WorldWideScience

Sample records for evolving regulatory landscape

  1. The evolving landscape of banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Marinč, M.

    2008-01-01

    The structure of the financial services industry is in flux. Liberalization, deregulation, and advances in information technology have changed the financial landscape dramatically. Interbank competition has heated up and banks face increasing competition from nonbanking financial institutions and

  2. Wetlands: The changing regulatory landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glick, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Protection of wetlands became a national issue in 1988 when President George Bush pledged no net loss of wetlands in the US under his open-quotes environmental presidency.close quotes As wetlands became a national issue, the job of protecting them became an obligation for many groups, including hydro-power developers. Now, when a site selected for development includes an area that may be classified as a wetland, the developer quickly discovers the importance of recognizing and protecting these natural habitats. Federal legislation severely limits development of wetland, and most states increase the restrictions with their own wetlands regulations. The difficulty of defining wetlands complicates federal and state enforcement. Land that appears to be dry may in fact be classified as a wetland. So, even if a site appears dry, potential hydro developers must confirm whether or not any jurisdictional wetlands are present. Regulated lands include much more than marshes and swamps. Further complicating the definition of wetlands, a recent court decision found that even artificially created wetlands, such as man-made ponds, may be subject to regulation. Hydro developers must be aware of current regulatory requirements before they consider development of any site that may contain wetlands. To be certain that a site is open-quotes buildableclose quotes from the standpoint of wetlands regulation, a developer must verify (with the help of state agencies) that the property does not contain any jurisdictional wetlands. If it does, the regulatory process before development becomes much more complicated. For the short term, uncertainty abounds and extreme caution is in order. Because the regulatory process has become so complex and an agreeable definition of wetlands so elusive, the trend among the Corps and collaborating agencies is to constrict nationwide permits in favor of narrowing the jurisdictional definition of wetlands

  3. Genomic regulatory landscapes and chromosomal rearrangements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladegaard, Elisabete L Engenheiro

    2008-01-01

    The main objectives of the PhD study are to identify and characterise chromosomal rearrangements within evolutionarily conserved regulatory landscapes around genes involved in the regulation of transcription and/or development (trans-dev genes). A frequent feature of trans-dev genes is that they ......The main objectives of the PhD study are to identify and characterise chromosomal rearrangements within evolutionarily conserved regulatory landscapes around genes involved in the regulation of transcription and/or development (trans-dev genes). A frequent feature of trans-dev genes...... the complex spatio-temporal expression of the associated trans-dev gene. Rare chromosomal breakpoints that disrupt the integrity of these regulatory landscapes may be used as a tool, not only to make genotype-phenotype associations, but also to link the associated phenotype with the position and tissue...... specificity of the individual CNEs. In this PhD study I have studied several chromosomal rearrangements with breakpoints in the vicinity of trans-dev genes. This included chromosomal rearrangements compatible with known phenotype-genotype associations (Rieger syndrome-PITX2, Mowat-Wilson syndrome-ZEB2...

  4. Computational Genetic Regulatory Networks Evolvable, Self-organizing Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Knabe, Johannes F

    2013-01-01

    Genetic Regulatory Networks (GRNs) in biological organisms are primary engines for cells to enact their engagements with environments, via incessant, continually active coupling. In differentiated multicellular organisms, tremendous complexity has arisen in the course of evolution of life on earth. Engineering and science have so far achieved no working system that can compare with this complexity, depth and scope of organization. Abstracting the dynamics of genetic regulatory control to a computational framework in which artificial GRNs in artificial simulated cells differentiate while connected in a changing topology, it is possible to apply Darwinian evolution in silico to study the capacity of such developmental/differentiated GRNs to evolve. In this volume an evolutionary GRN paradigm is investigated for its evolvability and robustness in models of biological clocks, in simple differentiated multicellularity, and in evolving artificial developing 'organisms' which grow and express an ontogeny starting fr...

  5. EVOLVE

    CERN Document Server

    Deutz, André; Schütze, Oliver; Legrand, Pierrick; Tantar, Emilia; Tantar, Alexandru-Adrian

    2017-01-01

    This book comprises nine selected works on numerical and computational methods for solving multiobjective optimization, game theory, and machine learning problems. It provides extended versions of selected papers from various fields of science such as computer science, mathematics and engineering that were presented at EVOLVE 2013 held in July 2013 at Leiden University in the Netherlands. The internationally peer-reviewed papers include original work on important topics in both theory and applications, such as the role of diversity in optimization, statistical approaches to combinatorial optimization, computational game theory, and cell mapping techniques for numerical landscape exploration. Applications focus on aspects including robustness, handling multiple objectives, and complex search spaces in engineering design and computational biology.

  6. Evolving regulatory paradigm for proarrhythmic risk assessment for new drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Jose; Stockbridge, Norman; Strauss, David G

    Fourteen drugs were removed from the market worldwide because their potential to cause torsade de pointes (torsade), a potentially fatal ventricular arrhythmia. The observation that most drugs that cause torsade block the potassium channel encoded by the human ether-à-go-go related gene (hERG) and prolong the heart rate corrected QT interval (QTc) on the ECG, led to a focus on screening new drugs for their potential to block the hERG potassium channel and prolong QTc. This has been a successful strategy keeping torsadogenic drugs off the market, but has resulted in drugs being dropped from development, sometimes inappropriately. This is because not all drugs that block the hERG potassium channel and prolong QTc cause torsade, sometimes because they block other channels. The regulatory paradigm is evolving to improve proarrhythmic risk prediction. ECG studies can now use exposure-response modeling for assessing the effect of a drug on the QTc in small sample size first-in-human studies. Furthermore, the Comprehensive in vitro Proarrhythmia Assay (CiPA) initiative is developing and validating a new in vitro paradigm for cardiac safety evaluation of new drugs that provides a more accurate and comprehensive mechanistic-based assessment of proarrhythmic potential. Under CiPA, the prediction of proarrhythmic potential will come from in vitro ion channel assessments coupled with an in silico model of the human ventricular myocyte. The preclinical assessment will be checked with an assessment of human phase 1 ECG data to determine if there are unexpected ion channel effects in humans compared to preclinical ion channel data. While there is ongoing validation work, the heart rate corrected J-T peak interval is likely to be assessed under CiPA to detect inward current block in presence of hERG potassium channel block. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Devil's Slide: An evolving feature of California's coastal landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, M.; Loague, K.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal landslides in the United States remain a persistent threat to human life and urban development. The focus of this study is a landslide-prone section of the central California coastline, approximately 20 km south of San Francisco, known as Devil's Slide. This investigation employs an extensive aerial image inventory, digital elevation models (DEMs), and a water balance / limit-equilibrium approach to better understand the spatial and temporal characteristics of deep-seated bedrock slides at the site. Photographic surveys of the area reveal nearly three kilometers of headscarp and a complex network of slope failures that respond to hydrologic, seismic, and anthropogenic perturbations. DEM analysis suggests that, for a 145-year period (1866 to 2010), the study area experienced an average coastal retreat rate of 0.14 m yr-1 and an average volumetric loss of 11,216 m3 yr-1. At least 38% of the landscape evolution in the steep coastal terrain has been driven by slope failure events. A loosely coupled water balance / limit-equilibrium analysis quantitatively illustrates the precarious nature of the active landslide zone at the site. The slope is shown to be unstable for a large suite of equally-likely scenarios. The analyses presented herein suggest that future work should include a rigorous characterization of pore-water pressure development, driven by comprehensive simulations of subsurface hydrologic response, to improve our understanding of slope failure initiation at the Devil's Slide site.

  8. The evolving diagnostic and genetic landscapes of autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Nicholas Ziats

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The autism spectrum disorders (ASD are a heterogeneous set of neurodevelopmental syndromes defined by impairments in verbal and non-verbal communication, restricted social interaction, and the presence of stereotyped patterns of behavior. The prevalence of ASD is rising, and the diagnostic criteria and clinical perspectives on the disorder continue to evolve in parallel. Although the majority of individuals with ASD will not have an identifiable genetic cause, almost 25% of cases have identifiable causative DNA variants. The rapidly improving ability to identify genetic mutations because of advances in next generation sequencing, coupled with previous epidemiological studies demonstrating high heritability of ASD, have led to many recent attempts to identify causative genetic mutations underlying the ASD phenotype. However, although hundreds of mutations have been identified to date, they are either rare variants affecting only a handful of ASD patients, or are common variants in the general population conferring only a small risk for ASD. Furthermore, the genes implicated thus far are heterogeneous in their structure and function, hampering attempts to understand shared molecular mechanisms among all ASD patients; an understanding that is crucial for the development of targeted diagnostics and therapies. However, new work is beginning to suggest that the heterogeneous set of genes implicated in ASD may ultimately converge on a few common pathways. In this review, we discuss the parallel evolution of our diagnostic and genetic understanding of autism spectrum disorders, and highlight recent attempts to infer common biology underlying this complicated syndrome.

  9. The Evolving Diagnostic and Genetic Landscapes of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziats, Mark N; Rennert, Owen M

    2016-01-01

    The autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a heterogeneous set of neurodevelopmental syndromes defined by impairments in verbal and non-verbal communication, restricted social interaction, and the presence of stereotyped patterns of behavior. The prevalence of ASD is rising, and the diagnostic criteria and clinical perspectives on the disorder continue to evolve in parallel. Although the majority of individuals with ASD will not have an identifiable genetic cause, almost 25% of cases have identifiable causative DNA variants. The rapidly improving ability to identify genetic mutations because of advances in next generation sequencing, coupled with previous epidemiological studies demonstrating high heritability of ASD, have led to many recent attempts to identify causative genetic mutations underlying the ASD phenotype. However, although hundreds of mutations have been identified to date, they are either rare variants affecting only a handful of ASD patients, or are common variants in the general population conferring only a small risk for ASD. Furthermore, the genes implicated thus far are heterogeneous in their structure and function, hampering attempts to understand shared molecular mechanisms among all ASD patients; an understanding that is crucial for the development of targeted diagnostics and therapies. However, new work is beginning to suggest that the heterogeneous set of genes implicated in ASD may ultimately converge on a few common pathways. In this review, we discuss the parallel evolution of our diagnostic and genetic understanding of autism spectrum disorders, and highlight recent attempts to infer common biology underlying this complicated syndrome.

  10. Experimental evidence of dynamic re-organization of evolving landscapes under changing climatic forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arvind; Tejedor, Alejandro; Zaliapin, Ilya; Reinhardt, Liam; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to better understand the dynamic re-organization of an evolving landscape under a scenario of changing climatic forcing for improving our knowledge of geomorphic transport laws under transient conditions and developing predictive models of landscape response to external perturbations. Real landscape observations for long-term analysis are limited and to this end a high resolution controlled laboratory experiment was conducted at the St. Anthony Falls laboratory at the University of Minnesota. Elevation data were collected at temporal resolution of 5 mins and spatial resolution of 0.5 mm as the landscape approached steady state (constant uplift and precipitation rate) and in the transient state (under the same uplift and 5x precipitation). The results reveal rapid topographic re-organization under a five-fold precipitation increase with the fluvial regime expanding into the previously debris dominated regime, accelerated erosion happening at hillslope scales, and rivers shifting from an erosion-limited to a transport-limited regime. From a connectivity and clustering analysis of the erosional and depositional events, we demonstrate the strikingly different spatial patterns of landscape evolution under steady-state (SS) and transient-state (TS), even when the time under SS is "stretched" compared to that under TS such as to match the total volume and PDF of erosional and depositional amounts. We quantify the spatial coupling of hillslopes and channels and demonstrate that hillslopes lead and channels follow in re-organizing the whole landscape under such an amplified precipitation regime.

  11. Strategies for environmental restoration in an evolving regulatory environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, J.F.; Geffen, C.A.

    1990-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is faced with the immense challenge of effectively implementing a program to mitigate and manage the environmental impacts created by past and current operations at its facilities. Such a program must be developed and administered in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. These regulations are extremely complex, burdening the environmental restoration process with a number of planning and public interaction requirements that must be met before remediation of a site may begin. Existing regulatory and institutional requirements for environmental restoration dictate that extensive planning, characterization and assessment activities be conducted. An important part of the process is the involvement of regulators and the public in the site characterization and assessment activities and in developing reasonable solutions for cleanup. This paper identifies the regulatory requirements and highlights implementation strategies for key aspects of the environmental restoration process for DOE. Trends in legislation and policy relevant to the DOE environmental restoration process are highlighted, with strategies identified for dealing with the evolution of the regulations while maintaining continuity in the technical activities required for cleaning up the DOE hazardous and mixed waste sites. 10 refs

  12. Mobile strategies for digital publishing a practical guide to the evolving landscape

    CERN Document Server

    McIlroy, Thad

    2015-01-01

    The explosion of mobile devices around the world is transforming the nature of digital publishing. Publishers and digital content developers must rethink every node of the publishing process in order to take advantage of the fast-approaching mobile future. Mobile Strategies for Digital Publishing: A Practical Guide to the Evolving Landscape offers an in-depth look at the latest mobile trends and how they're changing the shape of the industry. Publishing analyst Thad McIlroy, founder of the Future of Publishing blog, assembles and a reviews a wide range of recent data on e-reading prac

  13. Do motifs reflect evolved function?--No convergent evolution of genetic regulatory network subgraph topologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knabe, Johannes F; Nehaniv, Chrystopher L; Schilstra, Maria J

    2008-01-01

    Methods that analyse the topological structure of networks have recently become quite popular. Whether motifs (subgraph patterns that occur more often than in randomized networks) have specific functions as elementary computational circuits has been cause for debate. As the question is difficult to resolve with currently available biological data, we approach the issue using networks that abstractly model natural genetic regulatory networks (GRNs) which are evolved to show dynamical behaviors. Specifically one group of networks was evolved to be capable of exhibiting two different behaviors ("differentiation") in contrast to a group with a single target behavior. In both groups we find motif distribution differences within the groups to be larger than differences between them, indicating that evolutionary niches (target functions) do not necessarily mold network structure uniquely. These results show that variability operators can have a stronger influence on network topologies than selection pressures, especially when many topologies can create similar dynamics. Moreover, analysis of motif functional relevance by lesioning did not suggest that motifs were of greater importance to the functioning of the network than arbitrary subgraph patterns. Only when drastically restricting network size, so that one motif corresponds to a whole functionally evolved network, was preference for particular connection patterns found. This suggests that in non-restricted, bigger networks, entanglement with the rest of the network hinders topological subgraph analysis.

  14. Radiation and the regulatory landscape of neo2-Darwinism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollo, C. David

    2006-01-01

    Several recently revealed features of eukaryotic genomes were not predicted by earlier evolutionary paradigms, including the relatively small number of genes, the very large amounts of non-functional code and its quarantine in heterochromatin, the remarkable conservation of many functionally important genes across relatively enormous phylogenetic distances, and the prevalence of extra-genomic information associated with chromatin structure and histone proteins. All of these emphasize a paramount role for regulatory evolution, which is further reinforced by recent perspectives highlighting even higher-order regulation governing epigenetics and development (EVO-DEVO). Modern neo 2 -Darwinism, with its emphasis on regulatory mechanisms and regulatory evolution provides new vision for understanding radiation biology, particularly because free radicals and redox states are central to many regulatory mechanisms and free radicals generated by radiation mimic and amplify endogenous signalling. This paper explores some of these aspects and their implications for low-dose radiation biology

  15. Radiation and the regulatory landscape of neo2-Darwinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollo, C David

    2006-05-11

    Several recently revealed features of eukaryotic genomes were not predicted by earlier evolutionary paradigms, including the relatively small number of genes, the very large amounts of non-functional code and its quarantine in heterochromatin, the remarkable conservation of many functionally important genes across relatively enormous phylogenetic distances, and the prevalence of extra-genomic information associated with chromatin structure and histone proteins. All of these emphasize a paramount role for regulatory evolution, which is further reinforced by recent perspectives highlighting even higher-order regulation governing epigenetics and development (EVO-DEVO). Modern neo2-Darwinism, with its emphasis on regulatory mechanisms and regulatory evolution provides new vision for understanding radiation biology, particularly because free radicals and redox states are central to many regulatory mechanisms and free radicals generated by radiation mimic and amplify endogenous signalling. This paper explores some of these aspects and their implications for low-dose radiation biology.

  16. Emergent reorganization of an evolving experimental landscape under changing climatic forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A.; Tejedor, A.; Zaliapin, I. V.; Reinhardt, L.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding landscape re-organization under changing climatic forcing is fundamental to advancing our understanding of geomorphic transport laws under transient conditions, developing predictive models of landscape response to external perturbations, and interpreting the stratigraphic record for past climates by incorporating possible regime shifts. Real landscape observations for long-term analysis are limited and to this end a high resolution controlled laboratory experiment was conducted at the St. Anthony Falls laboratory at the University of Minnesota. Elevation data were collected at temporal resolution of 5 mins and spatial resolution of 0.5 mm as the landscape approached steady state (for a constant uplift and precipitation rate) and in the transient state (under the same uplift and 5x precipitation). The results reveal rapid topographic re-organization under a five-fold precipitation increase with the fluvial regime expanding into previously debris dominated regime, accelerated erosion happening at hillslope scales, and rivers shifting from an erosion-limited to a transport-limited regime. By studying the space-time structure of the individual erosional and depositional events in terms of their size, location, clustering, and total volume we report complex space-time patterns of change which are scale-dependent and bounded by the river network topology. At the same time, the river network topology itself adjusts at smaller scales, with new channels added to accommodate increased hillslope erosional transport, further adjusting the landscape. Some new ideas related to landscape variability and entropy evolution at different scales during steady and transient states and the possibility of analyzing the self-organization with Optimal Mass Transport (OMT) metrics to infer possible underlying "optimality" principles governing the re-organization will also be presented.

  17. Drug-device combination products: regulatory landscape and market growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayarri, L

    2015-08-01

    Combination products are therapeutic and diagnostic products that combine drugs, devices and/or biological products, leading to safer and more effective treatments thanks to careful and precise drug targeting, local administration and individualized therapy. These technologies can especially benefit patients suffering from serious diseases and conditions such as cancer, heart disease, multiple sclerosis and diabetes, among others. On the other hand, drug-device combination products have also introduced a new dynamic in medical product development, regulatory approval and corporate interaction. Due to the increasing integration of drugs and devices observed in the latest generation of combination products, regulatory agencies have developed specific competences and regulations over the last decade. Manufacturers are required to fully understand the specific requirements in each country in order to ensure timely and accurate market access of new combination products, and the development of combination products involves a very specific pattern of interactions between manufacturers and regulatory agencies. The increased sophistication of the products brought to market over the last couple of decades has accentuated the need to develop drugs and devices collaboratively using resources from both industries, fostering the need of business partnering and technology licensing. This review will provide a global overview of the market trends, as well as (in the last section) an analysis of the drug-device combination products approved by the FDA during the latest 5 years. Copyright 2015 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  18. The impact of gene expression variation on the robustness and evolvability of a developmental gene regulatory network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Garfield

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory interactions buffer development against genetic and environmental perturbations, but adaptation requires phenotypes to change. We investigated the relationship between robustness and evolvability within the gene regulatory network underlying development of the larval skeleton in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. We find extensive variation in gene expression in this network throughout development in a natural population, some of which has a heritable genetic basis. Switch-like regulatory interactions predominate during early development, buffer expression variation, and may promote the accumulation of cryptic genetic variation affecting early stages. Regulatory interactions during later development are typically more sensitive (linear, allowing variation in expression to affect downstream target genes. Variation in skeletal morphology is associated primarily with expression variation of a few, primarily structural, genes at terminal positions within the network. These results indicate that the position and properties of gene interactions within a network can have important evolutionary consequences independent of their immediate regulatory role.

  19. Multifunctional energy landscape for a DNA G-quadruplex: An evolved molecular switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragnolini, Tristan; Chakraborty, Debayan; Šponer, Jiří; Derreumaux, Philippe; Pasquali, Samuela; Wales, David J.

    2017-10-01

    We explore the energy landscape for a four-fold telomere repeat, obtaining interconversion pathways between six experimentally characterised G-quadruplex topologies. The results reveal a multi-funnel system, with a variety of intermediate configurations and misfolded states. This organisation is identified with the intrinsically multi-functional nature of the system, suggesting a new paradigm for the classification of such biomolecules and clarifying issues regarding apparently conflicting experimental results.

  20. Reciprocal sign epistasis between frequently experimentally evolved adaptive mutations causes a rugged fitness landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Kvitek

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The fitness landscape captures the relationship between genotype and evolutionary fitness and is a pervasive metaphor used to describe the possible evolutionary trajectories of adaptation. However, little is known about the actual shape of fitness landscapes, including whether valleys of low fitness create local fitness optima, acting as barriers to adaptive change. Here we provide evidence of a rugged molecular fitness landscape arising during an evolution experiment in an asexual population of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We identify the mutations that arose during the evolution using whole-genome sequencing and use competitive fitness assays to describe the mutations individually responsible for adaptation. In addition, we find that a fitness valley between two adaptive mutations in the genes MTH1 and HXT6/HXT7 is caused by reciprocal sign epistasis, where the fitness cost of the double mutant prohibits the two mutations from being selected in the same genetic background. The constraint enforced by reciprocal sign epistasis causes the mutations to remain mutually exclusive during the experiment, even though adaptive mutations in these two genes occur several times in independent lineages during the experiment. Our results show that epistasis plays a key role during adaptation and that inter-genic interactions can act as barriers between adaptive solutions. These results also provide a new interpretation on the classic Dobzhansky-Muller model of reproductive isolation and display some surprising parallels with mutations in genes often associated with tumors.

  1. Regulatory landscape for cell therapy--EU view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBlane, James W

    2015-09-01

    This article addresses regulation of cell therapies in the European Union (EU), covering cell sourcing and applications for clinical trials and marketing authorisation applications. Regulatory oversight of cell sourcing and review of applications for clinical trials with cell therapies are handled at national level, that is, separately with each country making its own decisions. For clinical trials, this can lead to different decisions in different countries for the same trial. A regulation is soon to come into force that will address this and introduce a more efficient clinical trial application process. However, at the marketing authorisation stage, the process is pan-national: the Committee for Human Medicinal Products (CHMP) is responsible for giving the final scientific opinion on all EU marketing authorisation applications for cell therapies: favourable scientific opinions are passed to the European Commission (EC) for further consultation and, if successful, grant of a marketing authorisation valid in all 28 EU countries. In its review of applications for marketing authorisations (MAAs) for cell therapies, the CHMP is obliged to consult the Committee for Advanced Therapies (CAT), who conduct detailed scientific assessments of these applications, with assessment by staff from national regulatory authorities and specialist advisors to the regulators. Copyright © 2015.

  2. Genetic mapping uncovers cis-regulatory landscape of RNA editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, Gokul; Deng, Patricia; Zhang, Rui; Anna Carbone, Mary; Mackay, Trudy F C; Li, Jin Billy

    2015-09-16

    Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing, catalysed by ADAR enzymes conserved in metazoans, plays an important role in neurological functions. Although the fine-tuning mechanism provided by A-to-I RNA editing is important, the underlying rules governing ADAR substrate recognition are not well understood. We apply a quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping approach to identify genetic variants associated with variability in RNA editing. With very accurate measurement of RNA editing levels at 789 sites in 131 Drosophila melanogaster strains, here we identify 545 editing QTLs (edQTLs) associated with differences in RNA editing. We demonstrate that many edQTLs can act through changes in the local secondary structure for edited dsRNAs. Furthermore, we find that edQTLs located outside of the edited dsRNA duplex are enriched in secondary structure, suggesting that distal dsRNA structure beyond the editing site duplex affects RNA editing efficiency. Our work will facilitate the understanding of the cis-regulatory code of RNA editing.

  3. The evolving landscape and climate of western Flores: an environmental context for the archaeological site of Liang Bua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westaway, K E; Roberts, R G; Sutikna, T; Morwood, M J; Drysdale, R; Zhao, J-x; Chivas, A R

    2009-11-01

    The rapidly changing landscape of the eastern Indonesian archipelago has evolved at a pace dictated by its tropical climate and its geological and tectonic history. This has produced accelerated karstification, flights of alluvial terraces, and complex, multi-level cave systems. These cave systems sometimes contain a wealth of archaeological evidence, such as the almost complete skeleton of Homo floresiensis found at the site of Liang Bua in western Flores, but this information can only be understood in the context of the geomorphic history of the cave, and the more general geological, tectonic, and environmental histories of the river valley and region. Thus, a reconstruction of the landscape history of the Wae Racang valley using speleothems, geological structure, tectonic uplift, karst, cave, and terrace development, provides the necessary evidence to determine the formation, age, evolution, and influences on the site. This evidence suggests that Liang Bua was formed as two subterranean chambers approximately 600ka, but could not be occupied until approximately 190ka when the Wae Racang wandered to the southern side of the valley, exposing the chamber and depositing alluvial deposits containing artifacts. During the next approximately 190k.yr., the chambers coalesced and evolved into a multi-level and interconnected cave that was subjected to channel erosion and pooling events by the development of sinkholes. The domed morphology of the front chamber accumulated deep sediments containing well stratified archaeological and faunal remains, but ponded water in the chamber further prevented hominin use of the cave until approximately 100ka. These chambers were periodically influenced by river inundation and volcanic activity, whereas the area outside the cave was greatly influenced by glacial phases, which changed humid forest environments into grassland environments. This combined evidence has important implications for the archaeological interpretation of the site.

  4. Evolving Landscapes: the Effect of Genetic Variation on Salt Marsh Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernik, B. M.; Blum, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Ecogeomorphic studies have demonstrated that biota can exert influence over geomorphic processes, such as sediment transport, which in turn have biotic consequences and generate complex feedbacks. However, little attention has been paid to the potential for feedback to arise from evolutionary processes as population genetic composition changes in response to changing physical landscapes. In coastal ecosystems experiencing land loss, for example, shoreline erosion entails reduced plant survival and reproduction, and thereby represents a geomorphic response with inherent consequences for evolutionary fitness. To get at this topic, we examined the effect of genetic variation in the saltmarsh grass Spartina alterniflora, a renowned ecosystem engineer, on rates of shoreline erosion. Field transplantation studies and controlled greenhouse experiments were conducted to compare different genotypes from both wild and cultivated populations. Plant traits, soil properties, accretion/subsidence, and rates of land loss were measured. We found significant differences in rates of erosion between field plots occupied by different genotypes. Differences in erosion corresponded to variation in soil properties including critical shear stress and subsidence. Plant traits that differed across genotypes included belowground biomass, root tensile strength, and C:N ratios. Our results demonstrate the importance of genetic variation to salt marsh functioning, elucidating the relationship between evolutionary processes and ecogeomorphic dynamics in these systems. Because evolutionary processes can occur on ecological timescales, the direction and strength of ecogeomorphic feedbacks may be more dynamic than previously accounted for.

  5. A transcription factor collective defines the HSN serotonergic neuron regulatory landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret-Fernández, Carla; Maicas, Miren; Mora-Martínez, Carlos; Artacho, Alejandro; Jimeno-Martín, Ángela; Chirivella, Laura; Weinberg, Peter; Flames, Nuria

    2018-03-22

    Cell differentiation is controlled by individual transcription factors (TFs) that together activate a selection of enhancers in specific cell types. How these combinations of TFs identify and activate their target sequences remains poorly understood. Here, we identify the cis -regulatory transcriptional code that controls the differentiation of serotonergic HSN neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans . Activation of the HSN transcriptome is directly orchestrated by a collective of six TFs. Binding site clusters for this TF collective form a regulatory signature that is sufficient for de novo identification of HSN neuron functional enhancers. Among C. elegans neurons, the HSN transcriptome most closely resembles that of mouse serotonergic neurons. Mouse orthologs of the HSN TF collective also regulate serotonergic differentiation and can functionally substitute for their worm counterparts which suggests deep homology. Our results identify rules governing the regulatory landscape of a critically important neuronal type in two species separated by over 700 million years. © 2018, Lloret-Fernández et al.

  6. Cancer immunotherapy: Opportunities and challenges in the rapidly evolving clinical landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emens, Leisha A; Ascierto, Paolo A; Darcy, Phillip K; Demaria, Sandra; Eggermont, Alexander M M; Redmond, William L; Seliger, Barbara; Marincola, Francesco M

    2017-08-01

    Cancer immunotherapy is now established as a powerful way to treat cancer. The recent clinical success of immune checkpoint blockade (antagonists of CTLA-4, PD-1 and PD-L1) highlights both the universal power of treating the immune system across tumour types and the unique features of cancer immunotherapy. Immune-related adverse events, atypical clinical response patterns, durable responses, and clear overall survival benefit distinguish cancer immunotherapy from cytotoxic cancer therapy. Combination immunotherapies that transform non-responders to responders are under rapid development. Current challenges facing the field include incorporating immunotherapy into adjuvant and neoadjuvant cancer therapy, refining dose, schedule and duration of treatment and developing novel surrogate endpoints that accurately capture overall survival benefit early in treatment. As the field rapidly evolves, we must prioritise the development of biomarkers to guide the use of immunotherapies in the most appropriate patients. Immunotherapy is already transforming cancer from a death sentence to a chronic disease for some patients. By making smart, evidence-based decisions in developing next generation immunotherapies, cancer should become an imminently treatable, curable and even preventable disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. WE-F-211-01: The Evolving Landscape of Scientific Publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armato, S; Hendee, W; Marshall, C; Curran, B

    2012-06-01

    The dissemination of scientific advances has changed little since the first peer-reviewed journal was published in 1665 - that is, until this past decade. The print journal, delivered by mail and stored on office shelves and in library reading rooms around the world, has been transformed by immediate, on-demand access to scientific discovery in electronic form. At the same time, the producers and consumers of that scientific content have greatly increased in number, and the balance between supply and demand has required innovations in the world of scientific publishing. In light of technological advances and societal expectations, the dissemination of scientific knowledge has assumed a new form, one that is dynamic and rapidly changing. The academic medical physicist must understand this evolution to ensure that appropriate decisions are made with regard to journal submission strategies and that relevant information on new findings is obtained in a timely manner. Medical Physics is adapting to these changes in substantive ways. This new scientific publishing landscape has implications for subscription models, targeted access through semantic enrichment, user interactivity with content, customized content delivery, and advertising opportunities. Many organizations, including the AAPM, depend on scientific publishing as a significant source of revenue, but web-based delivery raises the expectation that access should be free and threatens this model. The purpose of this symposium is to explore the factors that have contributed to the current state of scientific publishing, to anticipate future directions in this arena, and to convey how medical physicists may benefit from the expanded opportunities, both as authors and as readers. 1. To appreciate the importance of scientific and clinical practice communication for the advancement of the medical physics field 2. To understand the roles of the Editorial Board and the Journal Business Management Committee in the

  8. Data Management for a Climate Data Record in an Evolving Technical Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, K. D.; Walter, J.; Gleason, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    For nearly twenty years, NASA Langley Research Center's Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Science Team has been producing a suite of data products that forms a persistent climate data record of the Earth's radiant energy budget. Many of the team's physical scientists and key research contributors have been with the team since the launch of the first CERES instrument in 1997. This institutional knowledge is irreplaceable and its longevity and continuity are among the reasons that the team has been so productive. Such legacy involvement, however, can also be a limiting factor. Some CERES scientists-cum-coders might possess skills that were state-of-the-field when they were emerging scientists but may now be outdated with respect to developments in software development best practices and supporting technologies. Both programming languages and processing frameworks have evolved significantly in the past twenty years, and updating one of these factors warrants consideration of updating the other. With the imminent launch of a final CERES instrument and the good health of those in flight, the CERES data record stands to continue far into the future. The CERES Science Team is, therefore, undergoing a re-architecture of its codebase to maintain compatibility with newer data processing platforms and technologies and to leverage modern software development best practices. This necessitates training our staff and consequently presents several challenges, including: Development continues immediately on the next "edition" of research algorithms upon release of the previous edition. How can code be rewritten at the same time that the science algorithms are being updated and integrated? With limited time to devote to training, how can we update the staff's existing skillset without slowing progress or introducing new errors? The CERES Science Team is large and complex, much like the current state of its codebase. How can we identify, in a breadth-wise manner

  9. Evolving PBPK applications in regulatory risk assessment: current situation and future goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation includes current applications of PBPK modeling in regulatory risk assessment and discussions on conflicts between assuring consistency with experimental data in current situation and the desire for animal-free model development.

  10. Evolving landscape of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer treatment and the future of biosimilars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackisch, Christian; Lammers, Philip; Jacobs, Ira

    2017-04-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2+) breast cancer comprises approximately 15%-20% of all breast cancers and is associated with a poor prognosis. The introduction of anti-HER2 therapy has significantly improved clinical outcomes for patients with HER2+ breast cancer, and multiple HER2-directed agents (ie, trastuzumab, pertuzumab, lapatinib, and ado-trastuzumab emtansine [T-DM1]) are approved for clinical use in various settings. The treatment landscape for patients with HER2+ breast cancer is continuing to evolve. While novel agents and therapeutic strategies are emerging, biologic therapies, particularly trastuzumab, are likely to remain a mainstay of treatment. However, access issues create barriers to the use of biologics, and there is evidence for underuse of trastuzumab worldwide. A biosimilar is a biologic product that is highly similar to a licensed biologic in terms of product safety and effectiveness. Biosimilars of trastuzumab are in development and may soon become available. The introduction of biosimilars may improve access to anti-HER2 therapies by providing additional treatment options and lower-cost alternatives. Because HER2-targeted drugs may be administered for extended periods of time and in combination with other systemic therapies, biosimilars have the potential to result in significant savings for healthcare systems. Herein we review current and emerging treatment options for, and discuss the possible role of biosimilars in, treating patients with HER2+ breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Authors, Pfizer Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. A future scenario of the global regulatory landscape regarding genome-edited crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Motoko

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The global agricultural landscape regarding the commercial cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops is mosaic. Meanwhile, a new plant breeding technique, genome editing is expected to make genetic engineering-mediated crop breeding more socially acceptable because it can be used to develop crop varieties without introducing transgenes, which have hampered the regulatory review and public acceptance of GM crops. The present study revealed that product- and process-based concepts have been implemented to regulate GM crops in 30 countries. Moreover, this study analyzed the regulatory responses to genome-edited crops in the USA, Argentina, Sweden and New Zealand. The findings suggested that countries will likely be divided in their policies on genome-edited crops: Some will deregulate transgene-free crops, while others will regulate all types of crops that have been modified by genome editing. These implications are discussed from the viewpoint of public acceptance. PMID:27960622

  12. The gene regulatory network for breast cancer: Integrated regulatory landscape of cancer hallmarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank eEmmert-Streib

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we infer the breast cancer gene regulatory network from gene expression data. This network is obtained from the application of the BC3Net inference algorithm to a large-scale gene expression data set consisting of $351$ patient samples. In order to elucidate the functional relevance of the inferred network, we are performing a Gene Ontology (GO analysis for its structural components. Our analysis reveals that most significant GO-terms we find for the breast cancer network represent functional modules of biological processes that are described by known cancer hallmarks, including translation, immune response, cell cycle, organelle fission, mitosis, cell adhesion, RNA processing, RNA splicing and response to wounding. Furthermore, by using a curated list of census cancer genes, we find an enrichment in these functional modules. Finally, we study cooperative effects of chromosomes based on information of interacting genes in the beast cancer network. We find that chromosome $21$ is most coactive with other chromosomes. To our knowledge this is the first study investigating the genome-scale breast cancer network.

  13. Identifying time-delayed gene regulatory networks via an evolvable hierarchical recurrent neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordmahalleh, Mina Moradi; Sefidmazgi, Mohammad Gorji; Harrison, Scott H; Homaifar, Abdollah

    2017-01-01

    The modeling of genetic interactions within a cell is crucial for a basic understanding of physiology and for applied areas such as drug design. Interactions in gene regulatory networks (GRNs) include effects of transcription factors, repressors, small metabolites, and microRNA species. In addition, the effects of regulatory interactions are not always simultaneous, but can occur after a finite time delay, or as a combined outcome of simultaneous and time delayed interactions. Powerful biotechnologies have been rapidly and successfully measuring levels of genetic expression to illuminate different states of biological systems. This has led to an ensuing challenge to improve the identification of specific regulatory mechanisms through regulatory network reconstructions. Solutions to this challenge will ultimately help to spur forward efforts based on the usage of regulatory network reconstructions in systems biology applications. We have developed a hierarchical recurrent neural network (HRNN) that identifies time-delayed gene interactions using time-course data. A customized genetic algorithm (GA) was used to optimize hierarchical connectivity of regulatory genes and a target gene. The proposed design provides a non-fully connected network with the flexibility of using recurrent connections inside the network. These features and the non-linearity of the HRNN facilitate the process of identifying temporal patterns of a GRN. Our HRNN method was implemented with the Python language. It was first evaluated on simulated data representing linear and nonlinear time-delayed gene-gene interaction models across a range of network sizes and variances of noise. We then further demonstrated the capability of our method in reconstructing GRNs of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae synthetic network for in vivo benchmarking of reverse-engineering and modeling approaches (IRMA). We compared the performance of our method to TD-ARACNE, HCC-CLINDE, TSNI and ebdbNet across different network

  14. Ancient Transposable Elements Transformed the Uterine Regulatory Landscape and Transcriptome during the Evolution of Mammalian Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent J. Lynch

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in biology is determining how evolutionarily novel characters originate; however, mechanistic explanations for the origin of new characters are almost completely unknown. The evolution of pregnancy is an excellent system in which to study the origin of novelties because mammals preserve stages in the transition from egg laying to live birth. To determine the molecular bases of this transition, we characterized the pregnant/gravid uterine transcriptome from tetrapods to trace the evolutionary history of uterine gene expression. We show that thousands of genes evolved endometrial expression during the origins of mammalian pregnancy, including genes that mediate maternal-fetal communication and immunotolerance. Furthermore, thousands of cis-regulatory elements that mediate decidualization and cell-type identity in decidualized stromal cells are derived from ancient mammalian transposable elements (TEs. Our results indicate that one of the defining mammalian novelties evolved from DNA sequences derived from ancient mammalian TEs co-opted into hormone-responsive regulatory elements distributed throughout the genome.

  15. International regulatory landscape and integration of corrective genome editing into in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Motoko; Ishii, Tetsuya

    2014-11-24

    Genome editing technology, including zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas, has enabled far more efficient genetic engineering even in non-human primates. This biotechnology is more likely to develop into medicine for preventing a genetic disease if corrective genome editing is integrated into assisted reproductive technology, represented by in vitro fertilization. Although rapid advances in genome editing are expected to make germline gene correction feasible in a clinical setting, there are many issues that still need to be addressed before this could occur. We herein examine current status of genome editing in mammalian embryonic stem cells and zygotes and discuss potential issues in the international regulatory landscape regarding human germline gene modification. Moreover, we address some ethical and social issues that would be raised when each country considers whether genome editing-mediated germline gene correction for preventive medicine should be permitted.

  16. Potential energy landscape and robustness of a gene regulatory network: toggle switch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun-Young Kim

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Finding a multidimensional potential landscape is the key for addressing important global issues, such as the robustness of cellular networks. We have uncovered the underlying potential energy landscape of a simple gene regulatory network: a toggle switch. This was realized by explicitly constructing the steady state probability of the gene switch in the protein concentration space in the presence of the intrinsic statistical fluctuations due to the small number of proteins in the cell. We explored the global phase space for the system. We found that the protein synthesis rate and the unbinding rate of proteins to the gene were small relative to the protein degradation rate; the gene switch is monostable with only one stable basin of attraction. When both the protein synthesis rate and the unbinding rate of proteins to the gene are large compared with the protein degradation rate, two global basins of attraction emerge for a toggle switch. These basins correspond to the biologically stable functional states. The potential energy barrier between the two basins determines the time scale of conversion from one to the other. We found as the protein synthesis rate and protein unbinding rate to the gene relative to the protein degradation rate became larger, the potential energy barrier became larger. This also corresponded to systems with less noise or the fluctuations on the protein numbers. It leads to the robustness of the biological basins of the gene switches. The technique used here is general and can be applied to explore the potential energy landscape of the gene networks.

  17. Cancer drug development and the evolving regulatory framework for companion diagnostics in the European union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatti, Francesco; Ehmann, Falk; Hemmings, Robert; Jonsson, Bertil; Nuebling, Micha; Papaluca-Amati, Marisa; Posch, Martin; Rasi, Guido

    2014-03-15

    The European Union (EU) legal framework for medical device regulation is currently under revision. The European Commission has proposed a new framework to ensure that medical devices serve the needs and ensure the safety of European citizens, aiming for a framework that is fit for purpose, more transparent, and better adapted to scientific and technological progress. The proposed new framework is described as an evolution of the current regime keeping the same legal approach. An important proposed change is that companion diagnostics will no longer be considered as low risk and subject to self-certification by the manufacturer. According to the new proposal, companion diagnostics will be classified as high individual risk or moderate public health risk (category C) and require conformity assessment by a notified body. It has also been proposed that evidence of the clinical utility of the device for the intended purpose should be required for companion diagnostics. In this article, we review the EU legal framework relevant for companion diagnostics, describe the proposed changes, and summarize the available scientific guidance from the European Medicines Agency and its regulatory experience with cancer drug development including companion diagnostics. See all articles in this CCR Focus section, "The Precision Medicine Conundrum: Approaches to Companion Diagnostic Co-development." ©2014 AACR.

  18. Scholarly Publishing's Evolving Landscape: Impact Metrics, Electronic-Only Journals, and Open Access in Journalism and Communication Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antell, Karen; Foote, Joe S.; Foote, Jody Bales

    2016-01-01

    This study surveys the landscape of scholarly publishing, with particular emphasis on scholarly journals in the communication discipline, measuring the shift to electronic publishing in six selected disciplines and exploring two other important emerging topics: open-access publishing and new journal citation metrics. The goals are to inform…

  19. Evolutionary analysis reveals regulatory and functional landscape of coding and non-coding RNA editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Deng, Patricia; Jacobson, Dionna; Li, Jin Billy

    2017-02-01

    Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing diversifies the transcriptome and promotes functional diversity, particularly in the brain. A plethora of editing sites has been recently identified; however, how they are selected and regulated and which are functionally important are largely unknown. Here we show the cis-regulation and stepwise selection of RNA editing during Drosophila evolution and pinpoint a large number of functional editing sites. We found that the establishment of editing and variation in editing levels across Drosophila species are largely explained and predicted by cis-regulatory elements. Furthermore, editing events that arose early in the species tree tend to be more highly edited in clusters and enriched in slowly-evolved neuronal genes, thus suggesting that the main role of RNA editing is for fine-tuning neurological functions. While nonsynonymous editing events have been long recognized as playing a functional role, in addition to nonsynonymous editing sites, a large fraction of 3'UTR editing sites is evolutionarily constrained, highly edited, and thus likely functional. We find that these 3'UTR editing events can alter mRNA stability and affect miRNA binding and thus highlight the functional roles of noncoding RNA editing. Our work, through evolutionary analyses of RNA editing in Drosophila, uncovers novel insights of RNA editing regulation as well as its functions in both coding and non-coding regions.

  20. The evolving regulation of uranium recovery operations in the United States: Inovative approaches are necessary for cost effective regulatory oversight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, A.J.; Lehrenbaum, W.U.; Lashway, D.C.

    2000-01-01

    The US domestic uranium industry is at a crossroads. Historic low prices for uranium, combined with stringent and often irrational regulatory requirements, pose a very real threat to the industry's continued viability. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has taken a number of innovative steps to reform and rationalize its regulatory program. However, if the domestic uranium recovery industry is to remain viable, additional steps toward innovation and reform are needed, and effective implementation of reforms adopted by the Commission is essential. (author)

  1. Broadening the cancer and cognition landscape: the role of self-regulatory challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Jamie; Das, Enny; Schagen, Sanne B; Reid-Arndt, Stephanie A; Cameron, Linda D; Ahles, Tim A

    2014-01-01

    The potentially detrimental effects of cancer and related treatments on cognitive functioning have emerged as one of the key foci of cancer survivorship research, but little is known about how psychological variables other than depression influence these relationships. To illustrate the potential of social psychological perspectives, we examine how a self-regulatory analysis and specific self-regulatory challenges of contending with cancer-related expectancies and stereotypes provide conceptual frameworks for understanding some of the potential causes and consequences of cancer-related cognitive deficits. Literatures on cancer-related cognitive deficits, self-regulatory ego depletion, expectancy stereotypes, and their points of convergence are briefly reviewed. A review and conceptual integration of relevant literatures suggest that coping with cancer can impair self-regulatory capacity. There is an overlap between cognitive deficits associated with self-regulatory challenge and with cancer and its treatment, and restoring self-regulatory resources can attenuate cancer-related cognitive deficits. Examination of specific regulatory challenges of contending with expectancies and stereotypes related to treatment suggests insights that can inform when and among whom cognitive deficits may most likely emerge. Integrating social psychological ideas with a substantial knowledge base can illustrate novel research trajectories that can deepen our understanding of cancer-related cognitive deficits and their impact on psychosocial well-being. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Radiation and the regulatory landscape of neo{sup 2}-Darwinism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollo, C. David [Department of Biology, Life Sciences Building, 1280 Main St. West, Hamilton, Ont., Canada L8S 4K1 (Canada)]. E-mail: rollocd@mcmaster.ca

    2006-05-11

    Several recently revealed features of eukaryotic genomes were not predicted by earlier evolutionary paradigms, including the relatively small number of genes, the very large amounts of non-functional code and its quarantine in heterochromatin, the remarkable conservation of many functionally important genes across relatively enormous phylogenetic distances, and the prevalence of extra-genomic information associated with chromatin structure and histone proteins. All of these emphasize a paramount role for regulatory evolution, which is further reinforced by recent perspectives highlighting even higher-order regulation governing epigenetics and development (EVO-DEVO). Modern neo{sup 2}-Darwinism, with its emphasis on regulatory mechanisms and regulatory evolution provides new vision for understanding radiation biology, particularly because free radicals and redox states are central to many regulatory mechanisms and free radicals generated by radiation mimic and amplify endogenous signalling. This paper explores some of these aspects and their implications for low-dose radiation biology.

  3. Evolving Regulatory Processes Used by Students and Experts in the Acquiring of Improvisational Skills: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Leon R.

    2018-01-01

    The way an improviser practices is a vital and significant aspect to a musician's means and capacities of expression. Expert music performers utilize extensive self-regulatory processes involving planning, strategic development, and systemized approaches to learning and reflective practice. Scholars posit that these processes are constructivist…

  4. Transcriptome landscape of Lactococcus lactis reveals many novel RNAs including a small regulatory RNA involved in carbon uptake and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meulen, Sjoerd B; de Jong, Anne; Kok, Jan

    2016-01-01

    RNA sequencing has revolutionized genome-wide transcriptome analyses, and the identification of non-coding regulatory RNAs in bacteria has thus increased concurrently. Here we reveal the transcriptome map of the lactic acid bacterial paradigm Lactococcus lactis MG1363 by employing differential RNA sequencing (dRNA-seq) and a combination of manual and automated transcriptome mining. This resulted in a high-resolution genome annotation of L. lactis and the identification of 60 cis-encoded antisense RNAs (asRNAs), 186 trans-encoded putative regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) and 134 novel small ORFs. Based on the putative targets of asRNAs, a novel classification is proposed. Several transcription factor DNA binding motifs were identified in the promoter sequences of (a)sRNAs, providing insight in the interplay between lactococcal regulatory RNAs and transcription factors. The presence and lengths of 14 putative sRNAs were experimentally confirmed by differential Northern hybridization, including the abundant RNA 6S that is differentially expressed depending on the available carbon source. For another sRNA, LLMGnc_147, functional analysis revealed that it is involved in carbon uptake and metabolism. L. lactis contains 13% leaderless mRNAs (lmRNAs) that, from an analysis of overrepresentation in GO classes, seem predominantly involved in nucleotide metabolism and DNA/RNA binding. Moreover, an A-rich sequence motif immediately following the start codon was uncovered, which could provide novel insight in the translation of lmRNAs. Altogether, this first experimental genome-wide assessment of the transcriptome landscape of L. lactis and subsequent sRNA studies provide an extensive basis for the investigation of regulatory RNAs in L. lactis and related lactococcal species.

  5. Regulatory issues with multiplicity in drug approval: Principles and controversies in a changing landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benda, Norbert; Brandt, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Recently, new draft guidelines on multiplicity issues in clinical trials have been issued by European Medicine Agency (EMA) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA), respectively. Multiplicity is an issue in clinical trials, if the probability of a false-positive decision is increased by insufficiently accounting for testing multiple hypotheses. We outline the regulatory principles related to multiplicity issues in confirmatory clinical trials intended to support a marketing authorization application in the EU, describe the reasons for an increasing complexity regarding multiple hypotheses testing and discuss the specific multiplicity issues emerging within the regulatory context and being relevant for drug approval.

  6. Comparative analysis of chromatin landscape in regulatory regions of human housekeeping and tissue specific genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasgupta Dipayan

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global regulatory mechanisms involving chromatin assembly and remodelling in the promoter regions of genes is implicated in eukaryotic transcription control especially for genes subjected to spatial and temporal regulation. The potential to utilise global regulatory mechanisms for controlling gene expression might depend upon the architecture of the chromatin in and around the gene. In-silico analysis can yield important insights into this aspect, facilitating comparison of two or more classes of genes comprising of a large number of genes within each group. Results In the present study, we carried out a comparative analysis of chromatin characteristics in terms of the scaffold/matrix attachment regions, nucleosome formation potential and the occurrence of repetitive sequences, in the upstream regulatory regions of housekeeping and tissue specific genes. Our data show that putative scaffold/matrix attachment regions are more abundant and nucleosome formation potential is higher in the 5' regions of tissue specific genes as compared to the housekeeping genes. Conclusion The differences in the chromatin features between the two groups of genes indicate the involvement of chromatin organisation in the control of gene expression. The presence of global regulatory mechanisms mediated through chromatin organisation can decrease the burden of invoking gene specific regulators for maintenance of the active/silenced state of gene expression. This could partially explain the lower number of genes estimated in the human genome.

  7. Genome-wide comparative analysis reveals human-mouse regulatory landscape and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denas, Olgert; Sandstrom, Richard; Cheng, Yong; Beal, Kathryn; Herrero, Javier; Hardison, Ross C; Taylor, James

    2015-02-14

    Because species-specific gene expression is driven by species-specific regulation, understanding the relationship between sequence and function of the regulatory regions in different species will help elucidate how differences among species arise. Despite active experimental and computational research, relationships among sequence, conservation, and function are still poorly understood. We compared transcription factor occupied segments (TFos) for 116 human and 35 mouse TFs in 546 human and 125 mouse cell types and tissues from the Human and the Mouse ENCODE projects. We based the map between human and mouse TFos on a one-to-one nucleotide cross-species mapper, bnMapper, that utilizes whole genome alignments (WGA). Our analysis shows that TFos are under evolutionary constraint, but a substantial portion (25.1% of mouse and 25.85% of human on average) of the TFos does not have a homologous sequence on the other species; this portion varies among cell types and TFs. Furthermore, 47.67% and 57.01% of the homologous TFos sequence shows binding activity on the other species for human and mouse respectively. However, 79.87% and 69.22% is repurposed such that it binds the same TF in different cells or different TFs in the same cells. Remarkably, within the set of repurposed TFos, the corresponding genome regions in the other species are preferred locations of novel TFos. These events suggest exaptation of some functional regulatory sequences into new function. Despite TFos repurposing, we did not find substantial changes in their predicted target genes, suggesting that CRMs buffer evolutionary events allowing little or no change in the TFos - target gene associations. Thus, the small portion of TFos with strictly conserved occupancy underestimates the degree of conservation of regulatory interactions. We mapped regulatory sequences from an extensive number of TFs and cell types between human and mouse using WGA. A comparative analysis of this correspondence unveiled the

  8. Network analysis of transcriptomics expands regulatory landscapes in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure, Ryan S.; Overall, Christopher C.; McDermott, Jason E.; Hill, Eric A.; Markillie, Lye Meng; McCue, Lee Ann; Taylor, Ronald C.; Ludwig, Marcus; Bryant, Donald A.; Beliaev, Alexander S.

