WorldWideScience

Sample records for evolved physiological responses

  1. The Evolving Role of Animal Laboratories in Physiology Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra'anan, Alice W.

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory exercises are intended to illustrate concepts and add an active learning component to courses. Since the 1980s, there has been a decline in animal laboratories offered in conjunction with medical physiology courses. The most important single reason for this is cost, but other contributing factors include the development of computer…

  2. Neuronal responses to physiological stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kagias, Konstantinos; Nehammer, Camilla; Pocock, Roger David John

    2012-01-01

    damage during aging that results in decline and eventual death. Studies have shown that the nervous system plays a pivotal role in responding to stress. Neurons not only receive and process information from the environment but also actively respond to various stresses to promote survival. These responses...... include changes in the expression of molecules such as transcription factors and microRNAs that regulate stress resistance and adaptation. Moreover, both intrinsic and extrinsic stresses have a tremendous impact on neuronal development and maintenance with implications in many diseases. Here, we review...... the responses of neurons to various physiological stressors at the molecular and cellular level....

  3. Glycerol stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Cellular responses and evolved adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattenberger, Florian; Sabater-Muñoz, Beatriz; Hallsworth, John E; Fares, Mario A

    2017-03-01

    Glycerol synthesis is key to central metabolism and stress biology in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, yet the cellular adjustments needed to respond and adapt to glycerol stress are little understood. Here, we determined impacts of acute and chronic exposures to glycerol stress in S. cerevisiae. Glycerol stress can result from an increase of glycerol concentration in the medium due to the S. cerevisiae fermenting activity or other metabolic activities. Acute glycerol-stress led to a 50% decline in growth rate and altered transcription of more than 40% of genes. The increased genetic diversity in S. cerevisiae population, which had evolved in the standard nutrient medium for hundreds of generations, led to an increase in growth rate and altered transcriptome when such population was transferred to stressful media containing a high concentration of glycerol; 0.41 M (0.990 water activity). Evolution of S. cerevisiae populations during a 10-day period in the glycerol-containing medium led to transcriptome changes and readjustments to improve control of glycerol flux across the membrane, regulation of cell cycle, and more robust stress response; and a remarkable increase of growth rate under glycerol stress. Most of the observed regulatory changes arose in duplicated genes. These findings elucidate the physiological mechanisms, which underlie glycerol-stress response, and longer-term adaptations, in S. cerevisiae; they also have implications for enigmatic aspects of the ecology of this otherwise well-characterized yeast. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. EVOLVE

    CERN Document Server

    Deutz, André; Schütze, Oliver; Legrand, Pierrick; Tantar, Emilia; Tantar, Alexandru-Adrian

    2017-01-01

    This book comprises nine selected works on numerical and computational methods for solving multiobjective optimization, game theory, and machine learning problems. It provides extended versions of selected papers from various fields of science such as computer science, mathematics and engineering that were presented at EVOLVE 2013 held in July 2013 at Leiden University in the Netherlands. The internationally peer-reviewed papers include original work on important topics in both theory and applications, such as the role of diversity in optimization, statistical approaches to combinatorial optimization, computational game theory, and cell mapping techniques for numerical landscape exploration. Applications focus on aspects including robustness, handling multiple objectives, and complex search spaces in engineering design and computational biology.

  5. Physiological Responses of Some Drought Resistant Cowpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    saharan Africa One of the first physiological responses to water stress in crops is the functioning of the leaf. The aim of the present study is to determine leaf physiological responses of cowpea to water stress. The study was conducted at ...

  6. india's northward drift and collision with asia: evolving faunal response

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    INDIA'S NORTHWARD DRIFT AND COLLISION WITH ASIA: EVOLVING FAUNAL RESPONSE · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19 · Slide 20 · Slide 21 · Slide 22 · Slide 23 · Slide 24.

  7. Hemicrania continua evolving from cluster headache responsive to valproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambru, Giorgio; Castellini, Paola; Bini, Annamaria; Evangelista, Andrea; Manzoni, Gian Camillo; Torelli, Paola

    2008-10-01

    Hemicrania continua (HC) is a rare type of primary headache characterized by a prompt and enduring response to indomethacin. We describe a patient who suffered from cluster headache evolving into ipsilateral HC, who does not tolerate a long-term indomethacin therapy. The case was complex in terms of diagnosis, associated comorbidity, and choice of treatment; after several trials with different therapeutic regimens, we started the patient on a therapy with valproic acid and obtained an improvement of her HC.

  8. Physiological and biochemical responses of halophyte Kalidium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the physiological and biochemical responses of a halophyte Kalidium foliatum to salinity were studied. In order to reflect salt-tolerance in K. foliatum and to analyze the physiological and biochemical mechanism for its salt tolerance, salinity threshold and biochemical parameters were studied. A halophyte ...

  9. Physiological responses of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stress increases the incidence of diseases and mortality thus affecting the economics of aquaculture. This study therefore, investigates the physiological responses of Clarias gariepinus broodstock to confinement stress by examining secondary stress response levels (haematological and biochemical parameters) and ...

  10. Tissue physiology and the response to heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsman, Michael Robert

    2006-01-01

    The most important physiological parameter influencing tissue response to heat is blood flow. At mild hyperthermia temperatures blood perfusion increases in many tumours and this effect is heating time-, temperature- and tumour-dependent. These flow increases can improve tumour oxygenation. When...... physiological effects should occur in normal tissues, such combination therapies must be carefully applied. Heating tumours to higher temperatures typically causes a transient increase in perfusion during heating, followed by vascular collapse which if sufficient will increase tumour necrosis. The speed...... can also be exploited to improve the response to heat. Decreasing blood flow, using transient physiological modifiers or longer acting vascular disrupting agents prior to the initiation of heating, can both increase the accumulation of physical heat in the tumour, as well as increase heat sensitivity...

  11. Determination of physiological responses on hyacinth ( Hyacinthus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant growth is restricted by many environmental factors. Soil salinity is considered as an important agricultural problem for dry and semi-dry fields in many regions around the world. It is known that salinity is an important stress factor restricting water and nutrient intake of plants. In this study, the physiological responses of ...

  12. Germination, growth and physiological responses of Senegalia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Germination, growth and physiological responses of Senegalia senegal (L.) Britton, Vachellia seyal (Delile) P. Hurter and Prosopis juliflora (Swartz) DC to salinity stress in greenhouse conditions. Dioumacor Fall, Niokhor Bakhoum, Fatoumata Fall, Fatou Diouf, Mamadou O Ly, Mayécor Diouf, Djamel Gully, Valérie Hocher, ...

  13. Physiological and behavioural responses of Ruditapes decussatus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study highlights the potential use of behavioural and physiological response of a sentinel organism for monitoring the pesticides in the marine environment. KEY WORDS: LC50, glyphosate, chlorpyrifos-methyl, valve movement, oxygen consumption, ammonia excretion, energy lost. Egyptian Journal of Botany Vol.5 ...

  14. Physiological and antioxidant responses of three leguminous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the physiological behaviors and antioxidant responses of Medicago sativa, Melilotus officinalis and Astragalus adsurgens to saline environment during seed germination stage. At 300 mM NaCl treatments, the final germination percentage of M. officinalis was much higher than that of. M. sativa and of ...

