tourism experience. Notably, tourism was negatively associated with poor self-rated health and the association was robust to adjustments for a wide range of confounders. The net beneficial impact of tourism on self-rated health may operate through several mechanisms such as improvements in tourists' cognitive functioning, healthy lifestyles, self-esteen, family and social relations, and psychological and spirtual well-being. Tourism participation is an effective way to promote healthy aging. © The Author(s) 2015.
Amstadter, Ananda B; McCauley, Jenna L; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Resnick, Heidi S; Kilpatrick, Dean G
Overall health status is associated with long-term physical morbidity and mortality. Existing research on the correlates of mental health effects of rape suggests that rape victims are at higher risk for poor overall health status. Little is known, however, about how different rape tactics may relate to health status in rape victims. Our aim was to examine prevalence and correlates of self-rated health in a community sample of women, with particular emphasis on lifetime rape history (distinguishing between rape tactics), psychopathology, and substance use outcomes. A nationally representative sample of 3,001 U.S. women (age range: 18-86 years) residing in households with a telephone participated in a structured telephone interview. Poor self-rated health was endorsed by 11.4% of the sample. Final multivariable models showed that poor self-rated health was associated with older age (pdepressive episode (MDE; p=.01), and history of forcible rape (p=.01). Self-rated health was associated with three potentially modifiable variables (forcible rape, PTSD, and MDE). Therefore, trauma-focused interventions for rape victims should include collaboration on treatment or prevention modules that specifically address both mental and physical health. © 2011 American Orthopsychiatric Association.
Social capital and self-rated health: experiences from Makete district, Tanzania. ... social capital including visiting neighbour, trusting neighbour, interaction with ... promote social capital in their communities as one of the health interventions ...
Aguilar-Palacio, Isabel; Carrera-Lasfuentes, Patricia; Rabanaque, M José
To identify the trend in self-rated health in Spain by autonomous communities (AC) in the period 2001-2012, as well as differences by gender and age, and the influence of educational level. A cross sectional study was carried out using data from the National Health Surveys from 2001 to 2011-12 and the 2009 European Survey. A descriptive analysis was conducted that included gender, age, educational level, and the AC of residence. Logistic regression analyses were developed to explore the temporal trend and the association between educational level and self-rated health. The predictive capacity of the model was calculated using the C statistic. The prevalence of low self-rated health was higher in women with low educational level. Self-rated health improved in women with high educational level (2001:18.6% vs. 2012:14.6%). The highest prevalence of low self-rated health was observed in Andalusia, the Canary Islands, Galicia and Murcia, with differences by gender. Low educational level was associated with low self-rated health in most AC, with good predictive capacity. In all AC except Asturias, low self-rated health was more frequent in women than in men. In Spain, the prevalence of self-rated health showed no variations in the period analyzed and improved in the Balearic Islands, Catalonia, and Madrid. The prevalence of self-rated health in Spain differed by AC. Although health was unchanged during the period considered, inequalities were found in its temporal trend by educational level and gender, which could lead to an increase in health inequalities in women according educational level. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Saeedian, Radka Ghorbani; Nagyova, Iveta; Klein, Daniel; Skorvanek, Matej; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Groothoff, Johan W.; van Dijk, Jitze
Aims and objectives To explore whether self-rated health acts as a potential mediator in the association between functional status and health-related quality of life in Parkinson's disease. Background Older persons (as most patients with Parkinson's disease are) who reported poor self-rated health
Mosing, M.A.; Verweij, K.J.H.; Medland, S.E.; Painter, J.; Gordon, S.D.; Heath, A.C.; Madden, P.A.F.; Montgomery, G.W.; Martin, N.G.
Self-rated health questions have been proven to be a highly reliable and valid measure of overall health as measured by other indicators in many population groups. It also has been shown to be a very good predictor of mortality, chronic or severe diseases, and the need for services, and is
Bennet, Louise; Lindström, Martin
Poor self-rated health is an estimator of quality of life and a predictor of mortality seldom studied in immigrant populations. This work aimed to study self-rated health in relation to social capital, socioeconomic status, lifestyle and comorbidity in immigrants from Iraq - one of the largest non-European immigrant group in Sweden today - and to compare it with the self-rated health of native Swedes. The study was a cross-sectional population-based study conducted from 2010 to 2012 among citizens of Malmö, Sweden, aged 30-65 years and born in Iraq or Sweden. All participants underwent a health examination and answered questionnaires on self-rated health, social capital, comorbidity, lifestyle and socioeconomic status. In total, 1348 Iraqis and 677 Swedes participated. Poor self-rated health was identified in 43.9% of Iraqis and 21.9% of native Swedes ( psocial capital was highly prevalent in the immigrants. Female gender showed higher odds of poor self-rated health in Iraqis than in Swedes (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.4-2.5, p interaction =0.024), independent of other risk factors connected to social capital, socioeconomic status, lifestyle or comorbidity. Although public health initiatives promoting social capital, socioeconomic status and comorbidity in immigrants are crucial, the excess risk of poor self-rated health in Iraqi women is not fully attributed to known risk factors for self-rated health, but remains to be further explored.
The effect of income inequality on health has been a contested topic among social scientists. Most previous research is based on cross-sectional comparisons rather than temporal comparisons. Using data from the General Social Survey and the U.S. Census Bureau, this study examines how rising income inequality affects individual self-rated health in the U.S. from 1972 to 2004. Data are analyzed using hierarchical generalized linear models. The findings suggest a significant association between income inequality and individual self-rated health. The dramatic increase in income inequality from 1972 to 2004 increases the odds of worse self-rated health by 9.4 percent. These findings hold for three measures of income inequality: the Gini coefficient, the Atkinson Index, and the Theil entropy index. Results also suggest that overall income inequality and gender-specific income inequality harm men's, but not women's, self-rated health. These findings also hold for the three measures of income inequality. These findings suggest that inattention to gender composition may explain apparent discrepancies across previous studies.
Lancee, B.; ter Hoeven, C.L.
In this study, we examined civic participation as an effect modifier between self-rated health and absence from work. Building on the theoretical framework of social exchange, we use German data to test a conceptual model relating self-rated health to sickness-related absence, as well as the
Aida, Jun; Kondo, Katsunori; Kondo, Naoki; Watt, Richard G; Sheiham, Aubrey; Tsakos, Georgios
The erosion of social capital in more unequal societies is one mechanism for the association between income inequality and health. However, there are relatively few multi-level studies on the relation between income inequality, social capital and health outcomes. Existing studies have not used different types of health outcomes, such as dental status, a life-course measure of dental disease reflecting physical function in older adults, and self-rated health, which reflects current health status. The objective of this study was to assess whether individual and community social capital attenuated the associations between income inequality and two disparate health outcomes, self-rated health and dental status in Japan. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to subjects in an ongoing Japanese prospective cohort study, the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study Project in 2003. Responses in Aichi, Japan, obtained from 5715 subjects and 3451 were included in the final analysis. The Gini coefficient was used as a measure of income inequality. Trust and volunteering were used as cognitive and structural individual-level social capital measures. Rates of subjects reporting mistrust and non-volunteering in each local district were used as cognitive and structural community-level social capital variables respectively. The covariates were sex, age, marital status, education, individual- and community-level equivalent income and smoking status. Dichotomized responses of self-rated health and number of remaining teeth were used as outcomes in multi-level logistic regression models. Income inequality was significantly associated with poor dental status and marginally significantly associated with poor self-rated health. Community-level structural social capital attenuated the covariate-adjusted odds ratio of income inequality for self-rated health by 16% whereas the association between income inequality and dental status was not substantially changed by any social capital
Huijts, Tim; Perkins, Jessica M; Subramanian, S V
Studies on political ideology and health have found associations between individual ideology and health as well as between ecological measures of political ideology and health. Individual ideology and aggregate measures such as political regimes, however, were never examined simultaneously. Using adjusted logistic multilevel models to analyze data on individuals from 29 European countries and Israel, we found that individual ideology and political regime are independently associated with self-rated health. Individuals with rightwing ideologies report better health than leftwing individuals. Respondents from Eastern Europe and former Soviet republics report poorer health than individuals from social democratic, liberal, Christian conservative, and former Mediterranean dictatorship countries. In contrast to individual ideology and political regimes, country level aggregations of individual ideology are not related to reporting poor health. This study shows that although both individual political ideology and contextual political regime are independently associated with individuals' self-rated health, individual political ideology appears to be more strongly associated with self-rated health than political regime.
Idler, Ellen; Leventhal, Howard; McLaughlin, Julie; Leventhal, Elaine
Self-rated health as a predictor of mortality has been studied primarily in large, representative populations, with relatively little progress toward understanding the information processing that individuals use to arrive at these ratings. With subsamples of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Epidemiologic Follow-up Study…
Pyle Donald N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Appalachia is characterized by poor health behaviors, poor health status, and health disparities. Recent interventions have not demonstrated much success in improving health status or reducing health disparities in the Appalachian region. Since one's perception of personal health precedes his or her health behaviors, the purpose of this project was to evaluate the self-rated health of Appalachian adults in relation to objective health status and current health behaviors. Methods Appalachian adults (n = 1,576 were surveyed regarding health behaviors - soda consumer (drink ≥ 355 ml/d, or non-consumer (drink 30 min > 1 d/wk and sedentary (exercise Results Respondents reported being healthy, while being sedentary (65%, hypertensive (76%, overweight (73%, or hyperlipidemic (79%. Between 57% and 66% of the respondents who considered themselves healthy had at least two disease conditions or poor health behaviors. Jaccard Binary Similarity coefficients and odds ratios showed the probability of reporting being healthy when having a disease condition or poor health behavior was high. Conclusions The association between self-rated health and poor health indicators in Appalachian adults is distorted. The public health challenge is to formulate messages and programs about health and health needs which take into account the current distortion about health in Appalachia and the cultural context in which this distortion was shaped.
Pickard, A Simon; Jalundhwala, Yash J; Bewsher, Helen; Sharp, Lisa K; Walton, Surrey M; Schumock, Glen T; Caskey, Rachel N
Strategies to improve public health may benefit from targeting specific lifestyles associated with poor health behaviors and outcomes. The aim of this study was to characterize and examine the relationship between health and lifestyle-related attitudes (HLAs) and self-rated health and life-satisfaction. Secondary analyses were conducted on data from a 2012 community wellness survey in Kirklees, UK. Using a validated HLA tool, respondents (n = 9130) were categorized into five segments: health conscious realists (33%), balanced compensators (14%), live-for-todays (18%), hedonistic immortals (10%), and unconfident fatalists (25%). Multivariate regression was used to examine whether HLAs could explain self-rated health using the EQ-5D visual analog scale (EQ-VAS) and life-satisfaction. Health conscious realists served as the reference group. Self-rated health differed by HLA, with adjusted mean EQ-VAS scores being significantly higher (better) among balanced compensators (1.15, 95% CI 0.27, 2.03) and lower scores among unconfident fatalists (- 9.02, 95% CI - 9.85, - 8.21) and live-for-todays (- 1.96, 95% CI - 2.80, - 1.14). Balanced compensators were less likely to report low life-satisfaction (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.62, 0.90), while unconfident fatalists were most likely to have low life-satisfaction (OR 3.51, 95% CI 2.92, 4.23). Segmentation by HLA explained differences in self-rated health and life-satisfaction, with unconfident fatalists being a distinct segment with significantly worse health perceptions and life-satisfaction. Health promotion efforts may benefit from considering the HLA segment that predominates a patient group, especially unconfident fatalists.
McAlpine, Donna D; McCreedy, Ellen; Alang, Sirry
Self-rated health is a valid measure of health that predicts quality of life, morbidity, and mortality. Its predictive value reflects a conceptualization of health that goes beyond a traditional medical model. However, less is known about self-rated mental health (SRMH). Using data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey ( N = 2,547), we examine how rating your mental health as good-despite meeting criteria for a mental health problem-predicts outcomes. We found that 62% of people with a mental health problem rated their mental health positively. Persons who rated their mental health as good (compared to poor) had 30% lower odds of having a mental health problem at follow-up. Even without treatment, persons with a mental health problem did better if they perceived their mental health positively. SRMH might comprise information beyond the experience of symptoms. Understanding the unobserved information individuals incorporate into SRMH will help us improve screening and treatment interventions.
Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Brandt, Mikkel
of a randomized controlled trial investigates the effect of strength training on muscular fatigue resistance and self-rated health among workers with chronic pain. Sixty-six slaughterhouse workers with chronic upper limb pain and work disability were randomly allocated to 10 weeks of strength training or usual...... (Spearman's rho = -0.40; P = 0.01). In conclusion, specific strength training improves muscular fatigue resistance and self-rated health and reduces pain of the hand/wrist in manual workers with chronic upper limb pain. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01671267.......-rated health and pain. Time to fatigue, muscle strength, hand/wrist pain, and self-rated health improved significantly more following strength training than usual care (all P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Family social support, as a form of social capital, contributes to social health disparities at different age of life. In a life-course epidemiological perspective, the aims of our study were to examine the association between self-reported family social environment during childhood and self-reported health in young adulthood and to assess the role of family functioning during childhood as a potential mediating factor in explaining the association between family breakup in childhood and self-reported health in young adulthood. Methods We analyzed data from the first wave of the Health, Inequalities and Social Ruptures Survey (SIRS, a longitudinal health and socio-epidemiological survey of a random sample of 3000 households initiated in the Paris metropolitan area in 2005. Sample-weighted logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the association between the quality of family social environment in childhood and self-rated health (overall health, physical health and psychological well-being in young adults (n = 1006. We used structural equation model to explore the mediating role of the quality of family functioning in childhood in the association between family breakup in childhood and self-rated health in young adulthood. Results The multivariate results support an association between a negative family social environment in childhood and poor self-perceived health in adulthood. The association found between parental separation or divorce in childhood and poor self-perceived health in adulthood was mediated by parent-child relationships and by having witnessed interparental violence during childhood. Conclusion These results argue for interventions that enhance family cohesion, particularly after family disruptions during childhood, to promote health in young adulthood.
Alexis R. Santos-Lozada
Full Text Available This paper evaluates racial/ethnic differences in self-rated mental health for adults in the United States, while controlling for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics as well as length of stay in the country. Using data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey Cancer Control Supplement (NHIS-CCS, binomial logistic regression models are fit to estimate the association between race/ethnicity and poor/fair self-reported mental health among US Adults. The size of the analytical sample was 22,844 persons. Overall prevalence of poor/fair self-rated mental health was 7.72%, with lower prevalence among Hispanics (6.93%. Non-Hispanic blacks had the highest prevalence (10.38%. After controls for socioeconomic characteristics are incorporated in the models, Hispanics were found to have a lower probability of reporting poor/fair self-rated mental health in comparison to non-Hispanic whites (OR = 0.70; 95% CI [0.55–0.90]. No difference was found for other minority groups when compared to the reference group in the final model. Contrary to global self-rated health, Hispanics were found to have a lower probability of reporting poor/fair self-rated mental health in comparison to non-Hispanic whites. No difference was found for non-Hispanic blacks when they were compared to non-Hispanic whites. Self-rated mental health is therefore one case of a self-rating of health in which evidence supporting the epidemiological paradox is found among adults in the United States.
Molsted, Stig; Aadahl, Mette; Schou, Lone
OBJECTIVE: Along with survival and other types of clinical outcome, physical, mental and social well-being are important indicators of the effectiveness of the medical care that haemodialysis (HD) patients receive. The present cross-sectional study was designed to assess self-rated health in HD...... patients were included. They were asked to complete the Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire and additional questions concerning education and employment status. The SF-36 consists of eight scales representing physical, social, mental and general health. Clinical, biochemical and dialysis adequacy data were...... patients from a large Danish HD centre compared to a Danish general population sample with similar sex and age distributions. Furthermore, employment status and associations between self-rated health and clinical, social and demographic factors were investigated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 150...
Nielsen, Torben Heien
, and future hospital records. I use both measures separately to control for health in a regression of mortality on wealth. Using only historical and current hospitalization controls for health yields the common result that SRH is a stronger predictor of mortality than objective health measures. The addition...... of future hospitalizations as controls shows that the estimated gradient on wealth is similar to one in which SRH is the control. The results suggest that with a sufficiently long time series of individual records, objective health measures can predict mortality to the same extent as global self......This paper investigates whether self-rated health (SRH) covaries with individual hospital records. By linking the Danish Longitudinal Survey on Ageing with individual hospital records covering all hospital admissions from 1995 to 2006, I show that SRH is correlated to historical, current...
Roelsgaard, Ida Kristiane; Olesen, Anne Marie; Simonsen, Mette Kildevæld
BACKGROUND: Self-rated health (SRH) has been shown to be a strong predictor of mortality from a number of major chronic diseases, however, the association with cancer remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible association between change in SRH and cancer incidence...... proportional hazards model with adjustment for age, smoking, alcohol, marital status, physical activity, body mass index and estrogen replacement therapy. RESULTS: No significant association was found between SRH and overall cancer incidence in the age-adjusted Cox proportional hazards model (1.04; 95% CI 0...
Becks, Lutz; Agrawal, Aneil F
The evolution and maintenance of sexual reproduction has puzzled biologists for decades. Although this field is rich in hypotheses, experimental evidence is scarce. Some important experiments have demonstrated differences in evolutionary rates between sexual and asexual populations; other experiments have documented evolutionary changes in phenomena related to genetic mixing, such as recombination and selfing. However, direct experiments of the evolution of sex within populations are extremely rare (but see ref. 12). Here we use the rotifer, Brachionus calyciflorus, which is capable of both sexual and asexual reproduction, to test recent theory predicting that there is more opportunity for sex to evolve in spatially heterogeneous environments. Replicated experimental populations of rotifers were maintained in homogeneous environments, composed of either high- or low-quality food habitats, or in heterogeneous environments that consisted of a mix of the two habitats. For populations maintained in either type of homogeneous environment, the rate of sex evolves rapidly towards zero. In contrast, higher rates of sex evolve in populations experiencing spatially heterogeneous environments. The data indicate that the higher level of sex observed under heterogeneity is not due to sex being less costly or selection against sex being less efficient; rather sex is sufficiently advantageous in heterogeneous environments to overwhelm its inherent costs. Counter to some alternative theories for the evolution of sex, there is no evidence that genetic drift plays any part in the evolution of sex in these populations.
Khawaja, Marwan; Mowafi, Mona
This paper examines the association between cultural capital and self-rated psychosocial health among poor, ever-married Lebanese women living in an urban context. Both self-rated general and mental health status were assessed using data from a cross-sectional survey of 1,869 women conducted in 2003. Associations between self-rated general and mental health status and cultural capital were obtained using chi (2) tests and odds ratios from binary logistic regression models. Cultural capital had significant associations with self-perceived general and mental health status net of the effects of social capital, SES, demographics, community and health risk factors. For example, the odds ratios for poor general and mental health associated with low cultural capital were 4.5 (CI: 2.95-6.95) and 2.9 (CI: 2.09-4.05), respectively, as compared to participants with high cultural capital. As expected, health risk factors were significantly associated with both measures of health status. However, demographic and community variables were associated with general health but not with mental health status. The findings pertaining to social capital and measures of SES were mixed. Cultural capital was a powerful and significant predictor of self-perceived general and mental health among women living in poor urban communities.
Jelicic, M; Kempen, GIJM
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of self-reported health on. cognitive function in community dwelling elderly (N = 4,528). Research participants were divided into four groups with regard to self-rated health. Statistically controlling for the effects of depression, age, and
Wu, Chi-Fang; Wang, Ming-Sheng; Eamon, Mary Keegan
Using a national sample of single mothers from the 2007 and 2009 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, this study examined the effects of multiple employment statuses on the selfrated health of single mothers during the recent economic recession. Unlike other studies, the current study minimized selection bias by controlling for prior self-rated health, in addition to other predisposing factors, enabling factors, and need factors. We found that underemployment, but not unemployment, is associated with lower levels of self-rated health of single mothers. Results further indicate that the 25-39 age range (compared to the 18-24 age range), lower family income, prior lower self-rated health, more chronic diseases, and binge drinking place single mothers at an increased risk of lower levels of self-rated health. In contrast, strength-building physical activity is significantly associated with higher levels of self-rated health. Implications for health care policy and social work practice are drawn from the results.
Huijts, Tim; Perkins, Jessica M.; Subramanian, S. V.
Background Studies on political ideology and health have found associations between individual ideology and health as well as between ecological measures of political ideology and health. Individual ideology and aggregate measures such as political regimes, however, were never examined simultaneously. Methodology/Principal Findings Using adjusted logistic multilevel models to analyze data on individuals from 29 European countries and Israel, we found that individual ideology and political regime are independently associated with self-rated health. Individuals with rightwing ideologies report better health than leftwing individuals. Respondents from Eastern Europe and former Soviet republics report poorer health than individuals from social democratic, liberal, Christian conservative, and former Mediterranean dictatorship countries. In contrast to individual ideology and political regimes, country level aggregations of individual ideology are not related to reporting poor health. Conclusions/Significance This study shows that although both individual political ideology and contextual political regime are independently associated with individuals' self-rated health, individual political ideology appears to be more strongly associated with self-rated health than political regime. PMID:20661433
Objectives This study was conducted to determine the number of hours worked per week by full-time wage workers by using the data of the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study (KLIPS), which represents the domestic urban area household, and to determine the association between weekly working hours and the level of self-rated health. Methods We used data from the 11th KLIPS conducted in 2008. The subjects of this study were 3,699 full-time wage workers between the ages of 25 and 64 years. The association between weekly working hours and self-rated health was analyzed considering socio-demographic characteristics, work environment, and health-related behaviors. Results Among the workers, 29.7% worked less than 40 hours per week; 39.7%, more than 40 to 52 hours; 19.7%, more than 52 to 60 hours; and 10.9%, more than 60 hours per week. After controlling for socio-demographic variables, work environment-related variables, and health-related behavior variables, the odds ratio (OR) for poor self-rated health for the group working more than 40 hours and up to 52 hours was calculated to be 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.89-1.27) when the group working less than 40 hours per week was considered the reference. The OR for the group working more than 60 hours was 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10-1.83) and that for the group working more than 52 hours and up to 60 hours was 1.07 (95% CI, 0.86-1.33). After stratification by gender and tenure, the OR of the female workers group and that of the group with a tenure of more than 1 year were found to be significantly higher than those of the other groups. Conclusions This study showed that workers working more than 60 hours per week have a significantly higher risk of poor self-rated health than workers working less than 40 hours per week. This effect was more obvious for the female workers group and the group with a tenure of more than 1 year. In the future, longitudinal studies may be needed to determine the association between long working
Song, Jun-Taek; Lee, Goeun; Kwon, Jongho; Park, Jung-Woo; Choi, Hyunrim; Lim, Sinye
This study was conducted to determine the number of hours worked per week by full-time wage workers by using the data of the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study (KLIPS), which represents the domestic urban area household, and to determine the association between weekly working hours and the level of self-rated health. We used data from the 11th KLIPS conducted in 2008. The subjects of this study were 3,699 full-time wage workers between the ages of 25 and 64 years. The association between weekly working hours and self-rated health was analyzed considering socio-demographic characteristics, work environment, and health-related behaviors. Among the workers, 29.7% worked less than 40 hours per week; 39.7%, more than 40 to 52 hours; 19.7%, more than 52 to 60 hours; and 10.9%, more than 60 hours per week. After controlling for socio-demographic variables, work environment-related variables, and health-related behavior variables, the odds ratio (OR) for poor self-rated health for the group working more than 40 hours and up to 52 hours was calculated to be 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.89-1.27) when the group working less than 40 hours per week was considered the reference. The OR for the group working more than 60 hours was 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10-1.83) and that for the group working more than 52 hours and up to 60 hours was 1.07 (95% CI, 0.86-1.33). After stratification by gender and tenure, the OR of the female workers group and that of the group with a tenure of more than 1 year were found to be significantly higher than those of the other groups. This study showed that workers working more than 60 hours per week have a significantly higher risk of poor self-rated health than workers working less than 40 hours per week. This effect was more obvious for the female workers group and the group with a tenure of more than 1 year. In the future, longitudinal studies may be needed to determine the association between long working hours and various health effects in Korean
Kawai, Hisashi; Inomata, Takashi; Otsuka, Rika; Sugiyama, Yoichi; Hirano, Hirohiko; Obuchi, Shuichi
The maintenance and improvement of self-rated health is important for prolonging healthy life expectancy in a well-aged society. In the present study, we examined the effectiveness of beauty care on self-rated health among community-dwelling older people through a quasi- randomized controlled trial by propensity score matching (PSM). One hundred twelve community-dwelling older people who were recruited from the local community, participated in a beauty care program that consisted of two training sessions per month for 3 months and daily enforcement of facial skin care (intervention group). Seven hundred fifty-nine participants who received a comprehensive geriatric assessment were treated as a control group. Sex, age, BMI, lifestyle habits, hand grip strength, walking speed, skeletal muscle mass, bone density, medical history and life function (Kihon Checklist) were matched by the PSM method. We compared the subjects' self-rated health, depressive mood status (self-rating depression scale: SDS), and the frequency of going outdoors in the intervention and control groups before and after intervention. The improvements of SDS were significantly greater in the intervention group than in the control group. The self-rated health and the frequency of going outdoors were maintained in the intervention group but were significantly decreased in the control group. We conclude that beauty care is effective for maintaining and improving the self-rated health and depression status of community-dwelling older people and that it may help prolong healthy life expectancy.
Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; Terracciano, Antonio; Ferrucci, Luigi; Costa, Paul T.
We examined the influence of personality traits on mean levels and age trends in four single-item measures of self-rated health: General rating, comparison to age peers, comparison to past health, and expectations for future health. Community-dwelling participants (N = 1,683) completed 7,474 self-rated health assessments over a period of up to 19-years. In hierarchical linear modeling analyses, age-associated declines differed across the four health items. Across age groups, high neuroticism and low conscientiousness, low extraversion, and low openness were associated with worse health ratings, with notable differences across the four health items. Furthermore, high neuroticism predicted steeper declines in health ratings involving temporal comparisons. We consider theoretical implications regarding the mechanisms behind associations among personality traits and self-rated health. PMID:21299558
Pikhart, H; Bobak, M; Siegrist, J; Pajak, A; Rywik, S; Kyshegyi, J; Gostautas, A; Skodova, Z; Marmot, M
STUDY OBJECTIVES—To examine whether psychosocial factors at work are related to self rated health in post-communist countries. DESIGN AND SETTINGS—Random samples of men and women in five communities in four countries were sent a postal questionnaire (Poland, Czech Republic and Lithuania) or were invited to an interview (Hungary). Working subjects (n=3941) reported their self rated health in the past 12 months (5 point scale), their socioeconomic circumstances, perceived control over life, and...
Wang, Bo-Ram; Yu, Shieun; Noh, Jin-Won; Kwon, Young Dae
The number of North Korean refugees entering South Korea has increased recently. The health status of refugees is a significant factor in determining their success in resettlement; therefore, this study examined both the self-rated health status of North Korean defectors who have settled in South Korea and the factors associated with their self-rated health status. This study utilized data gained from face-to-face interviews with 500 North Korean defectors who arrived in South Korea in 2007. The interviews were structured and conducted by 'Yonsei University Research Team for North Korean defectors'. A stepwise multivariable linear regression was performed to determine the factors associated with their self-rated health status. North Korean defectors who were female, elderly, or had low annual household income, disability or chronic diseases reported lower health status. However, self-rated health status was higher among those who had settled in South Korea for 18 months or more, who were satisfied with government support or their current life, and who had experienced more traumatic events in North Korea. Government policies and refugee assistance programs should consider and reflect the factors relevant to the health status of North Korean defectors.
Novak, Dario; Emeljanovas, Arunas; Mieziene, Brigita; Štefan, Lovro; Kawachi, Ichiro
ABSTRACT Background. Adolescents’ self-rated health is related to a number of sociodemographic and socio-economic factors, health-related behaviors, and their social environment. The impact of the latter is still not well explored. An adolescent’s social environment is represented by the social capital, i.e. social resources that they can access. The relationships between various contexts of social capital (family, neighborhood, peers, and school) and self-rated health among adolescents are still unclear. Objective. This study aims to examine the relationships between various social capital contexts and self-rated health in Lithuanian adolescents. Methods. The current cross-sectional study includes a nationally representative sample of 1863 adolescents (51.4% were girls) aged 14–18 years. The indicators of self-rated health as well as indicators of social capital in family, neighborhood, and school contexts were assessed. The results of the relationships between self-rated health and contexts of social capital were calculated controlling for the following covariates: physical activity, psychological distress, gender, body mass index, and family socioeconomic status. Results. Results indicate that there are significant relationships between good self-rated health and a higher level of family support, neighborhood trust, and vertical school trust. In the final logistic regression model, while controlling for all covariates, a higher level of family support and neighborhood trust remain significant predictors of good self-rated health. Conclusions. Family support and neighborhood trust are important correlates of self-rated health in adolescents. PMID:29871556
Novak, Dario; Emeljanovas, Arunas; Mieziene, Brigita; Štefan, Lovro; Kawachi, Ichiro
Adolescents' self-rated health is related to a number of sociodemographic and socio-economic factors, health-related behaviors, and their social environment. The impact of the latter is still not well explored. An adolescent's social environment is represented by the social capital, i.e. social resources that they can access. The relationships between various contexts of social capital (family, neighborhood, peers, and school) and self-rated health among adolescents are still unclear. This study aims to examine the relationships between various social capital contexts and self-rated health in Lithuanian adolescents. The current cross-sectional study includes a nationally representative sample of 1863 adolescents (51.4% were girls) aged 14-18 years. The indicators of self-rated health as well as indicators of social capital in family, neighborhood, and school contexts were assessed. The results of the relationships between self-rated health and contexts of social capital were calculated controlling for the following covariates: physical activity, psychological distress, gender, body mass index, and family socioeconomic status. Results indicate that there are significant relationships between good self-rated health and a higher level of family support, neighborhood trust, and vertical school trust. In the final logistic regression model, while controlling for all covariates, a higher level of family support and neighborhood trust remain significant predictors of good self-rated health. Family support and neighborhood trust are important correlates of self-rated health in adolescents.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although self-rated health has been extensively studied in community older people, its determinants have seldom been investigated in institutional settings. We carried out a cross-sectional study to describe the physical, mental, and social factors associated with self-rated health in nursing homes and other geriatric facilities. Methods A representative sample of 800 subjects 65 years of age and older living in 19 public and 30 private institutions of Madrid was randomly selected through stratified cluster sampling. Residents, caregivers, physicians, and nurses were interviewed by trained geriatricians using standardized instruments to assess self-rated health, chronic illnesses, functional capacity, cognitive status, depressive symptoms, vision and hearing problems, and social support. Results Of the 669 interviewed residents (response rate 84%, 55% rated their health as good or very good. There was no association with sex or age. Residents in private facilities and those who completed primary education had significantly better health perception. The adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval for worse health perception was 1.18 (1.07–1.28 for each additional chronic condition, 2.37 (1.38–4.06 when comparing residents with moderate dependency to those functionally independent, and 10.45 (5.84–18.68 when comparing residents with moderate/severe depressive symptoms to those without symptoms. Visual problems were also associated with worse health perception. Similar results were obtained in subgroup analyses, except for inconsistencies in cognitively impaired individuals. Conclusion Chronic conditions, functional status, depressive symptoms and socioeconomic factors were the main determinants of perceived health among Spanish institutionalized elderly persons. Doubts remain about the proper assessment of subjective health in residents with altered cognition.
Pförtner, T-K; Schumann, N
Prevention and reduction of poverty are key elements of social welfare policy in Germany. This study is the first analysis of self-rated health of individuals that escape poverty by benefiting form public transfers. Analyses are based on the German Socio-economic Panel (GSOEP) of 2010. Self-rated health was based on subjective assessment of general health status. Subjects were directly asked about receipt of public transfers. Income poverty was based on the equalized disposable income and is applied to a threshold of 60% of the median-based average income. We analyzed the association between self-rated health and pre- and post-transfer poverty by means of descriptive analyses and binary logistic regression. After adjusting for age, we found a significantly higher risk of poor self-rated health among those who escaped income poverty due to the receipt of social transfers compared to others (ORWomen: 1.85; 95%-CI: 1.27-2.69; ORMen: 2.57; 95%-CI: 1.63-4.05), in particular to those at risk of post-transfer poverty. These poverty-related inequalities in health were predominantly explained by nationality, occupational status, household type and long-term care within the household. This study provides first evidence that the receipt of public transfers is associated with increased risk of poor health in the light of impending income-poverty. This study adds to the current debate about the social and health implications of public transfers in the relationship between poverty and health. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Vuorisalmi, Merja; Sarkeala, Tytti; Hervonen, Antti; Jylhä, Marja
The congruence between self-rated global health (SRH) and proxy-rated global health (PRH), the factors associated with congruence between SRH and PRH, and their associations with mortality are examined using data from the Vitality 90+ study. The data consist of 213 pairs of subjects--aged 90 years and older--and proxies. The relationship between SRH and PRH was analyzed by chi-square test and Cohen's kappa. Logistic regression analysis was used to find out the factors that are associated with the congruence between health ratings. The association between SRH and PRH with mortality was studied using Cox proportional hazard models. The subjects rated their health more negatively than the proxies. Kappa value indicated only slight congruence between SRH and PRH, and they also predicted mortality differently. Good self-reported functional ability was associated with congruence between SRH and PRH. The results imply that the evaluation processes of SRH and PRH differ, and the measures are not directly interchangeable. Both measures are useful health indicators in very old age but SRH cannot be replaced by PRH in analyses. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Meredith, Pamela; Strong, Jenny; Ford, Pauline; Branjerdporn, Grace
Although adult attachment theory has been revealed as a useful theoretical framework for understanding a range of health parameters, the associations between adult attachment patterns and a range of oral health parameters have not yet been examined. The aim of this study was to examine potential associations between attachment insecurity and: (1) oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), (2) oral health behaviours, and (3) self-rated oral health. In association with this aim, sample characteristics were compared with normative data. The sample in this cross-sectional study was comprised of 265 healthy adults, recruited via convenience sampling. Data were collected on attachment patterns (Experiences in Close Relationships Scale-Short Form, ECR-S), OHRQoL (Oral Health Impact Profile-14, OHIP-14), oral health behaviours (modified Dental Neglect Scale, m-DNS), and self-rated oral health (one-item global rating of oral health). Multivariate regression models were performed. Both dimensions of attachment insecurity were associated with lowered use of favourable dental visiting behaviours, as well as decreased OHRQoL for both overall well-being and specific aspects of OHRQoL. Attachment avoidance was linked with diminished self-rated oral health. This study supports the potential value of an adult attachment framework for understanding a range of oral health parameters. The assessment of a client's attachment pattern may assist in the identification of people who are at risk of diminished OHRQoL, less adaptive dental visiting behaviours, or poorer oral health. Further research in this field may inform ways in which attachment approaches can enhance oral health-related interventions.
Halonen, Jaana I; Lanki, Timo; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Turunen, Anu W; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi
Road traffic noise is a common environmental nuisance, which has been thought to increase the risk of many types of health problems. However, population-level evidence often remains scarce. This study examined whether road traffic noise is associated with self-rated health and use of psychotropic medication in a cohort of public sector employees. Data are from the Finnish Public Sector Study cohort. Geographical information system (GIS) was used to link modeled outdoor road traffic noise levels (L den) to residential addresses of 15 611 men and women with cross-sectional survey responses on self-rated health and register-based information on the use of antidepressants, anxiolytics, and hypnotics. High trait anxiety scores were used to identify potentially vulnerable individuals. The analyses were run with logistic regression models adjusting for individual and area-level variables. All participants were blind to the aim of the study. Mean level of road traffic noise at participants' home addresses was 52 decibels (dB) (standard deviation 8.1). Noise level >60 dB versus ≤45 dB was associated with poor self-rated health in men [odds ratio (OR) 1.58, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.14-2.21]. Further stratification revealed that the association was evident only among men with high trait anxiety scores (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.28-3.89). No association was found with psychotropic medication use or among women. Exposure to road traffic noise was not associated with increased use of psychotropic medication, although it was associated with weakened self-rated health among men.
The study examines whether adult literacy skills predict self-rated health status beyond educational credentials in 17 developed countries using a cross-national survey, the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC). The study uses linear regression models with country-level fixed effects to predict self-rated health to account the unobserved country-level heterogeneity. A total of 73,806 respondents aged 25 to 65 were included in the analysis. Although adult literacy is positively associated with better self-rated health in general, the strength of the relationship varies across nations. The literacy-related health inequalities are less severe in countries with the higher public share of health expenditures that may better address the needs of individuals with limited cognitive abilities. Curriculum standardization also contributes to reducing the literacy gradients in health by decreasing variations in skills obtained in school across individuals with different social origins. Overall, this study reveals that promoting equity in adult literacy skills is an important way to improve a population's health. Country-level differences in the strength of the relationship between literacy and self-rated health are systematically related to between-country differences in health financing and educational systems.
Jalaludin, Bin B; Garden, Frances L
Mental health can be influenced by a number of neighbourhood physical and social environmental characteristics. We aimed to determine whether urban sprawl (based on population density) in Sydney, Australia, is associated with self-rated health and psychological distress. We used a cross-sectional multilevel study design. Individual level data on self-rated health and psychological distress were obtained from the 2006 and 2007 NSW Population Health Survey. We did not find significant associations between urban sprawl and self-rated health and psychological distress after controlling for individual and area level covariates. However, positive neighbourhood factors were generally associated with better self-rated health and lower psychological distress but few of these associations were statistically significant.
Tsoh, Janice Y; Sentell, Tetine; Gildengorin, Ginny; Le, Gem M; Chan, Elaine; Fung, Lei-Chun; Pasick, Rena J; Stewart, Susan; Wong, Ching; Woo, Kent; Burke, Adam; Wang, Jun; McPhee, Stephen J; Nguyen, Tung T
Older Chinese immigrants are a growing population in the United States who experience multiple healthcare communication barriers such as limited English proficiency and low health literacy. Each of these obstacles has been associated with poor health outcomes but less is known about their effects in combination. This study examined the association between healthcare communication barriers and self-rated health among older Chinese immigrants. Cross-sectional survey data were obtained from 705 Chinese American immigrants ages 50-75 living in San Francisco, California. Communication barriers examined included spoken English proficiency, medical interpreter needs, and health literacy in written health information. The study sample (81 % females, mean age = 62) included 67 % who spoke English poorly or not at all, 34 % who reported needing a medical interpreter, and 37 % who reported "often" or "always" needing assistance to read health information. Two-thirds reported poor self-rated health; many reported having access to racial-concordant (74 %) and language-concordant (86 %) healthcare services. Both poor spoken English proficiency and low health literacy were associated with poor self-rated health, independent of other significant correlates (unemployment, chronic health conditions, and having a primary doctor who was ethnic Chinese). Results revealed that spoken English proficiency and print health literacy are independent communication barriers that are directly associated with health status among elderly Chinese American immigrants. Access to racial- or language-concordant health care services did not appear to resolve these barriers. These findings underscore the importance of addressing both spoken and written healthcare communication needs among older Chinese American immigrants.
Paulo Roberto Borges de Souza Junior
Full Text Available In 2008, a survey was applied to a probabilistically selected sample of 1,245 HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy in Brazil. In this work, the analysis was focused on self-rated health. The analysis was conducted according to sex, age, socioeconomic variables, and clinical and treatment-related patient characteristics. Through stepwise logistic regression procedures, the main predictors of good perception of health status were established. Results showed that 65% self-rated health state as good or excellent, 81% do have no or slight difficulty in following treatment, but 34% men and 47% women reported intense or extreme degree of anxiety/worry feelings. Educational level, work situation, presence of side effects and AIDS-related symptoms were the main predictors of good self-perception of health. Problems related to animus status, involving worry and anxiety about the future are still barriers that must be overcome to improve quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS.
Hasson, Dan; Arnetz, Bengt B; Theorell, Töres; Anderberg, Ulla Maria
The aim of the present study was to determine health-related risk and salutogenic factors and to use these to construct prediction models for future self-rated health (SRH), i.e. find possible characteristics predicting individuals improving or worsening in SRH over time (0-12 months). A prospective study was conducted with measurements (physiological markers and self-ratings) at 0, 6 and 12 months, involving 303 employees (187 men and 116 women, age 23-64) from four information technology and two media companies. There were a multitude of statistically significant cross-sectional correlations (Spearman's Rho) between SRH and other self-ratings as well as physiological markers. Predictors of future SRH were baseline ratings of SRH, self-esteem and social support (logistic regression), and SRH, sleep quality and sense of coherence (linear regression). The results of the present study indicate that baseline SRH and other self-ratings are predictive of future SRH. It is cautiously implied that SRH, self-esteem, social support, sleep quality and sense of coherence might be predictors of future SRH and therefore possibly also of various future health outcomes.
Erik R. Sund
Full Text Available The article examines the relationship between neighbourhood social capital and two health outcomes: selfrated health and depression. A total of 42,571 individuals aged 30–67 years participated in a cross-sectional total population health study in Nord-Trøndelag in 1995–1997 (HUNT II and were investigated using multilevel modelling. Aims were, first, to investigate potential area effects after accounting for the characteristics of individuals in the neighbourhoods (N = 155, and, second, to explore the relationships between contextual social capital (the level of trust at the neighbourhood level and the level of local organizational activity and the two health measures. Models with stepwise inclusion of individual level factors attenuated the ward level variance for both self-rated health (PCV: 41% and depression (PCV: 43%. The inclusion of the two contextual social capital items attenuated the ward level variance for both self-rated health and depression, however to varying degrees. At the individual level, contextual social capital was associated with both self-rated health and depression. Individuals living in wards with a low level of trust experienced an increased risk of 1.36 (95% CI: 1.13-1.63 for poor self-rated health compared to individuals in wards with a high level of trust. For depression, this effect was even stronger (OR 1.52, 1.23-1.87. The associations with the level of organizational activity were inconsistent and weaker for both health outcomes. It was concluded that geographical variations in self-rated health and depression are largely due to the socioeconomic characteristics of individuals. Nevertheless, contextual social capital, expressed as the level of trust, was found to be associated with depression and self-rated health at individual level.
Full Text Available Objectives: Despite the well-established association between self-rated health and mortality, research findings have been inconsistent regarding how men and women differ on this link. Using a national sample in the United States, this study compared American male and female older adults for the predictive role of baseline self-rated health on the short-term risk of mortality. Methods: This longitudinal study followed 1500 older adults (573 men (38.2% and 927 women (61.8% aged 66 years or older for 3 years from 2001 to 2004. The main predictor of interest was self-rated health, which was measured using a single item in 2001. The outcome was the risk of all-cause mortality during the 3-year follow-up period. Demographic factors (race and age, socio-economic factors (education and marital status, and health behaviors (smoking and drinking were covariates. Gender was the focal moderator. We ran logistic regression models in the pooled sample and also stratified by gender, with self-rated health treated as either nominal variables, poor compared to other levels (i.e. fair, good, or excellent or excellent compared to other levels (i.e. good, fair, or poor, or an ordinal variable. Results: In the pooled sample, baseline self-rated health predicted mortality risk, regardless of how the variable was treated. We found a significant interaction between gender and poor self-rated health, indicating a stronger effect of poor self-rated health on mortality risk for men compared to women. Gender did not interact with excellent self-rated health on mortality. Conclusion: Perceived poor self-rated health better reflects risk of mortality over a short period of time for older men compared to older women. Clinicians may need to take poor self-rated health of older men very seriously. Future research should test whether the differential predictive validity of self-rated health based on gender is due to a different meaning of poor self-rated health for older men
Duan, Jun-Jie; Wang, Dong; Nie, Jun
To investigate the self-rated health status of the floating population in a district of Guangzhou. Cluster stratified random sampling was applied to survey 219 floating people from a community in Guangzhou, who were assessed with self-rated health status was assessed with Self-Rated Health Measurement Scale. The scores of the floating population were significantly higher than the normal individuals in physical health sub-scales (Pfloating population were significantly lower in psychological and social health sub-scales (Panxiety, depression and obsession, and those in the subscale of social health mainly in participation in social activities and seeking help from others. To improve the health status of the floating population, campaigns of health education need to be launched periodically and psychological counseling should be provided for these individuals. Additionally, interactive activities should be increased in their daily social life.
Chiu, Maria; Rahman, Farah; Kurdyak, Paul; Cairney, John; Jembere, Nathaniel; Vigod, Simone
Lone parenthood is associated with poorer health; however, the vast majority of previous studies have examined lone mothers and only a few have focused on lone fathers. We aimed to examine the self-rated health and mental health status among a large population-based cross-sectional sample of Canadian lone fathers compared with both partnered fathers and lone mothers. We investigated differences in self-rated health and mental health among 1058 lone fathers compared with 20 692 partnered fathers and 5725 lone mothers using the Ontario component of the Canadian Community Health Survey (2001-2013). Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare the odds of poor/fair self-rated health and mental health between the study groups while adjusting for a comprehensive list of sociodemographic factors, stressors and lifestyle factors. Lone fathers and lone mothers showed similar prevalence of poor/fair self-rated health (11.6% and 12.5%, respectively) and mental health (6.2% and 8.4%, respectively); the odds were similar even after multivariable adjustment. Lone fathers showed higher odds of poor/fair self-rated health (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.17) and mental health (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.26 to 3.46) than partnered fathers after adjustment for sociodemographic factors; however, these differences were no longer significant after accounting for stressors, including low income and unemployment. In this large population-based study, lone fathers had worse self-rated health and mental health than partnered fathers and similarly poor self-rated health and mental health as lone mothers. Interventions, supports and social policies designed for single parents should also recognise the needs of lone fathers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Pinto, Juliana Martins; Fontaine, Anne Marie; Neri, Anita Liberalesso
Chronic diseases, signals and symptoms of health problems and objective losses in functionality are seen as strongly related to low levels of life satisfaction in old age. Among seniors, self-rated health is associated with both quality of health and life satisfaction, but its relationships with objective health measures are controversial. This study aimed at identifying the influence of self-rated health as a mediator of the relationships between objectives indicators of physical and mental health and the elderly's life satisfaction. Self-reporting and physical performance measures were derived from the data basis of the FIBRA Study, which investigated frailty and associated variables in a cross-sectional sample of 2164 subjects aged 65 and above, randomly selected in seven Brazilian cities. A model considering satisfaction as a dependent variable, the number of diseases, frailty, cognitive status and depressive symptoms as predictors and self-rated health as a mediating variable was tested through path analysis. The model fit the data well and explained 19% of life satisfaction's variance. According to the bootstrapping method, indirect effects were significant for all trajectories, suggesting that self-rated health is a mediator variable between physical and mental health and elderlýs life satisfaction. In conclusion, adverse conditions of physical and mental health can influence the elderlýs life satisfaction, mostly when they determine a decrease in their levels of self-rated health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Demirchyan, Anahit; Petrosyan, Varduhi; Thompson, Michael E
Self-rated health is a widely used health outcome measure that strongly correlates with physical and mental health status and predicts mortality. This study identified the set of predictors of fair/poor self-rated health in adult female and male populations of Armenia during a period of long-lasting socio-economic transition to a market economy. Differences in self-rated health were analyzed along three dimensions: socioeconomic, behavioral/attitudinal, and psychosocial. The study utilized data from a 2006 nationwide household health survey that used a multi-stage probability proportional to size cluster sampling with a combination of interviewer-administered and self-administered surveys. Both female and male representatives of a household aged 18 and over completed the self-administered survey. Multivariate odds ratios (OR) for fair/poor self-rated health were calculated for different sets of variables and logistic regression models fitted separately for women and men to identify the determinants of fair/poor self-rated health. Overall, 2310 women and 462 men participated in the survey. The rate of fair/poor self-rated health was 61.8% among women and 59.7% among men. For women, the set of independent predictors of fair/poor self-rated health included age, unemployment, poverty, low affordability of healthcare, depression, and weak social support. For men, the set included age, lower education, depression, weak social support, and drinking alcohol less than once a week. For both genders, depression and weak social support demonstrated the strongest independent association with fair/poor self-rated health. The prevalence of fair/poor self-rated health was similar among men and women in this study, but the sets of independent predictors of perceived health differed somewhat, possibly, reflecting lifestyle differences between men and women in Armenia. Nevertheless, psychosocial variables were the strongest predictors of fair/poor self-rated health for both genders
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Self-rated health is a widely used health outcome measure that strongly correlates with physical and mental health status and predicts mortality. This study identified the set of predictors of fair/poor self-rated health in adult female and male populations of Armenia during a period of long-lasting socio-economic transition to a market economy. Methods Differences in self-rated health were analyzed along three dimensions: socioeconomic, behavioral/attitudinal, and psychosocial. The study utilized data from a 2006 nationwide household health survey that used a multi-stage probability proportional to size cluster sampling with a combination of interviewer-administered and self-administered surveys. Both female and male representatives of a household aged 18 and over completed the self-administered survey. Multivariate odds ratios (OR for fair/poor self-rated health were calculated for different sets of variables and logistic regression models fitted separately for women and men to identify the determinants of fair/poor self-rated health. Results Overall, 2310 women and 462 men participated in the survey. The rate of fair/poor self-rated health was 61.8% among women and 59.7% among men. For women, the set of independent predictors of fair/poor self-rated health included age, unemployment, poverty, low affordability of healthcare, depression, and weak social support. For men, the set included age, lower education, depression, weak social support, and drinking alcohol less than once a week. For both genders, depression and weak social support demonstrated the strongest independent association with fair/poor self-rated health. Conclusions The prevalence of fair/poor self-rated health was similar among men and women in this study, but the sets of independent predictors of perceived health differed somewhat, possibly, reflecting lifestyle differences between men and women in Armenia. Nevertheless, psychosocial variables were the
Mayer, Adam; Foster, Michelle
Self-rated health is demonstrated to vary substantially by both personal socio-economic status and national economic conditions. However, studies investigating the combined influence of individual and country level economic indicators across several countries in the context of recent global recession are limited. This paper furthers our knowledge of the effect of recession on health at both the individual and national level. Using the Life in Transition II study, which provides data from 19,759 individuals across 26 European nations, we examine the relationship between self-rated health, personal economic experiences, and macro-economic change. Data analyses include, but are not limited to, the partial proportional odds model which permits the effect of predictors to vary across different levels of our dependent variable. Household experiences with recession, especially a loss of staple good consumption, are associated with lower self-rated health. Most individual-level experiences with recession, such as a job loss, have relatively small negative effects on perceived health; the effect of individual or household economic hardship is strongest in high income nations. Our findings also suggest that macroeconomic growth improves self-rated health in low-income nations but has no effect in high-income nations. Individuals with the greatest probability of "good" self-rated health reside in wealthy countries ($23,910 to $50, 870 GNI per capita). Both individual and national economic variables are predictive of self-rated health. Personal and household experiences are most consequential for self-rated health in high income nations, while macroeconomic growth is most consequential in low-income nations.