    2016-08-27

    Cyanobacterial regulation of gene expression must contend with a genome organization that lacks apparent functional context, as the majority of cellular processes and metabolic pathways are encoded by genes found at disparate locations across the genome. In addition, the fact that coordinated regulation of cyanobacterial cellular machinery takes place with significantly fewer transcription factors, compared to other Eubacteria, suggests the involvement of post-transcriptional mechanisms and regulatory adaptations which are not fully understood. Global transcript abundance from model cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 grown under 42 different conditions was analyzed using context-likelihood of relatedness. The resulting 903-gene network, which was organized into 11 modules, not only allowed classification of cyanobacterial responses to specific environmental variables but provided insight into the transcriptional network topology and led to the expansion of predicted regulons. When used in conjunction with genome sequence, the global transcript abundance allowed identification of putative post-transcriptional changes in expression as well as novel potential targets of both DNA binding proteins and asRNA regulators. The results offer a new perspective into the multi-level regulation that governs cellular adaptations of fast-growing physiologically robust cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 to changing environmental variables. It also extends a methodological knowledge-based framework for studying multi-scale regulatory mechanisms that operate in cyanobacteria. Finally, it provides valuable context for integrating systems-level data to enhance evidence-driven genomic annotation, especially in organisms where traditional context analyses cannot be implemented due to lack of operon-based functional organization.

  9. Canadian and international approaches to regulatory effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lojk, R.

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory effectiveness is an important attribute of any regulator, particularly nuclear regulators. As the nuclear industry has matured, and as the social landscape has changed, so have views on what constitutes regulatory effectiveness. Canada has evolved its regulatory structure and modernized its legislative framework and technical requirements and guidance over time. In addition, Canada continues to collaborate with international agencies, particularly the NEA and the IAEA, to ensure that there is a common understanding of the indicators and key attributes of regulatory effectiveness. This paper discusses Canadian and international views on the subject, including perspectives from other industries. (author)

  10. Pathway-based analysis of genome-wide siRNA screens reveals the regulatory landscape of APP processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Miguel Camargo

    Full Text Available The progressive aggregation of Amyloid-β (Aβ in the brain is a major trait of Alzheimer's Disease (AD. Aβ is produced as a result of proteolytic processing of the β-amyloid precursor protein (APP. Processing of APP is mediated by multiple enzymes, resulting in the production of distinct peptide products: the non-amyloidogenic peptide sAPPα and the amyloidogenic peptides sAPPβ, Aβ40, and Aβ42. Using a pathway-based approach, we analyzed a large-scale siRNA screen that measured the production of different APP proteolytic products. Our analysis identified many of the biological processes/pathways that are known to regulate APP processing and have been implicated in AD pathogenesis, as well as revealing novel regulatory mechanisms. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that some of these processes differentially regulate APP processing, with some mechanisms favouring production of certain peptide species over others. For example, synaptic transmission having a bias towards regulating Aβ40 production over Aβ42 as well as processes involved in insulin and pancreatic biology having a bias for sAPPβ production over sAPPα. In addition, some of the pathways identified as regulators of APP processing contain genes (CLU, BIN1, CR1, PICALM, TREM2, SORL1, MEF2C, DSG2, EPH1A recently implicated with AD through genome wide association studies (GWAS and associated meta-analysis. In addition, we provide supporting evidence and a deeper mechanistic understanding of the role of diabetes in AD. The identification of these processes/pathways, their differential impact on APP processing, and their relationships to each other, provide a comprehensive systems biology view of the "regulatory landscape" of APP.

  11. The HoxD cluster is a dynamic and resilient TAD boundary controlling the segregation of antagonistic regulatory landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Carballo, Eddie; Lopez-Delisle, Lucille; Zhan, Ye; Fabre, Pierre J; Beccari, Leonardo; El-Idrissi, Imane; Huynh, Thi Hanh Nguyen; Ozadam, Hakan; Dekker, Job; Duboule, Denis

    2017-11-15

    The mammalian HoxD cluster lies between two topologically associating domains (TADs) matching distinct enhancer-rich regulatory landscapes. During limb development, the telomeric TAD controls the early transcription of Hoxd genes in forearm cells, whereas the centromeric TAD subsequently regulates more posterior Hoxd genes in digit cells. Therefore, the TAD boundary prevents the terminal Hoxd13 gene from responding to forearm enhancers, thereby allowing proper limb patterning. To assess the nature and function of this CTCF-rich DNA region in embryos , we compared chromatin interaction profiles between proximal and distal limb bud cells isolated from mutant stocks where various parts of this boundary region were removed. The resulting progressive release in boundary effect triggered inter-TAD contacts, favored by the activity of the newly accessed enhancers. However, the boundary was highly resilient, and only a 400-kb deletion, including the whole-gene cluster, was eventually able to merge the neighboring TADs into a single structure. In this unified TAD, both proximal and distal limb enhancers nevertheless continued to work independently over a targeted transgenic reporter construct. We propose that the whole HoxD cluster is a dynamic TAD border and that the exact boundary position varies depending on both the transcriptional status and the developmental context. © 2017 Rodríguez-Carballo et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  12. Conformational Landscape of the p28-Bound Human Proteasome Regulatory Particle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ying; Wu, Jiayi; Dong, Yuanchen; Chen, Shuobing; Sun, Shuangwu; Ma, Yong-Bei; Ouyang, Qi; Finley, Daniel; Kirschner, Marc W; Mao, Youdong

    2017-07-20

    The proteasome holoenzyme is activated by its regulatory particle (RP) consisting of two subcomplexes, the lid and the base. A key event in base assembly is the formation of a heterohexameric ring of AAA-ATPases, which is guided by at least four RP assembly chaperones in mammals: PAAF1, p28/gankyrin, p27/PSMD9, and S5b. Using cryogenic electron microscopy, we analyzed the non-AAA structure of the p28-bound human RP at 4.5 Å resolution and determined seven distinct conformations of the Rpn1-p28-AAA subcomplex within the p28-bound RP at subnanometer resolutions. Remarkably, the p28-bound AAA ring does not form a channel in the free RP and spontaneously samples multiple "open" and "closed" topologies at the Rpt2-Rpt6 and Rpt3-Rpt4 interfaces. Our analysis suggests that p28 assists the proteolytic core particle to select a specific conformation of the ATPase ring for RP engagement and is released in a shoehorn-like fashion in the last step of the chaperone-mediated proteasome assembly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Conserved cis-regulatory regions in a large genomic landscape control SHH and BMP-regulated Gremlin1 expression in mouse limb buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuniga Aimée

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mouse limb bud is a prime model to study the regulatory interactions that control vertebrate organogenesis. Major aspects of limb bud development are controlled by feedback loops that define a self-regulatory signalling system. The SHH/GREM1/AER-FGF feedback loop forms the core of this signalling system that operates between the posterior mesenchymal organiser and the ectodermal signalling centre. The BMP antagonist Gremlin1 (GREM1 is a critical node in this system, whose dynamic expression is controlled by BMP, SHH, and FGF signalling and key to normal progression of limb bud development. Previous analysis identified a distant cis-regulatory landscape within the neighbouring Formin1 (Fmn1 locus that is required for Grem1 expression, reminiscent of the genomic landscapes controlling HoxD and Shh expression in limb buds. Results Three highly conserved regions (HMCO1-3 were identified within the previously defined critical genomic region and tested for their ability to regulate Grem1 expression in mouse limb buds. Using a combination of BAC and conventional transgenic approaches, a 9 kb region located ~70 kb downstream of the Grem1 transcription unit was identified. This region, termed Grem1 Regulatory Sequence 1 (GRS1, is able to recapitulate major aspects of Grem1 expression, as it drives expression of a LacZ reporter into the posterior and, to a lesser extent, in the distal-anterior mesenchyme. Crossing the GRS1 transgene into embryos with alterations in the SHH and BMP pathways established that GRS1 depends on SHH and is modulated by BMP signalling, i.e. integrates inputs from these pathways. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed interaction of endogenous GLI3 proteins with the core cis-regulatory elements in the GRS1 region. As GLI3 is a mediator of SHH signal transduction, these results indicated that SHH directly controls Grem1 expression through the GRS1 region. Finally, all cis-regulatory regions within the Grem1

  14. Nitrate and Moisture Content of Broad Permafrost Landscape Features in the Barrow Peninsula: Predicting Evolving NO3 Concentrations in a Changing Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, C. A.; Heikoop, J. M.; Newman, B. D.; Wales, N. A.; McCaully, R. E.; Wilson, C. J.; Wullschleger, S.

    2017-12-01

    The geochemical evolution of Arctic regions as permafrost degrades, significantly impacts nutrient availability. The release of nitrogen compounds from permafrost degradation fertilizes both microbial decomposition and plant productivity. Arctic warming promotes permafrost degradation, causing geomorphic and hydrologic transitions that have the potential to convert saturated zones to unsaturated zones and subsequently alter the nitrate production capacity of permafrost regions. Changes in Nitrate (NO3-) content associated with shifting moisture regimes are a primary factor determining Arctic fertilization and subsequent primary productivity, and have direct feedbacks to carbon cycling. We have documented a broad survey of co-located soil moisture and nitrate concentration measurements in shallow active layer regions across a variety of topographic features in the expansive continuous permafrost region encompassing the Barrow Peninsula of Alaska. Topographic features of interest are slightly higher relative to surrounding landscapes with drier soils and elevated nitrate, including the rims of low centered polygons, the centers of flat and high centered polygons, the rims of young, old and ancient drain thaw lake basins and drainage slopes that exist across the landscape. With this information, we model the nitrate inventory of the Barrow Peninsula using multiple geospatial approaches to estimate total area cover by unsaturated features of interest and further predict how various drying scenarios increase the magnitude of nitrate produced in degrading permafrost regions across the Arctic. This work is supported by the US Department of Energy Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment, NGEE-Arctic.

  15. The evolving regulation of uranium recovery operations in the United States of America: Innovative approaches are necessary for cost effective regulatory oversight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, A.J.; Lehrenbaum, W.U.; Lashway, D.C.

    2002-01-01

    The US domestic uranium industry is at a crossroads. Historic low prices for uranium, combined with stringent and often irrational regulatory requirements, pose a very real threat to the industry's continued viability. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has taken a number of innovative steps to reform and rationalize its regulatory programme. However, if the domestic uranium recovery industry is to remain viable, additional steps toward innovation and reform are needed, and effective implementation of reforms adopted by the Commission is essential. (author)

  16. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in Aesthetic Surgery: A Mixed Methods Evaluation of the Current Clinical Trial, Intellectual Property, and Regulatory Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Zeeshaan; Halioua-Haubold, Celine-Lea; Roberts, Mackenna; Urso-Baiarda, Fulvio; Branford, Oliver A; Brindley, David A; Davies, Benjamin M; Pettitt, David

    2018-02-17

    Adipose tissue, which can be readily harvested via a number of liposuction techniques, offers an easily accessible and abundant source of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). Consequently, ASCs have become an increasingly popular reconstructive option and a novel means of aesthetic soft tissue augmentation. This paper examines recent advances in the aesthetic surgery field, extending beyond traditional review formats to incorporate a comprehensive analysis of current clinical trials, adoption status, and the commercialization pathway. Keyword searches were carried out on clinical trial databases to search for trials using ASCs for aesthetic indications. An intellectual property landscape was created using commercial software (Thomson Reuters Thomson Innovation, New York, NY). Analysis of who is claiming what in respect of ASC use in aesthetic surgery for commercial purposes was analyzed by reviewing the patent landscape in relation to these techniques. Key international regulatory guidelines were also summarized. Completed clinical trials lacked robust controls, employed small sample sizes, and lacked long-term follow-up data. Ongoing clinical trials still do not address such issues. In recent years, claims to intellectual property ownership have increased in the "aesthetic stem cell" domain, reflecting commercial interest in the area. However, significant translational barriers remain including regulatory challenges and ethical considerations. Further rigorous randomized controlled trials are required to delineate long-term clinical efficacy and safety. Providers should consider the introduction of patient reported outcome metrics to facilitate clinical adoption. Robust regulatory and ethical policies concerning stem cells and aesthetic surgery should be devised to discourage further growth of "stem cell tourism." © 2017 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. Time-resolved transcriptome and proteome landscape of human regulatory T cell (Treg) differentiation reveals novel regulators of FOXP3

    KAUST Repository

    Schmidt, Angelika; Marabita, Francesco; Kiani, Narsis A.; Gross, Catharina C.; Johansson, Henrik J.; É liá s, Szabolcs; Rautio, Sini; Eriksson, Matilda; Fernandes, Sunjay Jude; Silberberg, Gilad; Ullah, Ubaid; Bhatia, Urvashi; Lä hdesmä ki, Harri; Lehtiö , Janne; Gomez-Cabrero, David; Wiendl, Heinz; Lahesmaa, Riitta; Tegner, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    BackgroundRegulatory T cells (Tregs) expressing the transcription factor FOXP3 are crucial mediators of self-tolerance, preventing autoimmune diseases but possibly hampering tumor rejection. Clinical manipulation of Tregs is of great interest

  18. Criticality is an emergent property of genetic networks that exhibit evolvability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Torres-Sosa

    Full Text Available Accumulating experimental evidence suggests that the gene regulatory networks of living organisms operate in the critical phase, namely, at the transition between ordered and chaotic dynamics. Such critical dynamics of the network permits the coexistence of robustness and flexibility which are necessary to ensure homeostatic stability (of a given phenotype while allowing for switching between multiple phenotypes (network states as occurs in development and in response to environmental change. However, the mechanisms through which genetic networks evolve such critical behavior have remained elusive. Here we present an evolutionary model in which criticality naturally emerges from the need to balance between the two essential components of evolvability: phenotype conservation and phenotype innovation under mutations. We simulated the Darwinian evolution of random Boolean networks that mutate gene regulatory interactions and grow by gene duplication. The mutating networks were subjected to selection for networks that both (i preserve all the already acquired phenotypes (dynamical attractor states and (ii generate new ones. Our results show that this interplay between extending the phenotypic landscape (innovation while conserving the existing phenotypes (conservation suffices to cause the evolution of all the networks in a population towards criticality. Furthermore, the networks produced by this evolutionary process exhibit structures with hubs (global regulators similar to the observed topology of real gene regulatory networks. Thus, dynamical criticality and certain elementary topological properties of gene regulatory networks can emerge as a byproduct of the evolvability of the phenotypic landscape.

  19. Transcriptome landscape of Lactococcus lactis reveals many novel RNAs including a small regulatory RNA involved in carbon uptake and metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meulen, Sjoerd B; de Jong, Anne; Kok, Jan

    2016-01-01

    RNA sequencing has revolutionized genome-wide transcriptome analyses, and the identification of non-coding regulatory RNAs in bacteria has thus increased concurrently. Here we reveal the transcriptome map of the lactic acid bacterial paradigm Lactococcus lactis MG1363 by employing differential RNA

  20. EVOLVE 2014 International Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Tantar, Emilia; Sun, Jian-Qiao; Zhang, Wei; Ding, Qian; Schütze, Oliver; Emmerich, Michael; Legrand, Pierrick; Moral, Pierre; Coello, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This volume encloses research articles that were presented at the EVOLVE 2014 International Conference in Beijing, China, July 1–4, 2014.The book gathers contributions that emerged from the conference tracks, ranging from probability to set oriented numerics and evolutionary computation; all complemented by the bridging purpose of the conference, e.g. Complex Networks and Landscape Analysis, or by the more application oriented perspective. The novelty of the volume, when considering the EVOLVE series, comes from targeting also the practitioner’s view. This is supported by the Machine Learning Applied to Networks and Practical Aspects of Evolutionary Algorithms tracks, providing surveys on new application areas, as in the networking area and useful insights in the development of evolutionary techniques, from a practitioner’s perspective. Complementary to these directions, the conference tracks supporting the volume, follow on the individual advancements of the subareas constituting the scope of the confe...

  1. Environmental challenges and opportunities of the evolving North American electricity market : European electricity generating facilities: an overview of European regulatory requirements and standardization efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, L.

    2002-06-01

    Several factors are affecting power generating facilities, such as the opening of both electricity and gas markets, and the pressure applied on generators and governments to ensure a steady energy supply for consumers. An additional factor is the pressure for the closing of nuclear power facilities. European siting and emissions requirements for coal-fired and natural gas generating facilities were presented in this background paper. In addition, the author provided an overview of the standardization process in place in Europe. The European Union and its functioning were briefly described, as well as a listing of relevant organizations. The current trends were examined. The document first introduced the European Union, and the next section dealt with Regulatory regime: the internal energy market. The third section examined the issue of Regulatory regime: generation and environmental regulations. Section four presented environmental management systems, followed by a section on standardization. Section six discussed European organizations involved in electricity issues, while the following section dealt with European commission programs. The last section briefly looked at the trends in the electricity sector, broaching topics such as compliance, electricity generation, and emissions trading. 52 refs., 2 tabs

  2. A DNA-binding-site landscape and regulatory network analysis for NAC transcription factors in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindemose, Søren; Jensen, Michael Krogh; de Velde, Jan Van

    2014-01-01

    regulatory networks of 12 NAC transcription factors. Our data offer specific single-base resolution fingerprints for most TFs studied and indicate that NAC DNA-binding specificities might be predicted from their DNA-binding domain's sequence. The developed methodology, including the application......Target gene identification for transcription factors is a prerequisite for the systems wide understanding of organismal behaviour. NAM-ATAF1/2-CUC2 (NAC) transcription factors are amongst the largest transcription factor families in plants, yet limited data exist from unbiased approaches to resolve...... the DNA-binding preferences of individual members. Here, we present a TF-target gene identification workflow based on the integration of novel protein binding microarray data with gene expression and multi-species promoter sequence conservation to identify the DNA-binding specificities and the gene...

  3. Maintaining evolvability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, James F

    2008-12-01

    Although molecular methods, such as QTL mapping, have revealed a number of loci with large effects, it is still likely that the bulk of quantitative variability is due to multiple factors, each with small effect. Typically, these have a large additive component. Conventional wisdom argues that selection, natural or artificial, uses up additive variance and thus depletes its supply. Over time, the variance should be reduced, and at equilibrium be near zero. This is especially expected for fitness and traits highly correlated with it. Yet, populations typically have a great deal of additive variance, and do not seem to run out of genetic variability even after many generations of directional selection. Long-term selection experiments show that populations continue to retain seemingly undiminished additive variance despite large changes in the mean value. I propose that there are several reasons for this. (i) The environment is continually changing so that what was formerly most fit no longer is. (ii) There is an input of genetic variance from mutation, and sometimes from migration. (iii) As intermediate-frequency alleles increase in frequency towards one, producing less variance (as p --> 1, p(1 - p) --> 0), others that were originally near zero become more common and increase the variance. Thus, a roughly constant variance is maintained. (iv) There is always selection for fitness and for characters closely related to it. To the extent that the trait is heritable, later generations inherit a disproportionate number of genes acting additively on the trait, thus increasing genetic variance. For these reasons a selected population retains its ability to evolve. Of course, genes with large effect are also important. Conspicuous examples are the small number of loci that changed teosinte to maize, and major phylogenetic changes in the animal kingdom. The relative importance of these along with duplications, chromosome rearrangements, horizontal transmission and polyploidy

  4. Clinical Development and Commercialization of Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products in the European Union: How Are the Product Pipeline and Regulatory Framework Evolving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boráň, Tomáš; Menezes-Ferreira, Margarida; Reischl, Ilona; Celis, Patrick; Ferry, Nicolas; Gänsbacher, Bernd; Krafft, Hartmut; Lipucci di Paola, Michele; Sladowski, Dariusz; Salmikangas, Paula

    2017-09-01

    The research and development of advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) has been active in Europe and worldwide during recent years. Yet, the number of licensed products remains low. The main expected legal change in the near future in the European Union (EU) concerns the regulation on clinical trials (536/2014), which will come into force in 2018. With this new framework, a more harmonized and swift process for approval of clinical trials is anticipated, which is expected to support the entry of new innovations into the EU market. A survey on ATMPs in clinical trials during 2010-2015 in the EU was conducted in order to study the trends of ATMP development since the earlier survey published in 2012. According to the results, the number of clinical trials using ATMPs is slowly increasing in the EU. Yet, the focus is still in early development, and the projects are mainly carried out by small and medium-sized enterprises, academia, and hospitals. Oncology is the main area of clinical development. Yet, the balance between cell-based products and gene therapy medicinal products in this area may be changing in the future due to the new T-cell technologies. Many limitations and challenges are identified for ATMP development, requiring proportionate regulatory requirements. On the other hand, for such a novel field, the developers should be active in considering possible constraints and actively engage with authorities to look for solutions. This article provides up to-date information on forthcoming regulatory improvements and discusses the main challenges hampering the commercialization of ATMPs in the EU.

  5. Regulatory Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes the term “safety logics” to understand attempts within the European Union (EU) to harmonize member state legislation to ensure a safe and stable supply of human biological material for transplants and transfusions. With safety logics, I refer to assemblages of discourses, le...... they arise. In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape....

  6. Time-resolved transcriptome and proteome landscape of human regulatory T cell (Treg) differentiation reveals novel regulators of FOXP3

    KAUST Repository

    Schmidt, Angelika

    2018-04-27

    BackgroundRegulatory T cells (Tregs) expressing the transcription factor FOXP3 are crucial mediators of self-tolerance, preventing autoimmune diseases but possibly hampering tumor rejection. Clinical manipulation of Tregs is of great interest, and first-in-man trials of Treg transfer have achieved promising outcomes. Yet, the mechanisms governing induced Treg (iTreg) differentiation and the regulation of FOXP3 are incompletely understood.ResultsTo gain a comprehensive and unbiased molecular understanding of FOXP3 induction, we performed time-series RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and proteomics profiling on the same samples during human iTreg differentiation. To enable the broad analysis of universal FOXP3-inducing pathways, we used five differentiation protocols in parallel. Integrative analysis of the transcriptome and proteome confirmed involvement of specific molecular processes, as well as overlap of a novel iTreg subnetwork with known Treg regulators and autoimmunity-associated genes. Importantly, we propose 37 novel molecules putatively involved in iTreg differentiation. Their relevance was validated by a targeted shRNA screen confirming a functional role in FOXP3 induction, discriminant analyses classifying iTregs accordingly, and comparable expression in an independent novel iTreg RNA-Seq dataset.ConclusionThe data generated by this novel approach facilitates understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying iTreg generation as well as of the concomitant changes in the transcriptome and proteome. Our results provide a reference map exploitable for future discovery of markers and drug candidates governing control of Tregs, which has important implications for the treatment of cancer, autoimmune, and inflammatory diseases.

  7. Regulatory landscape of AGE-RAGE-oxidative stress axis and its modulation by PPARγ activation in high fructose diet-induced metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannizzaro, Luca; Rossoni, Giuseppe; Savi, Federica; Altomare, Alessandra; Marinello, Cristina; Saethang, Thammakorn; Carini, Marina; Payne, D Michael; Pisitkun, Trairak; Aldini, Giancarlo; Leelahavanichkul, Asada

    2017-01-01

    The AGE-RAGE-oxidative stress (AROS) axis is involved in the onset and progression of metabolic syndrome induced by a high-fructose diet (HFD). PPARγ activation is known to modulate metabolic syndrome; however a systems-level investigation looking at the protective effects of PPARγ activation as related to the AROS axis has not been performed. The aim of this work is to simultaneously characterize multiple molecular parameters within the AROS axis, using samples taken from different body fluids and tissues of a rat model of HFD-induced metabolic syndrome, in the presence or absence of a PPARγ agonist, Rosiglitazone (RGZ). Rats were fed with 60% HFD for the first half of the treatment duration (21 days) then continued with either HFD alone or HFD plus RGZ for the second half. Rats receiving HFD alone showed metabolic syndrome manifestations including hypertension, dyslipidemia, increased glucose levels and insulin resistance, as well as abnormal kidney and inflammatory parameters. Systolic blood pressure, plasma triglyceride and glucose levels, plasma creatinine, and albuminuria were significantly improved in the presence of RGZ. The following molecular parameters of the AROS axis were significantly upregulated in our rat model: carboxymethyl lysine (CML) in urine and liver; carboxyethyl lysine (CEL) in urine; advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in plasma; receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in liver and kidney; advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) in plasma; and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) in plasma, liver, and kidney. Conversely, with RGZ administration, the upregulation of AOPP and AGEs in plasma, CML and CEL in urine, RAGE in liver as well as HNE in plasma and liver was significantly counteracted/prevented. Our data demonstrate (i) the systems-level regulatory landscape of HFD-induced metabolic syndrome involving multiple molecular parameters, including HNE, AGEs and their receptor RAGE, and (ii) attenuation of metabolic syndrome by

  8. Statement on the suitability of the BEEHAVE model for its potential use in a regulatory context and for the risk assessment of multiple stressors in honeybees at the landscape level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA PPR Panel (EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues); Topping, Christopher John

    2015-01-01

    The Panel has interpreted the Terms of Reference by carrying out a stepwise evaluation of the BEEHAVE simulation model with a view to assessing its suitability for use in a regulatory context and for risk assessment of multiple stressors at the landscape level. The EFSA opinion on good modelling...... practice was used to evaluate the model and its documentation systematically. The overall conclusion is that BEEHAVE performs well in modelling honeybee colony dynamics, and the supporting documentation is generally good but does not fully meet the criteria of the good modelling opinion. BEEHAVE is not yet...... of the effects of interactions of pesticides with multiple stressors. BEEHAVE currently uses a very simple representation of a landscape and this should be extended. There is only one environmental scenario in the present version of BEEHAVE (European central zone—weather scenarios for Germany and the UK...

  9. Modelling Geomorphic Systems: Landscape Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Valters, Declan

    2016-01-01

    Landscape evolution models (LEMs) present the geomorphologist with a means of investigating how landscapes evolve in response to external forcings, such as climate and tectonics, as well as internal process laws. LEMs typically incorporate a range of different geomorphic transport laws integrated in a way that simulates the evolution of a 3D terrain surface forward through time. The strengths of LEMs as research tools lie in their ability to rapidly test many different hypotheses of landscape...

  10. Evolving chromosomes and gene regulatory networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aswin

    Genes under H NS control can be. (a) regulated by H NS. (b) regulated by H NS and StpA. Because backup by StpA is partial. Page 19. Gene expression level. H NS regulated xenogenes. Other genes. Page 20 ... recollect: H&NS silences highl transcribable genes. Gene expression level unilateral. Other genes epistatic ...

  11. Synthesis of the Danish Experience with Combating Nutrient Pollution of Surface Waters: The Old Regulatory Approach and a New Targeted Approach Utilising the Natural Attenuation Capacity in Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronvang, Brian; Windolf, Jørgen; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte; Tornbjerg, Henrik; Højberg, Anker; Rieman, Bo

    2016-04-01

    Excess nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) emissions to surface waters are a high priority environmental problem worldwide for protection of water resources in times of population growth and climate change. As clean water is a scarce resource the struggle for reducing nutrient emissions are an ongoing issue for many countries and regions. Since the mid1980s a wide range of national regulatory general measures have been implemented to reduce land based nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loadings of the Danish aquatic environment. These measures have addressed both point source emissions and emissions from diffuse sources especially from agricultural production. Following nearly 4 decades of combating nutrient pollution our surface waters such as lakes and estuaries are only slowly responding on the 50% reduction in N and 56% reduction in P. Therefore, the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive in Danish surface waters still call for further reductions of N and P loadings. Introduction of a new paradigm of targeted implemented measures was the proposed outcome of a Commission on Nature and Agriculture established by the Danish Government in 2013. Their White Book points to the need of increased growth and better environment through more targeted and efficient regulation using advanced technological mitigation methods that are implemented intelligently according to the local natural attenuation capacity for nutrients in the landscape. As a follow up a national consensus model for N was established chaining existing leaching, 3D groundwater and surface water models. The new model concept enables a calculation of the N dynamics and attenuation capacity within a scale of 15 km2. Moreover, several research projects have been conducted to investigate the effect of a suite of targeted mitigation measures such as restored natural wetlands, constructed wetlands, controlled drainage and intelligent buffer zones. The outcome of six Danish management plans for nutrient load

  12. RevSex duplication-induced and sex-related differences in the SOX9 regulatory region chromatin landscape in human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lybæk, Helle; de Bruijn, Diederik; den Engelsman-van Dijk, Anke H A; Vanichkina, Darya; Nepal, Chirag; Brendehaug, Atle; Houge, Gunnar

    2014-03-01

    It was recently shown that duplications of the RevSex element, located 0.5 Mb upstream of SOX9, cause XX-disorder of sex development (DSD), and that deletions cause XY-DSD. To explore how a 148 kb RevSex duplication could have turned on gonadal SOX9 expression in the absence of SRY in an XX-male, we examined the chromatin landscape in primary skin fibroblast cultures from the index, his RevSex duplication-carrier father and six controls. The ENCODE project supports the notion that chromatin state maps show overlap between different cell types, i.e., that our study of fibroblasts could be of biological relevance. We examined the SOX9 regulatory region by high-resolution ChIP-on-chip experiments (a kind of "chromatin-CGH") and DNA methylation investigations. The RevSex duplication was associated with chromatin changes predicting better accessibility of the SRY-responsive TESCO enhancer region 14-15 kb upstream of SOX9. Four kb downstream of the TESCO evolutionary conserved region, a peak of the enhancer/promoter-associated H3K4me3 mark was found together with a major dip of the repressive H3K9me3 chromatin mark. Similar differences were also found when three control males were compared with three control females. A marked male/female difference was a more open chromatin signature in males starting ~400 kb upstream of SOX9 and increasing toward the SOX9 promoter. In the RevSex duplication-carrier father, two positions of DNA hypomethylation were also found, one corresponding to the H3K4me3 peak mentioned above. Our results suggest that the RevSex duplication could operate by inducing long-range epigenetic changes. Furthermore, the differences in chromatin state maps between males and females suggest that the Y chromosome or X chromosome dosage may affect chromatin conformation, i.e., that sex-dependent gene regulation may take place by chromatin modification.

  13. Europe: the paradox of landscape change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der Theo

    2017-01-01

    This thesis explores the processes of change in European rural landscapes. Landscapes have evolved over millennia as a result of human influence on the physical environment. Europe has a wide variety of landscapes that can alter within a relatively short distance, and which often form part of the

  14. Landscape Studio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Lundsgaard

    2017-01-01

    Landscape studio documents is the biography of the method 'design conversation' and contributes to the way we work with landscapes. The blog communicates renewed landscape didactics and leads to the innovation of design practices.......Landscape studio documents is the biography of the method 'design conversation' and contributes to the way we work with landscapes. The blog communicates renewed landscape didactics and leads to the innovation of design practices....

  15. Europe: the paradox of landscape change

    OpenAIRE

    Sluis, van der, Theo

    2017-01-01

    This thesis explores the processes of change in European rural landscapes. Landscapes have evolved over millennia as a result of human influence on the physical environment. Europe has a wide variety of landscapes that can alter within a relatively short distance, and which often form part of the national cultural identity of a European country. Central to this thesis, however, are insights into the processes of landscape change. In this context, the overall objective of this thesis is: To as...

  16. Evolvable synthetic neural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An evolvable synthetic neural system includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to at least one neural basis function. Each neural basis function includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to a heuristic neural system to perform high-level functions and an autonomic neural system to perform low-level functions. In some embodiments, the evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy.

  17. UKAEA'S evolving contract philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicol, R. D.

    2003-01-01

    The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) has gone through fundamental change over the last ten years. At the heart of this change has been UKAEA's relationship with the contracting and supply market. This paper describes the way in which UKAEA actively developed the market to support the decommissioning programme, and how the approach to contracting has evolved as external pressures and demands have changed. UKAEA's pro-active approach to industry has greatly assisted the development of a healthy, competitive market for services supporting decommissioning in the UK. There have been difficult changes and many challenges along the way, and some retrenchment was necessary to meet regulatory requirements. Nevertheless, UKAEA has sustained a high level of competition - now measured in terms of competed spend as a proportion of competable spend - with annual out-turns consistently over 80%. The prime responsibility for market development will pass to the new Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) in 2005, as the owner, on behalf of the Government, of the UK's civil nuclear liabilities. The preparatory work for the NDA indicates that the principles established by UKAEA will be carried forward. (author)

  18. Bioattractors: dynamical systems theory and the evolution of regulatory processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Johannes; Monk, Nick

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we illustrate how dynamical systems theory can provide a unifying conceptual framework for evolution of biological regulatory systems. Our argument is that the genotype–phenotype map can be characterized by the phase portrait of the underlying regulatory process. The features of this portrait – such as attractors with associated basins and their bifurcations – define the regulatory and evolutionary potential of a system. We show how the geometric analysis of phase space connects Waddington's epigenetic landscape to recent computational approaches for the study of robustness and evolvability in network evolution. We discuss how the geometry of phase space determines the probability of possible phenotypic transitions. Finally, we demonstrate how the active, self-organizing role of the environment in phenotypic evolution can be understood in terms of dynamical systems concepts. This approach yields mechanistic explanations that go beyond insights based on the simulation of evolving regulatory networks alone. Its predictions can now be tested by studying specific, experimentally tractable regulatory systems using the tools of modern systems biology. A systematic exploration of such systems will enable us to understand better the nature and origin of the phenotypic variability, which provides the substrate for evolution by natural selection. PMID:24882812

  19. Evolved Minimal Frustration in Multifunctional Biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, Konstantin; Wales, David J

    2018-05-25

    Protein folding is often viewed in terms of a funnelled potential or free energy landscape. A variety of experiments now indicate the existence of multifunnel landscapes, associated with multifunctional biomolecules. Here, we present evidence that these systems have evolved to exhibit the minimal number of funnels required to fulfil their cellular functions, suggesting an extension to the principle of minimum frustration. We find that minimal disruptive mutations result in additional funnels, and the associated structural ensembles become more diverse. The same trends are observed in an atomic cluster. These observations suggest guidelines for rational design of engineered multifunctional biomolecules.

  20. Landscape Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar

    2017-01-01

    Landscape ecology is an interdisciplinary field of research and practice that deals with the mutual association between the spatial configuration and ecological functioning of landscapes, exploring and describing processes involved in the differentiation of spaces within landscapes......, and the ecological significance of the patterns which are generated by such processes. In landscape ecology, perspectives drawn from existing academic disciplines are integrated based on a common, spatially explicit mode of analysis developed from classical holistic geography, emphasizing spatial and landscape...... pattern analysis and ecological interaction of land units. The landscape is seen as a holon: an assemblage of interrelated phenomena, both cultural and biophysical, that together form a complex whole. Enduring challenges to landscape ecology include the need to develop a systematic approach able...

  1. Multi-process Late Quaternary landscape evolution modelling reveals lags in climate response over small spatial scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temme, A.J.A.M.; Veldkamp, A.

    2009-01-01

    Landscapes evolve in complex, non-linear ways over Quaternary timespans. Integrated geomorphological field studies usually yield plausible hypotheses about timing and impact of process activity. Landscape Evolution Models (LEMs) have the potential to test and falsify these landscape evolution

  2. Dynamic monitoring of landscape patterns and ecological processes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Landscape patterns and ecological processes have been in long-term research focus in the field of landscape ecology, but how to measure their quantitative relations is still open. This work chooses the Hulunbeier grassland as the study area where ecosystem shows high vulnerability, frequent evolvement of landscape ...

  3. 'Landscape Mirror' & 'Feed the Wind' : Teaching Landscape Architecture on Site at Oerol Festival in the Wadden Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jauslin, D.T.; Bobbink, I.

    2012-01-01

    In the projects 'Landscape Mirror' 2011 and 'Feed the Wind' 2012 students of the Master of Landscape Architecture of the TU Delft have made an interactive project that evolved over the course of Oerol, a unique yearly recurring festival on the Wadden-Sea island Terschelling for landscape theatre &

  4. Landscape Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar

    2017-01-01

    , and the ecological significance of the patterns which are generated by such processes. In landscape ecology, perspectives drawn from existing academic disciplines are integrated based on a common, spatially explicit mode of analysis developed from classical holistic geography, emphasizing spatial and landscape...... to translate positivist readings of the environment and hermeneutical perspectives on socioecological interaction into a common framework or terminology....

  5. Identifying future research needs in landscape genetics: Where to from here?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niko Balkenhol; Felix Gugerli; Sam A. Cushman; Lisette P. Waits; Aurelie Coulon; J. W. Arntzen; Rolf Holderegger; Helene H. Wagner

    2009-01-01

    Landscape genetics is an emerging interdisciplinary field that combines methods and concepts from population genetics, landscape ecology, and spatial statistics. The interest in landscape genetics is steadily increasing, and the field is evolving rapidly. We here outline four major challenges for future landscape genetic research that were identified during an...

  6. Industrious Landscaping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brichet, Nathalia Sofie; Hastrup, Frida

    2018-01-01

    This article has a twofold ambition. It offers a history of landscaping at Søby brown coal beds—a former mining site in western Denmark—and a methodological discussion of how to write such a study. Exploring this specific industrial landscape through a series of projects that have made different...... natural resources appear, we show that even what is recognized as resources shifts over time according to radically different and unpredictable agendas. This indicates that the Søby landscape is fundamentally volatile, as its resourcefulness has been seen interchangeably to shift between the brown coal...... business, inexpensive estates for practically savvy people, pasture for grazing, and recreational forest, among other things. We discuss these rifts in landscape history, motivated by what we refer to as industriousness, to show that, at sites such as Søby, both natural resources and historical...

  7. Electromagnetic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Jørgensen, Stina Marie Hasse

    2015-01-01

    Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015.......Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015....

  8. Nordic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortshøj, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    This Box Set NORDIC LANDSCAPE presents Nordic Territories, a project by Rasmus Hjortshøj, exploring the man-made landscapes of the coastal territories and the entanglement of society and nature in times where it is no longer merely mankind subjected to nature, but where nature is equally being...... territories is not only their transient nature, but also the warm currents of the Gulf Stream making these northern shorelines habitable for human settlements....

  9. Economies Evolve by Energy Dispersal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Salthe

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic activity can be regarded as an evolutionary process governed by the 2nd law of thermodynamics. The universal law, when formulated locally as an equation of motion, reveals that a growing economy develops functional machinery and organizes hierarchically in such a way as to tend to equalize energy density differences within the economy and in respect to the surroundings it is open to. Diverse economic activities result in flows of energy that will preferentially channel along the most steeply descending paths, leveling a non-Euclidean free energy landscape. This principle of 'maximal energy dispersal‘, equivalent to the maximal rate of entropy production, gives rise to economic laws and regularities. The law of diminishing returns follows from the diminishing free energy while the relation between supply and demand displays a quest for a balance among interdependent energy densities. Economic evolution is dissipative motion where the driving forces and energy flows are inseparable from each other. When there are multiple degrees of freedom, economic growth and decline are inherently impossible to forecast in detail. Namely, trajectories of an evolving economy are non-integrable, i.e. unpredictable in detail because a decision by a player will affect also future decisions of other players. We propose that decision making is ultimately about choosing from various actions those that would reduce most effectively subjectively perceived energy gradients.

  10. Changing Landscapes, Changing Landscape's Story

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lapka, Miloslav; Cudlínová, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 3 (2003), s. 323-328 ISSN 0142-6397. [Symposium on Sustainable Landscapes in an Enlarged Europe. Nové Hrady, 12.09.2001-14.09.2001] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 530 Grant - others:GA-(XE) QLK5-CT-2000-01211-SPRITE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : Landscape stability * narrative approach * socio-economic typology Subject RIV: DO - Wilderness Conservation

  11. Evolving expectations from international organisations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Lopez, C.

    2008-01-01

    The author stated that implementation of the geological disposal concept requires a strategy that provides national decision makers with sufficient confidence in the level of long-term safety and protection ultimately achieved. The concept of protection against harm has a broader meaning than radiological protection in terms of risk and dose. It includes the protection of the environment and socio-economic interests of communities. She recognised that a number of countries have established regulatory criteria already, and others are now discussing what constitutes a proper regulatory test and suitable time frame for judging the safety of long-term disposal. Each regulatory programme seeks to define reasonable tests of repository performance, using protection criteria and safety approaches consistent with the culture, values and expectations of the citizens of the country concerned. This means that there are differences in how protection and safety are addressed in national approaches to regulation and in the bases used for that. However, as was recognised in the Cordoba Workshop, it would be important to reach a minimum level of consistency and be able to explain the differences. C. Ruiz-Lopez presented an overview of the development of international guidance from ICRP, IAEA and NEA from the Cordoba workshop up to now, and positions of independent National Advisory Bodies. The evolution of these guidelines over time demonstrates an evolving understanding of long-term implications, with the recognition that dose and risk constraints should not be seen as measures of detriment beyond a few hundred years, the emphasis on sound engineering practices, and the introduction of new concepts and approaches which take into account social and economical aspects (e.g. constrained optimisation, BAT, managerial principles). In its new recommendations, ICRP (draft 2006) recognizes. in particular, that decision making processes may depend on other societal concerns and considers

  12. Mentoring: An Evolving Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Michelle; Florczak, Kristine L

    2017-04-01

    The column concerns itself with mentoring as an evolving relationship between mentor and mentee. The collegiate mentoring model, the transformational transcendence model, and the humanbecoming mentoring model are considered in light of a dialogue with mentors at a Midwest university and conclusions are drawn.

  13. Methods Evolved by Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montessori, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Montessori's idea of the child's nature and the teacher's perceptiveness begins with amazing simplicity, and when she speaks of "methods evolved," she is unveiling a methodological system for observation. She begins with the early childhood explosion into writing, which is a familiar child phenomenon that Montessori has written about…

  14. The evolving radiology landscape: the importance of effective leadership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boland, Giles W.L.; Guimaraes, Alexander S.; Mueller, Peter R.

    2009-01-01

    Advances in technology and imaging techniques have propelled radiology into the centre of diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. However, all this success has come at a price, with radiology departments persistently struggling to keep up with increasing demand. In response, radiologists in many countries are giving up an increasing proportion of their traditional workload, often driven by teleradiology, causing them to become less visible within their organizations. As such, radiologists now risk being viewed as commodities by their peers. The failure to meet the increasing stakeholder expectations is, at least in part, due to lack of radiology leadership. While the drivers for the radiology profession and the organizational structures for radiologists vary from country to country, this article will discuss the characteristics of good leadership and how these can be used to ensure radiologists remain centre stage in the provision of high-quality clinical care in any healthcare environment. (orig.)

  15. The evolving radiology landscape: the importance of effective leadership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boland, Giles W.L.; Guimaraes, Alexander S.; Mueller, Peter R. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Advances in technology and imaging techniques have propelled radiology into the centre of diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. However, all this success has come at a price, with radiology departments persistently struggling to keep up with increasing demand. In response, radiologists in many countries are giving up an increasing proportion of their traditional workload, often driven by teleradiology, causing them to become less visible within their organizations. As such, radiologists now risk being viewed as commodities by their peers. The failure to meet the increasing stakeholder expectations is, at least in part, due to lack of radiology leadership. While the drivers for the radiology profession and the organizational structures for radiologists vary from country to country, this article will discuss the characteristics of good leadership and how these can be used to ensure radiologists remain centre stage in the provision of high-quality clinical care in any healthcare environment. (orig.)

  16. Evolving Oxygen Landscape of the Early Atmosphere and Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, T. W.; Reinhard, C. T.; Planavsky, N. J.

    2013-12-01

    The past decade has witnessed remarkable advances in our understanding of oxygen on the early Earth, and a new framework, the topic of this presentation, is now in place to address the controls on spatiotemporal distributions of oxygen and their potential relationships to deep-Earth processes. Recent challenges to the Archean biomarker record have put an added burden on inorganic geochemistry to fingerprint and quantify the early production, accumulation, and variation of biospheric oxygen. Fortunately, a wide variety of techniques now point convincingly to photosynthetic oxygen production and dynamic accumulation well before the canonical Great Oxidation Event (GOE). Recent modeling of sulfur recycling over this interval allows for transient oxygen accumulation in the atmosphere without the disappearance of non-mass-dependent (NMD) sulfur isotope anomalies from the stratigraphic record and further allows for persistent accumulation in the atmosphere well before the permanent disappearance of NMD signals. This recent work suggests that the initial rise of oxygen may have occurred in fits and starts rather than a single step, and that once permanently present in the atmosphere, oxygen likely rose to high levels and then plummeted, in phase with the Paleoproterozoic Lomagundi positive carbon isotope excursion. More than a billion years of oxygen-free conditions in the deep ocean followed and set a challenging course for life, including limited abundances and diversity of eukaryotic organisms. Despite this widespread anoxia, sulfidic (euxinic) conditions were likely limited to productive ocean margins. Nevertheless, euxinia was sufficiently widespread to impact redox-dependent nutrient relationships, particularly the availability of bioessential trace metals critical in the nitrogen cycle, which spawned feedbacks that likely maintained oxygen at very low levels in the ocean and atmosphere and delayed the arrival of animals. Then, in the mid, pre-glacial Neoproterozoic we see evidence for an oxygenation event that significantly predated recent evidence for ocean ventilation in the post-glacial Ediacaran ocean. The trigger that facilitated the transition out of the oxygen-lean ';boring billion' is an area of active study. Additional evidence points to the likelihood of rising and falling oxygen levels through the later Neoproterozoic, which would have had a strong impact on early animal diversification and development of oxygen-demanding ecologies marked by large animals with complex trophic relationships. These observations now provide a context for interpreting the cause-and-effect relationships among the late Proterozoic rise in oxygen, the onset and dynamics of global-scale Neoproterozoic glaciation, metazoan diversification, and large-scale tectonic processes as surface expressions of deep-Earth processes.

  17. Landscape function analysis as a base of rural development strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filepné Kovács Krisztina

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on ecosystem services and landscape functions are highly important in landscape ecology, landscape planning and open space design. The terms of ecosystem service and landscape function have been evolved parallel to each other in the scientific literature but have different focus. The term of landscape functions evolved from the scientific field of landscape ecology; it reflects the goods and services provided by regions, landscapes where the cultural, economic factors are important as well. As a framework assessment method with additional economic assessment, a landscape function analysis could be an additional tool of rural development, as it gives a complex analysis of multiple aspects, thus it is highly appropriate to explore, analyze the potentials, resources and limits of landscapes and land use systems. In the current research a landscape function analysis was compared with the rural development strategies in Hungarian micro-regions. We focused on the level of landscape functions and the objectives of the rural development strategies of the study areas. The local development strategies do not focus on territorial differences nor potentials evolving from natural, cultural resources or local constrains. The only exception is tourism development, where in some cases there is a holistic spatial approach which intends to develop the region as a whole.

  18. Evolving Procurement Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Laine, Jari; Mugurusi, Godfrey

    Procurement has to find further levers and advance its contribution to corporate goals continuously. This places pressure on its organization in order to facilitate its performance. Therefore, procurement organizations constantly have to evolve in order to match these demands. A conceptual model...... and external contingency factors and having a more detailed look at the structural dimensions chosen, beyond the well-known characteristics of centralization, formalization, participation, specialization, standardization and size. From a theoretical perspective, it opens up insights that can be leveraged...

  19. Symbiotic Composition and Evolvability

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Richard A.; Pollack, Jordan B.

    2001-01-01

    Several of the Major Transitions in natural evolution, such as the symbiogenic origin of eukaryotes from prokaryotes, share the feature that existing entities became the components of composite entities at a higher level of organisation. This composition of pre-adapted extant entities into a new whole is a fundamentally different source of variation from the gradual accumulation of small random variations, and it has some interesting consequences for issues of evolvability. In this paper we p...

  20. Evolvable Neural Software System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    The Evolvable Neural Software System (ENSS) is composed of sets of Neural Basis Functions (NBFs), which can be totally autonomously created and removed according to the changing needs and requirements of the software system. The resulting structure is both hierarchical and self-similar in that a given set of NBFs may have a ruler NBF, which in turn communicates with other sets of NBFs. These sets of NBFs may function as nodes to a ruler node, which are also NBF constructs. In this manner, the synthetic neural system can exhibit the complexity, three-dimensional connectivity, and adaptability of biological neural systems. An added advantage of ENSS over a natural neural system is its ability to modify its core genetic code in response to environmental changes as reflected in needs and requirements. The neural system is fully adaptive and evolvable and is trainable before release. It continues to rewire itself while on the job. The NBF is a unique, bilevel intelligence neural system composed of a higher-level heuristic neural system (HNS) and a lower-level, autonomic neural system (ANS). Taken together, the HNS and the ANS give each NBF the complete capabilities of a biological neural system to match sensory inputs to actions. Another feature of the NBF is the Evolvable Neural Interface (ENI), which links the HNS and ANS. The ENI solves the interface problem between these two systems by actively adapting and evolving from a primitive initial state (a Neural Thread) to a complicated, operational ENI and successfully adapting to a training sequence of sensory input. This simulates the adaptation of a biological neural system in a developmental phase. Within the greater multi-NBF and multi-node ENSS, self-similar ENI s provide the basis for inter-NBF and inter-node connectivity.

  1. Evolved H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churchwell, E.

    1975-01-01

    A probable evolutionary sequence of H II regions based on six distinct types of observed objects is suggested. Two examples which may deviate from this idealized sequence, are discussed. Even though a size-mean density relation of H II regions can be used as a rough indication of whether a nebula is very young or evolved, it is argued that such a relation is not likely to be useful for the quantitative assignment of ages to H II regions. Evolved H II regions appear to fit into one of four structural types: rings, core-halos, smooth structures, and irregular or filamentary structures. Examples of each type are given with their derived physical parameters. The energy balance in these nebulae is considered. The mass of ionized gas in evolved H II regions is in general too large to trace the nebula back to single compact H II regions. Finally, the morphological type of the Galaxy is considered from its H II region content. 2 tables, 2 figs., 29 refs

  2. Contemporary danish landscape research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejre, H.; Brandt, J.

    2004-01-01

    Danish landscape research blossomed during the 1990’ies thanks to several transdisciplinary research programmes involving several institutions. The main themes of the programmes encompassed Landscape change, landscape and biological diversity, nature and landscape management, use and monitoring...

  3. Electromagnetic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Hasse, Stina

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic Landscape demonstrates in direct, tangible and immediate ways effects of the disruption of the familiar. An ubiquitous technological medium, FM radio, is turned into an alien and unfamiliar one. Audience participation, the environment, radio signals and noise create a site...

  4. Changing Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tunby Gulbrandsen, Ib; Kamstrup, Andreas; Koed Madsen, Anders

    with an analysis of the changing organizational landscape created by new ICT’s like Google, Facebook, Wikipedia, iPods, smart phones and Wi-Fi. Based on five netno- and ethno-graphic investigations of the intertwinement of ICT’s and organizational work, we point to three features that have changed the scene: new...

  5. Disposable Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2008-01-01

    Whether we are a traditionalist or on the cutting edge of landscape care, we need to take a deep breath and think about what we are trying to achieve, before we select a specific treatment or practice for tree care. We should measure that treatment or practice against what we know about the tree system. I say "system" because the recent years of Modern...

  6. Pharma Opportunities and Risks Multiply as Regulatory Reform Remakes APAC: Expanded Accelerated Pathways Challenge Developer Value Story, Evidence Collection, and Market Access Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grignolo, Alberto; Mingping, Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Sweeping reforms in the largest markets of the Asia-Pacific region are transforming the regulatory and commercial landscape for foreign pharmaceutical companies. Japan, South Korea, and China are leading the charge, establishing mechanisms and infrastructure that both reflect and help drive international regulatory convergence and accelerate delivery of needed, innovative products to patients. In this rapidly evolving regulatory and commercial environment, drug developers can benefit from reforms and proliferating accelerated pathway (AP) frameworks, but only with regulatory and evidence-generation strategies tailored to the region. Otherwise, they will confront significant pricing and reimbursement headwinds. Although APAC economies are at different stages of development, they share a common imperative: to balance pharmaceutical innovation with affordability. Despite the complexity of meeting these sometimes conflicting demands, companies that focus on demonstrating and delivering value for money, and that price new treatments reasonably and sustainably, can succeed both for their shareholders and the region's patient population.