  15. Sepsis: Multiple Abnormalities, Heterogeneous Responses, and Evolving Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskander, Kendra N.; Osuchowski, Marcin F.; Stearns-Kurosawa, Deborah J.; Kurosawa, Shinichiro; Stepien, David; Valentine, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Sepsis represents the host's systemic inflammatory response to a severe infection. It causes substantial human morbidity resulting in hundreds of thousands of deaths each year. Despite decades of intense research, the basic mechanisms still remain elusive. In either experimental animal models of sepsis or human patients, there are substantial physiological changes, many of which may result in subsequent organ injury. Variations in age, gender, and medical comorbidities including diabetes and renal failure create additional complexity that influence the outcomes in septic patients. Specific system-based alterations, such as the coagulopathy observed in sepsis, offer both potential insight and possible therapeutic targets. Intracellular stress induces changes in the endoplasmic reticulum yielding misfolded proteins that contribute to the underlying pathophysiological changes. With these multiple changes it is difficult to precisely classify an individual's response in sepsis as proinflammatory or immunosuppressed. This heterogeneity also may explain why most therapeutic interventions have not improved survival. Given the complexity of sepsis, biomarkers and mathematical models offer potential guidance once they have been carefully validated. This review discusses each of these important factors to provide a framework for understanding the complex and current challenges of managing the septic patient. Clinical trial failures and the therapeutic interventions that have proven successful are also discussed. PMID:23899564

  16. Ozone Damages to Mediterranean Crops: Physiological Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Fagnano

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this brief review we analyzed some aspects of tropospheric ozone damages to crop plants. Specifically, we addressed this issue to Mediterranean environments, where plant response to multiple stresses may either exacerbate or counteract deleterious ozone effects. After discussing the adequacy of current models to predict ozone damages to Mediterranean crops, we present a few examples of physiological responses to drought and salinity stress that generally overlap with seasonal ozone peaks in Southern Italy. The co-existence of multiple stresses is then analyzed in terms of stomatal vs. non-stomatal control of ozone damages. Recent results on osmoprotectant feeding experiments, as a non-invasive strategy to uncouple stomatal vs. non stomatal contribution to ozone protection, are also presented. In the final section, we discuss critical needs in ozone research and the great potential of plant model systems to unravel multiple stress responses in agricultural crops.

  17. Physiological responses and physical performance during football in the heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Nybo, Lars; Grantham, Justin

    2012-01-01

    To examine the impact of hot ambient conditions on physical performance and physiological responses during football match-play.......To examine the impact of hot ambient conditions on physical performance and physiological responses during football match-play....

  18. Developing a Web Platform to Strategically evolve corporate social responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatnagar, Saumya

    2016-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has become an integral component of many companies especially technology companies. A huge percentage of technology companies want to engage their employees through corporate social responsibility as well; leading to the evolution of a new kind term- “Employee Community Engagement”. With 80% job seekers preferring to work for companies that are socially responsible and employee engagement reducing the staff turnover, CSR and employee engagement has become...

  19. Physiology responses of Rhesus monkeys to vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajebrahimi, Zahra; Ebrahimi, Mohammad; Alidoust, Leila; Arabian Hosseinabadi, Maedeh

    Vibration is one of the important environmental factors in space vehicles that it can induce severe physiological responses in most of the body systems such as cardiovascular, respiratory, skeletal, endocrine, and etc. This investigation was to assess the effect of different vibration frequencies on heart rate variability (HRV), electrocardiograms (ECG) and respiratory rate in Rhesus monkeys. Methods: two groups of rhesus monkey (n=16 in each group) was selected as control and intervention groups. Monkeys were held in a sitting position within a specific fixture. The animals of this experiment were vibrated on a table which oscillated right and left with sinusoidal motion. Frequency and acceleration for intervention group were between the range of 1 to 2000 Hz and +0.5 to +3 G during 36 weeks (one per week for 15 min), respectively. All of the animals passed the clinical evaluation (echocardiography, sonography, radiography and blood analysis test) before vibration test and were considered healthy and these tests repeated during and at the end of experiments. Results and discussions: Our results showed that heart and respiratory rates increased significantly in response to increased frequency from 1 to 60 Hz (p <0.05) directly with the +G level reaching a maximum (3G) within a seconds compare to controls. There were no significant differences in heart and respiratory rate from 60 t0 2000 Hz among studied groups. All monkeys passed vibration experiment successfully without any arrhythmic symptoms due to electrocardiography analysis. Conclusion: Our results indicate that vibration in low frequency can effect respiratory and cardiovascular function in rhesus monkey. Keywords: Vibration, rhesus monkey, heart rate, respiratory rate

  20. Comparative functional analysis of ribonuclease 1 homologs: molecular insights into evolving vertebrate physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, Jo E; Eller, Chelcie H; Raines, Ronald T

    2017-06-21

    Pancreatic-type ribonucleases (ptRNases) comprise a class of highly conserved secretory endoribonucleases in vertebrates. The prototype of this enzyme family is ribonuclease 1 (RNase 1). Understanding the physiological roles of RNase 1 is becoming increasingly important, as engineered forms of the enzyme progress through clinical trials as chemotherapeutic agents for cancer. Here, we present an in-depth biochemical characterization of RNase 1 homologs from a broad range of mammals (human, bat, squirrel, horse, cat, mouse, and cow) and nonmammalian species (chicken, lizard, and frog). We discover that the human homolog of RNase 1 has a pH optimum for catalysis, ability to degrade double-stranded RNA, and affinity for cell-surface glycans that are distinctly higher than those of its homologs. These attributes have relevance for human health. Moreover, the functional diversification of the 10 RNase 1 homologs illuminates the regulation of extracellular RNA and other aspects of vertebrate evolution. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  1. Physiological responses by Billbergia zebrina (Bromeliaceae) when ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-09-07

    Sep 7, 2016 ... may induce physiological disorders and decrease the survival rate of plants after transfer to ex vitro conditions. The aim of the present study ..... al., 2013). During CAM activity, the glycolytic breakdown products of storage ... important role in stress alleviation through the regulation of plant osmotic potential ...

  2. Comparison of physiological responses to affect eliciting pictures and music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongwan; Wedell, Douglas H

    2016-03-01

    Recent investigations of the neural correlates of affect elicited from different modalities have found both modality-general and modality-specific representations (Chikazoe et al., 2014). The implications for how physiological responses to affect differ across stimulus modalities have not been fully investigated. This study examined similarities and differences between physiological signatures of affect derived from two different modes of presentation: visual pictures and auditory music sampled from an affective space defined by valence and arousal. Electromyography recordings for the zygomaticus major (EMGZ) and corrugator supercilii (EMGC) were measured along with heart rate and skin conductance level (SCL). Multidimensional scaling was used to visualize relationships from physiological and behavioral responses, and the observed relationships were statistically evaluated using multivariate and univariate analyses. Results for physiological measures demonstrated that valence was represented in the same general way across modalities, primarily reflected in EMGC responses. Arousal, however, was represented in a modality-specific manner, with SCL and EMGZ sensitive to music-based arousal but not picture-based arousal. Stimulus modality itself was predicted from EMGC. Thus, physiological responses to valence were similar across modalities but physiological responses to arousal differed across modalities. These results support the utility of testing for affective markers across modalities within the same experimental setting to reveal how physiological responses are linked to either affect, stimulus modality or both. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Gas exchange and morpho-physiological response of soybean to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gas exchange and morpho-physiological response of soybean to straw mulching under drought conditions. Lan-lan Xue, Long-chang Wang, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem, Ming-chen Bao, Asif Saeed, Muhammad Faisal Bilal ...

  4. Molecular and physiological responses to titanium dioxide ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    - Changes in tissue transcriptomes and productivity of Arabidopsis thaliana were investigated during exposure of plants to two widely-used engineered metal oxide nanoparticles, titanium dioxide (nano-titanium) and cerium dioxide (nano-cerium). Microarray analyses confirmed that exposure to either nanoparticle altered the transcriptomes of rosette leaves and roots, with comparatively larger numbers of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) found under nano-titania exposure. Nano-titania induced more DEGs in rosette leaves, whereas roots had more DEGs under nano-ceria exposure. MapMan analyses indicated that while nano-titania up-regulated overall and secondary metabolism in both tissues, metabolic processes under nano-ceria remained mostly unchanged. Gene enrichment analysis indicated that both nanoparticles mainly enriched ontology groups such as responses to stress (abiotic and biotic), and defense responses (pathogens), and responses to endogenous stimuli (hormones). Nano-titania specifically induced genes associated with photosynthesis, whereas nano-ceria induced expression of genes related to activating transcription factors, most notably those belonging to the ethylene responsive element binding protein family. Interestingly, there were also increased numbers of rosette leaves and plant biomass under nano-ceria exposure, but not under nano-titania. Other transcriptomic responses did not clearly relate to responses observed at the organism level. This may b

  5. Physiological, biochemical and molecular responses of common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nebraska) plants before and after liming (CaCO3 + MgCO3) as soil correction treatment for the sake of remediation for heavy metal pollution in soil. Chemical analysis of carbohydrates showed significant increases in the contents of reducing sugars in response to lead, cadmium and nickel stress, which were decreased by ...