Full Text Available Self-rated health is demonstrated to vary substantially by both personal socio-economic status and national economic conditions. However, studies investigating the combined influence of individual and country level economic indicators across several countries in the context of recent global recession are limited. This paper furthers our knowledge of the effect of recession on health at both the individual and national level.Using the Life in Transition II study, which provides data from 19,759 individuals across 26 European nations, we examine the relationship between self-rated health, personal economic experiences, and macro-economic change. Data analyses include, but are not limited to, the partial proportional odds model which permits the effect of predictors to vary across different levels of our dependent variable.Household experiences with recession, especially a loss of staple good consumption, are associated with lower self-rated health. Most individual-level experiences with recession, such as a job loss, have relatively small negative effects on perceived health; the effect of individual or household economic hardship is strongest in high income nations. Our findings also suggest that macroeconomic growth improves self-rated health in low-income nations but has no effect in high-income nations. Individuals with the greatest probability of "good" self-rated health reside in wealthy countries ($23,910 to $50, 870 GNI per capita.Both individual and national economic variables are predictive of self-rated health. Personal and household experiences are most consequential for self-rated health in high income nations, while macroeconomic growth is most consequential in low-income nations.
Boland, Máirín C
There is limited background information on self-rated health in people with disability in Ireland. This paper examines self-rated health scores and dimensions of functioning in people attending disability services and compares scores to the general population in Ireland, which has not been done before.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is mounting evidence that discriminatory experiences can harm health. However, previous research has mainly focused on the health effects of racial discrimination in U.S. or European countries although there is pervasive discrimination by gender, age, education and other factors in Asian countries. METHODS: We analyzed the data from the 7th wave of Korean Labor and Income Panel Study to investigate the association between perceived discriminatory experience and poor self-rated health in South Korea. Perceived discriminatory experiences were measured in eight situations through a modified Experience of Discrimination questionnaire. In each of eight situations, the lifetime prevalence of perceived discriminatory experience was compared between men and women and the main causes of those experiences were identified separately by gender. After adjusting for potential confounders, we examined the association between perceived discriminatory experience and poor self-rated health in each of eight social situations and also checked the association using the number of situations of perceived discriminatory experiences. RESULTS: For both men and women, education level and age were the main sources of work-related perceived discriminatory experiences. Gender was one of the main causes among women across eight situations and more than 90% of women reported their gender as a main cause of discriminatory experience in getting higher education and at home. Discriminatory experiences in four situations were positively associated with poor self-rated health. The odds ratio for poor self-rated health for those exposed to one, two, three or four or more social situations of perceived discrimination were respectively 1.06 (95% CI : 0.87-1.29, 1.15 (95% CI : 0.96-1.55, 1.59 (95% CI : 1.19-2.14, and 1.78 (95% CI :1.26-2.51. CONCLUSION: There is consistent association between perceived discriminatory experience and poor self-rated health across eight
Winter, Torsten; Roos, Eva; Rahkonen, Ossi; Martikainen, Pekka; Lahelma, Eero
Work-family conflicts are common, but their effects on health are not well known. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between work-family conflicts and self-rated health among middle-aged municipal employees. In addition, the effect of social background factors on the association between work-family conflicts and self-rated health were examined. The data were based on cross-sectional postal surveys, which were carried out in 2001 and 2002, among female and male employees of the city of Helsinki, Finland. The participants were aged 40-60, and the response rate for women was 69%, and for men 60%. In the final analysis, 3,443 women and 875 men were included. For men and woman alike, work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts were associated with poor self-rated health. The association remained after adjusting for sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors. This study shows that a better balance between family life and work outside the home would probably have a health promoting effect.
Høy, Bente; Wagner, Lis; Hall, Elisabeth O.C.
into self-care as a significant health resource of elders with different health status. It suggests that an elder's self-care ability is determined by the interaction of various sub-resources and conditions and emphasizes the constantly evolving nature of self-care. The framework may be of use in clinical...... practice, policy-making and research into health care of frail or robust elders.......AIM: To review the literature related to self-care and health promotion for elders and to develop an understanding of self-care as a health resource. BACKGROUND: Self-care may improve health and prevent illness and disabilities in elders. Although studies of self-care are numerous, the significance...
Khawaja, Marwan; Mowafi, Mona
This study extends research on the social determinants of health by exploring the association between a new, potentially very significant dimension, cultural capital by type, and self-rated health among low-income women living in outer Beirut, Lebanon. Self-rated general health was assessed using household data from a cross-sectional survey of 1869 women, conducted in 2003. Three types of cultural capital were included: watching cultural TV programs, producing art (e.g. drawing, theatre performance), and consuming art or literature (e.g. attending exhibitions, reading literary books). Associations between self-rated health status and types of cultural capital were assessed using odds ratios from binary logistic regression models. With the exception of art production, lack of cultural capital increased the odds of self-perceived poor health status adjusting for sociodemographics and other risk factors. The adjusted odds ratios were 1.86 (95% CI 1.07-3.22) for not watching cultural TV programs and 1.52 (95% CI 1.12-2.06) for not consuming art. As expected, health-risk factors, age, social support, and community of residence were also associated with health status. Two types of cultural capital were strong predictors of self-perceived health status among women living in poor urban communities, regardless of social capital, income, and other relevant risk factors.
Arnetz Bengt B
Full Text Available Abstract Objective The aim of the present study was to determine health-related risk and salutogenic factors and to use these to construct prediction models for future self-rated health (SRH, i.e. find possible characteristics predicting individuals improving or worsening in SRH over time (0–12 months. Methods A prospective study was conducted with measurements (physiological markers and self-ratings at 0, 6 and 12 months, involving 303 employees (187 men and 116 women, age 23–64 from four information technology and two media companies. Results There were a multitude of statistically significant cross-sectional correlations (Spearman's Rho between SRH and other self-ratings as well as physiological markers. Predictors of future SRH were baseline ratings of SRH, self-esteem and social support (logistic regression, and SRH, sleep quality and sense of coherence (linear regression. Conclusion The results of the present study indicate that baseline SRH and other self-ratings are predictive of future SRH. It is cautiously implied that SRH, self-esteem, social support, sleep quality and sense of coherence might be predictors of future SRH and therefore possibly also of various future health outcomes.
Harpsøe, Maria C; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore; Frisch, Morten
Poor self-rated health (SRH) has been connected to immunological changes, and pregnancy complications have been suggested in the etiology of autoimmune diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We evaluated the impact of self-rated pre-pregnancy health and pregnancy course, hyperemesis......, gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia on risk of IBD....
Thompson Michael E
Full Text Available Abstract Background The former soviet Republic of Armenia entered a turbulent and long-lasting economic transition when it declared its independence in 1991. This analysis sought to identify the determinants of poor self-rated health as an indirect measure of health status and mortality prognosis in an adult female population during a period of socio-economic transition in Armenia. Methods Differences in self-rated health in women respondents were analyzed along three main dimensions: social, behavioral/attitudinal, and psychological. The data used were generated from cross-sectional household health surveys conducted in Armavir marz in 2001 and 2004. The surveys utilized the same instruments and study design (probability proportional to size, multistage cluster sampling with a combination of interviewer-administered and self-administered surveys and generated two independent samples of households representative of Armavir marz. Binary logistic regression models with self-rated health as the outcome were fitted to the 2001 and 2004 datasets and a combined 2001/2004 dataset. Results Overall, 2 038 women aged 18 and over participated in the two surveys (1 019 in each. The rate of perceived "poor" health was relatively high in both surveys: 38.1% in 2001 and 27.0% in 2004. The sets of independent predictors of poor self-rated health were similar in all three models and included severe and moderate material deprivation, probable and possible depression, low level of education, and having ever smoked. These predictors mediated the effect of women's economic activity (including unemployment, ethnicity, low access to/utilization of healthcare services, and living alone on self-rated health. Conclusion Material deprivation was the most influential predictor of self-rated health. Thus, social reforms to decrease the gap between the rich and poor are recommended as a powerful tool for reducing health inequalities and improving the health status of the
Hansen, Andreas W; Beyer, Nina; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Grønbæk, Morten; Helge, Jørn W
To describe associations of muscle strength, physical activity and self-rated health. Isometric muscle strength by maximal handgrip strength (HGS) or muscle strength by 30s repeated chair stand test (30s-CS) was combined with leisure time physical activity. Using logistic regression odds ratio was calculated for good self-rated health according to the combined associations among 16,539 participants (59.7% women), mean age 51.9 (SD: 13.8) years, from a cross-sectional study in Denmark 2007-2008. Good self-rated health was positively associated with higher levels of physical activity and greater muscle strength. Regarding HGS the highest OR for good self-rated health was in the moderate/vigorous physically active participants with high HGS (OR=6.84, 95% CI: 4.85-9.65 and OR=7.34, 95% CI: 5.42-9.96 for men and women, respectively). Similarly the highest OR for good self-rated health was in the moderate/vigorous physically active participants with high scores in the 30s-CS test (6.06, 95% CI: 4.32-8.50 and 13.38, 95% CI: 9.59-18.67 for men and women, respectively). The reference groups were sedentary participants with low strength (HGS or 30s-CS). The combined score for physical activity level with either HGS or 30s-CS was strongly positively associated with self-related health. © 2013.
Avlund, Kirsten; Modvig, Jens Simon; Due, Pernille
The purpose of this study was to analyse whether development in self-rated health (SRH) over four years was associated with the structure of and satisfaction with social relations, at four and eight years follow-up, among elderly women and men.......The purpose of this study was to analyse whether development in self-rated health (SRH) over four years was associated with the structure of and satisfaction with social relations, at four and eight years follow-up, among elderly women and men....
Full Text Available Three main opposing camps exist over how social capital relates to population health, namely the social support perspective, the inequality thesis, and the political economy approach. The distinction among bonding, bridging, and linking social capital probably helps close the debates between these three camps, which is rarely investigated in existing literatures. Moreover, although self-rated health is a frequently used health indicator in studies on the relationship between social capital and health, the interpersonal incomparability of this measure has been largely neglected. This study has two main objectives. Firstly, we aim to investigate the relationship between bonding, bridging, and linking social capital and self-rated health among Chinese adults. Secondly, we aim to improve the interpersonal comparability in self-rated health measurement. We use data from a nationally representative survey in China. Self-rated health was adjusted using the anchoring vignettes technique to improve comparability. Two-level ordinal logistic regression was performed to model the association between social capital and self-rated health at both individual and community levels. The interaction between residence and social capital was included to examine urban/rural disparities in the relationship. We found that most social capital indicators had a significant relationship with adjusted self-rated health of Chinese adults, but the relationships were mixed. Individual-level bonding, linking social capital, and community-level bridging social capital were positively related with health. Significant urban/rural disparities appeared in the association between community-level bonding, linking social capital, and adjusted self-rated health. For example, people living in communities with higher bonding social capital tended to report poorer adjusted self-rated health in urban areas, but the opposite tendency held for rural areas. Furthermore, the comparison between
Chen, He; Meng, Tianguang
Three main opposing camps exist over how social capital relates to population health, namely the social support perspective, the inequality thesis, and the political economy approach. The distinction among bonding, bridging, and linking social capital probably helps close the debates between these three camps, which is rarely investigated in existing literatures. Moreover, although self-rated health is a frequently used health indicator in studies on the relationship between social capital and health, the interpersonal incomparability of this measure has been largely neglected. This study has two main objectives. Firstly, we aim to investigate the relationship between bonding, bridging, and linking social capital and self-rated health among Chinese adults. Secondly, we aim to improve the interpersonal comparability in self-rated health measurement. We use data from a nationally representative survey in China. Self-rated health was adjusted using the anchoring vignettes technique to improve comparability. Two-level ordinal logistic regression was performed to model the association between social capital and self-rated health at both individual and community levels. The interaction between residence and social capital was included to examine urban/rural disparities in the relationship. We found that most social capital indicators had a significant relationship with adjusted self-rated health of Chinese adults, but the relationships were mixed. Individual-level bonding, linking social capital, and community-level bridging social capital were positively related with health. Significant urban/rural disparities appeared in the association between community-level bonding, linking social capital, and adjusted self-rated health. For example, people living in communities with higher bonding social capital tended to report poorer adjusted self-rated health in urban areas, but the opposite tendency held for rural areas. Furthermore, the comparison between multivariate analyses
Detollenaere, Jens; Baert, Stijn; Willems, Sara
Abstract: We study whether migrant health in Europe is associated with the cultural distance between their host country and country of origin. To this end, we run multilevel regression models on data merging self-rated health and social background of ae3800 migrants from the European Social Survey with an index of cultural distance based on country differences in values, norms and attitudes measured in the World Values Survey. We find that higher levels of cultural distance are associated wit...
Campos-Matos, Inês; Subramanian, S V; Kawachi, Ichiro
Generalized interpersonal trust (as an indicator of social capital) has been linked to health status at both the individual and ecological level. We sought to examine how changes in contextual and individual trust are associated with changes in self-rated health in the European Social Surveys 2002-12. A multilevel analysis using a variance components model was performed on 203 452 individuals nested within 145 country cohorts covering 35 countries. Conditional on sociodemographic covariates, we sought to examine the association between self-rated health and individual trust, country average trust and a cross-level interaction between the two. Although individual trust perceptions were significantly correlated with self-rated health [OR = 0.95, 95% confidence interval (0.94-0.96)], country-level trust was not associated [OR = 1.12, 95% confidence interval (0.95-1.32)]. There was, however, a strong crosslevel interaction between contextual and individual trust (P < 0.001), such that individuals with high interpersonal trust reported better health in contexts in which other individuals expressed high average interpersonal trust. Conversely, low trust individuals reported worse health in high trust contexts. Our findings suggest that contexts with increasing average trust can be harmful for low trust individuals, which might reflect the negative impact that social capital can have in certain groups. These findings suggest that contextual trust has a complex role in explaining health inequalities and individual self-rated health. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Ebrahimi, Zahra; Dahlin-Ivanoff, Synneve; Eklund, Kajsa; Jakobsson, Annika; Wilhelmson, Katarina
The aim of this study was to analyse the explanatory power of variables measuring health-strengthening factors for self-rated health among community-living frail older people. Frailty is commonly constructed as a multi-dimensional geriatric syndrome ascribed to the multi-system deterioration of the reserve capacity in older age. Frailty in older people is associated with decreased physical and psychological well-being. However, knowledge about the experiences of health in frail older people is still limited. The design of the study was cross-sectional. The data were collected between October 2008 and November 2010 through face-to-face structured interviews with older people aged 65-96 years (N = 161). Binary logistic regression was used to analyse whether a set of explanatory relevant variables is associated with self-rated health. The results from the final model showed that satisfaction with one's ability to take care of oneself, having 10 or fewer symptoms and not feeling lonely had the best explanatory power for community-living frail older peoples' experiences of good health. The results indicate that a multi-disciplinary approach is desirable, where the focus should not only be on medical problems but also on providing supportive services to older people to maintain their independence and experiences of health despite frailty. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Habib, Rima R; Elzein, Kareem; Hojeij, Safa
This research evaluated the association between women's self-rated health and a number of socioeconomic and environmental health indicators relating to drinking water services in an underserved Lebanese community. A population-based, cross-sectional survey using interviews was adopted to obtain information from female homemakers of 2,223 households in the town of Bebnine, Lebanon. The questionnaire included indicators on self-rated health, satisfaction with water quality, source of drinking water, occurrence of diarrhea, and socioeconomic variables, such as education, occupation, and perceived economic status. Self-rated health was categorized as poor, fair, and good. Odds ratios for poor and fair compared to good self-rated health values were calculated using multinomial logistic regression. A total of 712 women (32%) reported poor self-rated health. Women who perceived their household income to be worse than others in town were four times as likely to report poor health. Compared to women who were satisfied with drinking water quality, dissatisfied women were 42% more likely to report poor health. Women living in households reporting recent episodes of diarrheal illness had poorer health ratings than those without. The findings suggest a positive relationship between individual perceptions of water quality and self-rated health. Community concerns over their surrounding environment serve as a primary guide for infrastructural development and government policy.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intersectionality theory, a way of understanding social inequalities by race, gender, class, and sexuality that emphasizes their mutually constitutive natures, possesses potential to uncover and explicate previously unknown health inequalities. In this paper, the intersectionality principles of "directionality," "simultaneity," "multiplicativity," and "multiple jeopardy" are applied to inequalities in self-rated health by race, gender, class, and sexual orientation in a Canadian sample. Methods The Canadian Community Health Survey 2.1 (N = 90,310 provided nationally representative data that enabled binary logistic regression modeling on fair/poor self-rated health in two analytical stages. The additive stage involved regressing self-rated health on race, gender, class, and sexual orientation singly and then as a set. The intersectional stage involved consideration of two-way and three-way interaction terms between the inequality variables added to the full additive model created in the previous stage. Results From an additive perspective, poor self-rated health outcomes were reported by respondents claiming Aboriginal, Asian, or South Asian affiliations, lower class respondents, and bisexual respondents. However, each axis of inequality interacted significantly with at least one other: multiple jeopardy pertained to poor homosexuals and to South Asian women who were at unexpectedly high risks of fair/poor self-rated health and mitigating effects were experienced by poor women and by poor Asian Canadians who were less likely than expected to report fair/poor health. Conclusions Although a variety of intersections between race, gender, class, and sexual orientation were associated with especially high risks of fair/poor self-rated health, they were not all consistent with the predictions of intersectionality theory. I conclude that an intersectionality theory well suited for explicating health inequalities in Canada should be
Background Intersectionality theory, a way of understanding social inequalities by race, gender, class, and sexuality that emphasizes their mutually constitutive natures, possesses potential to uncover and explicate previously unknown health inequalities. In this paper, the intersectionality principles of "directionality," "simultaneity," "multiplicativity," and "multiple jeopardy" are applied to inequalities in self-rated health by race, gender, class, and sexual orientation in a Canadian sample. Methods The Canadian Community Health Survey 2.1 (N = 90,310) provided nationally representative data that enabled binary logistic regression modeling on fair/poor self-rated health in two analytical stages. The additive stage involved regressing self-rated health on race, gender, class, and sexual orientation singly and then as a set. The intersectional stage involved consideration of two-way and three-way interaction terms between the inequality variables added to the full additive model created in the previous stage. Results From an additive perspective, poor self-rated health outcomes were reported by respondents claiming Aboriginal, Asian, or South Asian affiliations, lower class respondents, and bisexual respondents. However, each axis of inequality interacted significantly with at least one other: multiple jeopardy pertained to poor homosexuals and to South Asian women who were at unexpectedly high risks of fair/poor self-rated health and mitigating effects were experienced by poor women and by poor Asian Canadians who were less likely than expected to report fair/poor health. Conclusions Although a variety of intersections between race, gender, class, and sexual orientation were associated with especially high risks of fair/poor self-rated health, they were not all consistent with the predictions of intersectionality theory. I conclude that an intersectionality theory well suited for explicating health inequalities in Canada should be capable of accommodating axis
Kobayashi, Tomoko; Honjo, Kaori; Eshak, Ehab Salah; Iso, Hiroyasu; Sawada, Norie; Tsugane, Shoichiro
To examine associations between work–family conflict and self-rated health among Japanese workers and to determine whether the associations differed by household income. Data was derived from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation in Saku area in 2011–2012 (7,663 men and 7,070 women). Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for poor self-rated health by work–family conflict consisting of two dimensions (work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts) were calculated by gender and household income. Multivariate ORs of high work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts for poor self-rated health were 2.46 (95% CI; 2.04–2.97) for men and 3.54 (95% CI; 2.92–4.30) for women, with reference to the low work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts (p-value for gender interaction = 0.02). Subgroup analysis indicated that health effects of work–family conflict were likely to be more evident in the low income group only among women. Work–family conflict was associated with poor self-rated health among middle-aged Japanese men and women; its health impact was relatively stronger among women, and particularly economically disadvantaged women. PMID:28207757
Kobayashi, Tomoko; Honjo, Kaori; Eshak, Ehab Salah; Iso, Hiroyasu; Sawada, Norie; Tsugane, Shoichiro
To examine associations between work-family conflict and self-rated health among Japanese workers and to determine whether the associations differed by household income. Data was derived from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation in Saku area in 2011-2012 (7,663 men and 7,070 women). Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for poor self-rated health by work-family conflict consisting of two dimensions (work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts) were calculated by gender and household income. Multivariate ORs of high work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts for poor self-rated health were 2.46 (95% CI; 2.04-2.97) for men and 3.54 (95% CI; 2.92-4.30) for women, with reference to the low work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts (p-value for gender interaction = 0.02). Subgroup analysis indicated that health effects of work-family conflict were likely to be more evident in the low income group only among women. Work-family conflict was associated with poor self-rated health among middle-aged Japanese men and women; its health impact was relatively stronger among women, and particularly economically disadvantaged women.
Verhaeghe, Pieter-Paul; Pattyn, Elise; Bracke, Piet; Verhaeghe, Mieke; Van De Putte, Bart
This study examines whether there is an association between network social capital and self-rated health after controlling for social support. Moreover, we distinguish between network social capital that emerges from strong ties and weak ties. We used a cross-sectional representative sample of 815 adults from the Belgian population. Social capital is measured with the position generator and perceived social support with the MOS Social Support-scale. Results suggest that network social capital is associated with self-rated health after adjustment for social support. Because different social classes have access to different sets of resources, resources of friends and family from the intermediate and higher service classes are beneficial for self-rated health, whereas resources of friends and family from the working class appear to be rather detrimental for self-rated health. From a health-promoting perspective, these findings indicate that policy makers should deal with the root causes of socioeconomic disadvantages in society. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lyytikäinen, Laura; Kemppainen, Teemu
Using the data from the European Social Survey (round 6, 2012), this article studies regional inequalities in self-rated health in Russia and examines the role that socio-demographic factors and economic and social capital play in these differences. Also, the regional variation in the determinants of self-rated health is analysed. The article argues that there are considerable and statistically significant unadjusted differences in self-rated health across Russian Federal Districts. We elaborated these differences by regression adjustments, with the result that some of the differences were explained by our predictors and some were amplified. The odds for good self-rated health were lower in the Volga than in Central Russia due to age and socio-economic composition. In contrast, the regression adjustments amplified the differences of the Northwest and the South in comparison to the Central District. The odds for good self-rated health were considerably lower in the Far Eastern part of the country than in the Central District, independently of the adjustments. While social and economic capital predicted good self-rated health at the individual level, they did not explain regional differences. Interaction analyses revealed regional variation in some of the determinants of self-rated health. Most notably, the effects of age, trade union membership and volunteering depended on the regional context. This article argues that the healthcare reforms that transfer funding responsibilities to regional administration may be dangerous for the already less affluent and less healthy rural regions. Thus, regional governance has a growing importance in preventing increases in health inequalities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bamia, Christina; Orfanos, Philippos; Juerges, Hendrik
Objectives To evaluate, among the elderly, the association of self-rated health (SRH) with mortality, and to identify determinants of self-rating health as “at-least-good”. Study design Individual data on SRH and important covariates were obtained for 424,791 European and United States residents...... associations. Factors favourably associated with SRH were: sex (males), age (younger-old), education (high), marital status (married/cohabiting), physical activity (active), body mass index (non-obese), alcohol consumption (low to moderate) and previous morbidity (absence). Conclusion SRH provides a quick...... and simple tool for assessing health and identifying groups of elders at risk of early mortality that may be useful also in clinical settings. Modifying determinants of favourably rating health, e.g. by increasing physical activity and/or by eliminating obesity, may be important for older adults to “feel...
Adverse economic shocks exert an influence on health perceptions, but little is known about the effect of sudden positive changes in a person’s financial situation on self-rated health, particularly among low income people. This paper explores the association between an increase in the amount of non-contribution pensions, public cash transfers given to Costa Rican elderly of low socio-economic status (SES) and changes in self-rated health over time. The analysis is based on data from CRELES, the “Costa Rican Study on Longevity and Healthy Aging”, which is based on a probabilistic sample of people born in 1945 or earlier, and living in Costa Rica by 2002. The fieldwork for the first and second waves of CRELES was conducted from 2004 to 2006, and from 2006 to 2008, respectively. The Costa Rican Government raised the amount of the non-contribution pension for the poor 100% before July 2007, and an additional 100% after that date. Due to the CRELES fieldwork schedule, the data have a natural quasi-experimental design, given that approximately half of CRELES respondents were interviewed before July 2007, independently of their status in receiving the public cash transfers. Using random effects ordered probit regression models, we find that people who experienced such increase report a greater improvement in self-rated health between waves than those who experienced a smaller increase and than the rest of the interviewees. Results suggest that increases in income may lead to a greater improvement in self-rated health. PMID:21440352
Bustos-Vázquez, Eduardo; Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Astudillo-Garcia, Claudia Iveth
Self-rated health is an individual and subjective conceptualization involving the intersection of biological, social and psychological factors. It provides an invaluable and unique evaluation of a person's general health status. To propose and evaluate a simple conceptual model to understand self-rated health and its relationship to multimorbidity, disability and depressive symptoms in Mexican older adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study based on a national representative sample of 8,874 adults of 60 years of age and older. Self-perception of a positive health status was determined according to a Likert-type scale based on the question: "What do you think is your current health status?" Intermediate variables included multimorbidity, disability and depressive symptoms, as well as dichotomous exogenous variables (sex, having a partner, participation in decision-making and poverty). The proposed conceptual model was validated using a general structural equation model with a logit link function for positive self-rated health. A direct association was found between multimorbidity and positive self-rated health (OR=0.48; 95% CI: 0.42-0.55), disability and positive self-rated health (OR=0.35; 95% CI: 0.30-0.40), depressive symptoms and positive self-rated health (OR=0.38; 95% CI: 0.34-0.43). The model also validated indirect associations between disability and depressive symptoms (OR=2.25; 95% CI: 2.01- 2.52), multimorbidity and depressive symptoms (OR=1.79; 95% CI: 1.61-2.00) and multimorbidity and disability (OR=1.98; 95% CI: 1.78-2.20). A parsimonious theoretical model was empirically evaluated, which enabled identifying direct and indirect associations with positive self-rated health.
Veldhuis, Cindy B; Talley, Amelia E; Hancock, David W; Wilsnack, Sharon C; Hughes, Tonda L
Given that self-perceptions of mental and physical health are important predictors of health outcomes and well-being, particularly among older adults, this study focuses on associations among age, alcohol consumption, and indicators of both self-rated mental health and self-rated physical health in a sample of sexual minority women (SMW). This study uses a community sample of SMW to examine the associations among age, drinking, and self-rated mental and physical health. Heavy drinking among older adult SMW (55+) was less prevalent than among young SMW, ages 18-25 and ages 26-39, but similar to rates reported among SMW ages 40-54. In addition, older SMW reported significantly higher levels of self-rated mental health, compared with SMW in the other age groups, but we found no significant associations between age and self-rated physical health. Across all age groups, moderate drinkers reported better self-rated physical health than alcohol abstainers. Overall, these results suggest that, among SMW, drinking does not decline as sharply with age as it does for heterosexual women in the general population. Given the current and projected increases in the aging population and the risks that heavy drinking presents for morbidity and mortality, interventions aimed at older SMW are needed.
Detollenaere, Jens; Baert, Stijn; Willems, Sara
We study whether migrant health in Europe is associated with the cultural distance between their host country and country of origin. To this end, we run multilevel regression models on data merging self-rated health and social background of ≥3800 migrants from the European Social Survey with an index of cultural distance based on country differences in values, norms and attitudes measured in the World Values Survey. We find that higher levels of cultural distance are associated with worse migrant health. This association is comparable in size with the negative association between health and female (compared with male) gender but less important than the association between health and education level. In addition, this association is less significant among second-generation than first-generation migrants.
Høy, Bente; Wagner, Lis; Hall, Elisabeth O.C.
into self-care as a significant health resource of elders with different health status. It suggests that an elder's self-care ability is determined by the interaction of various sub-resources and conditions and emphasizes the constantly evolving nature of self-care. The framework may be of use in clinical......AIM: To review the literature related to self-care and health promotion for elders and to develop an understanding of self-care as a health resource. BACKGROUND: Self-care may improve health and prevent illness and disabilities in elders. Although studies of self-care are numerous, the significance...... of the concept as a health resource for elders lacks clarity. Before 1989, research focused principally on medical self-care at the expense of health care, and self-care was seen more as supplementary to professional health care rather than as a health-promoting approach in health care. METHOD...
Camelo, Lidyane do V; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi M
Using baseline data from ELSA-Brasil (N = 15,105), we investigated whether subjective social status, measured using three 10-rung "ladders," is associated with self-rated health and smoking, independently of objective indicators of social position and depression symptoms. Additionally, we explored whether the magnitude of these associations varies according to the reference group. Subjective social status was independently associated with poor self-rated health and weakly associated with former smoking. The references used for social comparison did not change these associations significantly. Subjective social status, education, and income represent distinct aspects of social inequities, and the impact of each of these indicators on health is different. © The Author(s) 2013.
Full Text Available Background: Mortality has been declining in Bangladesh since the mid- twentieth century, while fertility has been declining since the late 1970s, and the country is now passing through the third stage of demographic transition. This type of demographic transition has produced a huge youthful population with a growing number of older people. For assessing health among older people, this study examines self-rated health, health state, quality of life and disability level in persons aged 50 and over. Data and methods: This is a collaborative study between the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health and the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health in developing countries which collected data from eight countries. Two sources of data from the Matlab study area were used: health indicator data collected as a part of the study, together with the ongoing Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS data. For the survey, a total of 4,000 randomly selected people aged 50 and over (HDSS database were interviewed. The four health indicators derived from these data are self-rated health (five categories, health state (eight domains, quality of life (eight items and disability level (12 items. Self-rated health was coded as dummy while scores were calculated for the rest of the three health indicators using WHO-tested instruments. Results: After controlling for all the variables in the regression model, all four indicators of health (self-rated health, health state, quality of life and disability level documented that health was better for males than females, and health deteriorates with increasing age. Those people who were in current partnerships had generally better health than those who were single, and better health was associated with higher levels of education and asset score. Conclusions: To improve the health of the population it is important to know health conditions in
Razzaque, Abdur; Nahar, Lutfun; Akter Khanam, Masuma; Kim Streatfield, Peter
Background Mortality has been declining in Bangladesh since the mid- twentieth century, while fertility has been declining since the late 1970s, and the country is now passing through the third stage of demographic transition. This type of demographic transition has produced a huge youthful population with a growing number of older people. For assessing health among older people, this study examines self-rated health, health state, quality of life and disability level in persons aged 50 and over. Data and methods This is a collaborative study between the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health and the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health in developing countries which collected data from eight countries. Two sources of data from the Matlab study area were used: health indicator data collected as a part of the study, together with the ongoing Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) data. For the survey, a total of 4,000 randomly selected people aged 50 and over (HDSS database) were interviewed. The four health indicators derived from these data are self-rated health (five categories), health state (eight domains), quality of life (eight items) and disability level (12 items). Self-rated health was coded as dummy while scores were calculated for the rest of the three health indicators using WHO-tested instruments. Results After controlling for all the variables in the regression model, all four indicators of health (self-rated health, health state, quality of life and disability level) documented that health was better for males than females, and health deteriorates with increasing age. Those people who were in current partnerships had generally better health than those who were single, and better health was associated with higher levels of education and asset score. Conclusions To improve the health of the population it is important to know health conditions in advance rather than
Pikhart, H; Bobak, M; Siegrist, J; Pajak, A; Rywik, S; Kyshegyi, J; Gostautas, A; Skodova, Z; Marmot, M
To examine whether psychosocial factors at work are related to self rated health in post-communist countries. Random samples of men and women in five communities in four countries were sent a postal questionnaire (Poland, Czech Republic and Lithuania) or were invited to an interview (Hungary). Working subjects (n=3941) reported their self rated health in the past 12 months (5 point scale), their socioeconomic circumstances, perceived control over life, and the following aspects of the psychosocial work environment: job control, job demand, job variety, social support, and effort and reward at work (to calculate a ratio of effort/reward imbalance). As the results did not differ by country, pooled analyses were performed. Odds ratios of poor or very poor health ("poor health") were estimated for a 1 SD increase in the scores of work related factors. The overall prevalence of poor health was 6% in men and 7% in women. After controlling for age, sex and community, all work related factors were associated with poor health (pwork related factors remained associated with poor health; the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for 1 SD increase in the effort/reward ratio (log transformed) and job variety were 1.51 (1.29, 1.78) and 0.82 (0.73, 1.00), respectively. Further adjustment for all work related factors did not change these estimates. There were no interactions between individual work related factors, but the effects of job control and social support at work differed by marital status, and the odds ratio of job demand increased with increasing education. The continuous measure of effort/reward imbalance at work was a powerful determinant of self rated health in these post-communist populations. Although the cross sectional design does not allow firm conclusions as to causality, this study suggests that the effect of the psychosocial work environment is not confined to Western populations.
Schmidt, B.; Loerbroks, A.; Herr, R.M.; Wilson, M.G.; Jarczok, M.N.; Litaker, D.; Mauss, D.; Bosch, J.A.; Fischer, J.E.
Background: Protecting the health of the work force has become an important issue in public health research. Purpose: This study aims to explore potential associations between supportive leadership style (SLS), an aspect of leadership behavior, and self-rated health (SRH) among employees. Method: We
Gibbons, Joseph; Barton, Michael S
There exists controversy as to the impact gentrification of cities has on the well-being of minorities. Some accuse gentrification of causing health disparities for disadvantaged minority populations residing in neighborhoods that are changing as a result of these socioeconomic shifts. Past scholarship has suggested that fears of displacement and social isolation associated with gentrification lead to poorer minority health. However, there is a lack of research that directly links gentrification to minority health outcomes. We address this gap with individual data from the 2008 Philadelphia Health Management Corporation's Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Health Survey and census tract data from the 2000 Decennial Census and the 2006-2010 American Community Survey. We implement logistic multilevel models to determine whether and how a resident's self-rated health is affected by gentrification of their neighborhoods. We find that while gentrification does have a marginal effect improving self-rated health for neighborhood residents overall, it leads to worse health outcomes for Blacks. Accounting for racial change, while gentrification leading to increases in White population has no measurable effect on minority health, "Black gentrification" leads to marginally worse health outcomes for Black respondents. These results demonstrate the limitations that improvements of neighborhood socioeconomic character have in offsetting minority health disparities.
Chan, Chee Hon; Wong, Ho Kit; Yip, Paul Siu Fai
To investigate the association of relative income deprivation (RID) with perceived happiness and self-rated health in Hong Kong. We measured RID on Yitzhaki indices constructed using multiple reference groups and used multilevel ordinal logistic regression models to assess its linkages with the two outcomes, using data from 6272 respondents from a large-scale representative household survey. Among the overall population, increased RID was found to be consistently associated with reduced perceived happiness, even after adjusting for respondents' level of absolute income and other socio-demographic covariates; however, there were no consistent associations between RID and self-rated health. In subgroup analysis, we observed significant linkages between RID and self-rated health only among men, the middle and older age ranges, and among those with less education and those not engaged in economic activities. Our findings suggest that RID is adversely associated with perceived happiness. However, its negative linkage with self-rated health is less clear. The weak tie between RID and self-rated health may relate to the Hong Kong context, where the public health system is relatively equitable and has multiple pro-poor health policies.
Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Valizadeh, Farzaneh; Mirshojaee, Seyede Roqaie; Ahmadli, Robabeh; Mokhtari, Mohsen; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Ahmadi, Ali; Rezaei, Heshmatollah; Ansari, Hossein
Introduction: Self-rated health is a brief measure for general health. It is a comprehensive and sensitive index for prediction of health in future. Due to the high internet usage in medical students, the current study designed to evaluate the self-rated health (SRH) in relationship with internet addiction risk factors in medical students. Methods: This cross sectional study conducted on 254 students of Qom University of Medical Sciences 2014. Participants selected by two stage sampling metho...
Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Andersen, Anette
measure was self-reported medicine use during the past month and the determinant was SRH measured by one item. RESULTS: There was an association between poor/fair SRH and medicine use for headache and stomach-ache. The associations remained statistically significant even after adjustment for frequency......PURPOSE: To examine the association between self-rated health (SRH) and medicine use for four common complaints: headache, stomach-ache, difficulties in getting to sleep and nervousness, in a nationally representative sample of adolescents. METHODS: The study population comprised of all students...
Schuring, Merel; Robroek, Suzan J W; Lingsma, Hester F; Burdorf, Alex
This study aimed to investigate (i) the influence of entering or leaving paid employment on self-rated health trajectories before, during, and after this transition and (ii) educational differences in these health trajectories. In this prospective study, we used yearly measurements of self-rated health from the European Community Household Panel (ECHP) to establish how health is affected by employment transitions in or out of the workforce due to early retirement, unemployment or economic inactivity. Trajectories of self-rated health were analyzed among 136 556 persons with low, intermediate, or high educational level by repeated-measures logistic regression with generalized estimating equations. Among low-educated workers, ill-health partly prompted their voluntary labor force exit through early retirement and becoming economically inactive, but thereafter these exit routes seemed to prevent further deterioration of their health. In contrast, among higher educated workers, early retirement had an adverse effect on their self-rated health. Becoming unemployed had adverse effects on self-rated health among all educational levels. Entering paid employment was predetermined by self-rated health improvement in the preceding years among intermediate and high educated workers, whereas, among low-educated workers, self-rated health improved in the year of entering paid employed and continued to improve in the following years. Prolonging working life may have both adverse and beneficial effects on self-rated health. Health inequalities may increase when every person, independent of educational level, must perform paid employment until the same age before being able to retire.
Knol, Linda L.; Robb, Cliff A.; McKinley, Erin M.; Wood, Mary
Background: The prevalence of food insecurity among college students ranges from 14% to 59%. Most of the research to date has examined the determinants of food insecurity. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between food insecurity and self-rated health and obesity among college students living off campus. Methods:…
Lou, Vivian W Q; Lu, Nan; Xu, Ling; Chi, Iris
This study tested the relationship between grandparent-grandchild family capital and self-rated health of older rural Chinese adults and the mediating role of the grandparent-parent relationship in terms of grandparent-grandchild family capital and self-rated health. Data were derived from a random sample of 1,027 adults aged 60 and older who were interviewed in the rural Chaohu region in 2009. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the direct effect of grandparent-grandchild family capital in terms of relations with the first child's family on self-rated health among respondents, as well as the mediating effect of the grandparent-parent relationship. The results showed the direct effect of grandparent-grandchild family capital on self-rated health of older rural Chinese adults. The grandparent-parent relationship had a partial mediation effect on the relationship between grandparent-grandchild family capital and self-rated health of respondents. Grandparent-grandchild family capital had a unique direct effect on the self-rated health of older rural Chinese adults, enriching our theoretical understanding of sources of family capital and their impacts in a collectivist cultural context that emphasizes intergenerational interaction and exchange. The findings also highlighted the mediation effects of grandparent-parent relationships on the relationship between grandparent-grandchild family capital and self-rated health of older rural Chinese adults, supporting the "grandchild-as-linkage" hypothesis in understanding the social determination of self-rated health in China.
Nielsen, Torben Heien
hospital records. I use both measures separately to control for health in a regression of mortality on wealth. Using only historical and current hospitalization controls for health yields the common result, that SRH is a stronger predictor of mortality than objective health measures. The addition of future...... hospitalizations as controls shows that the estimated gradient on wealth is similar to one in which SRH is the control. The results suggest that SRH is able to capture diseases at prodromal stages and that with a sufﬁciently long time series of individual records, objective health measures can predict mortality......This paper investigates whether self-rated health (SRH) co-varies with individual hospital records. By linking the Danish Longitudinal Survey on Aging with individual hospital records covering all hospital admissions from 1995-2006, I show that SRH is correlated to historical, current, and future...
Nielsen, Torben Heien
hospital records. I use both measures separately to control for health in a regression of mortality on wealth. Using only historical and current hospitalization controls for health yields the common result, that SRH is a stronger predictor of mortality than objective health measures. The addition of future...... hospitalizations as controls shows that the estimated gradient on wealth is similar to one in which SRH is the control. The results suggest that SRH is able to capture diseases at prodromal stages and that with a sufficiently long time series ofindividual records, objective health measures can predict mortality......This paper investigates whether self-rated health (SRH) co-varies with individual hospital records. By linking the Danish Longitudinal Survey on Aging with individual hospital records covering all hospital admissions from 1995-2006, I show that SRH is correlated to historical, current, and future...
Burns, Richard A; Sargent-Cox, Kerry; Mitchell, Paul; Anstey, Kaarin J
Self-rated health is frequently used as an indicator of health and quality of life in epidemiological studies. While the association between self-rated health and negative mental health is well established, associations with indictors of positive wellbeing are less clear. Data from the Dynamic Analyses to Optimise Ageing (DYNOPTA) project were used to compare the effects of vitality and mental health on self-rated health. Participants (n = 40,712) provided information on vitality, mental health and self-rated health, were aged 45-95 years at baseline, and were followed between 1 and 10 years (M = 5.6; SD = 2.9). In comparison with mental health, multi-level modelling indicated between- and within-person change in vitality was more strongly associated with self-rated health. Bivariate dual change score modelling of the cross-lagged associations between vitality and self-rated health indicated vitality to be a stronger predictor of change in self-rated health. Self-rated health was unrelated to change in vitality. Vitality accounted for most of the mental health effect on self-rated health and was identified as a significant predictor of change in self-rated health over a 10-year period. Promoting wellbeing and psychological functioning may have significant protective effects on negative health outcomes throughout the adult lifespan and into late life.
Alang, Sirry M; McCreedy, Ellen M; McAlpine, Donna D
Previous work has not fully explored the role of race in the health of immigrants. We investigate race and ethnic differences in self-rated health (SRH) among immigrants, assess the degree to which socio-economic characteristics explain race and ethnic differences, and examine whether time in the USA affects racial and ethnic patterning of SRH among immigrants. Data came from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey (N = 16, 288). Using logistic regression, we examine race and ethnic differences in SRH controlling for socio-economic differences and length of time in the country. Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black immigrants were the most socio-economically disadvantaged. Asian immigrants were socio-economically similar to non-Hispanic White immigrants. Contrary to U.S. racial patterning, Black immigrants had lower odds of poor SRH than did non-Hispanic White immigrants when socio-demographic factors were controlled. When length of stay in the USA was included in the model, there were no racial or ethnic differences in SRH. However, living in the USA for 15 years and longer was associated with increased odds of poor SRH for all immigrants. Findings have implications for research on racial and ethnic disparities in health. Black-White disparities that have received much policy attention do not play out when we examine self-assessed health among immigrants. The reasons why non-Hispanic Black immigrants have similar self-rated health than non-Hispanic White immigrants even though they face greater socio-economic disadvantage warrant further attention.
Nedjat, Saharnaz; Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Hossein; Golestan, Banafsheh; Majdzadeh, Reza
Measuring the distribution of health is a part of assessing health system performance. This study aims to estimate health inequality between different socioeconomic groups and its determinants in Tehran, the capital of Iran. Self-rated health (SRH) and demographic characteristics, including gender, age, marital status, educational years, and assets, were measured by structured interviews of 2464 residents of Tehran in 2008. A concentration index was calculated to measure health inequality by economic status. The association of potential determinants and SRH was assessed through multivariate logistic regression. The contribution to concentration index of level of education, marital status and other determining factors was assessed by decomposition. The mean age of respondents was 41.4 years (SD 17.7) and 49% of them were men. The mean score of SRH status was 3.72 (range: 1-5; SD 0.93). 282 respondents (11.5%) rated their health status as poor or very poor. The concentration index was -0.29 (SE 0.03; pinequality in SRH were economic status (47.8%), level of education (29.2%) and age (23.0%). Sub-optimal SRH was more in lower than in higher economic status. After controlling for age, the levels of education and household wealth have the greatest contributions to SRH inequality.
Mueller Caroline V
Full Text Available Background The stress associated with residency training may place house officers at risk for poorer health. We sought to determine the level of self-reported health among resident physicians and to ascertain factors that are associated with their reported health. Methods A questionnaire was administered to house officers in 4 residency programs at a large Midwestern medical center. Self-rated health was determined by using a health rating scale (ranging from 0 = death to 100 = perfect health and a Likert scale (ranging from "poor" health to "excellent" health. Independent variables included demographics, residency program type, post-graduate year level, current rotation, depressive symptoms, religious affiliation, religiosity, religious coping, and spirituality. Results We collected data from 227 subjects (92% response rate. The overall mean (SD health rating score was 87 (10; range, 40–100, with only 4 (2% subjects reporting a score of 100; on the Likert scale, only 88 (39% reported excellent health. Lower health rating scores were significantly associated (P Conclusion Residents' self-rated health was poorer than might be expected in a cohort of relatively young physicians and was related to program type, depressive symptoms, and spiritual well-being. Future studies should examine whether treating depressive symptoms and attending to spiritual needs can improve the overall health and well-being of primary care house officers.
Kavanagh, Anne M; Bentley, Rebecca; Turrell, Gavin; Broom, Dorothy H; Subramanian, S V
To examine whether area level socioeconomic disadvantage and social capital have different relations with women's and men's self rated health. The study used data from 15 112 respondents to the 1998 Tasmanian (Australia) healthy communities study (60% response rate) nested within 41 statistical local areas. Gender stratified analyses were conducted of the associations between the index of relative socioeconomic disadvantage (IRSD) and social capital (neighbourhood integration, neighbourhood alienation, neighbourhood safety, political participation, social trust, trust in institutions) and individual level self rated health using multilevel logistic regression analysis before (age only) and after adjustment for individual level confounders (marital status, indigenous status, income, education, occupation, smoking). The study also tested for interactions between gender and area level variables. IRSD was associated with poor self rated health for women (age adjusted plevel variables. Political participation and neighbourhood safety were protective for women's self rated health but not for men's. Interactions between gender and political participation (p = 0.010) and neighbourhood safety (p = 0.023) were significant. These finding suggest that women may benefit more than men from higher levels of area social capital.
Eshak, E S; Kamal, N N; Seedhom, A E; Kamal, N N
Egypt's economic reform is accompanied by both financial and social strains. Due to lack of evidence, we examined the associations between work-family conflict in its 2 directions, work-to-family conflicts (WFCs), and family-to-work conflicts (FWCs) and self-rated health in Minia, Egypt, and whether the association will vary by being financially responsible for others and by the level of perceived social support. A cross-sectional study that included 1021 healthy participants aged 18-60 years from Minia district. Data on participants' work-family conflict, social, and demographic data and individual self-rated health were collected by a questionnaire survey. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) with its 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for poor self-rated health according to categories of work-family conflict. There were significant positive associations between the poor self-rated health and both high WFC and FWC. Compared with participants with low WFC and low FWC, participants with high WFC low FWC, low WFC high FWC, and high WFC high FWC had multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for poor self-rated health of 6.93 (3.02-13.13), 2.09 (1.06-4.12), and 10.05 (4.98-20.27), respectively. Giving financial support to others but not the level of perceived social support from others was an effect modifier of the association. Work-family conflict was positively associated with the self-report of poor health, especially in those who were financially responsible for other family members. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maass, Ruca; Kloeckner, Christian A; Lindstrøm, Bengt; Lillefjell, Monica
Neighborhood social capital has repeatedly been linked to favorable health-outcomes and life satisfaction. However, it has been questioned whether it's impact on health has been over-rated. We aim to investigate relationships between neighborhood social capital and self-rated health (SRH) and life satisfaction (LS) respectively, both directly and indirectly mediated via Sense of Coherence and self-esteem. Based on a cross-sectional population-survey (N=865) in a medium size Norwegian municipality, we specified a structural equation model (SEM) including the above-listed variables, while controlling for gender, age, education, income, and employment status. The applied model explains more variance in LS (46%) than in SRH (23%). Social capital has a stronger impact on life satisfaction than on health. The indirect pathway via SOC had the highest impact on life satisfaction, but no significant relationship to SRH. Self-rated health was more tightly linked to personal background variables. Enhancing social capital in the neighborhood might be a beneficial strategy to promote life satisfaction, as well as strengthening sense of coherence even in healthy communities. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Cho, Seong-Sik; Ju, Young-Su; Paek, Domyung; Kim, Hyunjoo; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee
Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of long working hours and low job control on self-rated health. Methods: We analyzed employees’ data obtained from the third Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS). Multiple survey logistic analysis and postestimation commands were employed to estimate the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI). Results: The odds ratio (OR) for poor self-rated health was 1.24 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.13 to 1.35] for long working hours, 1.04 (95% CI: 0.97 to 1.13) for low job control, and 1.47 (95% CI: 1.33 to 1.62) for both long working hours and low job control. The RERI was 0.18 (95% CI: 0.02 to 0.34). Conclusion: These results imply that low job control may increase the negative influence of long working hours on self-rated health. PMID:29200187
Inoue, Yuhei; Sato, Mikihiro; Nakazawa, Makoto
This study examined the extent to which sporting event attendance is associated with self-rated health. Drawing from an economic model of health production and psychological research on the health benefits of psychosocial resources, sporting event attendance was hypothesized to have a positive relationship with self-rated health. A two-level multilevel ordered logistic regression was used to analyze multiyear cross-sectional data collected from national surveys in Japan. The results demonstrate that, controlling for the effects of personal and environmental characteristics, sporting event attendance positively correlates with self-rated health over a 12-year period. Specifically, when compared to individuals who did not attend any sporting event during the past year, those who attended a sporting event were 33% more likely to indicate a higher level of self-rated health. These findings provide evidence for a positive association between sport spectatorship and the perception of general health and contribute to the literature examining the relationship between sport spectatorship and health outcomes.
Laaksonen, Mikko; Rahkonen, Ossi; Martikainen, Pekka; Lahelma, Eero
To examine associations of job demands and job control, procedural and relational organizational fairness, and physical work load with self-rated general health and mental health. In addition, the effect of occupational class on these associations is examined. The data were derived from the Helsinki Health Study baseline surveys in 2001-2002. Respondents to cross-sectional postal surveys were middle-aged employees of the City of Helsinki (n=5.829, response rate 67%). Associations of job demands and job control, organizational fairness and physical work load with less than good self-rated health and poor GHQ-12 mental health were examined. Those with the poorest working conditions two to three times more, often reported poor general and mental health than those with the best working conditions. Adjustment for occupational class weakened the associations of low job control and physical work load with general health by one fifth, but even more strengthened that of high job demands. Adjustment for occupational class clearly strengthened the associations of job control and physical work load with mental health in men. Mutual adjustment for all working conditions notably weakened their associations with both health measures, except those of job control in men. All working conditions except relational organizational fairness remained independently associated with general and mental health. All studied working conditions were strongly associated with both general and mental health but the associations weakened after mutual adjustments. Of the two organizational fairness measures, procedural fairness remained independently associated with both health outcomes. Adjustment for occupational class had essentially different effects on the associations of different working conditions and different health outcomes.