  7. EVOLVE : International Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Deutz, Andre; Schuetze, Oliver; Bäck, Thomas; Tantar, Emilia; Tantar, Alexandru-Adrian; Moral, Pierre; Legrand, Pierrick; Bouvry, Pascal; Coello, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Numerical and computational methods are nowadays used in a wide range of contexts in complex systems research, biology, physics, and engineering.  Over the last decades different methodological schools have emerged with emphasis on different aspects of computation, such as nature-inspired algorithms, set oriented numerics, probabilistic systems and Monte Carlo methods. Due to the use of different terminologies and emphasis on different aspects of algorithmic performance there is a strong need for a more integrated view and opportunities for cross-fertilization across particular disciplines. These proceedings feature 20 original publications from distinguished authors in the cross-section of computational sciences, such as machine learning algorithms and probabilistic models, complex networks and fitness landscape analysis, set oriented numerics and cell mapping, evolutionary multiobjective optimization, diversity-oriented search, and the foundations of genetic programming algorithms. By presenting cutting ed...

  8. Evolving the Evolving: Territory, Place and Rewilding in the California Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Milligan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Current planning and legislation in California’s Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta call for the large-scale ecological restoration of aquatic and terrestrial habitats. These ecological mandates have emerged in response to the region’s infrastructural transformation and the Delta’s predominant use as the central logistical hub in the state’s vast water conveyance network. Restoration is an attempt to recover what was externalized by the logic and abstractions of this logistical infrastructure. However, based on findings from our research, which examined how people are using restored and naturalized landscapes in the Delta and how these landscapes are currently planned for, we argue that as mitigatory response, restoration planning continues some of the same spatial abstractions and inequities by failing to account for the Delta as an urbanized, cultural and unique place. In interpreting how these conditions have come to be, we give attention to a pluralistic landscape approach and a coevolutionary reading of planning, policy, science and landscapes to discuss the conservation challenges presented by “Delta as an Evolving Place”. We suggest that for rewilding efforts to be successful in the Delta, a range of proactive, opportunistic, grounded and participatory tactics will be required to shift towards a more socio-ecological approach.

  9. Evolving Procurement Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Laiho, Aki; Laine, Jari

    Procurement has to find further levers and advance its contribution to corporate goals continuously. This places pressure on its organization in order to facilitate its performance. Therefore, Procurement organizations constantly have to evolve in order to match these demands. A conceptual model...... is presented and results of a first case study discussed. The findings highlight the importance of taking a contingency perspective on Procurement organization, understanding the internal and internal contingency factors. From a theoretical perspective, it opens up insights that can be furthermore leveraged...... in future studies in the fields of hybrid procurement organizations, global sourcing organizations as well as international procurement offices (IPOs). From a practical standpoint, an assessment of external and internal contingencies provides the opportunity to consciously match organization to its...

  10. Diffusion between evolving interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juntunen, Janne; Merikoski, Juha

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion in an evolving environment is studied by continuous-time Monte Carlo simulations. Diffusion is modeled by continuous-time random walkers on a lattice, in a dynamic environment provided by bubbles between two one-dimensional interfaces driven symmetrically towards each other. For one-dimensional random walkers constrained by the interfaces, the bubble size distribution dominates diffusion. For two-dimensional random walkers, it is also controlled by the topography and dynamics of the interfaces. The results of the one-dimensional case are recovered in the limit where the interfaces are strongly driven. Even with simple hard-core repulsion between the interfaces and the particles, diffusion is found to depend strongly on the details of the dynamical rules of particles close to the interfaces.

  11. The Evolution of Bony Vertebrate Enhancers at Odds with Their Coding Sequence Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Aisha; Sohail Raza, Muhammad; Ali Abbasi, Amir

    2015-08-06

    Enhancers lie at the heart of transcriptional and developmental gene regulation. Therefore, changes in enhancer sequences usually disrupt the target gene expression and result in disease phenotypes. Despite the well-established role of enhancers in development and disease, evolutionary sequence studies are lacking. The current study attempts to unravel the puzzle of bony vertebrates' conserved noncoding elements (CNE) enhancer evolution. Bayesian phylogenetics of enhancer sequences spotlights promising interordinal relationships among placental mammals, proposing a closer relationship between humans and laurasiatherians while placing rodents at the basal position. Clock-based estimates of enhancer evolution provided a dynamic picture of interspecific rate changes across the bony vertebrate lineage. Moreover, coelacanth in the study augmented our appreciation of the vertebrate cis-regulatory evolution during water-land transition. Intriguingly, we observed a pronounced upsurge in enhancer evolution in land-dwelling vertebrates. These novel findings triggered us to further investigate the evolutionary trend of coding as well as CNE nonenhancer repertoires, to highlight the relative evolutionary dynamics of diverse genomic landscapes. Surprisingly, the evolutionary rates of enhancer sequences were clearly at odds with those of the coding and the CNE nonenhancer sequences during vertebrate adaptation to land, with land vertebrates exhibiting significantly reduced rates of coding sequence evolution in comparison to their fast evolving regulatory landscape. The observed variation in tetrapod cis-regulatory elements caused the fine-tuning of associated gene regulatory networks. Therefore, the increased evolutionary rate of tetrapods' enhancer sequences might be responsible for the variation in developmental regulatory circuits during the process of vertebrate adaptation to land. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for

  12. Driving the Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haff, P. K.

    2012-12-01

    Technological modification of the earth's surface (e.g., agriculture, urbanization) is an old story in human history, but what about the future? The future of landscape in an accelerating technological world, beyond a relatively short time horizon, lies hidden behind an impenetrable veil of complexity. Sufficiently complex dynamics generates not only the trajectory of a variable of interest (e.g., vegetation cover) but also the environment in which that variable evolves (e.g., background climate). There is no way to anticipate what variables will define that environment—the dynamics creates its own variables. We are always open to surprise by a change of conditions we thought or assumed were fixed or by the appearance of new phenomena of whose possible existence we had been unaware or thought unlikely. This is especially true under the influence of technology, where novelty is the rule. Lack of direct long-term predictability of landscape change does not, however, mean we cannot say anything about its future. The presence of persistence (finite time scales) in a system means that prediction by a calibrated numerical model should be good for a limited period of time barring bad luck or faulty implementation. Short-term prediction, despite its limitations, provides an option for dealing with the longer-term future. If a computer-controlled car tries to drive itself from New York to Los Angeles, no conceivable (or possible) stand-alone software can be constructed to predict a priori the space-time trajectory of the vehicle. Yet the drive is normally completed easily by most drivers. The trip is successfully completed because each in a series of very short (linear) steps can be "corrected" on the fly by the driver, who takes her cues from the environment to keep the car on the road and headed toward its destination. This metaphor differs in a fundamental way from the usual notion of predicting geomorphic change, because it involves a goal—to reach a desired

  13. Why did heterospory evolve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Kurt B; Burd, Martin

    2017-08-01

    The primitive land plant life cycle featured the production of spores of unimodal size, a condition called homospory. The evolution of bimodal size distributions with small male spores and large female spores, known as heterospory, was an innovation that occurred repeatedly in the history of land plants. The importance of desiccation-resistant spores for colonization of the land is well known, but the adaptive value of heterospory has never been well established. It was an addition to a sexual life cycle that already involved male and female gametes. Its role as a precursor to the evolution of seeds has received much attention, but this is an evolutionary consequence of heterospory that cannot explain the transition from homospory to heterospory (and the lack of evolutionary reversal from heterospory to homospory). Enforced outcrossing of gametophytes has often been mentioned in connection to heterospory, but we review the shortcomings of this argument as an explanation of the selective advantage of heterospory. Few alternative arguments concerning the selective forces favouring heterospory have been proposed, a paucity of attention that is surprising given the importance of this innovation in land plant evolution. In this review we highlight two ideas that may lead us to a better understanding of why heterospory evolved. First, models of optimal resource allocation - an approach that has been used for decades in evolutionary ecology to help understand parental investment and other life-history patterns - suggest that an evolutionary increase in spore size could reach a threshold at which small spores yielding small, sperm-producing gametophytes would return greater fitness per unit of resource investment than would large spores and bisexual gametophytes. With the advent of such microspores, megaspores would evolve under frequency-dependent selection. This argument can account for the appearance of heterospory in the Devonian, when increasingly tall and complex

  14. Cuban Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.; Portela, Armando

    This accessible book offers a vivid geographic portrait of Cuba, exploring the island’s streetscapes, sugar cane fields, beaches, and rural settlements; its billboards, government buildings, and national landmarks. The authors illuminate how natural and built landscapes have shaped Cuban identity...... (cubanidad), and vice versa. They provide a unique perspective on Cuba’s distinct historical periods and political economies, from the colonial period through republicanism and today’s socialist era. Compelling topics include the legacies of slavery and the sugar industry, the past and future of urban...

  15. Evolving a photosynthetic organelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakayama Takuro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The evolution of plastids from cyanobacteria is believed to represent a singularity in the history of life. The enigmatic amoeba Paulinella and its 'recently' acquired photosynthetic inclusions provide a fascinating system through which to gain fresh insight into how endosymbionts become organelles. The plastids, or chloroplasts, of algae and plants evolved from cyanobacteria by endosymbiosis. This landmark event conferred on eukaryotes the benefits of photosynthesis - the conversion of solar energy into chemical energy - and in so doing had a huge impact on the course of evolution and the climate of Earth 1. From the present state of plastids, however, it is difficult to trace the evolutionary steps involved in this momentous development, because all modern-day plastids have fully integrated into their hosts. Paulinella chromatophora is a unicellular eukaryote that bears photosynthetic entities called chromatophores that are derived from cyanobacteria and has thus received much attention as a possible example of an organism in the early stages of organellogenesis. Recent studies have unlocked the genomic secrets of its chromatophore 23 and provided concrete evidence that the Paulinella chromatophore is a bona fide photosynthetic organelle 4. The question is how Paulinella can help us to understand the process by which an endosymbiont is converted into an organelle.

  16. Fat: an evolving issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Speakman

    2012-09-01

    Work on obesity is evolving, and obesity is a consequence of our evolutionary history. In the space of 50 years, we have become an obese species. The reasons why can be addressed at a number of different levels. These include separating between whether the primary cause lies on the food intake or energy expenditure side of the energy balance equation, and determining how genetic and environmental effects contribute to weight variation between individuals. Opinion on whether increased food intake or decreased energy expenditure drives the obesity epidemic is still divided, but recent evidence favours the idea that food intake, rather than altered expenditure, is most important. There is more of a consensus that genetics explains most (probably around 65% of weight variation between individuals. Recent advances in genome-wide association studies have identified many polymorphisms that are linked to obesity, yet much of the genetic variance remains unexplained. Finding the causes of this unexplained variation will be an impetus of genetic and epigenetic research on obesity over the next decade. Many environmental factors – including gut microbiota, stress and endocrine disruptors – have been linked to the risk of developing obesity. A better understanding of gene-by-environment interactions will also be key to understanding obesity in the years to come.

  17. Evolving a photosynthetic organelle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Takuro; Archibald, John M

    2012-04-24

    The evolution of plastids from cyanobacteria is believed to represent a singularity in the history of life. The enigmatic amoeba Paulinella and its 'recently' acquired photosynthetic inclusions provide a fascinating system through which to gain fresh insight into how endosymbionts become organelles.The plastids, or chloroplasts, of algae and plants evolved from cyanobacteria by endosymbiosis. This landmark event conferred on eukaryotes the benefits of photosynthesis--the conversion of solar energy into chemical energy--and in so doing had a huge impact on the course of evolution and the climate of Earth 1. From the present state of plastids, however, it is difficult to trace the evolutionary steps involved in this momentous development, because all modern-day plastids have fully integrated into their hosts. Paulinella chromatophora is a unicellular eukaryote that bears photosynthetic entities called chromatophores that are derived from cyanobacteria and has thus received much attention as a possible example of an organism in the early stages of organellogenesis. Recent studies have unlocked the genomic secrets of its chromatophore 23 and provided concrete evidence that the Paulinella chromatophore is a bona fide photosynthetic organelle 4. The question is how Paulinella can help us to understand the process by which an endosymbiont is converted into an organelle.

  18. Communicability across evolving networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindrod, Peter; Parsons, Mark C; Higham, Desmond J; Estrada, Ernesto

    2011-04-01

    Many natural and technological applications generate time-ordered sequences of networks, defined over a fixed set of nodes; for example, time-stamped information about "who phoned who" or "who came into contact with who" arise naturally in studies of communication and the spread of disease. Concepts and algorithms for static networks do not immediately carry through to this dynamic setting. For example, suppose A and B interact in the morning, and then B and C interact in the afternoon. Information, or disease, may then pass from A to C, but not vice versa. This subtlety is lost if we simply summarize using the daily aggregate network given by the chain A-B-C. However, using a natural definition of a walk on an evolving network, we show that classic centrality measures from the static setting can be extended in a computationally convenient manner. In particular, communicability indices can be computed to summarize the ability of each node to broadcast and receive information. The computations involve basic operations in linear algebra, and the asymmetry caused by time's arrow is captured naturally through the noncommutativity of matrix-matrix multiplication. Illustrative examples are given for both synthetic and real-world communication data sets. We also discuss the use of the new centrality measures for real-time monitoring and prediction.

  19. Evolving Concepts of Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Anuradha; Wenzel, Sally E.

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of asthma has evolved over time from a singular disease to a complex of various phenotypes, with varied natural histories, physiologies, and responses to treatment. Early therapies treated most patients with asthma similarly, with bronchodilators and corticosteroids, but these therapies had varying degrees of success. Similarly, despite initial studies that identified an underlying type 2 inflammation in the airways of patients with asthma, biologic therapies targeted toward these type 2 pathways were unsuccessful in all patients. These observations led to increased interest in phenotyping asthma. Clinical approaches, both biased and later unbiased/statistical approaches to large asthma patient cohorts, identified a variety of patient characteristics, but they also consistently identified the importance of age of onset of disease and the presence of eosinophils in determining clinically relevant phenotypes. These paralleled molecular approaches to phenotyping that developed an understanding that not all patients share a type 2 inflammatory pattern. Using biomarkers to select patients with type 2 inflammation, repeated trials of biologics directed toward type 2 cytokine pathways saw newfound success, confirming the importance of phenotyping in asthma. Further research is needed to clarify additional clinical and molecular phenotypes, validate predictive biomarkers, and identify new areas for possible interventions. PMID:26161792

  20. Antagonistic Coevolution Drives Whack-a-Mole Sensitivity in Gene Regulatory Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeewoen Shin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Robustness, defined as tolerance to perturbations such as mutations and environmental fluctuations, is pervasive in biological systems. However, robustness often coexists with its counterpart, evolvability--the ability of perturbations to generate new phenotypes. Previous models of gene regulatory network evolution have shown that robustness evolves under stabilizing selection, but it is unclear how robustness and evolvability will emerge in common coevolutionary scenarios. We consider a two-species model of coevolution involving one host and one parasite population. By using two interacting species, key model parameters that determine the fitness landscapes become emergent properties of the model, avoiding the need to impose these parameters externally. In our study, parasites are modeled on species such as cuckoos where mimicry of the host phenotype confers high fitness to the parasite but lower fitness to the host. Here, frequent phenotype changes are favored as each population continually adapts to the other population. Sensitivity evolves at the network level such that point mutations can induce large phenotype changes. Crucially, the sensitive points of the network are broadly distributed throughout the network and continually relocate. Each time sensitive points in the network are mutated, new ones appear to take their place. We have therefore named this phenomenon "whack-a-mole" sensitivity, after a popular fun park game. We predict that this type of sensitivity will evolve under conditions of strong directional selection, an observation that helps interpret existing experimental evidence, for example, during the emergence of bacterial antibiotic resistance.

  1. Regulatory agencies and regulatory risk

    OpenAIRE

    Knieps, Günter; Weiß, Hans-Jörg

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show that regulatory risk is due to the discretionary behaviour of regulatory agencies, caused by a too extensive regulatory mandate provided by the legislator. The normative point of reference and a behavioural model of regulatory agencies based on the positive theory of regulation are presented. Regulatory risk with regard to the future behaviour of regulatory agencies is modelled as the consequence of the ex ante uncertainty about the relative influence of inter...

  2. Evolvability Is an Evolved Ability: The Coding Concept as the Arch-Unit of Natural Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janković, Srdja; Ćirković, Milan M

    2016-03-01

    Physical processes that characterize living matter are qualitatively distinct in that they involve encoding and transfer of specific types of information. Such information plays an active part in the control of events that are ultimately linked to the capacity of the system to persist and multiply. This algorithmicity of life is a key prerequisite for its Darwinian evolution, driven by natural selection acting upon stochastically arising variations of the encoded information. The concept of evolvability attempts to define the total capacity of a system to evolve new encoded traits under appropriate conditions, i.e., the accessible section of total morphological space. Since this is dependent on previously evolved regulatory networks that govern information flow in the system, evolvability itself may be regarded as an evolved ability. The way information is physically written, read and modified in living cells (the "coding concept") has not changed substantially during the whole history of the Earth's biosphere. This biosphere, be it alone or one of many, is, accordingly, itself a product of natural selection, since the overall evolvability conferred by its coding concept (nucleic acids as information carriers with the "rulebook of meanings" provided by codons, as well as all the subsystems that regulate various conditional information-reading modes) certainly played a key role in enabling this biosphere to survive up to the present, through alterations of planetary conditions, including at least five catastrophic events linked to major mass extinctions. We submit that, whatever the actual prebiotic physical and chemical processes may have been on our home planet, or may, in principle, occur at some time and place in the Universe, a particular coding concept, with its respective potential to give rise to a biosphere, or class of biospheres, of a certain evolvability, may itself be regarded as a unit (indeed the arch-unit) of natural selection.

  3. PESP Landscaping Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landscaping practices can positively or negatively affect local environments and human health. The Landscaping Initiative seeks to enhance benefits of landscaping while reducing need for pesticides, fertilizers, etc., by working with partners.

  4. The farming system component of European agricultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Erling

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural landscapes are the outcome of combined natural and human factors over time. This paper explores the scope of perceiving the agricultural landscapes of the European Union (EU) as distinct patterns of farming systems and landscape elements in homogeneous biophysical and administrative...... landscapes evolve from the praxis of the farmers and takes into account the scale, intensity and specialisation of the agricultural production. From farming system design point of view, the approach can be used to integrate the landscape in the design process. From a policy point of view, the approach offers...... endowments. The focus is on the farming systems component of the agricultural landscapes by applying a typology to the sample farms of the Farm Accountancy Data Network and scaling up the results to the landscape level for the territory of the EU. The farming system approach emphasises that agricultural...

  5. BOOK REVIEW: OPENING SCIENCE, THE EVOLVING GUIDE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The way we get our funding, collaborate, do our research, and get the word out has evolved over hundreds of years but we can imagine a more open science world, largely facilitated by the internet. The movement towards this more open way of doing and presenting science is coming, and it is not taking hundreds of years. If you are interested in these trends, and would like to find out more about where this is all headed and what it means to you, consider downloding Opening Science, edited by Sönke Bartling and Sascha Friesike, subtitled The Evolving Guide on How the Internet is Changing Research, Collaboration, and Scholarly Publishing. In 26 chapters by various authors from a range of disciplines the book explores the developing world of open science, starting from the first scientific revolution and bringing us to the next scientific revolution, sometimes referred to as “Science 2.0”. Some of the articles deal with the impact of the changing landscape of how science is done, looking at the impact of open science on Academia, or journal publishing, or medical research. Many of the articles look at the uses, pitfalls, and impact of specific tools, like microblogging (think Twitter), social networking, and reference management. There is lots of discussion and definition of terms you might use or misuse like “altmetrics” and “impact factor”. Science will probably never be completely open, and Twitter will probably never replace the journal article,

  6. Fitness landscape complexity and the emergence of modularity in neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Jessica

    Previous research has shown that the shape of the fitness landscape can affect the evolution of modularity. We evolved neural networks to solve different tasks with different fitness landscapes, using NEAT, a popular neuroevolution algorithm that quantifies similarity between genomes in order to divide them into species. We used this speciation mechanism as a means to examine fitness landscape complexity, and to examine connections between fitness landscape complexity and the emergence of modularity.

  7. Disgust: Evolved function and structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tybur, J.M.; Lieberman, D.; Kurzban, R.; DeScioli, P.

    2013-01-01

    Interest in and research on disgust has surged over the past few decades. The field, however, still lacks a coherent theoretical framework for understanding the evolved function or functions of disgust. Here we present such a framework, emphasizing 2 levels of analysis: that of evolved function and

  8. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graves, C.J.; Ros, V.I.D.; Stevenson, B.; Sniegowski, P.D.; Brisson, D.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide

  9. Modeling promoter grammars with evolving hidden Markov models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Won, Kyoung-Jae; Sandelin, Albin; Marstrand, Troels Torben

    2008-01-01

    MOTIVATION: Describing and modeling biological features of eukaryotic promoters remains an important and challenging problem within computational biology. The promoters of higher eukaryotes in particular display a wide variation in regulatory features, which are difficult to model. Often several...... factors are involved in the regulation of a set of co-regulated genes. If so, promoters can be modeled with connected regulatory features, where the network of connections is characteristic for a particular mode of regulation. RESULTS: With the goal of automatically deciphering such regulatory structures......, we present a method that iteratively evolves an ensemble of regulatory grammars using a hidden Markov Model (HMM) architecture composed of interconnected blocks representing transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) and background regions of promoter sequences. The ensemble approach reduces the risk...

  10. Life cycle planning: An evolving concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, P.J.R.; Gorman, I.G.

    1994-01-01

    Life-cycle planning is an evolving concept in the management of oil and gas projects. BHP Petroleum now interprets this idea to include all development planning from discovery and field appraisal to final abandonment and includes safety, environmental, technical, plant, regulatory, and staffing issues. This article describes in the context of the Timor Sea, how despite initial successes and continuing facilities upgrades, BHPP came to perceive that current operations could be the victim of early development successes, particularly in the areas of corrosion and maintenance. The search for analogies elsewhere lead to the UK North Sea, including the experiences of Britoil and BP, both of which performed detailed Life of Field studies in the later eighties. These materials have been used to construct a format and content for total Life-cycle plans in general and the social changes required to ensure their successful application in Timor Sea operations and deployment throughout Australia

  11. Regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This publication, compiled in 8 chapters, presents the regulatory system developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic. The following activities and developed topics in this document describe: the evolution of the nuclear regulatory activity in Argentina; the Argentine regulatory system; the nuclear regulatory laws and standards; the inspection and safeguards of nuclear facilities; the emergency systems; the environmental systems; the environmental monitoring; the analysis laboratories on physical and biological dosimetry, prenatal irradiation, internal irradiation, radiation measurements, detection techniques on nuclear testing, medical program on radiation protection; the institutional relations with national and international organization; the training courses and meeting; the technical information

  12. Integrating landscape ecology and geoinformatics to decipher landscape dynamics for regional planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikou, Angela; Papapanagiotou, Evangelos; Troumbis, Andreas

    2011-09-01

    We used remote sensing and GIS in conjunction with multivariate statistical methods to: (i) quantify landscape composition (land cover types) and configuration (patch density, diversity, fractal dimension, contagion) for five coastal watersheds of Kalloni gulf, Lesvos Island, Greece, in 1945, 1960, 1971, 1990 and 2002/2003, (ii) evaluate the relative importance of physical (slope, geologic substrate, stream order) and human (road network, population density) variables on landscape composition and configuration, and (iii) characterize processes that led to land cover changes through land cover transitions between these five successive periods in time. Distributions of land cover types did not differ among the five time periods at the five watersheds studied because the largest cumulative changes between 1945 and 2002/2003 did not take place at dominant land cover types. Landscape composition related primarily to the physical attributes of the landscape. Nevertheless, increase in population density and the road network were found to increase heterogeneity of the landscape mosaic (patchiness), complexity of patch shape (fractal dimension), and patch disaggregation (contagion). Increase in road network was also found to increase landscape diversity due to the creation of new patches. The main processes involved in land cover changes were plough-land abandonment and ecological succession. Landscape dynamics during the last 50 years corroborate the ecotouristic-agrotouristic model for regional development to reverse trends in agricultural land abandonment and human population decline and when combined with hypothetical regulatory approaches could predict how this landscape could develop in the future, thus, providing a valuable tool to regional planning.

  13. Spacetimes containing slowly evolving horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavanagh, William; Booth, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Slowly evolving horizons are trapping horizons that are ''almost'' isolated horizons. This paper reviews their definition and discusses several spacetimes containing such structures. These include certain Vaidya and Tolman-Bondi solutions as well as (perturbatively) tidally distorted black holes. Taking into account the mass scales and orders of magnitude that arise in these calculations, we conjecture that slowly evolving horizons are the norm rather than the exception in astrophysical processes that involve stellar-scale black holes

  14. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Christopher J; Ros, Vera I D; Stevenson, Brian; Sniegowski, Paul D; Brisson, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios) and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish chronic infections.

  15. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Graves

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish

  16. Characterizing European cultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tieskens, Koen F.; Schulp, Catharina J E; Levers, Christian

    2017-01-01

    intensification and land abandonment. To prevent the loss of cultural landscapes, knowledge on the location of different types of cultural landscapes is needed. In this paper, we present a characterization of European cultural landscapes based on the prevalence of three key dimensions of cultural landscapes......Almost all rural areas in Europe have been shaped or altered by humans and can be considered cultural landscapes, many of which now are considered to entail valuable cultural heritage. Current dynamics in land management have put cultural landscapes under a huge pressure of agricultural...... the three dimensions into a continuous “cultural landscape index” that allows for a characterization of Europe's rural landscapes. The characterization identifies hotspots of cultural landscapes, where all three dimensions are present, such as in the Mediterranean. On the other hand, Eastern and Northern...

  17. Implications of changes in land cover and landscape structure for the biocontrol potential of stemborers in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kebede, Yodit; Bianchi, Felix; Baudron, Frédéric; Abraham, Kristin; Valença, de Anne; Tittonell, Pablo

    2018-01-01

    The land cover and structure of agricultural landscapes may influence the abundance and diversity of natural enemies of crop pests. However, these landscapes are continuously evolving due to changing land uses and agricultural practices. Here we assess changes in land use and landscape structure in

  18. Robustness to Faults Promotes Evolvability: Insights from Evolving Digital Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, Nicola; Nolfi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate how the need to cope with operational faults enables evolving circuits to find more fit solutions. The analysis of the results obtained in different experimental conditions indicates that, in absence of faults, evolution tends to select circuits that are small and have low phenotypic variability and evolvability. The need to face operation faults, instead, drives evolution toward the selection of larger circuits that are truly robust with respect to genetic variations and that have a greater level of phenotypic variability and evolvability. Overall our results indicate that the need to cope with operation faults leads to the selection of circuits that have a greater probability to generate better circuits as a result of genetic variation with respect to a control condition in which circuits are not subjected to faults.

  19. Research using energy landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hack Jin

    2007-01-01

    Energy landscape is a theoretical tool used for the study of systems where cooperative processes occur such as liquid, glass, clusters, and protein. Theoretical and experimental researches related to energy landscape are introduced in this review

  20. A neighbourhood evolving network model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Y.J.; Wang, G.Z.; Jiang, Q.Y.; Han, Z.X.

    2006-01-01

    Many social, technological, biological and economical systems are best described by evolved network models. In this short Letter, we propose and study a new evolving network model. The model is based on the new concept of neighbourhood connectivity, which exists in many physical complex networks. The statistical properties and dynamics of the proposed model is analytically studied and compared with those of Barabasi-Albert scale-free model. Numerical simulations indicate that this network model yields a transition between power-law and exponential scaling, while the Barabasi-Albert scale-free model is only one of its special (limiting) cases. Particularly, this model can be used to enhance the evolving mechanism of complex networks in the real world, such as some social networks development

  1. Lines of landscape organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvschal, Mette

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a landscape analysis of the earliest linear landscape boundaries on Skovbjerg Moraine, Denmark, during the first millennium BC. Using Delaunay triangulation as well as classic distribution analyses, it demonstrates that landscape boundaries articulated already established use-pa...

  2. Flowscapes : Infrastructure as landscape, landscape as infrastructure. Graduation Lab Landscape Architecture 2012/2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.; Jauslin, D.; De Vries, C.

    2012-01-01

    Flowscapes explores infrastructure as a type of landscape and landscape as a type of infrastructure, and is focused on landscape architectonic design of transportation-, green- and water infrastructures. These landscape infrastructures are considered armatures for urban and rural development. With

  3. Evolving approaches to the ethical management of genomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Jean E; Boyer, Joy T; Sun, Kathie Y

    2013-06-01

    The ethical landscape in the field of genomics is rapidly shifting. Plummeting sequencing costs, along with ongoing advances in bioinformatics, now make it possible to generate an enormous volume of genomic data about vast numbers of people. The informational richness, complexity, and frequently uncertain meaning of these data, coupled with evolving norms surrounding the sharing of data and samples and persistent privacy concerns, have generated a range of approaches to the ethical management of genomic information. As calls increase for the expanded use of broad or even open consent, and as controversy grows about how best to handle incidental genomic findings, these approaches, informed by normative analysis and empirical data, will continue to evolve alongside the science. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Envisioning a New Foundation for Gifted Education: Evolving Complexity Theory (ECT) of Talent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, David Yun

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a new theory of talent development, evolving complexity theory (ECT), in the context of the changing theoretical directions as well as the landscape of gifted education. I argue that gifted education needs a new foundation that provides a broad psychosocial basis than what the notion of giftedness can afford. A focus on…

  5. Landscaping plant epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Peter C; Spillane, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of epigenetic mechanisms is necessary for assessing the potential impacts of epigenetics on plant growth, development and reproduction, and ultimately for the response of these factors to evolutionary pressures and crop breeding programs. This volume highlights the latest in laboratory and bioinformatic techniques used for the investigation of epigenetic phenomena in plants. Such techniques now allow genome-wide analyses of epigenetic regulation and help to advance our understanding of how epigenetic regulatory mechanisms affect cellular and genome function. To set the scene, we begin with a short background of how the field of epigenetics has evolved, with a particular focus on plant epigenetics. We consider what has historically been understood by the term "epigenetics" before turning to the advances in biochemistry, molecular biology, and genetics which have led to current-day definitions of the term. Following this, we pay attention to key discoveries in the field of epigenetics that have emerged from the study of unusual and enigmatic phenomena in plants. Many of these phenomena have involved cases of non-Mendelian inheritance and have often been dismissed as mere curiosities prior to the elucidation of their molecular mechanisms. In the penultimate section, consideration is given to how advances in molecular techniques are opening the doors to a more comprehensive understanding of epigenetic phenomena in plants. We conclude by assessing some opportunities, challenges, and techniques for epigenetic research in both model and non-model plants, in particular for advancing understanding of the regulation of genome function by epigenetic mechanisms.

  6. Regulatory frameworks for decentralised energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodman, Bridget; Baker, Philip

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers aspects of the current regulatory frameworks for markets and infrastructure which can inhibit the deployment of decentralised energy. The government has stated that decentralised energy can make a positive contribution to reducing the UK's carbon emissions, but recognises that at the moment the technologies face market and regulatory barriers. If it is to become a viable alternative to centralised generation, energy market design and the regulation of energy infrastructure will have to evolve to ensure that decentralised options are no longer locked out. (author)

  7. Architecture with landscape methods : Doctoral thesis proposal and SANAA Rolex Learning Center Lausanne Sample Field Trip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jauslin, D.

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary architecture has been strongly influenced by the concept of landscape in recent times. A new mindset evolves that changes the core of the architectural discipline: the organization and composition of architectural space as a landscape. The scope of this thesis is to investigate and

  8. Architecture with Landscape Methods : Case Study of the Rolex Learning Centre Lausanne by SANAA Tokyo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jauslin, D.

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary architecture has been strongly influenced by the concept of landscape in recent times. A new mindset evolves that changes the core of the architectural discipline: the organization and composition of architectural space as a landscape. The scope of this thesis is to investigate and

  9. LORICA - A new model for linking landscape and soil profile evolution: Development and sensitivity analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temme, A.J.A.M.; Vanwalleghem, T.

    2016-01-01

    Soils and landscapes evolve in tandem. Landscape position is a strong determinant of vertical soil development, which has often been formalized in the catena concept. At the same time, soil properties are strong determinants of geomorphic processes such as overland erosion, landsliding and creep. We

  10. What can a numerical landscape evolution model tell us about the evolution of a real landscape? Two examples of modeling a real landscape without recreating it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, N. M.; Whipple, K. X.; Willenbring, J.; Crosby, B. T.; Brocard, G. Y.

    2013-12-01

    Numerical landscape evolution models (LEMs) offer us the unique opportunity to watch a landscape evolve under any set of environmental forcings that we can quantify. The possibilities for using LEMs are infinite, but complications arise when trying to model a real landscape. Specifically, numerical models cannot recreate every aspect of a real landscape because exact initial conditions are unknown, there will always be gaps in the known tectonic and climatic history, and the geomorphic transport laws that govern redistribution of mass due to surface processes will always be a simplified representation of the actual process. Yet, even with these constraints, numerical models remain the only tool that offers us the potential to explore a limitless range of evolutionary scenarios, allowing us to, at the very least, identify possible drivers responsible for the morphology of the current landscape, and just as importantly, rule out others. Here we highlight two examples in which we use a numerical model to explore the signature of different forcings on landscape morphology and erosion patterns. In the first landscape, the Northern Bolivian Andes, the relative imprint of rock uplift and precipitation patterns on landscape morphology is widely contested. We use the CHILD LEM to systematically vary climate and tectonics and quantify their fingerprints on channel profiles across a steep mountain front. We find that rock uplift and precipitation patterns in this landscape and others can be teased out by examining channel profiles of variably sized catchments that drain different parts of the topography. In the second landscape, the South Fork Eel River (SFER), northern California, USA, the tectonic history is relatively well known; a wave of rock uplift swept through the watershed from headwaters to outlet, perturbing the landscape and sending a wave of bedrock incision upstream. Nine millennial-scale erosion rates from along the mainstem of the river illustrate a pattern of

  11. Evolving phenotypic networks in silico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Paul

    2014-11-01

    Evolved gene networks are constrained by natural selection. Their structures and functions are consequently far from being random, as exemplified by the multiple instances of parallel/convergent evolution. One can thus ask if features of actual gene networks can be recovered from evolutionary first principles. I review a method for in silico evolution of small models of gene networks aiming at performing predefined biological functions. I summarize the current implementation of the algorithm, insisting on the construction of a proper "fitness" function. I illustrate the approach on three examples: biochemical adaptation, ligand discrimination and vertebrate segmentation (somitogenesis). While the structure of the evolved networks is variable, dynamics of our evolved networks are usually constrained and present many similar features to actual gene networks, including properties that were not explicitly selected for. In silico evolution can thus be used to predict biological behaviours without a detailed knowledge of the mapping between genotype and phenotype. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Ranking in evolving complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hao; Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Zhou, Ming-Yang

    2017-05-01

    Complex networks have emerged as a simple yet powerful framework to represent and analyze a wide range of complex systems. The problem of ranking the nodes and the edges in complex networks is critical for a broad range of real-world problems because it affects how we access online information and products, how success and talent are evaluated in human activities, and how scarce resources are allocated by companies and policymakers, among others. This calls for a deep understanding of how existing ranking algorithms perform, and which are their possible biases that may impair their effectiveness. Many popular ranking algorithms (such as Google's PageRank) are static in nature and, as a consequence, they exhibit important shortcomings when applied to real networks that rapidly evolve in time. At the same time, recent advances in the understanding and modeling of evolving networks have enabled the development of a wide and diverse range of ranking algorithms that take the temporal dimension into account. The aim of this review is to survey the existing ranking algorithms, both static and time-aware, and their applications to evolving networks. We emphasize both the impact of network evolution on well-established static algorithms and the benefits from including the temporal dimension for tasks such as prediction of network traffic, prediction of future links, and identification of significant nodes.

  13. Why Landscape Beauty Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Krebs

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This philosophical paper explores the aesthetic argument for landscape conservation. The main claim is that the experience of beautiful landscapes is an essential part of the good human life. Beautiful landscapes make us feel at home in the world. Their great and irreplaceable value lies therein. To establish this claim, the concepts of landscape and “Stimmung” are clarified. It is shown how “Stimmung” (in the sense of mood is infused into landscape (as atmosphere and how we respond to it aesthetically. We respond by resonating or feeling at home. The paper ends by indicating how art can help us to better appreciate landscape beauty. This is done by way of an example from contemporary nature poetry, Michael Donhauser’s Variationen in Prosa, which begins with “Und was da war, es nahm uns an” (“And what was there accepted us”.

  14. Condensed landscape experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    ‘Re-thinking interaction between landscape and urban buildings’ participates in an interdisciplinary discourse about the theoretical and practical advantages of openly juxtaposing landscape and architecture without having one more advanced in importance. Recently, the greenification of buildings...... demands, quality of space, mixture of functions, urban complexity, public life and cultural heritage. In order to launch such an approach, an understanding of the spatial, social and environmental significance of a radical re-thinking of relationships between architecture and landscape is necessary...

  15. canEvolve: a web portal for integrative oncogenomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Kemal Samur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Genome-wide profiles of tumors obtained using functional genomics platforms are being deposited to the public repositories at an astronomical scale, as a result of focused efforts by individual laboratories and large projects such as the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA and the International Cancer Genome Consortium. Consequently, there is an urgent need for reliable tools that integrate and interpret these data in light of current knowledge and disseminate results to biomedical researchers in a user-friendly manner. We have built the canEvolve web portal to meet this need. RESULTS: canEvolve query functionalities are designed to fulfill most frequent analysis needs of cancer researchers with a view to generate novel hypotheses. canEvolve stores gene, microRNA (miRNA and protein expression profiles, copy number alterations for multiple cancer types, and protein-protein interaction information. canEvolve allows querying of results of primary analysis, integrative analysis and network analysis of oncogenomics data. The querying for primary analysis includes differential gene and miRNA expression as well as changes in gene copy number measured with SNP microarrays. canEvolve provides results of integrative analysis of gene expression profiles with copy number alterations and with miRNA profiles as well as generalized integrative analysis using gene set enrichment analysis. The network analysis capability includes storage and visualization of gene co-expression, inferred gene regulatory networks and protein-protein interaction information. Finally, canEvolve provides correlations between gene expression and clinical outcomes in terms of univariate survival analysis. CONCLUSION: At present canEvolve provides different types of information extracted from 90 cancer genomics studies comprising of more than 10,000 patients. The presence of multiple data types, novel integrative analysis for identifying regulators of oncogenesis, network

  16. Regulatory change and monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Bank for International Settlements

    2015-01-01

    Report submitted by a Working Group established by the Committee on the Global Financial System and the Markets Committee. The Group was chaired by Ulrich Bindseil (European Central Bank) and William R Nelson (Federal Reserve Board). Financial regulation is evolving, as policymakers seek to strengthen the financial system in order to make it more robust and resilient. Changes in the regulatory environment are likely to have an impact on financial system structure and on the behaviour of finan...

  17. The changing regulatory environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caron, G.

    1999-01-01

    The role and value of regulation in the energy sector was discussed, demonstrating how, despite common perception, regulation is an essential part of Canada's strategy to find and develop new opportunities. The future vision of regulation for industry participants was presented with particular focus on issues related to streamlining the regulatory process. As far as pipelines are concerned, regulatory actions are necessary to facilitate capacity increases and to ensure the line's integrity, safety and environmental record. Furthermore, regulation provides economic solutions where market forces cannot provide them, as for example where business has elements of monopoly. It arbitrates interests of landowners, business, consumers, and environmental groups. It looks for ways to ensure conditions under which competition can flourish. It acts as the guardian of citizens' rights in a democratic society by providing citizens with an opportunity to be heard on the building or expansion of pipelines and associated facilities. As citizens become more and more concerned about their property and the land that surrounds them, citizen involvement in decision making about how industry activity affects their quality of life will become correspondingly more important. Regulatory agencies are committed to facilitate this engagement by flexible hearing procedures and by making use of evolving communication and information technology

  18. Management of advanced prostate cancer in senior adults: the new landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aapro, Matti S

    2012-01-01

    The landscape of treatment for advanced prostate cancer is continually evolving as new therapies are developed and guidelines are constantly updated. However, the management of older men with advanced disease is not optimal. Many men are denied chemotherapy based on their chronological age, not their health status. Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) remains the mainstay of first-line treatment of advanced disease. Once the disease becomes resistant to castration, docetaxel-based chemotherapy is the regulatory-approved standard of care, irrespective of age. The place of weekly docetaxel in patients with poor performance status and signs of frailty has to be further evaluated in clinical studies. New treatments are now available, or on the horizon, for disease that progresses during or after docetaxel therapy. Cabazitaxel and abiraterone have been shown to prolong survival, irrespective of age, and are already in clinical use having received regulatory approval. The optimal sequence for these two agents is still unknown, although there is some indication that in patients predicted to be poor responders to abiraterone (high Gleason score, progression during docetaxel therapy, rapid progression to castrate-resistant prostate cancer with ADT) cabazitaxel should be the preferred choice. Further advances are being investigated, with promising data reported from phase III trials.

  19. Global Regulatory Differences for Gene- and Cell-Based Therapies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coppens, Delphi G M; De Bruin, Marie L; Leufkens, Hubert G M

    2017-01-01

    Gene- and cell-based therapies (GCTs) offer potential new treatment options for unmet medical needs. However, the use of conventional regulatory requirements for medicinal products to approve GCTs may impede patient access and therapeutic innovation. Furthermore, requirements differ between...... jurisdictions, complicating the global regulatory landscape. We provide a comparative overview of regulatory requirements for GCT approval in five jurisdictions and hypothesize on the consequences of the observed global differences on patient access and therapeutic innovation....

  20. The 'E' factor -- evolving endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, M J

    2013-03-01

    Endodontics is a constantly developing field, with new instruments, preparation techniques and sealants competing with trusted and traditional approaches to tooth restoration. Thus general dental practitioners must question and understand the significance of these developments before adopting new practices. In view of this, the aim of this article, and the associated presentation at the 2013 British Dental Conference & Exhibition, is to provide an overview of endodontic methods and constantly evolving best practice. The presentation will review current preparation techniques, comparing rotary versus reciprocation, and question current trends in restoration of the endodontically treated tooth.

  1. Are interest groups different in the factors determining landscape preferences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bacher

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, rural landscape in Europe has evolved from an agricultural by-product to an important public good. This development creates not only new challenges to farming practices, it also makes participation and public involvement an indispensable tool for sustainable landscape planning. This is especially true for many European mountain regions, where tourism represents an important source of income and conflicts between locals’ and tourists’ interests should be avoided. In our study, we analyze whether discrepancies in the perception of the Alpine landscape can be located between locals and tourists and, if these differences exist, in which aspects these two groups are differing. A model employing three general factors able to describe landscape preferences regardless of the personal background is suggested and validated by confirmatory factor analysis. Our major finding shows that an attractive landscape for tourists does not have to be contradictory to a landscape that supports a high living quality for locals. Compromises in landscape planning between locals’ and tourists’ requirements seem often not to be necessary as they, generally, do not differ in the way they experience and assess the landscape.

  2. Using Landscape metrics to analyze the landscape evolution under land abandonment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelorosso, Raffaele; Della Chiesa, Stefano; Gobattoni, Federica; Leone, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    view, therefore, not all the abandoned land will be covered by woods also after a reasonable time (e.g 20-30 years); open areas patches can resist over time as a consequence of different (more o less natural) disturbances, pointing out a landscape mosaic and vegetation pattern almost never completely homogeneous. This spatial and temporal differentiation of landscape pattern, therefore, require both the individuation of disturbances and their effect on land abandonment process to be analyzed for each different landscape. Many types of analysis and models were developed and used to understand the reason of abandonment, its evolution, likelihood future landscape scenarios and the leading consequences on environment and population in order to establish right land-uses to obtain suitable and sustainable goods and services from landscape itself. One of these analysis recurs to landscape metrics. Landscape metrics have been widely applied in ecology and landscape ecology (Rainis, 2003; Romero-Calcerrada and Perry, 2004 ; Narumalani et al., 2004; Rocchini et al., 2006) because they allow an objective description of the temporal pattern of landscape change and a comparison with other landscapes (Turner et al., 2001). Furthermore, a description of the shape, size and spatial arrangement of patches of vegetation can be used to link the observed pattern with the ecological processes that may have generated it (Rocchini et al., 2006). So these metrics can be used to see how an abandoned landscape can evolve under the effects of different constrictions that, also if not completely knew, have been affecting the present assessment. Through historical and recent aerial photos (1954-1985-1999) and several landscape metrics, the evolution of marginal municipality of central Apennine under abandonment is presented here. Temporal evolution of landscape metrics was discussed to underline the importance of such descriptors of vegetation pattern dynamics and the key role played by these

  3. Inland drift sand landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fanta, J.; Siepel, H.

    2010-01-01

    Man has had a complex relationship with inland drift sands through the ages. For some centuries these landscapes were seen as a threat to society, especially agriculture and housing. At present we conserve these landscapes as important Natura 2000 priority habitats. In this book you may find these

  4. Principles of landscape architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Urbanism at the Faculty of Architecture and Built Environment, TU Delft considers urbanism as a planning and design oriented activity towards urban and rural landscapes. It aims to enhance, restore or create landscapes from a perspective of sustainable development, so as to guide,

  5. Nature and landscape protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In accordance with National Council of the Slovak Republic Act N. 287/1994 Coll. on Nature and Landscape Protection, the system of complex nature landscape protection has been designed based on five levels of protection. Categories of protected areas as well as cultural monuments in the Slovak Republic are reviewed.Slovak contribution to the world heritage is included

  6. Globalization and Landscape Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Robert R. Hewitt

    2014-01-01

    The literature review examines globalization and landscape architecture as discourse, samples its various meanings, and proposes methods to identify and contextualize its specific literature. Methodologically, the review surveys published articles and books by leading authors and within the WorldCat.org Database associated with landscape architecture and globalization, analyzing survey results for comprehensive concept...

  7. Glossary on agricultural landscapes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, A.; Centeri, C.; Renes, J.; Roth, M.; Printsman, A.; Palang, H.; Benito Jorda, M.-D.; Verlarde, M.D.; Kruckenberg, H.

    2010-01-01

    T he following glossary of terms related to the European agricultural landscape shall serve as a common basis for all parties, working in or on agricultural landscapes. Some of the terms are quite common and sometimes used in our every day language, but they often have different meanings in

  8. Nonlinear Dynamics in Gene Regulation Promote Robustness and Evolvability of Gene Expression Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinacher, Arno; Bates, Declan G; Akman, Ozgur E; Soyer, Orkun S

    2016-01-01

    Cellular phenotypes underpinned by regulatory networks need to respond to evolutionary pressures to allow adaptation, but at the same time be robust to perturbations. This creates a conflict in which mutations affecting regulatory networks must both generate variance but also be tolerated at the phenotype level. Here, we perform mathematical analyses and simulations of regulatory networks to better understand the potential trade-off between robustness and evolvability. Examining the phenotypic effects of mutations, we find an inverse correlation between robustness and evolvability that breaks only with nonlinearity in the network dynamics, through the creation of regions presenting sudden changes in phenotype with small changes in genotype. For genotypes embedding low levels of nonlinearity, robustness and evolvability correlate negatively and almost perfectly. By contrast, genotypes embedding nonlinear dynamics allow expression levels to be robust to small perturbations, while generating high diversity (evolvability) under larger perturbations. Thus, nonlinearity breaks the robustness-evolvability trade-off in gene expression levels by allowing disparate responses to different mutations. Using analytical derivations of robustness and system sensitivity, we show that these findings extend to a large class of gene regulatory network architectures and also hold for experimentally observed parameter regimes. Further, the effect of nonlinearity on the robustness-evolvability trade-off is ensured as long as key parameters of the system display specific relations irrespective of their absolute values. We find that within this parameter regime genotypes display low and noisy expression levels. Examining the phenotypic effects of mutations, we find an inverse correlation between robustness and evolvability that breaks only with nonlinearity in the network dynamics. Our results provide a possible solution to the robustness-evolvability trade-off, suggest an explanation for

  9. Nonlinear Dynamics in Gene Regulation Promote Robustness and Evolvability of Gene Expression Levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Steinacher

    Full Text Available Cellular phenotypes underpinned by regulatory networks need to respond to evolutionary pressures to allow adaptation, but at the same time be robust to perturbations. This creates a conflict in which mutations affecting regulatory networks must both generate variance but also be tolerated at the phenotype level. Here, we perform mathematical analyses and simulations of regulatory networks to better understand the potential trade-off between robustness and evolvability. Examining the phenotypic effects of mutations, we find an inverse correlation between robustness and evolvability that breaks only with nonlinearity in the network dynamics, through the creation of regions presenting sudden changes in phenotype with small changes in genotype. For genotypes embedding low levels of nonlinearity, robustness and evolvability correlate negatively and almost perfectly. By contrast, genotypes embedding nonlinear dynamics allow expression levels to be robust to small perturbations, while generating high diversity (evolvability under larger perturbations. Thus, nonlinearity breaks the robustness-evolvability trade-off in gene expression levels by allowing disparate responses to different mutations. Using analytical derivations of robustness and system sensitivity, we show that these findings extend to a large class of gene regulatory network architectures and also hold for experimentally observed parameter regimes. Further, the effect of nonlinearity on the robustness-evolvability trade-off is ensured as long as key parameters of the system display specific relations irrespective of their absolute values. We find that within this parameter regime genotypes display low and noisy expression levels. Examining the phenotypic effects of mutations, we find an inverse correlation between robustness and evolvability that breaks only with nonlinearity in the network dynamics. Our results provide a possible solution to the robustness-evolvability trade-off, suggest

  10. New Energy Landscapes of Pennsylvania: Forests to Farms to Fracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Deborah A.

    landscapes such as clear-cut forests, coal mining, and conventional drilling that linger in forests, in the minds of older residents, and photos of the past. Contest ensues between "green forces" and industry that utilize different tools for land use control. Differences surface between what the oil and gas industry knew before, and what it is learning in the early 21st century. The magnitude of shale gas technology includes larger and more sophisticated machinery, higher pressured fracking, increased material amounts, varied land use, and impact on public infrastructure. Cultural differences occur between Texan gas field workers and local Pennsylvanians generated by different physical geography, climate, and regulatory framework. Further findings demonstrate a wide gap in communication between those of differing ideologies. Some stakeholders show up in the matrix as "omitted" from decision-making including small businesses and conventional drillers, public health sector professionals, and water well drillers. Other findings show an unwillingness to share in the costs of energy development. Interviewees explain the costs that they endure as the country pursues energy security, while others outside of Pennsylvania take in only the benefits. Over time, society conforms as a new "normal" is formed. All of this takes place while the world is watching Pennsylvania evolve through the early stages and unknown outcomes of shale gas extraction.

  11. Statistical topography of fitness landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Jasper

    2011-01-01

    Fitness landscapes are generalized energy landscapes that play an important conceptual role in evolutionary biology. These landscapes provide a relation between the genetic configuration of an organism and that organism’s adaptive properties. In this work, global topographical features of these fitness landscapes are investigated using theoretical models. The resulting predictions are compared to empirical landscapes. It is shown that these landscapes allow, at least with respe...

  12. Urban Landscape Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Steiner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cities present significant opportunities for new landscape perspectives that can help inform conservation and development decisions. Early in the twenty-first century, the majority of the planet’s population became urban as more people lived in city-regions for the first time in our history. As the global population increases, so does this urbanization. The environmental challenges of population and urban growth are profound. Landscapes represent a synthesis of natural and cultural processes. Cities are certainly cultural phenomena. Historically, cities provided refuge from nature. The expanding field of urban ecology, coupled with landscape ecology, can enhance how the dual natural and cultural dimensions of landscapes in cities are understood. Furthermore, concepts such as ecosystem services and green infrastructure are proving useful for urban landscape planning and design. Examples from Dayton, Ohio; Brooklyn, New York; and Austin, Texas are presented.

  13. Regulatory Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.; Vetterlein, Antje

    2018-01-01

    Regulatory governance frameworks have become essential building blocks of world society. From supply chains to the regimes surrounding international organizations, extensive governance frameworks have emerged which structure and channel a variety of social exchanges, including economic, political...... by the International Transitional Administrations (ITAs) in Kosovo and Iraq as well as global supply chains and their impact on the garment industry in Bangladesh....