  6. Physiological responses of men during sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-05-01

    The effects of 84 hours of sleep deprivation were examined in a group of six young men and compared with a group of six controls. Subjects were studied in pairs, one sleep-deprived and one control. Primary attention was given to the responses to acut...

  7. Regulation by arbuscular mycorrhizae of the integrated physiological response to salinity in plants: new challenges in physiological and molecular studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel; Porcel, Rosa; Azcón, Charo; Aroca, Ricardo

    2012-06-01

    Excessive salt accumulation in soils is a major ecological and agronomical problem, in particular in arid and semi-arid areas. Excessive soil salinity affects the establishment, development, and growth of plants, resulting in important losses in productivity. Plants have evolved biochemical and molecular mechanisms that may act in a concerted manner and constitute the integrated physiological response to soil salinity. These include the synthesis and accumulation of compatible solutes to avoid cell dehydration and maintain root water uptake, the regulation of ion homeostasis to control ion uptake by roots, compartmentation and transport into shoots, the fine regulation of water uptake and distribution to plant tissues by the action of aquaporins, the reduction of oxidative damage through improved antioxidant capacity and the maintenance of photosynthesis at values adequate for plant growth. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis can help the host plants to cope with the detrimental effects of high soil salinity. There is evidence that AM symbiosis affects and regulates several of the above mentioned mechanisms, but the molecular bases of such effects are almost completely unknown. This review summarizes current knowledge about the effects of AM symbiosis on these physiological mechanisms, emphasizing new perspectives and challenges in physiological and molecular studies on salt-stress alleviation by AM symbiosis.

  8. Cystic fibrosis and physiological responses to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Craig A; Saynor, Zoe L; Tomlinson, Owen W; Barker, Alan R

    2014-12-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise testing is underutilized within the clinical management of patients with cystic fibrosis. But within the last 5 years, there has been considerable interest in its implementation, which has included deliberations by the European Cystic Fibrosis Society about incorporating this method within the clinical assessment of patients. This review examines the current use of cardiopulmonary exercise testing in assessing the extent and cause(s) of exercise limitation from a pediatric perspective. Examples of the measured parameters and their interpretation are provided. Critical synthesis of recent work in the oxygen uptake (VO2) kinetics response to and following exercise is also discussed, and although identified more as a research tool, its utilization advances researchers understanding of the cardiovascular, respiratory and muscular limitations to exercise tolerance. Finally, exercise and its application in therapeutic interventions are highlighted and a number of recommendations made about the utility of exercise prescription.

  9. Study Progress of Physiological Responses in High Temperature Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, K.; Zheng, G. Z.; Bu, W. T.; Wang, Y. J.; Lu, Y. Z.

    2017-10-01

    Certain workers are exposed to high temperatures for a long time. Heat stress will result in a series of physiological responses, and cause adverse effects on the health and safety of workers. This paper summarizes the physiological changes of cardiovascular system, core temperature, skin temperature, water-electrolyte metabolism, alimentary system, neuroendocrine system, reaction time and thermal fatigue in high temperature environments. It can provide a theoretical guidance for labor safety in high temperature environment.

  10. Psycho-physiological response of soldiers in urban combat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente J. Clemente-Suárez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Current armed conflicts are asymmetrical and are developed m urban areas. These new requirements have not been studied for current literature. The aim of this study was to analyse changes in cortical arousal, blood lactate, muscle strength, autonomic modulation and rate of perceived exertion in a simulated urban combat. We analyzed 20 soldiers before and after an urban combat simulation. The results showed how urban combat produced high sympathetic nervous system activation, increasing the muscle strength, heart rate and blood lactate concentration of the soldiers. Despite this effort, rate of perceived exertion were not consistent with the physiological response that soldiers presented, the rate of perceived exertion was lower than the physiological response evaluated. Furthermore, the information processing and cortical arousal decreased after the urban combat simulation. These results have showed the psycho-physiological response of soldiers in combat, helping to better understanding and enabling an improvement of current training methods of soldiers.

  11. Experimentally evolved and phenotypically plastic responses to enforced monogamy in a hermaphroditic flatworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicke, T; Sandner, P; Ramm, S A; Vizoso, D B; Schärer, L

    2016-09-01

    Sexual selection is considered a potent evolutionary force in all sexually reproducing organisms, but direct tests in terms of experimental evolution of sexual traits are still lacking for simultaneously hermaphroditic animals. Here, we tested how evolution under enforced monogamy affected a suite of reproductive traits (including testis area, sex allocation, genital morphology, sperm morphology and mating behaviour) in the outcrossing hermaphroditic flatworm Macrostomum lignano, using an assay that also allowed the assessment of phenotypically plastic responses to group size. The experiment comprised 32 independent selection lines that evolved under either monogamy or polygamy for 20 generations. While we did not observe an evolutionary shift in sex allocation, we detected effects of the selection regime for two male morphological traits. Specifically, worms evolving under enforced monogamy had a distinct shape of the male copulatory organ and produced sperm with shorter appendages. Many traits that did not evolve under enforced monogamy showed phenotypic plasticity in response to group size. Notably, individuals that grew up in larger groups had a more male-biased sex allocation and produced slightly longer sperm than individuals raised in pairs. We conclude that, in this flatworm, enforced monogamy induced moderate evolutionary but substantial phenotypically plastic responses. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  12. Physiological and behavioural responses of livestock to road ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physiological and behavioural responses of livestock to road transportation stress are reviewed. Livestock transported by road in most part of the world are predisposed to many stressors which affect the haematological, hormonal function as well as the behavioural activities of the livestock thereby disrupting body ...

  13. Growth and physiological responses to water and nutrient stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research was conducted to detect changes in growth, physiology and nutrient concentration in response to two watering regimes (well-watered and water-stress conditions) and to two nutrient regimes (with or without fertilization) of oil palm. Under stress conditions, changes in plant growth, dry matter allocation, relative ...

  14. Morph-physiological responses to water deficit in parental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morph-physiological responses to water deficit in parental genotypes of Medicago truncatula recombinant inbred lines. ... High to moderate broad-sense heritability (H²) were observed for most of the traits under control treatment and drought stress. Most of the correlations between measured traits were positive under the ...

  15. Physiological responses of Vallisneria spiraslis L. induced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A two-flume experiment with submerged plant Vallisneria spiraslis L. was conducted to investigate the effects of different hydraulic conditions on physiological responses when exposed to water polluted with copper (Cu) and nitrogen (N). Plants were divided into two groups and grown for 120 h in hydrodynamic and ...

  16. 98 . original article weight gradient and physiological responses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Goats, China) while their physical appearance, feed consumption, rectal temperature and behaviours were recorded daily. RESULTS. Weight gradient - The physiological responses of the rabbit's treatments with cation and subsequent challenge with. Salmonella enterica are shown in table 1 below. There was an.

  17. Physiological and biochemical responses to low temperature stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cuttings of three hybrid clones of P. ussuriensis × P. deltoides were exposed to different low temperatures (cold and freezing) for 24 h, or consecutive low temperatures (5°C, 0 to 120 h), to determine physiological and biochemical responses to cold stress in these woody plants. Soluble sugar and protein contents increased ...