Orban, Ester; Sutcliffe, Robynne; Dragano, Nico; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Moebus, Susanne
Previous research suggests that green environments positively influence health. Several underlying mechanisms have been discussed; one of them is facilitation of social interaction. Further, greener neighborhoods may appear more aesthetic, contributing to satisfaction and well-being. Aim of this study was to analyze the association of residential surrounding greenness with self-rated health, using data from 4480 women and men aged 45-75 years that participated in the German population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study. We further aimed to explore the relationships of greenness and self-rated health with the neighborhood environment and social relations. Surrounding greenness was measured using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) within 100 m around participants' residence. As a result, we found that with higher greenness, poor self-rated health decreased (adjusted OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.82-0.98; per 0.1 increase in NDVI), while neighborhood satisfaction (1.41, 1.23-1.61) and neighborhood social capital (1.22, 1.12-1.32) increased. Further, we observed inverse associations of neighborhood satisfaction (0.70, 0.52-0.94), perceived safety (0.36, 0.22-0.60), social satisfaction (0.43, 0.31-0.58), and neighborhood social capital (0.53, 0.44-0.64) with poor self-rated health. These results underline the importance of incorporating green elements into neighborhoods for health-promoting urban development strategies.
Låftman, Sara Brolin; Modin, Bitte; Östberg, Viveca; Hoven, Hanno; Plenty, Stephanie
According to the workplace theory of effort-reward imbalance (ERI), individuals who perceive a lack of reciprocity between their effort spent at work and the rewards received in turn are at an increased risk of stress-related ill-health. It is also assumed that being overcommitted to work is linked to an increased risk of stress-related ill-health. This study applies the effort-reward imbalance model to the school setting. It aims to analyse the associations that effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment share with somatic pain and self-rated health among adolescents. Data are from the School Stress and Support Study (TriSSS), involving students in grades 8 and 9 (ages 14-16 years) in two schools in Stockholm, Sweden, during 2010 (n=403). Information on effort-reward imbalance and health outcomes was gathered from self-report questionnaires. An adjusted short version of ERI was used. Factor analysis showed that extrinsic effort, reward and overcommitment constitute three distinct dimensions. The designed measures demonstrated sound psychometric properties both for the full sample and for subgroups. Ordered logistic regressions were conducted. The analyses showed that low reward and higher overcommitment were associated with greater somatic pain and poorer self-rated health. Furthermore, effort-reward imbalance was linked with an elevated risk of somatic pain and poorer self-rated health. Students are more likely to experience stress-related ill-health when they perceive an imbalance between their effort and rewards. In addition, high overcommitment is associated with an increased risk of ill-health among students. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
Marques, Adilson; Mota, Jorge; Gaspar, Tânia; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar
In recent years, there has been an increased interest in the associations between physical fitness (PF) and psychosocial aspects of health. This study aimed to analyse the associations between self-reported PF and self-rated health (SRH), life-satisfaction (LS), and quality of life (QoL). This is a cross-sectional study of 3554 adolescents (1652 boys), aged 13-18, from the HBSC Portuguese survey. PF, health, LS and OoL were self-rated. SRH, LS, and health-related OoL (HRQoL) were significantly and positively correlated with all PF components. From regression model, overall fitness was significantly related with SRH (boys: β = 0.18, p < 0.001; girls: β = 0.16, p < 0.001), LS (boys: β = 0.36, p < 0.001; girls: β = 0.43, p < 0.001), and HRQoL (boys: β = 2.26, p < 0.001; girls: β = 2.54, p < 0.001). Cardiorespiratory fitness was also positively and significantly related with SRH (boys: β = 0.17, p < 0.001; girls: β = 0.11, p < 0.001), LS (boys: β = 0.13, p < 0.05; girls: β = 0.31, p < 0.001), and HRQoL (boys: β = 1.74, p < 0.001; girls: β = 1.57, p < 0.001). These findings suggest that perceived PF is associated with a better SRH, LS, and perceived HRQoL. A few implications regarding public policies were highlighted.
Rasheed Kola Ojikutu
Full Text Available This study examines the effect of neighborhood deprivation on the perception of the individuals about their own health in Lagos State, Nigeria. Respondents were required to rate their own health as "excellent, very good, good, fair, poor and very poor". The questionnaire contained questions on various aspect of the respondents neighborhood and their perception about them. It was found that most neighborhoods in Lagos State are deprived of basic essentials of life such as electricity, water, good roads and security. Over 43% of the respondents claimed to have visited a hospital two or more times and 43.7% had lost at least two neighbors in the past one year. Over half (57.8% of the respondents rated their own health as good, 36.6% ranked their own health as fair while only 5.6% claimed to have poor health. A fitted regression model ( r2 = 0.644 showed that variables such as number of dependants, income, occupation, type of residential accommodation, ownership of house, number of rooms occupied, mode and convenience of transportation, accessibility to water, electricity and good roads and security jointly determine the perception of an individual about his own health status.Key Words: Neighborhood, Deprivation, Self Rated Health, Security, ResidenceDOI = 10.3126/dsaj.v2i0.1364Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.2 pp.193-210
Booth, Jaime M; Teixeira, Samantha; Zuberi, Anita; Wallace, John M
Racial/ethnic disparities in self-rated health persist and according to the social determinants of health framework, may be partially explained by residential context. The relationship between neighborhood factors and self-rated health has been examined in isolation but a more holistic approach is needed to understand how these factors may cluster together and how these neighborhood typologies relate to health. To address this gap, we conducted a latent profile analysis using data from the Chicago Community Adult Health Study (CCAHS; N = 2969 respondents in 342 neighborhood clusters) to identify neighborhood profiles, examined differences in neighborhood characteristics among the identified typologies and tested their relationship to self-rated health. Results indicated four distinct classes of neighborhoods that vary significantly on most neighborhood-level social determinants of health and can be defined by racial/ethnic composition and class. Residents in Hispanic, majority black disadvantaged, and majority black non-poor neighborhoods all had significantly poorer self-rated health when compared to majority white neighborhoods. The difference between black non-poor and white neighborhoods in self-rated health was not significant when controlling for individual race/ethnicity. The results indicate that neighborhood factors do cluster by race and class of the neighborhood and that this clustering is related to poorer self-rated health. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Bulut, Elif; Gayman, Matthew D
This study assesses variations in acculturation experiences by identifying distinct acculturation classes, and investigates the role of these acculturation classes for self-rated mental health among Latino and Asian immigrants in the United States. Using 2002-2003 the National Latino and Asian American Study, Latent Class Analysis is used to capture variations in immigrant classes (recent arrivals, separated, bicultural and assimilated), and OLS regressions are used to assess the link between acculturation classes and self-rated mental health. For both Latinos and Asians, bicultural immigrants reported the best mental health, and separated immigrants and recent arrivals reported the worst mental health. The findings also reveal group differences in acculturation classes, whereby Latino immigrants were more likely to be in the separated class and recent arrivals class relative to Asian immigrants. While there was not a significant group difference in self-rated mental health at the bivariate level, controlling for acculturation classes revealed that Latinos report better self-rated mental health than Asians. Thus, Latino immigrants would actually have better self-rated mental health than their Asian counterparts if they were not more likely to be represented in less acculturated classes (separated class and recent arrivals) and/or as likely to be in the bicultural class as their Asian counterparts. Together the findings underscore the nuanced and complex nature of the acculturation process, highlighting the importance of race differences in this process, and demonstrate the role of acculturation classes for immigrant group differences in self-rated mental health.
Osera, Tomoko; Awai, Mitsuyo; Kobayashi, Misako; Tsutie, Setsuko; Kurihara, Nobutaka
Self-rated health (SRH), a subjective assessment of health status, is extensively used in the field of public health. It is an important and valid measure that is strongly related to morbidity, mortality, longevity and health status. Adolescence is a crucial period for the formation of health status, because health-risk behaviours (e.g., skipping breakfast) are often established during this period. In this study, we investigated the relationship of SRH with lifestyle and eating habits in Japanese high school students. In this study, 1296 students aged 16-18 years from 11 high schools in Japan participated. A questionnaire was administered to these participants that included a question on SRH, five questions on demographic characteristics, six questions on lifestyle items (e.g., wake-up time), five questions on miscellaneous health issues (e.g., anorexia), and 25 questions on food habits and attitudes towards food. We examined the differences between self-rated healthy and unhealthy groups using logistic regression analysis adjusted for gender and age. A dichotomy regression analysis was performed using a stepwise elimination method. Of the 1296 respondents, 16.7% reported feeling unhealthy, 57.7% of whom were females. The self-rated healthy group had a higher frequency of eating breakfast (odds ratio (OR): 2.13; confidence interval (CI): 1.07-4.24) and liked home meals to a greater extent (OR: 3.12; CI: 1.27-7.65) than the self-rated unhealthy group. The two groups did not differ significantly in terms of other lifestyle factors or unidentified complaints. Our results suggest that liking home meals during adolescence may lead to the development of good eating habits, i.e., eating breakfast, and better SRH.
Full Text Available Empirical studies on the association between self-rated health (SRH and subsequent mortality are generally lacking in low- and middle-income countries. The evidence on whether socio-economic status and education modify this association is inconsistent. This study aims to fill these gaps using longitudinal data from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS site in Indonesia.In 2010, we assessed the mortality status of 11,753 men and women aged 50+ who lived in Purworejo HDSS and participated in the INDEPTH WHO SAGE baseline in 2007. Information on self-rated health, socio-demographic indicators, disability and chronic disease were collected through face-to-face interview at baseline. We used Cox-proportional hazards regression for mortality and included all variables measured at baseline, including interaction terms between SRH and both education and socio-economic status (SES.During an average of 36 months follow-up, 11% of men and 9.5% of women died, resulting in death rates of 3.1 and 2.6 per 1,000 person-months, respectively. The age-adjusted Hazard Ratio (HR for mortality was 17% higher in men than women (HR = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.04-1.31. After adjustment for covariates, the hazard ratios for mortality in men and women reporting bad health were 3.0 (95% CI = 2.0-4.4 and 4.9 (95% CI = 3.2-7.4, respectively. Education and SES did not modify this association for either sex.This study supports the predictive power of bad self-rated health for subsequent mortality in rural Indonesian men and women 50 years old and over. In these analyses, education and household socio-economic status do not modify the relationship between SRH and mortality. This means that older people who rate their own health poorly should be an important target group for health service interventions.
Full Text Available Abstract Obesity and physical inactivity (PI are risk factors for chronic diseases and are associated with lifestyle and environmental factors. The study tested the association between PI, body mass index (BMI, and self-rated health in a representative sample of the Spanish adult population (N = 21,486. The sample included 41.5% men, with mean age 52.3 years (± 18.03, and age range 20-82 years. Prevalence of overweight/obesity was 34.2%/12.7% in women and 52.1%/12.7% in men (p < 0.001 for obesity in both sexes. 53% of women and 57.5% of men met recommended levels of physical activity by walking (≥ 150 minutes/week. According to logistic regression analysis, individuals that walked less had higher risk of overweight or obesity. Data from the population-based surveillance study support suggestions that regular walking by adults is associated with positive self-rated health and better BMI profile. Obesity and low/very low self-rated health have low prevalence rates to meet the recommendations.
Tucker-Seeley, Reginald D.; Harley, Amy E.; Stoddard, Anne M.; Sorensen, Glorian G.
Background: Self-rated health (SRH) has been shown to be predictive of morbidity and mortality. Evidence also shows that SRH is socioeconomically patterned, although this association differs depending on the indicator of socioeconomic status used. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between SRH and financial hardship among…
Stephan, Yannick; Demulier, Virginie; Terracciano, Antonio
The present study tested whether chronological age moderates the association between subjective age and self-rated health and personality in a community-dwelling life-span sample (N = 1,016; age range: 18-91 years). Self-rated health, extraversion, and openness to experience were associated with a younger subjective age at older ages. Conscientious individuals felt more mature early in life. Conscientiousness, neuroticism, and agreeableness were not related to subjective age at older ages. These findings suggest that with aging self-rated health and personality traits are increasingly important for subjective age. 2013 APA, all rights reserved
Lodin, Karin; Lekander, Mats; Syk, Jörgen; Alving, Kjell; Andreasson, Anna
Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder associated with elevated levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE), serum eosinophilic cationic protein (S-ECP), plasma eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (P-EDN) and fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (F E NO). Poor self-rated health and sickness behaviour has repeatedly been associated with inflammatory markers, but the nature of this relationship in chronic inflammatory disease is not known. Likewise, such findings largely rely on cross-sectional investigations. Self-rated health (How would you rate your general state of health?), sickness behaviour (mean rating of satisfaction with energy, sleep, fitness, appetite and memory), IgE, S-ECP, P-EDN, and F E NO were assessed in 181 non-smoking primary care patients with asthma in a 1-year longitudinal study. Associations between repeated measurements were calculated using mixed regression models and Spearman's correlations for change scores. Poor self-rated health was associated with high levels of seasonal IgE (p = 0.05) and food IgE (p = 0.04), but not total IgE or inflammatory markers. An increase over 1 year in perennial IgE was associated with a worsening of self-rated health (ρ = 0.16, p = 0.04). Poor self-rated health was associated with more pronounced sickness behaviour (p sickness behaviour was associated with a worsening of self-rated health over time (ρ = 0.21, p = 0.007). The study corroborates the importance of sickness behaviour as a determinant of self-rated health by showing that these factors co-vary over a 1-year period in a group of patients with allergic asthma. The importance of specific IgE for perceived health in primary care patients with mild to moderate asthma needs further investigation.
García-Jimenez, María; Santoyo-Olsson, Jasmine; Ortiz, Carmen; Lahiff, Maureen; Sokal-Gutierrez, Karen; Nápoles, Anna Mar
Cancer self-efficacy (CSE) and spiritual well-being (SWB) have been associated with better self-rated health (SRH) among breast cancer survivors (BCS), but have not been well studied among Latina BCS (LBCS). Multivariate logistic regression analyses of secondary data from a cross-sectional population-based telephone survey of 330 LBCS explored relationships of language acculturation, CSE, and SWB subdomains of inner peace and faith with SRH. English proficiency was associated with SRH, independent of other covariates (OR=2.26, 95% CI 1.15, 4.45). Cancer self-efficacy attenuated this effect and was positively associated with SRH (OR=2.24, 95% CI 1.22, 4.10). Adding inner peace (a SWB subscale) attenuated the association of CSE and SRH (OR=1.67, 95% CI 0.88, 3.18). Inner peace remained associated with SRH (OR= 2.44, 95% CI 1.30, 4.56), controlling for covariates. Findings support the importance of a sense of inner peace and control over breast cancer to LBCS’ perceived health.
Kavanagh, Anne M; Turrell, Gavin; Subramanian, S V
Material circumstances and collective psychosocial processes have been invoked as potential explanations for socioeconomic inequalities in health; and, linking social capital has been proposed as a way of reconciling these apparently opposing explanations. We conducted multilevel logistic regression of self-rated health (fair or poor vs excellent, very good, or good) on 14 495 individuals living within 41 statistical local areas who were respondents to the 1998 Tasmanian Healthy Communities Study. We modelled the effects of area-level socioeconomic disadvantage and social capital (neighbourhood integration, neighbourhood alienation, neighbourhood safety, social trust, trust in public/private institutions, and political participation), and adjusted for the effects of individual characteristics. Area-level socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with poor self-rated health (beta = 0.0937, P trust was associated with a reduction in poor self-rated health (beta = -0.0501, p = 0.008) and remained significant when individual characteristics (beta = -0.0398, P = 0.005) were included. Political participation was non-significant in the unadjusted model but became significant when adjusted for individual characteristics (beta = -0.2557, P = 0.045). The effects of social trust and political participation were attenuated and became non-significant when area-level socioeconomic disadvantage was included. Area-based socioeconomic disadvantage is a determinant of self-rated health in Tasmania, but we did not find an independent effect of area-level social capital. These findings suggest that in Tasmania investments in improving the material circumstances in which people live are likely to lead to greater improvements in population health than attempts to increase area-level social capital.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health behaviours do not occur in isolation. Rather they cluster together. It is important to examine patterns of health behaviours to inform a more holistic approach to health in both health promotion and illness prevention strategies. Examination of patterns is also important because of the increased risk of mortality, morbidity and synergistic effects of health behaviours. This study examines the clustering of health behaviours in a nationally representative sample of Irish adults and explores the association of these clusters with mental health, self-rated health and quality of life. Methods TwoStep Cluster analysis using SPSS was carried out on the SLÁN 2007 data (national Survey of Lifestyle, Attitudes and Nutrition, n = 10,364; response rate =62%; food frequency n = 9,223; cluster analysis n = 7,350. Patterns of smoking, drinking alcohol, physical activity and diet were considered. Associations with positive and negative mental health, quality of life and self-rated health were assessed. Results Six health behaviour clusters were identified: Former Smokers, 21.3% (n = 1,564, Temperate, 14.6% (n = 1,075, Physically Inactive, 17.8% (n = 1,310, Healthy Lifestyle, 9.3% (n = 681, Multiple Risk Factor, 17% (n = 1248, and Mixed Lifestyle, 20% (n = 1,472. Cluster profiles varied with men aged 18-29 years, in the lower social classes most likely to adopt unhealthy behaviour patterns. In contrast, women from the higher social classes and aged 65 years and over were most likely to be in the Healthy Lifestyle cluster. Having healthier patterns of behaviour was associated with positive lower levels of psychological distress and higher levels of energy vitality. Conclusion The current study identifies discernible patterns of lifestyle behaviours in the Irish population which are similar to those of our European counterparts. Healthier clusters (Former Smokers, Temperate and Healthy Lifestyle reported higher levels of energy
Conry, Mary C
Abstract Background Health behaviours do not occur in isolation. Rather they cluster together. It is important to examine patterns of health behaviours to inform a more holistic approach to health in both health promotion and illness prevention strategies. Examination of patterns is also important because of the increased risk of mortality, morbidity and synergistic effects of health behaviours. This study examines the clustering of health behaviours in a nationally representative sample of Irish adults and explores the association of these clusters with mental health, self-rated health and quality of life. Methods TwoStep Cluster analysis using SPSS was carried out on the SLÁN 2007 data (national Survey of Lifestyle, Attitudes and Nutrition, n = 10,364; response rate =62%; food frequency n = 9,223; cluster analysis n = 7,350). Patterns of smoking, drinking alcohol, physical activity and diet were considered. Associations with positive and negative mental health, quality of life and self-rated health were assessed. Results Six health behaviour clusters were identified: Former Smokers, 21.3% (n = 1,564), Temperate, 14.6% (n = 1,075), Physically Inactive, 17.8% (n = 1,310), Healthy Lifestyle, 9.3% (n = 681), Multiple Risk Factor, 17% (n = 1248), and Mixed Lifestyle, 20% (n = 1,472). Cluster profiles varied with men aged 18-29 years, in the lower social classes most likely to adopt unhealthy behaviour patterns. In contrast, women from the higher social classes and aged 65 years and over were most likely to be in the Healthy Lifestyle cluster. Having healthier patterns of behaviour was associated with positive lower levels of psychological distress and higher levels of energy vitality. Conclusion The current study identifies discernible patterns of lifestyle behaviours in the Irish population which are similar to those of our European counterparts. Healthier clusters (Former Smokers, Temperate and Healthy Lifestyle) reported higher levels of energy vitality, lower
Thiago Ferreira de Sousa
Full Text Available Self-rated health is a major health indicator and has been widely used in epidemiologic surveys. Current study analyzes the factors associated to regular and negative self-rated health in Brazilian college students. Current investigation is a segment of the 2010 MONISA study carried out in a Brazilian public university with 5,461 students. Estimated sample comprised 1,232 university students and results showed self-rated regular and negative health. Multinomial logistic regression estimated Odds Ratio (OR. The factors associated to regular health self-evaluation negative assessment of relationship with professors (OR: 1.85; CI95%: 1.20-2.87; inactivity in leisure (OR: 2.34; CI95%: 1.73-3.16; insufficient consumption of vegetables; almost daily consumption of soft drinks; assessment of intermediate and negative stress (OR: 3.34; CI95%: 2.11-5.28. Students inactive in leisure (OR: 2.37; 95%CI: 1.09-5.13, students with self-evaluated negative stress (OR: 10.1; 95%CI: 3.23-31.8 and obese students (OR: 4.52; 95%CI: 1.36-15.0 were associated to the negative health self-assessment. It has been verified that health behavior is rather associated to the regular self-assessment of health, whereas perceptive and biological indicators were more associated to negative health self-assessment.
Full Text Available Self-rated health (SRH, a subjective assessment of health status, is extensively used in the field of public health. It is an important and valid measure that is strongly related to morbidity, mortality, longevity and health status. Adolescence is a crucial period for the formation of health status, because health-risk behaviours (e.g., skipping breakfast are often established during this period. In this study, we investigated the relationship of SRH with lifestyle and eating habits in Japanese high school students. In this study, 1296 students aged 16–18 years from 11 high schools in Japan participated. A questionnaire was administered to these participants that included a question on SRH, five questions on demographic characteristics, six questions on lifestyle items (e.g., wake-up time, five questions on miscellaneous health issues (e.g., anorexia, and 25 questions on food habits and attitudes towards food. We examined the differences between self-rated healthy and unhealthy groups using logistic regression analysis adjusted for gender and age. A dichotomy regression analysis was performed using a stepwise elimination method. Of the 1296 respondents, 16.7% reported feeling unhealthy, 57.7% of whom were females. The self-rated healthy group had a higher frequency of eating breakfast (odds ratio (OR: 2.13; confidence interval (CI: 1.07–4.24 and liked home meals to a greater extent (OR: 3.12; CI: 1.27–7.65 than the self-rated unhealthy group. The two groups did not differ significantly in terms of other lifestyle factors or unidentified complaints. Our results suggest that liking home meals during adolescence may lead to the development of good eating habits, i.e., eating breakfast, and better SRH.
Barrios-Vicedo, Ricardo; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva Maria; García de la Hera, Manuela; González-Palacios, Sandra; Valera-Gran, Desirée; Checa-Sevilla, José Francisco; Gimenez-Monzo, Daniel; Vioque, Jesús
A higher adherence to Mediterranean diet is considered as a protective factor against the large number of deaths attributable to the main chronic degenerative diseases in developed countries. Self-rated health is established as a good indicator of population health status and as a predictor of mortality. Studies exploring the relationship between the adherence to Mediterranean diet and self-rated health are scarce, especially, in young adults. Our aim was to explore the factors related, specially the adherence to a priori-defined Mediterranean diet with self-rated health in a cohort of Spanish university students. We analyzed data from 1110 participants of Spanish DiSA-UMH (Dieta, Salud y Antropometría en universitarios de la Universidad Miguel Hernández) study. Diet was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire and the adherence to Mediterranean diet was calculated using the relative Mediterranean Diet Score (rMED; score range: 0-18) according to the consumption of 9 dietary components. Self-rated health was gathered from the question: "In general, how do you consider your health to be? (Excellent, good, fair, poor, very poor). Information on sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics was also collected. Multinomial logistic regression (using relative risk ratio, RRR) was used to analyze the association between the adherence to Mediterranean diet (low rMED: 0-6 points; medium: 7-10 points; high: 11-18 points) and self-rated health (Excellent (reference), good and fair/ poor/very poor). A low, medium or high adherence to Mediterranean diet conformed to 26.8%, 58.7% and 14.4% of participants, which of them reported an excellent (23.1%), good (65.1%) and fair/poor or very poor health, respectively. In multivariate analysis, a lower adherence to Mediterranean diet was significantly (p. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Axelsson, Jakob; Modén, Birgit; Rosvall, Maria; Lindström, Martin
To study the association between sexual orientation and self-rated health, including trust, offence, threat of violence, and violence. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS/MEASUREMENT: The 2008 Public Health Survey in Skåne is a cross-sectional postal questionnaire study. A total of 28,198 persons aged 18-80 years responded (55%). Logistic regressions analysed the association between sexual orientation and self-rated health. 27.4% of all men and 30.0% of all women rated their health as poor. Poor self-rated health was significantly more prevalent in higher age, among immigrants, people with lower education, low social support, low trust, experience of being offended, experience of threat of violence and violence, and bisexual and other orientation. Homosexual and bisexual men and women had higher age-adjusted odds ratios of having felt offended compared to heterosexual respondents. The odds ratios of low trust, threat of violence (men), and experience of violence (women) were significant for respondents with bisexual orientation but not for respondents with homosexual orientation. In the age-adjusted model, no significant association was observed between homosexual orientation and poor self-rated health among women. All other associations between sexual orientation and health were significant in the age-adjusted model but non-significant in the multiple models. Associations between sexual orientation and health disappear after multiple adjustments including trust and experience of offence, threat of violence, and violence. The study suggests that the group with bisexual orientation seems to be more exposed to low social capital (trust), threat of violence, and violence than the group with homosexual orientation.
Zinzow, Heidi M; Amstadter, Ananda B; McCauley, Jenna L; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Resnick, Heidi S; Kilpatrick, Dean G
The purpose of this study was to employ a multivariate approach to examine the correlates of self-rated health in a college sample of women, with particular emphasis on sexual assault history and related mental health outcomes. A national sample of 2,000 female college students participated in a structured phone interview between January and June 2006. Interview modules assessed demographics, posttraumatic stress disorder, major depressive episode, substance use, rape experiences, and physical health. Logistic regression analyses showed that poor self-rated health was associated with low income (odds ratio [OR] = 2.70), lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (OR = 2.47), lifetime major depressive episode (OR = 2.56), past year illicit drug use (OR = 2.48), and multiple rape history (OR = 2.25). These findings highlight the need for university mental health and medical service providers to assess for rape history, and to diagnose and treat related psychiatric problems in order to reduce physical morbidity.
Lloyd Hawkeye Robertson
Full Text Available Most schools in psychology have emphasized individual choice despite evidence of genetic and cultural determinism. It is suggested in this paper that the rejection of classical behaviorism by psychology and other humanities flowed from deeply held cultural assumptions about volition and free will. While compatibilists have suggested that notions of free will and determinism are not mutually exclusive, the psychological mechanisms by which such an accommodation could be explained have been inadequately explored. Drawing on research into classical cultures, this paper builds an argument that the notion of free will was adaptive flowing from culturally evolved changes to the self, and that this “evolved self,” containing assumptions of personal volition, continuity, and reason, became benchmarks of what it means to be human. The paper proposes a model of a culturally evolved self that is compatible with understandings of free will and determinism. Implications for therapeutic practice and future research are discussed.
Craigs, Cheryl L; Twiddy, Maureen; Parker, Stuart G; West, Robert M
As we age we experience many life changes in our health, personal relationships, work, or home life which can impact on other aspects of our life. There is compelling evidence that how we feel about our health influences, or is influenced by, the personal relationships we experience with friends and relatives. Currently the direction this association takes is unclear. To assess the level of published evidence available on causal links between self-rated health and personal relationships in older adults. MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO searches from inception to June 2012 and hand searches of publication lists, reference lists and citations were used to identify primary studies utilizing longitudinal data to investigate self-rated health and personal relationships in older adults. Thirty-one articles were identified. Only three articles employed methods suitable to explore causal associations between changes in self-rated health and changes in personal relationships. Two of these articles suggested that widowhood leads to a reduction in self-rated health in the short term, while the remaining article suggested a causal relationship between self-rated health and negative emotional support from family or friends, but this was complex and mediated by self-esteem and sense of control. While there is an abundance of longitudinal aging cohorts available which can be used to investigate self-rated health and personal relationships over time the potential for these databases to be used to investigate causal associations is currently not being recognized. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cramm Jane M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Surprisingly few studies have investigated the interplay of multiple factors affecting self-rated health outcomes and the role of social capital on health in developing countries, a prerequisite to strengthening our understanding of the influence of social and economic conditions on health and the most effective aid. Our study aimed to identify social and economic conditions for health among residents of an economically and health-deprived community. Methods Data were gathered through a survey administered to respondents from 1,020 households in Grahamstown a suburb in the Eastern Cape, South Africa (response rate 97.9%. We investigated the influence of social and economic conditions (education, employment, income, social capital, housing quality and neighborhood quality on self-rated health. We used ordinal logistic regression analyses to identify the relationship of these conditions and self-rated health. Results Our study found that education and social capital positively correlated with health; unemployment, poor educational level and advanced age negatively correlated. We found no significant correlations between self-rated health and housing quality, neighbourhood quality, income, gender, or marital status. Conclusion We highlight the possible impacts of social capital, employment, and education on health, and suggest that health outcomes may be improved through interventions beyond the health system: creating job opportunities, strengthening social capital, bettering educational systems, and promoting educational access. Policymakers should consider the benefits of such programmes when addressing health outcomes in financially distressed districts.
The purpose of this study was to see if feelings of God-mediated control are associated with change in self-rated health over time. In the process, an effort was made to see if a sense of meaning in life and optimism mediated the relationship between God-mediated control and change in health. The following hypothesized relationships were contained in the conceptual model that was developed to evaluate these issues: (1) people who go to church more often tend to have stronger God-mediated control beliefs than individuals who do not attend worship services as often; (2) people with a strong sense of God-mediated control are more likely to find a sense of meaning in life and be more optimistic than individuals who do not have a strong sense of God-mediated control; (3) people who are optimistic and who have a strong sense of meaning in life will rate their health more favorably over time than individuals who are not optimistic, as well as individuals who have not found a sense of meaning in life. Data from a longitudinal nationwide survey of older adults provided support for each of these hypotheses.
Dowling, Alison; Enticott, Joanne; Russell, Grant
The health status of refugees is a significant factor in determining their success in resettlement and relies heavily on self-rated measures of refugee health. The selection of robust and appropriate self-rated health measurement tools is challenging due to the number and methodological variation in the use of assessment tools across refugee health studies. This study describes the existing self-report health measures which have been used in studies of adult refugees living in the community to allow us to address the challenges of selecting appropriate assessments to measure health within refugee groups. Electronic databases of Ovid Medline, CINAHL, SCOPUS, Embase and Scopus. This review identified 45 different self-rated health measurements in 183 studies. Most of the studies were cross sectional explorations of the mental health status of refugees living in community settings within Western nations. A third of the tools were designed specifically for use within refugee populations. More than half of the identified measurement tools have been evaluated for reliability and/or validity within refugee populations. Much variation was found in the selection, development and testing of measurement tools across the reviewed studies. This review shows that there are currently a number of reliable and valid tools available for use in refugee health research; however, further work is required to achieve consistency in the quality and in the use of these tools. Methodological guidelines are required to assist researchers and clinicians in the development and testing of self-rated health measurement tools for use in refugee research.
The present study investigated the relationship between children's overly positive self-perceptions of their own social competence and mental health. Elementary school students (grades fourth to sixth, n=331) and their homeroom teachers (n=9) participated in the study. The positive illusion was measured by the difference between the self-rating and the other (homeroom teachers) -rating. And, the index of mental health was administered in both self-rating and other (homeroom teachers and same-sex classmates) -rating forms. Positive illusions about children's social competence were positively related to self-ratings of mental health. However, the present study also found detrimental effects of such positive illusions. Children with excessively positive views of their social competence were viewed by teachers and same-sex classmates as significantly more aggressive than those children who showed more evidence of self-devaluation. In addition, children with overly positive self-perceptions were not as accepted by same-sex classmates.
Full Text Available Abstract Background To analyze the strength of association between self-rated health and six anthropometric and body composition measures to explore the best indicator. Methods Analyses were based on the cross-sectional data from the China Kadoorie Biobank Study and approximately 300,000 adults were analyzed. Logistics regression was used to analyze the association between self-rated health (good or poor and anthropometric and body composition measures (height, weight, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, hip circumference (HC and body fat percentage, waist-to-hip ratio and waist-to-height ratio. Stratified analyses were undertaken to understand the effect modification of socioeconomic status on the association. Result Odds ratio of self-rated better health had an inverted U-shape association with weight, BMI, WC and body fat, with weight levels increasing until around 73.8 and 65.7 kg for male and female, BMI around 26.8 kg/m2, WC around 85.8 and 87.6 cm, body fat around 24.3 and 36.3%, and then declining thereafter. Height and HC also indicated a slightly inverted U-shape association. The strongest association was observed after adjustment was weight, with one standard deviation greater weight associated with 10.2% and 10.6% increased odds in male and female. Conclusions Being underweight and overweight are both risk factors for poor self-rated health in males and females, and weight is the best indicator of self-rated health compared with other measures.
Lau, Yan Kwan; Ataguba, John E
The relationship between social capital and self-rated health has been documented in many developed compared to developing countries. Because social capital and health play important roles in development, it may be valuable to study their relationship in the context of a developing country with poorer health status. Further, the role of social capital research for health policy has not received much attention. This paper therefore examines the relationship between social capital and health in South Africa, a country with the history of colonialism and apartheid that has contributed to the social disintegration and destruction of social capital. This study uses data from the National Income Dynamics Study (NIDS), the first nationally representative panel study in South Africa. Two waves of the NIDS were used in this paper--Wave 1 (2008) and Wave 2 (2010). Self-rated health, social capital (individual- and contextual-level), and other covariates related to the social determinants of health (SDH) were obtained from the NIDS. Individual-level social capital included group participation, personalised trust and generalised trust while contextual-level or neighbourhood-level social capital was obtained by aggregating from the individual-level and household-level social capital variables to the neighbourhood. Mixed effects models were fitted to predict self-rated health in Wave 2, using lagged covariates (from Wave 1). Individual personalised trust, individual community service group membership and neighbourhood personalised trust were beneficial to self-rated health. Reciprocity, associational activity and other types of group memberships were not found to be significantly associated with self-rated health in South Africa. Results indicate that both individual- and contextual-level social capital are associated with self-rated health. Policy makers may want to consider policies that impact socioeconomic conditions as well as social capital. Some of these policies are
Krause, Niklas; Rugulies, Reiner; Maslach, Christina
This study investigates the relationship between effort-reward-imbalance (ERI) at work and self-rated health (SF-36) among 941 Las Vegas hotel room cleaners (99% female, 84% immigrant). Logistic regression models adjust for age, health behaviors, physical workload and other potential confounders. 50% reported ERI and 60% poor or fair general health. Significant associations were found between ERI and all SF-36 health measures. Workers in the upper quartile of the efforts/rewards ratio were 2-5 times more likely to experience poor or fair general health, low physical function, high levels of pain, fatigue, and role limitations due to physical and mental health problems. The cross-sectional design limits causal interpretation of these associations. However, the development of interventions to reduce ERI and to improve general health among room cleaners deserves high priority considering that both high ERI and low self-rated health have predicted chronic diseases and mortality in prospective studies. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Lee, Sunghee; McClain, Colleen; Webster, Noah; Han, Saram
This study examines the effect of question context created by order in questionnaires on three subjective well-being measures: life satisfaction, self-rated health, and subjective life expectancy. We conducted two Web survey experiments. The first experiment (n = 648) altered the order of life satisfaction and self-rated health: (1) life satisfaction asked immediately after self-rated health; (2) self-rated health immediately after life satisfaction; and (3) two items placed apart. We examined their correlation coefficient by experimental condition and further examined its interaction with objective health. The second experiment (n = 479) asked life expectancy before and after parental mortality questions. Responses to life expectancy were compared by order using ANOVA, and we examined interaction with parental mortality status using ANCOVA. Additionally, response time and probes were examined. Correlation coefficients between self-rated health and life satisfaction differed significantly by order: 0.313 (life satisfaction first), 0.508 (apart), and 0.643 (self-rated health first). Differences were larger among respondents with chronic conditions. Response times were the shortest when self-rated health was asked first. When life expectancy asked after parental mortality questions, respondents reported considering parents more for answering life expectancy; and respondents with deceased parents reported significantly lower expectancy, but not those whose parents were alive. Question context effects exist. Findings suggest placing life satisfaction and self-rated health apart to avoid artificial attenuation or inflation in their association. Asking about parental mortality prior to life expectancy appears advantageous as this leads respondents to consider parental longevity more, an important factor for true longevity.
Nordgren, Lena; Söderlund, Anne
Younger people with heart failure often experience poor self-rated health. Furthermore, poor self-rated health is associated with long-term sick leave and disability pension. Socio-demographic factors affect the ability to return to work. However, little is known about people on sick leave due to heart failure. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between self-rated health, mood, socio-demographic factors, sick leave compensation, encounters with healthcare professionals and social insurance officers and self-estimated ability to return to work, for people on sick leave due to heart failure. This population-based investigation had a cross-sectional design. Data were collected in Sweden in 2012 from two official registries and from a postal questionnaire. In total, 590 subjects, aged 23-67, responded (response rate 45.8%). Descriptive statistics, correlation analyses (Spearman bivariate analysis) and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations. Poor self-rated health was strongly associated with full sick leave compensation (OR = 4.1, p health was moderately associated with low income (OR = .6, p = .003). Good self-rated health was strongly associated with positive encounters with healthcare professionals (OR = 3.0, p = .022) and to the impact of positive encounters with healthcare professionals on self-estimated ability to return to work (OR = 3.3, p work imposes reduced quality of life. Positive encounters with healthcare professionals and social insurance officers can be supportive when people with heart failure struggle to remain in working life.
Kim, Mi Joung; Lim, Ye Rom; Kwak, Ho Kyung
This study was done to investigate the relationship between the perception of body image, body weight satisfaction or dietary behavior and self-rated health status in Korean college students. Subjects, 285 college students, were divided into three groups (healthy, normal, and unhealthy) according to the answer for the self-rated health question. Information about demographic status, self-rated health condition, height and weight, perception of body image, satisfaction of body weight, concern for body weight control, dietary behavior, nutritional knowledge, and health-related characteristics collected by a self-reported questionnaire. The proportion of men and women in each group was not significantly different. The academic year, major, experience of nutritional education, and type of residence were not significantly related with self-rated health but the pocket money range was significantly associated (ppocket money range and was increased in less than 210 thousand won or over 300 thousand won pocket money ranges. There were no significant differences for age, height, weight and BMI between the groups. The body image perception and body weight satisfaction levels of healthy group was significantly higher than those of unhealthy group (p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively), but the level of concern for body weight control in healthy subjects was significantly lower than that in unhealthy subjects (p<0.05). The proportion of subjects reported as healthy was significantly increased with increased frequencies of following food behaviors; weekly use of protein foods (p<0.01), vegetables (p<0.05) and dairy products (p<0.01), and food habits such as "regularity of meal time" (p<0.01), "eating in moderation" (p<0.05), and "eating breakfast" (p<0.001). Overall results suggested that the college students have tended to have a better perception of health when they have better body image perception, body weight satisfaction and dietary behaviors.
Salem, Mylene Tewtel; Abdulrahim, Sawsan; Zurayk, Huda
This study extends the debate on self-rated health by using different sources of data in the same study to explore the meanings of self-rated health among women who live in socio-economically disadvantaged communities in Beirut, Lebanon. Using data from the Urban Health Study, a cross-sectional household survey of 1,869 women between 15 and 59 years of age, multiple logistic regression models were developed to assess factors associated with self-rated health. Also, open-ended data was used to analyze women's explanations of their self-rated health ratings. Self-rated health was found to be a complex concept, associated not only with physical health but also with a combination of social, psychological, and behavioral factors. This open-ended analysis revealed new meanings of self-rated health that are often not included in self-rated health epidemiologic research, such as women's experiences with pain and fatigue, as well as exposure to financial stressors and the legacy of wars. We argue that triangulating survey and open-ended data provides a better understanding of the context-specific social and cultural meanings of self-rated health.
Caicedo, Beatriz; Berbesi Fernández, Dedsy
To evaluate the influence of income inequality and poverty in the towns of Bogotá, Colombia, on poor self-rated health among their residents. The study was based on a multipurpose survey applied in Bogotá-Colombia. A hierarchical data structure (individuals=level1, locations=level 2) was used to define a logit-type multilevel logistic model. The dependent variable was self-perceived poor health, and local variables were income inequality and poverty. All analyses were controlled for socio-demographic variables and stratified by sex. The prevalence of self-reported fair or poor health in the study population was 23.2%. Women showed a greater risk of ill health, as well as men and women with a low educational level, older persons, those without work in the last week and persons affiliated to the subsidized health system. The highest levels of poverty in the city increased the risk of poor health. Cross-level interactions showed that young women and men with a low education level were the most affected by income inequality in the locality. In Bogotá, there are geographical differences in the perception of health. Higher rates of poverty and income inequality were associated with an increased risk of self-perceived poor health. Notable findings were the large health inequalities at the individual and local levels. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Vejen, Marie; Bjorner, Jakob B.; Bestle, Morten H.
Introduction. The objective of this study is, among half-year intensive care survivors, to determine whether self-assessment of health can predict two-year mortality. Methods. The study is a prospective cohort study based on the Procalcitonin and Survival Study trial. Half-year survivors from...... this 1200-patient multicenter intensive care trial were sent the SF-36 questionnaire. We used both a simple one-item question and multiple questions summarized as a Physical Component Summary (PCS) and a Mental Component Summary (MCS) score. The responders were followed for vital status 730 days after...... inclusion. Answers were dichotomized into a low-risk and a high-risk group and hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated by Cox proportional hazard analyses. Conclusion. We found that self-rated health measured by a single question was a strong independent predictor of two...
Dumitrescu, A L; Zetu, L; Teslaru, S
Our aim was to explore whether instability of self-esteem, self-confidence, self-liking, self-control, self-competence and perfectionism each has an independent contribution to the self-rated oral health and oral health-related behaviours. A cross-sectional study design was used. Data were collected between November 2008 and May 2009. The sample consisted of 205 Romanian adults (mean age: 29.84 years; 65.2% women; 40% married) who were a random population drawn consecutively from the registry file of two private dental practices in the Iasi area. The questionnaire included information about demographic, psychological, self-reported oral health and oral health-related behaviour items. The comparison of participants who never flossed their teeth with those who flossed everyday showed statistically significant lower levels of self-confidence (P self-liking (P = 0.001), self-competence (P self-control (P self-competence were scored in persons who used weekly mouthrinses comparing with never users (P = 0.012). Also patients who visited the dentist mainly when treatment is needed or when pain presented lower levels of self-competence and self-control comparing with those who visited the dentist mainly for check-up or for tooth cleaning and scaling (P self-competence and perfectionism variables. Our study showed that instability of self-esteem, self-confidence, self-competence, self-liking, self-control and perfectionism was associated not only with self-rated dental health but also with oral health behaviours. Understanding the psychological factors associated with oral hygiene can further the development and improvement in therapeutic strategies to be used in oral health-improving programs, as well as of programs aimed at prevention and education. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Full Text Available A large body of research has documented disparities in health and access to care for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB people in the United States. Less research has examined how the level of legal protection afforded to LGB people (the state policy environment affects health disparities for sexual minorities. This study used data on 14,687 sexual minority adults and 490,071 heterosexual adults from the 2014–2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to document differences in health. Unadjusted state-specific prevalence estimates and multivariable logistic regression models were used to compare poor/fair self-rated health by gender, sexual minority status, and state policy environments (comprehensive versus limited protections for LGB people. We found disparities in self-rated health between sexual minority adults and heterosexual adults in most states. On average, sexual minority men in states with limited protections and sexual minority women in states with either comprehensive or limited protections were more likely to report poor/fair self-rated health compared to their heterosexual counterparts. This study adds new findings on the association between state policy environments and self-rated health for sexual minorities and suggests differences in this relationship by gender. The associations and impacts of state-specific policies affecting LGB populations may vary by gender, as well as other intersectional identities.
Staland-Nyman, Carin; Alexanderson, Kristina; Hensing, Gunnel
The aim of this study was to analyse the association between strain in domestic work and self-rated health among employed women in Sweden, using two different methods of measuring strain in domestic work. Questionnaire data were collected on health and living conditions in paid and unpaid work for employed women (n=1,417), aged 17-64 years. "Domestic job strain'' was an application of the demand-control model developed by Karasek and Theorell, and "Domestic work equity and marital satisfaction'' was measured by questions on the division of and responsibility for domestic work and relationship with spouse/cohabiter. Self-rated health was measured using the SF-36 Health Survey. Associations were analysed by bivariate and multivariate linear regression analyses, and reported as standardized regression coefficients. Higher strain in domestic work was associated with lower self-rated health, also after controlling for potential confounders and according to both strain measures. "Domestic work equity and marital satisfaction'' showed for example negative associations with mental health beta -0.211 (p<0.001), vitality beta -0.195 (p<0.001), social function -0.132 (p<0.01) and physical role beta -0.115 (p<0.01). The highest associations between "Domestic job strain'' and SF-36 were found for vitality beta -0.156 (p<0.001), mental health beta -0.123 (p<0.001). Strain in domestic work, including perceived inequity in the relationship and lack of a satisfactory relationship with a spouse/cohabiter, was associated with lower self-rated health in this cross-sectional study. Future research needs to address the specific importance of strain in domestic work as a contributory factor to women's ill-health.
Proximity to health care, healthy foods, and recreation is linked to improved health in older adults while deterioration of the built environment is a risk factor for poor health. Yet, it remains unclear whether individuals prone to good health self-select into favorable built environments and how long-term exposure to deteriorated environments impacts health. This study uses a longitudinal framework to address these questions. The study analyzes 3,240 Americans aged 45 or older from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics with good self-reported health at baseline, and follows them from 1999 to 2013. At each biennial survey wave, individual data are combined with data on services in the neighborhood of residence (defined as the zip code) from the Economic Census. The analysis overcomes the problem of residential self-selection by employing marginal structural models and inverse probability of treatment weights. Logistic regression estimates indicate that long-term exposure to neighborhood built environments that lack health-supportive services (e.g., physicians, pharmacies, grocery stores, senior centers, and recreational facilities) and are commercially declined (i.e., have a high density of liquor stores, pawn shops, and fast food outlets) increases the risk of fair/poor self-rated health compared to more average neighborhoods. Short-term exposure to the same environments as compared to average neighborhoods has no bearing on self-rated health after adjusting for self-selection. Results highlight the importance of expanding individuals' access to health-supportive services prior to their reaching old age, and expanding access for people unlikely to attain residence in service-dense neighborhoods. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Veldhuizen, Eleonore M.; Musterd, Sako; Dijkshoorn, Henriëtte; Kunst, Anton E.
Background: Studies on the association between health and neighborhood ethnic composition yielded inconsistent results, possibly due to methodological limitations. We assessed these associations at different spatial scales and for different measures of ethnic composition. Methods: We obtained health survey data of 4673 respondents of Dutch, Surinamese, Moroccan, Turkish other non-Western and other Western origin. Neighborhood ethnic composition was measured for buffers varying from 50–1000 m. Associations with self-rated health were measured using logistic multilevel regression analysis, with control for socioeconomic position at the individual and area level. Results: Overall ethnic heterogeneity was not related to health for any ethnic group. The presence of other Surinamese was associated with poor self-rated health among Surinamese respondents. The presence of Moroccans or Turks was associated with poor health among some groups. The presence of Dutch was associated with better self-rated health among Surinamese and Turks. In most cases, these associations were stronger at lower spatial scales. We found no other associations. Conclusions: In Amsterdam, self-rated health was not associated with ethnic heterogeneity in general, but may be related to the presence of specific ethnic groups. Policies regarding social and ethnic mixing should pay special attention to the co-residence of groups with problematic interrelations. PMID:26569282
Merrill, Ray M; Aldana, Steven G; Pope, James E; Anderson, David R; Coberley, Carter R; Grossmeier, Jessica J; Whitmer, R William
To better understand the combined influence of employee engagement, health behavior, and physical health on job performance and absenteeism. Analyses were based on 20,114 employees who completed the Healthways Well-Being Assessment from 2008 to 2010. Employees represented three geographically dispersed companies in the United States. Employee engagement, health behavior, and physical health indices were simultaneously significantly associated with job performance and also with absenteeism. Employee engagement had a greater association with job performance than did the health behavior or physical health indices, whereas the physical health index was more strongly associated with absenteeism. Specific elements of the indices were evaluated for association with self-rated job performance and absenteeism. Efforts to improve worker productivity should take a holistic approach encompassing employee health improvement and engagement strategies.
Val Jiménez, Carmen Llanos; López-Torres Hidalgo, Jesús; García Atienza, Eva María; Navarro Ruiz, María Soledad; Hernández Cerón, Inmaculada; Moreno de la Rosa, Lorena
To describe the functional status and self-rated health of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) in Primary Care, and checking their relationship with the level of physical activity and sociodemographic characteristics. Study of prevalence and cross association. Primary Care Clinics. Adult patients with a diagnosis of OA in any joint in their clinical records. Out of a total of 487 selected, 346 (71.0%) took part in the study. Functional capacity (WOMAC scale), self-rated quality of life (EuroQol- 5D questionnaire), physical activity (IPAQ questionnaire), number of affected joints, pain level, and sociodemographic characteristics. A mean score of 30.2 (SD: 20.8; CI 95% CI: 28.0 to 32.4) was obtained on the WOMAC scale, with pain, stiffness, and functional capacity scores of 6.5 (SD: 4.8), 1.9 (SD: 2.0), and 21.7 (SD: 15.7), respectively. The score showed a linear trend (P<.001) compared to the level of physical activity, being 41.1 (SD: 19.9) in inactive subjects, 24.3 (SD: 18.7) in subjects with moderate activity, and 22.3 (SD: 19.8) in subjects with intense activity. In the multiple linear regression, the score on the WOMAC scale, as well as that obtained in self-rated health status, maintained their association with physical activity level after adjusting for sociodemographic variables and the number of affected joints. In patients with OA, pain and functional capacity are the most affected dimensions. Functional status and self-rated health status are higher in active patients, regardless of the number of joints affected and their demographic characteristics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Persson, Sophie Schön; Lindström, Petra Nilsson; Pettersson, Pär; Andersson, Ingemar
The impact of positive social relationships on the health of municipal employees in the elder care sector in Sweden needs further examination. To explore the association between health and relationships among elderly care employees using a salutogenic perspective. Survey of all employees (n = 997) in special housing, home care and Disabled Support and Services in a Swedish municipality. The questionnaire, which had a salutogenic perspective, included information on self-rated health from the previously validated SHIS (Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale), psychosocial work environment and experiences, social climate, and health-promoting workplace relationships. The response rate was 69% . Results of a multivariable linear regression model showed four significant predictors of health: general work experiences, colleague belongingness and positive relationships with managers and care recipients. In another model, colleague belongingness was significantly related to satisfaction with care recipients, work, length of employment as well as general work experiences and relationships with managers. Strengthening of positive work relationships, not only between workmates but also with managers and care recipients, seems to be an essential area for employee health promotion. Colleague belongingness may be deepened by development of a positive work climate, including satisfactory work experiences, positive manager relationships and a stable work force.