  14. Planetary Landscape Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, H.

    INTRODUCTION Landscape is one of the most often used category in physical ge- ography. The term "landshap" was introduced by Dutch painters in the 15-16th cen- tury. [1] The elements that build up a landscape (or environment) on Earth consists of natural (biogenic and abiogenic - lithologic, atmospheric, hydrologic) and artificial (antropogenic) factors. Landscape is a complex system of these different elements. The same lithology makes different landscapes under different climatic conditions. If the same conditions are present, the same landscape type will appear. Landscapes build up a hierarchic system and cover the whole surface. On Earth, landscapes can be classified and qualified according to their characteristics: relief forms (morphology), and its potential economic value. Aesthetic and subjective parameters can also be considered. Using the data from landers and data from orbiters we can now classify planetary landscapes (these can be used as geologic mapping units as well). By looking at a unknown landscape, we can determine the processes that created it and its development history. This was the case in the Pathfinder/Sojourner panoramas. [2]. DISCUSSION Planetary landscape evolution. We can draw a raw landscape develop- ment history by adding the different landscape building elements to each other. This has a strong connection with the planet's thermal evolution (age of the planet or the present surface materials) and with orbital parameters (distance from the central star, orbit excentricity etc). This way we can build a complex system in which we use differ- ent evolutional stages of lithologic, atmospheric, hydrologic and biogenic conditions which determine the given - Solar System or exoplanetary - landscape. Landscape elements. "Simple" landscapes can be found on asteroids: no linear horizon is present (not differentiated body, only impact structures), no atmosphere (therefore no atmospheric scattering - black sky as part of the landscape) and no

  15. Peripartum hysterectomy: an evolving picture.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Turner, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    Peripartum hysterectomy (PH) is one of the obstetric catastrophes. Evidence is emerging that the role of PH in modern obstetrics is evolving. Improving management of postpartum hemorrhage and newer surgical techniques should decrease PH for uterine atony. Rising levels of repeat elective cesarean deliveries should decrease PH following uterine scar rupture in labor. Increasing cesarean rates, however, have led to an increase in the number of PHs for morbidly adherent placenta. In the case of uterine atony or rupture where PH is required, a subtotal PH is often sufficient. In the case of pathological placental localization involving the cervix, however, a total hysterectomy is required. Furthermore, the involvement of other pelvic structures may prospectively make the diagnosis difficult and the surgery challenging. If resources permit, PH for pathological placental localization merits a multidisciplinary approach. Despite advances in clinical practice, it is likely that peripartum hysterectomy will be more challenging for obstetricians in the future.

  16. Infrared spectroscopy of evolved objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, D.K.; Roche, P.F.

    1984-01-01

    In this review, the authors are concerned with spectroscopic observations of evolved objects made in the wavelength range 1-300μm. Spectroscopic observations can conveniently be divided into studies of narrow lines, bands and broader continua. The vibrational frequencies of molecular groups fall mainly in this spectral region and appear as vibration-rotation bands from the gas phase, and as less structured, but often broader, features from the solid state. Many ionic lines, including recombination lines of abundant species and fine structure lines of astrophysically important ions also appear in this region. The continuum can arise from a number of mechanisms - photospheric emission, radiation from dust, free-free transitions in ionized gas and non-thermal processes. (Auth.)

  17. Processes and driving forces in changing cultural landscapes across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bürgi, Matthias; Bieling, Claudia; Von Hackwitz, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Context: Cultural landscapes evolve over time. However, the rate and direction of change might not be in line with societal needs and more information on the forces driving these changes are therefore needed. Objectives: Filling the gap between single case studies and meta-analyses, we present...... perceived landscape changes, and remembered driving forces. Land cover and landscape changes were analysed regarding change, conversions and processes. For all case study areas, narratives on mapped land cover change, perceived landscape changes and driving forces were compiled. Results: Despite a very high...... diversity in extent, direction and rates of change, a few dominant processes and widespread factors driving the changes could be identified in the six case study areas, i.e. access and infrastructure, political shifts, labor market, technological innovations, and for the more recent period climate change...

  18. Welfare Landscape and Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie

    2017-01-01

    Danish housing developments of the post-war era were a cornerstone in the implementation of the welfare vision and the overall urban and landscape planning in the post-war period. The new city was a horizontal city and – as it will be my primary ambition to show – a green and landscape-like city....... The landscape came, in Denmark, to play a prominent role and became synonymous with ‘The Good Life’, but it also presented a number of moral imperatives. The article concerns how communities and community feelings found their expression in the Danish ‘welfare landscapes’....

  19. Weathering and landscape evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkington, Alice V.; Phillips, Jonathan D.; Campbell, Sean W.

    2005-04-01

    In recognition of the fundamental control exerted by weathering on landscape evolution and topographic development, the 35th Binghamton Geomorphology Symposium was convened under the theme of Weathering and Landscape Evolution. The papers and posters presented at the conference imparted the state-of-the-art in weathering geomorphology, tackled the issue of scale linkage in geomorphic studies and offered a vehicle for interdisciplinary communication on research into weathering and landscape evolution. The papers included in this special issue are encapsulated here under the general themes of weathering mantles, weathering and relative dating, weathering and denudation, weathering processes and controls and the 'big picture'.

  20. A global regulatory science agenda for vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmgren, Lindsay; Li, Xuguang; Wilson, Carolyn; Ball, Robert; Wang, Junzhi; Cichutek, Klaus; Pfleiderer, Michael; Kato, Atsushi; Cavaleri, Marco; Southern, James; Jivapaisarnpong, Teeranart; Minor, Philip; Griffiths, Elwyn; Sohn, Yeowon; Wood, David

    2013-04-18

    The Decade of Vaccines Collaboration and development of the Global Vaccine Action Plan provides a catalyst and unique opportunity for regulators worldwide to develop and propose a global regulatory science agenda for vaccines. Regulatory oversight is critical to allow access to vaccines that are safe, effective, and of assured quality. Methods used by regulators need to constantly evolve so that scientific and technological advances are applied to address challenges such as new products and technologies, and also to provide an increased understanding of benefits and risks of existing products. Regulatory science builds on high-quality basic research, and encompasses at least two broad categories. First, there is laboratory-based regulatory science. Illustrative examples include development of correlates of immunity; or correlates of safety; or of improved product characterization and potency assays. Included in such science would be tools to standardize assays used for regulatory purposes. Second, there is science to develop regulatory processes. Illustrative examples include adaptive clinical trial designs; or tools to analyze the benefit-risk decision-making process of regulators; or novel pharmacovigilance methodologies. Included in such science would be initiatives to standardize regulatory processes (e.g., definitions of terms for adverse events [AEs] following immunization). The aim of a global regulatory science agenda is to transform current national efforts, mainly by well-resourced regulatory agencies, into a coordinated action plan to support global immunization goals. This article provides examples of how regulatory science has, in the past, contributed to improved access to vaccines, and identifies gaps that could be addressed through a global regulatory science agenda. The article also identifies challenges to implementing a regulatory science agenda and proposes strategies and actions to fill these gaps. A global regulatory science agenda will enable

  1. Experimental evidence of reorganizing landscape under changing climatic forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A.; Tejedor, A.; Zaliapin, I. V.; Reinhardt, L.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.

    2015-12-01

    Quantification of the dynamics of landscape reorganization under changing climatic forcing is important to understand geomorphic transport laws under transient conditions, assess response of landscapes to external perturbations for future predictive modeling, and for interpreting past climate from stratigraphic record. For such an analysis, however, real landscape observations are limited. To this end, a series of controlled laboratory experiments on evolving landscape were conducted at the St. Anthony Falls laboratory at the University of Minnesota. High resolution elevation data at a temporal resolution of 5 mins and spatial resolution of 0.5 mm were collected as the landscape approached steady state (constant uplift and precipitation rate) and in the transient state (under the same uplift and 5 times precipitation rate). Our results reveal rapid topographic re-organization under a five-fold increase in precipitation with the fluvial regime encroaching into the previously debris dominated regime, widening and aggradation of channels and valleys, and accelerated erosion happening at hillslope scales. To better understand the initiation of the observed reorganization, we perform a connectivity and clustering analysis of the erosional and depositional events, showing strikingly different spatial patterns on landscape evolution under steady-state (SS) and transient-state (TS), even when the time under SS is renormalized to match the total volume of eroded and deposited sediment in TS. Our results suggest a regime shift in the behavior of transport processes on the landscape at the intermediate scales i.e., from supply-limited to transport-limited.

  2. Landscape metrics application in ecological and visual landscape assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović Suzana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of landscape-ecological approach application in spatial planning provides exact theoretical and empirical evidence for monitoring ecological consequences of natural and/or anthropogenic factors, particularly changes in spatial structures caused by them. Landscape pattern which feature diverse landscape values is the holder of the unique landscape character at different spatial levels and represents a perceptual domain for its users. Using the landscape metrics, the parameters of landscape composition and configuration are mathematical algorithms that quantify the specific spatial characteristics used for interpretation of landscape features and processes (physical and ecological aspect, as well as forms (visual aspect and the meaning (cognitive aspect of the landscape. Landscape metrics has been applied mostly in the ecological and biodiversity assessments as well as in the determination of the level of structural change of landscape, but more and more applied in the assessment of the visual character of the landscape. Based on a review of relevant literature, the aim of this work is to show the main trends of landscape metrics within the aspect of ecological and visual assessments. The research methodology is based on the analysis, classification and systematization of the research studies published from 2000 to 2016, where the landscape metrics is applied: (1 the analysis of landscape pattern and its changes, (2 the analysis of biodiversity and habitat function and (3 a visual landscape assessment. By selecting representative metric parameters for the landscape composition and configuration, for each category is formed the basis for further landscape metrics research and application for the integrated ecological and visual assessment of the landscape values. Contemporary conceptualization of the landscape is seen holistically, and the future research should be directed towards the development of integrated landscape assessment

  3. Landscape genetics and limiting factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Andrew J. Shirk; Erin L. Landguth

    2013-01-01

    Population connectivity is mediated by the movement of organisms or propagules through landscapes. However, little is known about how variation in the pattern of landscape mosaics affects the detectability of landscape genetic relationships. The goal of this paper is to explore the impacts of limiting factors on landscape genetic processes using simulation...

  4. Decoding transcriptional enhancers: Evolving from annotation to functional interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Krysta L; Mackiewicz, Mark; Hardigan, Andrew A; Myers, Richard M; Savic, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    Deciphering the intricate molecular processes that orchestrate the spatial and temporal regulation of genes has become an increasingly major focus of biological research. The differential expression of genes by diverse cell types with a common genome is a hallmark of complex cellular functions, as well as the basis for multicellular life. Importantly, a more coherent understanding of gene regulation is critical for defining developmental processes, evolutionary principles and disease etiologies. Here we present our current understanding of gene regulation by focusing on the role of enhancer elements in these complex processes. Although functional genomic methods have provided considerable advances to our understanding of gene regulation, these assays, which are usually performed on a genome-wide scale, typically provide correlative observations that lack functional interpretation. Recent innovations in genome editing technologies have placed gene regulatory studies at an exciting crossroads, as systematic, functional evaluation of enhancers and other transcriptional regulatory elements can now be performed in a coordinated, high-throughput manner across the entire genome. This review provides insights on transcriptional enhancer function, their role in development and disease, and catalogues experimental tools commonly used to study these elements. Additionally, we discuss the crucial role of novel techniques in deciphering the complex gene regulatory landscape and how these studies will shape future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Computational challenges in modeling gene regulatory events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataskar, Abhijeet; Tiwari, Vijay K

    2016-10-19

    Cellular transcriptional programs driven by genetic and epigenetic mechanisms could be better understood by integrating "omics" data and subsequently modeling the gene-regulatory events. Toward this end, computational biology should keep pace with evolving experimental procedures and data availability. This article gives an exemplified account of the current computational challenges in molecular biology.

  6. CERN internal communication is evolving

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    CERN news will now be regularly updated on the CERN People page (see here).      Dear readers, All over the world, communication is becoming increasingly instantaneous, with news published in real time on websites and social networks. In order to keep pace with these changes, CERN's internal communication is evolving too. From now on, you will be informed of what’s happening at CERN more often via the “CERN people” page, which will frequently be updated with news. The Bulletin is following this trend too: twice a month, we will compile the most important articles published on the CERN site, with a brand-new layout. You will receive an e-mail every two weeks as soon as this new form of the Bulletin is available. If you have interesting news or stories to share, tell us about them through the form at: https://communications.web.cern.ch/got-story-cern-website​. You can also find out about news from CERN in real time...

  7. Recommendation in evolving online networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao; Zeng, An; Shang, Ming-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    Recommender system is an effective tool to find the most relevant information for online users. By analyzing the historical selection records of users, recommender system predicts the most likely future links in the user-item network and accordingly constructs a personalized recommendation list for each user. So far, the recommendation process is mostly investigated in static user-item networks. In this paper, we propose a model which allows us to examine the performance of the state-of-the-art recommendation algorithms in evolving networks. We find that the recommendation accuracy in general decreases with time if the evolution of the online network fully depends on the recommendation. Interestingly, some randomness in users' choice can significantly improve the long-term accuracy of the recommendation algorithm. When a hybrid recommendation algorithm is applied, we find that the optimal parameter gradually shifts towards the diversity-favoring recommendation algorithm, indicating that recommendation diversity is essential to keep a high long-term recommendation accuracy. Finally, we confirm our conclusions by studying the recommendation on networks with the real evolution data.

  8. Evolving Capabilities for Virtual Globes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennon, A.

    2006-12-01

    Though thin-client spatial visualization software like Google Earth and NASA World Wind enjoy widespread popularity, a common criticism is their general lack of analytical functionality. This concern, however, is rapidly being addressed; standard and advanced geographic information system (GIS) capabilities are being developed for virtual globes--though not centralized into a single implementation or software package. The innovation is mostly originating from the user community. Three such capabilities relevant to the earth science, education, and emergency management communities are modeling dynamic spatial phenomena, real-time data collection and visualization, and multi-input collaborative databases. Modeling dynamic spatial phenomena has been facilitated through joining virtual globe geometry definitions--like KML--to relational databases. Real-time data collection uses short scripts to transform user-contributed data into a format usable by virtual globe software. Similarly, collaborative data collection for virtual globes has become possible by dynamically referencing online, multi-person spreadsheets. Examples of these functions include mapping flows within a karst watershed, real-time disaster assessment and visualization, and a collaborative geyser eruption spatial decision support system. Virtual globe applications will continue to evolve further analytical capabilities, more temporal data handling, and from nano to intergalactic scales. This progression opens education and research avenues in all scientific disciplines.

  9. Condensed landscape experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    demands, quality of space, mixture of functions, urban complexity, public life and cultural heritage. In order to launch such an approach, an understanding of the spatial, social and environmental significance of a radical re-thinking of relationships between architecture and landscape is necessary...... is becoming a standard in contemporary architecture. Merging architecture and landscape has turned into a principle for an ecological / sustainable architecture. Yet, my aspiration is to achieve a wider interaction involving an application of a wider range of perspectives, such as: urban identity, social......‘Re-thinking interaction between landscape and urban buildings’ participates in an interdisciplinary discourse about the theoretical and practical advantages of openly juxtaposing landscape and architecture without having one more advanced in importance. Recently, the greenification of buildings...

  10. PNW Hydrologic Landscape Class

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Work has been done to expand the hydrologic landscapes (HLs) concept and to develop an approach for using it to address streamflow vulnerability from climate change....

  11. Appropriate complexity landscape modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, Laurel G.; Eppinga, Maarten B.; Passalacqua, Paola; Getz, Wayne M.; Rose, Kenneth A.; Liang, Man

    Advances in computing technology, new and ongoing restoration initiatives, concerns about climate change's effects, and the increasing interdisciplinarity of research have encouraged the development of landscape-scale mechanistic models of coupled ecological-geophysical systems. However,

  12. Exploring Energy Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, David J.

    2018-04-01

    Recent advances in the potential energy landscapes approach are highlighted, including both theoretical and computational contributions. Treating the high dimensionality of molecular and condensed matter systems of contemporary interest is important for understanding how emergent properties are encoded in the landscape and for calculating these properties while faithfully representing barriers between different morphologies. The pathways characterized in full dimensionality, which are used to construct kinetic transition networks, may prove useful in guiding such calculations. The energy landscape perspective has also produced new procedures for structure prediction and analysis of thermodynamic properties. Basin-hopping global optimization, with alternative acceptance criteria and generalizations to multiple metric spaces, has been used to treat systems ranging from biomolecules to nanoalloy clusters and condensed matter. This review also illustrates how all this methodology, developed in the context of chemical physics, can be transferred to landscapes defined by cost functions associated with machine learning.

  13. Digital landscapes of imagination

    OpenAIRE

    Starlight Vattano

    2014-01-01

    Urban landscapes that exist in the expression of an imaginative sequence define their shape through the digital representation. These hyperreal dimensions, combine imagination and representation as constituents a new reality, which follows the utopian, suprematist and constructivist theories, where the two-dimensional dynamics is transformed into an infinite space in which the imagination creates new forms. Although interpretations of the urban landscape film, put in place a correspondence be...

  14. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: evolving concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jay H; Moua, Teng; Daniels, Craig E; Hartman, Thomas E; Yi, Eunhee S; Utz, James P; Limper, Andrew H

    2014-08-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) occurs predominantly in middle-aged and older adults and accounts for 20% to 30% of interstitial lung diseases. It is usually progressive, resulting in respiratory failure and death. Diagnostic criteria for IPF have evolved over the years, and IPF is currently defined as a disease characterized by the histopathologic pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia occurring in the absence of an identifiable cause of lung injury. Understanding of the pathogenesis of IPF has shifted away from chronic inflammation and toward dysregulated fibroproliferative repair in response to alveolar epithelial injury. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is likely a heterogeneous disorder caused by various interactions between genetic components and environmental exposures. High-resolution computed tomography can be diagnostic in the presence of typical findings such as bilateral reticular opacities associated with traction bronchiectasis/bronchiolectasis in a predominantly basal and subpleural distribution, along with subpleural honeycombing. In other circumstances, a surgical lung biopsy may be needed. The clinical course of IPF can be unpredictable and may be punctuated by acute deteriorations (acute exacerbation). Although progress continues in unraveling the mechanisms of IPF, effective therapy has remained elusive. Thus, clinicians and patients need to reach informed decisions regarding management options including lung transplant. The findings in this review were based on a literature search of PubMed using the search terms idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and usual interstitial pneumonia, limited to human studies in the English language published from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2013, and supplemented by key references published before the year 2000. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. New infrastructures, new landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Nifosì

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available New infrastructures, new landscapes AbstractThe paper will discuss one recent Italian project that share a common background: the relevance of the existing maritime landscape as a non negotiable value. The studies will be discussed in details a feasibility study for the new port in Monfalcone. National infrastructural policies emphasize competitiveness and connection as a central issue incultural, economic and political development of communities . Based on networks and system development along passageways that make up the European infrastructural armor; the two are considered at the meantime as cause and effect of "territorialisation”. These two views are obviously mutually dependent. It's hard to think about a strong attractiveness out of the network, and to be part of the latter encourages competitiveness. Nonetheless this has proved to be conflictual when landscape values and the related attractiveness are considered.The presented case study project, is pursuing the ambition to promote a new approach in realizing large infrastructures; its double role is to improve connectivity and to generate lasting and positive impact on the local regions. It deal with issues of inter-modality and the construction of nodes and lines which connects Europe, and its markets.Reverting the usual approach which consider landscape project as as a way to mitigate or to compensate for the infrastructure, the goal is to succeed in realizing large infrastructural works by conceiving them as an occasion to reinterpret a region or, as extraordinary opportunities, to build new landscapes.The strategy proposed consists in achieving structural images based on the reinforcement of the environmental and historical-landscape systems. Starting from the reinterpretation of local maritime context and resources it is possible not just to preserve the attractiveness of a specific landscape but also to conceive infrastructure in a more efficient way. 

  16. Semiotics in landscape design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Jorgensen

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper claims that concepts of language can help us create better and more relevant landscape design. It is based on research undertaken by Karsten Jørgensen (1989, and subsequent studies carried out at the department of Land Use and Landscape Planning at the Agricultural University in Norway. The 'signs' that constitute the design language are categorised using the analytical vocabulary of landscape design; for example, elements, materials, effects and shapes. Studies of these signs are based on elements of semiotics and cognitive science, especially the Umwelt-theories developed by Jakob von Uexküll (Hoffmeyer 1994. We are constantly exposed to numerous signs of different kinds. Everywhere in society we see signs around us; for example, traffic signs, advertising signs and logos. It is therefore relevant to introduce the term 'semiosphere' in order to focus on the significance of semiosis at all levels of activity in the world, from cellular activities, to complex systems of development such as those found in a population. This study focuses on the semantic aspects of landscape architecture. In explaining the meaning of a statement, it is useful to have a set of rules or 'codes' to correlate a specific expression with a specific interpretation. These codes may be based on conventions, or on similarity between or stylisation of objects, such as natural or cultural landscapes. In any case, they are based on the interpreter's language and 'mind-structure'. At a general level, it is only possible to study sign content. To analyse meaning in landscape design you have to look at the context; for example, the overall composition of a garden or park and the situation, which includes the interpreter's cultural background, their experiences and so on. In other words, you have to analyse a specific case to be able to speak reasonably about meaning in landscape (designs.

  17. European landscape architecture and territorial strategies for water landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diedrich, Lisa Babette

    2010-01-01

    This article sums up the author’s lecture at the 2009 Sydney Resilient Water Landscapes Symposium and presents a series of realized or planned European landscape architectural and urbanistic projects on water landscapes taken from the recently published book On Site/ Landscape Architecture Europe...... and accompanying reflections. The hypothesis is that further scientific research can help defining weaknesses and strengths of the existing water landscape designs in terms of resilience, extract principles and tools, improve the weak ones and communicate the strong ones and develop general quality criteria...... and tools for future resilient water landscapes....

  18. Geomorpho-Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farabollini, Piero; Lugeri, Francesca; Amadio, Vittorio

    2014-05-01

    Landscape is the object of human perceptions, being the image of spatial organization of elements and structures: mankind lives the first approach with the environment, viewing and feeling the landscape. Many definitions of landscape have been given over time: in this case we refer to the Landscape defined as the result of interaction among physical, biotic and anthropic phenomena acting in a different spatial-temporal scale (Foreman & Godron) Following an Aristotelic approach in studying nature, we can assert that " Shape is synthesis": so it is possible to read the land features as the expression of the endogenous and exogenous processes that mould earth surfaces; moreover, Landscape is the result of the interaction of natural and cultural components, and conditions the spatial-temporal development of a region. The study of the Landscape offers results useful in order to promote sustainable development, ecotourism, enhancement of natural and cultural heritage, popularization of the scientific knowledge. In Italy, a very important GIS-based tool to represent the territory is the "Carta della Natura" ("Map of Nature", presently coordinated by the ISPRA) that aims at assessing the state of the whole Italian territory, analyzing Landscape. The methodology follows a holistic approach, taking into consideration all the components of a landscape and then integrating the information. Each individual landscape, studied at different scales, shows distinctive elements: structural, which depend on physical form and specific spatial organization; functional, which depend on relationships created between biotic and abiotic elements, and dynamic, which depend on the successive evolution of the structure. The identification of the landscape units, recognized at different scales of analysis, allows an evaluation of the state of the land, referring to the dual risk/resource which characterizes the Italian country. An interesting opportunity is to discover those areas of unusual

  19. Globalization and Landscape Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert R. Hewitt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The literature review examines globalization and landscape architecture as discourse, samples its various meanings, and proposes methods to identify and contextualize its specific literature. Methodologically, the review surveys published articles and books by leading authors and within the WorldCat.org Database associated with landscape architecture and globalization, analyzing survey results for comprehensive conceptual and co-relational frameworks. Three “higher order” dimensions frame the review’s conceptual organization, facilitating the organization of subordinate/subtopical areas of interest useful for comparative analysis. Comparative analysis of the literature suggests an uneven clustering of discipline-related subject matter across the literature’s “higher order” dimensions, with a much smaller body of literature related to landscape architecture confined primarily to topics associated with the dispersion of global phenomena. A subcomponent of this smaller body of literature is associated with other fields of study, but inferentially related to landscape architecture. The review offers separate references and bibliographies for globalization literature in general and globalization and landscape architecture literature, specifically.

  20. A General Model for Estimating Macroevolutionary Landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Florian C; Démery, Vincent; Conti, Elena; Harmon, Luke J; Uyeda, Josef

    2018-03-01

    The evolution of quantitative characters over long timescales is often studied using stochastic diffusion models. The current toolbox available to students of macroevolution is however limited to two main models: Brownian motion and the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, plus some of their extensions. Here, we present a very general model for inferring the dynamics of quantitative characters evolving under both random diffusion and deterministic forces of any possible shape and strength, which can accommodate interesting evolutionary scenarios like directional trends, disruptive selection, or macroevolutionary landscapes with multiple peaks. This model is based on a general partial differential equation widely used in statistical mechanics: the Fokker-Planck equation, also known in population genetics as the Kolmogorov forward equation. We thus call the model FPK, for Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov. We first explain how this model can be used to describe macroevolutionary landscapes over which quantitative traits evolve and, more importantly, we detail how it can be fitted to empirical data. Using simulations, we show that the model has good behavior both in terms of discrimination from alternative models and in terms of parameter inference. We provide R code to fit the model to empirical data using either maximum-likelihood or Bayesian estimation, and illustrate the use of this code with two empirical examples of body mass evolution in mammals. FPK should greatly expand the set of macroevolutionary scenarios that can be studied since it opens the way to estimating macroevolutionary landscapes of any conceivable shape. [Adaptation; bounds; diffusion; FPK model; macroevolution; maximum-likelihood estimation; MCMC methods; phylogenetic comparative data; selection.].

  1. Regulatory Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

    1999-01-01

    As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

  2. Regulatory Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators. The appli......Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators....... The application of bench-marking in regulation, however, requires specific steps in terms of data validation, model specification and outlier detection that are not systematically documented in open publications, leading to discussions about regulatory stability and economic feasibility of these techniques...

  3. Regulatory Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators. The appli......Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators....... The application of benchmarking in regulation, however, requires specific steps in terms of data validation, model specification and outlier detection that are not systematically documented in open publications, leading to discussions about regulatory stability and economic feasibility of these techniques...

  4. Evolving Technologies: A View to Tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarkin, Molly; Rodrigo, Shelley

    2011-01-01

    Technology leaders must participate in strategy creation as well as operational delivery within higher education institutions. The future of higher education--the view to tomorrow--is irrevocably integrated and intertwined with evolving technologies. This article focuses on two specific evolving technologies: (1) alternative IT sourcing; and (2)…

  5. Qualifying Urban Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel; Nielsen, Tom; Daugaard, Morten

    2010-01-01

    The article presents an attempt to develop alternatives to the dominant planning and design principles used in building and rebuilding the contemporary urban landscape. The basic idea is that the ‘forces of modernisation’ driving current development might result in a broader and more interesting...... for contemporary urban landscape design practice....... to the task of constructing and improving things. With this goal, a set of objectives based in important insights from recent urban theory are formulated constituting the normative spine of the analysis of a number of found situations as basis for formulating eight generic concepts of qualification...

  6. Digital landscapes of imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starlight Vattano

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban landscapes that exist in the expression of an imaginative sequence define their shape through the digital representation. These hyperreal dimensions, combine imagination and representation as constituents a new reality, which follows the utopian, suprematist and constructivist theories, where the two-dimensional dynamics is transformed into an infinite space in which the imagination creates new forms. Although interpretations of the urban landscape film, put in place a correspondence between reality and virtuality, into the modeling of spatial movements, from which do not arise contraries, but only interdependencies. It is a particular type of representation that takes shape via the digital in motion and provides new tools for urban representation.

  7. Imagine A Collective Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Silvia Campanini

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Iceland plays a key role in the circumpolar context. The research investigates the fields of both the icelandic cultural landscape perception and the icelandic cultural identity. It considers the book Ultima thule; or, a summer in Iceland and Ólafur Elíasson art works as two sides of a same medal: the Iceland on the brain concept (F. Burton. The transition from a cultural identity to a collective landscape identity is investigated analysing Imagine J. Lennon's song which inspired Yõko Ono's work art titled Imagine Peace Tower.

  8. Evolvability Search: Directly Selecting for Evolvability in order to Study and Produce It

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengistu, Henok; Lehman, Joel Anthony; Clune, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    of evolvable digital phenotypes. Although some types of selection in evolutionary computation indirectly encourage evolvability, one unexplored possibility is to directly select for evolvability. To do so, we estimate an individual's future potential for diversity by calculating the behavioral diversity of its...... immediate offspring, and select organisms with increased offspring variation. While the technique is computationally expensive, we hypothesized that direct selection would better encourage evolvability than indirect methods. Experiments in two evolutionary robotics domains confirm this hypothesis: in both...... domains, such Evolvability Search produces solutions with higher evolvability than those produced with Novelty Search or traditional objective-based search algorithms. Further experiments demonstrate that the higher evolvability produced by Evolvability Search in a training environment also generalizes...

  9. Decoding the regulatory landscape of medulloblastoma using DNA methylation sequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovestadt, Volker; Jones, David T. W.; Picelli, Simone; Wang, Wei; Kool, Marcel; Northcott, Paul A.; Sultan, Marc; Stachurski, Katharina; Ryzhova, Marina; Warnatz, Hans-Jörg; Ralser, Meryem; Brun, Sonja; Bunt, Jens; Jäger, Natalie; Kleinheinz, Kortine; Erkek, Serap; Weber, Ursula D.; Bartholomae, Cynthia C.; von Kalle, Christof; Lawerenz, Chris; Eils, Jürgen; Koster, Jan; Versteeg, Rogier; Milde, Till; Witt, Olaf; Schmidt, Sabine; Wolf, Stephan; Pietsch, Torsten; Rutkowski, Stefan; Scheurlen, Wolfram; Taylor, Michael D.; Brors, Benedikt; Felsberg, Jörg; Reifenberger, Guido; Borkhardt, Arndt; Lehrach, Hans; Wechsler-Reya, Robert J.; Eils, Roland; Yaspo, Marie-Laure; Landgraf, Pablo; Korshunov, Andrey; Zapatka, Marc; Radlwimmer, Bernhard; Pfister, Stefan M.; Lichter, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic alterations, that is, disruption of DNA methylation and chromatin architecture, are now acknowledged as a universal feature of tumorigenesis. Medulloblastoma, a clinically challenging, malignant childhood brain tumour, is no exception. Despite much progress from recent genomics studies,

  10. Selecting Landscape Plants: Shade Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Relf, Diane; Appleton, Bonnie Lee, 1948-2012; Close, David

    2015-01-01

    Because of the permanency of trees and their importance in the landscape, care must be taken to select the best species for each situation. This publication goes over how to choose landscape trees that are shade tolerant.

  11. Integrodifference equations in patchy landscapes : II: population level consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrave, Jeffrey; Lutscher, Frithjof

    2014-09-01

    We analyze integrodifference equations (IDEs) in patchy landscapes. Movement is described by a dispersal kernel that arises from a random walk model with patch dependent diffusion, settling, and mortality rates, and it incorporates individual behavior at an interface between two patch types. Growth follows a simple Beverton-Holt growth or linear decay. We obtain explicit formulae for the critical domain-size problem, and we illustrate how different individual behavior at the boundary between two patch types affects this quantity. We also study persistence conditions on an infinite, periodic, patchy landscape. We observe that if the population can persist on the landscape, the spatial profile of the invasion evolves into a discontinuous traveling periodic wave that moves with constant speed. Assuming linear determinacy, we calculate the dispersion relation and illustrate how movement behavior affects invasion speed. Numerical simulations justify our approach by showing a close correspondence between the spread rate obtained from the dispersion relation and from numerical simulations.

  12. Qualifying Urban Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel Clemmensen, Thomas; Daugaard, Morten; Nielsen, Tom

    This paper is based on a research project aimed at contributing to the qualification of the aesthetical value of the contemporary urban landscape. We see our work as part of a tradition within the architectural profession of making explorative projects, which combines analysis of the contemporary...

  13. A landscape analysis plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy E. Fleenor

    2002-01-01

    A Landscape Analysis Plan (LAP) sets out broad guidelines for project development within boundaries of the Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystems Project. The plan must be a dynamic, living document, subject to change as new information arises over the course of this very long-term project (several decades). Two watersheds, each of 32,000 acres, were dedicated to...

  14. Ecology, recreation and landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satchell, J E

    1983-01-01

    The article is dedicated to the problems of combining mass tourism in certain countries of Western Europe and environmental protection (OOS) requirements. The ecological damage from recreation is examined and the throughput of the medium is evaluated. The author proposes development of regulable, managable and controllable recreation use of natural resources and landscapes using selective advertising of the recreation sites.

  15. Landscape Planning of Schoolyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeva, A.; Khrapko, O.; Ivanova, O.

    2017-11-01

    The optimal landscape architecture planning of schoolyards allows for creation of favorable conditions for children personal development and physical fitness. The key principles of schoolyard landscape planning, same as for other areas intended for children, are as follows: establishment of a favorable microclimate, safety, aesthetic and educational environment. Green spaces play an essential role in this respect as they are essential to sanitary, hygienic, structural, and spatial planning performing decorative, artistic, cognitive, and educational functions in these areas. Various types of landscape plantings are used in school areas: borders, lawns, beds, vines, ornamental arrangements, and various potted plants. Children’s safety is the key principle when selecting a landscape design type and the plants’ range. Any allergenic, poisonous, thorny, strong-smelling or life-threatening plants are excluded. Plants on school grounds can serve as visual aids for studies. Drought-resistant, attractive, colorful, abundantly blooming plants with variable leaf texture are preferred. Ornamental trees and shrubs as well as perennials and annuals provide a broad plant range for school grounds.

  16. Landscape Assessment (LA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Key; Nathan C. Benson

    2006-01-01

    Landscape Assessment primarily addresses the need to identify and quantify fire effects over large areas, at times involving many burns. In contrast to individual case studies, the ability to compare results is emphasized along with the capacity to aggregate information across broad regions and over time. Results show the spatial heterogeneity of burns and how fire...

  17. Landscapes in transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padfield, Rory; Drew, Simon; Syayuti, Khadijah; Page, Susan; Evers, Stephanie; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa; Kangayatkarasu, Nagulendran; Sayok, Alex; Hansen, Sune; Schouten, Greetje; Maulidia, Martha; Papargyropoulou, Effie; Tham, Mun Hou

    2016-01-01

    The recent Southeast Asian haze crisis has generated intense public scrutiny over the rate, methods and types of landscape change in the tropics. Debate has centred on the environmental impacts of large-scale agricultural expansion, particularly the associated loss of high carbon stock forest and

  18. Evolution of networks for body plan patterning; interplay of modularity, robustness and evolvability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten H Ten Tusscher

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A major goal of evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo is to understand how multicellular body plans of increasing complexity have evolved, and how the corresponding developmental programs are genetically encoded. It has been repeatedly argued that key to the evolution of increased body plan complexity is the modularity of the underlying developmental gene regulatory networks (GRNs. This modularity is considered essential for network robustness and evolvability. In our opinion, these ideas, appealing as they may sound, have not been sufficiently tested. Here we use computer simulations to study the evolution of GRNs' underlying body plan patterning. We select for body plan segmentation and differentiation, as these are considered to be major innovations in metazoan evolution. To allow modular networks to evolve, we independently select for segmentation and differentiation. We study both the occurrence and relation of robustness, evolvability and modularity of evolved networks. Interestingly, we observed two distinct evolutionary strategies to evolve a segmented, differentiated body plan. In the first strategy, first segments and then differentiation domains evolve (SF strategy. In the second scenario segments and domains evolve simultaneously (SS strategy. We demonstrate that under indirect selection for robustness the SF strategy becomes dominant. In addition, as a byproduct of this larger robustness, the SF strategy is also more evolvable. Finally, using a combined functional and architectural approach, we determine network modularity. We find that while SS networks generate segments and domains in an integrated manner, SF networks use largely independent modules to produce segments and domains. Surprisingly, we find that widely used, purely architectural methods for determining network modularity completely fail to establish this higher modularity of SF networks. Finally, we observe that, as a free side effect of evolving segmentation

  19. Landscape Evolution Modelling-LAPSUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baartman, J. E. M.; Temme, A. J. A. M.; Schoorl, J. M.; Claessens, L.; Viveen, W.; Gorp, W. van; Veldkamp, A.

    2009-07-01

    Landscape evolution modelling can make the consequences of landscape evolution hypotheses explicit and theoretically allows for their falsification and improvement. ideally, landscape evolution models (LEMs) combine the results of all relevant landscape forming processes into an ever-adapting digital landscape (e.g. DEM). These processes may act on different spatial and temporal scales. LAPSUS is such a LEM. Processes that have in different studies been included in LAPSUS are water erosion and deposition, landslide activity, creep, solidification, weathering, tectonics and tillage. Process descriptions are as simple and generic as possible, ensuring wide applicability. (Author) 25 refs.

  20. Landscape Evolution Modelling-LAPSUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baartman, J. E. M.; Temme, A. J. A. M.; Schoorl, J. M.; Claessens, L.; Viveen, W.; Gorp, W. van; Veldkamp, A.

    2009-01-01

    Landscape evolution modelling can make the consequences of landscape evolution hypotheses explicit and theoretically allows for their falsification and improvement. ideally, landscape evolution models (LEMs) combine the results of all relevant landscape forming processes into an ever-adapting digital landscape (e.g. DEM). These processes may act on different spatial and temporal scales. LAPSUS is such a LEM. Processes that have in different studies been included in LAPSUS are water erosion and deposition, landslide activity, creep, solidification, weathering, tectonics and tillage. Process descriptions are as simple and generic as possible, ensuring wide applicability. (Author) 25 refs.

  1. Sex determination: ways to evolve a hermaphrodite.

    OpenAIRE

    Braendle , Christian; Félix , Marie-Anne

    2006-01-01

    Most species of the nematode genus Caenorhabditis reproduce through males and females; C. elegans and C. briggsae, however, produce self-fertile hermaphrodites instead of females. These transitions to hermaphroditism evolved convergently through distinct modifications of germline sex determination mechanisms.

  2. WSC-07: Evolving the Web Services Challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blake, M. Brian; Cheung, William K.W.; Jaeger, Michael C.; Wombacher, Andreas

    Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is an evolving architectural paradigm where businesses can expose their capabilities as modular, network-accessible software services. By decomposing capabilities into modular services, organizations can share their offerings at multiple levels of granularity

  3. Marshal: Maintaining Evolving Models, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SIFT proposes to design and develop the Marshal system, a mixed-initiative tool for maintaining task models over the course of evolving missions. Marshal-enabled...

  4. Satcom access in the Evolved Packet Core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cano Soveri, M.D.; Norp, A.H.J.; Popova, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    Satellite communications (Satcom) networks are increasingly integrating with terrestrial communications networks, namely Next Generation Networks (NGN). In the area of NGN the Evolved Packet Core (EPC) is a new network architecture that can support multiple access technologies. When Satcom is

  5. Satcom access in the evolved packet core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cano, M.D.; Norp, A.H.J.; Popova, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Satellite communications (Satcom) networks are increasingly integrating with terrestrial communications networks, namely Next Generation Networks (NGN). In the area of NGN the Evolved Packet Core (EPC) is a new network architecture that can support multiple access technologies. When Satcom is

  6. Evolving effective incremental SAT solvers with GP

    OpenAIRE

    Bader, Mohamed; Poli, R.

    2008-01-01

    Hyper-Heuristics could simply be defined as heuristics to choose other heuristics, and it is a way of combining existing heuristics to generate new ones. In a Hyper-Heuristic framework, the framework is used for evolving effective incremental (Inc*) solvers for SAT. We test the evolved heuristics (IncHH) against other known local search heuristics on a variety of benchmark SAT problems.

  7. Urban Landscape Architecture in the Reshaping of the Contemporary Cityscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananiadou-Tzimopoulou, Maria; Bourlidou, Anastasia

    2017-10-01

    The contemporary urban landscape is the evolving image of dynamic social, economic and ecological changes and heterogeneity. It constitutes the mirror of history, natural and cultural, urban processes, as well as locations of hybrid character, such as degraded and fragmented spaces within the urban fabric or in the city boundaries -areas in between, infrastructures, post-industrial and waterfront sites, but also potential grounds for urban development. Along with the awakening of the global ecological awareness and the ongoing discussion on sustainability issues, the cityscape with its new attributes, constitutes a challenging field of research and planning for various disciplines, further more than landscape architecture, such as architecture, planning, ecology, environment and engineering. This paper focuses on the role of urban landscape architecture, via its theory and practice, in the reshaping of the city territory. It aspires to broaden the discussion concerning the upgrading of the contemporary cities, aiming firstly at the determination of a wider vocabulary for the urban landscape and its design, and secondly at the highlighting of landscape architecture’s contribution to the sustainable perspective of urban design and planning. The methodology is based on a comparative research implemented both on a theoretical level and on a level of applied work. Urban landscape architecture is described through theory and practice, along with correlative approaches deriving mainly from landscape urbanism and secondarily from the field of architecture. Urban landscape is approached as a socio-ecological and perceptual legible, a territory of culture, process and production; operating as an entity of ecological, infrastructural systems and planning needs, it is also regarded as a precedent for urban development. Furthermore, the research is supported by selected European and International urban landscape projects, presented in a cohesive multiscalar approach, from the

  8. 75 FR 3693 - Empowering Parents and Protecting Children in an Evolving Media Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... by the Association of National Advertisers, the American Advertising Federation, the American Association of Advertising Agencies, the Direct Marketing Association, the Interactive Advertising Bureau, and the Promotion Marketing Association. The second request for an extension of time was filed January 7...

  9. Multifunctional energy landscape for a DNA G-quadruplex: An evolved molecular switch

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cragnolini, T.; Chakraborty, D.; Šponer, Jiří; Derreumaux, P.; Pasquali, S.; Wales, D.J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 147, č. 15 (2017), č. článku 152715. ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-13721S Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : telomeric g-quadruplex * gb1 hairpin peptide Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 2.965, year: 2016

  10. Evolving technology, shifting expectations : cultivating pedagogy for a rapidly changing GIS landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricker, Britta; Thatcher, Jim

    2017-01-01

    AbstractAs humans and natural processes continuously reshape the surface of the Earth, there is an unceasing need to document and analyze them through the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The public is gaining more access to spatial technologies that were once only available to highly

  11. Evolving Technology, Shifting Expectations: Cultivating Pedagogy for a Rapidly Changing GIS Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, Britta; Thatcher, Jim

    2017-01-01

    As humans and natural processes continuously reshape the surface of the Earth, there is an unceasing need to document and analyze them through the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The public is gaining more access to spatial technologies that were once only available to highly trained professionals. With technological evolution comes a…

  12. The evolving role of science in wilderness to our understanding of ecosystems and landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman L. Christensen

    2000-01-01

    Research in wilderness areas (areas with minimal human activity and of large spatial extent) formed the foundation for ecological models and theories that continue to shape our understanding how ecosystems change through time, how ecological communities are structured and how ecosystems function. By the middle of this century, large expanses of wilderness had become...

  13. The Evolving Landscape of Neurotoxicity by Unconjugated Bilirubin: Role of Glial Cells and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora eBrites

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia is a common condition in the first week of postnatal life. Although generally harmless, some neonates may develop very high levels of unconjugated bilirubin (UCB, which may surpass the protective mechanisms of the brain at preventing UCB accumulation. In this case, both short-term and long-term neurodevelopmental disabilities, such as acute and chronic UCB encephalopathy, known as kernicterus, or more subtle alterations designed as bilirubin-induced neurological dysfunction (BIND may be produced. There is a tremendous variability in babies’ vulnerability towards UCB for reasons not yet explained, but preterm birth, sepsis, hypoxia and haemolytic disease are comprised as risk factors. Therefore, UCB levels and neurological abnormalities are not strictly correlated. Even nowadays, the mechanisms of UCB neurotoxicity are still unclear, as are specific biomarkers, and little is known about lasting sequelae attributable to hyperbilirubinemia. On autopsy, UCB was shown to be within neurons, neuronal processes and microglia, and to produce loss of neurons, demyelination and gliosis. In isolated cell cultures, UCB was shown to impair neuronal arborization and to induce the release of proinflammatory cytokines from microglia and astrocytes. However, cell dependent-sensitivity to UCB toxicity and the role of each nerve cell type remain understood. This review provides a comprehensive insight into cell susceptibilities and molecular targets of UCB in neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, and on phenotypic and functional responses of microglia to UCB. Interplay among glia elements and cross-talk with neurons, with a special emphasis in the UCB-induced immunostimulation, and the role of sepsis in BIND pathogenesis are highlighted. New and interesting data on the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of different pharmacological agents are also presented, as novel and promising additional therapeutic approaches to BIND.

  14. Evolving Health Expenditure Landscape of the BRICS Nations and Projections to 2025.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo; Potapchik, Elena; Popovich, Larisa; Barik, Debasis; Getzen, Thomas E

    2017-07-01

    Global health spending share of low/middle income countries continues its long-term growth. BRICS nations remain to be major drivers of such change since 1990s. Governmental, private and out-of-pocket health expenditures were analyzed based on WHO sources. Medium-term projections of national health spending to 2025 were provided based on macroeconomic budgetary excess growth model. In terms of per capita spending Russia was highest in 2013. India's health expenditure did not match overall economic growth and fell to slightly less than 4% of GDP. Up to 2025 China will achieve highest excess growth rate of 2% and increase its GDP% spent on health care from 5.4% in 2012 to 6.6% in 2025. Russia's spending will remain highest among BRICS in absolute per capita terms reaching net gain from $1523 PPP in 2012 to $2214 PPP in 2025. In spite of BRICS' diversity, all countries were able to significantly increase their investments in health care. The major setback was bold rise in out-of-pocket spending. Most of BRICS' growing share of global medical spending was heavily attributable to the overachievement of People's Republic of China. Such trend is highly likely to continue beyond 2025. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Ecological Functions of Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryushin, V. I.

    2018-01-01

    Ecological functions of landscapes are considered a system of processes ensuring the development, preservation, and evolution of ecosystems and the biosphere as a whole. The concept of biogeocenosis can be considered a model that integrates biotic and environmental functions. The most general biogeocenotic functions specify the biodiversity, biotic links, self-organization, and evolution of ecosystems. Close interaction between biocenosis and the biotope (ecotope) is ensured by the continuous exchange of matter, energy, and information. Ecotope determines the biocenosis. The group of ecotopic functions includes atmospheric (gas exchange, heat exchange, hydroatmospheric, climate-forming), lithospheric (geodynamic, geophysical, and geochemical), hydrologic and hydrogeologic functions of landscape and ecotopic functions of soils. Bioecological functions emerge as a result of the biotope and ecotope interaction; these are the bioproductive, destructive, organoaccumulative, biochemical (gas, concentration, redox, biochemical, biopedological), pedogenetic, and energy functions

  16. Conceiving Landscape through Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farsø, Mads; Munck Petersen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    This article shows how the media of film can be integrated, explored and can add value to architectural design studios and practice. It elucidates how film may offer an alternative position in architecture, where landscapes and cities are thought, planned and developed in closer relation...... to their spatial and sensory effects on humans. It underscores that the film camera can work as a kind of amplifier of how we, with our bodies, perceive space and project space. In the “Landscape Film” Studio at University of Copenhagen the film medium was tested as a combined registration and design tool...... for a new Nature Park south of Copenhagen. The final studio films and designs show how resonate recordings of sound, time and a bodily presence may simulate an Einfühling that inspires an alternative architecture of relations: the ambient, the changeable and the volatile. They also emphasize that an ability...

  17. Landscape & Imagination: riflettere insieme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariella Zoppi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In Paris, at La Villette University, was four-days of debate on 2-4 Mai 2013, in which faculty members of all the world discussed on methods and experiences in teaching landscape. The conference was organized in multiple sessions: history, theories, representation, process, science and governance. All the fields discussed were related to the main problem of the identity of territories in the landscape project -from the theories to the practices- and applied in a very large range of different situations: from the rural world between conservation and transformations to the coastal areas under the pressure of tourism, from the ecology in the city life renovation to the land use control and project by community and the emergency management in natural catastrophes.

  18. Identification Of Minangkabau Landscape Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrina, M.; Gunawan, A.; Aris, Munandar

    2017-10-01

    Minangkabau is one of cultures in indonesia which occupies landscape intact. Landscape of Minangkabau have a very close relationship with the culture of the people. Uniqueness of Minangkabau culture and landscape forming an inseparable characterunity. The landscape is necessarily identified to know the inherent landscape characters. The objective of this study was to identify the character of the Minangkabau landscape characterizes its uniqueness. The study was conducted by using descriptive method comprised literature review and field observasion. Observed the landscape characters comprised two main features, they were major and minor features. Indetification of the features was conducted in two original areas (darek) of the Minangkabau traditional society. The research results showed that major features or natural features of the landscape were predominantly landform, landcover, and hidrology. All luhak (districts) of Minangkabau showed similar main features such as hill, canyon, lake, valley, and forest. The existence of natural features such as hills, canyon and valleys characterizes the nature of minangkabau landscape. Minor features formed by Minangkabau cultural society were agricultural land and settlement. Rumah gadang (big house) is one of famous minor features characterizes the Minangkabau culture. In addition, several historical artefacts of building and others structure may strengthen uniqueness of the Minangkabau landscape character, such as The royal palace, inscription, and tunnels.

  19. Effective Management of Trans boundary Landscapes - Geospatial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotru, R.; Rawal, R. S.; Mathur, P. K.; Chettri, N.; Chaudhari, S. A.; Uddin, K.; Murthy, M. S. R.; Singh, S.

    2014-11-01

    The Convention on Biological Diversity advocates the use of landscape and ecosystem approaches for managing biodiversity, in recognition of the need for increased regional cooperation. In this context, ICIMOD and regional partners have evolved Transboundary Landscape concept to address the issues of conservation and sustainable use of natural resources and systems (e.g., biodiversity, rangelands, farming systems, forests, wetlands, and watersheds, etc.). This concept defines the landscapes by ecosystems rather than political/administrative boundaries. The Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region is extremely heterogeneous, with complex inter linkages of biomes and habitats as well as strong upstream-downstream linkages related to the provisioning of ecosystem services. Seven such transboundary landscapes, identified across west to east extent of HKH, have been considered for programmatic cooperation, include: Wakhan, Karakoram-Pamir, Kailash, Everest, Kangchenjunga, Brahmaputra-Salween, and Cherrapunjee- Chittagong. The approach is people centered and considers the cultural conservation as an essential first step towards resource conservation efforts in the region. Considering the multi-scale requirements of study, the geospatial technology has been effectively adopted towards: (i) understanding temporal changes in landscapes, (ii) long term ecological and social monitoring, (ii) identifying potential bio corridors, (iii) assessing landscape level vulnerability due to climatic and non-climatic drivers, and (iv) developing local plans on extractions of high value economic species supporting livelihoods, agroforestry system and ecotourism, etc. We present here our recent experiences across different landscapes on assessment of three decadal changes, vegetation type mapping, assessment of socio-ecological drivers, corridor assessment, ecosystem services assessment, models for optimal natural resource use systems and long term socio-ecological monitoring.