  18. Physiological response, molecular analysis and water use efficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... use efficiency and physiological response and molecular basis of maize hybrids of different maturity groups, a field experiment was conducted at Water Management Research Center (WMRC), Belvatagi, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India during 2010-2011 rabi season in Malaprabha Command Area'.

  19. Physiological responses to exposure to carbon dioxide and human bioeffluents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Wargocki, Pawel; Lian, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    Present paper describes physiological responses as a result of exposures to CO2 (between 500 ppm to 3,000 ppm) with and without bioeffluents. Twenty-five subjects participated. They were exposed in the climate chamber for 255 minutes in groups of five at a time. During exposure, they performed...

  20. Swimming ability and physiological response to swimming fatigue in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-06

    Apr 6, 2009 ... can be widely used in improving capture efficiency, aquaculture ... capture and conservation as well as more efficient culture of the species. ..... Energetics of locomotion. J. Exp. Biol. 188: 257-274. Amornpiyakrit T, Arimoto T (2008). Muscle physiology in escape response of kuruma shrimp. Am. Fish. Soc.

  1. Physiological and behavioral responses of horses during police training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsters, C.C.B.M.; Visser, E.K.; Broek, van den J.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Mounted police horses have to cope with challenging, unpredictable situations when on duty and it is essential to gain insight into how these horses handle stress to warrant their welfare. The aim of the study was to evaluate physiological and behavioral responses of 12 (six experienced and six

  2. Physiological responses to swimming fatigue of juvenile white-leg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Swimming performance is one of the crucial factors determining the lifestyle and survival of Penaeid shrimps. This study examined under controlled laboratory conditions, the physiological responses to swimming fatigue of juvenile white-leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (8.85 ± 0.05 cm TL) exposed to different current ...

  3. productive and physiological adaptive responses of ethiopian naked

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    ISSN: 0379–2897. PRODUCTIVE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ADAPTIVE RESPONSES OF ETHIOPIAN. NAKED-NECK CHICKENS AND ... productivity of poultry in tropical and subtropi- cal countries is affected by a number of factors. ...... self-selection for feeding sexually maturing pullets at hot and cold temperatures. Br. Poult.

  4. Growth and physiological responses to water and nutrient stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-07

    Sep 7, 2011 ... The research was conducted to detect changes in growth, physiology and nutrient concentration in response to two watering regimes (well-watered and water-stress conditions) and to two nutrient regimes (with or without fertilization) of oil palm. Under stress conditions, changes in plant growth, dry.

  5. Physiological response of rabbit bucks to prolonged feeding of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty-four (64) weanling rabbit bucks, 5 to 6 weeks old, were involved in a 2 x 4 factorial experiment to evaluate the effects of prolonged feeding of cottonseed cake (CSC) – based diets with or without vitamin E supplementation on the physiological response of the bucks. There were eight treatment combinations comprising ...

  6. Physiological response of heat stressed broiler chickens to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of supplementing the drinking water of broilers reared under natural heat stress with ammonium chloride (NH4Cl), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), calcium chloride (CaCl2) and ascorbic acid (AA) on physiological response was investigated. A 200, one-day Arbor acre chicks were randomly allotted to five treatments in ...

  7. The Effect of Evolving Damage on the Finite Strain Response of Inelastic and Viscoelastic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Aboudi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A finite strain micromechanical model is generalized in order to incorporate the effect of evolving damage in the metallic and polymeric phases of unidirectional compostes. As a result, it is possible to predict the response of composites with ductile and brittle phases undergoing large coupled inelastic-damage and viscoelastic-damage deformations, respectively. For inelastic composites, both finite strain elastoplastic (time-independent and viscoplastic (time-dependent behaviors are considered. The ductile phase exhibits initially a hyperelastic behavior which is followed by an inelastic one, and its analysis is based on the multiplicative split of its deformation gradient into elastic and inelastic parts. The embedded damage mechanisms and their evolutions are based on Gurson’s (which is suitable for the modeling of porous materials and Lemaitre’s finite strain models. Similarly, the polymeric phase exhibits large viscoelastic deformations in which the damage evolves according to a suitable evolution law that depends on the amount of accumulated deformation. Evolving damage in hyperelastic materials can be analyzed as a special case by neglecting the viscous effects. The micromechanical analysis is based on the homogenization technique for periodic multiphase materials, which establishes the strong form of the Lagrangian equilibrium equations. These equations are implemented together with the interfacial and periodic boundary conditions, in conjunction with the current tangent tensor of the phase. As a result, the instantaneous strain concentration tensor that relates the local deformation gradient of the phase to the externally applied deformation gradient is established. This provides also the instantaneous effective stiffness tangent tensor of the composite as well as its current response. Results are given that exhibit the effect of damage on the initial yield surfaces, response and possible failure of the composite.

  8. Energy expenditure and physiological responses during indoor rock climbing.

    OpenAIRE

    Mermier, C M; Robergs, R A; McMinn, S M; Heyward, V H

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To report the physiological responses of indoor rock climbing. METHODS: Fourteen experienced climbers (nine men, five women) performed three climbing trials on an indoor climbing wall. Subjects performed three trials of increasing difficulty: (a) an easy 90 degrees vertical wall, (b) a moderately difficult negatively angled wall (106 degrees), and (c) a difficult horizontal overhang (151 degrees). At least 15 minutes separated each trial. Expired air was collected in a Douglas bag...

  9. Evaluating physiological responses of plants to salinity stress

    OpenAIRE

    Negr?o, S.; Schm?ckel, S. M.; Tester, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Because soil salinity is a major abiotic constraint affecting crop yield, much research has been conducted to develop plants with improved salinity tolerance. Salinity stress impacts many aspects of a plant?s physiology, making it difficult to study in toto. Instead, it is more tractable to dissect the plant?s response into traits that are hypothesized to be involved in the overall tolerance of the plant to salinity. Scope and conclusions We discuss how to quantify the impact of sa...

  10. Similar odorants elicit different behavioral and physiological responses, some supersustained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Shelby A; Mathew, Dennis; Carlson, John R

    2011-05-25

    An intriguing question in the field of olfaction is how animals distinguish among structurally similar odorants. We systematically analyzed olfactory responses elicited by a panel of 25 pyrazines. We found that structurally similar pyrazines elicit a wide range of behavioral responses from Drosophila larvae. Each pyrazine was tested against all functional receptors of the larval Odor receptor (Or) repertoire, yielding 525 odorant-receptor combinations. Different pyrazines vary markedly in the responses they elicit from the Or repertoire, with most strong responses deriving from two receptors, Or33b and Or59a. Surprisingly, 2-ethylpyrazine and 2-methylpyrazine, which elicit strikingly similar physiological responses across the receptor repertoire, elicit dramatically different behavioral responses. A small fraction of odorant-receptor combinations elicit remarkably long responses. These responses, which we term "supersustained" responses, are receptor specific and odorant specific, and can last for minutes. Such supersustained responses may prevent olfactory neurons from reporting contemporaneous information about the local odor environment. Odors that elicit such responses could provide a novel means of controlling insect pests and vectors of human disease by impairing the location of human hosts, food sources, and mates.