Avlund, Kirsten; Modvig, Jens Simon; Due, Pernille
The purpose of this study was to analyse whether development in self-rated health (SRH) over four years was associated with the structure of and satisfaction with social relations, at four and eight years follow-up, among elderly women and men....
Dengfeng Yan; Jaideep Sengupta
This research examines how consumers use base rate (e.g., disease prevalence in a population) and case information (e.g., an individual's disease symptoms) to estimate health risks. Drawing on construal level theory, we propose that consumers' reliance on base rate (case information) will be enhanced (weakened) by psychological distance. A corollary of this premise is that self-positivity (i.e., underestimating self-risk vs. other-risk) is likely when the disease base rate is high but the cas...
Lee, Yunhwan; Shinkai, Shoji
Self-rated health and physical functioning are recognized as important indicators of health in older persons. Rarely, however, there have been studies done which examine cross-cultural differences in the health of older people using these measures, especially among non-Western countries. The objective of this study was to examine patterns of association of self-rated health and functional disability of Japanese and Korean elderly people living in the community, using nationwide surveys of persons aged 60 years or over. There were striking similarities in the general pattern of associations with covariates. In the multivariate analysis, age, work status, comorbidity, depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, hospitalization, and functional disability were strongly associated with self-rated health in both populations. For functional disability, older age, female, low social contact, depressive symptoms, poor life satisfaction, and poor self-rated health were found to be significantly associated. Some differences in the structure of associations with self-rated health, however, were noted. Women tended to assess their health more favorably than men in Korea, but in the Japanese elderly gender differences disappeared when other variables were taken into account. Health-related variables tended to be more closely associated with functional disability in the Japanese sample. An overall similarity, however, in the pattern of associations of these measures supports their utility in assessing and comparing the health of older populations in this region.
Gabardo, Marilisa Carneiro Leão; Moysés, Simone Tetu; Moysés, Samuel Jorge
To systematically evaluate the literature to investigate associations between social, demographic, economic, psychosocial, and behavioral factors and the self-perception of oral health measured using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP). In this systematic review of the literature, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA) were adapted for the performance of a qualitative metasummary, without meta-analysis. Articles about oral health and associated factors with implications for quality of life were selected, with a focus on the tool for self-rating of the oral health-disease process, the OHIP. Pubmed/National Library of Medicine (NLM) and the Virtual Health Library (Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde - BVS/BIREME) were searched. Articles published between 2001 and 2011 were included. The following Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) were employed: oral health, quality of life, sickness impact profile, and socioeconomic factors. Of 57 articles identified, 20 met the inclusion criteria. The metasummary revealed that a poor self-perception of oral health was associated with unfavorable social, economic, demographic, and psychosocial factors, as well as with undesirable habits and poor clinical oral conditions. There is consensus in the literature about the influence of the investigated factors on the self-perception of oral health and on quality of life. The OHIP is an important aid for determining oral health needs and for developing strategies to control/reduce disease and promote oral health, with a consequent positive impact on quality of life.
Zinzow, Heidi M.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to employ a multivariate approach to examine the correlates of self-rated health in a college sample of women, with particular emphasis on sexual assault history and related mental health outcomes. Participants: A national sample of 2,000 female college students participated in a structured phone interview…
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Studies have shown that perceived discrimination has an impact on our physical and mental health. A relevant part of literature has highlighted the influence of discrimination based on race or ethnicity on mental and physical health outcomes. However, the influence of other types of discrimination on health has been understudied. This study is aimed to explore how different types of discrimination are related to our subjective state of health, and so to compare the intensity of these relationships in the European context. METHODS: We have performed a multilevel ordered analysis on the fifth wave of the European Social Survey (ESS 2010. This dataset has 52,458 units at individual level that are grouped in 26 European countries. In this study, the dependent variable is self-rated health (SRH that is analyzed in relationship to ten explanatory variables of perceived discrimination: color or race, nationality, religion, language, ethnic group, age, gender, sexuality, disability and others. RESULTS: The model identifies statistically significant differences in the effect that diverse types of perceived discrimination can generate on the self-rated health of Europeans. Specifically, this study identifies three well-defined types of perceived discrimination that can be related to poor health outcomes: (1 age discrimination; (2 disability discrimination; and (3 sexuality discrimination. In this sense, the effect on self-rated health of perceived discrimination related to aging and disabilities seems to be more relevant than other types of discrimination in the European context with a longer tradition in literature (e.g. ethnic and/or race-based. CONCLUSION: The present study shows that the relationship between perceived discrimination and health inequities in Europe are not random, but systematically distributed depending on factors such as age, sexuality and disabilities. Therefore the future orientation of EU social policies should aim
Alvarez-Galvez, Javier; Salvador-Carulla, Luis
Studies have shown that perceived discrimination has an impact on our physical and mental health. A relevant part of literature has highlighted the influence of discrimination based on race or ethnicity on mental and physical health outcomes. However, the influence of other types of discrimination on health has been understudied. This study is aimed to explore how different types of discrimination are related to our subjective state of health, and so to compare the intensity of these relationships in the European context. We have performed a multilevel ordered analysis on the fifth wave of the European Social Survey (ESS 2010). This dataset has 52,458 units at individual level that are grouped in 26 European countries. In this study, the dependent variable is self-rated health (SRH) that is analyzed in relationship to ten explanatory variables of perceived discrimination: color or race, nationality, religion, language, ethnic group, age, gender, sexuality, disability and others. The model identifies statistically significant differences in the effect that diverse types of perceived discrimination can generate on the self-rated health of Europeans. Specifically, this study identifies three well-defined types of perceived discrimination that can be related to poor health outcomes: (1) age discrimination; (2) disability discrimination; and (3) sexuality discrimination. In this sense, the effect on self-rated health of perceived discrimination related to aging and disabilities seems to be more relevant than other types of discrimination in the European context with a longer tradition in literature (e.g. ethnic and/or race-based). The present study shows that the relationship between perceived discrimination and health inequities in Europe are not random, but systematically distributed depending on factors such as age, sexuality and disabilities. Therefore the future orientation of EU social policies should aim to reduce the impact of these social determinants on health
Ogunmoroti, Oluseye; Utuama, Ovie A; Salami, Joseph A; Valero-Elizondo, Javier; Spatz, Erica S; Rouseff, Maribeth; Parris, Don; Das, Sankalp; Guzman, Henry; Agatston, Arthur; Feldman, Theodore; Veledar, Emir; Maziak, Wasim; Nasir, Khurram
There is increasing evidence of the role psychosocial factors play as determinants of cardiovascular health (CVH). We examined the association between self-rated health (SRH) and ideal CVH among employees of a large healthcare organization. Data were collected in 2014 from employees of Baptist Health South Florida during an annual voluntary health risk assessment and wellness fair. SRH was measured using a self-administered questionnaire where responses ranged from poor, fair, good, very good to excellent. A CVH score (the proxy for CVH) that ranged from 0 to 14 was calculated, where 0-8 indicate an inadequate score, 9-10, average and 11-14, optimal. A multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the association between SRH and CVH. Of the 9056 participants, 75% were female and mean age (SD) was 43 ± 12 years. The odds of having a higher CVH score increased as SRH improved. With participants who reported their health status as poor-fair serving as reference, adjusted odds ratios for having an optimal CVH score by the categories of SRH were: excellent, 21.04 (15.08-29.36); very good 10.04 (7.25-13.9); and good 3.63 (2.61-5.05). Favorable SRH was consistently associated with better CVH. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com
Sørensen, Mette Rosenlund; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Holm, Lotte; Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford; Tetens, Inge
The aim of this study was to analyse concordance between Danish adults' recorded diet quality and their own assessment of the healthiness and to examine socio-demographic, health and behavioural characteristics associated with an optimistic or pessimistic self-assessment. Data were derived from The Danish National Survey of Diet and Physical Activity 2011-2013 and included a random sample of 3014 adults (18-75 y). Diet quality was evaluated on the basis of seven-day pre-coded food diaries and categorised 'unhealthy', 'somewhat healthy' and 'healthy'. Self-assessment of the healthiness of own diets was registered via personal interviews and categorised healthy enough 'to a high degree', 'to some degree' or 'not at all/only partly'. Highly and somewhat optimistic self-assessment, respectively, were defined as assessing own diets as healthy enough to a high degree or to some degree while having unhealthy diets. Highly and somewhat pessimistic self-assessment, respectively, were defined as assessing own diets as not healthy enough or healthy enough to some degree while having healthy diets. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine characteristics associated with optimistic and pessimistic self-assessments, respectively. Among individuals with unhealthy diets, 13% were highly optimistic and 42% somewhat optimistic about the healthiness of their diets. Among individuals with healthy diets, 14% were highly pessimistic and 51% somewhat pessimistic about the healthiness of their diets. Highly optimistic self-assessment was associated with increasing age, excellent self-rated health, normal weight and a moderate activity level. Highly pessimistic self-assessment was associated with decreasing age, good self-rated health and being obese. The findings indicate that people seem to use personal health characteristics as important references when assessing the healthiness of their diets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
To determine if psychosocial factors explain the socioeconomic disparities in self-perceived oral health that persist after controlling for oral status variables. Data came from the participants in the Canadian Community Health Survey 2003 who were residents in the city of Toronto. Oral health variables included self-rated oral health, a 13-item oral health scale, denture wearing, and having a tooth extracted in the previous year. The last two measures were regarded as proxy indicators of tooth loss. Psychosocial variables included a self-esteem scale, a depression scale, and single items measuring life satisfaction, life stress, and sense of cohesion. Socioeconomic status was assessed using total annual household income. Interviews were completed with 2,754 dentate persons aged 20 years and over. Bivariate analyses confirmed that there were income gradients in self-rated oral health and scores on the oral health scale. Linear regression analyses confirmed that these persisted after controlling for age, gender, denture wearing, and having a tooth extracted in the previous year. In the model predicting self-rated oral health self-esteem, life satisfaction, stress, a sense of cohesion, and depression also contributed to the model, increased its explanatory power, and reduced the strength of but did not eliminate the association between income and self-rated oral health. Broadly, similar results were obtained when the oral health scale score was used as the dependent variable. In both analyses and all models, denture wearing had the strongest and most enduring effect. Psychosocial factors partly but do not wholly explain the socioeconomic disparities in self-perceived oral health in this population after controlling for tooth loss and denture wearing. Other variables need to be added to the models to increase their explanatory power.
Fink, Per; Ørnbøl, Eva; Christensen, Kaj Sparle
Hypochondriasis is prevalent in primary care, but the diagnosis is hampered by its stigmatizing label and lack of valid diagnostic criteria. Recently, new empirically established criteria for Health anxiety were introduced. Little is known about Health anxiety's impact on longitudinal outcome, and this study aimed to examine impact on self-rated health and health care costs. 1785 consecutive primary care patients aged 18-65 consulting their family physicians (FPs) for a new illness were followed-up for two years. A stratified subsample of 701 patients was assessed by the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry interview. Patients with mild (N = 21) and severe Health anxiety (N = 81) and Hypochondriasis according to the DSM-IV (N = 59) were compared with a comparison group of patients who had a well-defined medical condition according to their FPs and a low score on the screening questionnaire (N = 968). Self-rated health was measured by questionnaire at index and at three, 12, and 24 months, and health care use was extracted from patient registers. Compared with the 968 patients with well-defined medical conditions, the 81 severe Health anxiety patients and the 59 DSM-IV Hypochondriasis patients continued during follow-up to manifest significantly more Health anxiety (Whiteley-7 scale). They also continued to have significantly worse self-rated functioning related to physical and mental health (component scores of the SF-36). The severe Health anxiety patients used about 41-78% more health care per year in total, both during the 3 years preceding inclusion and during follow-up, whereas the DSM-IV Hypochondriasis patients did not have statistically significantly higher total use. A poor outcome of Health anxiety was not explained by comorbid depression, anxiety disorder or well-defined medical condition. Patients with mild Health anxiety did not have a worse outcome on physical health and incurred significantly less health care costs than the group of
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypochondriasis is prevalent in primary care, but the diagnosis is hampered by its stigmatizing label and lack of valid diagnostic criteria. Recently, new empirically established criteria for Health anxiety were introduced. Little is known about Health anxiety's impact on longitudinal outcome, and this study aimed to examine impact on self-rated health and health care costs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 1785 consecutive primary care patients aged 18-65 consulting their family physicians (FPs for a new illness were followed-up for two years. A stratified subsample of 701 patients was assessed by the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry interview. Patients with mild (N = 21 and severe Health anxiety (N = 81 and Hypochondriasis according to the DSM-IV (N = 59 were compared with a comparison group of patients who had a well-defined medical condition according to their FPs and a low score on the screening questionnaire (N = 968. Self-rated health was measured by questionnaire at index and at three, 12, and 24 months, and health care use was extracted from patient registers. Compared with the 968 patients with well-defined medical conditions, the 81 severe Health anxiety patients and the 59 DSM-IV Hypochondriasis patients continued during follow-up to manifest significantly more Health anxiety (Whiteley-7 scale. They also continued to have significantly worse self-rated functioning related to physical and mental health (component scores of the SF-36. The severe Health anxiety patients used about 41-78% more health care per year in total, both during the 3 years preceding inclusion and during follow-up, whereas the DSM-IV Hypochondriasis patients did not have statistically significantly higher total use. A poor outcome of Health anxiety was not explained by comorbid depression, anxiety disorder or well-defined medical condition. Patients with mild Health anxiety did not have a worse outcome on physical health and incurred
Hørdam, Britta; Hemmingsen, Lars
predicting low self-rated health after surgery. Material and method: A cross-sectional study including 287 patients aged 65+, who had had THR within 12-months were performed. Patients from five Danish counties received a mailed questionnaire assessing health status and demographic data. Short Form-36...
Kamen, Charles S; Smith-Stoner, Marilyn; Heckler, Charles E; Flannery, Marie; Margolies, Liz
To describe factors related to diagnosis, identity disclosure, and social support among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) patients with cancer, and to explore associations between these factors and self-rated health. Cross-sectional self-report survey design using descriptive and exploratory multivariate statistical approaches. Online, Internet-based. 291 LGBT patients (89% Caucasian; 50% gay, 36% lesbian, 7% bisexual, 3% transgender) with mixed cancers. Participants completed a researcher-designed online survey assessing experiences of cancer diagnosis among LGBT patients at a single time point. Demographics, which provider(s) delivered the patients' cancer diagnoses, to whom patients had disclosed their LGBT identity, how they disclosed, who was on their social support team at the time of diagnosis, and current self-rated health. 79% of participants reported disclosing their identities to more than one cancer care provider. Participants most commonly introduced the topic of LGBT identity themselves, sometimes as a way to correct heterosexual assumptions (34%). Friends were the most common members of LGBT patients' support teams (79%). Four disclosure and support factors were consistently associated with better self-rated health. Disclosure of LGBT identity is a common experience in the context of cancer care, and disclosure and support factors are associated with better self-reported health among LGBT patients. Creating safe environments for LGBT patients to disclose could improve cancer care delivery to this underserved population. Nurses and other providers should acknowledge and include diverse support team members in LGBT patients' care.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is strong evidence for the beneficial effects of physical activity in diabetes. There has been little research demonstrating a dose-response relationship between physical activity and self-rated health in diabetics. The aim of this study was to explore the dose-response association between leisure time physical activity and self-rated health among diabetics in Taiwan. Methods Data came from the 2001 Taiwan National Health Interview Survey (NHIS. Inclusion criteria were a physician confirmed diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and age 18 years and above (n = 797. Self-rated health was assessed by the question "In general, would you say that your health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?" Individuals with a self perceived health status of good, very good, or excellent were considered to have positive health status. Results In the full model, the odds ratio (OR for positive health was 2.51(95% CI = 1.53-4.13, 1.62(95% CI = 0.93-2.84, and 1.35(95% CI = 0.77-2.37, for those with a total weekly energy expenditure of ≥ 1000 kcal, between 500 and 999 kcal, and between 1 and 499 kcal, respectively, compared to inactive individuals. Those with duration over 10 years (OR = 0.53, 95%CI = 0.30-0.94, heart disease (OR = 0.50, 95%CI = 0.30-0.85, and dyslipidemia (OR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.43-0.98 were less likely to have positive health than their counterparts. After stratified participants by duration, those with a duration of diabetes Conclusions Our results highlight that regular leisure activity with an energy expenditure ≧ 500 kcal per week is associated with better self-rated health for those with longstanding diabetes.
Full Text Available Background: Population ageing has become significant in South African society, increasing the need to improve understandings of health and well-being among the aged. Objective: To describe the self-reported ratings of overall health and functioning, and to identify factors associated with self-rated health among older South Africans. Design: A national population-based cross-sectional survey, with a sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 years and older, was completed in South Africa in 2008. Self-reported ratings of overall health and functioning were measured using a single self-reported health state covering nine health domains (used to generate the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE composite health state score. Disability was measured using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS-II activities of daily living (ADLs, instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs, perceptions of well-being, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life index/metric (WHOQoL. Results: Overall, more than three quarters (76.8% of adults rated their health as moderate or good. On balance, men reported very good or good health more often than women (p<0.001. Older people (aged 70 years and above reported significantly poorer health status than those aged 50–59 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR 1.52; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.00–2.30. Indians and Blacks were significantly more likely to report poorer health status at (AOR = 4.01; 95% CI 1.27–12.70 and (AOR = 0.42; 95% CI 0.18_0.98; 30 p < 0.045, respectively, compared to Whites. Respondents with primary education (AOR = 1.83; 95% CI 1.19–2.80 and less than primary education (AOR = 1.94; 95% CI 1.37–2.76 were more likely to report poorer health compared to those with secondary education. In terms of wealth status, those in low wealth quintile (AOR = 2.02; 95% CI 1.14–3.57 and medium wealth quintile (AOR = 1.47; 95% CI 1.01–2.13 were more likely to report poorer
Jen, Min Hua; Sund, Erik R; Johnston, Ron; Jones, Kelvyn
This study analyses the relationships between self-rated health and both individual and mean national social trust, focusing on a variant of Wilkinson's hypothesis that individuals will be less healthy the greater the lack of social cohesion in a country. It employs multilevel modelling on World Values Survey data across 69 countries with a total sample of 160,436 individuals. The results show that self-rated health are positively linked to social trust at both country and individual levels after controlling for individual socio-demographic and income variables plus individual social trust; increased trust is associated with better health. Moreover, this analysis of social trust gives some insight into distinctive results for the former Soviet Bloc countries, which have high reported levels of poor health, alongside the Scandinavian countries which have high levels of trust and better health situations. Our results support and extend the Wilkinson hypothesis that the level of trust, an indicator of social cohesion, is predictive of individuals' health. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cho, Seong-Sik; Ju, Young-Su; Paek, Domyung; Kim, Hyunjoo; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee
The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of long working hours and low job control on self-rated health. We analyzed employees' data obtained from the third Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS). Multiple survey logistic analysis and postestimation commands were employed to estimate the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI). The odds ratio (OR) for poor self-rated health was 1.24 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.13 to 1.35] for long working hours, 1.04 (95% CI: 0.97 to 1.13) for low job control, and 1.47 (95% CI: 1.33 to 1.62) for both long working hours and low job control. The RERI was 0.18 (95% CI: 0.02 to 0.34). These results imply that low job control may increase the negative influence of long working hours on self-rated health.
Self and environmental exposures to drinking, smoking, gambling or video game addiction are associated with adult hypertension, heart and cerebrovascular diseases, allergy, self-rated health and happiness: Japanese General Social Survey, 2010.
It was aimed to study the relationships between addiction behaviors and human health and well-being in East Asians in a national and population-based setting. Data were retrieved from Japanese General Social Survey, 2010. Information on demographics, lifestyle factors, addiction behaviors and self-reported health conditions and well-being in Japanese adults was obtained by household interview. Analysis included chi-square test, logistic and multi-nominal regression modeling. Of 5003 Japanese adults (aged 20-89) included in the study cohort, 13.8%, 14.7%, 4.8% and 5.5% were addicted to drinking, smoking, gambling and video games, respectively while 10.6%, 13.8%, 4.3% and 11.4% were exposed to co-residing family member's drinking, smoking, gambling and video game addiction behaviors, respectively. People who reported addiction to drinking had poor self-rated health, hypertension and food allergy. People who reported addiction to smoking had fair to poor self-rated health, unhappiness, cerebrovascular disease and itchy skin. People who reported addiction to gambling had fair to poor self-rated health and unhappiness. People who reported addiction to video games had poor self-rated health and heart disease. People who were exposed to addiction to drinking, smoking, gambling and video games from co-residing family member(s) also reported hay fever, poor self-rated health and unhappiness. Self and environmental exposures to drinking, smoking, gambling or video game addiction are associated with adult hypertension, heart and cerebrovascular diseases, allergy, self-rated health and happiness. Future public health programs continuing to minimize self and environmental exposures to addiction behaviors tackling health concerns would still be encouraged. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fink, Per; ?rnb?l, Eva; Christensen, Kaj Sparle
BACKGROUND: Hypochondriasis is prevalent in primary care, but the diagnosis is hampered by its stigmatizing label and lack of valid diagnostic criteria. Recently, new empirically established criteria for Health anxiety were introduced. Little is known about Health anxiety's impact on longitudinal outcome, and this study aimed to examine impact on self-rated health and health care costs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 1785 consecutive primary care patients aged 18-65 consulting their family p...
Ejlertsson, Lina; Heijbel, Bodil; Ejlertsson, Göran; Andersson, Ingemar
There is a lack of information on positive work factors among health care workers. To explore salutogenic work-related factors among primary health care employees. Questionnaire to all employees (n = 599) from different professions in public and private primary health care centers in one health care district in Sweden. The questionnaire, which had a salutogenic perspective, included information on self-rated health from the previously validated SHIS (Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale), psychosocial work environment and experiences, recovery, leadership, social climate, reflection and work-life balance. The response rate was 84%. A multivariable linear regression model, with SHIS as the dependent variable, showed three significant predictors. Recovery had the highest relationship to SHIS (β= 0.34), followed by experience of work-life balance (β= 0.25) and work experiences (β= 0.20). Increased experience of recovery during working hours related to higher self-rated health independent of recovery outside work. Individual experiences of work, work-life balance and, most importantly, recovery seem to be essential areas for health promotion. Recovery outside the workplace has been studied previously, but since recovery during work was shown to be of great importance in relation to higher self-rated health, more research is needed to explore different recovery strategies in the workplace.
Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen; Jensen, Per; Gannik, Dorte Effersøe
Background: iabetic patients’ lifestyle adaptations to improve glycaemic control are not always followed by improvements in self-rated general health (SRH). The perceived impact of diabetes on patients’ daily lives may influence changes in their SRH. This paper examines the association of illness...... diabetes-related symptoms, and cardiovascular disease were related to lower SRH ratings. On average SRH improved by 0.46 (95% CI: 0.37; 0.55) during the first year after diagnosis without inclusion of covariates. Mental and practical illness burden was the only factor associated with change in SRH...
Mathis, Arlesia; Rooks, Ronica; Kruger, Daniel
By 2030, older adults will account for 20% of the U.S. Over 80% of older adults live in urban areas. This study examines associations between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH) among urban older adults. We selected 217 individuals aged 65+ living in a deindustrialized Midwestern city who answered questions on the 2009 Speak to Your Health survey. The relationship between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH) was analyzed using regression and GIS models. Neighborhood variables included social support and participation, perceived racism and crime. Additional models included actual crime indices to compare differences between perceived and actual crime. Seniors who have poor SRH are 21% more likely to report fear of crime than seniors with excellent SRH (p = 0.01). Additional analyses revealed Black seniors are 7% less likely to participate in social activities (p = 0.005) and 4% more likely to report experiencing racism (p older adults living in urban neighborhoods, studies such as this one are important for well-being among seniors. Mitigating environmental influences in the neighborhood which are associated with poor SRH may allow urban older adults to maintain health and reduce disability.
Rugulies, R.; Aust, B.; Burr, H.; Bultmann, U.
Objective: To investigate if job insecurity and poor labour market chances predict a decline in self-rated health in the Danish workforce. Design: Job insecurity, labour market chances, self-rated health and numerous covariates were measured in 1809 women and 1918 men who responded to a
Antônio Ignácio de Loyola Filho
Full Text Available Objective: This study investigated the associated factors with negative self-rated health among hypertensive and/or diabetic elderly. Methods: All the participants of Bambuí Project elderly cohort who suffered from hypertension and/or diabetes and who answered the questionnaire without the help of a close informant were selected for this (n = 942. Covariates encompassed sociodemographic characteristics, social support, health behaviors, health status and use of health services. Results: Negative self-rated health showed positively associated with dissatisfaction with social relations (PR = 1.98, 95%CI 1.42 - 2.76, attendance at religious services less than once a month (PR = 1.96, 95%CI 1.44 - 2.68; be smokers (PR = 1.64, 95%CI 1.24 - 2.17, presence of arthritis (PR = 1.35, 95%CI 1.07 - 1.71, depressive symptoms (PR = 1.81, 95%CI 1.37 - 2.39 and insomnia (PR = 1.37, 95%CI 1.06 - 1.78, having consulted the doctor two or more times in the last twelve months (PR = 2.18; 95%CI 1.14 - 4.19 and PR = 3.96; 95%CI 2.10 - 7.48, respectively for "2 - 3" and "4+" visits, and have hypertension and diabetes (compared to the isolated presence of hypertension Conclusions: Our results confirmed the multidimensional nature of self-rated health and were consistent with that observed in other national and international studies.
Pedro Alcântara da Silva
Full Text Available This article aims to identify the main determinants of self-rated health and well-being in the elderly Portuguese population, using a set of dimensions including demographic and socioeconomic indicators, characteristics of interpersonal networks and social activities, health, sexual activity, representations of aging, and feeling of happiness. Taking socioeconomic, behavioral, and attitudinal predictors into account to analyze the explanatory value of the interrelated dimensions and weights for each factor, the author argues that social capital, activities associated with active aging, and greater optimism towards aging can contribute greatly to better self-rated health and wellbeing among the elderly, partially offsetting the effect of socioeconomic factors and illness associated with age.
Full Text Available Abstract Background China is in the midst of history's largest flow of rural-urban migration in the world; a flow that includes growing numbers of children and adolescents. Their health status is an important public health issue. This study compares self-rated physical and mental health of migrant and local adolescents in China, and examines to what extent layered social connections account for health outcomes. Methods In 2010, we conducted a cross-sectional study among middle school students in Pudong New Area, Shanghai. Information about health status, social connections, and demographic factors were collected using a questionnaire survey. After controlling for sociodemographic factors, we used the t-test, Chi-square analysis, and a series of regression models to compare differences in health outcomes and explore the effects of social connections. Results Migrant adolescents reported significantly higher rates of good physical health. However, they also had significantly fewer social connections, lower self-esteem, and higher levels of depression than their native peers. Family cohesion was associated with depressive symptoms and low self-esteem among all adolescents; peer association and social cohesion played major roles in migrants' well-being. Gender, age, and socioeconomic (SES factors also affected adolescents' self-rated physical and mental health. Conclusions Self-rated data suggest that migrant adolescents enjoy a physical health advantage and a mental health disadvantage. Layered social connections, such as peer association and social cohesion, may be particularly important for migrants. A public health effort is required to improve the health status of migrant youth.
Ferraro, Kenneth F; Wilkinson, Lindsay R
The purpose of this study was to compare the prognostic validity of alternative measures of health ratings, including those that tap temporal reflections, on adult mortality. The study uses a national sample of 1,266 Americans 50-74 years old in 1995, with vital status tracked through 2005, to compare the effect of 3 types of health ratings on mortality: conventional indicator of self-rated health (SRH), age comparison form of SRH, and health ratings that incorporate temporal dimensions. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of mortality associated with alternative health ratings while adjusting for health conditions, lifestyle factors, and status characteristics and resources. Self-rated health was a consistent predictor of mortality, but the respondent's expected health rating-10 years in the future-was an independent predictor. Future health expectations were more important than past (recalled change) in predicting mortality risk: People with more negative expectations of future health were less likely to survive. The findings reveal the importance of future time perspective for older people and suggest that it is more useful to query older people about their future health expectations than about how their health has changed. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Torsheim, Torbjørn; Nygren, Jens M; Rasmussen, Mette; Arnarsson, Arsæll M; Bendtsen, Pernille; Schnohr, Christina W; Nielsen, Line; Nyholm, Maria
We aimed to estimate the magnitude of socioeconomic inequality in self-rated health among Nordic adolescents (aged 11, 13 and 15 years) using the Family Affluence Scale (a composite measure of material assets) and perceived family wealth as indicators of socioeconomic status. Data were collected from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey in 2013-2014. A sample of 32,560 adolescents from Denmark, Norway, Finland, Iceland, Greenland and Sweden was included in the study. Age-adjusted regression analyses were used to estimate associations between fair or poor self-rated health and the ridit scores for family affluence and perceived wealth. The pooled relative index of inequality of 2.10 indicates that the risk of fair or poor health was about twice as high for young people with the lowest family affluence relative to those with the highest family affluence. The relative index of inequality for observed family affluence was highest in Denmark and lowest in Norway. For perceived family wealth, the pooled relative index of inequality of 3.99 indicates that the risk of fair or poor health was about four times as high for young people with the lowest perceived family wealth relative to those with the highest perceived family wealth. The relative index of inequality for perceived family wealth was highest in Iceland and lowest in Greenland. Social inequality in self-rated health among adolescents was found to be robust across subjective and objective indicators of family affluence in the Nordic welfare states.
Tanggaard Andersen, Pernille; Holst Algren, Maria; Fromsejer Heiberg, Regina
Research has demonstrated that living in a deprived neighborhood contributes to the occurrence and development of poor health. Furthermore evidence shows that social networks are fundamental resources in preventing poor mental health. Neighborhood relationships and networks are vital for sustaining...... and improving quality of life. However, to determine potentials for public health action, the health impact of various types of network resources need to be explored and the association between socioeconomic position and self-rated health needs to be analysed to determine whether it is partially explained...... by social network resources. This is the main aim of this article. Cross-sectional data from one deprived neighborhood located in Denmark were collected in 2008 and 2013 using a postal health survey. The target group was defined as adults older than 16 years. In 2008, 408 residents participated...
Mattebo, Magdalena; Tydén, Tanja; Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet; Nilsson, Kent W; Larsson, Margareta
To describe patterns of pornography use among high school boys and to investigate differences between frequent, average, and nonfrequent users of pornography with respect to sexual experiences, lifestyles, and self-rated health. A population-based classroom survey among 16-year-old boys (n = 477), from 53 randomly selected high school classes in 2 towns in mid-Sweden. Almost all boys, 96% (n = 453), had watched pornography. Frequent users of pornography (everyday) (10%, n = 47) differed from average users (63%, n = 292) and nonfrequent users (27%, n = 126). Frequent users versus average users and nonfrequent users had more sexual experiences, such as one night stands (45, 32, 25%, respectively) and sex with friends more than 10 times (13, 10, 2%). A higher proportion of frequent users spent more than 10 straight hours at the computer several times a week (32, 5, 8%) and reported more relationship problems with peers (38, 22, 21%), truancy at least once a week (11, 6, 5%), obesity (13, 3, 3%), use of oral tobacco (36, 29, 20%), and use of alcohol (77, 70, 52%) versus average and nonfrequent users. One third of frequent users watched more pornography than they actually wanted. There were no differences between the groups regarding physical and psychological self-rated health. The boys, defined as frequent users of pornography, were more sexually experienced, spent more time at the computer, and reported an unhealthier lifestyle compared with average and nonfrequent users. No differences regarding self-rated health were detected even though obesity was twice as common among frequent users.
Background. An extensive body of knowledge has documented weaker health effects of socio-economic status (SES) for Blacks compared to Whites, a phenomenon also known as Blacks’ diminished return. It is, however, unknown whether the same diminished return also holds for other ethnic minorities such as Hispanics or not. Aim. Using a nationally representative sample, the current study aimed to compare Non-Hispanic and Hispanic Whites for the effects of SES on self-rated oral health. Methods. For the current cross-sectional study, we used data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), 2001⁻2003. With a nationally representative sampling, CPES included 11,207 adults who were either non-Hispanic Whites ( n = 7587) or Hispanic Whites ( n = 3620. The dependent variable was self-rated oral health, treated as dichotomous measure. Independent variables were education, income, employment, and marital status. Ethnicity was the focal moderator. Age and gender were covariates. Logistic regressions were used for data analysis. Results. Education, income, employment, and marital status were associated with oral health in the pooled sample. Although education, income, employment, and marital status were associated with oral health in non-Hispanic Whites, none of these associations were found for Hispanic Whites. Conclusion. In a similar pattern to Blacks’ diminished return, differential gain of SES indicators exists between Hispanic and non-Hispanic Whites, with a disadvantage for Hispanic Whites. Diminished return of SES should be regarded as a systemically neglected contributing mechanism behind ethnic oral health disparities in the United States. Replication of Blacks’ diminished return for Hispanics suggests that these processes are not specific to ethnic minority groups, and non-White groups gain less because they are not enjoying the privilege and advantage of Whites.
de Oliveira da Silva, Patricia; Miguez Nery Guimarães, Joanna; Härter Griep, Rosane; Caetano Prates Melo, Enirtes; Maria Alvim Matos, Sheila; Del Carmem Molina, Maria; Maria Barreto, Sandhi; de Jesus Mendes da Fonseca, Maria
This study investigated whether the association between body image dissatisfaction and poor self-rated health is mediated by insufficient physical activity and unhealthy eating habits. The participants were 6727 men and 8037 women from the baseline (2008–2010) of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto, ELSA-Brasil). Structural equation modelling was used. Associations were found between body image dissatisfaction and poor self-rated health in both sexes. Insufficient physical activity was a mediator. However, unhealthy eating habits were found to exert a mediator effect only via insufficient physical activity. Body image dissatisfaction was found to associate, both directly and possibly indirectly, with poor self-rated health, mediated by insufficient physical activity and unhealthy eating habits. Accordingly, encouraging physical activity and healthy eating can contribute to reducing body image dissatisfaction and favour better self-rated health.
Lindström, Martin; Ali, Sadiq M; Rosvall, Maria
To investigate the association between socioeconomic status, unemployment and self-rated psychological health, taking economic stress and horizontal trust into account. The 2008 public health survey in Skåne is a cross-sectional postal questionnaire study with a 55% participation rate. A random sample was invited and 28,198 persons aged 18-80 participated. Logistic regression models were used to investigate associations between socioeconomic status by occupation (SES), labour market connection and self-rated psychological health (GHQ12). The multiple regression analyses included age, country of birth, education, economic stress and generalized (horizontal) trust. 13.8% of the men and 18.2% of the women had poor psychological health. Poor psychological health was more common among the young, among those born abroad, among those with lower education, with economic stress, and low horizontal trust. There were no significant differences between the employed and self-employed groups. However, the people who had retired early, the unemployed and those on long-term sick leave had significantly higher odds ratios of poor psychological health than higher non-manual employees throughout the analyses. There were no differences in psychological health between non-manual employees in higher positions and other employed and self-employed SES groups among men or women. In contrast, the early retired, the unemployed and the category on long-term sick leave had significantly higher odds ratios of poor psychological health among both men and women throughout the multiple analyses. Both economic stress and trust affected this association (i.e., lowered the odds ratios of poor psychological health), but affected by economic stress to a somewhat higher extent.
Sörlin, Ann; Lindholm, Lars; Ng, Nawi; Ohman, Ann
Men and women have different patterns of health. These differences between the sexes present a challenge to the field of public health. The question why women experience more health problems than men despite their longevity has been discussed extensively, with both social and biological theories being offered as plausible explanations. In this article, we focus on how gender equality in a partnership might be associated with the respondents' perceptions of health. This study was a cross-sectional survey with 1400 respondents. We measured gender equality using two different measures: 1) a self-reported gender equality index, and 2) a self-perceived gender equality question. The aim of comparison of the self-reported gender equality index with the self-perceived gender equality question was to reveal possible disagreements between the normative discourse on gender equality and daily practice in couple relationships. We then evaluated the association with health, measured as self-rated health (SRH). With SRH dichotomized into 'good' and 'poor', logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with the outcome. For the comparison between the self-reported gender equality index and self-perceived gender equality, kappa statistics were used. Associations between gender equality and health found in this study vary with the type of gender equality measurement. Overall, we found little agreement between the self-reported gender equality index and self-perceived gender equality. Further, the patterns of agreement between self-perceived and self-reported gender equality were quite different for men and women: men perceived greater gender equality than they reported in the index, while women perceived less gender equality than they reported. The associations to health were depending on gender equality measurement used. Men and women perceive and report gender equality differently. This means that it is necessary not only to be conscious of the methods and measurements
Carlier, Bouwine E; Schuring, Merel; Lötters, Freek J B; Bakker, Bernhard; Borgers, Natacha; Burdorf, Alex
Unemployed persons have a poorer health compared with employed persons and unemployment may cause ill health. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of re-employment on quality of life and health among unemployed persons on social benefits. A prospective study with 18 months follow-up was conducted among unemployed persons (n=4,308) in the Netherlands, receiving either unemployment benefits or social security benefits. Quality of life, self-rated health, and employment status were measured at baseline and every 6 months of follow up with questionnaires. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) modeling was performed to study the influence of re-employment on change in self-rated health and quality of life over time. In the study population 29% had a less than good quality of life and 17% had a poor self-rated health. Persons who started with paid employment during the follow-up period were more likely to improve towards a good quality of life (OR 1.76) and a good self-rated health (OR 2.88) compared with those persons who remained unemployed. Up to 6 months after re-employment, every month with paid employment, the likelihood of a good quality of life increased (OR 1.12). Starting with paid employment improves quality of life and self-rated health. This suggests that labour force participation should be considered as an important measure to improve health of unemployed persons. Improving possibilities for unemployed persons to find paid employment will reduce socioeconomic inequalities in health.
Matin, Nassim; Kelishadi, Roya; Heshmat, Ramin; Motamed-Gorji, Nazgol; Djalalinia, Shirin; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Ardalan, Gelayol; Arefirad, Tahereh; Mohammadi, Rasool; Safiri, Saeid; Qorbani, Mostafa
Self-rated health and life satisfaction are two subjective measures for assessing overall health status. This study aims to investigate the association of self-rated health and life satisfaction with physical activity and screen time. As part of the fourth survey of a national surveillance program in Iran (CASPIAN-IV study), 14 880 students aged 6 to 18 years were selected via multi-stage cluster sampling from 30 provinces. Data were obtained from the WHO Global School-Based Student Health Survey questionnaire. A total of 13 486 students with mean age of 12.47 (SD 3.36) completed the study. In crude model both prolonged screen time and physical activity were associated with favorable life satisfaction and self-rated health. However, in multivariate analysis only high physical activity was associated with good self-rated health (OR 1.37) and life satisfaction (OR 1.39), while prolonged screen time was not associated with good self-rated health (OR 1.02) and life satisfaction (OR 0.94). For combined screen time-physical activity variable, low screen time-high physical activity combination had the highest OR for both good self-rated health (OR 1.37) and life satisfaction (OR 1.43) in multivariate analysis. Our findings suggest that increasing physical activity is more crucial than emphasizing reducing screen time in improving the well-being of children and adolescents. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Goodman, Elizabeth; Huang, Bin; Schafer-Kalkhoff, Tara; Adler, Nancy E.
Purpose The cognitive, social, and biological transitions of adolescence suggest that subjective perceptions of social position based on the socioeconomic hierarchy may undergo important changes during this period, yet how such perceptions develop is poorly understood and no studies assess if changes in such perceptions influence adolescents’ health. This study describes adolescents’ subjective perceptions of familial socioeconomic status (SSS), how SSS changes over time, and how age, race, and objective socioeconomic status (SES) indicators influence SSS. In addition, the study determines if SSS independently influences adolescents’ self-rated health, an important predictor of morbidity and health service utilization. Methods 1179 non-Hispanic black and white baseline 7–12th graders from a Midwestern public school district completed a validated, teen-specific measure of SSS annually for 4 consecutive years. A parent provided information on SES. Markov modeling assessed transitions in SSS over time. Results SSS declined with age (p=.001) and stabilized among older teens. In addition to age, SES and race, but not gender, were significant correlates of SSS, but the relationships between these factors were complex. In cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, black teens from families with low parent education had higher SSS than white teens from similarly educated families, while white teens from highly educated families had higher SSS than black teens from highly educated families. Lower SSS and changes in SSS predicted poor self rated health even when adjusting for race and objective SES measures. Conclusion Subjective evaluations of socioeconomic status predict adolescents’ global health ratings even when adjusting for the sociodemographic factors which shape them. PMID:17950168
Full Text Available Abstract Background More people will probably continue working into old age in the future due to the increased size of aging populations in many countries. We therefore need to know more about older workers’ health in relation to their work situation and retirement. This study is a part of a theoretical development of older workers’ situations. Older workers’ situations are theoretically themed in nine areas by the authors of this study. The aims of the study were to investigate the relationship between: i diagnosed disease and factors in older workers’ situations, theoretically themed in nine areas; ii self-rated health and factors in older workers’ situations, theoretically themed in nine areas; iii diagnosed disease and self-rated health; and iv the relationships between these health measures and retirement. Methods A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study, using logistic regression, with 1,756 health care personnel aged 55–64 years. The questionnaire used gave an overview of most different areas in the older workers’ situations. Result There was a difference in the participants’ frequency of objectively specified diagnosed disease and their subjectively experienced self-rated health. A bad self-rated health was related higher to early retirement than diagnosed diseases. In the multivariate model, having ‘Diagnosed disease’ was not significantly related to whether older workers thought they could not work beyond 65 years of age. A bad ‘Self-rated health’ was also more highly related to whether older workers thought they could not work beyond 65 years, than if the respondents stated that a ‘Diagnosed disease is a hindrance in my daily work’ in the multivariate model. Conclusion This study showed an important difference between older workers’ own experiences and the effect of their self-rated health and their diagnosed diseases. Subjective self-rated health seems to be more important to people’s retirement
Marchiondo, Lisa A; Gonzales, Ernest; Williams, Larry J
This study addresses older employees' trajectories of perceived workplace age discrimination, and the long-term associations among perceived age discrimination and older workers' mental and self-rated health, job satisfaction, and likelihood of working past retirement age. We evaluate the strength and vulnerability integration (SAVI) model. Three waves of data from employed participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 3,957). Latent growth modeling was used to assess relationships between the slopes and the intercepts of the variables, thereby assessing longitudinal and cross-sectional associations. Perceived workplace age discrimination tends to increase with age, although notable variance exists. The initial status of perceived age discrimination relates to the baseline statuses of depression, self-rated health, job satisfaction, and likelihood of working past retirement age in the expected directions. Over time, perceived age discrimination predicts lower job satisfaction and self-rated health, as well as elevated depressive symptoms, but not likelihood of working past retirement age. This study provides empirical support for the SAVI model and uncovers the "wear and tear" effects of perceived workplace age discrimination on older workers' mental and overall health. We deliberate on social policies that may reduce age discrimination, thereby promoting older employees' health and ability to work longer. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Broder, Hillary L; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen; Sischo, Lacey
This paper evaluated the impact of cleft-related surgery on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of youth with cleft over time. Data were derived from a 5-year, multi-center, prospective, longitudinal study of 1196 youth with cleft lip and/or palate and their caregivers. Eligible youth were between 7.5 and 18.5 years old, spoke English or Spanish, and were non-syndromic. During each observational period, which included baseline, and 1- and 2-year post-baseline follow-up visits, youths and their caregivers completed the Child Oral Health Impact Profile, a validated measure of OHRQoL. Multilevel mixed-effects models were used to analyze the effects of receipt of craniofacial surgery on OHRQoL over time. During the course of this study a total of 516 patients (43 %) received at least one surgery. Youth in the surgery recommendation group had lower self- (β = -2.18, p self- and proxy-rated OHRQoL at baseline. Both surgical and non-surgical youth (β = 3.73, p self-reported OHRQoL for youth postsurgery (β = 1.04, p self- and caregiver-rated OHRQoL when compared to non-surgical youth. Youth who underwent cleft-related surgery had significant incremental improvements in self-rated but not caregiver (proxy)-rated OHRQoL after surgery.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The deprived physical environments present in slums are well-known to have adverse health effects on their residents. However, little is known about the health effects of the social environments in slums. Moreover, neighbourhood quantitative spatial analyses of the mental health status of slum residents are still rare. The aim of this paper is to study self-rated mental health data in several slums of Dhaka, Bangladesh, by accounting for neighbourhood social and physical associations using spatial statistics. We hypothesised that mental health would show a significant spatial pattern in different population groups, and that the spatial patterns would relate to spatially-correlated health-determining factors (HDF. Methods We applied a spatial epidemiological approach, including non-spatial ANOVA/ANCOVA, as well as global and local univariate and bivariate Moran's I statistics. The WHO-5 Well-being Index was used as a measure of self-rated mental health. Results We found that poor mental health (WHO-5 scores Conclusions Spatial patterns of mental health were detected and could be partly explained by spatially correlated HDF. We thereby showed that the socio-physical neighbourhood was significantly associated with health status, i.e., mental health at one location was spatially dependent on the mental health and HDF prevalent at neighbouring locations. Furthermore, the spatial patterns point to severe health disparities both within and between the slums. In addition to examining health outcomes, the methodology used here is also applicable to residuals of regression models, such as helping to avoid violating the assumption of data independence that underlies many statistical approaches. We assume that similar spatial structures can be found in other studies focussing on neighbourhood effects on health, and therefore argue for a more widespread incorporation of spatial statistics in epidemiological studies.
Kyoung Ae Kong
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to examine the pattern of social inequality in self-rated health among the employed using the Wright’s social class location indicator, and to assess the roles of material, behavioral, psychosocial, and workplace environmental factors as mediating factors in explaining the social class inequality in self-rated health in South Korea. Methods This study used data from the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2009. Study subjects included the employed population of 4392 men and 3309 women aged 19–64 years. Subjects were classified into twelve social class positions based on the Wright’s social class map. The health outcome was self-rated health. Material, psychosocial, behavioral, and workplace environmental factors were considered as potential mediators in explaining social class health inequality. We calculated prevalence ratios of poor self-rated health according to social class, adjusted for age and mediating factors using Poisson regression models. Results Nonskilled workers and petty bourgeoisie reported worse self-rated health than other social classes among men. The age-adjusted prevalence of petty bourgeoisie and nonskilled workers were about four-fold greater than that of managers. Expert supervisors in the contradictory class location had a greater prevalence of poor self-rated health than experts in men. In women, the prevalence of poor self-rated health was greater in most social classes than their male counterparts, while the differences among social classes within women were not statistically significant. Workplace environmental factors explained the social class inequality by from 24 to 31% in nonskilled and skilled workers and nonskilled supervisors, respectively, and material factors showed an explanatory ability of about 8% for both nonskilled workers and petty bourgeoisie in men. Conclusions We showed the inequality in self-rated health
Kong, Kyoung Ae; Khang, Young-Ho; Cho, Hong-Jun; Jang, Sung-Mi; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee
The aim of this study was to examine the pattern of social inequality in self-rated health among the employed using the Wright's social class location indicator, and to assess the roles of material, behavioral, psychosocial, and workplace environmental factors as mediating factors in explaining the social class inequality in self-rated health in South Korea. This study used data from the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2009. Study subjects included the employed population of 4392 men and 3309 women aged 19-64 years. Subjects were classified into twelve social class positions based on the Wright's social class map. The health outcome was self-rated health. Material, psychosocial, behavioral, and workplace environmental factors were considered as potential mediators in explaining social class health inequality. We calculated prevalence ratios of poor self-rated health according to social class, adjusted for age and mediating factors using Poisson regression models. Nonskilled workers and petty bourgeoisie reported worse self-rated health than other social classes among men. The age-adjusted prevalence of petty bourgeoisie and nonskilled workers were about four-fold greater than that of managers. Expert supervisors in the contradictory class location had a greater prevalence of poor self-rated health than experts in men. In women, the prevalence of poor self-rated health was greater in most social classes than their male counterparts, while the differences among social classes within women were not statistically significant. Workplace environmental factors explained the social class inequality by from 24 to 31% in nonskilled and skilled workers and nonskilled supervisors, respectively, and material factors showed an explanatory ability of about 8% for both nonskilled workers and petty bourgeoisie in men. We showed the inequality in self-rated health according to the Wright's social class in an industrialized Asian country
Vauclair, Christin-Melanie; Marques, Sibila; Lima, Maria L; Abrams, Dominic; Swift, Hannah; Bratt, Christopher
The relative income hypothesis predicts poorer health in societies with greater income inequality. This article examines whether the psychosocial factors of perceived age discrimination and (lack of) social capital may help explain the adverse effect of inequality on older people's health. Self-rated health, perceived age discrimination, and social capital were assessed in the 2008/9 European Social Survey (European Social Survey Round 4 Data, 2008). The Gini coefficient was used to represent national inequalities in income in each of the 28 European Social Survey countries. Mediation analyses (within a multilevel structural equation modeling paradigm) on a subsample of respondents over 70 years of age (N = 7,819) were used to examine whether perceived age discrimination mediates the negative effect of income inequality on older people's self-rated health. Perceived age discrimination fully mediated the associations between income inequality and self-rated health. When social capital was included into the model, only age discrimination remained a significant mediator and predictor of self-rated health. Concrete instances of age discrimination in unequal societies are an important psychosocial stressor for older people. Awareness that the perception of ageism can be an important stressor and affect older patient's self-reported health has important implications for the way health practitioners understand and treat the sources of patient's health problems in later life. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Apers, Silke; Sevenants, Lien; Budts, Werner; Luyckx, Koen; Moons, Philip
Adults with congenital heart disease seem to be more distressed than their healthy counterparts, which might render them even more susceptible to developing detrimental health outcomes. Previous research has confirmed the relationship between the perceived impact of stress on health and self-rated health. However, it remains unknown whether sense of coherence, a person's capacity to cope with stressors, moderates this relationship. This cross-sectional study aims to explore: the relationship between demographic and clinical characteristics, sense of coherence, and the perceived impact of stress on health; the relationship between the perceived impact of stress on health and self-rated health; and the moderating effect of sense of coherence in a sample of adults with congenital heart disease. Patients were recruited from the database of congenital and structural cardiology of a university hospital. The analytic sample included 255 patients (median age 35 years; 50% men). Data were obtained using self-report questionnaires and through medical record view. Univariate analyses and multiple regression analysis were conducted. The perceived impact of stress on health was negatively associated with sense of coherence (Pstress on health and self-rated health were negatively associated (Prelationship. Our findings support the need for further research on the perceived impact of stress on health. Such insights can be valuable for developing interventions aimed at reducing the negative health consequences of stress in patients with congenital heart disease. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.