  20. Visualizing phylogenetic tree landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilgenbusch, James C; Huang, Wen; Gallivan, Kyle A

    2017-02-02

    Genomic-scale sequence alignments are increasingly used to infer phylogenies in order to better understand the processes and patterns of evolution. Different partitions within these new alignments (e.g., genes, codon positions, and structural features) often favor hundreds if not thousands of competing phylogenies. Summarizing and comparing phylogenies obtained from multi-source data sets using current consensus tree methods discards valuable information and can disguise potential methodological problems. Discovery of efficient and accurate dimensionality reduction methods used to display at once in 2- or 3- dimensions the relationship among these competing phylogenies will help practitioners diagnose the limits of current evolutionary models and potential problems with phylogenetic reconstruction methods when analyzing large multi-source data sets. We introduce several dimensionality reduction methods to visualize in 2- and 3-dimensions the relationship among competing phylogenies obtained from gene partitions found in three mid- to large-size mitochondrial genome alignments. We test the performance of these dimensionality reduction methods by applying several goodness-of-fit measures. The intrinsic dimensionality of each data set is also estimated to determine whether projections in 2- and 3-dimensions can be expected to reveal meaningful relationships among trees from different data partitions. Several new approaches to aid in the comparison of different phylogenetic landscapes are presented. Curvilinear Components Analysis (CCA) and a stochastic gradient decent (SGD) optimization method give the best representation of the original tree-to-tree distance matrix for each of the three- mitochondrial genome alignments and greatly outperformed the method currently used to visualize tree landscapes. The CCA + SGD method converged at least as fast as previously applied methods for visualizing tree landscapes. We demonstrate for all three mtDNA alignments that 3D

  1. Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs Workshop Two: Agricultural Landscapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted two workshops on Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs with Oak Ridge and Argonne National Laboratories in 2014. The second workshop focused on agricultural landscapes and took place in Argonne, IL from June 24—26, 2014. The workshop brought together experts to discuss how landscape design can contribute to the deployment and assessment of sustainable bioenergy. This report summarizes the discussions that occurred at this particular workshop.

  2. Evolution of Cis-Regulatory Elements and Regulatory Networks in Duplicated Genes of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsovski, Andrej A; Pradinuk, Julian; Guo, Xu Qiu; Wang, Sishuo; Adams, Keith L

    2015-12-01

    Plant genomes contain large numbers of duplicated genes that contribute to the evolution of new functions. Following duplication, genes can exhibit divergence in their coding sequence and their expression patterns. Changes in the cis-regulatory element landscape can result in changes in gene expression patterns. High-throughput methods developed recently can identify potential cis-regulatory elements on a genome-wide scale. Here, we use a recent comprehensive data set of DNase I sequencing-identified cis-regulatory binding sites (footprints) at single-base-pair resolution to compare binding sites and network connectivity in duplicated gene pairs in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We found that duplicated gene pairs vary greatly in their cis-regulatory element architecture, resulting in changes in regulatory network connectivity. Whole-genome duplicates (WGDs) have approximately twice as many footprints in their promoters left by potential regulatory proteins than do tandem duplicates (TDs). The WGDs have a greater average number of footprint differences between paralogs than TDs. The footprints, in turn, result in more regulatory network connections between WGDs and other genes, forming denser, more complex regulatory networks than shown by TDs. When comparing regulatory connections between duplicates, WGDs had more pairs in which the two genes are either partially or fully diverged in their network connections, but fewer genes with no network connections than the TDs. There is evidence of younger TDs and WGDs having fewer unique connections compared with older duplicates. This study provides insights into cis-regulatory element evolution and network divergence in duplicated genes. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  3. As to achieve regulatory action, regulatory approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cid, R.; Encinas, D.

    2014-01-01

    The achievement of the effectiveness in the performance of a nuclear regulatory body has been a permanent challenge in the recent history of nuclear regulation. In the post-Fukushima era this challenge is even more important. This article addresses the subject from two complementary points of view: the characteristics of an effective regulatory body and the regulatory approaches. This work is based on the most recent studies carried out by the Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities, CNRA (OECD/NEA), as well as on the experience of the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, CSN, the Spanish regulatory body. Rafael Cid is the representative of CSN in these project: Diego Encinas has participated in the study on regulatory approaches. (Author)

  4. Integrated landscape initiatives in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Martín, María; Bieling, Claudia; Hart, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    Landscapes are linked to human well-being in a multitude of ways, some of which are challenged by global market forces and traditional management approaches. In response to this situation there has been a rise in local initiatives to sustain the values of landscape. The aim of this paper is to pr......Landscapes are linked to human well-being in a multitude of ways, some of which are challenged by global market forces and traditional management approaches. In response to this situation there has been a rise in local initiatives to sustain the values of landscape. The aim of this paper...... searches and canvassing of European umbrella organisations; followed by an online survey of representatives from the identified initiatives (n??=??71). Our results show that the most relevant characteristics of integrated landscape initiatives in Europe are: a holistic approach to landscape management...

  5. A 'Turing' Test for Landscape Evolution Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, A. J.; Wise, S. M.; Wainwright, J.; Swift, D. A.

    2008-12-01

    Resolving the interactions among tectonics, climate and surface processes at long timescales has benefited from the development of computer models of landscape evolution. However, testing these Landscape Evolution Models (LEMs) has been piecemeal and partial. We argue that a more systematic approach is required. What is needed is a test that will establish how 'realistic' an LEM is and thus the extent to which its predictions may be trusted. We propose a test based upon the Turing Test of artificial intelligence as a way forward. In 1950 Alan Turing posed the question of whether a machine could think. Rather than attempt to address the question directly he proposed a test in which an interrogator asked questions of a person and a machine, with no means of telling which was which. If the machine's answer could not be distinguished from those of the human, the machine could be said to demonstrate artificial intelligence. By analogy, if an LEM cannot be distinguished from a real landscape it can be deemed to be realistic. The Turing test of intelligence is a test of the way in which a computer behaves. The analogy in the case of an LEM is that it should show realistic behaviour in terms of form and process, both at a given moment in time (punctual) and in the way both form and process evolve over time (dynamic). For some of these behaviours, tests already exist. For example there are numerous morphometric tests of punctual form and measurements of punctual process. The test discussed in this paper provides new ways of assessing dynamic behaviour of an LEM over realistically long timescales. However challenges remain in developing an appropriate suite of challenging tests, in applying these tests to current LEMs and in developing LEMs that pass them.

  6. Flowscapes: Designing infrastructure as landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Nijhuis, S.; Jauslin, D.T.; Van der Hoeven, F.D.

    2015-01-01

    Social, cultural and technological developments of our society are demanding a fundamental review of the planning and design of its landscapes and infrastructures, in particular in relation to environmental issues and sustainability. Transportation, green and water infrastructures are important agents that facilitate processes that shape the built environment and its contemporary landscapes. With movement and flows at the core, these landscape infrastructures facilitate aesthetic, functional,...

  7. Evolving Intelligent Systems Methodology and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Angelov, Plamen; Kasabov, Nik

    2010-01-01

    From theory to techniques, the first all-in-one resource for EIS. There is a clear demand in advanced process industries, defense, and Internet and communication (VoIP) applications for intelligent yet adaptive/evolving systems. Evolving Intelligent Systems is the first self- contained volume that covers this newly established concept in its entirety, from a systematic methodology to case studies to industrial applications. Featuring chapters written by leading world experts, it addresses the progress, trends, and major achievements in this emerging research field, with a strong emphasis on th

  8. Interactively Evolving Compositional Sound Synthesis Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Björn Þór; Hoover, Amy K.; Risi, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    the space of potential sounds that can be generated through such compositional sound synthesis networks (CSSNs). To study the effect of evolution on subjective appreciation, participants in a listener study ranked evolved timbres by personal preference, resulting in preferences skewed toward the first......While the success of electronic music often relies on the uniqueness and quality of selected timbres, many musicians struggle with complicated and expensive equipment and techniques to create their desired sounds. Instead, this paper presents a technique for producing novel timbres that are evolved...

  9. Multiple coupled landscapes and non-adiabatic dynamics with applications to self-activating genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cong; Zhang, Kun; Feng, Haidong; Sasai, Masaki; Wang, Jin

    2015-11-21

    Many physical, chemical and biochemical systems (e.g. electronic dynamics and gene regulatory networks) are governed by continuous stochastic processes (e.g. electron dynamics on a particular electronic energy surface and protein (gene product) synthesis) coupled with discrete processes (e.g. hopping among different electronic energy surfaces and on and off switching of genes). One can also think of the underlying dynamics as the continuous motion on a particular landscape and discrete hoppings among different landscapes. The main difference of such systems from the intra-landscape dynamics alone is the emergence of the timescale involved in transitions among different landscapes in addition to the timescale involved in a particular landscape. The adiabatic limit when inter-landscape hoppings are fast compared to continuous intra-landscape dynamics has been studied both analytically and numerically, but the analytical treatment of the non-adiabatic regime where the inter-landscape hoppings are slow or comparable to continuous intra-landscape dynamics remains challenging. In this study, we show that there exists mathematical mapping of the dynamics on 2(N) discretely coupled N continuous dimensional landscapes onto one single landscape in 2N dimensional extended continuous space. On this 2N dimensional landscape, eddy current emerges as a sign of non-equilibrium non-adiabatic dynamics and plays an important role in system evolution. Many interesting physical effects such as the enhancement of fluctuations, irreversibility, dissipation and optimal kinetics emerge due to non-adiabaticity manifested by the eddy current illustrated for an N = 1 self-activator. We further generalize our theory to the N-gene network with multiple binding sites and multiple synthesis rates for discretely coupled non-equilibrium stochastic physical and biological systems.

  10. Energy landscape Allgaeu; Energielandschaft Allgaeu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-01

    In tandems with questions on the energy policy turnaround, the topics cultural landscape history, morphology, actual land use, tourism, settlement development or infrastructure are summarized in regional concepts and designs to a consistent landscape. Thus, a true integration of renewable energies in the landscape enhances existing or creates completely new landscape qualities. Energy supply shall be understood as a component of the every day life world. The energy supply shall not be hidden any more, but it rather should be communicated as the brand 'Allgaeu'.

  11. The Value of Landscape Essence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Marques Freire

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to interpreting the landscape is examined by accepting its complexity through inductive reasoning. While attempting to identify the essence of the landscape in the city and municipality of Óbidos, Portugal, several architectural recommendations of Venturi (2004 have been adapted as a framework for understanding this landscape. These will then guide the process of landscape transformation through:•••using the concepts of closed and contained spaces and the concept of fluid space;•recognising the existence of interstitial open spaces;•using those elements which are common to the distinct typologies of space;•defining the components that should be respected and those that can be respected;•observing landscape as a whole , while emphasising the relationship between the parts and the whole; and•rejecting simplification in the landscape transformation process.valuing the ambiguity incorporating the complexity Underlying this approach is the belief that the process of transformation must be based on the essence of each landscape. This implies the use of elements and structures of the landscape which are related to ecological, morphological and cultural systems. These elements and structures represent points of reference which should be considered in the process of landscape transformation.

  12. Impressionist Landscape Cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Stella W.

    2018-05-01

    Cartography helps to show us the world in which we reside by providing us a framework to explore space. We can select myriad themes to represent what is relevant to our lives: physical characteristics, human behaviors, hazards, opportunities. Themes are represented on a continuum between real-world images and pure abstractions. How we define cartography and what we expect from it changes with society and technology. We are now inundated with data but we still struggle with expressing our personal geographic experiences through cartography. In this age of information we have become more cognizant of our individual experience of place and our need to determine our own paths and therefore create our own maps. In order to reflect our journey we can add individual details to cartographic products or generalize information to concentrate on what is meaningful to us. Since time and space are interrelated we experience geography by viewing the landscape as changing scenes over time. This experience is both spatial and temporal since we experience geography by moving through space. Experiencing each scene is a separate event. This paper expands the personalization of maps to include our impressions of the travel experience. Rather than add art to cartography it provides geographic reference to art. It explores the use of a series of quick sketches drawn while traveling along roads using a single drawing pad to produce a time series of interpreted landscapes. With the use of geographic time stamps from global positioning systems these sketches are converted from a drawing to a map documenting the path of movement. Although the map scale varies between sketch entries each scene impression can be linked to one or more maps of consistent scale. The result is an artistic piece that expresses a dynamic geographic experience that can be viewed in conjunction with more traditional maps. Unlike mental maps which are constructed from memory, these maps reflect our direct impressions

  13. Landscape encodings enhance optimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Klemm

    Full Text Available Hard combinatorial optimization problems deal with the search for the minimum cost solutions (ground states of discrete systems under strong constraints. A transformation of state variables may enhance computational tractability. It has been argued that these state encodings are to be chosen invertible to retain the original size of the state space. Here we show how redundant non-invertible encodings enhance optimization by enriching the density of low-energy states. In addition, smooth landscapes may be established on encoded state spaces to guide local search dynamics towards the ground state.

  14. The Anti-Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    There have always been some uninhabitable places, but in the last century human beings have produced many more of them. These anti-landscapes have proliferated to include the sandy wastes of what was once the Aral Sea, severely polluted irrigated lands, open pit mines, blighted nuclear zones...... that no longer sustain life. This history includes T. S. Eliot’s Wasteland and Cormac McCarthy’s The Road as well as air pollution, recycled railway lines, photography and landfills. It links theories of aesthetics, politics, tourism, history, geography, and literature into the new synthesis of the environmental...

  15. Landscapes of the Anthropocene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2014-01-01

    since the 1840s, when indigenous forests were transformed into improved landscapes of sown grass. The chapter is shaped by a broad question. What can be learned from this place about the ways in which people have exercised and are coming to terms with what Gibson-Graham and Roelvink describe as our...... of the shifting balance of ecological agency in favour of humans during the Anthropocene. Banks Peninsula on the east coast of New Zealand’s South Island was first settled by Polynesian peoples within the last few hundred years. The nature of their footprint contrasts with the dramatic change wrought by Europeans...

  16. Stonehenge and its Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    In the 1960s and 1970s, Stonehenge polarized academic opinion between those (mainly astronomers) who claimed it demonstrated great astronomical sophistication and those (mainly archaeologists) who denied it had anything to do with astronomy apart from the solstitial alignment of its main axis. Now, several decades later, links to the annual passage of the sun are generally recognized as an essential part of the function and meaning not only of Stonehenge but also of several other nearby monuments, giving us important insights into beliefs and actions relating to the seasonal cycle by the prehistoric communities who populated this chalkland landscape in the third millennium BC Links to the moon remain more debatable.

  17. Reprogramming the chromatin landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miranda, Tina B; Voss, Ty C; Sung, Myong-Hee

    2013-01-01

    , mechanistic details defining the cellular interactions between ER and GR are poorly understood. We investigated genome-wide binding profiles for ER and GR upon coactivation and characterized the status of the chromatin landscape. We describe a novel mechanism dictating the molecular interplay between ER...... and GR. Upon induction, GR modulates access of ER to specific sites in the genome by reorganization of the chromatin configuration for these elements. Binding to these newly accessible sites occurs either by direct recognition of ER response elements or indirectly through interactions with other factors...

  18. Landscape Encodings Enhance Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Konstantin; Mehta, Anita; Stadler, Peter F.

    2012-01-01

    Hard combinatorial optimization problems deal with the search for the minimum cost solutions (ground states) of discrete systems under strong constraints. A transformation of state variables may enhance computational tractability. It has been argued that these state encodings are to be chosen invertible to retain the original size of the state space. Here we show how redundant non-invertible encodings enhance optimization by enriching the density of low-energy states. In addition, smooth landscapes may be established on encoded state spaces to guide local search dynamics towards the ground state. PMID:22496860

  19. LCMS landscape change monitoring system—results from an information needs assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin Megown; Brian Schwind; Don Evans; Mark. Finco

    2015-01-01

    Understanding changes in land use and land cover over space and time provides an important means to evaluate complex interactions between human and biophysical systems, to project future conditions, and to design mitigation and adaptive management strategies. Assessing and monitoring landscape change is evolving into a foundational element of climate change adaptation...

  20. On the Benefits of Divergent Search for Evolved Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehman, Joel; Risi, Sebastian; Stanley, Kenneth O

    2012-01-01

    Evolved representations in evolutionary computation are often fragile, which can impede representation-dependent mechanisms such as self-adaptation. In contrast, evolved representations in nature are robust, evolvable, and creatively exploit available representational features. This paper provide...

  1. Preface: evolving rotifers, evolving science: Proceedings of the XIV International Rotifer Symposium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Devetter, Miloslav; Fontaneto, D.; Jersabek, Ch.D.; Welch, D.B.M.; May, L.; Walsh, E.J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 796, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-6 ISSN 0018-8158 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : evolving rotifers * 14th International Rotifer Symposium * evolving science Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 2.056, year: 2016

  2. Editorial: Mapping the Intellectual Landscape of Landscape and Urban Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul H. Gobster; Wei-Ning. Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Maps are central to our understanding of landscapes. When this Editorship began to revise the journal's Aims and Scope for presentation in a forthcoming editorial, we sought ways in which we could identify the core knowledge base and boundaries, however permeable, of what the journal community considers to be Landscape and Urban Planning (LAND). Strategically, we...

  3. Landscape Painting in Evaluation of Changes in Landscape

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lacina, Jan; Halas, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2015), s. 60-68 ISSN 1803-2427 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : landscape painting * landscape ecology * land-use changes * biodiversity Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/jlecol.2015.8.issue-2/jlecol-2015-0009/jlecol-2015-0009. xml

  4. Views on Evolvability of Embedded Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, P. van de; Punter, T.

    2011-01-01

    Evolvability, the ability to respond effectively to change, represents a major challenge to today's high-end embedded systems, such as those developed in the medical domain by Philips Healthcare. These systems are typically developed by multi-disciplinary teams, located around the world, and are in

  5. Views on evolvability of embedded systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, van de P.J.L.J.; Punter, H.T.

    2011-01-01

    Evolvability, the ability to respond effectively to change, represents a major challenge to today's high-end embedded systems, such as those developed in the medical domain by Philips Healthcare. These systems are typically developed by multi-disciplinary teams, located around the world, and are in

  6. Designing Garments to Evolve Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisberg, Vibeke; Grose, Lynda

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a REDO of the current fashion paradigm by investigating how garments might be designed to evolve over time. The purpose is to discuss ways of expanding the traditional role of the designer to include temporal dimensions of creating, producing and using clothes and to suggest...... to a REDO of design education, to further research and the future fashion and textile industry....

  7. EVOLVING AN EMPIRICAL METHODOLOGY DOR DETERMINING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The uniqueness of this approach, is that it can be applied to any forest or dynamic feature on the earth, and can enjoy universal application as well. KEY WORDS: Evolving empirical methodology, innovative mathematical model, appropriate interval, remote sensing, forest environment planning and management. Global Jnl ...

  8. Continual Learning through Evolvable Neural Turing Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüders, Benno; Schläger, Mikkel; Risi, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Continual learning, i.e. the ability to sequentially learn tasks without catastrophic forgetting of previously learned ones, is an important open challenge in machine learning. In this paper we take a step in this direction by showing that the recently proposed Evolving Neural Turing Machine (ENTM...

  9. Did Language Evolve Like the Vertebrate Eye?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Rudolf P.

    2002-01-01

    Offers a critical appraisal of the way in which the idea that human language or some of its features evolved like the vertebrate eye by natural selection is articulated in Pinker and Bloom's (1990) selectionist account of language evolution. Argues that this account is less than insightful because it fails to draw some of the conceptual…

  10. Cultural Landscape and Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Haaland

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focus on the way Nepalese migrants in Myanmar use features of the natural environment in their homeland in metaphoric constructions of a cultural landscape expressing ethnic identity. It is through such "symbolic work" that perceptions of "ethnoscapes" are shaped and indoctrinated. Although the appeal is to symbols that can serve to foster the importance of Nepaliness as a basis for belonging to an imagined community, this does not mean that the caste/ethnicity interaction boundaries are broken down. It does mean however that sectors of activities where such boundaries are made relevant have been changed and so has the cultural content organized through such interaction boundaries. Ethnoscapes do not exist by themselves from a 'primordial' past; they require ongoing expression and confirmation. Features of a natural environment most migrants have never seen is used as sources for spinning compelling webs of significance extolling the values of belonging to a group that shares a common past in that environment. I shall here present material of an ethnoscape very different from what is experienced in Nepal, namely Nepalese multi-caste/ethnic communities among Kachins, Shans, Burmese, Indian and Chinese traders in the Kachin state of Northern Myanmar. Keywords: Nepali migrants; Myanmar; ethnic identity; cultural landscape DOI: 10.3126/dsaj.v4i0.4515 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.4 2010 pp.99-110

  11. The Data Science Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzel, C.

    2017-12-01

    Modern scientific data continue to increase in volume, variety, and velocity, and though the hype of big data has subsided, its usefulness for scientific discovery has only just begun. Harnessing these data for new insights, more efficient decision making, and other mission critical uses requires a combination of skills and expertise, often labeled data science. Data science can be thought of as a combination of statistics, computation and the domain from which the data relate, and so is a true interdisciplinary pursuit. Though it has reaped large benefits in companies able to afford the high cost of the severely limited talent pool, it suffers from lack of support in mission driven organizations. Not purely in any one historical field, data science is proving difficult to find a home in traditional university academic departments and other research organizations. The landscape of data science efforts, from academia, industry and government, can be characterized as nascent, enthusiastic, uneven, and highly competitive. Part of the challenge in documenting these trends is the lack of agreement about what data science is, and who is a data scientist. Defining these terms too closely and too early runs the risk of cutting off a tremendous amount of productive creativity, but waiting too long leaves many people without a sustainable career, and many organizations without the necessary skills to gain value from their data. This talk will explore the landscape of data science efforts in the US, including how organizations are building and sustaining data science teams.

  12. Landscape Evolution of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Titan may have acquired its massive atmosphere relatively recently in solar system history. The warming sun may have been key to generating Titan's atmosphere over time, starting from a thin atmosphere with condensed surface volatiles like Triton, with increased luminosity releasing methane, and then large amounts of nitrogen (perhaps suddenly), into the atmosphere. This thick atmosphere, initially with much more methane than at present, resulted in global fluvial erosion that has over time retreated towards the poles with the removal of methane from the atmosphere. Basement rock, as manifested by bright, rough, ridges, scarps, crenulated blocks, or aligned massifs, mostly appears within 30 degrees of the equator. This landscape was intensely eroded by fluvial processes as evidenced by numerous valley systems, fan-like depositional features and regularly-spaced ridges (crenulated terrain). Much of this bedrock landscape, however, is mantled by dunes, suggesting that fluvial erosion no longer dominates in equatorial regions. High midlatitude regions on Titan exhibit dissected sedimentary plains at a number of localities, suggesting deposition (perhaps by sediment eroded from equatorial regions) followed by erosion. The polar regions are mainly dominated by deposits of fluvial and lacustrine sediment. Fluvial processes are active in polar areas as evidenced by alkane lakes and occasional cloud cover.

  13. Branches of the landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dine, Michael; O'Neil, Deva; Sun Zheng

    2005-01-01

    With respect to the question of supersymmetry breaking, there are three branches of the flux landscape. On one of these, if one requires small cosmological constant, supersymmetry breaking is predominantly at the fundamental scale; on another, the distribution is roughly flat on a logarithmic scale; on the third, the preponderance of vacua are at very low scale. A priori, as we will explain, one can say little about the first branch. The vast majority of these states are not accessible even to crude, approximate analysis. On the other two branches one can hope to do better. But as a result of the lack of access to branch one, and our poor understanding of cosmology, we can at best conjecture about whether string theory predicts low energy supersymmetry or not. If we hypothesize that are on branch two or three, distinctive predictions may be possible. We comment of the status of naturalness within the landscape, deriving, for example, the statistics of the first branch from simple effective field theory reasoning

  14. Urban landscape as palimpsest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel-Gabriel Vâlceanu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current urban morphology and the identity building of the city construction can be designed as a palimpsest; the spatial development stages of urban systems represent the result of their evolution over time. The characteristics of urban palimpsest depend mainly on the emergent factors that influenced the territorial dynamics and the configuration of urban bodies. Urban life and its quality are directly influenced by spatial and temporal factors of the city evolution. For this reason the study aims to achieve a research to explain the concept of urban palimpsest and the current morphology of urban tissue because they are products of landscape transformations along the history. The current knowledge on urban palimpsest characteristics is very important and useful to plan the current and future evolution of urban systems. The case study presents a vast view on the history of spatial development and urban system as well as a dynamics of the landscape interconditioned by the elements of such development in the context of reference historical eras

  15. Norwegian millstone quarry landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldal, Tom; Meyer, Gurli; Grenne, Tor

    2013-04-01

    Rotary querns and millstones were used in Norway since just after the Roman Period until the last millstone was made in the 1930s. Throughout all this time millstone mining was fundamental for daily life: millstones were needed to grind grain, our most important food source. We can find millstone quarries in many places in the country from coast to mountain. Some of them cover many square kilometers and count hundreds of quarries as physical testimonies of a long and great production history. Other quarries are small and hardly visible. Some of this history is known through written and oral tradition, but most of it is hidden and must be reconstructed from the traces we can find in the landscape today. The Millstone project has put these quarry landscapes on the map, and conducted a range of case studies, including characterization of archaeological features connected to the quarrying, interpretation of quarrying techniques and evolution of such and establishing distribution and trade patterns by the aid of geological provenance. The project also turned out to be a successful cooperation between different disciplines, in particular geology and archaeology.

  16. Sustainability, Smart Growth, and Landscape Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability, Smart Growth, and Landscape Architecture is an overview course for landscape architecture students interested in sustainability in landscape architecture and how it might apply to smart growth principles in urban, suburban, and rural areas

  17. Professional and Regulatory Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Professional and Regulatory search are designed for people who use EPA web resources to do their job. You will be searching collections where information that is not relevant to Environmental and Regulatory professionals.

  18. Changing wind-power landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    of determining the likely visual-impact on landscapes and population, taking into account that there is no clear threshold for perceived adverse visual-impact. A geographical information system (GIS) has been used to build a regional landscape model for Northern Jutland County, which is used to assess visibility...

  19. Marc Treib: Representing Landscape Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie

    2008-01-01

    The editor of Representing Landscape Architecture, Marc Treib, argues that there is good reason to evaluate the standard practices of representation that landscape architects have been using for so long. In the rush to the promised land of computer design these practices are now in danger of being...

  20. Caribbean landscapes and their biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. E. Lugo; E. H. Helmer; E. Santiago Valentín

    2012-01-01

    Both the biodiversity and the landscapes of the Caribbean have been greatly modified as a consequence of human activity. In this essay we provide an overview of the natural landscapes and biodiversity of the Caribbean and discuss how human activity has affected both. Our Caribbean geographic focus is on the insular Caribbean and the biodiversity focus is on the flora,...

  1. Future landscapes: opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Stanturf

    2015-01-01

    The global magnitude of degraded and deforested areas is best approached by restoring landscapes. Heightened international perception of the importance of forests and trees outside forests (e.g., woodlands, on farms) demands new approaches to future landscapes. The current need for forest restoration is two billion ha; most opportunities are mosaic restoration in the...

  2. Landscape in a Lacquer Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Martha

    2010-01-01

    A symbolic dry landscape garden of Eastern origin holds a special fascination for the author's middle-school students, which is why the author chose to create a project exploring this view of nature. A dry landscape garden, or "karesansui," is an arrangement of rocks, worn by nature and surrounded by a "sea" of sand, raked into patterns…

  3. Contingent Diversity on Anthropic Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Balée

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Behaviorally modern human beings have lived in Amazonia for thousands of years. Significant dynamics in species turnovers due to human-mediated disturbance were associated with the ultimate emergence and expansion of agrarian technologies in prehistory. Such disturbances initiated primary and secondary landscape transformations in various locales of the Amazon region. Diversity in these locales can be understood by accepting the initial premise of contingency, expressed as unprecedented human agency and human history. These effects can be accessed through the archaeological record and in the study of living languages. In addition, landscape transformation can be demonstrated in the study of traditional knowledge (TK. One way of elucidating TK distinctions between anthropic and nonanthropic landscapes concerns elicitation of differential labeling of these landscapes and more significantly, elicitation of the specific contents, such as trees, occurring in these landscapes. Freelisting is a method which can be used to distinguish the differential species compositions of landscapes resulting from human-mediated disturbance vs. those which do not evince records of human agency and history. The TK of the Ka’apor Indians of Amazonian Brazil as revealed in freelisting exercises shows differentiation of anthropogenic from high forests as well as a recognition of diversity in the anthropogenic forests. This suggests that the agents of human-mediated disturbance and landscape transformation in traditional Amazonia encode diversity and contingency into their TK, which encoding reflects past cultural influence on landscape and society over time.

  4. Fitness Landscapes of Functional RNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádám Kun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The notion of fitness landscapes, a map between genotype and fitness, was proposed more than 80 years ago. For most of this time data was only available for a few alleles, and thus we had only a restricted view of the whole fitness landscape. Recently, advances in genetics and molecular biology allow a more detailed view of them. Here we review experimental and theoretical studies of fitness landscapes of functional RNAs, especially aptamers and ribozymes. We find that RNA structures can be divided into critical structures, connecting structures, neutral structures and forbidden structures. Such characterisation, coupled with theoretical sequence-to-structure predictions, allows us to construct the whole fitness landscape. Fitness landscapes then can be used to study evolution, and in our case the development of the RNA world.

  5. Future nuclear regulatory challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royen, J.

    1998-01-01

    In December 1996, the NEA Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities concluded that changes resulting from economic deregulation and other recent developments affecting nuclear power programmes have consequences both for licensees and regulatory authorities. A number of potential problems and issues which will present a challenge to nuclear regulatory bodies over the next ten years have been identified in a report just released. (author)

  6. DNA motif alignment by evolving a population of Markov chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Chengpeng

    2009-01-30

    Deciphering cis-regulatory elements or de novo motif-finding in genomes still remains elusive although much algorithmic effort has been expended. The Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method such as Gibbs motif samplers has been widely employed to solve the de novo motif-finding problem through sequence local alignment. Nonetheless, the MCMC-based motif samplers still suffer from local maxima like EM. Therefore, as a prerequisite for finding good local alignments, these motif algorithms are often independently run a multitude of times, but without information exchange between different chains. Hence it would be worth a new algorithm design enabling such information exchange. This paper presents a novel motif-finding algorithm by evolving a population of Markov chains with information exchange (PMC), each of which is initialized as a random alignment and run by the Metropolis-Hastings sampler (MHS). It is progressively updated through a series of local alignments stochastically sampled. Explicitly, the PMC motif algorithm performs stochastic sampling as specified by a population-based proposal distribution rather than individual ones, and adaptively evolves the population as a whole towards a global maximum. The alignment information exchange is accomplished by taking advantage of the pooled motif site distributions. A distinct method for running multiple independent Markov chains (IMC) without information exchange, or dubbed as the IMC motif algorithm, is also devised to compare with its PMC counterpart. Experimental studies demonstrate that the performance could be improved if pooled information were used to run a population of motif samplers. The new PMC algorithm was able to improve the convergence and outperformed other popular algorithms tested using simulated and biological motif sequences.

  7. A Classification of Landscape Services to Support Local Landscape Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Vallés-Planells

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystem services approach has been proven successful to measure the contributions of nature and greenery to human well-being. Ecosystems have an effect on quality of life, but landscapes also, as a broader concept, may contribute to people's well-being. The concept of landscape services, compared to ecosystem services, involves the social dimension of landscape and the spatial pattern resulting from both natural and human processes in the provision of benefits for human-well being. Our aim is to develop a classification for landscape services. The proposed typology of services is built on the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES and on a critical review of existing literature on human well-being dimensions, existing ecosystem service classifications, and landscape perception. Three themes of landscape services are defined, each divided into several groups: provisioning, regulation and maintenance, cultural and social life fulfillment, with the latter focusing on health, enjoyment, and personal and social fulfillment. A special emphasis is made on cultural services, which are especially important when applied to landscape and which have received less attention.

  8. The European nanometrology landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Richard K; Boyd, Robert; Burke, Theresa; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Dirscherl, Kai; Dziomba, Thorsten; Gee, Mark; Koenders, Ludger; Morazzani, Valérie; Pidduck, Allan; Roy, Debdulal; Unger, Wolfgang E S; Yacoot, Andrew

    2011-02-11

    This review paper summarizes the European nanometrology landscape from a technical perspective. Dimensional and chemical nanometrology are discussed first as they underpin many of the developments in other areas of nanometrology. Applications for the measurement of thin film parameters are followed by two of the most widely relevant families of functional properties: measurement of mechanical and electrical properties at the nanoscale. Nanostructured materials and surfaces, which are seen as key materials areas having specific metrology challenges, are covered next. The final section describes biological nanometrology, which is perhaps the most interdisciplinary applications area, and presents unique challenges. Within each area, a review is provided of current status, the capabilities and limitations of current techniques and instruments, and future directions being driven by emerging industrial measurement requirements. Issues of traceability, standardization, national and international programmes, regulation and skills development will be discussed in a future paper.

  9. The European nanometrology landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Richard K.; Boyd, Robert; Burke, Theresa; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Dirscherl, Kai; Dziomba, Thorsten; Gee, Mark; Koenders, Ludger; Morazzani, Valérie; Pidduck, Allan; Roy, Debdulal; Unger, Wolfgang E. S.; Yacoot, Andrew

    2011-02-01

    This review paper summarizes the European nanometrology landscape from a technical perspective. Dimensional and chemical nanometrology are discussed first as they underpin many of the developments in other areas of nanometrology. Applications for the measurement of thin film parameters are followed by two of the most widely relevant families of functional properties: measurement of mechanical and electrical properties at the nanoscale. Nanostructured materials and surfaces, which are seen as key materials areas having specific metrology challenges, are covered next. The final section describes biological nanometrology, which is perhaps the most interdisciplinary applications area, and presents unique challenges. Within each area, a review is provided of current status, the capabilities and limitations of current techniques and instruments, and future directions being driven by emerging industrial measurement requirements. Issues of traceability, standardization, national and international programmes, regulation and skills development will be discussed in a future paper.

  10. The European nanometrology landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, Richard K; Boyd, Robert; Gee, Mark; Roy, Debdulal; Yacoot, Andrew; Burke, Theresa; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Dziomba, Thorsten; Koenders, Ludger; Dirscherl, Kai; Morazzani, Valerie; Pidduck, Allan; Unger, Wolfgang E S

    2011-01-01

    This review paper summarizes the European nanometrology landscape from a technical perspective. Dimensional and chemical nanometrology are discussed first as they underpin many of the developments in other areas of nanometrology. Applications for the measurement of thin film parameters are followed by two of the most widely relevant families of functional properties: measurement of mechanical and electrical properties at the nanoscale. Nanostructured materials and surfaces, which are seen as key materials areas having specific metrology challenges, are covered next. The final section describes biological nanometrology, which is perhaps the most interdisciplinary applications area, and presents unique challenges. Within each area, a review is provided of current status, the capabilities and limitations of current techniques and instruments, and future directions being driven by emerging industrial measurement requirements. Issues of traceability, standardization, national and international programmes, regulation and skills development will be discussed in a future paper. (topical review)

  11. The European nanometrology landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, Richard K; Boyd, Robert; Gee, Mark; Roy, Debdulal; Yacoot, Andrew [National Physical Laboratory (United Kingdom); Burke, Theresa [European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology (United Kingdom); Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Dziomba, Thorsten; Koenders, Ludger [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany); Dirscherl, Kai [Danish Fundamental Metrology (Denmark); Morazzani, Valerie [Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d' Essais (France); Pidduck, Allan [QinetiQ (United Kingdom); Unger, Wolfgang E S, E-mail: richard.leach@npl.co.uk [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (Germany)

    2011-02-11

    This review paper summarizes the European nanometrology landscape from a technical perspective. Dimensional and chemical nanometrology are discussed first as they underpin many of the developments in other areas of nanometrology. Applications for the measurement of thin film parameters are followed by two of the most widely relevant families of functional properties: measurement of mechanical and electrical properties at the nanoscale. Nanostructured materials and surfaces, which are seen as key materials areas having specific metrology challenges, are covered next. The final section describes biological nanometrology, which is perhaps the most interdisciplinary applications area, and presents unique challenges. Within each area, a review is provided of current status, the capabilities and limitations of current techniques and instruments, and future directions being driven by emerging industrial measurement requirements. Issues of traceability, standardization, national and international programmes, regulation and skills development will be discussed in a future paper. (topical review)

  12. Data anonymization patent landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Pejić Bach

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The omnipresent, unstoppable increase in digital data has led to a greater understanding of the importance of data privacy. Different approaches are used to implement data privacy. The goal of this paper is to develop a data anonymization patent landscape, by determining the following: (i the trend in data anonymization patenting, (ii the type of technical content protected in data anonymization, (iii the organizations and countries most active in patenting data anonymization know-how; and (iv the topics emerging most often in patent titles. Patents from the PatSeer database relating to data anonymization from 2001 to 2015 were analyzed. We used the longitudinal approach in combination with text mining techniques to develop a data anonymization patent landscape. The results indicated the following. The number of single patent families is growing with a high increase after 2010, thus indicating a positive trend in the area of patenting data anonymization solutions. The majority of patenting activities relate to the G Physics section. Organizations from the USA and Japan assigned the majority of patents related to data anonymization. The results of text mining indicate that the most often used word in titles of data anonymization patents are “anonym*, “method”, “data” and “system”. Several additional words that indicated the most frequent topics related to data anonymization were: “equipment”, “software”, “protection”, “identification”, or “encryption”, and specific topics such as “community”, “medical”, or “service”.

  13. Buildings Interoperability Landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Dave [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephan, Eric G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Through its Building Technologies Office (BTO), the United States Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE-EERE) is sponsoring an effort to advance interoperability for the integration of intelligent buildings equipment and automation systems, understanding the importance of integration frameworks and product ecosystems to this cause. This is important to BTO’s mission to enhance energy efficiency and save energy for economic and environmental purposes. For connected buildings ecosystems of products and services from various manufacturers to flourish, the ICT aspects of the equipment need to integrate and operate simply and reliably. Within the concepts of interoperability lie the specification, development, and certification of equipment with standards-based interfaces that connect and work. Beyond this, a healthy community of stakeholders that contribute to and use interoperability work products must be developed. On May 1, 2014, the DOE convened a technical meeting to take stock of the current state of interoperability of connected equipment and systems in buildings. Several insights from that meeting helped facilitate a draft description of the landscape of interoperability for connected buildings, which focuses mainly on small and medium commercial buildings. This document revises the February 2015 landscape document to address reviewer comments, incorporate important insights from the Buildings Interoperability Vision technical meeting, and capture thoughts from that meeting about the topics to be addressed in a buildings interoperability vision. In particular, greater attention is paid to the state of information modeling in buildings and the great potential for near-term benefits in this area from progress and community alignment.

  14. The evolving definition of systemic arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, C Venkata S; Giles, Thomas D

    2010-05-01

    Systemic hypertension is an important risk factor for premature cardiovascular disease. Hypertension also contributes to excessive morbidity and mortality. Whereas excellent therapeutic options are available to treat hypertension, there is an unsettled issue about the very definition of hypertension. At what level of blood pressure should we treat hypertension? Does the definition of hypertension change in the presence of co-morbid conditions? This article covers in detail the evolving concepts in the diagnosis and management of hypertension.

  15. The evolving epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, Fergus

    2009-07-01

    Epidemiologic studies in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) include assessments of disease burden and evolving patterns of disease presentation. Although it is hoped that sound epidemiologic studies provide aetiological clues, traditional risk factor-based epidemiology has provided limited insights into either Crohn\\'s disease or ulcerative colitis etiopathogenesis. In this update, we will summarize how the changing epidemiology of IBD associated with modernization can be reconciled with current concepts of disease mechanisms and will discuss studies of clinically significant comorbidity in IBD.

  16. Development and the evolvability of human limbs

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Nathan M.; Wagner, Günter P.; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt

    2010-01-01

    The long legs and short arms of humans are distinctive for a primate, the result of selection acting in opposite directions on each limb at different points in our evolutionary history. This mosaic pattern challenges our understanding of the relationship of development and evolvability because limbs are serially homologous and genetic correlations should act as a significant constraint on their independent evolution. Here we test a developmental model of limb covariation in anthropoid primate...

  17. Quantum games on evolving random networks

    OpenAIRE

    Pawela, Łukasz

    2015-01-01

    We study the advantages of quantum strategies in evolutionary social dilemmas on evolving random networks. We focus our study on the two-player games: prisoner's dilemma, snowdrift and stag-hunt games. The obtained result show the benefits of quantum strategies for the prisoner's dilemma game. For the other two games, we obtain regions of parameters where the quantum strategies dominate, as well as regions where the classical strategies coexist.

  18. The Evolving Leadership Path of Visual Analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kluse, Michael; Peurrung, Anthony J.; Gracio, Deborah K.

    2012-01-02

    This is a requested book chapter for an internationally authored book on visual analytics and related fields, coordianted by a UK university and to be published by Springer in 2012. This chapter is an overview of the leadship strategies that PNNL's Jim Thomas and other stakeholders used to establish visual analytics as a field, and how those strategies may evolve in the future.

  19. Regulatory activities; Actividades regulatorias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This publication, compiled in 8 chapters, presents the regulatory system developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic. The following activities and developed topics in this document describe: the evolution of the nuclear regulatory activity in Argentina; the Argentine regulatory system; the nuclear regulatory laws and standards; the inspection and safeguards of nuclear facilities; the emergency systems; the environmental systems; the environmental monitoring; the analysis laboratories on physical and biological dosimetry, prenatal irradiation, internal irradiation, radiation measurements, detection techniques on nuclear testing, medical program on radiation protection; the institutional relations with national and international organization; the training courses and meeting; the technical information.

  20. Evolving artificial metalloenzymes via random mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Swartz, Alan M.; Park, Hyun June; Srivastava, Poonam; Ellis-Guardiola, Ken; Upp, David M.; Lee, Gihoon; Belsare, Ketaki; Gu, Yifan; Zhang, Chen; Moellering, Raymond E.; Lewis, Jared C.

    2018-03-01

    Random mutagenesis has the potential to optimize the efficiency and selectivity of protein catalysts without requiring detailed knowledge of protein structure; however, introducing synthetic metal cofactors complicates the expression and screening of enzyme libraries, and activity arising from free cofactor must be eliminated. Here we report an efficient platform to create and screen libraries of artificial metalloenzymes (ArMs) via random mutagenesis, which we use to evolve highly selective dirhodium cyclopropanases. Error-prone PCR and combinatorial codon mutagenesis enabled multiplexed analysis of random mutations, including at sites distal to the putative ArM active site that are difficult to identify using targeted mutagenesis approaches. Variants that exhibited significantly improved selectivity for each of the cyclopropane product enantiomers were identified, and higher activity than previously reported ArM cyclopropanases obtained via targeted mutagenesis was also observed. This improved selectivity carried over to other dirhodium-catalysed transformations, including N-H, S-H and Si-H insertion, demonstrating that ArMs evolved for one reaction can serve as starting points to evolve catalysts for others.

  1. CMIP6 Data Citation of Evolving Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Stockhause

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Data citations have become widely accepted. Technical infrastructures as well as principles and recommendations for data citation are in place but best practices or guidelines for their implementation are not yet available. On the other hand, the scientific climate community requests early citations on evolving data for credit, e.g. for CMIP6 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6. The data citation concept for CMIP6 is presented. The main challenges lie in limited resources, a strict project timeline and the dependency on changes of the data dissemination infrastructure ESGF (Earth System Grid Federation to meet the data citation requirements. Therefore a pragmatic, flexible and extendible approach for the CMIP6 data citation service was developed, consisting of a citation for the full evolving data superset and a data cart approach for citing the concrete used data subset. This two citation approach can be implemented according to the RDA recommendations for evolving data. Because of resource constraints and missing project policies, the implementation of the second part of the citation concept is postponed to CMIP7.

  2. [Landscape classification: research progress and development trend].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fa-Chao; Liu, Li-Ming

    2011-06-01

    Landscape classification is the basis of the researches on landscape structure, process, and function, and also, the prerequisite for landscape evaluation, planning, protection, and management, directly affecting the precision and practicability of landscape research. This paper reviewed the research progress on the landscape classification system, theory, and methodology, and summarized the key problems and deficiencies of current researches. Some major landscape classification systems, e. g. , LANMAP and MUFIC, were introduced and discussed. It was suggested that a qualitative and quantitative comprehensive classification based on the ideology of functional structure shape and on the integral consideration of landscape classification utility, landscape function, landscape structure, physiogeographical factors, and human disturbance intensity should be the major research directions in the future. The integration of mapping, 3S technology, quantitative mathematics modeling, computer artificial intelligence, and professional knowledge to enhance the precision of landscape classification would be the key issues and the development trend in the researches of landscape classification.

  3. The path from biomarker discovery to regulatory qualification

    CERN Document Server

    Goodsaid, Federico

    2013-01-01

    The Path from Biomarker Discovery to Regulatory Qualification is a unique guide that focuses on biomarker qualification, its history and current regulatory settings in both the US and abroad. This multi-contributed book provides a detailed look at the next step to developing biomarkers for clinical use and covers overall concepts, challenges, strategies and solutions based on the experiences of regulatory authorities and scientists. Members of the regulatory, pharmaceutical and biomarker development communities will benefit the most from using this book-it is a complete and practical guide to biomarker qualification, providing valuable insight to an ever-evolving and important area of regulatory science. For complimentary access to chapter 13, 'Classic' Biomarkers of Liver Injury, by John R. Senior, Associate Director for Science, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA, please visit the following site:  http://tinyurl.com/ClassicBiomarkers Contains a collection of experiences of different...

  4. Liquidation sales: Land speculation and landscape change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, E.

    2012-12-01

    change and deforestation around the world. Although the details differ at local scales, even disparate cases of land use and landscape changes may express similar patterns and structures. Records of sediment flux in salt marshes and fluvial deposits indicate rates of past landscape responses to human activities; the 1930s dustbowl event left a sedimentary signature in western North American lakes. Petrochemicals and fertilizers from agricultural runnoff are causing hypoxic dead zones in coastal waters to expand. In the Brazilian Amazon, regional-scale changes in weather and climate have been linked to deforestation, and deforestation has been linked to patterns of boom-bust development. But even when rampant land acquisition for agriculture or housing has been identified as problematic, the attendant environmental consequences are not necessarily obvious. The nonlinear attenuation of cause and effect is a function of the hierarchy of scales that typify these complex, human-landscape systems: the emergence of long-term, large-scale environmental dynamics lag behind the short-term, localized dynamics of a resource bubble. Insight into how these coupled systems behave may reveal the scales at which government, institutional, or self-organized social intervention may be most effective, and presents an opportunity to integrate evolving spheres of research from the behavioural sciences and Earth-surface processes.

  5. Landscape characterization and biodiversity research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, V.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Offerman, H. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Geography Dept.; Frohn, R. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Gardner, R.H. [Appalachian Environmental Lab., Frostburg, MD (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Rapid deforestation often produces landscape-level changes in forest characteristics and structure, including area, distribution, and forest habitat types. Changes in landscape pattern through fragmentation or aggregation of natural habitats can alter patterns of abundance for single species and entire communities. Examples of single-species effects include increased predation along the forest edge, the decline in the number of species with poor dispersal mechanisms, and the spread of exotic species that have deleterious effects (e.g., gypsy moth). A decrease in the size and number of natural habitat patches increases the probability of local extirpation and loss of diversity of native species, whereas a decline in connectivity between habitat patches can negatively affect species persistence. Thus, there is empirical justification for managing entire landscapes, not just individual habitat types, in order to insure that native plant and animal diversity is maintained. A landscape is defined as an area composed of a mosaic of interacting ecosystems, or patches, with the heterogeneity among the patches significantly affecting biotic and abiotic processes in the landscape. Patches comprising a landscape are usually composed of discrete areas of relatively homogeneous environmental conditions and must be defined in terms of the organisms of interest. A large body of theoretical work in landscape ecology has provided a wealth of methods for quantifying spatial characteristics of landscapes. Recent advances in remote sensing and geographic information systems allow these methods to be applied over large areas. The objectives of this paper are to present a brief overview of common measures of landscape characteristics, to explore the new technology available for their calculation, to provide examples of their application, and to call attention to the need for collection of spatially-explicit field data.

  6. Landscape services as boundary concept in landscape governance: Building social capital in collaboration and adapting the landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerink, Judith; Opdam, Paul; Rooij, Van Sabine; Steingröver, Eveliene

    2017-01-01

    The landscape services concept provides a lens to study relations within the social-ecological networks that landscapes are, and to identify stakeholders as either providers or beneficiaries. However, landscape services can also be used as a boundary concept in collaborative landscape governance. We

  7. Multifunctional landscape practice and accessibility in manorial landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    . However classical manorial estates seems to represent an opposite trend. Allthough working at the same market conditions as other large specialized holdings developed through the process of structural rationalization, they have often maintained and elaborated a land use strategy based on a multifunctional...... use of the potential ecosystem services present within their domain. The targeted combination of agriculture, forestry, hunting rents, rental housing, and a variety of recreational activities influences makes a certain public accessibility to an integrated part of this strategy, diverging from...... the multifunctional landscape strategy supporting a certain public access. A study of this thesis is presented based on an analysis of multifunctionality, landscape development and accessibility in Danish Manorial landscapes and eventual linkages between their multifunctional landscape strategy, their history...

  8. Beyond Landscape MacArchitecture: new languages, new landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Rackham

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The sine qua non of landscape architecture is respect for the genius loci, but even in the landscape, as in architecture and society more generally, a process of cultural homogenisation has been taking place. Against this process, a resurgence of interest in minority languages in Europe can be seen as an assertion of pride, and a desire to preserve difference. In Scotland, landscape architects are attempting to reinterpret Scottish and northern European urban design influences and materials: in effect to develop a new regional dialect for the new landscapes. Rooted in sound design principles and materials which respond to and reflect the climate, way of life and traditions of the place, design languages can communicate effectively about cultural values and differences.

  9. Decision making on fitness landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, R.; Sibani, P.

    2017-04-01

    We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et al. that we call the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures.

  10. Studying landscape architecture in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie; Hare, Richard Andrew

    2010-01-01

    s demanded large numbers of landscape architects. Today landscape architecture education addresses current challenges of climate change and the need for sustainable development where an understanding of natural systems is seen as essential for future urbanisation processes in evermore innovative......Landscape architecture is a well-established profession in Denmark. From the early 20th Century the profession developed steadily. However, it was 1960 before a separate education was established. This proved timely as the immense physical development of the Danish welfare state of the 1970s and 80...

  11. Decision Making on Fitness Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Rudy; Sibani, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et. al. that we call...... the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures....

  12. Connecting Brabant's cover sand landscapes through landscape history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heskes, Erik; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; Harthoorn, Jaap; Maes, Bert; Leenders, Karel; de Jongh, Piet; Kluiving, Sjoerd; van den Oetelaar, Ger

    2015-04-01

    Noord-Brabant has the largest variety of cover sand landscapes in The Netherlands, and probably in Western Europe. During the Last Ice Age the area was not covered by land ice and a polar desert developed in which sand dunes buried the existing river landscapes. Some of these polar dune landscapes experienced a geomorphological and soil development that remained virtually untouched up to the present day, such as the low parabolic dunes of the Strabrechtse Heide or the later and higher dunes of the Oisterwijkse Vennen. As Noord-Brabant lies on the fringe of a tectonic basin, the thickness of cover sand deposits in the Centrale Slenk, part of a rift through Europe, amounts up to 20 metres. Cover sand deposits along the fault lines cause the special phenomenon of 'wijst' to develop, in which the higher grounds are wetter than the boarding lower grounds. Since 4000 BC humans settled in these cover sand landscapes and made use of its small-scale variety. An example are the prehistoric finds on the flanks and the historic towns on top of the 'donken' in northwest Noord-Brabant, where the cover sand landscapes are buried by river and marine deposits and only the peaks of the dunes protrude as donken. Or the church of Handel that is built beside a 'wijst' source and a site of pilgrimage since living memory. Or the 'essen' and plaggen agriculture that developed along the stream valleys of Noord-Brabant from 1300 AD onwards, giving rise to geomorphological features as 'randwallen' and plaggen soils of more than a metre thickness. Each region of Brabant each has its own approach in attracting tourists and has not yet used this common landscape history to connect, manage and promote their territories. We propose a landscape-historical approach to develop a national or European Geopark Brabants' cover sand landscapes, in which each region focuses on a specific part of the landscape history of Brabant, that stretches from the Late Weichselian polar desert when the dune

  13. Characterisation of Agri-Landscape Systems at a Regional Level: A Case Study in Northern Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariassunta Galli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Preserving our landscape in sustainable development processes is now widely considered as fundamental. It is a complex and evolving issue that can be tackled from several perspectives. Agronomy can contribute to analyzing the relationships between agricultural production systems (cropping, farming and agricultural systems at different levels (field, farm, and region and the agricultural landscape (in terms of patches, matrixes, dynamics, etc. This is of particular interest where the relationships between “what and how” are produced by agricultural activities and the landscape are changing. In this case their own reciprocity may represent an opportunity to analyze complex systems, such as the characterization of agri-landscapes at a regional level. We propose a case study developed as an up-scaling analytical process from a farm to a regional level. The result was the identification of six main agri-landscape systems highlighting the landscape drivers that are changing the traditional landscape of a rural region in Northern Tuscany (Lunigiana.