  11. Psychological and physiological responses following repeated peer death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Pizarro Andersen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Undergraduates at a university in the United States were exposed - directly and indirectly - to 14 peer deaths during one academic year. We examined how individual and social factors were associated with psychological (e.g., anxiety, depression, somatization and physiological (i.e., cortisol distress responses following this unexpected and repeated experience with loss. METHOD: Two to three months after the final peer death, respondents (N = 122, 61% female, 18-23 years, M = 20.13, SD = 1.14 reported prior adverse experiences, degree of closeness with the deceased, acute responses to the peer deaths, ongoing distress responses, social support, support seeking, and media viewing. A subset (n = 24 returned hair samples for evaluation of cortisol responses during the previous 3 months. RESULTS: Ongoing psychological distress was associated with a prior interpersonal trauma, b fewer social supports, and c media exposure to news of the deaths (p's25 p/mg compared to individuals with one or two prior bereavement experiences (who were, on average, within the normal range, 10 to 25 p/mg (p<.05. Only 8% of the sample utilized available university psychological or physical health resources and support groups. CONCLUSIONS: Limited research has examined the psychological and physiological impact of exposure to chronic, repeated peer loss, despite the fact that there are groups of individuals (e.g., police, military soldiers that routinely face such exposures. Prior adversity appears to play a role in shaping psychological and physiological responses to repeated loss. This topic warrants further research given the health implications of repeated loss for individuals in high-risk occupations and university settings.

  12. How do cuticular hydrocarbons evolve? Physiological constraints and climatic and biotic selection pressures act on a complex functional trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Florian; Blaimer, Bonnie B; Schmitt, Thomas

    2017-03-15

    Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) cover the cuticles of virtually all insects, serving as a waterproofing agent and as a communication signal. The causes for the high CHC variation between species, and the factors influencing CHC profiles, are scarcely understood. Here, we compare CHC profiles of ant species from seven biogeographic regions, searching for physiological constraints and for climatic and biotic selection pressures. Molecule length constrained CHC composition: long-chain profiles contained fewer linear alkanes, but more hydrocarbons with disruptive features in the molecule. This is probably owing to selection on the physiology to build a semi-fluid cuticular layer, which is necessary for waterproofing and communication. CHC composition also depended on the precipitation in the ants' habitats. Species from wet climates had more alkenes and fewer dimethyl alkanes than those from drier habitats, which can be explained by different waterproofing capacities of these compounds. By contrast, temperature did not affect CHC composition. Mutualistically associated (parabiotic) species possessed profiles highly distinct from non-associated species. Our study is, to our knowledge, the first to show systematic impacts of physiological, climatic and biotic factors on quantitative CHC composition across a global, multi-species dataset. We demonstrate how they jointly shape CHC profiles, and advance our understanding of the evolution of this complex functional trait in insects. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Molecular signatures of the evolving immune response in mice following a Bordetella pertussis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeven, René H M; Brummelman, Jolanda; Pennings, Jeroen L A; Nijst, Olaf E M; Kuipers, Betsy; Blok, Laura E R; Helm, Kina; van Riet, Elly; Jiskoot, Wim; van Els, Cecile A C M; Han, Wanda G H; Kersten, Gideon F A; Metz, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide resurgence of pertussis necessitates the need for improvement of pertussis vaccines and vaccination strategies. Since natural infections induce a longer-lasting immunity than vaccinations, detailed knowledge of the immune responses following natural infection can provide important clues for such improvement. The purpose was to elucidate the kinetics of the protective immune response evolving after experimental Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis) infection in mice. Data were collected from (i) individual analyses, i.e. microarray, flow cytometry, multiplex immunoassays, and bacterial clearance; (ii) twelve time points during the infection; and (iii) different tissues involved in the immune responses, i.e. lungs, spleen and blood. Combined data revealed detailed insight in molecular and cellular sequence of events connecting different phases (innate, bridging and adaptive) of the immune response following the infection. We detected a prolonged acute phase response, broad pathogen recognition, and early gene signatures of subsequent T-cell recruitment in the lungs. Activation of particular transcription factors and specific cell markers provided insight into the time course of the transition from innate towards adaptive immune responses, which resulted in a broad spectrum of systemic antibody subclasses and splenic Th1/Th17 memory cells against B. pertussis. In addition, signatures preceding the local generation of Th1 and Th17 cells as well as IgA in the lungs, considered key elements in protection against B. pertussis, were established. In conclusion, molecular and cellular immunological processes in response to live B. pertussis infection were unraveled, which may provide guidance in selecting new vaccine candidates that should evoke local and prolonged protective immune responses.

  14. Molecular signatures of the evolving immune response in mice following a Bordetella pertussis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René H M Raeven

    Full Text Available Worldwide resurgence of pertussis necessitates the need for improvement of pertussis vaccines and vaccination strategies. Since natural infections induce a longer-lasting immunity than vaccinations, detailed knowledge of the immune responses following natural infection can provide important clues for such improvement. The purpose was to elucidate the kinetics of the protective immune response evolving after experimental Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis infection in mice. Data were collected from (i individual analyses, i.e. microarray, flow cytometry, multiplex immunoassays, and bacterial clearance; (ii twelve time points during the infection; and (iii different tissues involved in the immune responses, i.e. lungs, spleen and blood. Combined data revealed detailed insight in molecular and cellular sequence of events connecting different phases (innate, bridging and adaptive of the immune response following the infection. We detected a prolonged acute phase response, broad pathogen recognition, and early gene signatures of subsequent T-cell recruitment in the lungs. Activation of particular transcription factors and specific cell markers provided insight into the time course of the transition from innate towards adaptive immune responses, which resulted in a broad spectrum of systemic antibody subclasses and splenic Th1/Th17 memory cells against B. pertussis. In addition, signatures preceding the local generation of Th1 and Th17 cells as well as IgA in the lungs, considered key elements in protection against B. pertussis, were established. In conclusion, molecular and cellular immunological processes in response to live B. pertussis infection were unraveled, which may provide guidance in selecting new vaccine candidates that should evoke local and prolonged protective immune responses.

  15. How germinal centers evolve broadly neutralizing antibodies: the breadth of the follicular helper T cell response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boer, Rob J; Perelson, Alan S

    2017-09-06

    Many HIV-1 infected patients evolve broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). This evolutionary process typically takes several years, and is poorly understood as selection taking place in germinal centers occurs on the basis of antibody affinity. B cells with the highest affinity receptors tend to acquire the most antigen from the FDC network, and present the highest density of cognate peptides to follicular helper T cells (Tfh), which provide survival signals to the B cell. BnAbs are therefore only expected to evolve when the B cell lineage evolving breadth is consistently capturing and presenting more peptides to Tfh cells than other lineages of more specific B cells. Here we develop mathematical models of Tfh in germinal centers to explicitly define the mechanisms of selection in this complex evolutionary process.Our results suggest that broadly reactive B cells presenting a high density of pMHC are readily outcompeted by B cells responding to lineages of HIV-1 that transiently dominate the within host viral population. Conversely, if broadly reactive B cells acquire a large variety of several HIV-1 proteins from the FDC network and present a high diversity of several pMHC, they be rescued by a large fraction of the Tfh repertoire in the germinal center. Under such circumstances the evolution of bnAbs is much more consistent. Increasing the magnitude of the Tfh response, or the breadth of the Tfh repertoire, both markedly facilitate the evolution of bnAbs. Because both can be increased by vaccination with several HIV-1 proteins, this calls for experiments testing.Importance Many HIV-infected patients slowly evolve antibodies that can neutralize a large variety of viruses. Such "broadly neutralizing antibodies" (bnAbs) could in the future become therapeutic agents. BnAbs appear very late and patients are typically not protected by them. At the moment we fail to understand why this takes so long, and how the immune system selects for broadly neutralizing capacity

  16. Physiologic Systems and Their Responses to Conditions of Heat and Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    the effects of both heat stress and cold stress on physiologic responses and exercise capabilities. Human thermoregulation during exercise is...code) 2012 Book Chapter-ACSM’s Advanced Exercise Physiology Physiologic Systems and Their Responses to Conditions of Heat and Cold M.N. Sawka, J.W...although the effects of exercise training on physiologic responses during thermal (heat or cold ) stress are discussed. physiologic systems, heat

  17. Perceptual and physiological responses to Jackson Pollock’s fractals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard eTaylor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Fractals have been very successful in quantifying the visual complexity exhibited by many natural patterns, and have captured the imagination of scientists and artists alike. Our research has shown that the poured patterns of the American abstract painter Jackson Pollock are also fractal. This discovery raises an intriguing possibility – are the visual characteristics of fractals responsible for the long-term appeal of Pollock’s work? To address this question, we have conducted ten years of scientific investigation of human response to fractals and here we present, for the first time, a review of this research that examines the inter-relationship between the various results. The investigations include eye-tracking, visual preference, skin conductance, and EEG measurement techniques. We discuss the artistic implications of the positive perceptual and physiological responses to fractal patterns.