Tøge, Anne Grete; Blekesaune, Morten
The Great Recession of 2008 has led to elevated unemployment in Europe and thereby revitalised the question of causal health effects of unemployment. This article applies fixed effects regression models to longitudinal panel data drawn from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions for 28 European countries from 2008 to 2011, in order to investigate changes in self-rated health around the event of becoming unemployed. The results show that the correlation between unemployment and health is partly due to a decrease in self-rated health as people enter unemployment. Such health changes vary by country of domicile, and by individual age; older workers have a steeper decline than younger workers. Health changes after the unemployment spell reveal no indication of adverse health effects of unemployment duration. Overall, this study indicates some adverse health effects of unemployment in Europe--predominantly among older workers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tran, Thanh V; Nguyen, Duy; Chan, Keith; Nguyen, Thuc-Nhi
This study employed the 2009 California Health Interview Survey to examine the association of self-rated heath status and lifestyle behavior variables such as smoking at least 100 cigarettes or more in an entire lifetime, alcohol consumption, and physical activity level among foreign-born Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese Americans aged 18 and older. The total study sample consisted of 3,023 foreign-born adult Chinese (n = 812), Korean (n = 857), and Vietnamese (n = 1,354) Americans. Logistic regression via Stata 12 was employed. Odds ratios (OR) along with confidence intervals (CI) were reported in the results. Results revealed that smoking at least 100 cigarettes or more in an entire lifetime had a negative association with good health status (OR = 0.74, 95 % CI = 0.59, 0.94), while alcohol consumption had a positive association with good health status (OR = 1.20, 95 % CI = 1.00, 1.44). Moderate physical activity (OR = 1.26, 95 % CI = 1.05, 1.50) and vigorous physical activity (OR = 1.68, 95 % CI = 1.31, 2.15) had a similar positive association with good self-rated health status. The results also revealed that the predicted probability of self-rated health status based on ethnicity and lifestyle variables was more favorable for foreign-born Chinese Americans than their Korean and Vietnamese American counterparts. This study's results corroborated the findings reported in previous research on the association of lifestyle behaviors and health status. Regardless of racial or ethnic backgrounds, good lifestyles have an important role in the prevention of poor health status. However, health education and lifestyle intervention programs should take cultural differences among racial and ethnic populations into consideration.
Levin, Michael E; Krafft, Jennifer; Levin, Crissa
This study examined whether self-help (books, websites, mobile apps) increases help seeking for mental health problems among college students by minimizing stigma as a barrier. A survey was conducted with 200 college students reporting elevated distress from February to April 2017. Intentions to use self-help were low, but a significant portion of students unwilling to see mental health professionals intended to use self-help. Greater self-stigma related to lower intentions to seek professional help, but was unrelated to seeking self-help. Similarly, students who only used self-help in the past reported higher self-stigma than those who sought professional treatment in the past. Although stigma was not a barrier for self-help, alternate barriers were identified. Offering self-help may increase rates of students receiving help for mental health problems, possibly by offering an alternative for students unwilling to seek in-person therapy due to stigma concerns.
Post, M; Krol, B; Groothoff, JW
Aims. The aim of the present study is to identify self-rated health predictors of return to work ( RTW) within the study population as a whole as well as in three subgroups, namely musculoskeletal complaints, other physical health complaints, and psychological complaints. Methods. The study was
Molarius, Anu; Granström, Fredrik; Lindén-Boström, Margareta; Elo, Sirkka
This study investigated the association between domestic work and self-rated health among women and men in the general population. The study is based on women (N = 12,910) and men (N = 9784) aged 25-64 years, who responded to a survey questionnaire in 2008 (response rate 56%). Logistic regression models were used to assess the association adjusting for age, educational level, employment status, family status and longstanding illness. Population attributable risks (PAR) were calculated to assess the contribution of domestic work to the prevalence of suboptimal self-rated health. More women (29%) than men (12%) spent more than 20 hours per week in domestic work. Women also experienced domestic work more often as burdensome. Disability pensioners and single mothers reported highest levels of burdensome domestic work. There was a strong independent association between burdensome domestic work and suboptimal self-rated health both in women and men. The PAR for burdensome domestic work was 21% in women and 12% in men and comparable to other major risk factors. The results suggest that domestic work should not be omitted when considering factors that affect self-rated health in the general population.
Kim, Bum Jung; Jun, Hyeyoun; Lee, Jisun; Linton, Kristen; Kim, Meehye; Browne, Colette
This study examined the effects of association between self-rated health and employment status on subjective well-being among older Chinese and Korean immigrants in the United States. Data were collected from 171 Chinese and 205 Korean older adult immigrants living in Los Angeles County. The primary variables included demographic data, subjective index of well-being, self-rated health, and employment status. Data support the association between self-rated health and subjective well-being for both groups. Employment, education, and age were associated with the level of subjective well-being only for older Korean immigrants. Similarities and differences were noted in these two Asian American subgroups. Findings suggest the need to develop health promotion services for both populations and employment opportunities targeted more so for Korean older immigrants to further support their subjective well-being. Results may have implications for other for older immigrants.
Lund, Rikke; Avlund, Kirsten; Modvig, Jens
.3-5.2) in the two-point analyses. Furthermore, a deterioration in SRH predicted poor contact satisfaction OR=2.8 (1.7-4.5). All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, mental health, functional ability, cohabitation status, and a measure of social relations at baseline. Results for the three-point analyses were......AIM: The purpose of this study was to analyse whether development in self-rated health (SRH) over four years was associated with the structure of and satisfaction with social relations, at four and eight years follow-up, among elderly women and men. METHODS: A longitudinal questionnaire-based study...
Rafael T Mikolajczyk
Full Text Available Background:Alcohol drinking was linked to self-rated health in different populations, but the association was inconsistent. We studied the association among university students across three European countries with different patterns of drinking. Methods:We analysed data from three universities, one from each country: Germany (beer dominant, Bulgaria (wine dominant and Poland (unclassified among youths, spirits dominant in adults (N=2103. Frequency of drinking and problem drinking (two positive responses on CAGE-scale on the one side and self-rated health, caring for ones own health and worsening of health since the last year on the other side were assessed by means of self-administered questionnaire. The association between alcohol- (independent and health-related (dependent variables was evaluated by means of logistic regression, adjusting for country and sex. Results:Poor self-rated health and worsened health since previous year were associated only with problem drinking (odds ratio 1.82 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21-2.73 and 1.61 (95% CI 1.17-2.21, respectively, but not with a higher frequency of drinking. In contrast, not caring for one’s own health was associated with frequent drinking (1.40 (95% CI 1.10-1.78 but not with problem drinking (1.25 (95% CI 0.95-1.63. The results were consistent across the studied countries and by sex. Conclusions:The health status of university students was associated with problem drinking. A high frequency of drinking was associated with the lack of care of own health, but it was not associated with current health status. These associations were independent of the predominant pattern of drinking across the studied countries.
Braga, Ana Paula Gasparini; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima
This study estimated the prevalence of bad/very bad self-rated mastication and investigated associated factors among Brazilian adults. The sample included 13,431 adults examined and interviewed in the SBBrazil project. Self-rated mastication was combined in three categories: good/ very good (the reference), fair, and bad/very bad. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to measure the association between fair and bad/very bad self-rated mastication and all independent variables included in the analysis, with significance set at p mastication as good/very good, 24.9% as fair, and 19.5% as bad/very bad. In the final multivariate analysis, factors associated with bad or fair self-rated mastication were: receiving no information on how to avoid oral problems; presenting fewer than 23 remaining teeth; requiring total or partial prosthesis; bad/very bad self-rated oral health; gingival pain and/or toothache in the previous year; and need of dental treatment. In conclusion, various factors were associated with self-rated mastication, especially subjective conditions, thus emphasizing its importance as an oral health indicator.
Kondoh, Yoshiomi; Hakoiwa, Toru; Okada, Akihito; Kobayashi, Naohiro; Takahashi, Toshiki
A novel set of simultaneous eigenvalue equations having dissipative terms are derived to find self-similarly evolving and minimally dissipated stable states of plasmas realized after relaxation and self-organization processes. By numerically solving the set of eigenvalue equations in a cylindrical model, typical spatial profiles of plasma parameters, electric and magnetic fields and diffusion factors are presented, all of which determine self-consistently with each other by physical laws and mutual relations among them, just as in experimental plasmas. (author)
Arlesia Mathis PhD
Full Text Available Objective: This study examines associations between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH among urban older adults. Method: We selected 217 individuals aged 65+ living in a de-industrialized Midwestern city who answered questions on the 2009 Speak to Your Health survey. The relationship between neighborhood environment and SRH was analyzed using regression models. Neighborhood variables included social support and participation, perceived racism, and crime. Additional models included actual crime indices to compare differences between perceived and actual crime. Results: Seniors who have poor SRH are 21% more likely to report fear of crime than seniors with excellent SRH ( p = .01. Additional analyses revealed Black seniors are 7% less likely to participate in social activities ( p = .005 and 4% more likely to report experiencing racism ( p < .001. Discussion: More than 80% of older adults live in urban areas. By 2030, older adults will account for 20% of the U.S. population. Given the increasing numbers of older adults living in urban neighborhoods, studies such as this one are important. Mitigating environmental influences in the neighborhood that are associated with poor SRH may allow urban older adults to maintain health and reduce disability.
Molarius, Anu; Engström, Sevek; Flink, Håkan; Simonsson, Bo; Tegelberg, Ake
The aims of this study were to determine self-rated oral health and dental attendance habits among Swedish adults, with special reference to the role of social inequalities, after the Swedish dental care reform in 2008. The study is based on a survey questionnaire, sent to 12,235 residents of a Swedish county, in 2012. The age group was 16-84 years: 5,999 (49%) responded. Using chi-square statistics, differences in prevalence of self-rated oral health and regular dental attendance were analysed with respect to gender, age, educational level, family status, employment status and country of birth. Self-rated poor oral health was analysed by multivarite logistic regression adjusting for the different socio-demographic factors, financial security and having refrained from dental treatment for financial reasons. Three out of four respondents (75%) reported fairly good or very good oral health. Almost 90% claimed to be regular dental attenders. Those who were financially secure reported better oral health. The differences in oral health between those with a cash margin and those without were large whereas the differences between age groups were rather small. About 8% reported that they had refrained from dental treatment for financial reasons during the last three months. Self-rated poor oral health was most common among the unemployed, those on disability pension or on long-term sick leave, those born outside the Nordic countries and those with no cash margin (odds ratios ranging from 2.4 to 4.4). The most important factor contributing to these differences was having refrained from dental treatment for financial reasons. The results are relevant to strategies intended to reduce social inequalities in oral health, affirming the importance of the provision of equitable access to dental care.
Benson, Paul R
Employing a cohort sequential design and multilevel modeling, the effects of child and family stressors and maternal depressed mood on the self-rated health of 110 mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder were assessed over a 12-year period when children in the study were 7-19 years old. Findings indicate a significant decline in self-rated health over time. In addition, child and family stressors, as well as maternal depressed mood, exerted significant between-persons effects on self-rated health such that mothers who reported more stressors and depressed mood across the study period were less likely to rate themselves in better health across that period. In addition, a significant within-person relationship between maternal depressed mood and self-rated health was found, indicating that at times when mothers reported higher levels of depressed mood than usual (their personal average across the study), they were significantly less likely to report better self-rated health. Finally, maternal depressed mood partially mediated the between-persons effects of child and family stressors on self-rated health such that increased stressors led to increased maternal depressed mood which, in turn, led to poorer maternal self-rated health. Findings suggest that chronic stressors erode maternal health over time and that depression may be an important mechanism linking stressors to decreased maternal health.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammalian genome sequence data are being acquired in large quantities and at enormous speeds. We now have a tremendous opportunity to better understand which genes are the most variable or conserved, and what their particular functions and evolutionary dynamics are, through comparative genomics. Results We chose human and eleven other high-coverage mammalian genome data–as well as an avian genome as an outgroup–to analyze orthologous protein-coding genes using nonsynonymous (Ka and synonymous (Ks substitution rates. After evaluating eight commonly-used methods of Ka and Ks calculation, we observed that these methods yielded a nearly uniform result when estimating Ka, but not Ks (or Ka/Ks. When sorting genes based on Ka, we noticed that fast-evolving and slow-evolving genes often belonged to different functional classes, with respect to species-specificity and lineage-specificity. In particular, we identified two functional classes of genes in the acquired immune system. Fast-evolving genes coded for signal-transducing proteins, such as receptors, ligands, cytokines, and CDs (cluster of differentiation, mostly surface proteins, whereas the slow-evolving genes were for function-modulating proteins, such as kinases and adaptor proteins. In addition, among slow-evolving genes that had functions related to the central nervous system, neurodegenerative disease-related pathways were enriched significantly in most mammalian species. We also confirmed that gene expression was negatively correlated with evolution rate, i.e. slow-evolving genes were expressed at higher levels than fast-evolving genes. Our results indicated that the functional specializations of the three major mammalian clades were: sensory perception and oncogenesis in primates, reproduction and hormone regulation in large mammals, and immunity and angiotensin in rodents. Conclusion Our study suggests that Ka calculation, which is less biased compared to Ks and Ka
Oxenstierna, Gabriel; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Widmark, Maria; Finnholm, Kristina; Stenfors, Cecilia; Elofsson, Stig; Theorell, Töres
Few studies have considered the work environment in relation to workplace conflicts and those who have been published have included relatively few psychosocial work environment factors. Little research has been published on the consequences of workplace conflicts in terms of employee health. In this study, the statistical relationships between work and workplace characteristics on one hand and conflicts on the other hand are examined. In addition, the relationship between conflicts at work and self-rated health are described. The study population was derived from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) 2006; n=5,141. Among employees at workplaces with more than 20 employees (n=3,341), 1,126 (33.7%) responded that they had been involved in some type of conflict during the two years preceding the survey. Among the work and workplace characteristics studied, the following factors were independently associated with increased likelihood of ongoing conflicts: Conflicting demands, emotional demands, risk of transfer or dismissal, poor promotion prospects, high level of employee influence and good freedom of expression. Factors that decreased the likelihood of ongoing conflicts were: Good resources, good relations with management, good confidence in management, good procedural justice (fairness of decisions) and good social support. After adjustment for socioeconomic conditions the odds ratio for low self-rated health associated with ongoing conflict at work was 2.09 (1.60-2.74). The results provide a good starting point for intervention and prevention work.
Feng, Zhixin; Vlachantoni, Athina; Liu, Xiaoting; Jones, Kelvyn
Trust is important for health at both the individual and societal level. Previous research using Western concepts of trust has shown that a high level of trust in society can positively affect individuals' health; however, it has been found that the concepts and culture of trust in China are different from those in Western countries and research on the relationship between trust and health in China is scarce. The analyses use data from the national scale China General Social Survey (CGSS) on adults aged above 18 in 2005 and 2010. Two concepts of trust ("out-group" and "in-group" trust) are used to examine the relationship between trust and self-rated health in China. Multilevel logistical models are applied, examining the trust at the individual and societal level on individuals' self-rated health. In terms of interpersonal trust, both "out-group" and "in-group" trust are positively associated with good health in 2005 and 2010. At the societal level, the relationships between the two concepts of trust and health are different. In 2005, higher "out-group" social trust (derived from trust in strangers) is positively associated with better health; however, higher "in-group" social trust (derived from trust in most people) is negatively associated with good health in 2010. The cross-level interactions show that lower educated individuals (no education or only primary level), rural residents and those on lower incomes are the most affected groups in societies with higher "out-group" social trust; whereas people with lower levels of educational attainment, a lower income, and those who think that most people can be trusted are the most affected groups in societies with higher "in-group" social trust. High levels of interpersonal trust are of benefit to health. Higher "out-group" social trust is positively associated with better health; while higher "in-group" social trust is negatively associated with good health. Individuals with different levels of educational
Molarius, Anu; Engström, Sevek; Flink, Håkan; Simonsson, Bo; Tegelberg, Åke
BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to determine self-rated oral health and dental attendance habits among Swedish adults, with special reference to the role of social inequalities, after the Swedish dental care reform in 2008. METHODS: The study is based on a survey questionnaire, sent to 12,235 residents of a Swedish county, in 2012. The age group was 16-84 years: 5,999 (49%) responded. Using chi-square statistics, differences in prevalence of self-rated oral health and regular dental a...
Wagman, Petra; Nordin, Maria; Alfredsson, Lars; Westerholm, Peter J M; Fransson, Eleonor I
The amount and perception of domestic work may affect satisfaction with everyday life, but further knowledge is needed about the relationship between domestic work division and health and well-being. To describe the division of, and satisfaction with, domestic work and responsibility for home/family in adults living with a partner. A further aim was to investigate the associations between these aspects and self-rated life satisfaction and health. Data from the Work, Lipids and Fibrinogen survey collected 2009 were used, comprising 4924 participants living with a partner. Data were analyzed using logistic regression. The majority shared domestic work and responsibility for home/family equally with their partner. However, more women conducted the majority of the domestic work and were less satisfied with its division. When both division and satisfaction with division was included in the analysis, solely satisfaction with the division and the responsibility were associated with higher odds for good life satisfaction. Regarding health, higher odds for good self-rated health were seen in those who were satisfied with their division of responsibility. The results highlight the importance of taking into account not solely the actual division of domestic work but also the satisfaction with it.
Chandwani, Kavita D; Heckler, Charles E; Mohile, Supriya G; Mustian, Karen M; Janelsins, Michelle; Peppone, Luke J; Bushunow, Peter; Flynn, Patrick J; Morrow, Gary R
Hot flashes (HF) are a common distressing symptom in women with breast cancer (BC). Current pharmacologic options are moderately effective and are associated with bothersome side effects. Complementary and alternative medicine is commonly used by cancer patients. However, information on the association of hot flashes severity with such use and self-rated health is lacking. To examine the hot flashes severity in women with breast cancer and its association with complementary and alternative medicine use and self-rated health (SRH). Longitudinal multicenter study to assess information needs of cancer outpatients. Patients with a diagnosis of breast cancer who were scheduled to undergo chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Hot flashes severity (0 = not present and 10 = as bad as you can imagine), use of complementary and alternative medicine (yes/no), and self-rating of health (SRH) status post-treatment and six-months thereafter (1-5, higher score = better SRH). The majority of women with HF (mean age = 54.4 years) were Caucasian and married, with higher education, and 93% had received surgical treatment for BC. At the end of treatment, 79% women reported experiencing HF [mean severity = 5.87, standard deviation (SD) = 2.9]; significantly more severe HF were reported by younger women with poor SRH, poor performance status, and those reporting doing spiritual practices. At follow-up, 73% had HF (mean severity = 4.86, SD = 3.0), and more severe HF were reported by younger women with poor self-rated health who had undergone chemotherapy plus radiotherapy, used vitamins, and did not exercise. A high percentage of women experienced hot flashes at the end of treatment and at six-month follow-up. A significant association of hot flashes severity with spiritual practice, increased vitamin use, and reduced exercise emphasize the need for future studies to confirm the results. This can facilitate safe use of complementary and alternative medicine and favorable outcomes while
Khalaila, R N Rabia
Socioeconomic inequalities in health are well documented. Recently, researchers have shown interest in exploring the mechanisms by which measures of SES operate through it to impact SRH, such as material, psychosocial and behavioral factors. To examine the relationships between SES indicators and self-rated health (SRH); and to determine whether health behaviors and obesity mediate the association between SES indicators and SRH. A secondary analysis of data previously collected through the third survey of socioeconomic and health status of the Arab population in Israel, in which the SRH of 878 Arab-Israelis age 50 or older were analyzed using logistic regression. The results showed that higher education level and current employment in old age are associated with better SRH. However, neither subjective economic status nor family income was associated with SRH. Greater physical activity was found to be related to good\\very good SRH, while obesity was associated with less than good SRH. Finally, health behaviors (physical activity) and obesity were revealed as mediators between SES indicators (education and employment status) and SRH. The results highlight the importance of high education level and employment status in old age to reduce health inequalities. The findings also show that the relationship between SES and SRH can operate through behavioral mechanisms (i.e., physical activity) and their consequences (i.e., obesity), that can, however, be changed in old age.
Litt, J S; Schmiege, S J; Hale, J W; Buchenau, M; Sancar, F
The social, emotional, and mental health benefits associated with gardening have been well documented. However, the processes underlying the relationship between garden participation and improvements in health status have not been sufficiently studied. Using population-based survey data (n = 469 urban residents), objective street environment data, and area-level measures, this research used a path analytic framework to examine several theoretically based constructs as mediators between gardening history and self-reported health. The results showed that garden participation influenced health status indirectly through social involvement with one's community, perceived aesthetic appeal of the neighborhood, and perceived collective efficacy. Gardeners, compared to non-gardeners, reported higher ratings of neighborhood aesthetics and more involvement in social activities, whereas aesthetics and involvement were associated with higher ratings of collective efficacy and neighborhood attachment. Collective efficacy, but not neighborhood attachment, predicted self-rated health. Gardening also directly influenced improved fruit and vegetable intake. The physical and social qualities of garden participation may therefore stimulate a range of interpersonal and social responses that are supportive of positive ratings of health. This research suggests that community planners and health professionals should aim to strengthen the social and aesthetic relationships while designing environments and policies as a way to ignite intermediate processes that may lead to improved health status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The study assessed television viewing >2 h a day and its association with sedentary behaviors, self-rated health, and academic performance among secondary school adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among randomly selected students in Lima in 2015. We measured self-reported responses of students using a standard questionnaire, and conducted in-depth interviews with 10 parents and 10 teachers. Chi-square test, correlation and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed among 1234 students, and thematic analysis technique was used for qualitative information. A total of 23.1% adolescents reported watching television >2 h a day. Qualitative findings also show that adolescents spend most of their leisure time watching television, playing video games or using the Internet. Television viewing had a significant positive correlation with video game use in males and older adolescents, with Internet use in both sexes, and a negative correlation with self-rated health and academic performance in females. Multivariate logistic regression analysis shows that television viewing >2 h a day, independent of physical activity was associated with video games use >2 h a day, Internet use >2 h a day, poor/fair self-rated health and poor self-reported academic performance. Television viewing time and sex had a significant interaction effect on both video game use >2 h a day and Internet use >2 h a day. Reducing television viewing time may be an effective strategy for improving health and academic performance in adolescents.
Ard, Kerry; Colen, Cynthia; Becerra, Marisol; Velez, Thelma
This study provides an empirical test of two mechanisms (social capital and exposure to air pollution) that are theorized to mediate the effect of neighborhood on health and contribute to racial disparities in health outcomes. To this end, we utilize the Social Capital Benchmark Study, a national survey of individuals nested within communities in the United States, to estimate how multiple dimensions of social capital and exposure to air pollution, explain racial disparities in self-rated health. Our main findings show that when controlling for individual-confounders, and nesting within communities, our indicator of cognitive bridging, generalized trust, decreases the gap in self-rated health between African Americans and Whites by 84%, and the gap between Hispanics and Whites by 54%. Our other indicator of cognitive social capital, cognitive linking as represented by engagement in politics, decreases the gap in health between Hispanics and Whites by 32%, but has little impact on African Americans. We also assessed whether the gap in health was explained by respondents' estimated exposure to toxicity-weighted air pollutants from large industrial facilities over the previous year. Our results show that accounting for exposure to these toxins has no effect on the racial gap in self-rated health in these data. This paper contributes to the neighborhood effects literature by examining the impact that estimated annual industrial air pollution, and multiple measures of social capital, have on explaining the racial gap in health in a sample of individuals nested within communities across the United States.
Li, Changle; Supakankunti, Siripen
To estimate how tobacco consumption affects household expenditure on other goods and services in rural China and to assess the tobacco consumption affects self-rated health among rural household members in China. A Seemingly Unrelated Regression was used to assess the impact of tobacco consumption on rural household expenditure. To detect tobacco consumption causing heterogeneity in self-rated health among adults in rural China, this study employed a random effects generalized ordered probit model. 2010-2014 China Family Panel Studies was used for the analysis. The data set included 3,611 households and 10,610 adults in each wave. Tobacco consumption households assign significantly lower budget shares to food, health care, dress, and education in rural China. Moreover, self-rated health factor has a significantly positive coefficient with respect to non-smokers and ex-smokers, that is, when the individuals is a non-smoker or ex-smoker, he/ she will be more likely to report his/her health status as positive. The first analysis showed that tobacco consumption crowds out expenditures on food, dress, health care, and education for rural households in China, and the second analysis indicated that non-smokers and ex-smokers are more likely to report their health status as better compared with last year. The results of the present study revealed that Chinese policymakers might consider controlling tobacco consumption since tobacco control can improve not only rural household welfare but also rural household members' health status. Therefore, the tobacco tax policy and brief clinical interventions by the doctor should be implemented in rural China.
Präg, Patrick; Subramanian, S V
The US shows a distinct health disadvantage when compared to other high-income nations. A potential lever to reduce this disadvantage is to improve the health situation of lower socioeconomic groups. Our objective is to explore how the considerable within-US variation in health inequalities compares to the health inequalities across other Western countries. Representative survey data from 44 European countries and the US federal states were obtained from the fourth wave of the European Values Study (EVS) and the 2008 wave of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Using binary logistic regression, we analyze different forms of educational inequalities in self-rated health (SRH), adjusted for age and sex. The extent of educational inequalities in SRH varies considerably over European countries and US states; with US states in general showing greater inequality, however, differences between US states and European countries are less clear than commonly assumed. The US has considerable differences in educational inequalities in SRH across geographic locations. To understand the reasons for the US health disadvantage, comparative research has to take into account the vast variation in health inequalities within the US.
Xie Zhou; Wang Xiaofan; Li Xiang
In order to describe the self-organization of communities in the evolution of weighted networks, we propose a new evolving model for weighted community-structured networks with the preferential mechanisms functioned in different levels according to community sizes and node strengths, respectively. Theoretical analyses and numerical simulations show that our model captures power-law distributions of community sizes, node strengths, and link weights, with tunable exponents of ν ≥ 1, γ > 2, and α > 2, respectively, sharing large clustering coefficients and scaling clustering spectra, and covering the range from disassortative networks to assortative networks. Finally, we apply our new model to the scientific co-authorship networks with both their weighted and unweighted datasets to verify its effectiveness
Siahpush, Mohammad; Spittal, Matt; Singh, Gopal K
To examine the effect of happiness and life satisfaction on health. Longitudinal data from waves 1 and 3, conducted in 2001 and 2004, respectively, of the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey. Australia. A total of 9981 respondents aged 18 years and older. Outcomes were self-reported health; the absence of long-term, limiting health conditions; and physical health. Happiness was assessed with the following question: "During the past 4 weeks, have you been a happy person"? Life satisfaction was determined with the following question: "All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life"? We used multiple regression analysis to estimate odds ratios (ORs), beta coefficients (beta), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between baseline happiness or life satisfaction and health at wave 3. Baseline happiness and life satisfaction both were positively associated at wave 3 with excellent, very good, or good health (OR = 1.50, CI = 1.33-1.70, p < .0001; and OR = 1.62, CI = 1.27-2.08, p < .0001, respectively); with the absence of long-term, limiting health conditions (OR = 1.53, CI = 1.35-1.75, p < .0001; and OR = 1.51, CI = 1.25-1.82, p < .0001, respectively); and with higher physical health levels (beta = .99, CI = .60-1.39, p < .0001; and beta = .99, CI = .20-1.78, p < .0145, respectively). This study showed that happier people and those who were more satisfied with their lives at baseline reported better health (self-rated health; absence of limiting, long-term conditions; and physical health) at the 2-year follow-up when adjusted for baseline health and other relevant covariates.
Edward R. Berchick
Full Text Available Self-rated health (SRH is a commonly used measure for assessing general health in surveys in the United States. However, individuals from different parts of the United States may vary in how they assess their health. Geographic differences in health care access and in the prevalence of illnesses may make it difficult to discern true regional differences in health when using SRH as a health measure. In this article, we use data from the 1986 and 1989–2006 National Health Interview Survey Linked Mortality Files and estimate Cox regression models to examine whether the relationship between SRH and five-year all-cause mortality differs by Census region. Contrary to hypotheses, there is no evidence of regional variation in the predictive validity of SRH for mortality. At all levels of SRH, and for both non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black respondents, SRH is equally and strongly associated with five-year mortality across regions. Our results suggest that differences in SRH across regions are not solely due to differences in how respondents assess their health across regions, but reflect true differences in health. Future research can, therefore, employ this common measure to investigate the geographic patterning of health in the United States.
Harris, Ricci; Cormack, Donna; Stanley, James; Rameka, Ruruhira
In this study, we examine race/ethnic consciousness and its associations with experiences of racial discrimination and health in New Zealand. Racism is an important determinant of health and cause of ethnic inequities. However, conceptualising the mechanisms by which racism impacts on health requires racism to be contextualised within the broader social environment. Race/ethnic consciousness (how often people think about their race or ethnicity) is understood as part of a broader assessment of the ‘racial climate’. Higher race/ethnic consciousness has been demonstrated among non-dominant racial/ethnic groups and linked to adverse health outcomes in a limited number of studies. We analysed data from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey, a national population-based survey of New Zealand adults, to examine the distribution of ethnic consciousness by ethnicity, and its association with individual experiences of racial discrimination and self-rated health. Findings showed that European respondents were least likely to report thinking about their ethnicity, with people from non-European ethnic groupings all reporting relatively higher ethnic consciousness. Higher ethnic consciousness was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting experience of racial discrimination for all ethnic groupings and was also associated with fair/poor self-rated health after adjusting for age, sex and ethnicity. However, this difference in health was no longer evident after further adjustment for socioeconomic position and individual experience of racial discrimination. Our study suggests different experiences of racialised social environments by ethnicity in New Zealand and that, at an individual level, ethnic consciousness is related to experiences of racial discrimination. However, the relationship with health is less clear and needs further investigation with research to better understand the racialised social relations that create and maintain ethnic inequities in health in
Hurtado, David; Kawachi, Ichiro; Sudarsky, John
Although there is increasing evidence supporting the associations between social capital and health, less is known of potential effects in Latin American countries. Our objective was to examine associations of different components of social capital with self-rated health in Colombia. The study had a cross-sectional design, using data of a survey applied to a nationally representative sample of 3025 respondents, conducted in 2004-2005. Stratified random sampling was performed, based on town size, urban/rural origin, age, and sex. Examined indicators of social capital were interpersonal trust, reciprocity, associational membership, non-electoral political participation, civic activities and volunteering. Principal components analysis including different indicators of social capital distinguished three components: structural-formal (associational membership and non-electoral political participation), structural-informal (civic activities and volunteering) and cognitive (interpersonal trust and reciprocity). Multilevel analyses showed no significant variations of self-rated health at the regional level. After adjusting for sociodemographic covariates, interpersonal trust was statistically significantly associated with lower odds of poor/fair health, as well as the cognitive social capital component. Members of farmers/agricultural or gender-related groups had higher odds of poor/fair health, respectively. Excluding these groups, however, associational membership was associated with lower odds of poor/fair health. Likewise, in Colombians with educational attainment higher than high school, reciprocity was associated with lower odds of fair/poor health. Nevertheless, among rural respondents non-electoral political participation was associated with worse health. In conclusion, cognitive social capital and associational membership were related to better health, and could represent important notions for health promotion. Human rights violations related to political violence
Tan, Jacinth J X; Kraus, Michael W
The economic conditions of one's life can profoundly and systematically influence health outcomes over the life course. Our present research demonstrates that rejecting the notion that social class categories are biologically determined-a nonessentialist belief-buffers lower-class individuals from poor self-rated health and negative affect, whereas conceiving of social class categories as rooted in biology-an essentialist belief-does not. In Study 1, lower-class individuals self-reported poorer health than upper-class individuals when they endorsed essentialist beliefs but showed no such difference when they rejected such beliefs. Exposure to essentialist theories of social class also led lower-class individuals to report greater feelings of negative self-conscious emotions (Studies 2 and 3), and perceive poorer health (Study 3) than upper-class individuals, whereas exposure to nonessentialist theories did not lead to such differences. Discussion considers how lay theories of social class potentially shape long-term trajectories of health and affect of lower-class individuals. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
de Silva-Sanigorski, Andrea; Ashbolt, Rosie; Green, Julie; Calache, Hanny; Keith, Benedict; Riggs, Elisha; Waters, Elizabeth
This study sought to advance understanding of the influence of psychosocial factors on oral health by examining how parental self-efficacy (with regard to acting on their child's oral health needs) and oral health knowledge relate to parental and child oral health behaviors and self-rated oral health. Parents of children in grades 0/1 and 5/6 (n = 804) and children in grades 5/6 (n = 377, mean age 11.5 ± 1.0, 53.9% female) were recruited from a stratified random sample of 11 primary (elementary) schools. Participants completed surveys capturing psychosocial factors, oral health-related knowledge, and parental attitudes about oral health. Parents also rated their own oral health status and the oral health of their child. Correlations and logistic regression analysis (adjusted for socioeconomic status, child age, and gender) examined associations between psychosocial factors and the outcomes of interest (parent and child behaviors and self-rated oral health status). Higher parental self-efficacy was associated with more frequent toothbrushing (by parent and child), and more frequent visits to a dental professional. These associations were particularly strong with regard to dental visits for children, with parents with the highest tertile for self-efficacy 4.3 times more likely to report that their child attended a dentist for a checkup at least once a year (95%CI 2.52-7.43); and 3 times more likely to report their child brushing their teeth at least twice a day (Adjusted Odds Ratio 3.04, 95%CI 1.64-5.64) compared with those parents in the lowest tertile for self-efficacy. No associations with oral health knowledge were found when examined by tertile of increasing knowledge. Oral health self-efficacy and knowledge are potentially modifiable risk factors of oral health outcomes, and these findings suggest that intervening on these factors could help foster positive dental health habits in families. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Objectives: Civic participation, that which directly influences important decisions in our personal lives, is considered necessary for developing a society. We hypothesized that civic participation might be related to self-rated health status. Methods: We constructed a multi-level analysis using data from the World Value Survey (44 countries, n=50 859. Results: People who participated in voting and voluntary social activities tended to report better subjective health than those who did not vote or participate in social activities, after controlling for socio-demographic factors at the individual level. A negative association with unconventional political activity and subjective health was found, but this effect disappeared in a subset analysis of only the 18 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD countries. Moreover, social participation and unconventional political participation had a statistically significant contextual association with subjective health status, but this relationship was not consistent throughout the analysis. In the analysis of the 44 countries, social participation was of borderline significance, while in the subset analysis of the OECD countries unconventional political participation was a stronger determinant of subjective health. The democratic index was a significant factor in determining self-rated health in both analyses, while public health expenditure was a significant factor in only the subset analysis. Conclusions: Despite the uncertainty of its mechanism, civic participation might be a significant determinant of the health status of a country.
Kim, Min-Seok; Hong, Yun-Chul; Yook, Ji-Hoo; Kang, Mo-Yeol
To investigate the effects of job security on new development of depressive episode, suicide ideation, and decline in self-rated health. Data from the Korea Welfare Panel Study from 2012 to 2015 were analysed. A total of 2912 waged workers self-assessed their depressive episode, suicide ideation, and health annually by answering the questionnaire. Participants were divided into three groups according to the level of job security: high, intermediate and low. To evaluate the influence of job security, we performed survival analysis after stratification by gender with adjustment for covariates. The result was further stratified by whether the respondent was the head of household. After adjusting for covariates, men in low job security group showed significantly higher hazard ratios (HRs) for depression (HR 1.27, 95% CI 1.01-1.60), suicide ideation (HR 3.25, 95% CI 1.72-6.16), and decline in self-rated health (HR 1.73, 95% CI 1.16-2.59). Women showed significantly higher HR of depression in the intermediate (HR 1.37, 95% CI 1.01-1.87) and low (HR 1.50, 95% CI 1.12-1.99) job security group. Male head of household with low job security showed significantly higher HR of depression, suicide ideation, and decline in self-rated health. Non-head-of-household women with intermediate and low job security showed higher risk of depression than those with high job security. We found that perceived job insecurity is associated with the new development of depressive episode, suicide ideation, and decline in self-rated health.
Mathot, K J; Martin, K; Kempenaers, B; Forstmeier, W
Quantitative genetic analyses of basal metabolic rate (BMR) can inform us about the evolvability of the trait by providing estimates of heritability, and also of genetic correlations with other traits that may constrain the ability of BMR to respond to selection. Here, we studied a captive population of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) in which selection lines for male courtship rate have been established. We measure BMR in these lines to see whether selection on male sexual activity would change BMR as a potentially correlated trait. We find that the genetic correlation between courtship rate and BMR is practically zero, indicating that the two traits can evolve independently of each other. Interestingly, we find that the heritability of BMR in our population (h(2)=0.45) is markedly higher than was previously reported for a captive zebra finch population from Norway. A comparison of the two studies shows that additive genetic variance in BMR has been largely depleted in the Norwegian population, especially the genetic variance in BMR that is independent of body mass. In our population, the slope of BMR increase with body mass differs not only between the sexes but also between the six selection lines, which we tentatively attribute to genetic drift and/or founder effects being strong in small populations. Our study therefore highlights two things. First, the evolvability of BMR may be less constrained by genetic correlations and lack of independent genetic variation than previously described. Second, genetic drift in small populations can rapidly lead to different evolvabilities across populations.
Richards, Catherine A; Rundle, Andrew G
To assess associations between extent of travel for business and health. Associations between business travel and cardiovascular disease risk factors were assessed using medical record data from 13,057 patients provided by EHE International, Inc. Compared with light travelers (1 to 6 nights per month), nontravelers were more likely to report poor/fair health (odds ratio = 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.33 to 1.87) and the odds ratios increased with increasing travel, reaching 2.61 (95% CI: 1.57 to 4.33) among extensive travelers (>20 nights per month). Compared with light travelers, the odds ratios for obesity were highest among nontravelers (odds ratio = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.18 to 1.50) and extensive travelers (odds ratio = 1.92; 95% CI: 1.25 to 2.94). Although the differences were small, nontravelers and extensive travelers had the highest diastolic blood pressure and lowest high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Poor self-rated health and obesity are associated with extensive business travel.
Frenoy, Antoine; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian
The stress-induced mutagenesis hypothesis postulates that in response to stress, bacteria increase their genome-wide mutation rate, in turn increasing the chances that a descendant is able to better withstand the stress. This has implications for antibiotic treatment: exposure to subinhibitory doses of antibiotics has been reported to increase bacterial mutation rates and thus probably the rate at which resistance mutations appear and lead to treatment failure. More generally, the hypothesis posits that stress increases evolvability (the ability of a population to generate adaptive genetic diversity) and thus accelerates evolution. Measuring mutation rates under stress, however, is problematic, because existing methods assume there is no death. Yet subinhibitory stress levels may induce a substantial death rate. Death events need to be compensated by extra replication to reach a given population size, thus providing more opportunities to acquire mutations. We show that ignoring death leads to a systematic overestimation of mutation rates under stress. We developed a system based on plasmid segregation that allows us to measure death and division rates simultaneously in bacterial populations. Using this system, we found that a substantial death rate occurs at the tested subinhibitory concentrations previously reported to increase mutation rate. Taking this death rate into account lowers and sometimes removes the signal for stress-induced mutagenesis. Moreover, even when antibiotics increase mutation rate, we show that subinhibitory treatments do not increase genetic diversity and evolvability, again because of effects of the antibiotics on population dynamics. We conclude that antibiotic-induced mutagenesis is overestimated because of death and that understanding evolvability under stress requires accounting for the effects of stress on population dynamics as much as on mutation rate. Our goal here is dual: we show that population dynamics and, in particular, the
Kavaliauskienė, Aistė; Šidlauskas, Antanas; Zaborskis, Apolinaras
Background : This study aims to explore the extent to which the perceived oral conditions predict adolescent global life satisfaction (GLS); Methods : The sample in a cross-sectional survey consisted of 1510 Lithuanian adolescents (41.7% boys) aged 11-18. The survey was conducted by means of self-report questionnaires that were administrated in school classrooms ensuring confidentiality and anonymity of the participants. The schoolchildren rated their GLS and answered the questions about perceptions of their oral health. The relationship between GLS and oral health variables was estimated using unadjusted and adjusted binary logistic regression and nonparametric correlation analyses; Results : The research showed that the majority of adolescents rated their GLS highly; however, girls, older adolescents and adolescents from less affluent families were less likely to report high scores. GLS was significantly associated with subjective overall oral health assessment. The odds of reporting low GLS were 50% higher for adolescents with good oral health (OR = 1.51; p Child Perceptions Questionnaire (.
Macia, Enguerran; Duboz, Priscilla; Montepare, Joann M; Gueye, Lamine
The objectives of this quantitative study were to (1) ascertain to what extent older adults aged 50 and above feel and desire to be younger than their age, and classify themselves as young versus old; (2) compare these patterns with those found among other cross-cultural populations; and (3) assess the extent to which self-rated health and life satisfaction predict age identities. This study was carried out on a sample of 500 dwellers of the Senegalese capital aged 50 and older. This sample was constructed using the quota method to strive for representativeness. Most of the respondents wanted to be younger than their chronological age (51.8 %), but only 27.8 % felt younger than they were. Moreover, 80 % of the sample claimed to be old. Self-rated health predicted felt age and the feeling of being old. Furthermore, the less-satisfied Dakar residents were with their life, the younger they wanted to be. We first discuss our results in a comparative perspective focused on how orientations toward individualism and collectivism could be related to age identity, and on demographic characteristics of the Senegalese population-where life expectancy is 59.3 years old. We then analyze the relevance of age identity dimensions as indicators of successful aging in Dakar.
Full Text Available There are many clinical and objectively defined parameters that are used to evaluate a person's disability. Since the World Health Organisation has presented the WHODAS II as a means of objectively measuring subjectively defined functions, greater attention has been focused on self-rated health. Only a few studies, however, have been conducted about differences between self-rated health and objectively defined parameters. The survey for this study was conducted on the basis of WHODAS II and the population in Latvia with spinal cord injury. Respondents were between 18 and 65, and 98 questionnaires were analysed. The results show that people with spinal cord injury on average rate their functioning as limited (33–40 points of 100. Most respondents have been declared to be disabled, which is defined as very serious or severe functional disorders. More than 40% have paid jobs, while one-third do not work for reasons of health. The research shows that there is a close coherence (p< 0.05 between individual, objectively and clinically defined indicators on the one hand and the aspects of the questionnaire in which physical functioning was an important factor on the other hand. In order to understand the real functional abilities of patients and the individual factors that influence those abilities, it is necessary to define functional self-rated health in addition to objectively defined indicators.
McCraty, Rollin; Shaffer, Fred
Heart rate variability, the change in the time intervals between adjacent heartbeats, is an emergent property of interdependent regulatory systems that operates on different time scales to adapt to environmental and psychological challenges. This article briefly reviews neural regulation of the heart and offers some new perspectives on mechanisms underlying the very low frequency rhythm of heart rate variability. Interpretation of heart rate variability rhythms in the context of health risk and physiological and psychological self-regulatory capacity assessment is discussed. The cardiovascular regulatory centers in the spinal cord and medulla integrate inputs from higher brain centers with afferent cardiovascular system inputs to adjust heart rate and blood pressure via sympathetic and parasympathetic efferent pathways. We also discuss the intrinsic cardiac nervous system and the heart-brain connection pathways, through which afferent information can influence activity in the subcortical, frontocortical, and motor cortex areas. In addition, the use of real-time HRV feedback to increase self-regulatory capacity is reviewed. We conclude that the heart's rhythms are characterized by both complexity and stability over longer time scales that reflect both physiological and psychological functional status of these internal self-regulatory systems.
Setia, Maninder Singh; Lynch, John; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Tousignant, Pierre; Quesnel-Vallee, Amelie
Using a multi-level random effects logistic model, we examine the contribution of source country, individual characteristics and post-migration experiences to the self-rated health (SRH) of 2468 male and 2614 female immigrants from the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (2001-2005). Sex/gender differences were found for all categories of health determinants. Source country characteristics explained away some ethnic differentials in health and had independent negative effects, particularly among women. Thus, women from countries lower on the development index appear at greater risk of poor SRH, and should be at the forefront of public health programmes aimed at new immigrants in Canada. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Laursen, D. H.; Christensen, K. B.; Christensen, U.
OBJECTIVE: To explore if self-rated health (SRH) can predict differences in outcomes of patient education programmes among patients with type 2 diabetes over time. STUDY DESIGN: This is an observational cohort study conducted among 83 patients with type 2 diabetes participating in patient educati...... education, as measured by the HeiQ, at 12 months. Only participants with optimal SRH appeared to benefit from patient education. Other patient characteristics may be responsible to explain the observed difference between patients with optimal and poor SRH.......OBJECTIVE: To explore if self-rated health (SRH) can predict differences in outcomes of patient education programmes among patients with type 2 diabetes over time. STUDY DESIGN: This is an observational cohort study conducted among 83 patients with type 2 diabetes participating in patient education...... programmes in the Capital Region of Denmark. METHODS: Questionnaire data were collected by telephone interview at baseline and 2 weeks (77 participants, 93%) and 12 months (66, 80%) after the patient education ended. The seven-scale Health Education Impact Questionnaire (HeiQ) was the primary outcome...
Schmidt, Burkhard; Loerbroks, Adrian; Herr, Raphael M; Wilson, Mark G; Jarczok, Marc N; Litaker, David; Mauss, Daniel; Bosch, Jos A; Fischer, Joachim E
Protecting the health of the work force has become an important issue in public health research. This study aims to explore potential associations between supportive leadership style (SLS), an aspect of leadership behavior, and self-rated health (SRH) among employees. We drew on cross-sectional data from a cohort of industrial workers (n = 3,331), collected in 2009. We assessed employees' ratings of supportive, employee-oriented leadership behavior at their job, their SRH, and work stress as measured by the effort-reward model and scales measuring demands, control, and social support. Logistic regression estimated odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between the perception of poor SLS and poor SRH controlling for work-related stress and other confounders. Sensitivity analyses stratified models by sex, age, and managerial position to test the robustness of associations. Perception of poor SLS was associated with poor SRH [OR 2.39 (95 % CI 1.95-2.92)]. Although attenuated following adjustment for measures of work-related stress and other confounders [OR 1.60 (95 % CI 1.26-2.04)], the magnitude, direction, and significance of this association remained robust in stratified models in most subgroups. SLS appears to be relevant to health in the workplace. Leadership behavior may represent a promising area for future research with potential for promoting better health in a large segment of the adult population.
Helen Mary Haines
Full Text Available Objective: To classify a rural community sample by their modifiable health behaviours and identify the prevalence of chronic conditions, poor self-rated health, obesity and hospital use. Method: Secondary analysis of a cross- sectional self-report questionnaire in the Hume region of Victoria, Australia. Cluster analysis using the two-step method was applied to responses to health behaviour items. Results: 1,259 questionnaires were completed. Overall 63% were overweight or obese. Three groups were identified: ‘Healthy Lifestyle’ (63%, ‘Non Smoking, Unhealthy Lifestyle’ (25% and ‘Smokers’ (12%. ‘Healthy lifestyle’ were older and more highly educated than the other two groups while ‘Non Smoking, Unhealthy Lifestyle’ were more likely to be obese. ‘Smokers’ had the highest rate of poor self-rated health. Prevalence of chronic conditions was similar in each group (>20%. ‘Smokers’ were twice as likely to have had two or more visits to hospital in the preceding year even after adjustment for age, gender and education. Conclusion: High rates of overweight and obesity were identified but ‘Smokers’ were at the greatest risk for poor self-rated health and hospitalisation. Implications for Public Health: Within an environment of high rates of chronic ill health and obesity, primary care clinicians and public health policy makers must maintain their vigilance in encouraging people to quit smoking.
Garbarski, Dana; Dykema, Jennifer; Croes, Kenneth D; Edwards, Dorothy F
Self-rated health (SRH) is widely used to measure subjective health. Yet it is unclear what underlies health ratings, with implications for understanding the validity of SRH overall and across sociodemographic characteristics. We analyze participants' explanations of how they formulated their SRH answer in addition to which health factors they considered and examine group differences in these processes. Cognitive interviews were conducted with 64 participants in a convenience quota sample crossing dimensions of race/ethnicity (white, Latino, black, American Indian), gender, age, and education. Participants rated their health then described their thoughts when answering SRH. We coded participants' answers in an inductive, iterative, and systematic process from interview transcripts, developing analytic categories (i.e., themes) and subdimensions within. We examined whether the presence of each dimension of an analytic category varied across sociodemographic groups. Our qualitative analysis led to the identification and classification of various subdimensions of the following analytic categories: types of health factors mentioned, valence of health factors, temporality of health factors, conditional health statements, and descriptions and definitions of health. We found differences across groups in some types of health factors mentioned-corresponding, conflicting, or novel with respect to prior research. Furthermore, we also documented various processes through which respondents integrate seemingly disparate health factors to formulate an answer through valence and conditional health statements. Finally, we found some evidence of sociodemographic group differences with respect to types of health factors mentioned, valence of health factors, and conditional health statements, highlighting avenues for future research. This study provides a description of how participants rate their general health status and highlights potential differences in these processes across
Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-rated health (SRH is widely used to measure subjective health. Yet it is unclear what underlies health ratings, with implications for understanding the validity of SRH overall and across sociodemographic characteristics. We analyze participants’ explanations of how they formulated their SRH answer in addition to which health factors they considered and examine group differences in these processes. Methods Cognitive interviews were conducted with 64 participants in a convenience quota sample crossing dimensions of race/ethnicity (white, Latino, black, American Indian, gender, age, and education. Participants rated their health then described their thoughts when answering SRH. We coded participants’ answers in an inductive, iterative, and systematic process from interview transcripts, developing analytic categories (i.e., themes and subdimensions within. We examined whether the presence of each dimension of an analytic category varied across sociodemographic groups. Results Our qualitative analysis led to the identification and classification of various subdimensions of the following analytic categories: types of health factors mentioned, valence of health factors, temporality of health factors, conditional health statements, and descriptions and definitions of health. We found differences across groups in some types of health factors mentioned—corresponding, conflicting, or novel with respect to prior research. Furthermore, we also documented various processes through which respondents integrate seemingly disparate health factors to formulate an answer through valence and conditional health statements. Finally, we found some evidence of sociodemographic group differences with respect to types of health factors mentioned, valence of health factors, and conditional health statements, highlighting avenues for future research. Conclusion This study provides a description of how participants rate their general health
Lee, Pyoung Jik; Lee, Byung Kwon; Jeon, Jin Yong; Zhang, Mei; Kang, Jian
This study uses a structural equation model to examine the effects of noise on self-rated job satisfaction and health in open-plan offices. A total of 334 employees from six open-plan offices in China and Korea completed a questionnaire survey. The questionnaire included questions assessing noise disturbances and speech privacy, as well as job satisfaction and health. The results indicated that noise disturbance affected self-rated health. Contrary to popular expectation, the relationship between noise disturbance and job satisfaction was not significant. Rather, job satisfaction and satisfaction with the environment were negatively correlated with lack of speech privacy. Speech privacy was found to be affected by noise sensitivity, and longer noise exposure led to decreased job satisfaction. There was also evidence that speech privacy was a stronger predictor of satisfaction with environment and job satisfaction for participants with high noise sensitivity. In addition, fit models for employees from China and Korea showed slight differences. This study is motivated by strong evidence that noise is the key source of complaints in open-plan offices. Survey results indicate that self-rated job satisfaction of workers in open-plan offices was negatively affected by lack of speech privacy and duration of disturbing noise.