  14. Local Fitness Landscapes Predict Yeast Evolutionary Dynamics in Directionally Changing Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter, Florien A; Aarts, Mark G M; Zwaan, Bas J; de Visser, J Arjan G M

    2018-01-01

    The fitness landscape is a concept that is widely used for understanding and predicting evolutionary adaptation. The topography of the fitness landscape depends critically on the environment, with potentially far-reaching consequences for evolution under changing conditions. However, few studies have assessed directly how empirical fitness landscapes change across conditions, or validated the predicted consequences of such change. We previously evolved replicate yeast populations in the presence of either gradually increasing, or constant high, concentrations of the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn), and analyzed their phenotypic and genomic changes. Here, we reconstructed the local fitness landscapes underlying adaptation to each metal by deleting all repeatedly mutated genes both by themselves and in combination. Fitness assays revealed that the height, and/or shape, of each local fitness landscape changed considerably across metal concentrations, with distinct qualitative differences between unconditionally (Cd) and conditionally toxic metals (Ni and Zn). This change in topography had particularly crucial consequences in the case of Ni, where a substantial part of the individual mutational fitness effects changed in sign across concentrations. Based on the Ni landscape analyses, we made several predictions about which mutations had been selected when during the evolution experiment. Deep sequencing of population samples from different time points generally confirmed these predictions, demonstrating the power of landscape reconstruction analyses for understanding and ultimately predicting evolutionary dynamics, even under complex scenarios of environmental change. Copyright © 2018 by the Genetics Society of America.

  15. LANDSCAPE PLANNING IN UKRAINE: THE FIRST LANDSCAPE-PLANNING PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Rudenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the first, in Ukraine; project on landscape planning widely accepted in European countries. Under the project implemented in 2010–2013, a landscape-planning program has been developed for the Cherkassy oblast. This is the first document of this kind in Ukraine. The program is mainly based on the experience of the German and Russian schools of landscape planning and on research and assessment conducted by the authors, which allowed identifying approaches to landscape planning, principles of the national policy, and characteristics and potential of environmentally friendly planning in Ukraine. The paper discusses the main phases of the work on the development of the landscape program for the oblast. It also identifies the main stages and key concepts and principles of landscape planning. The paper presents the results of integrated research on the identification and classification of conflicts in land use and the integral concept of the developmental goals for the oblast. The results can be the foundation for adopting management decisions and development of action plans for the lower hierarchal branches.

  16. Buildings interoperability landscape - Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Dave B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephan, Eric G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Buildings are an integral part of our nation’s energy economy. The advancement in information and communications technology (ICT) has revolutionized energy management in industrial facilities and large commercial buildings. As ICT costs decrease and capabilities increase, buildings automation and energy management features are transforming the small-medium commercial and residential buildings sectors. A vision of a connected world in which equipment and systems within buildings coordinate with each other to efficiently meet their owners’ and occupants’ needs, and where buildings regularly transact business with other buildings and service providers (such as gas and electric service providers) is emerging. However, while the technology to support this collaboration has been demonstrated at various degrees of maturity, the integration frameworks and ecosystems of products that support the ability to easily install, maintain, and evolve building systems and their equipment components are struggling to nurture the fledging business propositions of their proponents.

  17. Energy landscapes in a crowded world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasqualetti, Martin; Stremke, Sven

    2018-01-01

    One of the main drivers of landscape transformation has been our demand for energy. We refer to the results of such transformations as "energy landscapes". This paper examines the definition of energy landscapes within a conceptual framework, proposes a classification of energy landscapes, and

  18. Perspectives on landscape identity, a conceptual challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stobbelaar, D.J.; Pedroli, B.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of landscape identity is often referred to in landscape policy and planning. A clear definition of the concept is lacking however. This is problematic because the term ‘landscape identity’ can have many different meanings and thus easily lead to confusion. We define landscape identity as

  19. Bipolarity and Ambivalence in Landscape Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koh, J.

    2010-01-01

    Our discipline of landscape architecture contains bipolarity, not only in terms of landscape and architecture but also because the idea of landscape is both aesthetic and scientific. Furthermore, within landscape architecture there is a gap between design (as implied by architecture) and planning

  20. Genetic structure and evolved malaria resistance in Hawaiian honeycreepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J.T.; Woodworth, B.L.; Eggert, L.E.; Hart, P.J.; Palmer, D.; Duffy, D.C.; Fleischer, R.C.

    2007-01-01

    essential to understanding how species evolve resistance across a landscape of varying disease pressures. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  1. Flowscapes : Designing infrastructure as landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.; Jauslin, D.T.; Van der Hoeven, F.D.

    2015-01-01

    Social, cultural and technological developments of our society are demanding a fundamental review of the planning and design of its landscapes and infrastructures, in particular in relation to environmental issues and sustainability. Transportation, green and water infrastructures are important

  2. Qualified Health Plan (QHP) Landscape

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — QHP Landscape Files present basic information about certified Qualified Health Plans and Stand-alone Dental Plans for individuals-families and small businesses...

  3. Greenhouse warming and landscape care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Climate change is one of the few truly planetary processes that influence the assessments and actions of governments and of everyday citizens. Principles and practices of ecological landscaping fit well with concern about hte effects of climate change.

  4. Revealing evolved massive stars with Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Fabrika, S.

    2010-06-01

    Massive evolved stars lose a large fraction of their mass via copious stellar wind or instant outbursts. During certain evolutionary phases, they can be identified by the presence of their circumstellar nebulae. In this paper, we present the results of a search for compact nebulae (reminiscent of circumstellar nebulae around evolved massive stars) using archival 24-μm data obtained with the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer. We have discovered 115 nebulae, most of which bear a striking resemblance to the circumstellar nebulae associated with luminous blue variables (LBVs) and late WN-type (WNL) Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars in the Milky Way and the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We interpret this similarity as an indication that the central stars of detected nebulae are either LBVs or related evolved massive stars. Our interpretation is supported by follow-up spectroscopy of two dozen of these central stars, most of which turn out to be either candidate LBVs (cLBVs), blue supergiants or WNL stars. We expect that the forthcoming spectroscopy of the remaining objects from our list, accompanied by the spectrophotometric monitoring of the already discovered cLBVs, will further increase the known population of Galactic LBVs. This, in turn, will have profound consequences for better understanding the LBV phenomenon and its role in the transition between hydrogen-burning O stars and helium-burning WR stars. We also report on the detection of an arc-like structure attached to the cLBV HD 326823 and an arc associated with the LBV R99 (HD 269445) in the LMC. Partially based on observations collected at the German-Spanish Astronomical Centre, Calar Alto, jointly operated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie Heidelberg and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC). E-mail: vgvaram@mx.iki.rssi.ru (VVG); akniazev@saao.ac.za (AYK); fabrika@sao.ru (SF)

  5. Evolving Random Forest for Preference Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Shaker, Noor

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach for pairwise preference learning through a combination of an evolutionary method and random forest. Grammatical evolution is used to describe the structure of the trees in the Random Forest (RF) and to handle the process of evolution. Evolved random forests ...... obtained for predicting pairwise self-reports of users for the three emotional states engagement, frustration and challenge show very promising results that are comparable and in some cases superior to those obtained from state-of-the-art methods....

  6. An evolving network model with community structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunguang; Maini, Philip K

    2005-01-01

    Many social and biological networks consist of communities-groups of nodes within which connections are dense, but between which connections are sparser. Recently, there has been considerable interest in designing algorithms for detecting community structures in real-world complex networks. In this paper, we propose an evolving network model which exhibits community structure. The network model is based on the inner-community preferential attachment and inter-community preferential attachment mechanisms. The degree distributions of this network model are analysed based on a mean-field method. Theoretical results and numerical simulations indicate that this network model has community structure and scale-free properties

  7. Radio Imaging of Envelopes of Evolved Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Bill

    2018-04-01

    This talk will cover imaging of stellar envelopes using radio VLBI techniques; special attention will be paid to the technical differences between radio and optical/IR interferomery. Radio heterodyne receivers allow a straightforward way to derive spectral cubes and full polarization observations. Milliarcsecond resolution of very bright, i.e. non thermal, emission of molecular masers in the envelopes of evolved stars can be achieved using VLBI techniques with baselines of thousands of km. Emission from SiO, H2O and OH masers are commonly seen at increasing distance from the photosphere. The very narrow maser lines allow accurate measurements of the velocity field within the emitting region.

  8. Mobile computing acceptance grows as applications evolve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porn, Louis M; Patrick, Kelly

    2002-01-01

    Handheld devices are becoming more cost-effective to own, and their use in healthcare environments is increasing. Handheld devices currently are being used for e-prescribing, charge capture, and accessing daily schedules and reference tools. Future applications may include education on medications, dictation, order entry, and test-results reporting. Selecting the right handheld device requires careful analysis of current and future applications, as well as vendor expertise. It is important to recognize the technology will continue to evolve over the next three years.

  9. SALT Spectroscopy of Evolved Massive Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniazev, A. Y.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Berdnikov, L. N.

    2017-06-01

    Long-slit spectroscopy with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) of central stars of mid-infrared nebulae detected with the Spitzer Space Telescope and Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) led to the discovery of numerous candidate luminous blue variables (cLBVs) and other rare evolved massive stars. With the recent advent of the SALT fiber-fed high-resolution echelle spectrograph (HRS), a new perspective for the study of these interesting objects is appeared. Using the HRS we obtained spectra of a dozen newly identified massive stars. Some results on the recently identified cLBV Hen 3-729 are presented.

  10. The changing landscape for clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinig, S J; Quon, A S; Meyer, R E; Korn, D

    1999-06-01

    The authors review the history of U.S. clinical research and identify the profound changes stemming from advancements in the biomedical sciences, the recent transformation in the organization and financing of health care delivery, and the increasing application of information technologies. They observe that the enterprise must reorganize to account for the changed landscape, but there is a lack of the data necessary to monitor change and determine the extent to which clinical research is successfully realigning and sustaining itself. The authors discuss the evolving definition, scope, and venues for clinical research, and review previous analyses of clinical research's difficulties and remedies proposed: shared responsibility in the financing of academic medicine, support by federal and private health insurers for routine costs of patient care in clinical trials, and strengthened collaboration between and among industry, academia, insurers, and government. The authors conclude by describing two major initiatives to foster clinical investigation in the new landscape. The first is the Clinical Research Summit Project, a convocation of representative stakeholders from the health care system with an interest in clinical research, whose charge will be to formulate a national agenda for clinical research that has the broad-based support of the stakeholders. Among the challenges of this undertaking are the needs to identify new and stable sources of support for clinical research infrastructure, assess the future workforce needs for clinical investigation, and devise new methods to ensure the continued vitality and account-ability of clinical research. The second is the Clinical Research Task Force, an initiative of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), which is already exploring and advising on how AAMC member organizations can best strengthen their capacity to support clinical research programs in the current scientific, health care delivery, and financial

  11. Titan Polar Landscape Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    With the ongoing Cassini-era observations and studies of Titan it is clear that the intensity and distribution of surface processes (particularly fluvial erosion by methane and Aeolian transport) has changed through time. Currently however, alternate hypotheses substantially differ among specific scenarios with respect to the effects of atmospheric evolution, seasonal changes, and endogenic processes. We have studied the evolution of Titan's polar region through a combination of analysis of imaging, elevation data, and geomorphic mapping, spatially explicit simulations of landform evolution, and quantitative comparison of the simulated landscapes with corresponding Titan morphology. We have quantitatively evaluated alternate scenarios for the landform evolution of Titan's polar terrain. The investigations have been guided by recent geomorphic mapping and topographic characterization of the polar regions that are used to frame hypotheses of process interactions, which have been evaluated using simulation modeling. Topographic information about Titan's polar region is be based on SAR-Topography and altimetry archived on PDS, SAR-based stereo radar-grammetry, radar-sounding lake depth measurements, and superposition relationships between geomorphologic map units, which we will use to create a generalized topographic map.

  12. PSEUDO-CODEWORD LANDSCAPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHERTKOV, MICHAEL [Los Alamos National Laboratory; STEPANOV, MIKHAIL [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-10

    The authors discuss performance of Low-Density-Parity-Check (LDPC) codes decoded by Linear Programming (LP) decoding at moderate and large Signal-to-Noise-Ratios (SNR). Frame-Error-Rate (FER) dependence on SNR and the noise space landscape of the coding/decoding scheme are analyzed by a combination of the previously introduced instanton/pseudo-codeword-search method and a new 'dendro' trick. To reduce complexity of the LP decoding for a code with high-degree checks, {ge} 5, they introduce its dendro-LDPC counterpart, that is the code performing identifically to the original one under Maximum-A-Posteriori (MAP) decoding but having reduced (down to three) check connectivity degree. Analyzing number of popular LDPC codes and their dendro versions performing over the Additive-White-Gaussian-Noise (AWGN) channel, they observed two qualitatively different regimes: (i) error-floor sets early, at relatively low SNR, and (ii) FER decays with SNR increase faster at moderate SNR than at the largest SNR. They explain these regimes in terms of the pseudo-codeword spectra of the codes.

  13. Saddleworth, Responding to a Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Matthew Murray's Landscape publication Saddleworth, Responding To A Landscape. Forward by Martin Barnes Senior Curator of Photographs at The Victoria and Albert Museum, London, Artist Richard Billingham and Maartje van den Heuvel Curator Photography and Media Culture -Leiden Institute. \\ud \\ud ‘Every trip I have taken to Saddleworth Moor over four years has encapsulated each season, weather and cloud pattern, rain, sunshine, snow, early morning clear skies and the sense of the bitter cold of ...

  14. The Industrial Engineering publishing landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Claasen, Schalk

    2012-01-01

    Looking at the Industrial Engineering publishing landscape through the window of Google Search, an interesting panorama unfolds. The view that I took is actually just a peek and therefore my description of what I saw is not meant to be comprehensive. The African landscape is empty except for the South African Journal of Industrial Engineering (SAJIE). This is an extraordinary situation if compared to the South American continent where there are Industrial Engineering journals in at least ...

  15. The landscapes of tourism space

    OpenAIRE

    Włodarczyk, Bogdan

    2009-01-01

    The author attempts to define the term ‘tourism landscape’. It is treated as an important attribute of tourism space therefore, apart from its definition, the author presents its characteristic features and various types of such spaces with differing tourism landscapes. The landscapes of tourism space are treated not only as tourism assets or attractions, but also as the consequences of tourism activity on the natural and cultural environment.

  16. Evolving Role of the Power Sector Regulator: A Clean Energy Regulators Initiative Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinaman, O.; Miller, M.; Bazilian, M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper seeks to briefly characterize the evolving role of power sector regulation. Given current global dynamics, regulation of the power sector is undergoing dramatic changes. This transformation is being driven by various factors including technological advances and cost reductions in renewable energy, energy efficiency, and demand management; increasing air pollution and climate change concerns; and persistent pressure for ensuring sustainable economic development and increased access to energy services by the poor. These issues add to the already complex task of power sector regulation, of which the fundamental remit remains to objectively and transparently ensure least-cost service delivery at high quality. While no single regulatory task is trivial to undertake, it is the prioritization and harmonization of a multitude of objectives that exemplifies the essential challenge of power sector regulation. Evolving regulatory roles can be understood through the concept of existing objectives and an additional layer of emerging objectives. Following this categorization, we describe seven existing objectives of power sector regulators and nine emerging objectives, highlighting key challenges and outlining interdependencies. This essay serves as a preliminary installment in the Clean Energy Regulatory Initiative (CERI) series, and aims to lay the groundwork for subsequent reports and case studies that will explore these topics in more depth.

  17. Editorial: Entropy in Landscape Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel A. Cushman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Entropy and the second law of thermodynamics are the central organizing principles of nature, but the ideas and implications of the second law are poorly developed in landscape ecology. The purpose of this Special Issue “Entropy in Landscape Ecology” in Entropy is to bring together current research on applications of thermodynamics in landscape ecology, to consolidate current knowledge and identify key areas for future research. The special issue contains six articles, which cover a broad range of topics including relationships between entropy and evolution, connections between fractal geometry and entropy, new approaches to calculate configurational entropy of landscapes, example analyses of computing entropy of landscapes, and using entropy in the context of optimal landscape planning. Collectively these papers provide a broad range of contributions to the nascent field of ecological thermodynamics. Formalizing the connections between entropy and ecology are in a very early stage, and that this special issue contains papers that address several centrally important ideas, and provides seminal work that will be a foundation for the future development of ecological and evolutionary thermodynamics.

  18. Landscape Visualisation on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, M. P.; Cox, M. T.; Harvey, D. W.; Heemskerk, G. E.; Pettit, C. J.

    2012-07-01

    The Victorian Resources Online (VRO) website (http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/vro) is the principal means for accessing landscapebased information in Victoria. In this paper we introduce a range of online landscape visualisations that have been developed to enhance existing static web content around the nature and distribution of Victoria's landforms and soils as well as associated processes. Flash is used to develop online visualisations that include interactive landscape panoramas, animations of soil and landscape processes and videos of experts explaining features in the field as well as landscape "flyovers". The use of interactive visualisations adds rich information multimedia content to otherwise static pages and offers the potential to improve user's appreciation and understanding of soil and landscapes. Visualisation is becoming a key component of knowledge management activities associated with VRO - proving useful for both "knowledge capture" (from subject matter specialists) and "knowledge transfer" to a diverse user base. A range of useful visualisation products have been made available online, with varying degrees of interactivity and suited to a variety of users. The use of video files, animation and interactive visualisations is adding rich information content to otherwise static web pages. These information products offer new possibilities to enhance learning of landscapes and the effectiveness of these will be tested as the next phase of development.

  19. Research and regulatory review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macleod, J.S.; Fryer, D.R.H.

    1979-01-01

    To enable the regulatory review to be effectively undertaken by the regulatory body, there is a need for it to have ready access to information generated by research activities. Certain advantages have been seen to be gained by the regulatory body itself directly allocating and controlling some portion of these activities. The princial reasons for reaching this conclusion are summarised and a brief description of the Inspectorates directly sponsored programme outlined. (author)

  20. Regulatory Commission of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Map Help Regulatory Commission of Alaska Login Forgot Password Arrow Image Forgot password? View Cart login Procedures for Requesting Login For Consumers General Information Telephone Electric Natural Gas

  1. Evolving NASA's Earth Science Data Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, J.; Behnke, J.; Murphy, K. J.; Lowe, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System Project (ESDIS) is charged with managing, maintaining, and evolving NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) and is responsible for processing, archiving, and distributing NASA Earth science data. The system supports a multitude of missions and serves diverse science research and other user communities. Keeping up with ever-changing information technology and figuring out how to leverage those changes across such a large system in order to continuously improve and meet the needs of a diverse user community is a significant challenge. Maintaining and evolving the system architecture and infrastructure is a continuous and multi-layered effort. It requires a balance between a "top down" management paradigm that provides a coherent system view and maintaining the managerial, technological, and functional independence of the individual system elements. This presentation will describe some of the key elements of the current system architecture, some of the strategies and processes we employ to meet these challenges, current and future challenges, and some ideas for meeting those challenges.

  2. The Comet Cometh: Evolving Developmental Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Johannes; Laubichler, Manfred; Callebaut, Werner

    In a recent opinion piece, Denis Duboule has claimed that the increasing shift towards systems biology is driving evolutionary and developmental biology apart, and that a true reunification of these two disciplines within the framework of evolutionary developmental biology (EvoDevo) may easily take another 100 years. He identifies methodological, epistemological, and social differences as causes for this supposed separation. Our article provides a contrasting view. We argue that Duboule's prediction is based on a one-sided understanding of systems biology as a science that is only interested in functional, not evolutionary, aspects of biological processes. Instead, we propose a research program for an evolutionary systems biology, which is based on local exploration of the configuration space in evolving developmental systems. We call this approach-which is based on reverse engineering, simulation, and mathematical analysis-the natural history of configuration space. We discuss a number of illustrative examples that demonstrate the past success of local exploration, as opposed to global mapping, in different biological contexts. We argue that this pragmatic mode of inquiry can be extended and applied to the mathematical analysis of the developmental repertoire and evolutionary potential of evolving developmental mechanisms and that evolutionary systems biology so conceived provides a pragmatic epistemological framework for the EvoDevo synthesis.

  3. REVIEW: The evolving linkage between conservation science and practice at The Nature Conservancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareiva, Peter; Groves, Craig; Marvier, Michelle

    2014-10-01

    The Nature Conservancy (TNC) was founded by ecologists as a United States land trust to purchase parcels of habitat for the purpose of scientific study. It has evolved into a global organization working in 35 countries 'to conserve the lands and waters on which all life depends'. TNC is now the world 's largest conservation non-governmental organization (NGO), an early adopter of advances in ecological theory and a producer of new science as a result of practising conservation.The Nature Conservancy 's initial scientific innovation was the use of distributional data for rare species and ecological communities to systematically target lands for conservation. This innovation later evolved into a more rigorous approach known as 'Conservation by Design' that contained elements of systematic conservation planning, strategic planning and monitoring and evaluation.The next scientific transition at TNC was a move to landscape-scale projects, motivated by ideas from landscape ecology. Because the scale at which land could be set aside in areas untouched by humans fell far short of the spatial scale demanded by conservation, TNC became involved with best management practices for forestry, grazing, agriculture, hydropower and other land uses.A third scientific innovation at TNC came with the pursuit of multiobjective planning that accounts for economic and resource needs in the same plans that seek to protect biodiversity.The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment prompted TNC to become increasingly concerned with ecosystem services and the material risk to people posed by ecosystem deterioration.Finally, because conservation depends heavily upon negotiation, TNC has recently recruited social scientists, economists and communication experts. One aspect still missing, however, is a solid scientific understanding of thresholds that should be averted. Synthesis and applications . Over its 60-plus year history, scientific advances have informed The Nature Conservancy (TNC) 's actions

  4. Examining Vegetation of Built Landscapes and Their Relationship to Existing Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Livingston

    2004-06-01

    -native species. In addition, human activities were employed to create more savannah-like vegetation assemblages than those comprising the surrounding natural communities. In order to address the need for ecologically sensitive and sustainable landscapes, the sense of place created in residential landscapes will need to incorporate environmental values as a determination of a landscape aesthetic. These values can be incorporated by making landscape planning and design decisions based on a more inclusive concept of biotic infrastructure. Public policy, education and regulatory programmes research should reflect this.

  5. The shifting beverage landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Maureen

    2010-04-26

    STOREY, M.L. The shifting beverage landscape. PHYSIOL BEHAV, 2010. - Simultaneous lifestyle changes have occurred in the last few decades, creating an imbalance in energy intake and energy expenditure that has led to overweight and obesity. Trends in the food supply show that total daily calories available per capita increased 28% since 1970. Total energy intake among men and women has also increased dramatically since that time. Some have suggested that intake of beverages has had a disproportional impact on obesity. Data collected by the Beverage Marketing Corporation between 1988-2008 demonstrate that, in reality, fewer calories per ounce are being produced by the beverage industry. Moreover, data from the National Cancer Institute show that soft drink intake represents 5.5% of daily calories. Data from NHANES 1999-2003 vs. 2003-06 may demonstrate a shift in beverage consumption for age/gender groups, ages 6 to>60years. The beverages provided in schools have significantly changed since 2006 when the beverage industry implemented School Beverage Guidelines. This voluntary action has removed full-calorie soft drinks from participating schools across the country. This shift to lower-calorie and smaller-portion beverages in school has led to a significant decrease in total beverage calories in schools. These data support the concept that to prevent and treat obesity, public health efforts should focus on energy balance and that a narrow focus on sweetened beverages is unlikely to have any meaningful impact on this complex problem. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Challenges for fuel cells as stationary power resource in the evolving energy enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastler, Dan

    The primary market challenges for fuel cells as stationary power resources in evolving energy markets are reviewed. Fuel cell power systems have significant barriers to overcome in their anticipated role as decentralized energy power systems. Market segments for fuel cells include combined heat and power; low-cost energy, premium power; peak shaving; and load management and grid support. Understanding the role and fit of fuel cell systems in evolving energy markets and the highest value applications are a major challenge for developers and government funding organizations. The most likely adopters of fuel cell systems and the challenges facing each adopter in the target market segment are reviewed. Adopters include generation companies, utility distribution companies, retail energy service providers and end-users. Key challenges include: overcoming technology risk; achieving retail competitiveness; understanding high value markets and end-user needs; distribution and service channels; regulatory policy issues; and the integration of these decentralized resources within the electrical distribution system.

  7. Epigenetic Inheritance Across the Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Vaughn Whipple

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of epigenomic variation at the landscape-level in plants may add important insight to studies of adaptive variation. A major goal of landscape genomic studies is to identify genomic regions contributing to adaptive variation across the landscape. Heritable variation in epigenetic marks, resulting in transgenerational plasticity, can influence fitness-related traits. Epigenetic marks are influenced by the genome, the environment, and their interaction, and can be inherited independently of the genome. Thus, epigenomic variation likely influences the heritability of many adaptive traits, but the extent of this influence remains largely unknown. Here we summarize the relevance of epigenetic inheritance to ecological and evolutionary processes, and review the literature on landscape-level patterns of epigenetic variation. Landscape-level patterns of epigenomic variation in plants generally show greater levels of isolation by distance and isolation by environment then is found for the genome, but the causes of these patterns are not yet clear. Linkage between the environment and epigenomic variation has been clearly shown within a single generation, but demonstrating transgenerational inheritance requires more complex breeding and/or experimental designs. Transgenerational epigenetic variation may alter the interpretation of landscape genomic studies that rely upon phenotypic analyses, but should have less influence on landscape genomic approaches that rely upon outlier analyses or genome-environment associations. We suggest that multi-generation common garden experiments conducted across multiple environments will allow researchers to understand which parts of the epigenome are inherited, as well as to parse out the relative contribution of heritable epigenetic variation to the phenotype.

  8. Epigenetic Inheritance across the Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Amy V; Holeski, Liza M

    2016-01-01

    The study of epigenomic variation at the landscape-level in plants may add important insight to studies of adaptive variation. A major goal of landscape genomic studies is to identify genomic regions contributing to adaptive variation across the landscape. Heritable variation in epigenetic marks, resulting in transgenerational plasticity, can influence fitness-related traits. Epigenetic marks are influenced by the genome, the environment, and their interaction, and can be inherited independently of the genome. Thus, epigenomic variation likely influences the heritability of many adaptive traits, but the extent of this influence remains largely unknown. Here, we summarize the relevance of epigenetic inheritance to ecological and evolutionary processes, and review the literature on landscape-level patterns of epigenetic variation. Landscape-level patterns of epigenomic variation in plants generally show greater levels of isolation by distance and isolation by environment then is found for the genome, but the causes of these patterns are not yet clear. Linkage between the environment and epigenomic variation has been clearly shown within a single generation, but demonstrating transgenerational inheritance requires more complex breeding and/or experimental designs. Transgenerational epigenetic variation may alter the interpretation of landscape genomic studies that rely upon phenotypic analyses, but should have less influence on landscape genomic approaches that rely upon outlier analyses or genome-environment associations. We suggest that multi-generation common garden experiments conducted across multiple environments will allow researchers to understand which parts of the epigenome are inherited, as well as to parse out the relative contribution of heritable epigenetic variation to the phenotype.

  9. Dataset of transcriptional landscape of B cell early activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S. Garruss

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Signaling via B cell receptors (BCR and Toll-like receptors (TLRs result in activation of B cells with distinct physiological outcomes, but transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that drive activation and distinguish these pathways remain unknown. At early time points after BCR and TLR ligand exposure, 0.5 and 2 h, RNA-seq was performed allowing observations on rapid transcriptional changes. At 2 h, ChIP-seq was performed to allow observations on important regulatory mechanisms potentially driving transcriptional change. The dataset includes RNA-seq, ChIP-seq of control (Input, RNA Pol II, H3K4me3, H3K27me3, and a separate RNA-seq for miRNA expression, which can be found at Gene Expression Omnibus Dataset GSE61608. Here, we provide details on the experimental and analysis methods used to obtain and analyze this dataset and to examine the transcriptional landscape of B cell early activation.

  10. Impact of regulatory science on global public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghal Patel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory science plays a vital role in protecting and promoting global public health by providing the scientific basis for ensuring that food and medical products are safe, properly labeled, and effective. Regulatory science research was first developed for the determination of product safety in the early part of the 20th Century, and continues to support innovation of the processes needed for regulatory policy decisions. Historically, public health laws and regulations were enacted following public health tragedies, and often the research tools and techniques required to execute these laws lagged behind the public health needs. Throughout history, similar public health problems relating to food and pharmaceutical products have occurred in countries around the world, and have usually led to the development of equivalent solutions. For example, most countries require a demonstration of pharmaceutical safety and efficacy prior to marketing these products using approaches that are similar to those initiated in the United States. The globalization of food and medical products has created a shift in regulatory compliance such that gaps in food and medical product safety can generate international problems. Improvements in regulatory research can advance the regulatory paradigm toward a more preventative, proactive framework. These improvements will advance at a greater pace with international collaboration by providing additional resources and new perspectives for approaching and anticipating public health problems. The following is a review of how past public health disasters have shaped the current regulatory landscape, and where innovation can facilitate the shift from reactive policies to proactive policies.

  11. Regulatory guidelines for biosimilars in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, Arpah

    2011-09-01

    The biosimilars sector continues to attract huge interest and controversy. Biosimilars are new biopharmaceuticals that are "similar" but not identical to the innovator product. Characteristics of biopharmaceuticals are closely related to the manufacturing process, which implies that the products cannot be exactly duplicated. Minuscule differences in the product's structure and manufacturing process can result in different clinical outcome. This raises concerns over the safety, efficacy and even pharmacovigilance of biosimilars. Thus, biosimilars are unique - they are not a true chemical generic and are regulated via a distinct regulatory framework. This report discusses the features of Malaysian regulatory oversight of biosimilars and experience acquired in the evaluation of some products from various countries. Ensuring regulatory position adequately reflects scientific advancement, expertise/resources is key. The regulatory situation is an evolving process. Various guidance documents are being prepared with the aim of developing a uniform global framework towards assuring the dual goal of lower costs and patient safety while expediting the availability of important biosimilar products. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Environmental regulatory reform in Poland: lessons for industrializing economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, H.S.; Angel, D. [Clark University, Worcester, MA (USA). George Perkins Marsh Institute

    2000-09-01

    This paper examines the environmental regulatory reform in Poland during the 1990s and uses the findings to consider the extent to which elements of successful regulatory systems are transferable across national boundaries. Drawing on five case studies of privatized firms, a mailed questionnaire, and policy and institutional analysis, it investigates how Poland developed an effective system for managing industrial pollution while also achieving considerable socioeconomic progress. The fundamental legitimacy of the regulators and regulatory process, the availability of information about firms and regulatory intents, and the capacity for case-specific decision-making are among the key explanatory factors. The study also shows how in Poland a good 'fit' between regulatory institutions and policies on one hand and their social context on the other hand has evolved, and how it contributes to the effectiveness of the regulatory system. Industrializing economies can indeed simultaneously pursue environmental protection and socioeconomic welfare, but elements of a proven regulatory system cannot be automatically adopted among countries and cultures. Learning from each other's experience must be sensitive to the cultural and institutional context of each regulatory system. 42 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Evolvability as a Quality Attribute of Software Architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciraci, S.; van den Broek, P.M.; Duchien, Laurence; D'Hondt, Maja; Mens, Tom

    We review the definition of evolvability as it appears on the literature. In particular, the concept of software evolvability is compared with other system quality attributes, such as adaptability, maintainability and modifiability.

  14. NRC Regulatory Agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  15. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  16. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has proposed or is considering action and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  17. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action or has proposed, or is considering action and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  18. NRC Regulatory Agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action or has proposed, or is considering action and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  19. Trust in regulatory regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Six, Frédérique; Verhoest, Koen

    2017-01-01

    Within political and administrative sciences generally, trust as a concept is contested, especially in the field of regulatory governance. This groundbreaking book is the first to systematically explore the role and dynamics of trust within regulatory regimes. Conceptualizing, mapping and analyzing

  20. Nuclear Regulatory legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    This compilation of statutes and material pertaining to nuclear regulatory legislation through the 97th Congress, 2nd Session, has been prepared by the Office of the Executive Legal Director, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, with the assistance of staff, for use as an internal resource document

  1. Patient-centered medical home cyberinfrastructure current and future landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Joseph; Barr, Michael S; Kothari, Pranav P; Nace, David K; Quinn, Matthew

    2011-05-01

    The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) is an approach that evolved from the understanding that a well-organized, proactive clinical team working in a tandem with well-informed patients is better able to address the preventive and disease management needs in a guideline-concordant manner. This approach represents a fundamental shift from episodic acute care models and has become an integral part of health reform supported on a federal level. The major aspects of PCMH, especially pertinent to its information infrastructure, have been discussed by an expert panel organized by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality at the Informatics for Consumer Health Summit. The goal of this article is to summarize the panel discussions along the four major domains presented at the summit: (1) PCMH as an Evolving Model of Healthcare Delivery; (2) Health Information Technology (HIT) Applications to Support the PCMH; (3) Current HIT Landscape of PCMH: Challenges and Opportunities; and (4) Future HIT Landscape of PCMH: Federal Initiatives on Health Informatics, Legislation, and Standardization. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  2. Evolving colon injury management: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Lauren T; Gillern, Suzanne M; Vertrees, Amy E

    2013-02-01

    The colon is the second most commonly injured intra-abdominal organ in penetrating trauma. Management of traumatic colon injuries has evolved significantly over the past 200 years. Traumatic colon injuries can have a wide spectrum of severity, presentation, and management options. There is strong evidence that most non-destructive colon injuries can be successfully managed with primary repair or primary anastomosis. The management of destructive colon injuries remains controversial with most favoring resection with primary anastomosis and others favor colonic diversion in specific circumstances. The historical management of traumatic colon injuries, common mechanisms of injury, demographics, presentation, assessment, diagnosis, management, and complications of traumatic colon injuries both in civilian and military practice are reviewed. The damage control revolution has added another layer of complexity to management with continued controversy.

  3. Pulmonary Sporotrichosis: An Evolving Clinical Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Ar K; Spelman, Denis W; Thompson, Philip J

    2015-10-01

    In recent decades, sporotrichosis, caused by thermally dimorphic fungi Sporothrix schenckii complex, has become an emerging infection in many parts of the world. Pulmonary infection with S. schenckii still remains relatively uncommon, possibly due to underrecognition. Pulmonary sporotrichosis presents with distinct clinical and radiological patterns in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts and can often result in significant morbidity and mortality despite treatment. Current understanding regarding S. schenckii biology, epidemiology, immunopathology, clinical diagnostics, and treatment options has been evolving in the recent years with increased availability of molecular sequencing techniques. However, this changing knowledge has not yet been fully translated into a better understanding of the clinical aspects of pulmonary sporotrichosis, as such current management guidelines remain unsupported by high-level clinical evidence. This article examines recent advances in the knowledge of sporotrichosis and its application to the difficult challenges of managing pulmonary sporotrichosis. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  4. Resiliently evolving supply-demand networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubido, Nicolás; Grebogi, Celso; Baptista, Murilo S.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to design a transport network such that commodities are brought from suppliers to consumers in a steady, optimal, and stable way is of great importance for distribution systems nowadays. In this work, by using the circuit laws of Kirchhoff and Ohm, we provide the exact capacities of the edges that an optimal supply-demand network should have to operate stably under perturbations, i.e., without overloading. The perturbations we consider are the evolution of the connecting topology, the decentralization of hub sources or sinks, and the intermittence of supplier and consumer characteristics. We analyze these conditions and the impact of our results, both on the current United Kingdom power-grid structure and on numerically generated evolving archetypal network topologies.

  5. Development and the evolvability of human limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Nathan M; Wagner, Günter P; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt

    2010-02-23

    The long legs and short arms of humans are distinctive for a primate, the result of selection acting in opposite directions on each limb at different points in our evolutionary history. This mosaic pattern challenges our understanding of the relationship of development and evolvability because limbs are serially homologous and genetic correlations should act as a significant constraint on their independent evolution. Here we test a developmental model of limb covariation in anthropoid primates and demonstrate that both humans and apes exhibit significantly reduced integration between limbs when compared to quadrupedal monkeys. This result indicates that fossil hominins likely escaped constraints on independent limb variation via reductions to genetic pleiotropy in an ape-like last common ancestor (LCA). This critical change in integration among hominoids, which is reflected in macroevolutionary differences in the disparity between limb lengths, facilitated selection for modern human limb proportions and demonstrates how development helps shape evolutionary change.

  6. Evolving spiking networks with variable resistive memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Gerard; Bull, Larry; de Lacy Costello, Ben; Gale, Ella; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Neuromorphic computing is a brainlike information processing paradigm that requires adaptive learning mechanisms. A spiking neuro-evolutionary system is used for this purpose; plastic resistive memories are implemented as synapses in spiking neural networks. The evolutionary design process exploits parameter self-adaptation and allows the topology and synaptic weights to be evolved for each network in an autonomous manner. Variable resistive memories are the focus of this research; each synapse has its own conductance profile which modifies the plastic behaviour of the device and may be altered during evolution. These variable resistive networks are evaluated on a noisy robotic dynamic-reward scenario against two static resistive memories and a system containing standard connections only. The results indicate that the extra behavioural degrees of freedom available to the networks incorporating variable resistive memories enable them to outperform the comparative synapse types.

  7. Argentina and Brazil: an evolving nuclear relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redick, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    Argentina and Brazil have Latin America's most advanced nuclear research and power programs. Both nations reject the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), and have not formally embraced the Tlatelolco Treaty creating a regional nuclear-weapon-free zone. Disturbing ambiguities persist regarding certain indigenous nuclear facilities and growing nuclear submarine and missile capabilities. For these, and other reasons, the two nations are widely considered potential nuclear weapon states. However both nations have been active supporters of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and have, in recent years, assumed a generally responsible position in regard to their own nuclear export activities (requiring IAEA safeguards). Most important, however, has been the advent of bilateral nuclear cooperation. This paper considers the evolving nuclear relationship in the context of recent and dramatic political change in Argentina and Brazil. It discusses current political and nuclear developments and the prospects for maintaining and expanding present bilateral cooperation into an effective non-proliferation arrangement. (author)

  8. The genotype-phenotype map of an evolving digital organism

    OpenAIRE

    Fortuna, Miguel A.; Zaman, Luis; Ofria, Charles; Wagner, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    To understand how evolving systems bring forth novel and useful phenotypes, it is essential to understand the relationship between genotypic and phenotypic change. Artificial evolving systems can help us understand whether the genotype-phenotype maps of natural evolving systems are highly unusual, and it may help create evolvable artificial systems. Here we characterize the genotype-phenotype map of digital organisms in Avida, a platform for digital evolution. We consider digital organisms fr...

  9. Improving nuclear regulatory effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Ensuring that nuclear installations are operated and maintained in such a way that their impact on public health and safety is as low as reasonably practicable has been and will continue to be the cornerstone of nuclear regulation. In the past, nuclear incidents provided the main impetus for regulatory change. Today, economic factors, deregulation, technological advancements, government oversight and the general requirements for openness and accountability are leading regulatory bodies to review their effectiveness. In addition, seeking to enhance the present level of nuclear safety by continuously improving the effectiveness of regulatory bodies is seen as one of the ways to strengthen public confidence in the regulatory systems. This report covers the basic concepts underlying nuclear regulatory effectiveness, advances being made and future requirements. The intended audience is primarily nuclear safety regulators, but government authorities, nuclear power plant operators and the general public may also be interested. (author)

  10. Landscape structure and management alter the outcome of a pesticide ERA: Evaluating impacts of endocrine disruption using the ALMaSS European Brown Hare model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Chris J; Dalby, Lars; Skov, Flemming

    2016-01-15

    There is a gradual change towards explicitly considering landscapes in regulatory risk assessment. To realise the objective of developing representative scenarios for risk assessment it is necessary to know how detailed a landscape representation is needed to generate a realistic risk assessment, and indeed how to generate such landscapes. This paper evaluates the contribution of landscape and farming components to a model based risk assessment of a fictitious endocrine disruptor on hares. In addition, we present methods and code examples for generation of landscape structures and farming simulation from data collected primarily for EU agricultural subsidy support and GIS map data. Ten different Danish landscapes were generated and the ERA carried out for each landscape using two different assumed toxicities. The results showed negative impacts in all cases, but the extent and form in terms of impacts on abundance or occupancy differed greatly between landscapes. A meta-model was created, predicting impact from landscape and farming characteristics. Scenarios based on all combinations of farming and landscape for five landscapes representing extreme and middle impacts were created. The meta-models developed from the 10 real landscapes failed to predict impacts for these 25 scenarios. Landscape, farming, and the emergent density of hares all influenced the results of the risk assessment considerably. The study indicates that prediction of a reasonable worst case scenario is difficult from structural, farming or population metrics; rather the emergent properties generated from interactions between landscape, management and ecology are needed. Meta-modelling may also fail to predict impacts, even when restricting inputs to combinations of those used to create the model. Future ERA may therefore need to make use of multiple scenarios representing a wide range of conditions to avoid locally unacceptable risks. This approach could now be feasible Europe wide given the

  11. Landscape Ecology and problems of European cultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    by practical problems of European cultural – especial agricultural – landscapes since the rise of the environmental movement. Central themes have been the consequences of technological and structural changes within European agriculture for the landscape and the development of habitats and dispersal...... Problemstellungen basieren auf multifunktionalen Nutzungskonzepten ruraler Landschaften, besonders im Hinblick auf Suburbanisierungsprozesse. Eine Anzahl untereinander vergleichbarer Projekte, mit parallelen bis ähnlichen Ausprägungen innerhalb Dänemarks und weiteerer europäischer Länder, werden exemplarisch...

  12. Navigating the Interface Between Landscape Genetics and Landscape Genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Storfer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As next-generation sequencing data become increasingly available for non-model organisms, a shift has occurred in the focus of studies of the geographic distribution of genetic variation. Whereas landscape genetics studies primarily focus on testing the effects of landscape variables on gene flow and genetic population structure, landscape genomics studies focus on detecting candidate genes under selection that indicate possible local adaptation. Navigating the transition between landscape genomics and landscape genetics can be challenging. The number of molecular markers analyzed has shifted from what used to be a few dozen loci to thousands of loci and even full genomes. Although genome scale data can be separated into sets of neutral loci for analyses of gene flow and population structure and putative loci under selection for inference of local adaptation, there are inherent differences in the questions that are addressed in the two study frameworks. We discuss these differences and their implications for study design, marker choice and downstream analysis methods. Similar to the rapid proliferation of analysis methods in the early development of landscape genetics, new analytical methods for detection of selection in landscape genomics studies are burgeoning. We focus on genome scan methods for detection of selection, and in particular, outlier differentiation methods and genetic-environment association tests because they are the most widely used. Use of genome scan methods requires an understanding of the potential mismatches between the biology of a species and assumptions inherent in analytical methods used, which can lead to high false positive rates of detected loci under selection. Key to choosing appropriate genome scan methods is an understanding of the underlying demographic structure of study populations, and such data can be obtained using neutral loci from the generated genome-wide data or prior knowledge of a species

  13. The development of landscape-scale ecological units and their application to the greater Huachuca Mountains fire planning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larry E. Laing; David Gori; James T. Jones

    2005-01-01

    The multi-partner Greater Huachuca Mountains fire planning effort involves over 500,000 acres of public and private lands. This large area supports distinct landscapes that have evolved with fire. Utilizing GIS as a tool, the United States Forest Service (USFS), General Ecosystem Survey (GES), and Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) State Soil Geographic...

  14. Evolving water science in the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savenije, H. H. G.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; van der Zaag, P.

    2013-06-01

    This paper reviews the changing relation between man and water since the industrial revolution, the period that has been called the Anthropocene because of the unprecedented scale at which humans have altered the planet. We show how the rapidly changing reality urges us to continuously improve our understanding of the complex interactions between man and the water system. The paper starts with demonstrating that hydrology and the science of water resources management have played key roles in human and economic development throughout history; yet these roles have often been marginalised or obscured. Knowledge on hydrology and water resources engineering and management helped to transform the landscape, and thus also the very hydrology within catchments itself. It is only fairly recent that water experts have become self-conscious of such mechanisms, exemplified by several concepts that try to internalise them (integrated water resources management, eco-hydrology, socio-hydrology). We have reached a stage where a more systemic understanding of scale interdependencies can inform the sustainable governance of water systems, using new concepts like precipitationsheds, virtual water transfers, water footprint and water value flow.

  15. The role of agricultural engineering in the management of landscape changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Fumagalli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Landscape represents the “sensory aspect” of the land and as such it can be appreciated by all the five senses: sight, smelling, hearing, touch and taste. At the same time, landscape evolves over time and its value – ecological, economical and affective – changes as its constitutive elements change. Engineering can help “to drive” this evolution addressing it towards a condition of balance between individual and community requirements, especially referred to the effect of technological development on landscape. This effect can be referred to three dimensions: perceptive, functional and symbolic dimensions. The possible contribution to the management of landscape changes concerns all the three historic souls of Agricultural Engineering; in particular, Agricultural Hydraulics deals with the topic of landscape referring to both irrigation and the possible recreational use of canal systems; Agricultural Engineering determines plot form and size and woodland view; Rural Building deals with both the recovery of existing buildings and the design and making of new ones and their fitting in the landscape; moreover, the sector has developed new methods for the evaluation and the planning of rural land resources, especially about agriculture and forestry productivity, ecological stability and visual quality of rural land itself.

  16. Urban Landscapes and Sustainable Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Andersson

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecological research targeting sustainable urban landscapes needs to include findings and methods from many lines of ecological research, such as the link between biodiversity and ecosystem function, the role of humans in ecosystems, landscape connectivity, and resilience. This paper reviews and highlights the importance of these issues for sustainable use of ecosystem services, which is argued to be one aspect of sustainable cities. The paper stresses the need to include social and economic factors when analyzing urban landscapes. Spatially explicit data can be used to assess the roles different green areas have in providing people with ecosystem services, and whether people actually have access to the services. Such data can also be used to assess connectivity and heterogeneity, both argued to be central for continuous, long-term provision of these services, and to determine the role urban form has for sustainability.

  17. Legible landscapes: the use of narratives in landscape design for leisure and tourism in Dutch cultural landscapes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhuijsen, M.

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, leisure and tourism have become significant factors in rural development, which is manifest in the ‘commodification’ of landscapes. However, leisure and tourist markets are very competitive and consumers increasingly demand high quality, unique and memorable experiences. Landscape

  18. Regulatory guidance document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program Management System Manual requires preparation of the OCRWM Regulatory Guidance Document (RGD) that addresses licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance. The document provides: regulatory compliance policy; guidance to OCRWM organizational elements to ensure a consistent approach when complying with regulatory requirements; strategies to achieve policy objectives; organizational responsibilities for regulatory compliance; guidance with regard to Program compliance oversight; and guidance on the contents of a project-level Regulatory Compliance Plan. The scope of the RGD includes site suitability evaluation, licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance, in accordance with the direction provided by Section 4.6.3 of the PMS Manual. Site suitability evaluation and regulatory compliance during site characterization are significant activities, particularly with regard to the YW MSA. OCRWM's evaluation of whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable for repository development must precede its submittal of a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Accordingly, site suitability evaluation is discussed in Chapter 4, and the general statements of policy regarding site suitability evaluation are discussed in Section 2.1. Although much of the data and analyses may initially be similar, the licensing process is discussed separately in Chapter 5. Environmental compliance is discussed in Chapter 6. Safety and Health compliance is discussed in Chapter 7

  19. A simple approach for a spatial terrestrial exposure assessment of the insecticide fenoxycarb, based on a high-resolution landscape analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kai; Resseler, Herbert; Spatz, Robert; Hendley, Paul; Sweeney, Paul; Urban, Martin; Kubiak, Roland

    2016-11-01

    The objective was to refine the standard regulatory exposure scenario used in plant protection product authorisations by developing a more realistic landscape-related GIS-based exposure assessment for terrestrial non-target arthropods. We quantified the proportion of adjacent off-target area in agricultural landscapes potentially exposed to insecticide drift from applications of the active substance fenoxycarb. High-resolution imagery, landscape classification and subsequent stepwise analysis of a whole landscape using drift and interception functions were applied to selected areas in representative fruit-producing regions in Germany. Even under worst-case assumptions regarding treated area, use rate and drift, less than 12% of the non-agricultural habitat area would potentially be exposed to fenoxycarb drift above regulatory acceptable concentrations. Additionally, if the filtering effect of tall vegetation were taken into account, this number would decrease to 6.6%. Further refinements to landscape elements and application conditions indicate that less than 5% of the habitat area might be exposed above regulatory acceptable concentrations, meaning that 95% of the non-agricultural habitat area will be unimpacted (i.e. no unacceptable effects) and can serve as refuge for recolonisation. Approaches and tools are proposed for standardisable and transparent refinements in regulatory risk assessments on the landscape level. © 2016 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Energy Landscape of Social Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, Seth A.; Strogatz, Steven H.; Kleinberg, Jon M.

    2009-11-01

    We model a close-knit community of friends and enemies as a fully connected network with positive and negative signs on its edges. Theories from social psychology suggest that certain sign patterns are more stable than others. This notion of social “balance” allows us to define an energy landscape for such networks. Its structure is complex: numerical experiments reveal a landscape dimpled with local minima of widely varying energy levels. We derive rigorous bounds on the energies of these local minima and prove that they have a modular structure that can be used to classify them.

  1. Energy landscape of social balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, Seth A; Strogatz, Steven H; Kleinberg, Jon M

    2009-11-06

    We model a close-knit community of friends and enemies as a fully connected network with positive and negative signs on its edges. Theories from social psychology suggest that certain sign patterns are more stable than others. This notion of social "balance" allows us to define an energy landscape for such networks. Its structure is complex: numerical experiments reveal a landscape dimpled with local minima of widely varying energy levels. We derive rigorous bounds on the energies of these local minima and prove that they have a modular structure that can be used to classify them.