  18. Problematic drinking and physiological responses among female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemm, Stephanie; Fanean, Amanda; Baker, Alicia; Blough, Eric R; Mewaldt, Steven; Bardi, Massimo

    2013-03-01

    Problematic drinking is a widespread problem among college students, and can contribute to alcohol dependence during later adulthood, particularly among females. The current study assessed vulnerability for alcohol-related consequences by comparing self-reported drinking with coping styles and physiological and behavioral stress responses during a challenging task. Cardiovascular measurements and saliva samples were taken from 88 female students at the beginning of the experiment and after the task. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity was measured by assessing cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) salivary levels. The behavioral task consisted of a set of three anagrams of increasing difficulty, the last of which had no possible solution, to test the distress tolerance of the participants. Results showed that the majority of participants (70%) reported drinking in the six months prior to data collection, most of whom reported at least one incident of binge drinking. Excessive alcohol use was related to an impaired physiological response to stress during the impossible task. College students who drank to cope with stress had significantly higher basal levels of cortisol and DHEA, an indication of HPA axis over-regulation, while their stress response remained remarkably flat. Self-reported consequences of drinking were related to motives for drinking and lower DHEA levels. Regression analysis indicated that higher cortisol levels mediated the relationship between motives for drinking and problematic drinking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of paroxetine on physiological response to stress and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlyar, Michael; al'Absi, Mustafa; Thuras, Paul; Vuchetich, John P; Adson, David E; Nowack, April L; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2013-04-01

    Smokers often smoke during stressful events, which leads to large increases in cardiovascular measures such as blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). Because exaggerated cardiovascular response to stress is associated with cardiovascular disease risk, this study examined paroxetine's effect on the physiological response to combining stress and smoking. Sixty-two participants completed this randomized, double-blind, crossover study in which BP, HR, plasma epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol concentrations were measured at rest, while smoking, and during a speech and math task. Laboratory sessions occurred after 1 month of paroxetine and after 1 month of placebo. Significant increases occurred for all measures (except cortisol) during smoking, with further increases occurring during the speech task (time effect, p paroxetine, norepinephrine and HR values were lower and cortisol values were higher (versus placebo) throughout the laboratory session (treatment effect, p paroxetine compared with placebo (both, p paroxetine (versus placebo). This study suggests that paroxetine affects physiological response to stress in smokers. Further research is needed to determine the impact of these results on cardiovascular health. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00218439.

  20. Physiological Response of Siderastrea siderea to Thermal Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno-Laureano, Y.; Mercado-Molina, A. E.; Fonseca, J. S.

    2016-02-01

    Warming of the ocean water is one of the major causes of coral bleaching, a phenomenon that disrupt the obligate endosymbiotic relationships that corals has with dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. Because it is predicted that sea surface temperature are going to increase 1-3°C in the next 10 years, it is important to understand how coral species will respond to such changes. It is known that the coral Siderastrea siderea is a scleractinian coral common to the Caribbean reefs that has shown to be very resistant to environmental stressors such as sedimentation and water contamination. However, little is known about its capacity to overcome high temperatures. But several studies suggest that Siderastrea siderea can recover faster than other corals from thermal-stress. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the physiology S. siderea varies with respect to an increase in water temperature. We conducted a controlled laboratory experiments where the coral were exposed to typical (27.5°C) and elevated temperatures (31.5°C). We quantified the densities of the endosymbiotic Symbiodinium spp. as well as physiological parameters such as protein and chlorophyll concentration to determine whether they change in response to an increase in temperature. Results show no significant differences or a direct relation between the thermal stress and the physiological mechanisms studied. Which would suggest that S. siderea indeed has the mechanisms to cope to high temperature scenarios.

  1. Physiological imaging of electrical trauma and therapeutic responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Tu; Matthews, K.; Aarsvold, John N.; Mintzer, Robert A.; Yasillo, Nicholas J.; Hannig, Jurgen; Capelli-Schellpfefer, M.; Cooper, Malcolm; Lee, Raphael C.

    2000-04-01

    In victims of electrical trauma, electroporation of cell membrane, in which lipid bilayer is permeabilized by thermal and electrical forces, is thought to be a substantial cause of tissue damage. It has been suggested that certain mild surfactant in low concentration could induce sealing of permeabilized lipid bilayers, thus repairing cell membranes that had not been extensively damaged. With an animal model of electrically injured hind limb of rats, we have demonstrated and validated the use of radiotracer imaging technique to assess the physiology of the damaged tissues after electrical shock and of their repairs after applying surfactant as a therapeutic strategy. For example, using Tc-99m labeled pyrophosphate (PYP), which follows calcium in cellular function and is known to accumulate in damaged tissues, we have established a physiological imaging approach for assessment of the extent of tissue injury for diagnosis and surgical planning, as well as for evaluation of responses to therapy. With the use of a small, hand-held, miniature gamma camera, this physiological imaging method can be employed at patient's bedside and even in the field, for example, at accident site or during transfer for emergency care, rapid diagnosis, and prompt treatment in order to maximize the chance for tissue survival.

  2. Physiological and psychological responses to a university fitness session.

    OpenAIRE

    S. Grant; Armstrong, G; Sutherland, R.; Wilson, J.; Aitchison, T.; Paul, E.; S. Henderson

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the physiological and psychological responses to a university fitness session entitled 'popmobility'. A popmobility session consists of 20 min of aerobic activities, 5 min of local muscular endurance exercises and 5 min of flexibility exercises. Ten regular participants of these sessions, women of mean(s.d.) age 21.2(1.5) years, took part in the study. A maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) treadmill test was performed by each subject to obtain VO2max and ma...

  3. The evolving landscape of Title IX: Predicting mandatory reporters' responses to sexual assault disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Kathryn J; Cortina, Lilia M

    2017-10-01

    Approximately 1 in 4 women is sexually assaulted in college, a problem that federal law has attempted to address with recent changes. Under the evolving landscape of Title IX, and related law, universities nationwide have overhauled their sexual assault policies, procedures, and resources. Many of the new policies designate undergraduate resident assistants (RAs) as Responsible Employees-requiring them to provide assistance and report to the university if a fellow student discloses sexual assault. We investigated factors that predict the likelihood of RAs enacting their policy mandate, that is, reporting sexual assault disclosures to university authorities and referring survivors to sexual assault resources. Based on data from 305 Responsible Employee RAs, we found that likelihood to report and refer varied, depending on RAs' knowledge of reporting procedures and resources, trust in these supports, and perceptions of mandatory reporting policy. Understanding mandatory reporter behavior is crucial, because help-providers' responses can have serious implications for the recovery of sexual assault survivors. Our findings elucidate some effects of changes in the interpretation and implementation of Title IX, with potential to inform the development of more theoretically and empirically informed policies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Underlying recent developments in health care and new treatments for disease are advances in basic medical sciences. This edition of "Webwatch" focuses on sites dealing with basic medical sciences, with particular attention given to physiology. There is a vast amount of information on the web related to physiology. The sites that are included here…

  5. Restorative proctocolectomy: an example of how surgery evolves in response to paradigm shifts in care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remzi, F H; Lavryk, O A; Ashburn, J H; Hull, T L; Lavery, I C; Dietz, D W; Kessler, H; Church, J M