Yngwe, M A; Diderichsen, F; Whitehead, M
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To analyse to what extent differences in income, using two distinct measures-as distribution across quintiles and poverty-explain social inequalities in self rated health, for men and women, in Sweden and Britain. DESIGN: Series of cross sectional surveys, the Swedish Survey...... of Living Conditions (ULF) and the British General Household Survey (GHS), during the period 1992-95. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Swedish and British men and women aged 25-64 years. Approximately 4000 Swedes and 12 500 Britons are interviewed each year in the cross sectional studies used. The sample contains...... 15 766 people in the Swedish dataset and 49 604 people in the British dataset. MAIN RESULTS: The magnitude of social inequalities in less than good self rated health was similar in Sweden and in Britain, but adjusting for income differences explained a greater part of these in Britain than in Sweden...
Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Valizadeh, Farzaneh; Mirshojaee, Seyede Roqaie; Ahmadli, Robabeh; Mokhtari, Mohsen; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Ahmadi, Ali; Rezaei, Heshmatollah; Ansari, Hossein
Self-rated health is a brief measure for general health. It is a comprehensive and sensitive index for prediction of health in future. Due to the high internet usage in medical students, the current study designed to evaluate the self-rated health (SRH) in relationship with internet addiction risk factors in medical students. This cross sectional study conducted on 254 students of Qom University of Medical Sciences 2014. Participants selected by two stage sampling method including stratified and simple random sampling. The Young's questionnaire of internet addiction and SRH question used for data collection. Chi-square, t-test, and logistic regression used in data analysis. More than 79.9% of students reported their general health good and very good. The student's mean score of general health was higher than the average. In addition, the prevalence of internet addiction was 28.7%. An inverse significant correlation observed between SRH and internet addiction score (r=-0.198, p=0.002). Using internet for Entertainment, using private Email and chat rooms were the most important predictors of affecting to internet addiction. Moreover, internet addiction is the most predictors of SRH and increased the odds of bad SRH. The good SRH of medical students was higher than general population but in health faculty' students were lower than others. Due to the effect of internet addiction on SRH and increasing trend of internet use in medical students, as well as low age of participants, attention to psychological aspects and the job expectancy in future, can effective on increasing the good SRH.
Choi, Namkee G; DiNitto, Diana M; Marti, C Nathan
To examine self-rated health (SRH) and its association with social participation, along with physical and mental health indicators, among USA male veterans and non-veterans aged ≥65 years. The two waves of the National Health and Aging Trend Study provided data (n = 2845 at wave 1; n = 2235 at wave 2). Multilevel mixed effects generalized linear models were fit to test the hypotheses. Despite their older age, veterans did not differ from non-veterans in their physical, mental and cognitive health, and they had better SRH. However, black and Hispanic veterans had lower SRH than non-Hispanic white veterans. Formal group activities and outings for enjoyment were positively associated with better SRH for veterans, non-veterans and all veteran cohorts. Aging veterans, especially black and Hispanic veterans, require programs and services that will help increase their social connectedness. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016; 16: 920-927. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Griep, Rosane Härter; Toivanen, Susanna; van Diepen, Cornelia; Guimarães, Joanna M N; Camelo, Lidyane V; Juvanhol, Leidjaira Lopes; Aquino, Estela M; Chor, Dóra
This study examined gender differences in the association between work-family conflict and self-rated health and evaluated the effect of educational attainment. We used baseline data from ELSA-Brasil, a cohort study of civil servants from six Brazilian state capitals. Our samples included 12,017 active workers aged 34-72 years. Work-family conflict was measured by four indicators measuring effects of work on family, effects of family in work and lack of time for leisure and personal care. Women experienced more frequent work-family conflict, but in both genders, increased work-family conflict directly correlated with poorer self-rated health. Women's educational level interacted with three work-family conflict indicators. For time-based effects of work on family, highly educated women had higher odds of suboptimal self-rated health (OR = 1.54; 95 % CI = 1.19-1.99) than less educated women (OR = 1.14; 95 % CI = 0.92-1.42). For strain-based effects of work on family, women with higher and lower education levels had OR = 1.91 (95 % CI 1.48-2.47) and OR = 1.40 (95 % CI 1.12-1.75), respectively. For lack of time for leisure and personal care, women with higher and lower education levels had OR = 2.60 (95 % CI = 1.95-3.47) and OR = 1.11 (95 % CI = 0.90-1.38), respectively. Women's education level affects the relationship between work-family conflict and self-rated health. The results may contribute to prevention activities.
Kawasaki, Ryoko; Nakao, Rieko; Ohnishi, Mayumi
Objective: Participation in social activities is associated with physical and psychological health in the community-dwelling elderly population. We examined the two factors of social relations and community health resources, associated with higher self-rated health levels in the community-dwelling elderly. Methods: A total of 145 community-dwelling elderly people ≥ 65 years old from two neighborhood associations in Nagasaki City were recruited for this study, representing 85% of the officially registered ≥ 65-year-old population in the target area. Face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire were conducted by trained interviewers in August 2009, with questions related to sociodemographic characteristics, social relationships, and self-rated health (SRH). Community health resources (type and walking distance from home) were evaluated by one of the authors as a community assessment. Results: Seventy-eight community-dwelling elderly people (25 men and 53 women) participated in the study. Elderly people who reported going out every day were more likely to show higher SRH scores (excellent/good) than those going out less often (OR: 3.7; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0, 14.2; P = 0.056). The numbers of interactions with friends in higher and lower SRH groups were 6.5 ± 8.4 (mean ± standard deviation) and 2.4 ± 1.1 ( P = 0.01, Mann-Whitney U test), respectively. The numbers of relatives talking on the phone in higher and lower SRH groups were 2.9 ± 1.3 and 2.2 ± 1.2 ( P = 0.031, Mann-Whitney U test), respectively. Meeting scores with friends in higher and lower SRH groups were 7.8 ± 5.8 and 4.5 ± 3.6 ( P = 0.068), respectively. The scores of community health resources among higher and lower SRH groups were 21.2 ± 1.5 and 20.9 ± 1.4 ( P = 0.547), respectively. The scores of community association/activities in higher and lower SRH groups were 3.9 ± 1.0 and 3.6 ± 0.9 ( P = 0.227), respectively. Conclusion: This study indicated the importance
Maria C Harpsøe
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Poor self-rated health (SRH has been connected to immunological changes, and pregnancy complications have been suggested in the etiology of autoimmune diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. We evaluated the impact of self-rated pre-pregnancy health and pregnancy course, hyperemesis, gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia on risk of IBD. METHODS: Information was collected by questionnaires from The Danish National Birth Cohort (enrolment 1996-2002 at 16(th and 30(th week of pregnancy and 6 months postpartum. A total of 55,699 women were followed from childbirth until development of IBD (using validated National Hospital Discharge Register diagnoses, emigration, death, or end of follow-up, 31(st of October, 2011. Hazard ratios (HR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for age and evaluating pre-pregnancy BMI, parity, alcohol and tobacco consumption, and socio-occupational status as potential confounders. RESULTS: Risk of IBD increased with decreasing level of self-rated pre-pregnancy health (p = 0.002 and was elevated in women with poor self-rated pregnancy course (HR, 1.61, 95% CI 1.22-2.12. Associations persisted for more than 5 years postpartum. Hyperemesis and preeclampsia were not significantly associated with risk of IBD. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first prospective observational study to suggest that poor self-rated health--in general and in relation to pregnancy--is associated with increased risk of IBD even in the long term though results needs further confirmation. Symptoms of specific pregnancy complications were, on the other hand, not significantly associated with risk of IBD.
Full Text Available Background: Relative deprivation (RD has been advanced as a theory to explain the relationship between income inequality and health in high-income countries. In this study, we tested the theory in a low-income protracted refugee setting in a middle-income country. Methods: Using data from the 2010 Socioeconomic Survey of Palestine Refugees in Lebanon, we examined the relationship between RD and health among a representative sample of Palestinian refugee women (N=1047. Data were gathered utilizing a household questionnaire with information on socio-demographics and an individual-level questionnaire with information on the health of each respondent. We examined self-rated health (SRH as the main health measure but also checked the sensitivity of our results using self-reported chronic conditions. We used two measures for absolute SES: total household monthly expenditures on non-food goods and services and total household monthly expenditures on non-health goods and services. With refugee camp as a reference group, we measured a household’s RD as a household’s rank of absolute SES within the reference group, multiplied by the distance between its absolute SES and the average absolute SES of all households ranked above it. We investigated the robustness of the RD–SRH relationship using these two alternative measures of absolute SES. Results: Our findings show that, controlling for absolute SES and other possible confounders, women report significantly poorer health when they live in households with a higher score on our RD measure (because of either lower relative rank or lower relative SES compared to households better off in the reference group which we take to be the refugee camp. While RD is always significant as a determinant of SRH under a variety of specifications, absolute SES is not consistently significant. These findings persist when we use self-reported chronic conditions as our measure of health instead of SRH, suggesting that the
Fernandez, Claudia S P; Noble, Cheryl C; Jensen, Elizabeth T
To assess the self-selected asynchronous leadership module-based learning choices of public health professionals participating in the Maternal and Child Health Public Health Leadership Institute (MCH PHLI). Online module completion and evaluation data were used to determine the topics most utilized by the Fellows; whether the topics and mode of training were acceptable, relevant, and practical; and whether participant characteristics explained any usage patterns. A total of 109 enrolled Fellows in the MCH PHLI program. Module frequency of selection by Fellows; Fellows' rating scores in regard to relevance, practicality, and acceptability of module topics. All program titles were highly rated. The 5 most frequently selected module topics were employee engagement (87.2%), talent acquisition strategies (84.4%), employee motivation (79.8%), emotional intelligence (78.9%), and workforce development strategies (68.8%). The least accessed topics focused on cultural competence (15.6%), social marketing (25.7%), effective communication and advocacy (25.7%), family partnerships (25.9%), and creating learning organizations (31.2%). All module topics provided were rated as relevant, practical, and acceptable to these public health leaders. Self-directed computer-based learning was rated strongly by the MCH public health leaders in this study. Such an approach can be used to customize training to individual needs and interests. These findings suggest that inclusion of skills that enable public health leaders to effectively work with and through others was of core interest in the MCH PHLI. The finding of higher usage of topics related to workforce management can provide guidance for those developing leadership development programs for maternal and child health professionals. In addition, leadership needs and interests should be assessed regularly to ensure that competency-based leadership development guidelines are adapting to the evolving and complex challenges faced by leaders
Hajat, Anjum; Kaufman, Jay S; Rose, Kathryn M; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Thomas, James C
Epidemiologic studies seldom include wealth as a component of socioeconomic status. The authors investigated the associations between wealth and 2 broad outcome measures: mortality and self-rated general health status. Data from the longitudinal Panel Study of Income Dynamics, collected in a US population between 1984 and 2005, were used to fit marginal structural models and to estimate relative and absolute measures of effect. Wealth was specified as a 6-category variable: those with ≤0 wealth and quintiles of positive wealth. There were a 16%-44% higher risk and 6-18 excess cases of poor/fair health (per 1,000 persons) among the less wealthy relative to the wealthiest quintile. Less wealthy men, women, and whites had higher risk of poor/fair health relative to their wealthy counterparts. The overall wealth-mortality association revealed a 62% increased risk and 4 excess deaths (per 1,000 persons) among the least wealthy. Less wealthy women had between a 24% and a 90% higher risk of death, and the least wealthy men had 6 excess deaths compared with the wealthiest quintile. Overall, there was a strong inverse association between wealth and poor health status and between wealth and mortality.
Krøll, Lotte Skytte; Hammarlund, Catharina Sjödahl; Westergaard, Maria Lurenda
where questionnaires on physical activity, psychological well-being, perceived stress and self-rated health were completed by 148 persons with migraine and 100 healthy controls matched by sex and average age. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to assess characteristics of migraine, tension......-existing tension-type headache and neck pain in a clinic-based sample, b) the level of physical activity, psychological well-being, perceived stress and self-rated health in persons with migraine and co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain compared to healthy controls, c) the perceived ability of persons...... well-being, higher level of perceived stress and poorer self-rated health compared to healthy controls. They reported reduced ability to perform physical activity owing to migraine (high degree), tension-type headache (moderate degree) and neck pain (low degree). The most burdensome condition...
Kobayashi, Tomoko; Kawachi, Ichiro; Iwase, Toshihide; Suzuki, Etsuji; Takao, Soshi
Despite accumulating evidence of associations between social capital and health in public health research, a criticism of the field has been that researchers have exclusively focused on concepts of social cohesion to the exclusion of individual-level approaches. In the present study, we evaluated the association between social capital measured by the Resource Generator (an individual-level assessment of access to social capital) and self-rated health among Japanese population in a cross-sectional study. A postal survey of 4000 randomly selected residents in Okayama City (western Japan) was conducted in February 2009. We divided the overall scores from the Resource Generator Japan scale into quartiles. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for self-rated health were calculated separately by sex. Individuals with the highest quartile of scores had significantly lower odds of poor health compared to the lowest group after covariate adjustment among both men and women (men; OR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.24-0.86, women; OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.25-0.79, respectively) and there were also significant dose-response relationships. In the sub-domains of Resource Generator Japan scale, a differential pattern was observed by sex. Women showed a clear dose-response relationship with health across all four sub-scales (domestic resources, expert advice, personal skills, and problem solving resources). In contrast, only the domain of expert advice exhibited a strong association with men's health. Among both men and women individual-level social capital measured by the Resource Generator was related to reduced odds of poor health even after taking into account individual confounders. Although we cannot exclude reverse causation due to the cross-sectional design, our study adds to the accumulating evidence of the potential utility of the Resource Generator for evaluating the relationship between individual-level access to social capital and health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd
Hill, Patrick L.; Allemand, Mathias; Roberts, Brent W.
The current study examined whether dispositional gratitude predicts physical health among adults, and if so, whether this relationship occurs because grateful individuals lead healthier lives, either psychologically or physically. Specifically, we examined whether psychological health, healthy activities, and willingness to seek help for health concerns mediated the link between gratitude and self-reported physical health, as well as if these mediational pathways are moderated by age, in a broad sample of Swiss adults (N = 962, Mage = 52 years, age range: 19 to 84). Dispositional gratitude correlated positively with self-reported physical health, and this link was mediated by psychological health, healthy activities, and willingness to seek help for health concerns. However, the indirect effects for psychological health and healthy activities were stronger for older than younger adults. In other words, the mechanisms explaining why gratitude predicts health appear to differ across adulthood. PMID:23139438
Cheng, Jingru; Wang, Tian; Li, Fei; Xiao, Ya; Bi, Jianlu; Chen, Jieyu; Sun, Xiaomin; Wu, Liuguo; Wu, Shengwei; Liu, Yanyan; Luo, Ren; Zhao, Xiaoshan
This study aimed to investigate whether self-rated health status (SRH) and subjective health complaints (SHC) of urban Chinese women are associated with their health-promoting lifestyles (HPL). We conducted a cross-sectional study on 8142 eligible Chinese participants between 2012 and 2013. Demographic and SHC data were collected. Each subject completed the SRH questionnaire and the Chinese version of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II (HPLP-II). Correlation and binary regression analyses were performed to examine the associations of SRH and SHC with HPL. Both SRH and HPL of urban Chinese women were moderate. The most common complaints were fatigue (1972, 24.2%), eye discomfort (1571, 19.3%), and insomnia (1542, 18.9%). Teachers, highly educated subjects and elderly women had lower SRH scores, while college students and married women had better HPL. All items of HPLP-II were positively correlated with SRH (r = 0.127-0.533, P = 0.000) and negatively correlated with SHC to a significant extent (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40-11.37). Aspects of HPL, particularly stress management and spiritual growth, are associated with higher SRH and lower SHC ratings among urban Chinese women. Physical activity and health responsibility are additionally related to reduced fatigue and nervousness. We believe that these findings will be instrumental in encouraging researchers and urban women to adopt better health-promoting lifestyles with different priorities in their daily lives.
Youm, Yoosik; Laumann, Edward O; Ferraro, Kenneth F; Waite, Linda J; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Park, Yeong-Ran; Chu, Sang Hui; Joo, Won-Tak; Lee, Jin A
This paper has two objectives. Firstly, it provides an overview of the social network module, data collection procedures, and measurement of ego-centric and complete-network properties in the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (KSHAP). Secondly, it directly compares the KSHAP structure and results to the ego-centric network structure and results of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), which conducted in-home interviews with 3,005 persons 57 to 85 years of age in the United States. The structure of the complete social network of 814 KSHAP respondents living in Township K was measured and examined at two levels of networks. Ego-centric network properties include network size, composition, volume of contact with network members, density, and bridging potential. Complete-network properties are degree centrality, closeness centrality, betweenness centrality, and brokerage role. We found that KSHAP respondents with a smaller number of social network members were more likely to be older and tended to have poorer self-rated health. Compared to the NSHAP, the KSHAP respondents maintained a smaller network size with a greater network density among their members and lower bridging potential. Further analysis of the complete network properties of KSHAP respondents revealed that more brokerage roles inside the same neighborhood (Ri) were significantly associated with better self-rated health. Socially isolated respondents identified by network components had the worst self-rated health. The findings demonstrate the importance of social network analysis for the study of older adults' health status in Korea. The study also highlights the importance of complete-network data and its ability to reveal mechanisms beyond ego-centric network data.
Ergin, Isil; Kunst, Anton E
In Turkey, large regional inequalities were found in maternal and child health. Yet, evidence on regional inequalities in adult health in Turkey remains fragmentary. This study aims to assess regional and rural/urban inequalities in the prevalence of poor self-rated health and in disability among adult populations in Turkey, and to measure the contribution of education and wealth of individual residents. The central hypothesis was that geographical inequalities in adult health exist even when the effect of education and wealth were taken into account. We analyzed data of the 2002 World Health Survey for Turkey on 10791 adults aged 20 years and over. We measured respondents' rating of their own general health and the prevalence of five types of physical disability. Logistic regression was used to estimate how much these two health outcomes varied according to urban/rural place of residence, region, education level and household wealth. We stratified the analyses by gender and age (‹50 and ≥50 years). Both health outcomes were strongly associated with educational level (especially for older age group) and with household wealth (especially for younger age group). Both health outcomes also varied according to region and rural/urban place of residence. Higher prevalence rates were observed in the East region (compared to West) with odd ratios varying between 1.40-2.76. After controlling for education and wealth, urban/rural differences in health disappeared, while regional differences were observed only among older women. The prevalence of poor self-rated health was higher for older women in the Middle (OR = 1.69), Black Sea (OR = 1.53) and East (OR = 2.06) regions. In Turkey, substantial geographical inequalities in self-reported adult health do exist, but can mostly be explained by differences in socioeconomic characteristics of residents. The regional disadvantage of older women in the East, Middle and Black Sea may have resulted from life
Ergin, Isil; Kunst, Anton E.
In Turkey, large regional inequalities were found in maternal and child health. Yet, evidence on regional inequalities in adult health in Turkey remains fragmentary. This study aims to assess regional and rural/urban inequalities in the prevalence of poor self-rated health and in disability among
Eliassen, Bent-Martin; Braaten, Tonje; Melhus, Marita; Hansen, Ketil Lenert; Broderstad, Ann Ragnhild
Acculturation is for indigenous peoples related to the process of colonisation over centuries as well as the on-going social transition experienced in the Arctic today. Changing living conditions and lifestyle affect health in numerous ways in Arctic indigenous populations. Self-rated health (SRH) is a relevant variable in primary health care and in general public health assessments and monitoring. Exploring the relationship between acculturation and SRH in indigenous populations having experienced great societal and cultural change is thus of great importance. The principal method in the Survey of Living Conditions in the Arctic (SLiCA) was standardised face-to-face interviews using a questionnaire. Very high overall participation rates of 83% were obtained in Greenland and Alaska, whilst a more conventional rate of 57% was achieved in Norway. Acculturation was conceptualised as certain traditional subsistence activities being of lesser importance for people's ethnic identity, and poorer spoken indigenous language ability (SILA). Acculturation was included in six separate gender- and country-specific ordinal logistic regressions to assess qualitative effects on SRH. Multivariable analyses showed that acculturation significantly predicted poorer SRH in Greenland. An increased subsistence score gave an OR of 2.32 (Pcultural differences in the conceptualisation of SRH, and confounding effects of health care use, SES and discrimination, make it difficult to appropriately assess how strong this effect is though.
Full Text Available Health disparities in Japan are attracting increasing attention. Temporal trends in health disparities should be continuously monitored using multiple indices of socioeconomic status (SES and health-related outcomes. We explored changes in socioeconomic differences in the health of Japanese adults during 2000–2010. The data was taken from the Japanese General Social Surveys, the cross-sectional surveys for nationally representative samples of Japanese adults. We used 14,193 samples (individuals of 20–64 years of age in our analysis. We estimated age-adjusted prevalence ratios of the lowest SES group in comparison with the highest SES group using Poisson regression models with robust error variance. Relative index of inequality (RII and slope index of inequality (SII were also calculated. We examined the changes in the association between health-related outcomes (self-rated health (SRH, smoking, and physical activity and SES indices (income, education, occupation, and subjective social class identification. The results showed temporally expanding trends for the associations of current smoking with SES, especially among women, in both relative and absolute measures. In contrast, no expanding trends were seen for SRH and physical activity. Although the smoking rates declined through the first decade of the 21st century, the socioeconomic disparities in smoking prevalence among Japanese adults expanded, especially among women. Researchers and policymakers should continuously monitor the trends that may cause future disparities in smoking-related morbidity and mortality. Keywords: Japan, Socioeconomic disparity, Temporal trends, Smoking, Self-rated health
Perceived oral health, oral self-care habits and dental attendance among pregnant women in Benin-City, Nigeria. ... Results: The majority of the respondents (81.7%) rated their oral health as excellent/good using the global oral health rating scale. Seventy one percent of the respondents did not change their oral self-care ...
Whitley, Elise; Popham, Frank; Benzeval, Michaela
With increasing longevity in industrialized populations, there is growing interest in what defines "successful aging" (SA). Various SA measures have been proposed but no consensus has been reached and many have been criticized for not representing the views and priorities of older people. We consider whether the Rowe-Kahn SA model captures older individual's perceptions of their own health and aging. Using two cohorts of 886 and 483 men and women from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study, aged around 57 and 76, respectively, we explored associations between Rowe-Kahn SA dimensions (absence of disease/disability; good physical/cognitive functioning; good interpersonal/productive social engagement) and four aspects of self-rated health and satisfaction (current general health; health for age; satisfaction with health; satisfaction with life). Respondents' self-rated health and satisfaction was generally good but few had all six Rowe-Kahn dimensions positive, the conventional definition of SA. All individual positive SA dimensions were associated with better self-rated health and satisfaction. This was consistent across age, gender, manual/nonmanual occupations, and personality. The prevalence of good self-rated health and satisfaction increased with increasing numbers of positive SA dimensions. The Rowe-Kahn model provides a functional definition of SA. Future work on ageing should include all Rowe-Kahn dimensions and consider SA as a continuum. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.
Falkenberg, Helena; Fransson, Eleonor I; Westerlund, Hugo; Head, Jenny A
To investigate short- and long-term effects of major organisational change on minor psychiatric disorder and self-rated health for women and men in different employment grades. Minor psychiatric disorder and self-rated health among 6710 British civil servants (1993 women and 4717 men) in three employment grades from the Whitehall II study were examined from 1985 to 1988 under stable employment conditions. The short-term effects of organisational change were investigated in 1991-1993 after a time of major restructuring aiming at increasing the influence of market forces in the civil service and the long-term effects were investigated in 1997-1999. Those who had experienced organisational change and those who anticipated organisational change reported more negative short-term health effects (minor psychiatric disorder and poor self-rated health) compared with those who reported no change. No major differences were found depending on employment grade or gender. The negative health effects had diminished during 1997-1999 for those who reported that a major change had happened before 1991-1993. Those who anticipated an organisational change in 1991-1993 still reported more ill-health in 1997-1999 (both minor psychiatric disorder and self-reported health) than those in the comparison group. The results indicate that organisational change affects employees' health negatively in the short term but also that it is possible to recover from such negative effects. As it was not possible to discern any definite difference between the gender and grades, the results point at the importance of working proactively to implement organisational change for women and men at all levels.
Zaneta M. Thayer
Full Text Available Auckland, Aotearoa/New Zealand is a culturally and ethnically diverse city. Despite popular global conceptions regarding its utopian nature, the lived experience for many individuals in Auckland attests to the substantial social, economic, and health inequalities that exist there. In particular, rapidly rising home prices constrain housing decisions and force individuals to live in less desirable neighborhoods, with potential impacts on individual health. One of the pathways through which adverse neighborhood conditions could impact health is through alterations in the functioning of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA-axis, which regulates the physiological stress response. This paper evaluates the relationship between perceived neighborhood safety, self-rated health, and cortisol, an end product of HPA-axis activation, among women in late pregnancy. Pregnant women living in neighborhoods where they were concerned about safety of their property had poorer self-rated health and elevated morning cortisol, even after adjusting for maternal age, material deprivation, and ethnicity. However, fear of personal safety was unrelated to self-rated health and cortisol. These results suggest that maternal health in pregnancy is sensitive to perceptions regarding neighborhood safety. Such findings are important since higher cortisol levels in pregnancy could not only influence maternal health, but also the health and development of women's children.
Thayer, Zaneta M
Auckland, Aotearoa /New Zealand is a culturally and ethnically diverse city. Despite popular global conceptions regarding its utopian nature, the lived experience for many individuals in Auckland attests to the substantial social, economic, and health inequalities that exist there. In particular, rapidly rising home prices constrain housing decisions and force individuals to live in less desirable neighborhoods, with potential impacts on individual health. One of the pathways through which adverse neighborhood conditions could impact health is through alterations in the functioning of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA)-axis, which regulates the physiological stress response. This paper evaluates the relationship between perceived neighborhood safety, self-rated health, and cortisol, an end product of HPA-axis activation, among women in late pregnancy. Pregnant women living in neighborhoods where they were concerned about safety of their property had poorer self-rated health and elevated morning cortisol, even after adjusting for maternal age, material deprivation, and ethnicity. However, fear of personal safety was unrelated to self-rated health and cortisol. These results suggest that maternal health in pregnancy is sensitive to perceptions regarding neighborhood safety. Such findings are important since higher cortisol levels in pregnancy could not only influence maternal health, but also the health and development of women's children.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-rated health status (SRHS is a reliable and valid measure for assessing the subjective and objective health of individuals. Previous studies have either focused predominantly on the elderly or investigated only a narrow range of factors potentially associated with SRHS. In examining student populations, these past studies were limited to single countries. The objectives of this study were to assess which candidate variables were independently associated with SRHS in university students, to compare these variables by country and by gender, and to investigate which of the variables was most important as a rating frame for SRHS. Methods The data is from the Cross-National Student Health Survey, conducted in 2005 in universities in Germany, Bulgaria, and Poland (n = 2103; mean age = 20.7 years. SRHS was assessed with a single question using a five-point scale ranging from "excellent" to "poor". The study also measured a wide range of variables including: physical and psychological health, studying, social contacts/social support, and socio-demographic status. Results Psychosomatic complaints (considered an aspect of physical health and, adjusted for psychological health were the most important indicators in forming a rating frame for students' SRHS. There were few differences in the effects of variables associated with SRHS by gender (well-being: a measure of psychological health and the variables associated with SRHS by country (well-being and self-efficacy. The remaining variables showed homogenous effects for both genders and for all three countries. Conclusion The results suggest that SRHS can be reasonably used to compare students' health across countries. SRHS is affected by different physical, psychological and psychosomatic aspects of health; however, its strongest association is with psychosomatic complaints.
Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Fujiwara, Takeo; Nakayama, Takeo; Kawachi, Ichiro
Japanese society is more egalitarian than the United States as is reflected by the lower degree of prevalence of social inequalities in health. We examined whether subjective socioeconomic status is associated with different trajectories of self-rated health (SRH), and whether this relationship differs between the United States and Japan. We analyzed the responses of 3968 Americans from the survey Midlife in the United States, 2004-06, and the responses of 989 Japanese from the survey Midlife in Japan, 2008. We conducted a multilevel analysis with three self-ratings of health (10 years ago, current and 10 years in the future) nested within individuals and nested within 10 levels of subjective social status. Age, sex, educational level and subjective financial situation were adjusted. After making statistical adjustments for confounding variables, respondents in Japan continued to report lower average levels of health. However, the rate of expected decline in SRH over the next decade was strongly socially patterned in the United States, whereas it was not in Japan. The Japanese showed no disparity in the anticipated trajectory of SRH over time, whereas the Americans showed a strong social class gradient in future trajectories of SRH. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Milner, Allison; Witt, Katrina; Spittal, Matthew J; Bismark, Marie; Graham, Melissa; LaMontagne, Anthony D
Psychosocial job stressors, such as low control and high demands, have been found to influence the health and wellbeing of doctors. However, past research in this area has relied on cross-sectional data, which limits causal inferences about the influence of psychosocial job stressors on health. In this study, we examine this relationship longitudinally while also assessing whether the relationship between psychosocial job stressors and health is modified by gender. The data source was seven annual waves of the Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL) survey. The outcome was self-rated health (measured using the SF-12), and key exposures reflected job control, job demands, work-life balance variables, employment arrangements, and aggression experienced at work. We used longitudinal fixed and random effects regression models to assess within and between-person changes in health. Excessive job demands, low job control, feelings of not being rewarded at work, and work-life imbalance were associated with higher within-person odds of poorer self-rated health. Gender differences were apparent. For female doctors, work arrangements and work-life imbalance were associated with poorer self-rated health whilst task-based job stressors were associated with poorer self-rated health in male doctors. These results suggest the importance of addressing adverse working environments among doctors. Not applicable.
Kyoung Ae Kong; Young-Ho Khang; Hong-Jun Cho; Sung-Mi Jang; Kyunghee Jung-Choi
Background The aim of this study was to examine the pattern of social inequality in self-rated health among the employed using the Wright?s social class location indicator, and to assess the roles of material, behavioral, psychosocial, and workplace environmental factors as mediating factors in explaining the social class inequality in self-rated health in South Korea. Methods This study used data from the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2009. Study sub...
Ejlertsson, Lina; Heijbel, Bodil; Ejlertsson, Göran; Andersson, Ingemar
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of information on positive work factors among health care workers. OBJECTIVE: To explore salutogenic work-related factors among primary health care employees. METHOD: Questionnaire to all employees (n = 599) from different professions in public and private primary health care centers in one health care district in Sweden. The questionnaire, which had a salutogenic perspective, included information on self-rated health from the previously validated SHIS (Salutogenic...
Thong, Melissa S. Y.; Kaptein, Adrian A.; Benyamini, Yael; Krediet, Raymond T.; Boeschoten, Elisabeth W.; Dekker, Friedo W.; Apperloo, A. J.; Bijlsma, J. A.; Boekhout, M.; Boer, W. H.; van der Boog, P. J. M.; Büller, H. R.; van Buren, M.; de Charro, F. Th; Doorenbos, C. J.; van den Dorpel, M. A.; van Es, A.; Fagel, W. J.; Feith, G. W.; de Fijter, C. W. H.; Frenken, L. A. M.; Grave, W.; van Geelen, J. A. C. A.; Gerlag, P. G. G.; Gorgels, J. P. M. C.; Huisman, R. M.; Jager, K. J.; Jie, K.; Koning-Mulder, W. A. H.; Koolen, M. I.; Kremer Hovinga, T. K.; Lavrijssen, A. T. J.; Luik, A. J.; van der Meulen, J.; Parlevliet, K. J.; Raasveld, M. H. M.; van der Sande, F. M.; Schonck, M. J. M.; Schuurmans, M. M. J.; Siegert, C. E. H.; Stegeman, C. A.; Stevens, P.; Thijssen, J. G. P.; Valentijn, R. M.; Vastenburg, G. H.; Verburgh, C. A.; Vincent, H. H.; Vos, P. F.
BACKGROUND: Self-rated health (SRH) has been shown to predict mortality in large community-based studies; however, large clinical-based studies of this topic are rare. We assessed whether an SRH item predicts mortality in a large sample of incident dialysis patients beyond sociodemographic, disease,
Conclusions: Results suggest that in late life longitudinal negative changes in perceptions of financial wellbeing may occur together with decreases levels of self-reported health. Future research on health inequalities in elderly should pay specific attention to the link between financial wellbeing and health from a self-reported perspective.
Gibney, S; Doyle, G
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between self-rated health literacy and self-reported exercise frequency among people aged 50+ in Ireland. Data were from the European Health Literacy Survey (2011) a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey of adults aged 15+ from eight countries. Health literacy was measured using composite indices (0-50, low to high) in three domains: healthcare, disease prevention and health promotion. Participants reported how often they exercised for 30 min or longer in the month prior to survey. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between exercise frequency (almost daily activity vs. weekly or less) and health literacy among participants aged 50+ in Ireland (n = 389). All models were fully adjusted for age, gender, employment status, marital status, social status, education, financial deprivation and having a physically limiting illness. An increased odds of exercising almost daily was associated with understanding disease prevention (OR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.03-1.35) and health promotion information (OR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.01-1.32) and accessing (OR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.00-1.29) and evaluating health promotion information (OR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.00-1.26) with ease. Public health approaches to promoting exercise often include providing information about the benefits of regular exercise, promoting affordable options and enhancing the accessibility of the built environment. Public health policy should also consider measures to improve interactive health literacy skills in order to achieve positive behavioural change. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Singh, Abhinav; Purohit, Bharathi M
To assess patient satisfaction, self-rated oral health and associated factors, including periodontal status and dental caries, among patients covered for dental insurance through a National Social Security Scheme in New Delhi, India. A total of 1,498 patients participated in the study. Satisfaction levels and self-rated oral-health scores were measured using a questionnaire comprising 12 closed-ended questions. Clinical data were collected using the Community Periodontal Index (CPI) and the decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) index. Regression analysis was conducted to evaluate factors associated with dental caries, periodontal status and self-rated oral health. Areas of concern included poor cleanliness within the hospital, extensive delays for appointments, waiting time in hospital and inadequate interpersonal and communication skills among health-care professionals. Approximately 51% of the respondents rated their oral health as fair to poor. Younger age, no tobacco usage, good periodontal status and absence of dental caries were significantly associated with higher oral health satisfaction, with odds ratios of 3.94, 2.38, 2.58 and 2.09, respectively (P ≤ 0.001). The study indicates poor satisfaction levels with the current dental care system and a poor self-rated oral health status among the study population. Some specific areas of concern have been identified. These findings may facilitate restructuring of the existing dental services under the National Social Security Scheme towards creating a better patient care system. © 2017 FDI World Dental Federation.
Elena M. Magwene
Full Text Available Background. Self-rated health (SRH shows strong associations with measures of health and well-being. Increasingly, studies have used self-rated mental health (SRMH as a predictor of various outcomes, independently or together with SRH. Research has not firmly established if and how these two constructs differ. We sought to characterize the relationship between SRH and SRMH, and to determine how this relationship differed across subgroups defined by sociodemographic and health-related characteristics.Design and methods. We analyzed data from the 2012 CAHPS Medicare Advantage Survey. SRH and SRMH ratings were crosstabulated to determine the distribution of responses across response categories. The expected joint probability distribution was computed and compared to the observed distribution. A constructed variable indicated whether SRMH was better, the same, or worse than SRH. We analyzed the distribution of this variable across various subgroups defined by sociodemographic and health-related factors. Results. A total of 114,905 Medicare Advantage beneficiaries responded to both the SRH and SRMH questions. Both in general and within all subgroups, SRMH was usually rated as better than SRH, and rarely as worse. Conclusions. Within a large group of Medicare recipients, the overwhelming trend was for recipients to rate their mental health as at least as good as their overall health, regardless of any sociodemographic and health-related factors. This finding of a shifted distribution encourages caution in the analytic use of selfrated mental health, particularly the use of both SRH and SRMH for adjustment. Additional research is needed to help clarify the complex relationship between these variables.
Seck, S M; Diop-Dia, A; Dia, D Gueye; Gueye, L
High blood pressure (hypertension) is a growing public health problem, and its impact on the overall health of patients in Africa is not well known. The objective of this study was to determine its prevalence and its influence on self-rated health among people living in rural areas of Senegal. This cross-sectional study was conducted over a two-week period in the rural communities of Labgar and Lougré Thiolly, located in the central northern region of Senegal, in an agricultural area. Randomly recruited volunteers were questioned during direct individual interviews about socio-demographic (age, sex, marital status, education, occupation) and lifestyle data (smoking or alcohol, physical activity). Clinical data (medical history, weight, height, blood pressure, course of treatment) were also collected. Self-rated health (SRH) was assessed by asking if they felt their health was bad or good. We included 627 patients with a mean age of 40.93 ± 17.2 years (range: 15-100 years), 59.9% of them women. Illiteracy and overweight were more common among women than among men, and smoking and alcohol consumption more frequent in men. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 23.4% and did not differ significantly between men (24.9%) and women (22.4%)(P = 0.50). Self-rated health was similar in men and women (with respectively 66.9% and 72.9% reporting good health, P = 0.10). On univariate analysis, the factors associated with perceived health status were age (OR = 1.34, P = 0.04), smoking (OR = 2.16, P = 0.03), educational level (OR = 1.21, P = 0.04), and the presence of hypertension (OR = 0.63, P = 0.05). The multivariate regression analysis showed that among women, advanced age (≥50 years) and hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg) were associated with poorer perceived health, whereas for men, only smoking was significantly correlated with poor health status (OR = 0.41, P = 0.01). This study shows that hypertension is common in this rural area of Senegal and is significantly
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate whether self-rated health status (SRH and subjective health complaints (SHC of urban Chinese women are associated with their health-promoting lifestyles (HPL.We conducted a cross-sectional study on 8142 eligible Chinese participants between 2012 and 2013. Demographic and SHC data were collected. Each subject completed the SRH questionnaire and the Chinese version of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II (HPLP-II. Correlation and binary regression analyses were performed to examine the associations of SRH and SHC with HPL.Both SRH and HPL of urban Chinese women were moderate. The most common complaints were fatigue (1972, 24.2%, eye discomfort (1571, 19.3%, and insomnia (1542, 18.9%. Teachers, highly educated subjects and elderly women had lower SRH scores, while college students and married women had better HPL. All items of HPLP-II were positively correlated with SRH (r = 0.127-0.533, P = 0.000 and negatively correlated with SHC to a significant extent (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40-11.37.Aspects of HPL, particularly stress management and spiritual growth, are associated with higher SRH and lower SHC ratings among urban Chinese women. Physical activity and health responsibility are additionally related to reduced fatigue and nervousness. We believe that these findings will be instrumental in encouraging researchers and urban women to adopt better health-promoting lifestyles with different priorities in their daily lives.
Kim, Giyeon; DeCoster, Jamie; Chiriboga, David A; Jang, Yuri; Allen, Rebecca S; Parmelee, Patricia
[corrected] This study examined racial/ethnic differences in the association between self-rated mental health (SRMH) and psychiatric disorders among community-dwelling older adults in the United States. Cross-sectional analyses of nationally representative data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (2001-2003). In-person household interviews. Older adults aged 60 and older (N = 1,840), including non-Hispanic Whites (N = 351), Blacks (N = 826), Hispanics (N = 406), and Asians (N = 257). SRMH was measured with a single item, "How would you rate your own mental health?" Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), diagnoses for mood and anxiety disorders were measured with the World Health Organization's World Mental Health version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Results from logistic regression analyses showed significant main effects of both SRMH and race/ethnicity on the presence of mood and anxiety disorders: people who have poor SRMH and are non-Hispanic Whites were more likely to have mood and anxiety disorders. There were also significant interaction effects between SRMH and race/ethnicity, such that the relation of SRMH with diagnoses of psychiatric disorders was strongest in non-Hispanic Whites. Racial/ethnic variations were found in the relationship between self-perception of mental health and DSM-IV psychiatric disorders. The findings suggest the need to develop race/ethnicity-specific strategies to screen psychiatric disorders in diverse elderly populations. Future studies are needed to investigate possible reasons for the racial/ethnic group differences.
Guilherme Oliveira de Arruda
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To assess the association of sociodemographic and self-rated health in the presence of cardiovascular diseases and the association of this perception with the type of disease. METHODS A cross-sectional population survey study carried out with 1,232 individuals aged between 20 and 59 years of both genders living in the metropolitan region of Maringá-PR. Data were analyzed using multiple and simple logistic regression. RESULTS In multivariate analysis, the age range and self-rated health were associated with cardiovascular disease, and in the univariate analysis self-rated regular health was associated with arterial hypertension, while self-rated poor health was associated to heart failure, stroke, and to acute myocardial infarction (heart attack. CONCLUSION The differences in association of self-rated health with these diseases can indicate how individuals with certain characteristics cope with the disease, allowing for more individualized and specific health care.
de Castro, A B; Rue, Tessa; Takeuchi, David T
This study examined the associations between employment frustration and both self-rated physical health (SRPH) and self-rated mental health (SRMH) among Asian American immigrants. A cross-sectional quantitative analysis was conducted utilizing data from 1,181 Asian immigrants participating in the National Latino and Asian American Study. Employment frustration was measured by self-report of having difficulty finding the work one wants because of being of Asian descent. SRPH and SRMH were each assessed using a global one-item measure, with responses ranging from poor to excellent. Control variables included gender, age, ethnicity, education, occupation, income, whether immigrated for employment, years in the United States, English proficiency, and a general measure for everyday discrimination. Ordered logistic regression showed that employment frustration was negatively associated with SRPH. This relationship, however, was no longer significant in multivariate models including English proficiency. The negative association between employment frustration and SRMH persisted even when including all control variables. The findings suggest that Asian immigrants in the United States who experience employment frustration report lower levels of both physical and mental health. However, English proficiency may attenuate the relationship of employment frustration with physical health. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The study of perceived discrimination based on race and ethnic traits belongs to a long-held tradition in this field, but recent studies have found that non-ethnic discrimination based on factors such as gender, disability or age is also a crucial predictor of health outcomes. Using data from the European Social Survey (2010), and applying Boolean Factor Analysis and Ordered Logistic Regression models, this study is aimed to compare how ethnic and non-ethnic types of discrimination might affect self-rated health in the European context. We found that non-ethnic types of discrimination produce stronger differences on health outcomes. This result indicates that the probabilities of presenting a poor state of health are significantly higher when individuals feel they are being discriminated against for social or demographic conditions (gender, age, sexuality or disability) rather than for ethnic reasons (nationality, race, ethnicity, language or religiosity). This study offers a clear comparison of health inequalities based on ethnic and non-ethnic types of discrimination in the European context, overcoming analytical based on binary indicators and simple measures of discrimination.
Evaluation of Self-Ratings for Health Information Behaviour Skills Requires More Heterogeneous Sample, but Finds that Public Library Print Collections and Health Information Literacy of Librarians Needs Improvement
Full Text Available Objective – To understand public library users’ perceptions of ability to locate, evaluate, and use health information; to identify barriers experienced in finding and using health information; and to compare self-ratings of skills to an administered instrument. Design – Mixed methods. Setting – Main library and two branches of one public library system in Florida. Subjects – 20 adult library users purposively selected from 131 voluntary respondents to a previously conducted survey (Yi, 2014 based on age range, ethnicity, gender, and educational level. Of the 20, 13 were female; 11 White, 8 Black, 1 Native American; most had attained college or graduate school education levels (9 each, with 2 having graduated from high school. 15 respondents were aged 45 or older. Methods – Intensive interviews conducted between April and May 2011 used critical incident technique to inquire about a recalled health situation. Participants responded to questions about skill self-appraisal, health situation severity, information seeking and assessment behaviour, use of information, barriers, and outcome. Responses were compared to results of the short form of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA test, administered to participants. Main Results – On a scale of 100, participants’ S-TOFHLA scores measured at high levels of proficiency, with 90% rating 90 points or above. Self-ratings of ability to find health information related to recalled need were ”excellent” (12 participants or “good” (8 participants. Fourteen participants did not seek library assistance; 12 began their search on the Internet, 5 searched the library catalogue, and 3 reported going directly to the collection. Resource preferences were discussed, although no frequency descriptions were provided. 90% of participants self-rated their ability to evaluate the quality of health information as “good” or “excellent.” Participants selected authority
Shadbolt, Bruce; Barresi, Jane; Craft, Paul
Evidence is emerging about the strong predictive relationship between self-rated health (SRH) and survival, although there is little evidence on palliative populations where an accurate prediction of survival is valuable. Thus, the relative importance of SRH in predicting the survival of ambulatory patients with advanced cancer was examined. SRH was compared to clinical assessments of performance status, as well as to quality-of-life measures. By use of a prospective cohort design, 181 patients (76% response rate) with advanced cancer were recruited into the study, resurveyed at 18 weeks, and observed to record deaths. The average age of patients was 62 years (SD = 12). The median survival time was 10 months. SRH was the strongest predictor of survival from baseline. Also, a Cox regression comparing changes in SRH over time yielded hazard ratios suggesting the relative risk (RR) of dying was greater for fair ratings at 18 weeks (approximately 3 times) compared with consistent good or better ratings; the RR was even greater (4.2 and 6.2 times) for poor ratings, especially when ratings were poor at baseline and 18 weeks (31 times). Improvement in SRH over time yielded the lowest RR. SRH is valid, reliable, and responsive to change as a predictor of survival of advanced cancer. These qualities suggest that SRH should be considered as an additional tool by oncologists to assess patients. Similarly, health managers could use SRH as an indicator of disease severity in palliative care case mix. Finally, SRH could provide a key to help us understand the human side of disease and its relationship with medicine.
Platts, Loretta G; Gerry, Christopher J
Despite Ukraine's large population, few studies have examined social inequalities in health. This study describes Ukrainian educational inequalities in self-rated health and assesses how far psychosocial, material and behavioural factors account for the education gradient in health. Data were analyzed from the 2007 wave of the Ukrainian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey. Education was categorized as: lower secondary or less, upper secondary and tertiary. In logistic regressions of 5451 complete cases, stratified by gender, declaring less than average health was regressed on education, before and after adjusting for psychosocial, material and behavioural factors. In analyses adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, compared with those educated up to lower secondary level, tertiary education was associated with lower risk of less than average health for both men and women. Including material factors (income quintiles, housing assets, labour market status) reduced the association between education and health by 55-64% in men and 35-47% in women. Inclusion of health behaviours (physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index) reduced the associations by 27-30% in men and 19-27% in women; in most cases including psychosocial factors (marital status, living alone, trust in family and friends) did not reduce the size of the associations. Including all potential explanatory factors reduced the associations by 68-84% in men and 43-60% in women. The education gradient in self-rated health in Ukraine was partly accounted for by material and behavioural factors. In addition to health behaviours, policymakers should consider upstream determinants of health inequalities, such as joblessness and poverty. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Ross, Lesley A; Dodson, Joan E; Edwards, Jerri D; Ackerman, Michelle L; Ball, Karlene
Many U.S. states rely on older adults to self-regulate their driving and determine when driving is no longer a safe option. However, the relationship of older adults' self-rated driving in terms of actual driving competency outcomes is unclear. The current study investigates self-rated driving in terms of (1) systematic differences between older adults with high (good/excellent) versus low (poor/fair/average) self-ratings, and (2) the predictive nature of self-rated driving to adverse driving outcomes in older adults (n=350; mean age 73.9, SD=5.25, range 65-91). Adverse driving outcomes included self-reported incidences of (1) being pulled over by the police, (2) receiving a citation, (3) receiving a recommendation to cease or limit driving, (4) crashes, and (5) state-reported crashes. Results found that older drivers with low self-ratings reported more medical conditions, less driving frequency, and had been given more suggestions to stop/limit their driving; there were no other significant differences between low and high self-raters. Logistic regression revealed older drivers were more likely to have a state-reported crash and receive a suggestion to stop or limit driving. Men were more likely to report all adverse driving outcomes except for receiving a suggestion to stop or limit driving. Regarding self-rated driving, older adults with high ratings were 66% less likely (OR=0.34, 95% CI=0.14-0.85) to have received suggestions to limit or stop driving after accounting for demographics, health and driving frequency. Self-ratings were not predictive of other driving outcomes (being pulled over by the police, receiving a citation, self-reported crashes, or state-reported crashes, ps>0.05). Most older drivers (85.14%) rated themselves as either good or excellent drivers regardless of their actual previous citation or crash rates. Self-rated driving is likely not related to actual driving proficiency as indicated by previous crash involvement in older adults
Stadin, Magdalena; Nordin, Maria; Broström, Anders; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Westerlund, Hugo; Fransson, Eleonor I
The use of information and communication technology (ICT) is common in modern working life. ICT demands may give rise to experience of work-related stress. Knowledge about ICT demands in relation to other types of work-related stress and to self-rated health is limited. Consequently, the aim of this study was to examine the association between ICT demands and two types of work-related stress [job strain and effort-reward imbalance (ERI)] and to evaluate the association between these work-related stress measures and self-rated health, in general and in different SES strata. This study is based on cross-sectional data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health collected in 2014, from 14,873 gainfully employed people. ICT demands, job strain, ERI and self-rated health were analysed as the main measures. Sex, age, SES, lifestyle factors and BMI were used as covariates. ICT demands correlated significantly with the dimensions of the job strain and ERI models, especially with the demands (r = 0.42; p work-related stress in modern working life.