  2. Chapter 9. The landscape sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larivaille, Pierrette

    1980-01-01

    The object of this work is to examine the interactions between the activities of the electric industry (generating, transmission and distribution) and the environment, whilst showing to what extent the facilities are likely to affect it adversely and describing the measures taken to lessen the detrimental effects. The chapter devoted to the 'landscape' includes a section covering the electricity generating facilities, and among these, the nuclear power stations. The studies carried out on the main units of insertion into the site are presented, particularly the landscaping involved in setting up a power station [fr

  3. Cooling towers in the landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boernke, F.

    1977-01-01

    The cooling tower as a large technical construction is one of the most original industrial buildings. It sticks out as an outlandish element in our building landscape, a giant which cannot be compared with the traditional forms of technical buildings. If it is constructed as a reinforced-concrete hyperboloid, its shape goes beyond all limits of building construction. Judgment of these highly individual constructions is only possible by applying a novel standard breaking completely with tradition. This new scale of height and dimension in industrial construction, and in particular the modern cooling tower, requires painstaking care and design and adaptation to the landscape around it. (orig.) [de

  4. Managing Regulatory Body Competence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    In 2001, the IAEA published TECDOC 1254, which examined the way in which the recognized functions of a regulatory body for nuclear facilities results in competence needs. Using the systematic approach to training (SAT), TECDOC 1254 provided a framework for regulatory bodies for managing training and developing and their maintaining their competence. It has been successfully used by many regulators. The IAEA has also introduced a methodology and an assessment tool - Guidelines for Systematic Assessment of Regulatory Competence Needs (SARCoN) - which provides practical guidance on analysing the training and development needs of a regulatory body and, through a gap analysis, guidance on establishing competence needs and how to meet them. In 2009, the IAEA established a steering committee (supported by a bureau) with the mission to advise the IAEA on how it could best assist Member States to develop suitable competence management systems for their regulatory bodies. The committee recommended the development of a safety report on managing staff competence as an integral part of a regulatory body's management system. This Safety Report was developed in response to this request. It supersedes TECDOC 1254, broadens its application to regulatory bodies for all facilities and activities, and builds upon the experience gained through the application of TECDOC 1254 and SARCoN and the feedback received from Member States. This Safety Report applies to the management of adequate competence as needs change, and as such is equally applicable to the needs of States 'embarking' on a nuclear power programme. It also deals with the special case of building up the competence of regulatory bodies as part of the overall process of establishing an 'embarking' State's regulatory system

  5. The evolving energy budget of accretionary wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeck, Jessica; Cooke, Michele; Maillot, Bertrand; Souloumiac, Pauline

    2017-04-01

    The energy budget of evolving accretionary systems reveals how deformational processes partition energy as faults slip, topography uplifts, and layer-parallel shortening produces distributed off-fault deformation. The energy budget provides a quantitative framework for evaluating the energetic contribution or consumption of diverse deformation mechanisms. We investigate energy partitioning in evolving accretionary prisms by synthesizing data from physical sand accretion experiments and numerical accretion simulations. We incorporate incremental strain fields and cumulative force measurements from two suites of experiments to design numerical simulations that represent accretionary wedges with stronger and weaker detachment faults. One suite of the physical experiments includes a basal glass bead layer and the other does not. Two physical experiments within each suite implement different boundary conditions (stable base versus moving base configuration). Synthesizing observations from the differing base configurations reduces the influence of sidewall friction because the force vector produced by sidewall friction points in opposite directions depending on whether the base is fixed or moving. With the numerical simulations, we calculate the energy budget at two stages of accretion: at the maximum force preceding the development of the first thrust pair, and at the minimum force following the development of the pair. To identify the appropriate combination of material and fault properties to apply in the simulations, we systematically vary the Young's modulus and the fault static and dynamic friction coefficients in numerical accretion simulations, and identify the set of parameters that minimizes the misfit between the normal force measured on the physical backwall and the numerically simulated force. Following this derivation of the appropriate material and fault properties, we calculate the components of the work budget in the numerical simulations and in the

  6. Landscape history and archaeology of open field landscapes in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renes, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071365303

    2016-01-01

    The landscapes of open fields were the grain baskets of medieval Europe. The term ‘open fields’ refers to the large arable fields that have an open character because the individual parcels of the owners were not surrounded by hedges, woodbanks, drystone walls or other visible boundaries. In this

  7. Forest Landscape Restoration in the Drylands of Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian C. Newton

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest Landscape Restoration (FLR involves the ecological restoration of degraded forest landscapes, with the aim of benefiting both biodiversity and human well-being. We first identify four fundamental principles of FLR, based on previous definitions. We then critically evaluate the application of these principles in practice, based on the experience gained during an international, collaborative research project conducted in six dry forest landscapes of Latin America. Research highlighted the potential for FLR; tree species of high socioeconomic value were identified in all study areas, and strong dependence of local communities on forest resources was widely encountered, particularly for fuelwood. We demonstrated that FLR can be achieved through both passive and active restoration approaches, and can be cost-effective if the increased provision of ecosystem services is taken into account. These results therefore highlight the potential for FLR, and the positive contribution that it could make to sustainable development. However, we also encountered a number of challenges to FLR implementation, including the difficulty of achieving strong engagement in FLR activities among local stakeholders, lack of capacity for community-led initiatives, and the lack of an appropriate institutional and regulatory environment to support restoration activities. Successful implementation of FLR will require new collaborative alliances among stakeholders, empowerment and capacity building of local communities to enable them to fully engage with restoration activities, and an enabling public policy context to enable local people to be active participants in the decision making process.

  8. On the Critical Role of Divergent Selection in Evolvability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Lehman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An ambitious goal in evolutionary robotics is to evolve increasingly complex robotic behaviors with minimal human design effort. Reaching this goal requires evolutionary algorithms that can unlock from genetic encodings their latent potential for evolvability. One issue clouding this goal is conceptual confusion about evolvability, which often obscures the aspects of evolvability that are important or desirable. The danger from such confusion is that it may establish unrealistic goals for evolvability that prove unproductive in practice. An important issue separate from conceptual confusion is the common misalignment between selection and evolvability in evolutionary robotics. While more expressive encodings can represent higher-level adaptations (e.g. sexual reproduction or developmental systems that increase long-term evolutionary potential (i.e. evolvability, realizing such potential requires gradients of fitness and evolvability to align. In other words, selection is often a critical factor limiting increasing evolvability. Thus, drawing from a series of recent papers, this article seeks to both (1 clarify and focus the ways in which the term evolvability is used within artificial evolution, and (2 argue for the importance of one type of selection, i.e. divergent selection, for enabling evolvability. The main argument is that there is a fundamental connection between divergent selection and evolvability (on both the individual and population level that does not hold for typical goal-oriented selection. The conclusion is that selection pressure plays a critical role in realizing the potential for evolvability, and that divergent selection in particular provides a principled mechanism for encouraging evolvability in artificial evolution.

  9. landscape incorporation in the environmental impact studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez G, Luz Angela

    2000-01-01

    A general overview on landscape analysis showing the two principal approaches to their study, the article emphasize on the need of taking landscape in consideration on the making of the environmental impact study of any project of development

  10. Approximating centrality in evolving graphs: toward sublinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Benjamin W.; Cybenko, George

    2017-05-01

    The identification of important nodes is a ubiquitous problem in the analysis of social networks. Centrality indices (such as degree centrality, closeness centrality, betweenness centrality, PageRank, and others) are used across many domains to accomplish this task. However, the computation of such indices is expensive on large graphs. Moreover, evolving graphs are becoming increasingly important in many applications. It is therefore desirable to develop on-line algorithms that can approximate centrality measures using memory sublinear in the size of the graph. We discuss the challenges facing the semi-streaming computation of many centrality indices. In particular, we apply recent advances in the streaming and sketching literature to provide a preliminary streaming approximation algorithm for degree centrality utilizing CountSketch and a multi-pass semi-streaming approximation algorithm for closeness centrality leveraging a spanner obtained through iteratively sketching the vertex-edge adjacency matrix. We also discuss possible ways forward for approximating betweenness centrality, as well as spectral measures of centrality. We provide a preliminary result using sketched low-rank approximations to approximate the output of the HITS algorithm.

  11. Functional Topology of Evolving Urban Drainage Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Soohyun; Paik, Kyungrock; McGrath, Gavan S.; Urich, Christian; Krueger, Elisabeth; Kumar, Praveen; Rao, P. Suresh C.

    2017-11-01

    We investigated the scaling and topology of engineered urban drainage networks (UDNs) in two cities, and further examined UDN evolution over decades. UDN scaling was analyzed using two power law scaling characteristics widely employed for river networks: (1) Hack's law of length (L)-area (A) [L∝Ah] and (2) exceedance probability distribution of upstream contributing area (δ) [P>(A≥δ>)˜aδ-ɛ]. For the smallest UDNs ((A≥δ>) plots for river networks are abruptly truncated, those for UDNs display exponential tempering [P>(A≥δ>)=aδ-ɛexp⁡>(-cδ>)]. The tempering parameter c decreases as the UDNs grow, implying that the distribution evolves in time to resemble those for river networks. However, the power law exponent ɛ for large UDNs tends to be greater than the range reported for river networks. Differences in generative processes and engineering design constraints contribute to observed differences in the evolution of UDNs and river networks, including subnet heterogeneity and nonrandom branching.

  12. An Evolving Worldview: Making Open Source Easy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Z.

    2017-12-01

    NASA Worldview is an interactive interface for browsing full-resolution, global satellite imagery. Worldview supports an open data policy so that academia, private industries and the general public can use NASA's satellite data to address Earth science related issues. Worldview was open sourced in 2014. By shifting to an open source approach, the Worldview application has evolved to better serve end-users. Project developers are able to have discussions with end-users and community developers to understand issues and develop new features. Community developers are able to track upcoming features, collaborate on them and make their own contributions. Developers who discover issues are able to address those issues and submit a fix. This reduces the time it takes for a project developer to reproduce an issue or develop a new feature. Getting new developers to contribute to the project has been one of the most important and difficult aspects of open sourcing Worldview. After witnessing potential outside contributors struggle, a focus has been made on making the installation of Worldview simple to reduce the initial learning curve and make contributing code easy. One way we have addressed this is through a simplified setup process. Our setup documentation includes a set of prerequisites and a set of straightforward commands to clone, configure, install and run. This presentation will emphasize our focus to simplify and standardize Worldview's open source code so that more people are able to contribute. The more people who contribute, the better the application will become over time.

  13. Extreme insular dwarfism evolved in a mammoth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herridge, Victoria L; Lister, Adrian M

    2012-08-22

    The insular dwarfism seen in Pleistocene elephants has come to epitomize the island rule; yet our understanding of this phenomenon is hampered by poor taxonomy. For Mediterranean dwarf elephants, where the most extreme cases of insular dwarfism are observed, a key systematic question remains unresolved: are all taxa phyletic dwarfs of a single mainland species Palaeoloxodon antiquus (straight-tusked elephant), or are some referable to Mammuthus (mammoths)? Ancient DNA and geochronological evidence have been used to support a Mammuthus origin for the Cretan 'Palaeoloxodon' creticus, but these studies have been shown to be flawed. On the basis of existing collections and recent field discoveries, we present new, morphological evidence for the taxonomic status of 'P'. creticus, and show that it is indeed a mammoth, most probably derived from Early Pleistocene Mammuthus meridionalis or possibly Late Pliocene Mammuthus rumanus. We also show that Mammuthus creticus is smaller than other known insular dwarf mammoths, and is similar in size to the smallest dwarf Palaeoloxodon species from Sicily and Malta, making it the smallest mammoth species known to have existed. These findings indicate that extreme insular dwarfism has evolved to a similar degree independently in two elephant lineages.

  14. How does cognition evolve? Phylogenetic comparative psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Evan L; Matthews, Luke J; Hare, Brian A; Nunn, Charles L; Anderson, Rindy C; Aureli, Filippo; Brannon, Elizabeth M; Call, Josep; Drea, Christine M; Emery, Nathan J; Haun, Daniel B M; Herrmann, Esther; Jacobs, Lucia F; Platt, Michael L; Rosati, Alexandra G; Sandel, Aaron A; Schroepfer, Kara K; Seed, Amanda M; Tan, Jingzhi; van Schaik, Carel P; Wobber, Victoria

    2012-03-01

    Now more than ever animal studies have the potential to test hypotheses regarding how cognition evolves. Comparative psychologists have developed new techniques to probe the cognitive mechanisms underlying animal behavior, and they have become increasingly skillful at adapting methodologies to test multiple species. Meanwhile, evolutionary biologists have generated quantitative approaches to investigate the phylogenetic distribution and function of phenotypic traits, including cognition. In particular, phylogenetic methods can quantitatively (1) test whether specific cognitive abilities are correlated with life history (e.g., lifespan), morphology (e.g., brain size), or socio-ecological variables (e.g., social system), (2) measure how strongly phylogenetic relatedness predicts the distribution of cognitive skills across species, and (3) estimate the ancestral state of a given cognitive trait using measures of cognitive performance from extant species. Phylogenetic methods can also be used to guide the selection of species comparisons that offer the strongest tests of a priori predictions of cognitive evolutionary hypotheses (i.e., phylogenetic targeting). Here, we explain how an integration of comparative psychology and evolutionary biology will answer a host of questions regarding the phylogenetic distribution and history of cognitive traits, as well as the evolutionary processes that drove their evolution.

  15. An evolving network model with modular growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Zhi-Yun; Liu Peng; Lei Li; Gao Jian-Zhi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an evolving network model growing fast in units of module, according to the analysis of the evolution characteristics in real complex networks. Each module is a small-world network containing several interconnected nodes and the nodes between the modules are linked by preferential attachment on degree of nodes. We study the modularity measure of the proposed model, which can be adjusted by changing the ratio of the number of inner-module edges and the number of inter-module edges. In view of the mean-field theory, we develop an analytical function of the degree distribution, which is verified by a numerical example and indicates that the degree distribution shows characteristics of the small-world network and the scale-free network distinctly at different segments. The clustering coefficient and the average path length of the network are simulated numerically, indicating that the network shows the small-world property and is affected little by the randomness of the new module. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  16. How does cognition evolve? Phylogenetic comparative psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Luke J.; Hare, Brian A.; Nunn, Charles L.; Anderson, Rindy C.; Aureli, Filippo; Brannon, Elizabeth M.; Call, Josep; Drea, Christine M.; Emery, Nathan J.; Haun, Daniel B. M.; Herrmann, Esther; Jacobs, Lucia F.; Platt, Michael L.; Rosati, Alexandra G.; Sandel, Aaron A.; Schroepfer, Kara K.; Seed, Amanda M.; Tan, Jingzhi; van Schaik, Carel P.; Wobber, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Now more than ever animal studies have the potential to test hypotheses regarding how cognition evolves. Comparative psychologists have developed new techniques to probe the cognitive mechanisms underlying animal behavior, and they have become increasingly skillful at adapting methodologies to test multiple species. Meanwhile, evolutionary biologists have generated quantitative approaches to investigate the phylogenetic distribution and function of phenotypic traits, including cognition. In particular, phylogenetic methods can quantitatively (1) test whether specific cognitive abilities are correlated with life history (e.g., lifespan), morphology (e.g., brain size), or socio-ecological variables (e.g., social system), (2) measure how strongly phylogenetic relatedness predicts the distribution of cognitive skills across species, and (3) estimate the ancestral state of a given cognitive trait using measures of cognitive performance from extant species. Phylogenetic methods can also be used to guide the selection of species comparisons that offer the strongest tests of a priori predictions of cognitive evolutionary hypotheses (i.e., phylogenetic targeting). Here, we explain how an integration of comparative psychology and evolutionary biology will answer a host of questions regarding the phylogenetic distribution and history of cognitive traits, as well as the evolutionary processes that drove their evolution. PMID:21927850

  17. A local-world evolving hypernetwork model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Guang-Yong; Liu Jian-Guo

    2014-01-01

    Complex hypernetworks are ubiquitous in the real system. It is very important to investigate the evolution mechanisms. In this paper, we present a local-world evolving hypernetwork model by taking into account the hyperedge growth and local-world hyperedge preferential attachment mechanisms. At each time step, a newly added hyperedge encircles a new coming node and a number of nodes from a randomly selected local world. The number of the selected nodes from the local world obeys the uniform distribution and its mean value is m. The analytical and simulation results show that the hyperdegree approximately obeys the power-law form and the exponent of hyperdegree distribution is γ = 2 + 1/m. Furthermore, we numerically investigate the node degree, hyperedge degree, clustering coefficient, as well as the average distance, and find that the hypernetwork model shares the scale-free and small-world properties, which shed some light for deeply understanding the evolution mechanism of the real systems. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  18. Evolving autonomous learning in cognitive networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheneman, Leigh; Hintze, Arend

    2017-12-01

    There are two common approaches for optimizing the performance of a machine: genetic algorithms and machine learning. A genetic algorithm is applied over many generations whereas machine learning works by applying feedback until the system meets a performance threshold. These methods have been previously combined, particularly in artificial neural networks using an external objective feedback mechanism. We adapt this approach to Markov Brains, which are evolvable networks of probabilistic and deterministic logic gates. Prior to this work MB could only adapt from one generation to the other, so we introduce feedback gates which augment their ability to learn during their lifetime. We show that Markov Brains can incorporate these feedback gates in such a way that they do not rely on an external objective feedback signal, but instead can generate internal feedback that is then used to learn. This results in a more biologically accurate model of the evolution of learning, which will enable us to study the interplay between evolution and learning and could be another step towards autonomously learning machines.

  19. Orbital Decay in Binaries with Evolved Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meng; Arras, Phil; Weinberg, Nevin N.; Troup, Nicholas; Majewski, Steven R.

    2018-01-01

    Two mechanisms are often invoked to explain tidal friction in binary systems. The ``dynamical tide” is the resonant excitation of internal gravity waves by the tide, and their subsequent damping by nonlinear fluid processes or thermal diffusion. The ``equilibrium tide” refers to non-resonant excitation of fluid motion in the star’s convection zone, with damping by interaction with the turbulent eddies. There have been numerous studies of these processes in main sequence stars, but less so on the subgiant and red giant branches. Motivated by the newly discovered close binary systems in the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE-1), we have performed calculations of both the dynamical and equilibrium tide processes for stars over a range of mass as the star’s cease core hydrogen burning and evolve to shell burning. Even for stars which had a radiative core on the main sequence, the dynamical tide may have very large amplitude in the newly radiative core in post-main sequence, giving rise to wave breaking. The resulting large dynamical tide dissipation rate is compared to the equilibrium tide, and the range of secondary masses and orbital periods over which rapid orbital decay may occur will be discussed, as well as applications to close APOGEE binaries.

  20. Diverticular Disease: Traditional and Evolving Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamanna, Lenore; Moran, Patricia E

    Diverticular disease includes diverticulosis, which are sac protrusions of the intestinal mucosa, and diverticulitis, inflammation of the diverticula. Diverticular disease is listed as one of the top 10 leading physician diagnoses for gastrointestinal disorders in outpatient clinic visits in the United States. There are several classifications of diverticular disease ranging from asymptomatic diverticulosis to diverticulitis with complications. Several theories are linked to the development of diverticula which includes the physiology of the colon itself, collagen cross-linking, and recently challenged, low-fiber intake. The differential diagnoses of lower abdominal pain in addition to diverticular disease have overlapping signs and symptoms, which can make a diagnosis challenging. Identification of the distinct signs and symptoms of each classification will assist the practitioner in making the correct diagnosis and lead to appropriate management. The findings from recent studies have changed the paradigm of diverticular disease. The purpose of this article is to discuss traditional dogma and evolving concepts in the pathophysiology, prevention, and management of diverticular disease. Practitioners must be knowledgeable about diverticular disease for improved outcomes.

  1. Minority games, evolving capitals and replicator dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galla, Tobias; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2009-01-01

    We discuss a simple version of the minority game (MG) in which agents hold only one strategy each, but in which their capitals evolve dynamically according to their success and in which the total trading volume varies in time accordingly. This feature is known to be crucial for MGs to reproduce stylized facts of real market data. The stationary states and phase diagram of the model can be computed, and we show that the ergodicity breaking phase transition common for MGs, and marked by a divergence of the integrated response, is present also in this simplified model. An analogous majority game turns out to be relatively void of interesting features, and the total capital is found to diverge in time. Introducing a restraining force leads to a model akin to the replicator dynamics of evolutionary game theory, and we demonstrate that here a different type of phase transition is observed. Finally we briefly discuss the relation of this model with one strategy per player to more sophisticated minority games with dynamical capitals and several trading strategies per agent

  2. An evolving model of online bipartite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chu-Xu; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Liu, Chuang

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the structure and evolution of online bipartite networks is a significant task since they play a crucial role in various e-commerce services nowadays. Recently, various attempts have been tried to propose different models, resulting in either power-law or exponential degree distributions. However, many empirical results show that the user degree distribution actually follows a shifted power-law distribution, the so-called Mandelbrot’s law, which cannot be fully described by previous models. In this paper, we propose an evolving model, considering two different user behaviors: random and preferential attachment. Extensive empirical results on two real bipartite networks, Delicious and CiteULike, show that the theoretical model can well characterize the structure of real networks for both user and object degree distributions. In addition, we introduce a structural parameter p, to demonstrate that the hybrid user behavior leads to the shifted power-law degree distribution, and the region of power-law tail will increase with the increment of p. The proposed model might shed some lights in understanding the underlying laws governing the structure of real online bipartite networks.

  3. The Evolving Classification of Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshat, Michelle; Boroumand, Nahal

    2017-05-01

    - An explosion of information on pulmonary hypertension has occurred during the past few decades. The perception of this disease has shifted from purely clinical to incorporate new knowledge of the underlying pathology. This transfer has occurred in light of advancements in pathophysiology, histology, and molecular medical diagnostics. - To update readers about the evolving understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension and to demonstrate how pathology has shaped the current classification. - Information presented at the 5 World Symposia on pulmonary hypertension held since 1973, with the last meeting occurring in 2013, was used in this review. - Pulmonary hypertension represents a heterogeneous group of disorders that are differentiated based on differences in clinical, hemodynamic, and histopathologic features. Early concepts of pulmonary hypertension were largely influenced by pharmacotherapy, hemodynamic function, and clinical presentation of the disease. The initial nomenclature for pulmonary hypertension segregated the clinical classifications from pathologic subtypes. Major restructuring of this disease classification occurred between the first and second symposia, which was the first to unite clinical and pathologic information in the categorization scheme. Additional changes were introduced in subsequent meetings, particularly between the third and fourth World Symposia meetings, when additional pathophysiologic information was gained. Discoveries in molecular diagnostics significantly progressed the understanding of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Continued advancements in imaging modalities, mechanistic pathogenicity, and molecular biomarkers will enable physicians to define pulmonary hypertension phenotypes based on the pathobiology and allow for treatment customization.

  4. Evolving application of biomimetic nanostructured hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto Roveri

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Norberto Roveri, Michele IafiscoLaboratory of Environmental and Biological Structural Chemistry (LEBSC, Dipartimento di Chimica ‘G. Ciamician’, Alma Mater Studiorum, Università di Bologna, Bologna, ItalyAbstract: By mimicking Nature, we can design and synthesize inorganic smart materials that are reactive to biological tissues. These smart materials can be utilized to design innovative third-generation biomaterials, which are able to not only optimize their interaction with biological tissues and environment, but also mimic biogenic materials in their functionalities. The biomedical applications involve increasing the biomimetic levels from chemical composition, structural organization, morphology, mechanical behavior, nanostructure, and bulk and surface chemical–physical properties until the surface becomes bioreactive and stimulates cellular materials. The chemical–physical characteristics of biogenic hydroxyapatites from bone and tooth have been described, in order to point out the elective sides, which are important to reproduce the design of a new biomimetic synthetic hydroxyapatite. This review outlines the evolving applications of biomimetic synthetic calcium phosphates, details the main characteristics of bone and tooth, where the calcium phosphates are present, and discusses the chemical–physical characteristics of biomimetic calcium phosphates, methods of synthesizing them, and some of their biomedical applications.Keywords: hydroxyapatite, nanocrystals, biomimetism, biomaterials, drug delivery, remineralization

  5. Social Work in Health Care in 2025: The Landscape and Paths of Transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Kathleen Ell; Besty Vourlekis

    2005-01-01

    Social work in health care will, over the next 25 years, be transformed in concert with a complex and rapidly changing healthcare landscape and critical advances in behavioral and social science. Professional practice, research and education will be shaped by evolving patterns of health and illness, changing population demographics, developments in medicine, behavioral and social science, technology innovation and applications, and healthcare delivery cost and market forces. The profession’s ...

  6. Safety and regulatory requirements of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.V.; Bhardwaj, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    A pre-requisite for a nuclear power program in any country is well established national safety and regulatory requirements. These have evolved for nuclear power plants in India with participation of the regulatory body, utility, research and development (R and D) organizations and educational institutions. Prevailing international practices provided a useful base to develop those applicable to specific system designs for nuclear power plants in India. Their effectiveness has been demonstrated in planned activities of building up the nuclear power program as well as with unplanned activities, like those due to safety related incidents etc. (author)

  7. THE METHODOLOGY OF VALORISING AND ASSESSING LANDSCAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Jacek Bacior

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Landscape evaluation process requires access to particular information resources making it possible to regionalize (divide into zones the area under investigation. Thus, the starting point is landscape assessment and evaluation followed by regionalization. As a result of this step, we determine certain areas that are homogenous with regards to their landscape assets Keywords: assessing landscape, structure of rural areas, spatial planning of rural areas.

  8. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    The Regulatory Agenda is a quarterly compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action or has proposed, or is considering action and of all petitions for rulemaking that the NRC has received that are pending disposition

  9. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The Regulatory Agenda is a quarterly compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action or has proposed, or is considering action and of all petitions for rulemaking that the NRC has received that are pending disposition

  10. Through the regulatory hoop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirner, N.P.

    1985-01-01

    There are many regulatory hoops through which waste generators, brokers, and disposal site operators must jump to dispose of waste safely. As the proposed exclusionary date of January 1, 1986, approaches, these regulatory hoops have the distinct possibility of multiplying or at least changing shape. The state of Washington, in its role as an Agreement State with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, licenses and inspects the commercial operator of the Northwest Compact's low-level radioactive waste disposal site on the Hanford Reservation. Washington has received as much as 53%, or 1.4 million cubic feet per year, of the nation's total volume of waste disposed. To control such a large volume of waste, a regulatory program involving six agencies has developed over the years in Washington

  11. Evidence and opportunities for integrating landscape ecology into natural resource planning across multiple-use landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trammel, E. Jamie; Carter, Sarah; Haby, Travis S.; Taylor, Jason J.

    2018-01-01

    Enhancing natural resource management has been a focus of landscape ecology since its inception, but numerous authors argue that landscape ecology has not yet been effective in achieving the underlying goal of planning and designing sustainable landscapes. We developed nine questions reflecting the application of fundamental research topics in landscape ecology to the landscape planning process and reviewed two recent landscape-scale plans in western North America for evidence of these concepts in plan decisions. Both plans considered multiple resources, uses, and values, including energy development, recreation, conservation, and protection of cultural and historic resources. We found that land use change and multiscale perspectives of resource uses and values were very often apparent in planning decisions. Pattern-process relationships, connectivity and fragmentation, ecosystem services, landscape history, and climate change were reflected less frequently. Landscape sustainability was considered only once in the 295 decisions reviewed, and outputs of landscape models were not referenced. We suggest six actionable opportunities for further integrating landscape ecology concepts into landscape planning efforts: 1) use landscape sustainability as an overarching goal, 2) adopt a broad ecosystem services framework, 3) explore the role of landscape history more comprehensively, 4) regularly consider and accommodate potential effects of climate change, 5) use landscape models to support plan decisions, and 6) promote a greater presence of landscape ecologists within agencies that manage large land bases and encourage active involvement in agency planning efforts. Together these actions may improve the defensibility, durability, and sustainability of landscape plan decisions.

  12. Flowers and Landscape by Serendipity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippin, Sandi

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art lesson in which students sketch drawings of flowers and use watercolor paper and other materials to paint a landscape. Explains that the students also learn about impressionism in this lesson. Discusses how the students prepare the paper and create their artwork. (CMK)

  13. Landscape design methods in architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jauslin, D.T.

    2012-01-01

    Landscape has been used as a metaphor or conceptual reference for an increasing amount of excellent architectural projects in the last two decades. The phenomenon seems to be a substantial innovation of architecture with an interesting potential for artistic, social and ecological gains. To be able

  14. Biography of an Industrial Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riesto, Svava

    Biography of an Industrial Landscape tells the story of one of the most significant urban redevelopment projects in northern Europe at the turn of the century. Examining the reinvention of the Carlsberg brewery site in Copenhagen as a city district, Svava Riesto unpacks the deeper assumptions abo...

  15. Eucalyptus as a landscape tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Douglas Hamilton

    1983-01-01

    Ninety-two species of Eucalyptus were evaluated at the University of California re- search station in San Jose. The purpose: to find acceptable new street and park trees. Growth rates and horticultural characteristics were noted. Forty-three species were studied in locations statewide to evaluate site adaptation and landscape usefulness; flooded, cold, dry, saline....

  16. Dutch Architecture with Landscape Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrami, F.; Bijster, J.; Bitarafan, N.; Cao, Z.; Cui, Y.; Liu, Y.; Ruan, L.; Maas, M.; Mayr, R.; Rozenmuller, M.; Toriano, L.; Yoshitake, M.; Jauslin, D.

    2009-01-01

    14 Project Documentations and Analysis of Dutch Architecture with Landscape Methods. MVRDV Villa VPRO, Powerhouse Company Villa 1, Herman Herzberger Coda Museum, NL Architects Basket Ba, SeARCH Posbank Pavillion, Wiel Arets Hedge House, OMA Kunsthal and Educatorium, Maaskant Johnson Wax, Diller &

  17. Language's Landscape of the Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Janet

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the author's 6 middle school students living in a village in the Yukon, 100 miles off the road system just below the arctic circle, enthusiastically wrote stories or poems about their lives. The students shared their works via an online electronic conferencing system with students from the unimaginably different landscape of the…

  18. Selected Landscape Plants. Slide Script.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Kevin

    This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with commercially important woody ornamental landscape plants. Included in the script are narrations for use with a total of 253 slides illustrating 92 different plants. Several slides are used to illustrate each plant: besides a view of…

  19. Ecological networks in urban landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cook, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    This research focuses on the topic of ecological networks in urban landscapes. Analysis and planning of ecological networks is a relatively new phenomenon and is a response to fragmentation and deterioration of quality of natural systems. In agricultural areas and with existing nature

  20. Monarto’s Contested Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Walker

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The proposal to develop a new city at Monarto in South Australia during the 1970s was an important project of the reforming government of Don Dunstan. Dunstan’s view was that Monarto would be a city environmentally suited to the tough conditions of its site, and to an ‘Australian way of life’. As planning and preliminary design proceeded from 1972 to 1975, the landscape potential of the city’s selected site became central to its conception. This paper draws on new research comprising interviews with key participants and archival material to examine four issues: the adoption of an environmental orientation in Australian urban planning and discourse in the 1970s; strategies in the design proposals that seemingly gave Monarto validity even as the demographic and political drivers for it dissolved away; the investigations that supported Monarto’s landscape strategies; and attitudes to social and cultural history that the Monarto project adopted. While ultimately the plan for Monarto was abandoned, the projected city’s landscape can be seen as a theatre for competing values in relation to natural and cultural heritage and design ambitions. The paper situates Monarto within national and international urban discourse that is more complex than has been previously acknowledged, indicative of competing values and ideologies in the planning, landscape and design discourses of the period.

  1. Surface fluxes in heterogeneous landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bay Hasager, C

    1997-01-01

    The surface fluxes in homogeneous landscapes are calculated by similarity scaling principles. The methodology is well establish. In heterogeneous landscapes with spatial changes in the micro scale range, i e from 100 m to 10 km, advective effects are significant. The present work focus on these effects in an agricultural countryside typical for the midlatitudes. Meteorological and satellite data from a highly heterogeneous landscape in the Rhine Valley, Germany was collected in the large-scale field experiment TRACT (Transport of pollutants over complex terrain) in 1992. Classified satellite images, Landsat TM and ERS SAR, are used as basis for roughness maps. The roughnesses were measured at meteorological masts in the various cover classes and assigned pixel by pixel to the images. The roughness maps are aggregated, i e spatially averaged, into so-called effective roughness lengths. This calculation is performed by a micro scale aggregation model. The model solves the linearized atmospheric flow equations by a numerical (Fast Fourier Transform) method. This model also calculate maps of friction velocity and momentum flux pixel wise in heterogeneous landscapes. It is indicated how the aggregation methodology can be used to calculate the heat fluxes based on the relevant satellite data i e temperature and soil moisture information. (au) 10 tabs., 49 ills., 223 refs.

  2. Regulatory variants of FOXG1 in the context of its topological domain organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrjouy, Mana M; Fonseca, Ana Carolina S; Ehmke, Nadja

    2018-01-01

    FOXG1 syndrome is caused by FOXG1 intragenic point mutations, or by long-range position effects (LRPE) of intergenic structural variants. However, the size of the FOXG1 regulatory landscape is uncertain, because the associated topologically associating domain (TAD) in fibroblasts is split into tw...

  3. Space Strategies for the New Learning Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, Shirley

    2009-01-01

    The Learning Landscape is the total context for students' learning experiences and the diverse landscape of learning settings available today--from specialized to multipurpose, from formal to informal, and from physical to virtual. The goal of the Learning Landscape approach is to acknowledge this richness and maximize encounters among people,…

  4. Research needs for our national landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood L. Shafer

    1979-01-01

    The prevailing research problem for our national landscapes is: How shall we organize, control, and coordinate public and private development so as to protect, maintain, improve, and manage those landscape features that we value most? Research questions discussed include: environmental/political conflicts, taxation and zoning, landscape classification, public...

  5. Sustaining ecosystem services in cultural landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Plieninger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Classical conservation approaches focus on the man-made degradation of ecosystems and tend to neglect the social-ecological values that human land uses have imprinted on many environments. Throughout the world, ingenious land-use practices have generated unique cultural landscapes, but these are under pressure from agricultural intensification, land abandonment, and urbanization. In recent years, the cultural landscapes concept has been broadly adopted in science, policy, and management. The interest in both outstanding and vernacular landscapes finds expression in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, the European Landscape Convention, and the IUCN Protected Landscape Approach. These policies promote the protection, management, planning, and governance of cultural landscapes. The ecosystem services approach is a powerful framework to guide such efforts, but has rarely been applied in landscape research and management. With this paper, we introduce a special feature that aims to enhance the theoretical, empirical and practical knowledge of how to safeguard the resilience of ecosystem services in cultural landscapes. It concludes (1 that the usefulness of the ecosystem services approach to the analysis and management of cultural landscapes should be reviewed more critically; (2 that conventional ecosystem services assessment needs to be complemented by socio-cultural valuation; (3 that cultural landscapes are inherently changing, so that a dynamic view on ecosystem services and a focus on drivers of landscape change are needed; and (4 that managing landscapes for ecosystem services provision may benefit from a social-ecological resilience perspective.

  6. Ecosystem services in changing landscapes: An introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis Iverson; Cristian Echeverria; Laura Nahuelhual; Sandra. Luque

    2014-01-01

    The concept of ecosystem services from landscapes is rapidly gaining momentum as a language to communicate values and benefits to scientists and lay alike. Landscape ecology has an enormous contribution to make to this field, and one could argue, uniquely so. Tools developed or adapted for landscape ecology are being increasingly used to assist with the quantification...

  7. Evolving and energy dependent optical model description of heavy-ion elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelian, K.

    1996-01-01

    We present the application of a genetic algorithm to the problem of determining an energy dependent optical model description of heavy-ion elastic scattering. The problem requires a search for the global best optical model potential and its energy dependence in a very rugged 12 dimensional parameter space of complex topographical features with many local minima. Random solutions are created in the first generation. The fitness of a solution is related to the χ 2 fit of the calculated differential cross sections with the experimental data. Best fit solutions are evolved through cross over and mutation following the biological example. This genetic algorithm approach combined with local gradient minimization is shown to provide a global, complete and extremely efficient search method, well adapted to complex fitness landscapes. These characteristics, combined with the facility of application, should make it the search method of choice for a wide variety of problems from nuclear physics. (Author)

  8. Quantum mechanics in an evolving Hilbert space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artacho, Emilio; O'Regan, David D.

    2017-03-01

    Many basis sets for electronic structure calculations evolve with varying external parameters, such as moving atoms in dynamic simulations, giving rise to extra derivative terms in the dynamical equations. Here we revisit these derivatives in the context of differential geometry, thereby obtaining a more transparent formalization, and a geometrical perspective for better understanding the resulting equations. The effect of the evolution of the basis set within the spanned Hilbert space separates explicitly from the effect of the turning of the space itself when moving in parameter space, as the tangent space turns when moving in a curved space. New insights are obtained using familiar concepts in that context such as the Riemann curvature. The differential geometry is not strictly that for curved spaces as in general relativity, a more adequate mathematical framework being provided by fiber bundles. The language used here, however, will be restricted to tensors and basic quantum mechanics. The local gauge implied by a smoothly varying basis set readily connects with Berry's formalism for geometric phases. Generalized expressions for the Berry connection and curvature are obtained for a parameter-dependent occupied Hilbert space spanned by nonorthogonal Wannier functions. The formalism is applicable to basis sets made of atomic-like orbitals and also more adaptative moving basis functions (such as in methods using Wannier functions as intermediate or support bases), but should also apply to other situations in which nonorthogonal functions or related projectors should arise. The formalism is applied to the time-dependent quantum evolution of electrons for moving atoms. The geometric insights provided here allow us to propose new finite-difference time integrators, and also better understand those already proposed.

  9. Public participation at Fernald: FERMCO's evolving role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.B.; Fellman, R.W.; Brettschneider, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    In an effort to improve public involvement in the site restoration decision making process, the DOE has established site specific advisory boards, of which the Fernald Citizens Task Force is one. The Fernald Task Force is focused on making recommendations in four areas: (1) What should be the future use of the site? (2) Determinations of cleanup levels (how clean is clean?) (3) Where should the wastes be disposed of? (4) What should be the cleanup priorities? Because these questions are being asked very early in the decision-making process, the answers are necessarily qualified, and are based on a combination of preliminary data, assumptions, and professional judgment. The requirement to make progress in the absence of accurate data has necessitated FERMCO and the Task Force to employ an approach similar to sensitivity analysis, in which a range of possible data values are evaluated and the relative importance of the various factors is assessed. Because of its charter to provide recommendations of future site use, the Task Force has developed a sitewide perspective, compared to the more common operable unit specific focus of public participation under CERCLA. The relationship between FERMCO and the Task Force is evolving toward one of partnership with DOE in managing the obstacles and hidden opportunities for success. The Task Force likely will continue to participate in the Fernald project long after its initial recommendations have been made. DOE already has made the commitment that the process of public participation will extend into the Remedial Design phase. There is substantial reason for optimism that continuing the Task Force process through the design phase will assist in developing the appropriate balance of cost and engineered protectiveness

  10. URBAN LANDSCAPE QUALITY AND FACTORS THAT HAVE INFLUENCE ON LANDSCAPE QUALITY IN LATGALE REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Matisovs, Ivars

    2005-01-01

    The paper deals with urban landscape individualities in the cities and towns of Latgale region. Also show facilities and methods of integrated assessment of urban landscape quality. Article provides information about specifics of urban landscape and factors, that have influence on landscape quality. The paper presents the results of Daugavpils and Rēzekne urban landscape quality complex assessment, that have been realised in 2003- 2005. This results don’t establish significant disparities bet...

  11. The dynamic landscape of gene regulation during Bombyx mori oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Sun, Wei; Sun, Bang-Yong; Xiao, Yang; Zhang, Ze

    2017-09-11

    Oogenesis in the domestic silkworm (Bombyx mori) is a complex process involving previtellogenesis, vitellogenesis and choriogenesis. During this process, follicles show drastic morphological and physiological changes. However, the genome-wide regulatory profiles of gene expression during oogenesis remain to be determined. In this study, we obtained time-series transcriptome data and used these data to reveal the dynamic landscape of gene regulation during oogenesis. A total of 1932 genes were identified to be differentially expressed among different stages, most of which occurred during the transition from late vitellogenesis to early choriogenesis. Using weighted gene co-expression network analysis, we identified six stage-specific gene modules that correspond to multiple regulatory pathways. Strikingly, the biosynthesis pathway of the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) was enriched in one of the modules. Further analysis showed that the ecdysteroid 20-hydroxylase gene (CYP314A1) of steroidgenesis genes was mainly expressed in previtellogenesis and early vitellogenesis. However, the 20E-inactivated genes, particularly the ecdysteroid 26-hydroxylase encoding gene (Cyp18a1), were highly expressed in late vitellogenesis. These distinct expression patterns between 20E synthesis and catabolism-related genes might ensure the rapid decline of the hormone titer at the transition point from vitellogenesis to choriogenesis. In addition, we compared landscapes of gene regulation between silkworm (Lepidoptera) and fruit fly (Diptera) oogeneses. Our results show that there is some consensus in the modules of gene co-expression during oogenesis in these insects. The data presented in this study provide new insights into the regulatory mechanisms underlying oogenesis in insects with polytrophic meroistic ovaries. The results also provide clues for further investigating the roles of epigenetic reconfiguration and circadian rhythm in insect oogenesis.

  12. Landscapes of the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. P. D Gertenbach

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the abiotic and biotic components of the Kruger National Park (KNP system has increased to such an extent, that it was possible to zonate the KNP into landscapes. A landscape was defined as an area with a specific geomorphology, climate, soil and vegetation pattern together with the associated fauna. On this basis 35 landscapes were identified and described in terms of the components mentioned in the definition. The objective of classification is that future management should be based on these landscapes. Relevant management considerations may change, but the landscape a@ a basic functional unit should not be negotiable.

  13. Perceptions of regulatory approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halin, Magnus; Leinonen, Ruusaliisa

    2012-01-01

    Ms. Ruusaliisa Leinonen and Mr. Magnus Halin from Fortum gave a joint presentation on industry perceptions of regulatory oversight of LMfS/SC. It was concluded that an open culture of discussion exists between the regulator (STUK) and the licensee, based on the common goal of nuclear safety. An example was provided of on how regulatory interventions helped foster improvements to individual and collective dose rate trends, which had remained static. Regulatory interventions included discussions on the ALARA concept to reinforce the requirement to continuously strive for improvements in safety performance. Safety culture has also been built into regulatory inspections in recent years. Training days have also been organised by the regulatory body to help develop a shared understanding of safety culture between licensee and regulatory personnel. Fortum has also developed their own training for managers and supervisors. Training and ongoing discussion on LMfS/SC safety culture is considered particularly important because both Fortum and the regulatory body are experiencing an influx of new staff due to the demographic profile of their organisations. It was noted that further work is needed to reach a common understanding of safety culture on a practical level (e.g., for a mechanic setting to work), and in relation to the inspection criteria used by the regulator. The challenges associated with companies with a mix of energy types were also discussed. This can make it more difficult to understand responsibilities and decision making processes, including the role of the parent body organisation. It also makes communication more challenging due to increased complexity and a larger number of stakeholders

  14. Regulatory issues for deep borehole plutonium disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsey, W.G.

    1995-03-01

    As a result of recent changes throughout the world, a substantial inventory of excess separated plutonium is expected to result from dismantlement of US nuclear weapons. The safe and secure management and eventual disposition of this plutonium, and of a similar inventory in Russia, is a high priority. A variety of options (both interim and permanent) are under consideration to manage this material. The permanent solutions can be categorized into two broad groups: direct disposal and utilization. The deep borehole disposition concept involves placing excess plutonium deep into old stable rock formations with little free water present. Issues of concern include the regulatory, statutory and policy status of such a facility, the availability of sites with desirable characteristics and the technologies required for drilling deep holes, characterizing them, emplacing excess plutonium and sealing the holes. This white paper discusses the regulatory issues. Regulatory issues concerning construction, operation and decommissioning of the surface facility do not appear to be controversial, with existing regulations providing adequate coverage. It is in the areas of siting, licensing and long term environmental protection that current regulations may be inappropriate. This is because many current regulations are by intent or by default specific to waste forms, facilities or missions significantly different from deep borehole disposition of excess weapons usable fissile material. It is expected that custom regulations can be evolved in the context of this mission

  15. Regulatory experience in nuclear power station decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.M.; Waters, R.E.; Taylor, F.E.; Burrows, P.I.

    1995-01-01

    In the UK, decommissioning on a licensed nuclear site is regulated and controlled by HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate on behalf of the Health and Safety Executive. The same legislative framework used for operating nuclear power stations is also applied to decommissioning activities and provides a continuous but flexible safety regime until there is no danger from ionising radiations. The regulatory strategy is discussed, taking into account Government policy and international guidance for decommissioning and the implications of the recent white paper reviewing radioactive waste management policy. Although each site is treated on a case by case basis as regulatory experience is gained from decommissioning commercial nuclear power stations in the UK, generic issues have been identified and current regulatory thinking on them is indicated. Overall it is concluded that decommissioning is an evolving process where dismantling and waste disposal should be carried out as soon as reasonably practicable. Waste stored on site should, where it is practical and cost effective, be in a state of passive safety. (Author)

  16. Purification effects of five landscape plants on river landscape water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Sun; Lei, Zheng; Mao, Qinqing; Ji, Qingxin

    2017-12-01

    Five species of landscape plants which are scindapsus aureus, water hyacinth, cockscomb, calendula officinalis and salvia splendens were used as experimental materials to study their removal effects on nitrogen, phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand (CODMn) and suspended solids (SS) in urban river water. The results show that the 5 landscape plants have good adaptability and vitality in water body, among them, water hyacinth had the best life signs than the other 4 plants, and its plant height and root length increased significantly. They have certain removal effects on the nitrogen, phosphorus, CODMn (Chemical Oxygen Demand) and SS (Suspended Substance) in the landscape water of Dalong Lake, Xuzhou. Scindapsus aureus, water hyacinth, cockscomb, calendula officinalis and salvia splendens on the removal rate of total nitrogen were 76.69%, 78.57%, 71.42%, 69.64%, 67.86%; the ammonia nitrogen removal rate were 71.06%, 74.28%, 67.85%, 63.02%, 59.81%;the total phosphorus removal rate were 78.70%, 81.48%, 73.15%, 72.22%, 68.52%;the orthophosphate removal rates were 78.37%, 80.77%, 75.96%, 75.96%, 71.15%;the removal rate of CODMn was 52.5%, 55.35%, 46.02%, 45.42%, 44.19%; the removal rate of SS was 81.4%, 86%, 79.1%, 76.7%, 74.42%.The purification effect of 5 kinds of landscape plants of Dalong Lake in Xuzhou City: water hyacinth> scindapsus aureus>cockscomb>calendula officinalis>salvia splendens.

  17. Evolving R Coronae Borealis Stars with MESA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Lauer, Amber; Chatzopoulos, Emmanouil; Frank, Juhan

    2018-01-01

    being a WD. Solving the mystery of how the RCB stars evolve will lead to a better understanding of other important types of stellar merger events such as Type Ia SNe.

  18. The evolving integrated vascular surgery residency curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brigitte K; Greenberg, Jacob A; Mitchell, Erica L

    2014-10-01

    PDs voiced concern over the lack of standardization among the differing programs and most of the PDs agree that some degree of programmatic standardization is critical for the continued success of the 0 + 5 training paradigm. Qualitative evaluation of PD experiences with the development of 0 + 5 vascular surgery residency programs reveals the key factors that commonly influence program design. Programs continue to evolve in both structure and content as PDs respond to these influences. Learning from the collective experience of PDs and some standardization of the curricula may help current and future programs avoid common pitfalls in curricular development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mechanics of evolving thin film structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jim

    In the Stranski-Krastanov system, the lattice mismatch between the film and the substrate causes the film to break into islands. During annealing, both the surface energy and the elastic energy drive the islands to coarsen. Motivated by several related studies, we suggest that stable islands should form when a stiff ceiling is placed at a small gap above the film. We show that the role of elasticity is reversed: with the ceiling, the total elastic energy stored in the system increases as the islands coarsen laterally. Consequently, the islands select an equilibrium size to minimize the combined elastic energy and surface energy. In lithographically-induced self-assembly, when a two-phase fluid confined between parallel substrates is subjected to an electric field, one phase can self-assemble into a triangular lattice of islands in another phase. We describe a theory of the stability of the island lattice. The islands select the equilibrium diameter to minimize the combined interface energy and electrostatic energy. Furthermore, we study compressed SiGe thin film islands fabricated on a glass layer, which itself lies on a silicon wafer. Upon annealing, the glass flows, and the islands relax. A small island relaxes by in-plane expansion. A large island, however, wrinkles at the center before the in-plane relaxation arrives. The wrinkles may cause significant tensile stress in the island, leading to fracture. We model the island by the von Karman plate theory and the glass layer by the Reynolds lubrication theory. Numerical simulations evolve the in-plane expansion and the wrinkles simultaneously. We determine the critical island size, below which in-plane expansion prevails over wrinkling. Finally, in devices that integrate dissimilar materials in small dimensions, crack extension in one material often accompanies inelastic deformation in another. We analyze a channel crack advancing in an elastic film under tension, while an underlayer creeps. We use a two

  20. Assessment of landscape diversity and determination of landscape hotspots - a case of Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perko, Drago; Ciglič, Rok; Hrvatin, Mauro

    2017-04-01

    Areas with high landscape diversity can be regarded as landscape hotspots, and vice versa areas with low landscape diversity can be marked as landscape coldspots. The main purpose of this paper is to use quantitative geoinformatical approach and identify parts of our test area (the country of Slovenia) that can be described as very diverse according to natural landscapes and natural elements. We used different digital raster data of natural elements and landscape classifications and defined landscape diversity and landscape hotspots. We defined diversity for each raster pixel by counting the number of different unique types of landscape elements and types of landscapes in its neighborhood. Namely, the method was used separately to define diversity according to natural elements (types of relief forms, rocks, and vegetation) and diversity according to existing geographical landscape classifications of Slovenia (types of landscapes). In both cases one-tenth of Slovenia's surface with the highest landscape diversity was defined as landscape hotspots. The same applies to the coldspots. Additionally we tested the same method of counting different types of landscapes in certain radius also for the area of Europe in order to find areas that are more diverse at continental level. By doing so we were able to find areas that have similar level of diversity as Slovenia according to different European landscape classifications. Areas with landscape diversity may have an advantage in economic development, especially in tourism. Such areas are also important for biodiversity, habitat, and species diversity. On the other hand, localities where various natural influences mix can also be areas where it is hard to transfer best practices from one place to another because of the varying responses of the landscapes to human intervention. Thus it is important to know where areas with high landscape diversity are.

  1. Competing Wind Energy Discourses, Contested Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Otto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The impairment of landscapes is a concern constantly raised against wind energy developments in Germany as in other countries. Often, landscapes or landscape types are treated in the literature as essentialist or at least as uncontested categories. We analyse two examples of local controversies about wind energy, in which “landscape” is employed by supporters and opponents alike, from a poststructuralist and discourse theoretical angle. The aim is to identify and compare landscape constructs produced in the micro discourses of wind energy objectors and proponents at local level (a within each case, (b between the two cases and (c with landscape constructs that were previously found in macro discourses. One major finding is that several different landscapes can exist at one and the same place. Furthermore there seems to be a relatively stable set of competing landscape concepts which is reproduced in specific controversies. The paper concludes by highlighting practical consequences and by identifying promising avenues of further research.

  2. Nuclear regulatory decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieland, Patricia; Almeida, Ivan Pedro Salati de

    2011-01-01

    The scientific considerations upon which the nuclear regulations are based provide objective criteria for decisions on nuclear safety matters. However, the decisions that a regulatory agency takes go far beyond granting or not an operating license based on assessment of compliance. It may involve decisions about hiring experts or research, appeals, responses to other government agencies, international agreements, etc.. In all cases, top management of the regulatory agency should hear and decide the best balance between the benefits of regulatory action and undue risks and other associated impacts that may arise, including issues of credibility and reputation. The establishment of a decision framework based on well established principles and criteria ensures performance stability and consistency, preventing individual subjectivity. This article analyzes the challenges to the decision-making by regulatory agencies to ensure coherence and consistency in decisions, even in situations where there is uncertainty, lack of reliable information and even divergence of opinions among experts. The article explores the basic elements for a framework for regulatory decision-making. (author)

  3. Nuclear regulatory decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The fundamental objective of all nuclear safety regulatory bodies is to ensure that nuclear utilities operate their plants at all times in an acceptably safe manner. In meeting this objective, the regulatory body should strive to ensure that its regulatory decisions are technically sound, consistent from case to case, and timely. In addition, the regulator must be aware that its decisions and the circumstances surrounding those decisions can affect how its stakeholders, such as government policy makers, the industry it regulates, and the public, view it as an effective and credible regulator. In order to maintain the confidence of those stakeholders, the regulator should make sure that its decisions are transparent, have a clear basis in law and regulations, and are seen by impartial observers to be fair to all parties. Based on the work of a Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) expert group, this report discusses some of the basic principles and criteria that a regulatory body should consider in making decisions and describes the elements of an integrated framework for regulatory decision making. (author)

  4. Legislative Framework for Landscape Planning in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitavska, Natalija; Zigmunde, Daiga

    2017-10-01

    With the adoption and the ratification of the European Landscape Convention a legally justified need for a clear landscape policy was grounded in the European countries. It includes the elaboration of the new and the improvement of the existing legislative documents on landscape planning, protection and management. The aim of the particular study is to analyse the existing legislative documents in Latvia influencing landscape planning on different scales / and the implementation of the European Landscape Convention. The study emphasizes the complex structure of the Latvian legislative framework affected by the distribution of the normative documents under the various ministries. Therefore, the main problem is unclear responsibility levels and organizational system for solving the issues regarding landscape planning, protection and management. Thus the various discussions between the involved disciplines and responsible institutions are arising. Two groups of the legislative documents influencing the implementation of the landscape policy in Latvia are detected within the study. The first group is strategic documents determining main landscape planning principles and directions at European, national, regional and professional or sectoral level. The second group is operational documents providing a set of actions for the landscape planning, protection and management at the local or the municipality level. The study concludes that operational documents developed by the municipalities are in high importance because of their direct influence on the landscape planning in Latvia. This often leads to the different landscape planning requirements included in the normative documents of the neighbouring municipalities, although the spatial and ecological borders of the visual landscape do not fit with the formal borders of the municipalities. Thus, it is essential to develop the common principles and actions that would be incumbent on all municipalities to provide the

  5. Fractal gene regulatory networks for robust locomotion control of modular robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahadat, Payam; Christensen, David Johan; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2010-01-01

    Designing controllers for modular robots is difficult due to the distributed and dynamic nature of the robots. In this paper fractal gene regulatory networks are evolved to control modular robots in a distributed way. Experiments with different morphologies of modular robot are performed and the ......Designing controllers for modular robots is difficult due to the distributed and dynamic nature of the robots. In this paper fractal gene regulatory networks are evolved to control modular robots in a distributed way. Experiments with different morphologies of modular robot are performed...