    2017-11-01

    Surgical technique constantly evolves in response to the pressure of progress. Ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) is a good example. We analysed the effect of changes in practice on the technique of IPAA and its outcomes. Patients undergoing primary IPAA at this institution were divided into three groups by date of the IPAA: those operated from 1983 to 1993, from 1994 to 2004 and from 2005 to 2015. Demographics, patient comorbidity, surgical techniques, postoperative outcomes, pouch function and quality of life were analysed. In all, 4525 patients had a primary IPAA. With each decade, increasing numbers of surgeons were involved (decade I, 8; II, 16; III, 31), patients tended to be sicker (higher American Society of Anesthesiologists score) and three-staged pouches became more common. After an initial popularity of the S pouch, J pouches became dominant and a mucosectomy rate of 12% was standard. The laparoscopic technique blossomed in the last decade. 90-day postoperative morbidity by decade was 38.3% vs 50% vs 48% (P < 0.0001), but late morbidity decreased from 74.2% through 67.1% to 30% (P < 0.0001). Functional results improved, but quality of life scores did not. Pouch survival rate at 10 years was maintained (94% vs 95.2% vs 95.2%; P = 0.06). IPAA is still evolving. Despite new generations of surgeons, a more accurate diagnosis, appropriate staging and the laparoscopic technique have made IPAA a safer, more effective and enduring operation. Colorectal Disease © 2017 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  6. Physiological responses of genotypes soybean to simulated drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonóra Krivosudská

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to investigate possible genetic variation in the sensitivity of soybean cultivars for nitrogen fixation rates in response to soil drying. The work confirmed that the selected physiological characteristics (RWC, osmotic potential, stress index and created nodules on roots are good evaluating parameters for the determination of water stress in plant. In the floricultural year 2014 an experiment with four genetic resources of soybean was launched. Sowing of Maverick (USA, Drina (HRV, Nigra (SVK and Polanka (CZK genotypes was carried out in the containers of 15 l capacity. This stress had a negative impact on the physiological parameters. By comparing the RWC values, the decrease was more significant at the end of dehydration, which was monitored in Maverick and Drina genotypes using the Nitrazon inoculants and water stress effect. Inoculated stressed Nigra and Polanka genotypes have kept higher water content till the end of dehydration period. Also the proline accumulation was monitored during the water stress, whilst higher content of free proline reached of Maverick. More remarkable decrease of osmotic potential was again registered in a foreign Drina and Maverick genotypes in the inoculated variations. Nigra and Polanka genotypes responses not so significant in the given conditions.

  7. Physiological Response of Orchids to Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmiec, K; Kot, I; Golan, K; Górska-Drabik, E; Lagowska, B; Rubinowska, K; Michalek, W

    2016-12-01

    The harmfulness of mealybugs resulting from sucking plant sap, secreting honeydew, and transmitting plant viruses can give them the status of serious pests. This study documents the influence of Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) and Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti) infestation on alterations in selected physiological parameters of Phalaenopsis x hybridum 'Innocence'. The condition of the cytoplasmic membranes was expressed as the value of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. We have determined changes in the activities of catalase and guaiacol peroxidase and measured the following chlorophyll fluorescence parameters: maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), effective quantum yield (Y), photochemical quenching (qP), and nonphotochemical quenching (qN). The strongest physiological response of orchids was recorded in the initial period of mealybugs infestation. Prolonged insect feeding suppressed lipid peroxidation, peroxidase and catalase activity, as well as photosynthesis photochemistry. The pattern of changes was dependent on mealybug species. This indicated the complexity of the processes responsible for plant tolerance. Data generated in this study have provided a better understanding of the impact of two mealybug species infestation on Phalaenopsis and should be useful in developing pest management strategies. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Evaluating physiological responses of plants to salinity stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrão, S.; Schmöckel, S. M.; Tester, M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Because soil salinity is a major abiotic constraint affecting crop yield, much research has been conducted to develop plants with improved salinity tolerance. Salinity stress impacts many aspects of a plant’s physiology, making it difficult to study in toto. Instead, it is more tractable to dissect the plant’s response into traits that are hypothesized to be involved in the overall tolerance of the plant to salinity. Scope and conclusions We discuss how to quantify the impact of salinity on different traits, such as relative growth rate, water relations, transpiration, transpiration use efficiency, ionic relations, photosynthesis, senescence, yield and yield components. We also suggest some guidelines to assist with the selection of appropriate experimental systems, imposition of salinity stress, and obtaining and analysing relevant physiological data using appropriate indices. We illustrate how these indices can be used to identify relationships amongst the proposed traits to identify which traits are the most important contributors to salinity tolerance. Salinity tolerance is complex and involves many genes, but progress has been made in studying the mechanisms underlying a plant’s response to salinity. Nevertheless, several previous studies on salinity tolerance could have benefited from improved experimental design. We hope that this paper will provide pertinent information to researchers on performing proficient assays and interpreting results from salinity tolerance experiments. PMID:27707746

  9. Influence of Ergometer Design on Physiological Responses during Rowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, J; Piponnier, E; Vincent, L; Samozino, P; Messonnier, L

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the physiological responses and rowing efficiency on 2 different rowing ergometers: stationary vs. dynamic ergometers manufactured by Concept2. 11 oarswomen and oarsmen rowed 4 min at 60% and 70% of peak power output on both ergometers (randomized order). Power output, stroke rate, heart rate, oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production, lactate accumulation and rating of perceived exertion were recorded at each stage on the 2 ergometers. Gross and net efficiencies were computed. Exercise intensity was associated with increases in all parameters. Rowing on dynamic ergometer was associated with higher heart rate, oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production and stroke rate, concomitantly to lower blood lactate accumulation but also to lower gross and net efficiencies. The present study showed that rowing efficiency and blood lactate accumulation were lower on the Concept2 dynamic ergometer than on its stationary counterpart. If the use of the Concept2 dynamic ergometer may provide some advantages (reduced risk of injuries), its utilization requires a specific evaluation of physiological responses during an incremental exercise for an adapted management of training. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Evaluating physiological responses of plants to salinity stress

    KAUST Repository

    Negrão, Sónia

    2016-10-06

    Background Because soil salinity is a major abiotic constraint affecting crop yield, much research has been conducted to develop plants with improved salinity tolerance. Salinity stress impacts many aspects of a plant’s physiology, making it difficult to study in toto. Instead, it is more tractable to dissect the plant’s response into traits that are hypothesized to be involved in the overall tolerance of the plant to salinity. Scope and conclusions We discuss how to quantify the impact of salinity on different traits, such as relative growth rate, water relations, transpiration, transpiration use efficiency, ionic relations, photosynthesis, senescence, yield and yield components. We also suggest some guidelines to assist with the selection of appropriate experimental systems, imposition of salinity stress, and obtaining and analysing relevant physiological data using appropriate indices. We illustrate how these indices can be used to identify relationships amongst the proposed traits to identify which traits are the most important contributors to salinity tolerance. Salinity tolerance is complex and involves many genes, but progress has been made in studying the mechanisms underlying a plant’s response to salinity. Nevertheless, several previous studies on salinity tolerance could have benefited from improved experimental design. We hope that this paper will provide pertinent information to researchers on performing proficient assays and interpreting results from salinity tolerance experiments.