Chang, Hsin-Chieh; Wallace, Steven P
Research on migrant health mostly examines labor migrants, with some attention paid to the trauma faced by refugees. Marriage migrants represent an understudied vulnerable population in the migration and health literature. Drawing on a Social Determinants of Health (SDH) approach, we use a large Korean national survey and stratified multivariate regressions to examine the link between migration processes and the self-rated health of Korea's three largest ethnic groups of marriage migrants: Korean-Chinese, Vietnamese, and Han Chinese. We find that post-migration socioeconomic status and several social integration factors are associated with the health of marriage migrants of all three groups. Specifically, having more social relationships with Koreans is associated with good health among marriage migrants, while having more social relationships with co-ethnics is associated with worse health. Marriage migrants' perceived social status of their natal and marital families is a better predictor of their health than more objective measures such as their education attainment and that of their Korean husbands. The post-migration social gradients among all ethnic groups demonstrate a dose-response effect of marital family's social standing on marriage migrants' health, independent of their own education and the social standing of their natal families. Lastly, we find some ethnicity-specific predictors such as the association between higher educational level and worse health status among the Vietnamese. This variability by group suggests a more complex set of SDH occurred during the marriage migration processes than a basic SDH framework would predict. Using a new immigrant destination, South Korea, as an example, we conclude that migration and health policies that reduce ethnicity-specific barriers and offer integration programs in early post-migration stages may offer a pathway to good health among marriage migrants.
Rugulies, Reiner; Aust, Birgit; Siegrist, Johannes; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf; Bultmann, Ute; Bjorner, Jakob B.; Burr, Hermann
Objective: To analyze the distribution of effort-reward imbalance (ERI) and to investigate its impact on self-rated health in a representative sample of the Danish workforce. Methods: We studied 4977 employees who responded to a questionnaire in 2000, of which 3470 responded to a follow-up survey in
Puvill, Thomas; Lindenberg, Jolanda; Gussekloo, Jacobijn
Self-rated health is routinely used in research and practise among general populations. Older people, however, seem to change their health perceptions. To accurately understand these changed perceptions we therefore need to study the correlates of older people's self-ratings. We examined self......-rated, nurse-rated and physician-rated health's association with common disabilities in older people (the geriatric giants), mortality hazard and life satisfaction. For this, we used an age-representative population of 501 participant aged 85 from a middle-sized city in the Netherlands: the Leiden 85-plus......) were included as geriatric giants. Participants provided a score for life satisfaction and were followed up for vital status. Concordance of self-rated health with physician-rated (k = .3 [.0]) and nurse-rated health (k = .2 [.0]) was low. All three ratings were associated with the geriatric giants...
von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Hasson, Henna
To investigate how worksite health interventions involving a 2.5-hour reduction of weekly working hours with (PE) or without (RWH) mandatory physical exercise affects productivity. Six workplaces in dental health care were matched and randomized to three conditions (PE, RWH and referents). Employees' (N = 177) self-rated productivity and the workplaces' production levels (number of patients) were examined longitudinally. Number of treated patients increased in all conditions during the intervention year. While RWH showed the largest increase in this measure, PE showed significant increases in self-rated productivity, that is, increased quantity of work and work-ability and decreased sickness absence. A reduction in work hours may be used for health promotion activities with sustained or improved production levels, suggesting an increased productivity since the same, or higher, production level can be achieved with lesser resources.
Ampatzis, Christos; Tuci, Elio; Trianni, Vito; Christensen, Anders Lyhne; Dorigo, Marco
This research work illustrates an approach to the design of controllers for self-assembling robots in which the self-assembly is initiated and regulated by perceptual cues that are brought forth by the physical robots through their dynamical interactions. More specifically, we present a homogeneous control system that can achieve assembly between two modules (two fully autonomous robots) of a mobile self-reconfigurable system without a priori introduced behavioral or morphological heterogeneities. The controllers are dynamic neural networks evolved in simulation that directly control all the actuators of the two robots. The neurocontrollers cause the dynamic specialization of the robots by allocating roles between them based solely on their interaction. We show that the best evolved controller proves to be successful when tested on a real hardware platform, the swarm-bot. The performance achieved is similar to the one achieved by existing modular or behavior-based approaches, also due to the effect of an emergent recovery mechanism that was neither explicitly rewarded by the fitness function, nor observed during the evolutionary simulation. Our results suggest that direct access to the orientations or intentions of the other agents is not a necessary condition for robot coordination: Our robots coordinate without direct or explicit communication, contrary to what is assumed by most research works in collective robotics. This work also contributes to strengthening the evidence that evolutionary robotics is a design methodology that can tackle real-world tasks demanding fine sensory-motor coordination.
Hillen, T; Schaub, R; Hiestermann, A; Kirschner, W; Robra, B P
To compare the health status and factors influencing the health of populations that had previously lived under different political systems. Cross sectional health and social survey using postal interviews. The relation between self reported health and psychosocial factors (stressful life events, social support, education, health promoting life style and health endangering behaviour) was investigated. To determine East-West differences a logistic regression model including interaction terms was fitted. East and West Berlin shortly after reunification 1991. Representative sample of 4430 Berlin residents aged 18 years and over (response rate 63%). Of all respondents, 15.4% rated their health as unsatisfactory. Residents of East Berlin rated their health more frequently as unsatisfactory than residents of West Berlin (Or(age adjusted)= 1.29, 95%CI 1.08, 1.52), these differences occurred predominantly in the over 60 years age group. Logistic regression showed significant independent effects of stressful life events, social support, education, and health promoting life style on self rated health. The effects of education and health promoting life style were observed to be more pronounced in the western part of Berlin. Old age and female sex showed a stronger association with unsatisfactory health status in the eastern part of Berlin. For subjects aged over 60 years there was evidence that living in the former East Berlin had an adverse effect on health compared with West Berlin. The impact of education and a health promoting lifestyle on self rated health seemed to be weaker in a former socialist society compared with that of a Western democracy. This study supports an "additive model" rather than a "buffering model" in explaining the effects of psychosocial factors on health.
Reitzes, Donald C; Mutran, Elizabeth J
We are interested in whether functional health enhances self-esteem, as well as whether self-esteem, worker, parent, and friend identities are related to changes in functional health over a 2-year period of study. Data were collected in 1992 and 1994 from 737 older workers living in a North Carolina metropolitan area. Functional health is derived from questions asking respondents about their difficulties performing seven activities. We use Rosenberg's (1965) 10-item scale to tap self-esteem, and identities are measured with 10 adjective pairs that cover being competent, confident, and sociable as a worker, parent, and friend. Several findings are of interest. Better functional health is associated with greater self-esteem over 2 years, and self-esteem is positively related to changes in functional health. In addition, worker identity and some social background factors are associated with positive changes in self-esteem. The findings suggest that good health may contribute to positive self assessments, but also the less well-studied expectation that self processes are associated with positive changes in health. Individuals may be motivated by their desire to affirm a sense of self-worth and positive identities to maintain and improve their physical health.
Vincens, Natalia; Emmelin, Maria; Stafström, Martin
Latin America is the most unequal region in the world. The current sustainable development agenda increased attention to health inequity and its determinants in the region. Our aim is to investigate the social gradient in health in Latin America and assess the effects of social capital and income inequality on it. We used cross-sectional data from the World Values Survey and the World Bank. Our sample included 10,426 respondents in eight Latin American countries. Self-rated health was used as the outcome. Education level was the socioeconomic position indicator. We measured social capital by associational membership, civic participation, generalized trust, and neighborhood trust indicators at both individual and country levels. Income inequality was operationalized using the Gini index at country-level. We employed fixed effects logistic regressions and cross-level interactions to assess the impact of social capital and income inequality on the heath gradient, controlling for country heterogeneity. Education level was independently associated with self-rated health, representing a clear social gradient in health, favoring individuals in higher socioeconomic positions. Generalized and neighborhood trust at country-level moderated the effect on the association between socioeconomic position and health, yet favoring individuals in lower socioeconomic positions, especially in lower inequality countries, despite their lower individual social capital. Our findings suggest that collective rather than individual social capital can impact the social gradient in health in Latin America, explaining health inequalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Burr, Hermann; Pohrt, Anne; Rugulies, Reiner
Objective Due to the growing proportion of older employees in the work force in several countries, the importance of age in the association between work and health is becoming increasingly relevant. Few studies have investigated whether age modifies the association of physical work demands...... with health. We hypothesized that the association of demanding body postures with deteriorated self-rated health (SRH) is stronger among older employees than among younger employees. Method We analyzed three 5-year cohorts in the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study comprising 8318 observations from 5204...... 33–43 years; and 1.17, 95% CI 0.42–1.93, for the age group 44–54 years). Conclusion The study findings suggest that demanding body postures have a stronger impact on health among older compared to younger employees....
Burr, Hermann; Hasselhorn, Hans Martin; Kersten, Norbert
Objectives: Few epidemiological studies have examined whether associations of psychosocial working conditions with risk of poor health differ by age. Based on results from mostly cross-sectional studies, we test whether (i) psychosocial relational factors (social support) are more strongly...... associated with declining health of older than younger employees and (ii) psychosocial job factors (workpace, influence, possibilities for development) are more strongly associated with declining health of younger than older employees. Methods: We extracted two cohorts from the Danish Work Environment Cohort...... Study (DWECS): the 2000- 2005 and 2005-2010 cohorts. The participating 5281 employees with good self-rated health (SRH) at baseline were observed in 6585 5-year time windows. Using log-binomial regression analyses, we analysed whether psychosocial factors at work predicted 5-year deterioration of SRH...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-rated health is an important indicator of quality of life as well as a good predictor of future health. The purpose of the study was to follow up the self-rated health and the prevalence of symptoms of depression and general symptoms in a population of first-ever stroke patients 3 and 12 months after stroke. Methods All patients surviving their first-ever stroke and residing in Nacka municipality in Stockholm County Council were included using a multiple overlapping search strategy during an 18-month period (n = 187. Our study group comprised the 145 patients who survived the first 3 months after stroke. Three and 12 months after their stroke, the patients were assessed regarding self-rated health and general symptoms using parts of the Göteborg Quality of Life Instrument (GQLI, and regarding symptoms of depression using the Montgomery Asberg Depression Scale (MADRS-S. Results Self-rated health was rated as very good or rather good by 62% at 3 months after stroke and by 78% at 12 months after stroke. More than half of the patients suffered from symptoms of depression, with no significant improvement at 12 months. The most common general symptoms at 3 months after stroke were fatigue, sadness, pain in the legs, dizziness and irritability. Fatigue and sadness were still common at 12 months. Twelve months after stroke the prevalences of crying easily, irritability, impaired concentration, nausea and loss of weight were significantly lower. Conclusion The majority of patients rated their health as rather good or very good at 3 and 12 months after stroke. However, the majority suffered from fatigue and from symptoms of depression after both 3 and 12 months. In continued care of stroke survivors, it is important to consider the fact that many patients who rate their health as good may nevertheless have symptoms of depression, and some of them may benefit from anti-depressive treatment.
Aittomäki, Akseli; Martikainen, Pekka; Laaksonen, Mikko; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi
The economic resources available to an individual or a household have been hypothesised to affect health through the direct material effects of living conditions as well as through social comparison and experiences of deprivation. The focus so far has been mainly on current individual or household income, and there is a lack of studies on wealth, a potentially relevant part of household resources. We studied the associations of household wealth and household income with self-rated health, and addressed some theoretical issues related to economic advantage and health. The data were from questionnaire survey of Finnish men and women aged from 45 to 67 years, who were employed by the City of Helsinki from five to seven years before the collection of the data in 2007. We found household wealth to have a strong and consistent association with self-rated health, poor health decreasing with increasing wealth. The relationship was only partly attributable to the association of wealth with employment status, household income, work conditions and health-related behaviour. In contrast, the association of household income with self-rated health was greatly attenuated by taking into account employment status and wealth, and even further attenuated by work conditions. The results suggested a significant contribution of wealth differentials to differences in health status. The insufficiency of current income as the only measure of material welfare was demonstrated. Conditions associated with long-term accumulation of material welfare may be a significant aspect of the causal processes that lead to socioeconomic inequalities in ill health. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Puvill, Thomas; Lindenberg, Jolanda; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Slaets, Joris P. J.; Westendorp, Rudi J.
Self-rated health is routinely used in research and practise among general populations. Older people, however, seem to change their health perceptions. To accurately understand these changed perceptions we therefore need to study the correlates of older people's self-ratings. We examined self-rated,
Bennett, Rachel; Waterhouse, Philippa
Understanding the transition to adulthood has important implications for supporting young adults and understanding the roots of diversity in wellbeing later in life. In South Africa, the end of Apartheid means today's youth are experiencing their transition to adulthood in a changed social and political context which offers opportunities compared to the past but also threats. This paper presents the first national level analysis of the patterning of key transitions (completion of education, entry into the labour force, motherhood and marriage or cohabitation), and the association between the different pathways and health amongst young women. With the use of longitudinal data from the South African National Income Dynamics Study (2008-2015), this paper employs sequence analysis to identify common pathways to adulthood amongst women aged 15-17 years at baseline (n = 429) and logistic regression modelling to examine the association between these pathways and self-rated health. The sequence analysis identified five pathways: 1. 'Non-activity commonly followed by motherhood', 2. 'Pathway from school, motherhood then work', 3. 'Motherhood combined with schooling', 4. 'Motherhood after schooling', and 5. 'Schooling to non-activity'. After controlling for baseline socio-economic and demographic characteristics and health, the regression results show young women who followed pathways characterised by early motherhood and economic inactivity (1, 3 and 4) had poorer self-rated health compared to women whose pathways were characterised by combining motherhood and economic activity (2) and young women who were yet to become economically active or mothers (5). Therefore, policies should seek to prevent adolescent childbearing, support young mothers to continue their educational careers and enable mothers in work and seeking work to balance their work and care responsibilities. Further, the findings highlight the value of taking a holistic approach to health and provide
Full Text Available Abstract Background Lifestyle behaviours, such as healthy diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, are key elements of healthy ageing and important modifiable risk factors in the prevention of chronic diseases. Little is known about the relationship between these behaviours in older adults. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between fruit and vegetable (F&V intake, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA and sitting time (ST, and their association with self-rated health in older adults. Methods This cross-sectional study comprised 3,644 older adults (48% men aged 55–65 years, who participated in the Wellbeing, Eating and Exercise for a Long Life (“WELL” study. Respondents completed a postal survey about their health and their eating and physical activity behaviours in 2010 (38% response rate. Spearman’s coefficient (rho was used to evaluate the relationship between F&V intake, LTPA and ST. Their individual and shared associations with self-rated health were examined using ordinal logistic regression models, stratified by sex and adjusted for confounders (BMI, smoking, long-term illness and socio-demographic characteristics. Results The correlations between F&V intake, LTPA and ST were low. F&V intake and LTPA were positively associated with self-rated health. Each additional serving of F&V or MET-hour of LTPA were associated with approximately 10% higher likelihood of reporting health as good or better among women and men. The association between ST and self-rated health was not significant in the multivariate analysis. A significant interaction was found (ST*F&V intake. The effect of F&V intake on self-rated health increased with increasing ST in women, whereas the effect decreased with increasing ST in men. Conclusions This study contributes to the scarce literature related to lifestyle behaviours and their association with health indicators among older adults. The findings suggest that a modest increase
Tuttle, W C; Piland, N F; Smith, H L
Many hospitals and health care organizations are contending with fierce financial and competitive pressures. Consequently, programs that do not make an immediate contribution to master strategy are often overlooked in the strategic management process. Research programs are a case in point. Basic science, clinical, and health services research programs may help to create a comprehensive and fundamentally sound master strategy. This article discusses the evolving role of health care organizations in research relative to strategy formulation. The primary costs and benefits from participating in research programs are examined. An agenda of questions is presented to help health care organizations determine whether they should incorporate health-related research as a key element in their strategy.
Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Jinseok; Yang, Youngmi; Park, Jumin; Cheon, Jooyoung; Kwon, Young Dae
There have been conflicting findings regarding the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and self-rated health (SRH) worldwide. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between BMI and SRH by comparing its relationship in four East Asian countries: South Korea, China, Japan, and
Toci, Ervin; Burazeri, Genc; Jerliu, Naim; Sørensen, Kristine; Ramadani, Naser; Hysa, Bajram; Brand, Helmut
The aim was to describe health literacy among the older population of Kosovo, an Albanian speaking post-war country in the Western Balkans, in the context of self-perceived health status and self-reported chronic morbidity. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kosovo in 2011 including 1753 individuals aged ≥ 65 years (886 men, 867 women; mean age 73.4 ± 6.3 years; response rate: 77%). Participants were asked to assess, on a scale from 1 to 5, their level of difficulty with regard to access, understanding, appraisal and application of health information. Sub-scale scores and an overall health literacy score were calculated for each participant. Information on self-perceived health status, presence and number of chronic diseases and socioeconomic characteristics was also collected. Mean values of the overall health literacy score and all sub-scale scores (access, understanding, appraisal and application) were lower among older people who reported a poorer health status or at least one chronic condition compared with individuals who perceived their health status as good or had no chronic conditions (p association between health literacy levels and self-perceived health and chronic morbidity in this post-war European population. The putative link with chronic morbidity and lower adherence to health services is hard to establish through this cross-sectional study. Prospective population-based studies should be conducted in Kosovo and other transitional settings to replicate these findings and properly address the causal relationship between health literacy and health status. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Background: HIV self-testing is recognised as a possible option of expanding access to HIV testing and counselling (HTC). There is high demand for self testing among health workers. However, in many health facilities in Kenya, the rate of unregulated self-testing and factors influencing the practice remain unknown.
Pruitt, Sandi L; Jeffe, Donna B; Yan, Yan; Schootman, Mario
Limited psychometric research has examined the reliability of self-reported measures of neighbourhood conditions, the effect of measurement error on associations between neighbourhood conditions and health, and potential differences in the reliabilities between neighbourhood strata (urban vs rural and low vs high poverty). We assessed overall and stratified reliability of self-reported perceived neighbourhood conditions using five scales (social and physical disorder, social control, social cohesion, fear) and four single items (multidimensional neighbouring). We also assessed measurement error-corrected associations of these conditions with self-rated health. Using random-digit dialling, 367 women without breast cancer (matched controls from a larger study) were interviewed twice, 2-3 weeks apart. Test-retest (intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC)/weighted κ) and internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's α) were assessed. Differences in reliability across neighbourhood strata were tested using bootstrap methods. Regression calibration corrected estimates for measurement error. All measures demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency (α ≥ 0.70) and either moderate (ICC/κ=0.41-0.60) or substantial (ICC/κ=0.61-0.80) test-retest reliability in the full sample. Internal consistency did not differ by neighbourhood strata. Test-retest reliability was significantly lower among rural (vs urban) residents for two scales (social control, physical disorder) and two multidimensional neighbouring items; test-retest reliability was higher for physical disorder and lower for one multidimensional neighbouring item among the high (vs low) poverty strata. After measurement error correction, the magnitude of associations between neighbourhood conditions and self-rated health were larger, particularly in the rural population. Research is needed to develop and test reliable measures of perceived neighbourhood conditions relevant to the health of rural populations.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-rated health (SRH has been reported as a predictor of mortality in previous studies. This study aimed to examine whether SRH is independently associated with hypertension and if there is a gender difference in this association. Methods 16,956 community dwelling adults aged 20 and over within a defined geographic area participated in this study. Data on SRH, socio-demographic factors (age, gender, marital status, education and health behaviors (smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity were collected. Body mass index and blood pressure were measured. Logistic regression models were used to determine a relationship between SRH and hypertension. Results 32.5% of the participants were found to have hypertension. Women were more likely than men to rate their SRH as poor (p p p Conclusions SRH was independently associated with hypertension in a Korean adult population. This association was modified by gender.
Terceira A. Berdahl
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to understand self-rated health (SRH trajectories by social location (race/ethnicity by gender by social class among married individuals in the United States. We estimate multilevel models of SRH using six observations from 1980 to 2000 from a nationally representative panel of married individuals initially aged 25–55 (Marital Instability Over the Life Course Study. Results indicate that gender, race/ethnicity, and social class are associated with initial SRH disparities. Women are less healthy than men; people of color are less healthy than whites; lower educated individuals are less healthy than higher educated individuals. Women’s health declined slower than men’s but did not differ by race/ethnicity or education. Results from complex intersectional models show that white men with any college had the highest initial SRH. Only women with any college had significantly slower declines in SRH compared to white men with any college. For married individuals of all ages, most initial SRH disparities persist over twenty years. Intersecting statuses show that education provides uneven health benefits across racial/ethnic and gender subgroups.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Acculturation is for indigenous peoples related to the process of colonisation over centuries as well as the on-going social transition experienced in the Arctic today. Changing living conditions and lifestyle affect health in numerous ways in Arctic indigenous populations. Self-rated health (SRH is a relevant variable in primary health care and in general public health assessments and monitoring. Exploring the relationship between acculturation and SRH in indigenous populations having experienced great societal and cultural change is thus of great importance. Methods The principal method in the Survey of Living Conditions in the Arctic (SLiCA was standardised face-to-face interviews using a questionnaire. Very high overall participation rates of 83% were obtained in Greenland and Alaska, whilst a more conventional rate of 57% was achieved in Norway. Acculturation was conceptualised as certain traditional subsistence activities being of lesser importance for people’s ethnic identity, and poorer spoken indigenous language ability (SILA. Acculturation was included in six separate gender- and country-specific ordinal logistic regressions to assess qualitative effects on SRH. Results Multivariable analyses showed that acculturation significantly predicted poorer SRH in Greenland. An increased subsistence score gave an OR of 2.32 (P Conclusions This study shows that aggregate acculturation is a strong risk factor for poorer SRH among the Kalaallit of Greenland and female Iñupiat of Alaska, but our cross-sectional study design does not allow any conclusion with regard to causality. Limitations with regard to wording, categorisations, assumed cultural differences in the conceptualisation of SRH, and confounding effects of health care use, SES and discrimination, make it difficult to appropriately assess how strong this effect is though.
Full Text Available Self-rated health (SRH is a health measure related to future health, mortality, healthcare services utilization and quality of life. Various sociodemographic, health and lifestyle determinants of SRH have been identified in different populations. The aim of this study is to extend SRH literature in the Greek population. This is a cross-sectional study conducted in rural communities between 2001 and 2003. Interviews eliciting basic demographic, health-related and lifestyle information (smoking, physical activity, diet, quality of sleep and religiosity were conducted. The sample consisted of 1,519 participants, representative of the rural population of Tripoli. Multinomial regression analysis was conducted to identify putative SRH determinants. Among the 1,519 participants, 489 (32.2%, 790 (52% and 237 (15.6% rated their health as “very good”, “good” and “poor” respectively. Female gender, older age, lower level of education and impaired health were all associated with worse SRH, accounting for 16.6% of SRH variance. Regular exercise, healthier diet, better sleep quality and better adherence to religious habits were related with better health ratings, after adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related factors. BMI and smoking did not reach significance while exercise and physical activity exhibited significant correlations but not consistently across SRH categories. Our results support previous findings indicating that people following a more proactive lifestyle pattern tend to rate their health better. The role of stress-related neuroendocrinologic mechanisms on SRH and health in general is also discussed.
Bimala Sharma; Rosemary Cosme Chavez; Ae Suk Jeong; Eun Woo Nam
The study assessed television viewing >2 h a day and its association with sedentary behaviors, self-rated health, and academic performance among secondary school adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among randomly selected students in Lima in 2015. We measured self-reported responses of students using a standard questionnaire, and conducted in-depth interviews with 10 parents and 10 teachers. Chi-square test, correlation and multivariate logistic regression analysis were per...
Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Waldemar, Gunhild
self-rated health (SRH) predicts nursing home (NH) placement; subjective memory complaints (SMC) too. However, the predictive value of SRH in the presence of SMC is unclear.......self-rated health (SRH) predicts nursing home (NH) placement; subjective memory complaints (SMC) too. However, the predictive value of SRH in the presence of SMC is unclear....
Jung, Minsoo; Ramanadhan, Shoba; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula
Social determinants, such as socioeconomic status (SES) and race/ethnicity are linked to striking health disparities across the cancer continuum. One important mechanism linking social determinants and health disparities may be communication inequalities that are caused by differences in accessing, processing and utilizing cancer information. In this context, we examined health information-seeking/avoidance as a potential mediator between social determinants and self-rated health (SRH) status among cancer survivors. Data came from the 2008 well-informed, thriving and surviving (WITS) study of post-treatment cancer survivors (n=501). We examined the mediating effect of health communication-related behavior between SES and disparities in SRH. The likelihood of belonging to the Low SRH group was higher among patients who had avoided health information and whose family members had not sought health information on behalf of the survivor, those in the lowest household income bracket, and those who had high school or less education after adjusting for potential confounders. Differences in SRH among cancer survivors are associated with SES as well as communication inequalities. It is necessary to provide a supportive environment in which health information is made available if disparities in health-related quality of life among cancer survivors are to be reduced. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available La salud auto-referida es un indicador de calidad de vida. ¿Cuál es el impacto de las características socioeconómicas a nivel individual y a nivel de la vecindad, consideradas simultáneamente, en el estado de salud auto-referida a nivel individual? Diseño de análisis multinivel con dos niveles: individual y vecindad. Las fuentes de información fueron: Encuesta Nacional de Factores de Riesgo (muestreo probabilístico multietápico y Censo Poblacional. La regresión lineal muestra que mayores niveles de educación, de ingresos y de categoría laboral se relacionan con mejor salud auto-referida; y el aumento de la edad con peor salud. En el análisis multinivel, a medida que la proporción de individuos con educación inferior aumentaba en la fracción censal, aumentaba también la proporción de individuos con peor salud auto-referida. Mejorar la salud general de la población requerirá estrategias y acciones que disminuyan los niveles de desigualdad social en sus múltiples dimensiones, individual y de vecindad.Self-rated health is a quality-of-life indicator. This study investigates the impact of individual-level and neighborhood-level socioeconomic characteristics, considered simultaneously, on the state of self-rated health at the individual level in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The study employs a two-level (individual and neighborhood multilevel analysis, and the data sources were the 2005 Argentina National Risk Factor Survey (multistage probabilistic sample and the 2001 Population Census. Linear regression shows that higher schooling and income, as well as occupational category, are related to better self-rated health, and increasing age with worse health. In the multilevel analysis, an increase in the proportion (per census tract of individuals with less schooling was associated with an increase in the proportion of individuals with worse self-rated health. Improving the general health of the population requires strategies and action
Shin, Sang Soo; Shin, Young-Jeon
With an increasing number of studies highlighting regional social capital (SC) as a determinant of health, many studies are using multi-level analysis with merged and averaged scores of community residents' survey responses calculated from community SC data. Sufficient examination is required to validate if the merged and averaged data can represent the community. Therefore, this study analyzes the validity of the selected indicators and their applicability in multi-level analysis. Within and between analysis (WABA) was performed after creating community variables using merged and averaged data of community residents' responses from the 2013 Community Health Survey in Korea, using subjective self-rated health assessment as a dependent variable. Further analysis was performed following the model suggested by WABA result. Both E-test results (1) and WABA results (2) revealed that single-level analysis needs to be performed using qualitative SC variable with cluster mean centering. Through single-level multivariate regression analysis, qualitative SC with cluster mean centering showed positive effect on self-rated health (0.054, panalysis using SC variables without cluster mean centering or multi-level analysis. As modification in qualitative SC was larger within the community than between communities, we validate that relational analysis of individual self-rated health can be performed within the group, using cluster mean centering. Other tests besides the WABA can be performed in the future to confirm the validity of using community variables and their applicability in multi-level analysis.
Jensen, Karina Gregersen; Rosthøj, Susanne; Linneberg, Allan
To assess criterion validity of a single item question on self-rated physical fitness against objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness. From the Health2008 study 749 men and women between 30 and 60 years of age rated their fitness as excellent, very good, good, fair or poor. Cardiorespiratory...... fitness was estimated with the watt-max test. Agreement between self-rated and objectively measured physical fitness was assessed by Cohen's weighted kappa coefficient. Correlation was determined by Goodman & Kruskal's gamma correlation coefficient. All analyses were stratified according to gender. Data...... from 323 men and 426 women were analysed. There was a slight agreement between self-rated and objectively measured fitness in men (weighted kappa: 0.18, [95%CI: 0.13;0.23]) and a fair agreement in women (weighted kappa: 0.27, [95%CI: 0.22;0.32]). In both genders, self-rated fitness was positively...
Subramanian, S V; Subramanyam, Malavika A; Selvaraj, Sakthivel; Kawachi, Ichiro
Self-reported measures of poor health and morbidities from developing countries tend to be viewed with considerable skepticism. Examination of the social gradient in self-reported health and morbidity measures provides a useful test of the validity of self-reports of poor health and morbidities. The prevailing view, in part influenced by Amartya Sen, is that socially disadvantaged individuals will fail to perceive and report the presence of illness or health-deficits because an individual's assessment of their health is directly contingent on their social experience. In this study, we tested whether the association between self-reported poor health/morbidities and socioeconomic status (SES) in India follows the expected direction or not. Cross-sectional logistic regression analyses were carried out on a nationally representative population-based sample from the 1998 to 1999 Indian National Family Health Survey (INFHS); and 1995-1996 and 2004 Indian National Sample Survey (INSS). Four binary outcomes were analyzed: any self-reported morbidity; self-reported sickness in the last 15 days; self-reported sickness in the past year; and poor self-rated health. In separate adjusted models, individuals with no education reported higher levels of any self-reported, self-reported sickness in the last 15 days, self-reported sickness in the last year, and poor self-rated health compared to those with most education. Contrary to the prevailing thesis, we find that the use of self-rated ill-health has face validity as assessed via its relationship to SES. A less dismissive and pessimistic view of health data obtained through self-reports seems warranted.
Tucker-Seeley, Reginald D; Harley, Amy E; Stoddard, Anne M; Sorensen, Glorian G
Self-rated health (SRH) has been shown to be predictive of morbidity and mortality. Evidence also shows that SRH is socioeconomically patterned, although this association differs depending on the indicator of socioeconomic status used. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between SRH and financial hardship among residents of low-income housing. We analyzed cross-sectional data from the Health in Common Study (N = 828), an observational study to investigate social and physical determinants of cancer risk-related behaviors among residents of low-income housing in three cities in the Boston metropolitan area. Modified Poisson regression models were used to obtain the relative risk of low SRH (fair or poor), adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Unadjusted models revealed that the respondents reporting financial hardship were 53% more likely to report low SRH compared with those not reporting financial hardship. After controlling for demographic characteristics, socioeconomic characteristics, and psychological distress, the results showed that those reporting financial hardship were 44% more likely to report low SRH. Our results suggest that financial hardship is a robust predictor of SRH; and over and above the influence of demographic and traditional socioeconomic indicators, and even psychological distress, financial hardship remains strongly associated with low SRH. Additional research needs to be conducted to further elucidate this pathway and to better understand the determinants of variability in financial hardship among low-income housing residents to ensure the most appropriate policy levers (e.g., housing-related policy, food-related policy) are chosen to improve health outcomes in this population.
Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup; Singhammer, John
for the level of physical activity in the long term. Methods: This study included a baseline analysis of participants in a treatment group (TG) and follow-up after 4, 10 and 16 months. The TG included individuals with lifestyle diseases who followed supervised group-based training and received motivational...... counselling. The TG was divided into “good” and “poor” self-rated health at baseline. Linear growth curve analyses (multilevel linear regression) were used to examine the data. Results: The results yielded a statistical significant difference of 1.71 metabolic equivalents (MET) between participants with good...... versus poor health at baseline. Also, a difference of MET was observed at 10 months. MET increased by 0.85 units for participants with good self-rated health (SE = 0.094) from baseline to 16 months, though the increase between subsequent points in time was small and non-significant. In contrast...
Almeida Bentes, Aline; Comini César, Cibele; Coelho Xavier, César; Teixeira Caiaffa, Waleska; Proietti, Fernando Augusto
Self-rated health (SRH) is the general perception of an individual's own health and a key indicator to measure health in population-based studies. Few studies have examined the association between perceived urban violence and SRH among young adults. There were an estimated 475,000 deaths in 2012 as a result of homicide on the world. Sixty percent of these deaths occurred among males aged 15-44 years, making homicide the third leading cause of death for this population group. This study aimed to determine and quantify the association between sex-specific perception of violence in the neighborhood and SRH among young adults. Participants included 955 young adults (18-29 years) residing in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil between 2008 and 2009. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the strength of the associations. The perceived urban violence score was constructed from variables that assessed the respondents' insecurity and perception of fear and danger of suffering some form of violence in the neighborhood using exploratory factor analysis. 18,3% of respondents rated their health as fair/ poor/very poor. Among women, fair/ poor/very poor SRH was associated with age between 25 and 29 years, low socioeconomic status score, being dissatisfied with weight, not exercising regularly, not having a healthy diet, and having some chronic disease. Men who rated their health as fair/poor/very poor more frequently smoked, were dissatisfied with their weight, did not exercise regularly, consumed fewer fruits and vegetables, and had some chronic disease compared to men who rated their health as very good/good. In the final model, after adjusting for confounding variables, perceived violence in the neighborhood was associated with poor SRH in young women only (OR = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.04-2.21). The results indicate that public and health policies should implement interventions on the neighborhood physical and social environment to improve the perception of safety
Bethune, R; Absher, N; Obiagwu, M; Qarmout, T; Steeves, M; Yaghoubi, M; Tikoo, R; Szafron, M; Dell, C; Farag, M
In Canada, indigenous peoples suffer from a multitude of health disparities. To better understand these disparities, this study aims to examine the social determinants of self-reported health for indigenous peoples in Canada. This study uses data from Statistics Canada's Aboriginal Peoples Survey 2012. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine how selected social determinants of health are associated with self-reported health among off-reserve First Nations and Métis peoples in Canada. Our analysis shows that being older, female, and living in urban settings were significantly associated with negative ratings of self-reported health status among the indigenous respondents. Additionally, we found that higher income and levels of education were strongly and significantly associated with positive ratings of self-reported health status. Compared with indigenous peoples with an education level of grade 8 or lower, respondents with higher education were 10 times (5.35-22.48) more likely to report 'excellent' and 'very good' health. Respondents who earned more than $40,000 annually were three times (2.17-4.72) more likely to report 'excellent' and 'very good' health compared with those who earned less than $20,000 annually. When interacted with income, we also found that volunteering in the community is associated with better self-reported health. There are known protective determinants (income and education) and risk determinants (location of residence, gender, and age) which are associated with self-reported health status among off-reserve First Nations and Métis peoples. For indigenous-specific determinants, volunteering in the community appears to be associated with self-perceived health status. Thus, addressing these determinants will be necessary to achieve better health outcomes for indigenous peoples in Canada. Next steps include developing indigenous-specific social determinants of health indicators that adequately measure culture, connection
Whitson, Heather E; Malhotra, Rahul; Chan, Angelique; Matchar, David B; Østbye, Truls
The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence and consequences of coexisting vision and cognitive impairments in an Asian population. Data were collected from 4508 community-dwelling Singaporeans aged 60 years and older. Cognition was assessed by the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire whereas vision, disability, and self-rated health (SRH) were determined by self-report. Vision impairment was present in 902 (18.5%) participants and cognitive impairment in 835 (13.6%), with 232 (3.5%) participants experiencing both impairments. Persons with the comorbidity experienced higher odds of disability than persons with either single impairment. The association of vision impairment with SRH was stronger among women (odds ratio [OR] = 6.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.64-9.92) than among men (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.21-2.41). Concurrent cognitive and vision impairment is prevalent in older Singaporeans and is associated with high rates of disability. Gender differences in vision-dependent roles may affect the patient-perceived impact of this comorbidity. © 2012 APJPH.
McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Bush, Antonio A; Rodgers, Philip T; Scott, Mollie Ashe; Zomorodi, Meg; Pinelli, Nicole R; Roth, Mary T
Objective. To identify and describe the core competencies and skills considered essential for success of pharmacists in today's rapidly evolving health care environment. Methods. Six breakout groups of 15-20 preceptors, pharmacists, and partners engaged in a facilitated discussion about the qualities and characteristics relevant to the success of a pharmacy graduate. Data were analyzed using qualitative methods. Peer-debriefing, multiple coders, and member-checking were used to promote trustworthiness of findings. Results. Eight overarching themes were identified: critical thinking and problem solving; collaboration across networks and leading by influence; agility and adaptability; initiative and entrepreneurialism; effective oral and written communication; accessing and analyzing information; curiosity and imagination; and self-awareness. Conclusion. This study is an important step toward understanding how to best prepare pharmacy students for the emerging health care needs of society.
Tsai, James; Rolle, Italia V.; Singh, Tushar; Boulet, Sheree L.; McAfee, Timothy A.; Grant, Althea M.
The purpose of this study was to examine the patterns of marijuana and tobacco use and their associations with suboptimal self-rated health (SRH) among US adults who reported ?ever, even once, using marijuana or hashish.? Data came from the 2009?2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, restricting to respondents aged 20 years and older who reported using marijuana at least once in their lifetime (n?=?3,210). We assessed the age-adjusted prevalence of mutually exclusive groups of...
Albertina L Oliveira
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To validate the Escala de Autoeficácia para a Autodireção na Saúde (EAAS – Self-efficacy for Self-direction in Health Scale. METHODS Non-experimental quantitative study of EAAS validation, by confirmatory factorial analyses, evaluating a sample of 508 older adults from the north and the center of Portugal with mean age of 71.67 (from 51 to 96 years, to whom the Self-efficacy for Self-direction in Health Scale, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale were applied. The EAAS was developed from the theoretical constructs of self-efficacy and from self-directed learning within the PALADIN European project framework, aiming to develop an instrument able to assess the extent to which older adults take good care of their health. RESULTS The internal consistency was 0.87 (Cronbach’s alpha and confirmatory factorial analyses enabled to find a model near the one theoretically proposed, indicating a structure consisting of four dimensions: physical exercise, healthy diet, engaging in health-related learning, and visits to health professionals. From the psychometric point of view, the model in four factors showed quite satisfactory fit indicators. CONCLUSIONS The Self-efficacy for Self-direction in Health Scale, with 16 items, is adequate to evaluate to what extent older adults have confidence in their ability to take care of their own health, with high degree of autonomy.
Apps, Lindsay D; Harrison, Samantha L; Williams, Johanna E A; Hudson, Nicky; Steiner, Michael; Morgan, Mike D; Singh, Sally J
There is much description in the literature of how patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) manage their breathlessness and engage in self-care activities; however, little of this is from the perspective of those with less severe disease, who are primarily managed in primary care. This study aimed to understand the self-care experiences of patients with COPD who are primarily managed in primary care, and to examine the challenges of engaging in such behaviors. Semistructured interviews were carried out with 15 patients with COPD as part of a larger project evaluating a self-management intervention. Thematic analysis was supported by NVivo software (version 8, QSR International, Melbourne, Australia). Three main themes are described, ie, experiencing and understanding symptoms of COPD, current self-care activities, and the importance of family perceptions in managing COPD. Self-care activities evolved spontaneously as participants experienced symptoms of COPD. However, there was a lack of awareness about whether these strategies would impact upon symptoms. Perceptions of COPD by family members posed a challenge to self-care for some participants. Health care professionals should elicit patients' prior disease experiences and utilize spontaneous attempts at disease management in future self-management. These findings have implications for promoting self-management and enhancing quality of life.
Nkansah-Amankra, Stephen; Walker, Ashley Dawn
Objective: Self-rated health (SRH) has become a key organizing construct for assessing multiple dimensions of populations' physical and psychosocial health functioning. However, it is unclear how adolescents' subjective self assessment of health reflects health risk exposures, co-occurring health risks (problem behaviours) and other pre-existing…
Rathmann, Katharina; Herke, Max; Hurrelmann, Klaus; Richter, Matthias
The aim of this study was to examine the associations between features of class climate and school wellbeing, based on self-rated health and reports of absence from school due to illness among adolescents in secondary schools, by using data from the German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS). Data was obtained from the National Educational Panel Study (NEPS). The sample includes (n=7,348) seventh grade students in regular schools (Starting Cohort 3, Wave 3, 2012). Measures of class climate comprise indicators about demands, control and orientation, autonomy and interaction among students as well as teaching quality in German language class. School wellbeing was measured by satisfaction with school and helplessness in main school subjects. Bivariate and logistic multilevel logistic regression techniques are applied, by controlling for student age, gender and school type attended. Multilevel results showed that particularly among students with higher school satisfaction, there was a higher likelihood of self-rated health and less school absence due to illness. In contrast, perceived helplessness in major subjects and learning orientation were negatively associated with both outcomes. Further, students attending low track schools had a higher risk of school absence than students in high track schools. The results highlight the fact that particularly students' school wellbeing in terms of school satisfaction and perceived helplessness in the subjects German and mathematics are associated with self-rated poorer health and school absence due to illness. Therefore, health promotion initiatives should particularly focus on students' school wellbeing as well as on students attending low track schools. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, interest in the study of inequalities in health has not stopped at quantifying their magnitude; explaining the sources of inequalities has also become of great importance. This paper measures socioeconomic inequalities in self-reported morbidity and self-assessed health in Thailand, and the contributions of different population subgroups to those inequalities. Methods The Health and Welfare Survey 2003 conducted by the Thai National Statistical Office with 37,202 adult respondents is used for the analysis. The health outcomes of interest derive from three self-reported morbidity and two self-assessed health questions. Socioeconomic status is measured by adult-equivalent monthly income per household member. The concentration index (CI of ill health is used as a measure of socioeconomic health inequalities, and is subsequently decomposed into contributing factors. Results The CIs reveal inequality gradients disadvantageous to the poor for both self-reported morbidity and self-assessed health in Thailand. The magnitudes of these inequalities were higher for the self-assessed health outcomes than for the self-reported morbidity outcomes. Age and sex played significant roles in accounting for the inequality in reported chronic illness (33.7 percent of the total inequality observed, hospital admission (27.8 percent, and self-assessed deterioration of health compared to a year ago (31.9 percent. The effect of being female and aged 60 years or older was by far the strongest demographic determinant of inequality across all five types of health outcome. Having a low socioeconomic status as measured by income quintile, education and work status were the main contributors disadvantaging the poor in self-rated health compared to a year ago (47.1 percent and self-assessed health compared to peers (47.4 percent. Residence in the rural Northeast and rural North were the main regional contributors to inequality in self
The present study aims to identify, whether and how supplementary grandchild care is causally related to grandparents' self-rated health (SRH). Based on longitudinal data drawn from the German Aging Survey (DEAS; 2008-2014), I compare the results of pooled OLS, pooled OLS with lagged dependant variables (POLS-LD), random and fixed effects (RE, FE) panel regression. The results show that there is a positive but small association between supplementary grandchild care and SRH in POLS, POLS-LD, and RE models. However, the fixed effects model shows that the intrapersonal change in grandchild care does not cause a change in grandparents' SRH. The FE findings indicate that supplementary grandchild care in Germany does not have a causal impact on grandparents' SRH, suggesting that models with between-variation components overestimate the influence of grandchild care on grandparents' health because they do not control for unobserved (time-constant) heterogeneity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rathmann, Katharina; Vockert, Theres; Bilz, Ludwig; Gebhardt, Markus; Hurrelmann, Klaus
Studies among students with special educational needs (SEN) in separate special schools (SSS) and mainstream schools (MS) are particularly applicable to educational attainment and social participation. However, indicators of health and wellbeing have rarely been considered. This study investigates two related topics: first, health and wellbeing differences between students with SEN in special schools (SSS) and students without SEN in regular schools, and second, the rarely considered question whether health and wellbeing among students with SEN differ between school settings (i.e. MS vs. SSS). Bivariate and multilevel analyses are applied with data from the German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS) with 5267 students (grade 7). After having controlled for background characteristics, students in SSS report higher likelihoods of poor self-rated health compared to students in higher track schools. Self-rated health of students with SEN does not significantly differ between MS vs. SSS. For life satisfaction, students with SEN show higher likelihoods of low life satisfaction when attending MS. Teachers in inclusive settings are encouraged to establish class work and teaching that support a real change from class placement to inclusive culture in order to suitably support students with SEN. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Berglund, Erik; Lytsy, Per; Westerling, Ragnar
Active traveling to a daily occupation means that an individual uses an active way of traveling between two destinations. Active travel to work or other daily occupations offers a convenient way to increase physical activity levels which is known to have positive effects on several health outcomes. Frequently used concepts in city planning and regional planning today are to create environments for active commuting and active living. Even then, little research has focused on traveling modes and subjective health outcomes such as self-rated health (SRH). This study aimed to explore and investigate associations between travel mode and health-related outcomes, such as self-rated health (SRH), body mass index (BMI) and overall physical activity, in an adult population in Sweden. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a randomly selected population-based sample (n = 1786, age 45-75 years); the respondents completed a questionnaire about their regular travel mode, demographics, lifestyle, BMI and SRH. Chi-square tests and logistic regressions found that inactive traveling was associated with poor SRH, a greater risk of obesity or being overweight and overall physical inactivity. In addition, lifestyle factors, such as choice of food and smoking habits, were associated with SRH, BMI and overall physical activity.
De Menezes, Marcio Argollo; Brigatti, Edgardo; Schwämmle, Veit
Microbiological systems evolve to fulfil their tasks with maximal efficiency. The immune system is a remarkable example, where the distinction between self and non-self is made by means of molecular interaction between self-proteins and antigens, triggering affinity-dependent systemic actions. Specificity of this binding and the infinitude of potential antigenic patterns call for novel mechanisms to generate antibody diversity. Inspired by this problem, we develop a genetic algorithm where agents evolve their strings in the presence of random antigenic strings and reproduce with affinity-dependent rates. We ask what is the best strategy to generate diversity if agents can rearrange their strings a finite number of times. We find that endowing each agent with an inheritable cellular automaton rule for performing rearrangements makes the system more efficient in pattern-matching than if transformations are totally random. In the former implementation, the population evolves to a stationary state where agents with different automata rules coexist. (paper)
Dumitrescu, A L; Dogaru, B C; Dogaru, C D; Manolescu, B
This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between self-regulation, proactive coping, procrastination and proactive attitude, perceived oral health and self-reported oral-health behaviours. The study sample consisted of 198 first year medical students. The questionnaire included information about socio-demographic factors, behavioural variables, self-reported oral health status, proactive coping (proactive coping subscale of the Proactive Coping Inventory), procrastination (Procrastination Scale) and proactive attitude (Proactive Attitude Scale). Significant differences were found on self-regulation, proactive coping, procrastination and proactive attitude scales between participants who rated their gingival condition as very good/excellent and those who evaluated it as being poor, very poor or normal (p procrastination level among individuals who never visit their dentist and those who visit their dentist for check-up or for tooth cleaning and scaling (p = 0.001) or when treatment is needed or when in pain (p procrastination and proactive coping are important determinants of perceived oral health and self-reported oral-health behaviours.
Salti, Nisreen; Abdulrahim, Sawsan
Relative deprivation (RD) has been advanced as a theory to explain the relationship between income inequality and health in high-income countries. In this study, we tested the theory in a low-income protracted refugee setting in a middle-income country. Using data from the 2010 Socioeconomic Survey of Palestine Refugees in Lebanon, we examined the relationship between RD and health among a representative sample of Palestinian refugee women ( N =1047). Data were gathered utilizing a household questionnaire with information on socio-demographics and an individual-level questionnaire with information on the health of each respondent. We examined self-rated health (SRH) as the main health measure but also checked the sensitivity of our results using self-reported chronic conditions. We used two measures for absolute SES: total household monthly expenditures on non-food goods and services and total household monthly expenditures on non-health goods and services. With refugee camp as a reference group, we measured a household's RD as a household's rank of absolute SES within the reference group, multiplied by the distance between its absolute SES and the average absolute SES of all households ranked above it. We investigated the robustness of the RD-SRH relationship using these two alternative measures of absolute SES. Our findings show that, controlling for absolute SES and other possible confounders, women report significantly poorer health when they live in households with a higher score on our RD measure (because of either lower relative rank or lower relative SES compared to households better off in the reference group which we take to be the refugee camp). While RD is always significant as a determinant of SRH under a variety of specifications, absolute SES is not consistently significant. These findings persist when we use self-reported chronic conditions as our measure of health instead of SRH, suggesting that the relationship between health and RD may be
Jamil, Hikmet; Nassar-McMillanb, Sylvia; Lambert, Richard; Wangd, Yun; Ager, Joel; Arnetz, Bengt
The objective of this study was to determine whether perceived health status of Iraqi immigrants and refugees residing in the United States was related to pre-migration environmental stress, current unemployment, and if they had emigrated before or after the 1991 Gulf War. A random sample of Iraqis residing in Southeast Michigan, US, was interviewed using an Arab language structured survey. The main outcome measure was self-rated health (SRH). Major predictors included socioeconomics, employment status, pre-migration environmental stress, and health disorders. Path analysis was used to look at mediating effects between predictors and SRH. We found that SRH was significantly worse among participants that had left Iraq after the 1991 Gulf War. Unemployment and environmental stress exposure were inversely related to SRH. There was a direct path between Gulf War exposure and poor health. In addition, there were indirect paths mediated through psychosomatic and psychiatric disorders to SRH. Another path went from Gulf War exposure, via environmental stress and somatic health to poor health. Unemployment had a direct path, as well as indirect paths mediated through psychiatric and psychosomatic disorders, to poor self-rated health. In conclusion, these results suggest that pre- as well as post-migration factors, and period of migration, affect health.