  6. Inflation in random Gaussian landscapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masoumi, Ali; Vilenkin, Alexander; Yamada, Masaki, E-mail: ali@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: Masaki.Yamada@tufts.edu [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)

    2017-05-01

    We develop analytic and numerical techniques for studying the statistics of slow-roll inflation in random Gaussian landscapes. As an illustration of these techniques, we analyze small-field inflation in a one-dimensional landscape. We calculate the probability distributions for the maximal number of e-folds and for the spectral index of density fluctuations n {sub s} and its running α {sub s} . These distributions have a universal form, insensitive to the correlation function of the Gaussian ensemble. We outline possible extensions of our methods to a large number of fields and to models of large-field inflation. These methods do not suffer from potential inconsistencies inherent in the Brownian motion technique, which has been used in most of the earlier treatments.

  7. Magical Landscapes and Designed Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2008-01-01

    with “something special,” a feel-good, (almost spiritual) healing power (just moments away from the bustling city). In Melanesia, such a spiritual force goes by the name of “mana”. Århus’ mana landscapes are only invested with this huge, floating quality because they are near the city. Furthermore, they are seen...... from the point of view of the city, where order, design, planning and commerce are important cityscape qualities. The article deals with the way in which these two parts of the city, landscape and brandscape are complementary parts of the city-web. Analytical points made by Mauss, Lévi......-Strauss and Greimas are discussed in connection with the empirical setting of the city of Århus...

  8. A landscape of field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxfield, Travis [Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago,Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Robbins, Daniel [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy,Texas A& M University,College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Sethi, Savdeep [Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago,Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2016-11-28

    Studying a quantum field theory involves a choice of space-time manifold and a choice of background for any global symmetries of the theory. We argue that many more choices are possible when specifying the background. In the context of branes in string theory, the additional data corresponds to a choice of supergravity tensor fluxes. We propose the existence of a landscape of field theory backgrounds, characterized by the space-time metric, global symmetry background and a choice of tensor fluxes. As evidence for this landscape, we study the supersymmetric six-dimensional (2,0) theory compactified to two dimensions. Different choices of metric and flux give rise to distinct two-dimensional theories, which can preserve differing amounts of supersymmetry.

  9. Synonymous genes explore different evolutionary landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Cambray

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The evolutionary potential of a gene is constrained not only by the amino acid sequence of its product, but by its DNA sequence as well. The topology of the genetic code is such that half of the amino acids exhibit synonymous codons that can reach different subsets of amino acids from each other through single mutation. Thus, synonymous DNA sequences should access different regions of the protein sequence space through a limited number of mutations, and this may deeply influence the evolution of natural proteins. Here, we demonstrate that this feature can be of value for manipulating protein evolvability. We designed an algorithm that, starting from an input gene, constructs a synonymous sequence that systematically includes the codons with the most different evolutionary perspectives; i.e., codons that maximize accessibility to amino acids previously unreachable from the template by point mutation. A synonymous version of a bacterial antibiotic resistance gene was computed and synthesized. When concurrently submitted to identical directed evolution protocols, both the wild type and the recoded sequence led to the isolation of specific, advantageous phenotypic variants. Simulations based on a mutation isolated only from the synthetic gene libraries were conducted to assess the impact of sub-functional selective constraints, such as codon usage, on natural adaptation. Our data demonstrate that rational design of synonymous synthetic genes stands as an affordable improvement to any directed evolution protocol. We show that using two synonymous DNA sequences improves the overall yield of the procedure by increasing the diversity of mutants generated. These results provide conclusive evidence that synonymous coding sequences do experience different areas of the corresponding protein adaptive landscape, and that a sequence's codon usage effectively constrains the evolution of the encoded protein.

  10. Nuclear Regulatory Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    This compilation of statutes and material pertaining to nuclear regulatory legislation through the 100th Congress, 2nd Session, has been prepared by the Office of the General Counsel, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, with the assistance of staff, for use as an internal resource document. Persons using this document are placed on notice that it may not be used as an authoritative citation in lieu of the primary legislative sources. Furthermore, while every effort has been made to ensure the completeness and accuracy of this material, neither the United States Government, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, nor any of their employees makes any expressed or implied warranty or assumes liability for the accuracy or completeness of the material presented in this compilation

  11. Evolution of cichlid vision via trans-regulatory divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Quin Kelly E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phenotypic evolution may occur through mutations that affect either the structure or expression of protein-coding genes. Although the evolution of color vision has historically been attributed to structural mutations within the opsin genes, recent research has shown that opsin regulatory mutations can also tune photoreceptor sensitivity and color vision. Visual sensitivity in African cichlid fishes varies as a result of the differential expression of seven opsin genes. We crossed cichlid species that express different opsin gene sets and scanned their genome for expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTL responsible for these differences. Our results shed light on the role that different structural, cis-, and trans-regulatory mutations play in the evolution of color vision. Results We identified 11 eQTL that contribute to the divergent expression of five opsin genes. On three linkage groups, several eQTL formed regulatory “hotspots” associated with the expression of multiple opsins. Importantly, however, the majority of the eQTL we identified (8/11 or 73% occur on linkage groups located trans to the opsin genes, suggesting that cichlid color vision has evolved primarily via trans-regulatory divergence. By modeling the impact of just two of these trans-regulatory eQTL, we show that opsin regulatory mutations can alter cichlid photoreceptor sensitivity and color vision at least as much as opsin structural mutations can. Conclusions Combined with previous work, we demonstrate that the evolution of cichlid color vision results from the interplay of structural, cis-, and especially trans-regulatory loci. Although there are numerous examples of structural and cis-regulatory mutations that contribute to phenotypic evolution, our results suggest that trans-regulatory mutations could contribute to phenotypic divergence more commonly than previously expected, especially in systems like color vision, where compensatory changes in the

  12. How wind power landscapes change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    Following 25 years of continuous development, Danish wind energy landscapes are going to face changes. Ceased on-shore construction, unresolved re-powering and stalled regional planning characterize the situation overshadowed by off-shore development. One of the factors inhibiting development...... in general. However, the pattern of visibility will become askew, and the present homogenous distribution of visibility will disappear. This skewness, together with changing ownership and receding local involvement, could eventually lead to lower popular acceptance of wind power....

  13. Biodiversity conservation in agricultural landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Josefsson, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural industrialization alters rural landscapes in Europe, causing large-scale and rapid loss of important biodiversity. The principal instruments to protect farmland biodiversity are various agri-environmental measures (AEMs) in the EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). However, growing awareness of shortcomings to CAP biodiversity integration prompts examination of causes and potential solutions. This thesis assesses the importance of structural heterogeneity of crop and non-crop habi...

  14. Regulatory Coherence and Standardization Mechanisms in the Trans-Pacific Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Phoenix X. F.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article posits a new taxonomy and framework for assessing regulatory coherence in the new generation of mega-regional, cross-cutting free trade agreements. Using the Trans-Pacific Partnership as the primary example, this article situates the rise of regulatory coherence within the current trade landscape, provides clear definitions of regulatory coherence, and argues that the real engine of regulatory coherence lies in the work of international standard setting organizations. This work has been little examined in the current literature. The article provides a detailed examination of the mechanics by which the Trans-Pacific Partnership promotes regulatory standardization and concludes with some normative implications and calls for future research.

  15. Regulatory and licensee surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Prior to the workshop two CSNI/WGHOF surveys were distributed. One survey was directed at regulatory bodies and the other was directed at plant licensees. The surveys were: 1 - Regulatory Expectations of Licensees' Arrangements to Ensure Suitable Organisational Structure, Resources and Competencies to Manage Safety (sent to WGHOF regulatory members). The survey requested that the respondents provide a brief overview of the situation related to plant organisations in their country, their regulatory expectations and their formal requirements. The survey addressed three subjects: the demonstration and documentation of organisational structures, resources and competencies, organisational changes, issues for improvement (for both current and new plants). Responses were received from eleven regulatory bodies. 2 - Approaches to Justify Organisational Suitability (sent to selected licensees). The purpose of the survey to was to gain an understanding of how licensees ensure organisational suitability, resources and competencies. This information was used to assist in the development of the issues and subjects that were addressed at the group discussion sessions. Responses were received from over fifteen licensees from nine countries. The survey requested that the licensees provide information on how they ensure effective organisational structures at their plants. The survey grouped the questions into the following four categories: organisational safety functions, resource and competence, decision-making and communication, good examples and improvement needs. The findings from these surveys were used in conjunction with other factors to identify the key issues for the workshop discussion sessions. The responses from these two surveys are discussed briefly in Sections 4 and 5 of this report. More extensive reviews of the regulatory and licensee responses are provided in Appendix 1

  16. Topology of classical molecular optimal control landscapes for multi-target objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe-Wong, Carlee [Program in Applied and Computational Mathematics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544-1000 (United States); Ho, Tak-San; Rabitz, Herschel, E-mail: hrabitz@princeton.edu [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544-1009 (United States); Wu, Rebing [Department of Automation, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2015-04-21

    This paper considers laser-driven optimal control of an ensemble of non-interacting molecules whose dynamics lie in classical phase space. The molecules evolve independently under control to distinct final states. We consider a control landscape defined in terms of multi-target (MT) molecular states and analyze the landscape as a functional of the control field. The topology of the MT control landscape is assessed through its gradient and Hessian with respect to the control. Under particular assumptions, the MT control landscape is found to be free of traps that could hinder reaching the objective. The Hessian associated with an optimal control field is shown to have finite rank, indicating an inherent degree of robustness to control noise. Both the absence of traps and rank of the Hessian are shown to be analogous to the situation of specifying multiple targets for an ensemble of quantum states. Numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the classical landscape principles and further characterize the system behavior as the control field is optimized.

  17. State Transitions in Semiarid Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J. D.

    2012-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture has developed a large number of state-and-transition models (STM) to predict and interpret changes in vegetation communities in drylands of the southwestern U.S. These are represented as box-and-arrow models indicating potential changes in response to various combinations of management practices and environmental forcings. Analysis of the 320 STMs developed for areas within the state of Texas reveals two important aspects of environmental change in semiarid environments. First, the STMs are highly local—they are specific to very particular combinations of landform, soil, and climate. This is consistent with the perfect landscape concept in geomorphology, which emphasizes the irreducible importance of geographically and historically contingent local factors in addition to universal laws or principles in determining the state or condition of landscapes. Second, analysis of the STMs using algebraic graph theory shows that a majority of them have structures that tend to amplify effects of change and disturbances. In many cases the STMs represent a form of self-organization characterized by the potential of divergent behavior rather than convergence toward a dominant pattern or outcome. These results indicate that geomorphic, hydrologic, and ecological responses to climate and land use change are likely to be highly variable and idiosyncratic, both within and between semiarid landscapes of Texas.

  18. Vacuum selection on axionic landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Gaoyuan; Battefeld, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    We compute the distribution of minima that are reached dynamically on multi-field axionic landscapes, both numerically and analytically. Such landscapes are well suited for inflationary model building due to the presence of shift symmetries and possible alignment effects (the KNP mechanism). The resulting distribution of dynamically reached minima differs considerably from the naive expectation based on counting all vacua. These differences are more pronounced in the presence of many fields due to dynamical selection effects: while low lying minima are preferred as fields roll down the potential, trajectories are also more likely to get trapped by one of the many nearby minima. We show that common analytic arguments based on random matrix theory in the large D-limit to estimate the distribution of minima are insufficient for quantitative arguments pertaining to the dynamically reached ones. This discrepancy is not restricted to axionic potentials. We provide an empirical expression for the expectation value of such dynamically reached minimas' height and argue that the cosmological constant problem is not alleviated in the absence of anthropic arguments. We further comment on the likelihood of inflation on axionic landscapes in the large D-limit

  19. Implementing Forest Landscape Restorationin Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Pistorius

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Driven by various initiatives and international policy processes, the concept of Forest Landscape Restoration, is globally receiving renewed attention. It is seen internationally and in national contexts as a means for improving resilience of land and communities in the face of increasing environmental degradation through different forest activities. Ethiopia has made a strong voluntary commitment in the context of the Bonn Challenge—it seeks to implement Forest Landscape Restoration (FLR on 15 million ha. In the context of rural Ethiopia, forest establishment and restoration provide a promising approach to reverse the widespread land degradation, which is exacerbated by climate change and food insecurity. This paper presents an empirical case study of FLR opportunities in the Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia’s largest spans of degraded and barren lands. Following the Restoration Opportunity Assessment Methodology, the study categorizes the main types of landscapes requiring restoration, identifies and prioritizes respective FLR options, and details the costs and benefits associated with each of the five most significant opportunities: medium to large‐scale afforestation and reforestation activities on deforested or degraded marginal land not suitable for agriculture, the introduction of participatory forest management, sustainable woodland management combined with value chain investments, restoration of afro‐alpine and sub‐afro‐alpine areas and the establishment of woodlots.

  20. Prediction of regulatory elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandelin, Albin

    2008-01-01

    Finding the regulatory mechanisms responsible for gene expression remains one of the most important challenges for biomedical research. A major focus in cellular biology is to find functional transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) responsible for the regulation of a downstream gene. As wet......-lab methods are time consuming and expensive, it is not realistic to identify TFBS for all uncharacterized genes in the genome by purely experimental means. Computational methods aimed at predicting potential regulatory regions can increase the efficiency of wet-lab experiments significantly. Here, methods...

  1. Rationales for regulatory activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perhac, R.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The author provides an outline which touches on the types of concerns about risk evaluation which are addressed in the process of establishing regulatory guides. Broadly he says regulatory activity serves three broad constituents: (1) Paternalism (private risk); (2) Promotion of social welfare (public risks); (3) Protection of individual rights (public risks). He then discusses some of the major issues encountered in reaching a decision on what is an acceptable level of risk within each of these areas, and how one establishes such a level.

  2. Changes in forest landscape due to agricultural activities and their influence on natural ecosystems: the eastern Galician mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaz-Maroto I.J.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest and agricultural landscapes are vital in relation to biodiversity. Protection policies in such areas should include incentives to enable the common landuse practices. Conservation cannot be addressed in the short term because these landscapes have evolved as socio-ecological systems and provide optimal conditions for biodiversity maintenance. They occur in areas where agriculture has not changed significantly as in the eastern Galician mountains. The landscape dynamics has been shaped by human involvement during centuries. We analyzed how the landscape has evolved according to environmental, socioeconomic and historical changes with the aim of proposing actions for its conservation. The study focused on the recovery of natural hardwood forests which have been intensively exploited since ancient times. Over the past few centuries, these forests have been transformed to agricultural land, felled for use in the naval, metallurgical and railway industries, expropriated from the Church, and affected by wildfire; more recently, have been replaced by fast growing species. Today, broadleaved forests cover small areas of rugged land where the topography often precludes other land uses. In conclusion, although the landscape in the study area has undergone a major transformation, now this land is a priority for biodiversity conservation.

  3. Regulatory aspects for nuclear and radiation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duraisamy, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) is the national authority for ensuring that the use of ionizing radiation and nuclear energy does not cause any undue risk to the health of workers, members of the public and to the environment. AERB was constituted on November 15, 1983 and derives its regulatory power from the rules and notifications promulgated under the Atomic Energy Act, 1962 and the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. AERB is provided with the necessary powers and mandate to frame safety policies, lay down safety standards and requirements for monitoring and enforcing the safety provisions. AERB follows multi-tier system for its review and assessment, safety monitoring, surveillance and enforcement. While regulating various nuclear and radiation facilities, AERB adopts a graded approach taking into account the hazard potential associated with the facilities being regulated. The regulatory process has been continuous evolving to cater to the new developments in reactor and radiation technologies. The regulatory effectiveness and efficiency of AERB have grown over the last three decades to make it into a robust organization. The radiation protection infrastructure in the country is on a sound footing and is constantly being strengthened based on experience and continued research and development. As one of its mandates AERB prescribes radiation dose limits for the occupational workers and the public, in line with the IAEA Safety Standard and ICRP recommendations. The current dose limits and the radiation safety requirements are more stringent than past. To meet the current safety standards, it is important for the facilities to have state of art radiation monitoring system and programme in place. While recognizing the current system in place, this presentation also highlights certain key radiation protection challenges associated with the implementation of radiation protection standards in the nuclear and radiation facilities especially in the areas of

  4. Governing Forest Landscape Restoration: Cases from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cora van Oosten

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Forest landscape restoration includes both the planning and implementation of measures to restore degraded forests within the perspective of the wider landscape. Governing forest landscape restoration requires fundamental considerations about the conceptualisation of forested landscapes and the types of restoration measures to be taken, and about who should be engaged in the governance process. A variety of governance approaches to forest landscape restoration exist, differing in both the nature of the object to be governed and the mode of governance. This paper analyses the nature and governance of restoration in three cases of forest landscape restoration in Indonesia. In each of these cases, both the original aim for restoration and the initiators of the process differ. The cases also differ in how deeply embedded they are in formal spatial planning mechanisms at the various political scales. Nonetheless, the cases show similar trends. All cases show a dynamic process of mobilising the landscape’s stakeholders, plus a flexible process of crafting institutional space for conflict management, negotiation and decision making at the landscape level. As a result, the landscape focus changed over time from reserved forests to forested mosaic lands. The cases illustrate that the governance of forest landscape restoration should not be based on strict design criteria, but rather on a flexible governance approach that stimulates the creation of novel public-private institutional arrangements at the landscape level.

  5. The genotype-phenotype map of an evolving digital organism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Fortuna

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To understand how evolving systems bring forth novel and useful phenotypes, it is essential to understand the relationship between genotypic and phenotypic change. Artificial evolving systems can help us understand whether the genotype-phenotype maps of natural evolving systems are highly unusual, and it may help create evolvable artificial systems. Here we characterize the genotype-phenotype map of digital organisms in Avida, a platform for digital evolution. We consider digital organisms from a vast space of 10141 genotypes (instruction sequences, which can form 512 different phenotypes. These phenotypes are distinguished by different Boolean logic functions they can compute, as well as by the complexity of these functions. We observe several properties with parallels in natural systems, such as connected genotype networks and asymmetric phenotypic transitions. The likely common cause is robustness to genotypic change. We describe an intriguing tension between phenotypic complexity and evolvability that may have implications for biological evolution. On the one hand, genotypic change is more likely to yield novel phenotypes in more complex organisms. On the other hand, the total number of novel phenotypes reachable through genotypic change is highest for organisms with simple phenotypes. Artificial evolving systems can help us study aspects of biological evolvability that are not accessible in vastly more complex natural systems. They can also help identify properties, such as robustness, that are required for both human-designed artificial systems and synthetic biological systems to be evolvable.

  6. The genotype-phenotype map of an evolving digital organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Miguel A; Zaman, Luis; Ofria, Charles; Wagner, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    To understand how evolving systems bring forth novel and useful phenotypes, it is essential to understand the relationship between genotypic and phenotypic change. Artificial evolving systems can help us understand whether the genotype-phenotype maps of natural evolving systems are highly unusual, and it may help create evolvable artificial systems. Here we characterize the genotype-phenotype map of digital organisms in Avida, a platform for digital evolution. We consider digital organisms from a vast space of 10141 genotypes (instruction sequences), which can form 512 different phenotypes. These phenotypes are distinguished by different Boolean logic functions they can compute, as well as by the complexity of these functions. We observe several properties with parallels in natural systems, such as connected genotype networks and asymmetric phenotypic transitions. The likely common cause is robustness to genotypic change. We describe an intriguing tension between phenotypic complexity and evolvability that may have implications for biological evolution. On the one hand, genotypic change is more likely to yield novel phenotypes in more complex organisms. On the other hand, the total number of novel phenotypes reachable through genotypic change is highest for organisms with simple phenotypes. Artificial evolving systems can help us study aspects of biological evolvability that are not accessible in vastly more complex natural systems. They can also help identify properties, such as robustness, that are required for both human-designed artificial systems and synthetic biological systems to be evolvable.

  7. An Evolving Asymmetric Game for Modeling Interdictor-Smuggler Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    ASYMMETRIC GAME FOR MODELING INTERDICTOR-SMUGGLER PROBLEMS by Richard J. Allain June 2016 Thesis Advisor: David L. Alderson Second Reader: W...DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE AN EVOLVING ASYMMETRIC GAME FOR MODELING INTERDICTOR- SMUGGLER PROBLEMS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited AN EVOLVING

  8. Adaptation of Escherichia coli to glucose promotes evolvability in lactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kelly N; Castillo, Gerardo; Wünsche, Andrea; Cooper, Tim F

    2016-02-01

    The selective history of a population can influence its subsequent evolution, an effect known as historical contingency. We previously observed that five of six replicate populations that were evolved in a glucose-limited environment for 2000 generations, then switched to lactose for 1000 generations, had higher fitness increases in lactose than populations started directly from the ancestor. To test if selection in glucose systematically increased lactose evolvability, we started 12 replay populations--six from a population subsample and six from a single randomly selected clone--from each of the six glucose-evolved founder populations. These replay populations and 18 ancestral populations were evolved for 1000 generations in a lactose-limited environment. We found that replay populations were initially slightly less fit in lactose than the ancestor, but were more evolvable, in that they increased in fitness at a faster rate and to higher levels. This result indicates that evolution in the glucose environment resulted in genetic changes that increased the potential of genotypes to adapt to lactose. Genome sequencing identified four genes--iclR, nadR, spoT, and rbs--that were mutated in most glucose-evolved clones and are candidates for mediating increased evolvability. Our results demonstrate that short-term selective costs during selection in one environment can lead to changes in evolvability that confer longer term benefits. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. PCBA demand forecasting using an evolving Takagi-Sugeno system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooijen, M.; Almeida, R.J.; Kaymak, U.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of using an evolving fuzzy system for printed circuit board (PCBA) demand forecasting. The algorithm is based on the evolving Takagi-Sugeno (eTS) fuzzy system, which has the ability to incorporate new patterns by changing its internal structure in an on-line fashion.

  10. Quantifying selection in evolving populations using time-resolved genetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, Christopher J. R.; Mustonen, Ville

    2013-01-01

    Methods which uncover the molecular basis of the adaptive evolution of a population address some important biological questions. For example, the problem of identifying genetic variants which underlie drug resistance, a question of importance for the treatment of pathogens, and of cancer, can be understood as a matter of inferring selection. One difficulty in the inference of variants under positive selection is the potential complexity of the underlying evolutionary dynamics, which may involve an interplay between several contributing processes, including mutation, recombination and genetic drift. A source of progress may be found in modern sequencing technologies, which confer an increasing ability to gather information about evolving populations, granting a window into these complex processes. One particularly interesting development is the ability to follow evolution as it happens, by whole-genome sequencing of an evolving population at multiple time points. We here discuss how to use time-resolved sequence data to draw inferences about the evolutionary dynamics of a population under study. We begin by reviewing our earlier analysis of a yeast selection experiment, in which we used a deterministic evolutionary framework to identify alleles under selection for heat tolerance, and to quantify the selection acting upon them. Considering further the use of advanced intercross lines to measure selection, we here extend this framework to cover scenarios of simultaneous recombination and selection, and of two driver alleles with multiple linked neutral, or passenger, alleles, where the driver pair evolves under an epistatic fitness landscape. We conclude by discussing the limitations of the approach presented and outlining future challenges for such methodologies.

  11. Conserving tigers in working landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanchani, Pranav; Noon, Barry R; Bailey, Larissa L; Warrier, Rekha A

    2016-06-01

    Tiger (Panthera tigris) conservation efforts in Asia are focused on protected areas embedded in human-dominated landscapes. A system of protected areas is an effective conservation strategy for many endangered species if the network is large enough to support stable metapopulations. The long-term conservation of tigers requires that the species be able to meet some of its life-history needs beyond the boundaries of small protected areas and within the working landscape, including multiple-use forests with logging and high human use. However, understanding of factors that promote or limit the occurrence of tigers in working landscapes is incomplete. We assessed the relative influence of protection status, prey occurrence, extent of grasslands, intensity of human use, and patch connectivity on tiger occurrence in the 5400 km(2) Central Terai Landscape of India, adjacent to Nepal. Two observer teams independently surveyed 1009 km of forest trails and water courses distributed across 60 166-km(2) cells. In each cell, the teams recorded detection of tiger signs along evenly spaced trail segments. We used occupancy models that permitted multiscale analysis of spatially correlated data to estimate cell-scale occupancy and segment-scale habitat use by tigers as a function of management and environmental covariates. Prey availability and habitat quality, rather than protected-area designation, influenced tiger occupancy. Tiger occupancy was low in some protected areas in India that were connected to extensive areas of tiger habitat in Nepal, which brings into question the efficacy of current protection and management strategies in both India and Nepal. At a finer spatial scale, tiger habitat use was high in trail segments associated with abundant prey and large grasslands, but it declined as human and livestock use increased. We speculate that riparian grasslands may provide tigers with critical refugia from human activity in the daytime and thereby promote tiger occurrence

  12. Appalachian Piedmont landscapes from the Permian to the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaves, E.T.

    1989-01-01

    Between the Potomac and Susquehanna Rivers and from the Blue Ridge to the Fall Zone, landscapes of the Piedmont are illustrated for times in the Holocene, Late Wisconsin, Early Miocene, Early Cretaceous, Late Triassic, and Permian. Landscape evolution took place in tectonic settings marked by major plate collisions (Permian), arching and rifting (Late Triassic) and development of the Atlantic passive margin by sea floor spreading (Early Cretaceous). Erosion proceeded concurrently with tectonic uplift and continued after cessation of major tectonic activity. Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf sediments record three major erosional periods: (1) Late Triassic-Early Jurassic; (2) Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous; and (3) Middle Miocene-Holocene. The Middle Miocene-Holocene pulse is related to neotectonic activity and major climatic fluctuations. In the Piedmont upland the Holocene landscape is interpreted as an upland surface of low relief undergoing dissection. Major rivers and streams are incised into a landscape on which the landforms show a delicate adjustment to rock lithologies. The Fall Zone has apparently evolved from a combination of warping, faulting, and differential erosion since Late Miocene. The periglacial environment of the Late Wisconsin (and earlier glacial epochs) resulted in increased physical erosion and reduced chemical weathering. Even with lowered saprolitization rates, geochemical modeling suggests that 80 m or more of saprolite may have formed since Late Miocene. This volume of saprolite suggests major erosion of upland surfaces and seemingly contradicts available field evidence. Greatly subdued relief characterized the Early Miocene time, near the end of a prolonged interval of tropical morphogenesis. The ancestral Susquehanna and Potomac Rivers occupied approximately their present locations. In Early Cretaceous time local relief may have been as much as 900 m, and a major axial river draining both the Piedmont and Appalachians flowed southeast

  13. Regulatory practices for nuclear power plants in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajaj, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) is the national authority for ensuring that the use of ionizing radiation and nuclear energy does not cause any undue risk to the health of workers, members of the public and to the environment. AERB is responsible for the stipulation and enforcement of rules and regulations pertaining to nuclear and radiological safety. This paper describes the regulatory process followed by AERB for ensuring the safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs) during their construction as well as operation. This regulatory process has been continuously evolving to cater to the new developments in reactor technology. Some of the recent initiatives taken by AERB in this direction are briefly described. Today, AERB faces new challenges like simultaneous review of a large number of new projects of diverse designs, a fast growing nuclear power program and functioning of operating plants in a competitive environment. This paper delineates how AERB is gearing up to meet these challenges in an effective manner. (author)

  14. Challenges in orphan drug development and regulatory policy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Alice; Xie, Zhi

    2017-01-18

    While regulatory policy is well defined for orphan drug development in the United States and Europe, rare disease policy in China is still evolving. Many Chinese patients currently pay out of pocket for international treatments that are not yet approved in China. The lack of a clear definition and therefore regulatory approval process for rare diseases has, until now, de-incentivized pharmaceutical companies to pursue rare disease drug development in China. In turn, many grassroots movements have begun to support rare disease patients and facilitate drug discovery through research. Recently, the Chinese FDA set new regulatory guidelines for drugs being developed in China, including an expedited review process for life-saving treatments. In this review, we discuss the effects of these new policy changes on and suggest potential solutions to innovate orphan drug development in China.

  15. Small RNA-Controlled Gene Regulatory Networks in Pseudomonas putida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojanovic, Klara

    evolved numerous mechanisms to controlgene expression in response to specific environmental signals. In addition to two-component systems, small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) have emerged as major regulators of gene expression. The majority of sRNAs bind to mRNA and regulate their expression. They often have...... multiple targets and are incorporated into large regulatory networks and the RNA chaper one Hfq in many cases facilitates interactions between sRNAs and their targets. Some sRNAs also act by binding to protein targets and sequestering their function. In this PhD thesis we investigated the transcriptional....... Detailed insights into the mechanisms through which P. putida responds to different stress conditions and increased understanding of bacterial adaptation in natural and industrial settings were gained. Additionally, we identified genome-wide transcription start sites, andmany regulatory RNA elements...

  16. Laplacian Estrada and normalized Laplacian Estrada indices of evolving graphs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilun Shang

    Full Text Available Large-scale time-evolving networks have been generated by many natural and technological applications, posing challenges for computation and modeling. Thus, it is of theoretical and practical significance to probe mathematical tools tailored for evolving networks. In this paper, on top of the dynamic Estrada index, we study the dynamic Laplacian Estrada index and the dynamic normalized Laplacian Estrada index of evolving graphs. Using linear algebra techniques, we established general upper and lower bounds for these graph-spectrum-based invariants through a couple of intuitive graph-theoretic measures, including the number of vertices or edges. Synthetic random evolving small-world networks are employed to show the relevance of the proposed dynamic Estrada indices. It is found that neither the static snapshot graphs nor the aggregated graph can approximate the evolving graph itself, indicating the fundamental difference between the static and dynamic Estrada indices.

  17. Laplacian Estrada and normalized Laplacian Estrada indices of evolving graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yilun

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale time-evolving networks have been generated by many natural and technological applications, posing challenges for computation and modeling. Thus, it is of theoretical and practical significance to probe mathematical tools tailored for evolving networks. In this paper, on top of the dynamic Estrada index, we study the dynamic Laplacian Estrada index and the dynamic normalized Laplacian Estrada index of evolving graphs. Using linear algebra techniques, we established general upper and lower bounds for these graph-spectrum-based invariants through a couple of intuitive graph-theoretic measures, including the number of vertices or edges. Synthetic random evolving small-world networks are employed to show the relevance of the proposed dynamic Estrada indices. It is found that neither the static snapshot graphs nor the aggregated graph can approximate the evolving graph itself, indicating the fundamental difference between the static and dynamic Estrada indices.

  18. Tectonic controls of transient landscapes in the Bhutan Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, B. A.; Whipple, K. X.; Hodges, K. V.; Van Soest, M. C.; Heimsath, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    Previous research has identified many landscapes within the Himalaya that are not easily explained by classical critical taper models of orogenic wedges. One of the most striking examples is the sharp physiographic transition between the more subdued landforms of the Lower Himalayan ranges and the Higher Himalayan ranges to the north in Nepal. This transition has been attributed to several potential causes: changes in the rheology of rocks at depth, a ramp in the basal detachment of the orogenic wedge, a blind duplex, or a north-dipping, surface-breaking thrust fault. A similar, but more subdued transition marks the northern margin of perched, low-relief landscape patches found at ca. 3000 m in Bhutan. These low-relief surfaces, characterized by bogs and thick saprolites at the surface, overlie piggyback basins within the evolving orogenic wedge, filled with hundreds of meters of colluvial and alluvial deposits. The southern boundaries of the low-relief surfaces are less regular than the physiographic transition at their northern boundaries. The surfaces occur at similar elevations but are not continuous geographically, having been dissected by a series of river systems draining southward from the crest of the range. Pronounced knickpoints have formed at the southern margins of the low-relief surfaces. Our work suggests that there is a young (Pliocene-Pleistocene) fault system coincident with the physiographic transition in Bhutan. This high-angle, north-dipping structure, the Lhuentse fault, has minor normal-sense offset and could not have been responsible for differential uplift of the rugged terrain (in the hanging wall) relative to the low-relief landscape (in the footwall). The Lhuentse fault is coincident with the back limb of a previously inferred blind duplex at depth, and thus may be associated with active deformation on a rotated horse within the duplex. This duplex may also be responsible for the creation of the low-relief landscapes to the south of the

  19. Revisiting Robustness and Evolvability: Evolution in Weighted Genotype Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partha, Raghavendran; Raman, Karthik

    2014-01-01

    Robustness and evolvability are highly intertwined properties of biological systems. The relationship between these properties determines how biological systems are able to withstand mutations and show variation in response to them. Computational studies have explored the relationship between these two properties using neutral networks of RNA sequences (genotype) and their secondary structures (phenotype) as a model system. However, these studies have assumed every mutation to a sequence to be equally likely; the differences in the likelihood of the occurrence of various mutations, and the consequence of probabilistic nature of the mutations in such a system have previously been ignored. Associating probabilities to mutations essentially results in the weighting of genotype space. We here perform a comparative analysis of weighted and unweighted neutral networks of RNA sequences, and subsequently explore the relationship between robustness and evolvability. We show that assuming an equal likelihood for all mutations (as in an unweighted network), underestimates robustness and overestimates evolvability of a system. In spite of discarding this assumption, we observe that a negative correlation between sequence (genotype) robustness and sequence evolvability persists, and also that structure (phenotype) robustness promotes structure evolvability, as observed in earlier studies using unweighted networks. We also study the effects of base composition bias on robustness and evolvability. Particularly, we explore the association between robustness and evolvability in a sequence space that is AU-rich – sequences with an AU content of 80% or higher, compared to a normal (unbiased) sequence space. We find that evolvability of both sequences and structures in an AU-rich space is lesser compared to the normal space, and robustness higher. We also observe that AU-rich populations evolving on neutral networks of phenotypes, can access less phenotypic variation compared to

  20. Developing regulatory approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelsson, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Lars Axelsson presented SSM progress on oversight of LMfS/SC since the Chester 1 Workshop in 2007. Current SSM approaches for safety culture oversight include targeted safety management and safety culture inspections, compliance inspections which cover aspects of safety management/safety culture and multi-disciplinary team inspections. Examples of themes for targeted inspections include management of ambiguous operational situations or other weak signals, understanding of and attitudes to Human Performance tools, the Safety Department's role and authority and Leadership for safety. All regulatory activities provide inputs for the SSM yearly safety evaluation of each licensee. A form has been developed to capture safety culture observations from inspections and other interactions with licensees. Analysis will be performed to identify patterns and provide information to support planning of specific Safety Culture activities. Training has been developed for regulatory staff to enhance the quality of regulatory interventions on safety culture. This includes a half-day seminar to provide an overview of safety culture, and a workshop which provides more in-depth discussion on cultural issues and how to capture those during regulatory activities. Future plans include guidance for inspectors, and informal seminars on safety culture with licensees

  1. NRC Regulatory Agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    This document compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rule making which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  2. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This document is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considered action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  3. NRC Regulatory Agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    This document is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has proposed or is considering action and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  4. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This document provides a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  5. Comments on regulatory reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrie, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear regulatory reform is divided into two parts. The first part contains all those matters for which new legislation is required. The second part concerns all those matters that are within the power of the Commission under existing statutes. Recommendations are presented

  6. Comments on regulatory reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrie, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear regulatory reform is divided into two parts. The first part contains all those matters for which new legislation is required. The second part concerns all those matters that are within the power of the Commission under existing statutes. Recommendations are presented.

  7. 3 CFR - Regulatory Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... as a means of promoting regulatory goals. The fundamental principles and structures governing... review. In this time of fundamental transformation, that process—and the principles governing regulation... the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has reviewed Federal regulations. The purposes of such...

  8. Genome landscape and evolutionary plasticity of chromosomes in malaria mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Xia

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Nonrandom distribution of rearrangements is a common feature of eukaryotic chromosomes that is not well understood in terms of genome organization and evolution. In the major African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, polymorphic inversions are highly nonuniformly distributed among five chromosomal arms and are associated with epidemiologically important adaptations. However, it is not clear whether the genomic content of the chromosomal arms is associated with inversion polymorphism and fixation rates.To better understand the evolutionary dynamics of chromosomal inversions, we created a physical map for an Asian malaria mosquito, Anopheles stephensi, and compared it with the genome of An. gambiae. We also developed and deployed novel Bayesian statistical models to analyze genome landscapes in individual chromosomal arms An. gambiae. Here, we demonstrate that, despite the paucity of inversion polymorphisms on the X chromosome, this chromosome has the fastest rate of inversion fixation and the highest density of transposable elements, simple DNA repeats, and GC content. The highly polymorphic and rapidly evolving autosomal 2R arm had overrepresentation of genes involved in cellular response to stress supporting the role of natural selection in maintaining adaptive polymorphic inversions. In addition, the 2R arm had the highest density of regions involved in segmental duplications that clustered in the breakpoint-rich zone of the arm. In contrast, the slower evolving 2L, 3R, and 3L, arms were enriched with matrix-attachment regions that potentially contribute to chromosome stability in the cell nucleus.These results highlight fundamental differences in evolutionary dynamics of the sex chromosome and autosomes and revealed the strong association between characteristics of the genome landscape and rates of chromosomal evolution. We conclude that a unique combination of various classes of genes and repetitive DNA in each arm, rather than a single type

  9. Regulatory requirements for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, E.A.; Cunningham, R.E.; Hard, J.E.; Mattson, R.J.; Smith, R.D.; Peterson, H.T. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Regulatory requirements for radiation protection have evolved and matured over several decades. Due to the wide adoption of recommendations of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP), there exists international agreement on the principles to be followed for radiation protection. This foundation will be increasingly important due to the growing need for international agreements and standards for radiation protection and radioactive materials management. During the infancy of the commercial nuclear industry, primary reliance was placed on the protection of the individual, both in the work force and as a member of the public. With the growth of nuclear power in the 1960's and 1970's, environmental impact assessments and expert reviews of bio-effects data have focused attention on statistical risks to large population groups and the use of the collective dose commitment concept to estimate potential effects. The potential release of long-lived radionuclides from the nuclear fuel cycle requires further consideration of radionuclide accumulation in the biosphere and calls for controls conceived and implemented at the international level. The initial development efforts for addressing these concerns already have been instituted by the ICRP and the IAEA. However, formal international agreements and a unified set of international standards may be required to implement the recommendations of these groups. Further international efforts in the field of radiation protection are also called for in developing waste management practices and radioactive effluent control technology, in site selection for fuel reprocessing plants and waste dispersal facilities, and for ensuring safe transport of high-level wastes in various forms. Since the regulation of very low dose rates and doses will be involved, it will be useful to reexamine dose-effect relationships and societal goals for health protection. Improved criteria and methodologies for ''as low as readily

  10. Representing biophysical landscape interactions in soil models by bridging disciplines and scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, M. J.; Carranza, C.; Teixeira da Silva, R.; te Brake, B.; Baartman, J.; Robinson, D.

    2017-12-01

    The combination of climate change, population growth and soil threats including carbon loss, biodiversity decline and erosion, increasingly confront the global community (Schwilch et al., 2016). One major challenge in studying processes involved in soil threats, landscape resilience, ecosystem stability, sustainable land management and resulting economic consequences, is that it is an interdisciplinary field (Pelletier et al., 2012). Less stringent scientific disciplinary boundaries are therefore important (Liu et al., 2007), because as a result of disciplinary focus, ambiguity may arise on the understanding of landscape interactions. This is especially true in the interaction between a landscape's physical and biological processes (van der Ploeg et al. 2012). Biophysical landscape interactions are those biotic and abiotic processes in a landscape that have an influence on the developments within and evolution of a landscape. An important aspect in biophysical landscape interactions is the differences in scale related to the various processes that play a role in these systems. Moreover, the interplay between the physical landscape and the occurring vegetation, which often co-evolve, and the resulting heterogeneity and emerging patterns are the reason why it is so challenging to establish a theoretical basis to describe biophysical processes in landscapes (e.g. te Brake et al. 2013, Robinson et al. 2016). Another complicating factor is the response of vegetation to changing environmental conditions, including a possible, and often unknown, time-lag (e.g. Metzger et al., 2009). An integrative description for modelling biophysical interactions has been a long standing goal in soil science (Vereecken et al., 2016). We need the development of soil models that are more focused on networks, connectivity and feedbacks incorporating the most important aspects of our detailed mechanistic modelling (Paola & Leeder, 2011). Additionally, remote sensing measurement techniques

  11. Incorporating bioenergy into sustainable landscape designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; Buford, Marilyn A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes an approach to landscape design that focuses on integrating bioenergy production with other components of environmental, social and economic systems. Landscape design as used here refers to a spatially explicit, collaborative plan for management of landscapes and supply chains...... land-management objectives from a wide array of stakeholders, up-front planning requirements, and the complexity and level of effort needed for successful stakeholder involvement. A landscape design process may be stymied by insufficient data or participation. An impetus for coordination is critical....... Landscape design can involve multiple scales and build on existing practices to reduce costs or enhance services. Appropriately applied to a specific context, landscape design can help people assess trade-offs when making choices about locations, types of feedstock, transport, refining and distribution...

  12. Linking ecosystem services with cultural landscape research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaich, Harald; Biding, Claudia; Plieninger, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    The concept of ecosystem services facilitates the valuation of the multiple services from ecosystems and landscapes, the identification of trade-offs between different land use scenarios, and also informs decision making in land use planning. Unfortunately, cultural services have been mostly...... neglected within the ecosystem services framework. This could result in trade-off assessments which are biased and mislead ecosystem management and landscape planning. However, cultural landscape research approaches have proven valuable in the assessment of different nonmaterial landscape values...... and cultural services. In this paper, we compare the objectives, approaches, and methodologies adopted by ecosystem services research and cultural landscape research through a bibliographic research. Both research communities investigate the human dimension of ecosystems and landscapes and, hence, study...

  13. Processes of aesthetic transformation in ordinary landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Jonna Majgaard

    2004-01-01

    it was distributed systematically as an almost industrially produced landscape element. Windbreaks are now regarded as a traditional element in the Danish agricultural landscape. As a landscape element it is an international phenomenon known and used in Germany, France, England etc. Originally local farming...... practices, natural conditions, techniques and national legislation in the respective countries, formed the aesthetic expression. In this respect one could speak of the impact of northern nature on the aesthetic expression of the Danish windbreaks, as well as the impact from national phenomena....... These features determined the specific aesthetic and architectural identity of ordinary Danish, i.e. Nordic, landscapes. Contemporary cultural changes such as the aesthetification of everyday life and of ordinary landscape, i.e. farming landscape, are now manifest in the way the windbreaks are motivated...

  14. Roads Belong In the Urban Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2012-01-01

    In spite of being an essential part of the system of automobility and as such playing an important role in the development of urban landscapes, road networks seldom attracts much attention among architects involved in the planning and design of urban landscapes. One reason is probably found...... in the dominance of the zoning approach to planning, where road planning easily becomes isolated and reduced to a matter of traffic regulation and transport economy. Another possible reason could be, as suggested by the Australian landscape architect Christopher Sawyer, that road networks like other...... as landscape architects engage with road networks in profound ways, which moves beyond the purely visual and pictorial? Is it possible to conceptually (re)locate road networks in the landscape? The paper will address these questions by discussing different understandings of landscape and its relation...

  15. Migrant decision-making in a frontier landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Across the tropics, rural farmers and livestock keepers use mobility as an adaptive livelihood strategy. Continued migration to and within frontier areas is widely viewed as a driver of environmental decline and biodiversity loss. Recent scholarship advances our understanding of migration decision-making in the context of changing climate and environments, and in doing so it highlights the variation in migration responses to primarily economic and environmental factors. Building on these insights, this letter investigates past and future migration decisions in a frontier landscape of Tanzania, East Africa. Combining field observations and household data within a multilevel modeling framework, the letter analyzes the explicit importance of social factors relative to economic and environmental factors in driving decisions to migrate or remain. Results indeed suggest that local community ties and non-local social networks drive both immobility and anticipated migration, respectively. In addition, positive interactions with local protected natural resource areas promote longer-term residence. Findings shed new light on how frontier areas transition to human dominated landscapes. This highlights critical links between migration behavior and the conservation of biodiversity and management of natural resources, as well as how migrants evolve to become integrated into communities.

  16. The Structure of Fitness Landscapes in Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deris, Barrett; Kim, Minsu; Zhang, Zhongge; Okano, Hiroyuki; Hermsen, Rutger; Gore, Jeff; Hwa, Terence

    2014-03-01

    To predict the emergence of antibiotic resistance, quantitative relations must be established between the fitness of drug-resistant organisms and the molecular mechanisms conferring resistance. We have investigated E. coli strains expressing resistance to translation-inhibiting antibiotics. We show that resistance expression and drug inhibition are linked in a positive feedback loop arising from an innate, global effect of drug-inhibited growth on gene expression. This feedback leads generically to plateau-shaped fitness landscapes and concomitantly, for strains expressing at least moderate degrees of drug resistance, gives rise to an abrupt drop in growth rates of cultures at threshold drug concentrations. A simple quantitative model of bacterial growth based on this innate feedback accurately predicts experimental observations without ad hoc parameter fitting. We describe how drug-inhibited growth rate and the threshold drug concentration (the minimum inhibitory concentration, or MIC) depend on the few biochemical parameters that characterize the molecular details of growth inhibition and drug resistance (e.g., the drug-target dissociation constant). And finally, we discuss how these parameters can shape fitness landscapes to determine evolutionary dynamics and evolvability.

  17. Surgical Education and Health Care Reform: Defining the Role and Value of Trainees in an Evolving Medical Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayanju, Oluwadamilola M; Aggarwal, Reena; Baucom, Rebeccah B; Ferrone, Cristina R; Massaro, David; Terhune, Kyla P

    2017-03-01

    Health care reform and surgical education are often separated functionally. However, especially in surgery, where resident trainees often spend twice as much time in residency and fellowship than in undergraduate medical education, one must consider their contributions to health care. In this short commentary, we briefly review the status of health care in the United States as well as some of the recent and current changes in graduate medical education that pertain to surgical trainees. This is a perspective piece that draws on the interests and varied background of the multiinstitutional and international group of authors. The authors propose 3 main areas of focus for research and practice- (1) accurately quantifying the care provided currently by trainees, (2) determining impact to trainees and hospital systems of training parameters, focusing on long-term outcomes rather than short-term outcomes, and (3) determining practice models of education that work best for both health care delivery and trainees. The authors propose that surgical education must align itself with rather than separate itself from overall health care reform measures and even individual hospital financial pressures. This should not be seen as additional burden of service, but rather practical education in training as to the pressures trainees will face as future employees. Rethinking the contributions and training of residents and fellows may also synergistically work to impress to hospital administrators that providing better, more focused and applicable education to residents and fellows may have long-term, strategic, positive impacts on institutions.

  18. The Evolving Landscape of Healthcare-Associated Infections: Recent Advances in Prevention and a Road Map for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdar, Nasia; Anderson, Deverick J.; Braun, Barbara I.; Carling, Philip; Cohen, Stuart; Donskey, Curtis; Drees, Marci; Harris, Anthony; Henderson, David K.; Huang, Susan S.; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha; Lautenbach, Ebbing; Linkin, Darren R.; Meddings, Jennifer; Miller, Loren G.; Milstone, Aaron; Morgan, Daniel; Sengupta, Sharmila; Varman, Meera; Yokoe, Deborah; Zerr, Danielle M.

    2014-01-01

    This white paper identifies knowledge gaps and new challenges in healthcare epidemiology research, assesses the progress made toward addressing research priorities, provides the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) Research Committee’s recommendations for high-priority research topics, and proposes a road map for making progress toward these goals. It updates the 2010 SHEA Research Committee document, “Charting the Course for the Future of Science in Healthcare Epidemiology: Results of a Survey of the Membership of SHEA,” which called for a national approach to healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and a prioritized research agenda. This paper highlights recent studies that have advanced our understanding of HAIs, the establishment of the SHEA Research Network as a collaborative infrastructure to address research questions, prevention initiatives at state and national levels, changes in reporting and payment requirements, and new patterns in antimicrobial resistance. PMID:24709716

  19. The Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act Evaluation Findings on Children's Health Insurance Coverage in an Evolving Health Care Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Mary E

    2015-01-01

    The Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) Reauthorization Act (CHIPRA) reauthorized CHIP through federal fiscal year 2019 and, together with provisions in the Affordable Care Act, federal funding for the program was extended through federal fiscal year 2015. Congressional action is required or federal funding for the program will end in September 2015. This supplement to Academic Pediatrics is intended to inform discussions about CHIP's future. Most of the new research presented comes from a large evaluation of CHIP mandated by Congress in the CHIPRA. Since CHIP started in 1997, millions of lower-income children have secured health insurance coverage and needed care, reducing the financial burdens and stress on their families. States made substantial progress in simplifying enrollment and retention. When implemented optimally, Express Lane Eligibility has the potential to help cover more of the millions of eligible children who remain uninsured. Children move frequently between Medicaid and CHIP, and many experienced a gap in coverage with this transition. CHIP enrollees had good access to care. For nearly every health care access, use, care, and cost measure examined, CHIP enrollees fared better than uninsured children. Access in CHIP was similar to private coverage for most measures, but financial burdens were substantially lower and access to weekend and nighttime care was not as good. The Affordable Care Act coverage options have the potential to reduce uninsured rates among children, but complex transition issues must first be resolved to ensure families have access to affordable coverage, leading many stakeholders to recommend funding for CHIP be continued. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. All rights reserved.

  20. Fire, humans and landscape. Is there a connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valese, Eva; Ascoli, Davide; Conedera, Marco; Held, Alex

    2013-04-01

    Fire evolved on the earth under the direct influence of climate and the accumulation of burnable biomass at various times and spatial scales. As a result, fire regimes depend not only on climatic and biological factors, but also greatly reflect the cultural background of how people do manage ecosystems and fire. A new awareness among scientists and managers has been rising about the ecological role of fire and the necessity to understand its past natural and cultural dynamics in different ecosystems, in order to preserve present ecosystem functionality and minimize management costs and negative impacts. As a consequence we assisted in the last decades to a general shift from the fire control to the fire management approach, where fire prevention, fire danger rating, fire ecology, fire pre-suppression and suppression strategies are fully integrated in the landscape management. Nowadays, a large number of authors recognize that a total suppression strategy, as the one adopted during last decades, leads to a fire paradox: the more we fight for putting out all fires, the more extreme events occur and cause long term damages. The aim of this review is to provide a state of art about the connection between fire, humans and landscape, along time and space. Negative and positive impacts on ecosystem services and values are put in evidence, as well as their incidence on human aptitude to fire use as to fire suppression. In order to capture a consistent fragment of fire history, palaeofires and related palynological studies are considered. They enable a valuable, even if partial, look at the millenary fire regime. Actual strategies and future directions are described in order to show what are the alternatives for living with fire, since removing completely this disturbance from earth is not a option, nor feasible neither advisable. Examples from the world, in particular from the Alps and the Mediterranean basin, are shown for better illustrating the signature of