Dai, Yue; Zhang, Chen-Yun; Zhang, Bao-Quan; Li, Zhanzhan; Jiang, Caixiao; Huang, Hui-Ling
Abstract The lack of social support in elderly populations incurs real societal costs and can lead to their poor health. The aim of this study is to investigate the self-rated health (SRH) and social support among older people as well as its associated factors. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 312 urban community-dwelling elderly aged 65 to 90 years in Tainan Taiwan and Fuzhou Fujian Province from March 2012 to October 2012. A Spearson correlation test, independent t test, a Pearson χ2 test, a linear regression analysis, and a multiple-level model were performed to analyze the results. The participants identified children as the most important source of objective and subjective support, followed by spouse and relatives. Tainan's elderly received more daily life assistance and emotional support, showed stronger awareness of the need to seek help, and maintained a higher frequency of social interactions compared with the elderly in Fuzhou. The mean objective support, subjective support, and support utilization scores as well as the overall social support among Tainan's elderly were significantly high compared with the scores among Fuzhou's elderly. Further, Tainan's elderly rated better SRH than Fuzhou's elderly. Correlation analysis showed that social support was significantly correlated with city, age, living conditions, marital status, and SRH. Multiple linear regression analysis, with social support as a dependent variable, retained the following independent predictors in the final regression model: city (4.792, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.068–6.516, P = 0.000), age (−0.805, 95% CI: −1.394 to −0.135, P = 0.013), marital status (−1.260, 95% CI: −1.891 to −0.629, P = 0.000), living conditions (4.069, 95% CI: 3.022–5.116, P = 0.000), and SRH −1.941, 95% CI: −3.194 to −0.688, P = 0.003). The multiple-level model showed that city would impact older people's social support (χ2 = 5.103, P older people. This study presents some
Krøll, Lotte Skytte; Hammarlund, Catharina Sjödahl; Westergaard, Maria Lurenda; Nielsen, Trine; Sloth, Louise Bönsdorff; Jensen, Rigmor Højland; Gard, Gunvor
The prevalence of migraine with co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain is high in the general population. However, there is very little literature on the characteristics of these combined conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate a) the prevalence of migraine with co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain in a clinic-based sample, b) the level of physical activity, psychological well-being, perceived stress and self-rated health in persons with migraine and co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain compared to healthy controls, c) the perceived ability of persons with migraine and co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain to perform physical activity, and d) which among the three conditions (migraine, tension-type headache or neck pain) is rated as the most burdensome condition. The study was conducted at a tertiary referral specialised headache centre where questionnaires on physical activity, psychological well-being, perceived stress and self-rated health were completed by 148 persons with migraine and 100 healthy controls matched by sex and average age. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to assess characteristics of migraine, tension-type headache and neck pain. Out of 148 persons with migraine, 100 (67%) suffered from co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain. Only 11% suffered from migraine only. Persons with migraine and co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain had lower level of physical activity and psychological well-being, higher level of perceived stress and poorer self-rated health compared to healthy controls. They reported reduced ability to perform physical activity owing to migraine (high degree), tension-type headache (moderate degree) and neck pain (low degree). The most burdensome condition was migraine, followed by tension-type headache and neck pain. Migraine with co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain was highly prevalent in a clinic-based sample. Persons with migraine and co
Kurmis, Timothy P.; Kurmis, Andrew P.
Purpose: Since conceptualisation in 1955, journal impact factors (IFs) have evolved as surrogate markers of perceived 'quality'. However, no previous research has explored the relationship between IF and journal self-citation rate, which may inflate this measure. Given Radiography's ongoing push to achieve Medline and ISI database inclusion, this paper aimed to quantitatively explore the frequency of self-citation and correlate this with ISI-reported IF. Methods: A review of articles published in two peer-reviewed, Medline and ISI-listed, imaging journals (Radiology and Academic Radiology), and Radiography, within in a 12-month period, was performed. The total number of citations and self-citations per article was recorded, and the results compared. Basic statistical and correlation analyses between listed IF ratings and self-citation indices were also performed. Results and Discussion: To our knowledge, this work represents the preliminary investigation exploring the association between ISI-listed IF and self-citation frequency. From the current results it can be suggested that such a relationship does exist, as demonstrated by the strongly positive correlation statistic (Pearson's r 2 = 0.99). Radiology was noted to have a considerably larger mean number of self-citations per article than the other two journals (p < 0.01), despite near-equivalent numbers of references per article. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that there may be relationship between an ISI-listed IFs and journal self-citation rates. It is hoped that this paper will be of interest in academic and research circles, both within medical imaging and more widely, and may provide impetus for discussion relating to self-citation frequency and influence on resultant IF calculations.
Liu, Hsi-Chen; Cheng, Yawen
To compare psychosocial work conditions and health status between public and private sector employees and to examine if psychosocial work conditions explained the health differences. Two thousand four hundred fourty one public and 15,589 private sector employees participated in a cross-sectional survey. Psychosocial work hazards, self-rated health (SRH), and burnout status were assessed by questionnaire. As compared with private sector employees, public sector employees reported better psychosocial work conditions and better SRH, but higher risk of workplace violence (WPV) and higher levels of client-related burnout. Regression analyses indicated that higher psychosocial job demands, lower workplace justice, and WPV experience were associated with poor SRH and higher burnout. The public-private difference in client-related burnout remained even with adjustment of psychosocial work factors. Greater risks of WPV and client-related burnout observed in public sector employees warrant further investigation.
Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A; Martínez-Herrera, Eliana; Posada-López, Adriana; Rocha-Buelvas, Anderson
To compare self-perceived health indicators between ethnic groups in Colombia. Cross-sectional study with data from the 2007 National Public Health Survey (ENSP-2007). Data from 57,617 people ≥18 years were used. Variables included: belonging to an ethnic group (exposure); self-rated health; mental health problems, injuries for accidents/violence (outcomes); sex, age, education level and occupation (explicative/control). A descriptive study was carried out of the explicative variables, and the prevalence of the outcomes was calculated according to ethnicity, education level and occupation. The association between the exposure variable and the outcomes was estimated by means of adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% CI using logistic regression. Analyses were conducted separately for men and women. The prevalence of outcomes was higher in people reporting to belong to an ethnic group and differences were found by sex, ethnic groups and health outcomes. Women from the Palenquero group were more likely to report poor self-rated health (aOR 7.04; 95%CI 2.50-19.88) and injuries from accidents/violence (aOR 7.99; 95%CI 2.89-22.07). Indigenous men were more likely to report mental health problems (aOR 1.75; 95%CI 1.41-2.17). Gradients according to ethnicity, education, occupation and sex were found. Minority ethnic groups are vulnerable to reporting poor health outcomes. Political actions are required to diminish health inequalities in these groups.
Chola, Lumbwe; Alaba, Olufunke
Introduction Social capital is said to influence health, mostly in research undertaken in high income countries' settings. Because social capital may differ from one setting to another, it is suggested that its measurement be context specific. We examine the association of individual and neighbourhood level social capital, and neighbourhood deprivation to self-rated health using a multi-level analysis. Methods Data are taken from the 2008 South Africa National Income Dynamic Survey. Health was self-reported on a scale from 1 (excellent) to 5 (poor). Two measures of social capital were used: individual, measured by two variables denoting trust and civic participation; and neighbourhood social capital, denoting support, association, behaviour and safety in a community. Results Compared to males, females were less likely to report good health (Odds Ratio 0.82: Confidence Interval 0.73, 0.91). There were variations in association of individual social capital and self-rated health among the provinces. In Western Cape (1.37: 0.98, 1.91) and North West (1.39: 1.13, 1.71), trust was positively associated with reporting good health, while the reverse was true in Limpopo (0.56: 0.38, 0.84) and Free State (0.70: 0.48, 1.02). In Western Cape (0.60: 0.44, 0.82) and Mpumalanga (0.72: 0.55, 0.94), neighbourhood social capital was negatively associated with reporting good health. In North West (1.59: 1.27, 1.99) and Gauteng (1.90: 1.21, 2.97), increased neighbourhood social capital was positively associated with reporting good health. Conclusion Our study demonstrated the importance of considering contextual factors when analysing the relationship between social capital and health. Analysis by province showed variations in the way in which social capital affected health in different contexts. Further studies should be undertaken to understand the mechanisms through which social capital impacts on health in South Africa. PMID:23976923
Jabson, Jennifer M; Farmer, Grant W; Bowen, Deborah J
Health behaviors and self-reported health are important for understanding cancer survivor health. However, there is a paucity of published research about how cancer survivors' health behaviors and self-rated health vary by sexual orientation. This study examined cancer survivors' health behaviors and self-reported health by sexual orientation. This study used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2001-2010. Self-reported health and cancer-related health behaviors were compared by sexual orientation. Propensity score adjustment was used to account for differences in age, race, education, gender and health insurance status. Of the 602 survivors eligible for the study, 4.3% identified as sexual minorities. Sexual minorities were 2.6 times more likely to report a history of illicit drug use (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04, 5.35), and 60% less likely to report their current health status as good (aOR=0.40, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.89), compared to heterosexual cancer survivors. These disparities persisted even after adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics. Our findings suggest that sexual minority cancer survivors may be at greater risk for poorer outcomes after cancer than other survivors. A possible explanation for the observed differences involves minority stress. Future research should test stress as an explanation for these differences. However, using population-methods to achieve this goal requires larger samples of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) cancer survivors.
Jain, Ram B
Prevalence of smoking is needed to estimate the need for future public health resources. To compute and compare smoking prevalence rates by using self-reported smoking statuses, two serum cotinine (SCOT) based biomarker methods, and one urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) based biomarker method. These estimates were then used to develop correction factors to be applicable to self-reported prevalences to arrive at corrected smoking prevalence rates. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for 2007-2012 for those aged ≥20 years (N = 16826) were used. Self-reported prevalence rate for the total population computed as the weighted number of self-reported smokers divided by weighted number of all participants was 21.6% and 24% when computed by weighted number of self-reported smokers divided by the weighted number of self-reported smokers and nonsmokers. The corrected prevalence rate was found to be 25.8%. A 1% underestimate in smoking prevalence is equivalent to not being able to identify 2.2 million smokers in US in a given year. This underestimation, if not corrected, could lead to serious gap in the public health services available and needed to provide adequate preventive and corrective treatment to smokers.
Full Text Available This study aims to identify any differences regarding gender, age, socioeconomic status (SES, self-rated health, perceived stress and the purchase of prescribed drugs among people who practice mind and body exercises (MBE extensively compared to people who do not.The study includes 3,913 men and 4,803 women aged 20-72 who participated in the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH. The respondents were divided into three groups depending on frequency of MBE practice (never/seldom/often. Measures regarding MBE practice, health behaviors, self-rated health, and illnesses were drawn from the SLOSH questionnaire, while more objective measures of socioeconomic status and education were derived from registry data. In addition, data on purchases of prescription drugs for all respondents were included in the study. These data were obtained from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register, which contains information about prescription drugs dispensed at Swedish pharmacies. Separate analyses were performed for mental MBE (mindfulness, meditation, relaxation techniques and physical MBE (yoga, Tai Chi, Qi Gong, respectively.A high intensity MBE practice is cross-sectionally related to poor self-assessed health (sleeping problems, pain, depressive symptoms, mental disorders, high levels of stress, and high levels of purchases of psychotropic drugs and analgesics. These cross-sectional relationships are generally stronger for mental MBE than for bodily-directed MBE. More women than men are practicing MBE on a regular basis, and physically active people participate to a greater extent in MBE compared with the physically inactive.Overall, the study shows that frequent participation in mind and body exercises is associated with high levels of purchases of psychotropic drugs and analgesics as well as with poor self-assessed health and high levels of stress. However, since this is a cross-sectional study, it is impossible to establish cause and effect
In this study, we compared 10 ethnic groups for associations between psychiatric disorders and physical self-rated health (SRH) in the United States. Data came from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), 2001–2003. The study included 7587 non-Latino White, 4746 African American, 1442 Mexican, 1106 other Hispanic, 656 other Asian, 600 Chinese, 577 Cuban, 520 Vietnamese, 508 Filipino, and 495 Puerto Rican individuals. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used to measure psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), general anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol abuse, and binge eating disorders. A single-item measure was used to estimate physical SRH. Demographic (age and gender) and socioeconomic (education and income) factors were also measured. Unadjusted and adjusted correlations between psychiatric disorders and physical SRH were calculated. Major ethnic variations were found in the correlation between psychiatric disorders and physical SRH; as well as the role of demographic and socioeconomic status (SES) factors in explaining these associations. non-Hispanic Whites, Cubans, and African Americans showed more correlations between psychiatric disorders and physical SRH than other ethnic groups. In non-Hispanic Whites, the associations between psychiatric disorders and physical SRH were explained by demographic factors. In African Americans, the link between psychiatric disorders and poor physical SRH were explained by SES indicators. In conclusion, although single-item physical SRH measures are traditionally assumed to reflect the physical health needs of populations, they may also indicate psychiatric disorders in some ethnic groups, such as non-Hispanic Whites, Cubans, and African Americans. Demographic and socioeconomic factors also have differential roles in explaining the link between psychiatric disorders and physical SRH. Physical
In this study, we compared 10 ethnic groups for associations between psychiatric disorders and physical self-rated health (SRH) in the United States. Data came from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), 2001-2003. The study included 7587 non-Latino White, 4746 African American, 1442 Mexican, 1106 other Hispanic, 656 other Asian, 600 Chinese, 577 Cuban, 520 Vietnamese, 508 Filipino, and 495 Puerto Rican individuals. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used to measure psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), general anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol abuse, and binge eating disorders. A single-item measure was used to estimate physical SRH. Demographic (age and gender) and socioeconomic (education and income) factors were also measured. Unadjusted and adjusted correlations between psychiatric disorders and physical SRH were calculated. Major ethnic variations were found in the correlation between psychiatric disorders and physical SRH; as well as the role of demographic and socioeconomic status (SES) factors in explaining these associations. non-Hispanic Whites, Cubans, and African Americans showed more correlations between psychiatric disorders and physical SRH than other ethnic groups. In non-Hispanic Whites, the associations between psychiatric disorders and physical SRH were explained by demographic factors. In African Americans, the link between psychiatric disorders and poor physical SRH were explained by SES indicators. In conclusion , although single-item physical SRH measures are traditionally assumed to reflect the physical health needs of populations, they may also indicate psychiatric disorders in some ethnic groups, such as non-Hispanic Whites, Cubans, and African Americans. Demographic and socioeconomic factors also have differential roles in explaining the link between psychiatric disorders and physical SRH. Physical
Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup; Jönsson, Carina; Andersen, Lars
Introduction The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of 20 weeks of strengths training on readiness to change and self-rated health, amongst laboratory technicians with industrial repetitive work. Methods A cluster randomised controlled trial was performed with an intervention...... group (IG)(n=282) and a control group (CG)(n=255). The IG performed five specific strengthening exercises for the neck-shoulder region, three times a week for approximately 20 minutes, during working hours. Participants replied to a questionnaire at baseline and follow-up. The main objectives were...
Vasas, Vera; Szathmáry, Eörs; Santos, Mauro
A basic property of life is its capacity to experience Darwinian evolution. The replicator concept is at the core of genetics-first theories of the origin of life, which suggest that self-replicating oligonucleotides or their similar ancestors may have been the first "living" systems and may have led to the evolution of an RNA world. But problems with the nonenzymatic synthesis of biopolymers and the origin of template replication have spurred the alternative metabolism-first scenario, where self-reproducing and evolving proto-metabolic networks are assumed to have predated self-replicating genes. Recent theoretical work shows that "compositional genomes" (i.e., the counts of different molecular species in an assembly) are able to propagate compositional information and can provide a setup on which natural selection acts. Accordingly, if we stick to the notion of replicator as an entity that passes on its structure largely intact in successive replications, those macromolecular aggregates could be dubbed "ensemble replicators" (composomes) and quite different from the more familiar genes and memes. In sharp contrast with template-dependent replication dynamics, we demonstrate here that replication of compositional information is so inaccurate that fitter compositional genomes cannot be maintained by selection and, therefore, the system lacks evolvability (i.e., it cannot substantially depart from the asymptotic steady-state solution already built-in in the dynamical equations). We conclude that this fundamental limitation of ensemble replicators cautions against metabolism-first theories of the origin of life, although ancient metabolic systems could have provided a stable habitat within which polymer replicators later evolved.
Lecomte, Tania; Corbière, Marc; Laisné, François
Studies investigating self-esteem in individuals with severe mental illness, either as a treatment goal, outcome or correlate to other variables, have increased over the past few years. One of the main difficulties in assessing self-esteem is the assessment itself, often measuring global and stable self-esteem as in the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, or requiring extensive training and long interviews. The present article aims at demonstrating the relevance of the French and English versions of the Self-Esteem Rating Scale-Short Form with individuals with severe mental illness. The instrument's reliability and validity were investigated in a sample of 250 French Canadian college students, 247 British college students and three samples of English- or French-speaking individuals with severe mental illness (N=254, N=150 and N=171). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that a shorter version of the instrument (20 items), with a positive and a negative self-esteem factor, had a great validity for all the samples studied. The Self-Esteem Rating Scale-Short Form, with its positive and negative self-esteem subscales, appears to be a valid and reliable self-esteem measure for individuals with mental health problems. Limitations of this study and future directions are discussed.
Gasull, Magda; Pallarès, Natàlia; Salcedo, Natalia; Pumarega, José; Alonso, Jordi; Porta, Miquel
Background: Self-rated health (SRH) is a powerful predictor of mortality, morbidity, and need for health services. SRH generally increases with educational level, and decreases with age, number of chronic conditions, and body mass index (BMI). Because human concentrations of most persistent organic pollutants (POPs) also vary by age, education, and BMI, and because of the physiological and clinical effects of POPs, we hypothesized that body concentrations of POPs are inversely associated with SRH. Objectives: To analyze the relation between serum concentrations of POPs and SRH in the general population of Catalonia, Spain, taking into account sociodemographic factors and BMI, as well as chronic health conditions and mental disorders, measured by the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12). Methods: POP serum concentrations were measured by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection in 919 participants of the Catalan Health Interview Survey. Results: Individuals with higher concentrations of POPs had significantly poorer SRH; e.g., the median concentration of HCB in subjects with poor SRH was twice as high as in subjects with excellent SRH (366 ng/g vs. 169 ng/g, respectively; p-value<0.001). In crude models and in models adjusted for sex and BMI, the POPs-SRH association was often dose-dependent, and the likelihood of poor or regular SRH was 2 to 4-times higher in subjects with POP concentrations in the top quartile. In models adjusted for age or for chronic conditions virtually all ORs were near unity. No associations were found between POP levels and GHQ-12. Conclusions: Individuals with higher concentrations of POPs had significantly poorer SRH, an association likely due to age and chronic conditions, but not to sex, education, social class, BMI, or mental disorders. - Highlights: • The relation between POPs and self-rated and mental health has seldom been studied. • Subjects with higher POP levels had poorer self-rated health (SRH) (dose
Gasull, Magda; Pallarès, Natàlia [Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (IMIM), Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); School of Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (Spain); Salcedo, Natalia [Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (IMIM), Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); School of Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (Spain); Pumarega, José [Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (IMIM), Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); Alonso, Jordi [Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (IMIM), Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Catalonia (Spain); Porta, Miquel, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (IMIM), Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); School of Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (Spain)
Background: Self-rated health (SRH) is a powerful predictor of mortality, morbidity, and need for health services. SRH generally increases with educational level, and decreases with age, number of chronic conditions, and body mass index (BMI). Because human concentrations of most persistent organic pollutants (POPs) also vary by age, education, and BMI, and because of the physiological and clinical effects of POPs, we hypothesized that body concentrations of POPs are inversely associated with SRH. Objectives: To analyze the relation between serum concentrations of POPs and SRH in the general population of Catalonia, Spain, taking into account sociodemographic factors and BMI, as well as chronic health conditions and mental disorders, measured by the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12). Methods: POP serum concentrations were measured by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection in 919 participants of the Catalan Health Interview Survey. Results: Individuals with higher concentrations of POPs had significantly poorer SRH; e.g., the median concentration of HCB in subjects with poor SRH was twice as high as in subjects with excellent SRH (366 ng/g vs. 169 ng/g, respectively; p-value<0.001). In crude models and in models adjusted for sex and BMI, the POPs-SRH association was often dose-dependent, and the likelihood of poor or regular SRH was 2 to 4-times higher in subjects with POP concentrations in the top quartile. In models adjusted for age or for chronic conditions virtually all ORs were near unity. No associations were found between POP levels and GHQ-12. Conclusions: Individuals with higher concentrations of POPs had significantly poorer SRH, an association likely due to age and chronic conditions, but not to sex, education, social class, BMI, or mental disorders. - Highlights: • The relation between POPs and self-rated and mental health has seldom been studied. • Subjects with higher POP levels had poorer self-rated health (SRH) (dose
Schwerdtfeger, Andreas; Konermann, Leslie; Schönhofen, Katja
To examine the psychobiological correlates of self-efficacy in teachers. Study 1 examined associations between teacher self-efficacy and cardiac activation on a working day and Study 2 assessed the cortisol morning response in teachers with varying levels of teacher self-efficacy. Teacher self-efficacy was assessed by questionnaire. In Study 1 heart rate, heart rate variability, and locomotor activity were recorded by 22 hours ambulatory monitoring and subjective measures of stress and strain were obtained. Study 2 assessed the cortisol response to awakening to obtain a measure of HPA-axis activation and teachers filled in a questionnaire on physical complaints. Study 1 found that self-efficacy proved protective for psychological well-being. Moreover, after controlling for locomotor activity, demographic, and lifestyle variables, self-efficacy was associated with elevated heart rate and attenuated heart rate variability during school and leisure time, respectively, but not during the night, thus questioning the health-implications of self-efficacy. Study 2 found that teachers high in self-efficacy exhibited an attenuated cortisol response to awakening and fewer cardiac complaints. The results of both studies are compatible with the view that teacher self-efficacy might act as a physiological toughening agent with possibly favorable health outcomes.
French Davina J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-rated health is commonly employed in research studies that seek to assess the health status of older individuals. Perceptions of health are, however, influenced by individual and societal level factors that may differ within and between countries. This study investigates levels of self-rated health (SRH and correlates of SRH among older adults in Australia, United States of America (USA, Japan and South Korea. Methods Cross-sectional data were drawn from large surveys of older respondents (≥ 65 years in Australia (n = 7,355, USA (n = 10,358, Japan (n = 3,541 and South Korea (n = 3,971, collected between 2000 and 2006. Harmonized variables were developed to represent socioeconomic, lifestyle and health indicators. We then assessed whether these variables, and their potentially different impact in different countries, could account for cross-national differences in levels of SRH. Results SRH differed significantly between countries, with older Koreans reporting much poorer health than those in the other three nations. This was not the result of biases in response patterns (for example central versus extreme tendency. Health-related correlates of SRH were similar across countries; those with more medical conditions, functional limitations or poor mental health gave poorer ratings. After accounting for the differential impact of determinants in different national contexts, Australians reported better SRH than other nations. Conclusions We conclude that when examining correlates of SRH, the similarities are greater than the differences between countries. There are however differences in levels of SRH which are not fully accounted for by the health correlates. Broad generalizations about styles of responding are not helpful for understanding these differences, which appear to be country, and possibly cohort specific. When using SRH to characterize the health status of older people, it is important to
Kavé, Gitit; Shrira, Amit; Palgi, Yuval; Spalter, Tal; Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Shmotkin, Dov
To compare the prediction of cognitive functioning by formal education and self-rated literacy and the differences in prediction across younger and older cohorts. Data on 28,535 respondents were drawn from a cross-sectional representative sample of community-dwelling older individuals (≥50), participating in the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe. Education level was classified according to the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 (ISCED-1997) self-rated literacy was determined by having respondents rate their reading and writing on 1-5 scales. Cognitive functioning was measured by verbal recall, word fluency, and arithmetic ability. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that self-rated literacy was more strongly associated with cognitive functioning than was education level, with or without additional exogenous variables (age, sex, household income, medical conditions, activities of daily living, reading eyesight, and country). The association between education level and cognitive functioning was weaker in older than in younger age groups, whereas the association between self-rated literacy and cognitive functioning showed the opposite trend. Self-rated literacy was found to be a better predictor of late-life cognitive functioning than was the level of formal education. The results have implications for studies of age-related differences in which education level is taken into account.
Waverijn, G.; Wolfe, M.K.; Mohnen, Sigrid; Rijken, M.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Groenewegen, P.P.
Background: Social capital in the living environment, both on the individual and neighbourhood level, is positively associated with people’s self-rated health; however, prospective and longitudinal studies are rare, making causal conclusions difficult. To shed more light on the direction of the
Waverijn, G.; Wolfe, M.K.; Mohnen, S.; Rijken, M.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Groenewegen, P.
Background: Social capital in the living environment, both on the individual and neighbourhood level, is positively associated with people's self-rated health; however, prospective and longitudinal studies are rare, making causal conclusions difficult. To shed more light on the direction of the
Teh, Jane K. L.; Tey, Nai Peng; Ng, Sor Tho
Objectives This paper examines the ethnic and gender differentials in high blood pressure (HBP), diabetes, coronary heart disease (CHD), arthritis and asthma among older people in Malaysia, and how these diseases along with other factors affect self-rated health. Differentials in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases among older people are examined in the context of socio-cultural perspectives in multi-ethnic Malaysia. Methods Data for this paper are obtained from the 2004 Malaysian Population and Family Survey. The survey covered a nationally representative sample of 3,406 persons aged 50 and over, comprising three main ethnic groups (Malays, Chinese and Indians) and all other indigenous groups. Bivariate analyses and hierarchical logistic regression were used in the analyses. Results Arthritis was the most common non-communicable disease (NCD), followed by HBP, diabetes, asthma and CHD. Older females were more likely than males to have arthritis and HBP, but males were more likely to have asthma. Diabetes and CHD were most prevalent among Indians, while arthritis and HBP were most prevalent among the Indigenous groups. Older people were more likely to report poor health if they suffered from NCD, especially CHD. Controlling for socio-economic, health and lifestyle factors, Chinese were least likely to report poor health, whereas Indians and Indigenous people were more likely to do so. Chinese that had HBP were more likely to report poor health compared to other ethnic groups with the same disease. Among those with arthritis, Indians were more likely to report poor health. Conclusion Perceived health status and prevalence of arthritis, HBP, diabetes, asthma and CHD varied widely across ethnic groups. Promotion of healthy lifestyle, early detection and timely intervention of NCDs affecting different ethnic groups and gender with socio-cultural orientations would go a long way in alleviating the debilitating effects of the common NCDs among older people. PMID
Teh, Jane K L; Tey, Nai Peng; Ng, Sor Tho
This paper examines the ethnic and gender differentials in high blood pressure (HBP), diabetes, coronary heart disease (CHD), arthritis and asthma among older people in Malaysia, and how these diseases along with other factors affect self-rated health. Differentials in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases among older people are examined in the context of socio-cultural perspectives in multi-ethnic Malaysia. Data for this paper are obtained from the 2004 Malaysian Population and Family Survey. The survey covered a nationally representative sample of 3,406 persons aged 50 and over, comprising three main ethnic groups (Malays, Chinese and Indians) and all other indigenous groups. Bivariate analyses and hierarchical logistic regression were used in the analyses. Arthritis was the most common non-communicable disease (NCD), followed by HBP, diabetes, asthma and CHD. Older females were more likely than males to have arthritis and HBP, but males were more likely to have asthma. Diabetes and CHD were most prevalent among Indians, while arthritis and HBP were most prevalent among the Indigenous groups. Older people were more likely to report poor health if they suffered from NCD, especially CHD. Controlling for socio-economic, health and lifestyle factors, Chinese were least likely to report poor health, whereas Indians and Indigenous people were more likely to do so. Chinese that had HBP were more likely to report poor health compared to other ethnic groups with the same disease. Among those with arthritis, Indians were more likely to report poor health. Perceived health status and prevalence of arthritis, HBP, diabetes, asthma and CHD varied widely across ethnic groups. Promotion of healthy lifestyle, early detection and timely intervention of NCDs affecting different ethnic groups and gender with socio-cultural orientations would go a long way in alleviating the debilitating effects of the common NCDs among older people.
Jane K L Teh
Full Text Available This paper examines the ethnic and gender differentials in high blood pressure (HBP, diabetes, coronary heart disease (CHD, arthritis and asthma among older people in Malaysia, and how these diseases along with other factors affect self-rated health. Differentials in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases among older people are examined in the context of socio-cultural perspectives in multi-ethnic Malaysia.Data for this paper are obtained from the 2004 Malaysian Population and Family Survey. The survey covered a nationally representative sample of 3,406 persons aged 50 and over, comprising three main ethnic groups (Malays, Chinese and Indians and all other indigenous groups. Bivariate analyses and hierarchical logistic regression were used in the analyses.Arthritis was the most common non-communicable disease (NCD, followed by HBP, diabetes, asthma and CHD. Older females were more likely than males to have arthritis and HBP, but males were more likely to have asthma. Diabetes and CHD were most prevalent among Indians, while arthritis and HBP were most prevalent among the Indigenous groups. Older people were more likely to report poor health if they suffered from NCD, especially CHD. Controlling for socio-economic, health and lifestyle factors, Chinese were least likely to report poor health, whereas Indians and Indigenous people were more likely to do so. Chinese that had HBP were more likely to report poor health compared to other ethnic groups with the same disease. Among those with arthritis, Indians were more likely to report poor health.Perceived health status and prevalence of arthritis, HBP, diabetes, asthma and CHD varied widely across ethnic groups. Promotion of healthy lifestyle, early detection and timely intervention of NCDs affecting different ethnic groups and gender with socio-cultural orientations would go a long way in alleviating the debilitating effects of the common NCDs among older people.
Virtanen, Pekka; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna
This 9-year follow-up study explores a possible association between temporary employment and declining health. Years in temporary employment from 2004 to 2008 to 2009 were measured for a cohort of 26,886 public sector employees. Self-rated health was measured by surveys in 2004 (baseline), 2008/2009 (short-term follow-up), and 2012/2013 (long-term follow-up). Compared with the permanently employed, the baseline health-adjusted odds of poor health were lower both in the short-term and long-term follow-up, but the differences became nonsignificant when adjusted for sociodemographic and work-related factors. The results would suggest that temporary employment in public sector of a Nordic welfare state does not entail health risks. Future research is needed to elucidate if this is true also among those exposed to nonpermanent employment in the private labor market, in particular those with most atypical jobs and unstable job careers.
Jung, Minsoo; Viswanath, K
This study examined the relationship between community-level contextual effects and self-rated health (SRH) based on the perspective of community capacity rather than social capital. Community capacity for mobilization is broad cooperation for networking among indigenous social agents and grassroots organizations that may serve as potential resources. The idea of community capacity is rooted in the philosophy that a community not only faces problems but also possesses the necessary resources to solve its problems. We used nationally representative data from South Korea, 2010, drawing on 14,228 residents in 404 communities. Community capacity was measured at two levels: an individual-level indicator of community satisfaction, and community-level indicators of participation rate in community organizations, number of community-based organizations (CBOs), and number of volunteer work camps (VWCs). The outcome variable was SRH, which was categorized into two groups: the low-SRH and high-SRH groups. Confounders included gender, age, and income at the individual level, and aggregate length of residency, financial independence ratio, and aggregate income at the community level. We estimated the effects of community capacity on SRH using hierarchical generalized linear models. The likelihood of belonging to the group having low-SRH is significantly high among those respondents living in places with lower community capacity at the community level, that report lower community satisfaction, and that have lower income at the individual level. After controlling for socio-economic confounders, the odds ratios were attenuated but remained significant in the final model, which included the gender-specific model. This study revealed that SRH is related to the level of community capacity for mobilization. It is probably because CBOs and VWCs not only provide necessary information and complementary services but also play an active role in identifying and resolving health problems
Ergin, Isil; Mandiracioglu, Aliye
To define the socioeconomic and demographic determinants for self-rated health and happiness for Turkish elderly (≥60) using the World Values Survey (WVS) database. WVS data for Turkey covering 23 years (1990-2013) with five separate cross-sections (1990, 1996, 2001, 2007, 2013) were pooled for analysis (n=870). Dependent variables were self-rated health (SRH) and perception of happiness.Their relation with age, sex, number of children, marital status, income, education, employment status and class perception were evaluated. Chi-square and logistic regression analysis were used. Regression coefficients and their standard errors were derived to calculate odds ratios. Mean age was 66.96±5.78 (60-91), 58.16% were male and 76.32% were married. The majority (61.10%) was at lowest income level and 80.60% had education attainment at primary level or below. Very happy/quite happy were 81.77% while only 46.59% perceived their health as very good/good. The crisis year (2001) increased the risk of bad self-rated health 4.4 times, being a women 2.0 times, while being a widow had a 2.3-fold, low-income 3.0-fold effect. The odds for unhappy status was increased 4.3 times at low-income levels and 8.4 times for the divorced/separate living partners. Happiness state improved after crisis period. SRH and happiness of Turkish elderly bare demographic and socioeconomic inequalities. The inexistence of a partner, being a women, low-income level and major threats for it, like economic crisis, are important drivers for elderly health and happiness. To improve well-being of elderly, better social policies for income is essential and at economic crisis times, support policies should be prioritized for vulnerable groups, including elderly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
BADLEY, ELIZABETH M; CANIZARES, MAYILEE; PERRUCCIO, ANTHONY V; HOGG-JOHNSON, SHEILAH; GIGNAC, MONIQUE AM
Policy Points Despite beliefs that baby boomers are healthier than previous generations, we found no evidence that the health of baby boomers is substantially different from that of the previous or succeeding cohorts. The effects of increased education, higher income, and lower smoking rates on improving self-rated health were nearly counterbalanced by the adverse effect of increasing body mass index (BMI). Assumptions that baby boomers will require less health care as they age because of better education, more prosperity, and less propensity to smoke may not be realized because of increases in obesity. Context Baby boomers are commonly believed to be healthier than the previous generation. Using self-rated health (SRH) as an indicator of health status, this study examines the effects of age, period, and birth cohort on the trajectory of health across 4 generations: World War II (born between 1935 and 1944), older baby boomers (born between 1945 and 1954), younger baby boomers (born between 1955 and 1964), and Generation X (born between 1965 and 1974). Methods We analyzed Canada’s longitudinal National Population Health Survey 1994-2010 (n = 8,570 at baseline), using multilevel growth models to estimate the age trajectory of SRH by cohort, accounting for period and incorporating the influence of changes in education, household income, smoking status, and body mass index (BMI) on SRH over time. Findings SRH worsened with increasing age in all cohorts. Cohort differences in SRH were modest (p = 0.034), but there was a significant period effect (p = 0.002). We found marked cohort effects for increasing education, income, and BMI, and decreasing smoking from the youngest to the oldest cohorts, which were much reduced (education and smoking) or removed (income and BMI) once period was taken into account. At the population level, multivariable analysis showed the benefits of increasing education and income and declines in smoking on the trajectory of improving SRH were
Lehman, Joel; Risi, Sebastian; Stanley, Kenneth O
Evolved representations in evolutionary computation are often fragile, which can impede representation-dependent mechanisms such as self-adaptation. In contrast, evolved representations in nature are robust, evolvable, and creatively exploit available representational features. This paper provide...
Kachi, Yuko; Inoue, Mariko; Nishikitani, Mariko; Yano, Eiji
The aim of this study was to examine whether the association between employment contract and self-rated health differs by household structure in a representative sample of employees in Japan. The participants were 81,441 male and 64,471 female employees aged 18-59 years who had participated in the 2010 Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions. We assessed the interactive effect of employment contract (permanent or precarious) and household structure (couple only, couple with children, single parent, single person, or other multi-person) on fair/poor health, adjusting for covariates by using logistic regression. We then calculated the relative poverty rate by employment contract and household structure. The interaction effect was significant for women (p<0.001) but not for men (p=0.413). A higher percentage of female precarious workers who lived in single-parent households (20.2%) reported fair/poor health compared with those in other types of households (10.4-13.2%), although the prevalence of fair/poor health did not differ substantially by household structure among female permanent workers. The relative poverty rates of female precarious workers who lived in single-parent households were higher compared with those of other female workers. Our results suggest that female precarious workers are not a homogeneous group and that those living in single-parent households suffer from poor health due to low income and insufficient coverage by insurance firms and family-based safety nets.
Jamieson Lisa M
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To determine oral health literacy (REALD-30 and oral health literacy-related outcome associations, and to calculate if oral health literacy-related outcomes are risk indicators for poor self-reported oral health among rural-dwelling Indigenous Australians. Methods 468 participants (aged 17-72 years, 63% female completed a self-report questionnaire. REALD-30 and oral health literacy-related outcome associations were determined through bivariate analysis. Multivariate modelling was used to calculate risk indicators for poor self-reported oral health. Results REALD-30 scores were lower among those who believed teeth should be infrequently brushed, believed cordial was good for teeth, did not own a toothbrush or owned a toothbrush but brushed irregularly. Tooth removal risk indicators included being older, problem-based dental attendance and believing cordial was good for teeth. Poor self-rated oral health risk indicators included being older, healthcare card ownership, difficulty paying dental bills, problem-based dental attendance, believing teeth should be brushed infrequently and irregular brushing. Perceived need for dental care risk indicators included being female and problem-based dental attendance. Perceived gum disease risk indicators included being older and irregular brushing. Feeling uncomfortable about oro-facial appearance risk indicators included problem-based dental attendance and irregular brushing. Food avoidance risk indicators were being female, difficulty paying dental bills, problem-based dental attendance and irregular brushing. Poor oral health-related quality of life risk indicators included difficulty paying dental bills and problem-based dental attendance. Conclusions REALD-30 was significantly associated with oral health literacy-related outcomes. Oral health literacy-related outcomes were risk indicators for each of the poor self-reported oral health domains among this marginalised population.
... projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes using Federal funds? 137.379 Section 137.379 Public Health... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Other § 137.379 Do Davis-Bacon wage rates apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes using Federal funds? Davis-Bacon Act...
Shimizu, Takashi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Kubota, Shinya; Mishima, Norio; Nagata, Shoji
We investigated relationships among self-efficacy, self-management skills, communication with superiors and mental health of employees at a Japanese workplace. The subjects were 426 employees in a medium-sized manufacturing company in Kyushu. In 1999, with agreement of the company, we mailed a self-administrated questionnaire which included questions on age, gender, job rank, communication with superiors, a General Self-Efficacy Scale(GSES), a Self-Management Skill scale(SMS) and the Japanese version of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire(GHQ-12). Eighty percent of the subjects returned the questionnaire. Excluding senior managers and insufficient answers, the final response rate was 55 percent. By multiple regression analysis, we found that job rank contributed significantly and positively, and that age, communication with superiors and self-management skills contributed significantly and negatively to the GHQ-12. Our results implied that age, job rank, communication with superiors and self-management skills would contribute to the mental health of Japanese employees.
Full Text Available Background: a growing and broadly discussed literature has shown that the relationship between sleep duration and health is not linear. Not only are insomnia and insufficient sleep harmful to one’s health, but excessive sleep too is also not beneficial. This study tests the association between selfrated state of health and the duration and pattern of sleep: we discuss the losses and costs in terms of quality of life deriving from excessive sleep time.Methods: we use an ordered probit specification, applied to the Italian Survey on the Use of Time (sample of Italians aged fifteen and over who keep a diary for a working day.Results: we show that greater sleep duration is negatively correlated both with self-reported state of health and with self-reported health satisfaction, while respondents’ subjective perceptions of too much and too little sleep are associated with health conditions in the usual u-shaped way.Conclusions: the negative impact of long sleep on self-reported health is confirmed. However, the effect of short sleep on health conditions is positive, while a measure of decreasing sleep quality - comprising number of interruptions of sleep, insomnia and napping - is correlated to some extent with decreasing health. The public health consequences are still to be explored: the potential gains from sleep restriction are substantial, but little is known about the causal link or the risks. Further research is needed before taking policy decisions.
statements of work would be useful in ensuring ethical govern- ment procurement practices. Conclusions The United States conducts diplomatic, defense...THE EVOLVING CONTINGENCY CONTRACTING MARKET: PRIVATE SECTOR SELF-REGULATION AND UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MONITORING OF PROCUREMENT OF STABILITY...MARKET: PRIVATE SECTOR SELF-REGULATION AND UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MONITORING OF PROCUREMENT OF STABILITY OPERATIONS SERVICES Whitney Grespin January
Johnson, Rolanda L
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between racial identity, self-esteem, sociodemographic factors, and health-promoting lifestyles in a sample of African Americans. African American mortality rates are disproportionately high. These rates are associated with health behaviors that are driven by many factors including lifestyle practices. Other factors may be self-esteem and racial identity. Research shows gender differences in health behaviors, but no studies have explored a racial identity and gender interaction. Exploring these relationships may lead to the improved health status of African Americans. A convenience sample of 224 was recruited consisting of 48% males (n = 108). The mean age was 37.2 years (SD = 12.6). Regression analyses demonstrated that the internalization racial identity stage (beta = .12; p self-esteem (beta = .50; p Self-esteem did not mediate the relationship between immersion and health-promoting lifestyle scores (beta = -.16; p = .03). The full model Beta values show that racial identity remains significant with sociodemographics and interactions controlled, but moderators do not. Racial identity, while not a strong predictor, has some impact on health-promoting lifestyles regardless of sociodemographics.
Windsor, Tim D; Rioseco, Pilar; Fiori, Katherine L; Curtis, Rachel G; Booth, Heather
Social relationships are multifaceted, and different social network components can operate via different processes to influence well-being. This study examined associations of social network structure and relationship quality (positive and negative social exchanges) with mental health in midlife and older adults. The focus was on both direct associations of network structure and relationship quality with mental health, and whether these social network attributes moderated the association of self-rated health (SRH) with mental health. Analyses were based on survey data provided by 2001 (Mean age = 65, SD = 8.07) midlife and older adults. We used Latent Class Analysis (LCA) to classify participants into network types based on network structure (partner status, network size, contact frequency, and activity engagement), and used continuous measures of positive and negative social exchanges to operationalize relationship quality. Regression analysis was used to test moderation. LCA revealed network types generally consistent with those reported in previous studies. Participants in more diverse networks reported better mental health than those categorized into a restricted network type after adjustment for age, sex, education, and employment status. Analysis of moderation indicated that those with poorer SRH were less likely to report poorer mental health if they were classified into more diverse networks. A similar moderation effect was also evident for positive exchanges. The findings suggest that both quantity and quality of social relationships can play a role in buffering against the negative implications of physical health decline for mental health.
Vadstrup, Eva S; Frølich, Anne; Perrild, Hans
Type 2 diabetes can seriously affect patients' health-related quality of life and their self-rated health. Most often, evaluation of diabetes interventions assess effects on glycemic control with little consideration of quality of life. The aim of the current study was to study the effectiveness ...... of group-based rehabilitation versus individual counselling on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and self-rated health in type 2 diabetes patients....
Letice Ericeira Valente
Full Text Available Caring for a demented family member has been associated with burden. Studies concerning health self-perception of family caregivers are still scarce. OBJECTIVE: To investigate caregivers perceived health and to look into relationships with patients and caregivers' sociodemographic and clinical data. METHOD: Dyads of dementia outpatients and family caregivers (n=137 were assessed with Mini Mental State Examination, Functional Activities Questionnaire, Neuropsychiatric Inventory and Clinical Dementia Rating. Caregivers answered Sociodemographic Questionnaire, Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories, Zarit Burden Interview and Maslach Burnout Inventory. RESULTS: Caregivers poor perceived health was associated with emotional exhaustion, burden, depression and anxiety. Logistic regression analyses revealed caregivers' age, anxiety and physical problem as the main predictors of health self-perception. CONCLUSION: Aged family caregivers with anxiety who also report physical problem characterize a group at risk for poor self-perceived health. Evaluation of health self-perception may be useful for designing interventions to improve anxiety and physical health.
Kim, Jae-Hyun; Yoo, Ki-Bong; Park, Eun-Cheol; Lee, Sang Gyu; Kim, Tae Hyun
To examine the combined effects of education level and perceived social class on self-rated health and life satisfaction in South Korea. We used data drawn from the 8 to 15th wave of the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study (KLIPS). Using wave 8 at baseline, data included 11,175 individuals. We performed a longitudinal analysis at baseline estimating the prevalence of self-rated health and life satisfaction among individuals by education level (high, middle, and low education level) and perceived social class (high, middle, and low social class). For self-rated health, odds ratio (OR) of individuals with low education and low perceived social class was 0.604 times lower (95% CI: 0.555-0.656) and the OR of individuals with low education and middle perceived social class was 0.853 time lower (95% CI: 0.790-0.922) when compared to individuals with high education and high perceived social class. For life satisfaction, OR of individuals with low education and low perceived social class was 0.068 times lower (95% CI: 0.063-0.074) and the OR of individuals with middle education and middle perceived social class was 0.235 time lower (95% CI: 0.221-0.251) compared to individuals with high education and high perceived social class. This study shows that the combined effects of education level and perceived social class associated with self-rated health and life satisfaction. Our study suggests increasing education level and perceived social class. Additionally, it will be important to develop multi-dimensional measurement tools including education level and subjective social class.
Montero, J; Gómez Polo, C; Rosel, E; Barrios, R; Albaladejo, A; López-Valverde, A
Symmetric, aligned and luminous smiles are usually classified as 'beautiful' and aesthetic. However, smile perception is not strictly governed by standardised rules. Personal traits may influence the perception of non-ideal smiles. We aimed to determine the influence of personality traits in self-rated oral health and satisfaction and in the aesthetic preference for different strategically flawed smiles shown in photographs. Smiles with dark teeth, with uneven teeth, with lip asymmetry and dental asymmetry were ordered from 1 to 4 as a function of the degree of beauty by 548 participants, of which 50·7% were females with a mean age of 41·5 ± 17·6 years (range: 16-89 years). Self-assessment and oral satisfaction were recorded on a Likert scale. Personality was measured by means of the Big Five Inventory (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness), and the Life Orientation Test was used to measure optimism and pessimism. Of the four photographs with imperfect smiles, dental asymmetry was the most highly assessed in 63% of the sample, and the worst was lip asymmetry, in 43·7% of the sample. Some personality traits (above all conscientiousness and openness) were significantly correlated with the position assigned to the photographs with dental and lip asymmetry or with misaligned teeth. The extraversion, agreeableness and openness traits were correlated with the self-perceptions of oral health and aesthetics of the participants. Dental asymmetry seems to be better tolerated than lip asymmetry. Personality traits are weakly but significantly correlated with the aesthetic preference and oral health values, conscientiousness and openness being the most relevant domains in this sense. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Knabe, Johannes F
Genetic Regulatory Networks (GRNs) in biological organisms are primary engines for cells to enact their engagements with environments, via incessant, continually active coupling. In differentiated multicellular organisms, tremendous complexity has arisen in the course of evolution of life on earth. Engineering and science have so far achieved no working system that can compare with this complexity, depth and scope of organization. Abstracting the dynamics of genetic regulatory control to a computational framework in which artificial GRNs in artificial simulated cells differentiate while connected in a changing topology, it is possible to apply Darwinian evolution in silico to study the capacity of such developmental/differentiated GRNs to evolve. In this volume an evolutionary GRN paradigm is investigated for its evolvability and robustness in models of biological clocks, in simple differentiated multicellularity, and in evolving artificial developing 'organisms' which grow and express an ontogeny starting fr...
Ana Paula Nogueira Nunes
a positive dose-response relationship between poor self-perceived health and the number of chronic diseases and the degree of difficulty to perform daily life activities. Elderly individuals who perceived their personal relationships as bad and who could not count on anyone if they became bedridden were more likely to self-rate their health as poor. Working was negatively associated with self-perceived poor health. CONCLUSION: The results confirm the multidimensional structure of self-perceived health including the issues related to health and social relationships. Our results strengthen the role of social relations on health.
Zhang Guiqing; Yang Qiuying; Chen Tianlun
Effects of vertex activity have been analyzed on a weighted evolving network. The network is characterized by the probability distribution of vertex strength, each edge weight and evolution of the strength of vertices with different vertex activities. The model exhibits self-organized criticality behavior. The probability distribution of avalanche size for different network sizes is also shown. In addition, there is a power law relation between the size and the duration of an avalanche and the average of avalanche size has been studied for different vertex activities
Duffy, J R; Warburg, Finn; Koelle, S-F T
BACKGROUND: Pain and mental health concerns are prevalent among veterans. While the majority of research has focused on chronic pain as an entity, there has been little work directed towards investigating the role of neuropathic pain in relation to psychological comorbidity. As such, we...... hypothesised that participants with signs of neuropathic pain would report higher levels of psychological distress and diminished self-rated health compared to those without a neuropathic component. METHODS: A retrospective review of standardised questionnaires (PainDETECT Questionnaire, Post-traumatic Stress...... pain. RESULTS: Fifty-three participants were included. The Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian score was in median (interquartile range) 26 (22-31), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale score was 4 (2-6.5) and 2 (1-5) for anxiety and depression respectively. Evidence of neuropathic...
Torres, Elisa M; Ehrhart, Mark G; Beidas, Rinad S; Farahnak, Lauren R; Finn, Natalie K; Aarons, Gregory A
Although often discussed, there is a lack of empirical research on the role of leadership in the management and delivery of health services. The implementation leadership scale (ILS) assesses the degree to which leaders are knowledgeable, proactive, perseverant, and supportive during evidence-based practice (EBP) implementation. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the ILS for leaders' self-ratings using a sample of mental health clinic supervisors (N = 119). Supervisors (i.e., leaders) completed surveys including self-ratings of their implementation leadership. Confirmatory factor analysis, reliability, and validity of the ILS were evaluated. The ILS factor structure was supported in the sample of supervisors. Results demonstrated internal consistency reliability and validity. Cronbach alpha's ranged from 0.92 to 0.96 for the ILS subscales and 0.95 for the ILS overall scale. The factor structure replication and reliability of the ILS in a sample of supervisors demonstrates its applicability with employees across organizational levels.
Gaie, Martha J
This paper presents an evolving user-oriented model of Internet health information seeking (IS) based on qualitative data collected from 22 lung cancer (LC) patients and caregivers. This evolving model represents information search behavior as more highly individualized, complex, and dynamic than previous models, including pre-search psychological activity, use of multiple heuristics throughout the process, and cost-benefit evaluation of search results. This study's findings suggest that IS occurs in four distinct phases: search initiation/continuation, selective exposure, message processing, and message evaluation. The identification of these phases and the heuristics used within them suggests a higher order of complexity in the decision-making processes that underlie IS, which could lead to the development of a conceptual framework that more closely reflects the complex nature of contextualized IS. It also illustrates the advantages of using qualitative methods to extract more subtle details of the IS process and fill in the gaps in existing models.
Self-tracking has become widespread in many parts of the world and is understood by many of its proponents as a way to obtain bodily control and through that to improve healthy living. As such self-tracking can be understood as a particular approach to practicing individual health promotion (even...... though this is not the only incentive for self-tracking). Even though health promotion is often seen as an activity, which resonates with a focus on