  11. Evaluating physiological responses of plants to salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrão, S; Schmöckel, S M; Tester, M

    2017-01-01

    Because soil salinity is a major abiotic constraint affecting crop yield, much research has been conducted to develop plants with improved salinity tolerance. Salinity stress impacts many aspects of a plant's physiology, making it difficult to study in toto Instead, it is more tractable to dissect the plant's response into traits that are hypothesized to be involved in the overall tolerance of the plant to salinity. We discuss how to quantify the impact of salinity on different traits, such as relative growth rate, water relations, transpiration, transpiration use efficiency, ionic relations, photosynthesis, senescence, yield and yield components. We also suggest some guidelines to assist with the selection of appropriate experimental systems, imposition of salinity stress, and obtaining and analysing relevant physiological data using appropriate indices. We illustrate how these indices can be used to identify relationships amongst the proposed traits to identify which traits are the most important contributors to salinity tolerance. Salinity tolerance is complex and involves many genes, but progress has been made in studying the mechanisms underlying a plant's response to salinity. Nevertheless, several previous studies on salinity tolerance could have benefited from improved experimental design. We hope that this paper will provide pertinent information to researchers on performing proficient assays and interpreting results from salinity tolerance experiments. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  12. Modeling physiological responses of soil microbes to drought (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, S.; Katul, G. G.; Porporato, A. M.; Schaeffer, S. M.; Schimel, J.

    2013-12-01

    Biogeochemical models predict soil carbon (C) under varying environmental conditions, aiming to disentangle the effects of predicted changes in temperature and moisture regimes on C storage. While much work focuses on temperature sensitivity of decomposition, relatively less is known about decomposer responses to changes in soil moisture. Heterotrophic respiration is known to decline as soils become drier, but the underlying physiological mechanisms are not clear and rarely accounted for in models. In particular, we ask: what are the effects of different drought response strategies on C storage potential and the shape of the respiration-moisture relation? We have developed a process-based model to address these questions, including the main physiological responses thought to play a role under varying moisture conditions: i) dormancy, ii) patterns of extra-cellular enzyme production, and iii) osmoregulation. We show that these different drought response strategies play a major role in the long-term partitioning of soil C among stable and labile pools. In very dry conditions, microbes shifting to dormant state tend to favor long-term (steady state) accumulation of stable C at the expenses of microbial biomass, while increasing investment in enzymes leads to accumulation of dissolved organic C, which in turn may partly overcome the diffusion limitations imposed by dry soils. In contrast, entering a dormant state early during a dry down allows microbes to save C by respiring less (due to lowered active biomass), avoid C starvation when substrate diffusion breaks down, and use available C for growth and maintenance rather than osmoregulation. Hence, this strategy explains why little osmolytes are found in microbial biomass subjected to experimental drought. We conclude by highlighting how our results can be implemented in Earth System Models without excessively increasing their complexity.

  13. Proteomic and physiological responses of Kineococcus radiotolerans to copper.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher E Bagwell

    Full Text Available Copper is a highly reactive, toxic metal; consequently, transport of this metal within the cell is tightly regulated. Intriguingly, the actinobacterium Kineococcus radiotolerans has been shown to not only accumulate soluble copper to high levels within the cytoplasm, but the phenotype also correlated with enhanced cell growth during chronic exposure to ionizing radiation. This study offers a first glimpse into the physiological and proteomic responses of K. radiotolerans to copper at increasing concentration and distinct growth phases. Aerobic growth rates and biomass yields were similar over a range of Cu(II concentrations (0-1.5 mM in complex medium. Copper uptake coincided with active cell growth and intracellular accumulation was positively correlated with Cu(II concentration in the growth medium (R(2=0.7. Approximately 40% of protein coding ORFs on the K. radiotolerans genome were differentially expressed in response to the copper treatments imposed. Copper accumulation coincided with increased abundance of proteins involved in oxidative stress and defense, DNA stabilization and repair, and protein turnover. Interestingly, the specific activity of superoxide dismutase was repressed by low to moderate concentrations of copper during exponential growth, and activity was unresponsive to perturbation with paraquot. The biochemical response pathways invoked by sub-lethal copper concentrations are exceptionally complex; though integral cellular functions are preserved, in part, through the coordination of defense enzymes, chaperones, antioxidants and protective osmolytes that likely help maintain cellular redox. This study extends our understanding of the ecology and physiology of this unique actinobacterium that could potentially inspire new biotechnologies in metal recovery and sequestration, and environmental restoration.

  14. Multiple physiological responses to multiple environmental challenges: an individual approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calosi, P; Turner, L M; Hawkins, M; Bertolini, C; Nightingale, G; Truebano, M; Spicer, J I

    2013-10-01

    individual differences as biologically meaningful can lead to a better understanding of the physiological responses themselves and the selective processes that will occur with complex climatic changes; selection will likely play a crucial role in defining species' responses to future environmental changes. Individuals with higher metabolic rates were also characterized by greater extracellular osmo/iono-regulative abilities and higher UTTs, and thus there appeared to be no evolutionary trade-offs between these functions. However, as individuals with greater metabolic rates also have greater costs for maintenance and repair, and likely a lower fraction of energy available for growth and reproduction, trade-offs between life-history and physiological performance may still arise.

  15. Physiological and perceptual responses to Latin partnered social dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domene, Pablo A; Moir, Hannah J; Pummell, Elizabeth; Easton, Chris

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological and perceptual responses to Latin partnered social dance to salsa music when performed as a self-selected activity within an ecologically valid setting. Eighteen non-professional adult Latin dancers undertook a laboratory-based graded exercise test for determination of maximal oxygen uptake and maximal heart rate. The dancers then attended two Latin partnered social dance sessions in established salsa venues in London, UK over a 2 wk period. Physiological data were collected using a wrist-worn ActiGraph wGT3X+ accelerometer with accompanying heart rate monitor. Perceived benefits of dance were assessed via the Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale, and measurement of state intrinsic motivation during dance was undertaken using the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory. Total step count during 2h of dance was not different (t16 = -.39, p = .71) between females and males (9643 ± 1735 step); however, women expended a significantly lower (t16 = -2.57, p dance was psychological outlook. Latin partnered social dance to salsa music demands moderate to vigorous physical activity intensity levels, and further, fosters interest, enjoyment, and a positive psychological outlook among novice to advanced adult Latin dancers taking part primarily for leisure purposes. These findings may be of use for those interested in the efficacy of Latin social dancing as an expressive medium for the promotion of community health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular and physiological responses of trees to waterlogging stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzwieser, Jürgen; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2014-10-01

    One major effect of global climate change will be altered precipitation patterns in many regions of the world. This will cause a higher probability of long-term waterlogging in winter/spring and flash floods in summer because of extreme rainfall events. Particularly, trees not adapted at their natural site to such waterlogging stress can be impaired. Despite the enormous economic, ecological and social importance of forest ecosystems, the effect of waterlogging on trees is far less understood than the effect on many crops or the model plant Arabidopsis. There is only a handful of studies available investigating the transcriptome and metabolome of waterlogged trees. Main physiological responses of trees to waterlogging include the stimulation of fermentative pathways and an accelerated glycolytic flux. Many energy-consuming, anabolic processes are slowed down to overcome the energy crisis mediated by waterlogging. A crucial feature of waterlogging tolerance is the steady supply of glycolysis with carbohydrates, particularly in the roots; stress-sensitive trees fail to maintain sufficient carbohydrate availability resulting in the dieback of the stressed tissues. The present review summarizes physiological and molecular features of waterlogging tolerance of trees; the focus is on carbon metabolism in both, leaves and roots of trees. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Physiological responses to exposure to carbon dioxide and human bioeffluents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Wargocki, Pawel; Lian, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    Present paper describes physiological responses as a result of exposures to CO2 (between 500 ppm to 3,000 ppm) with and without bioeffluents. Twenty-five subjects participated. They were exposed in the climate chamber for 255 minutes in groups of five at a time. During exposure, they performed...... different cognitive tasks and assessed their comfort and acute health symptoms. Besides, the following were determined: heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation of blood, respiration rate, minute ventilation rate, nasal peak flow, forced expiratory volume, and the end-tidal CO2 pressure (ETCO2). Saliva...... samples were collected to analyze stress biomarkers. During exposure to CO2 with and without bioeffluents at 3,000 ppm, ETCO2 and minute ventilation rate were higher, while nasal peak flow decreased. These exposures caused also the increased heart rate during typing sessions. During exposures to CO2...

  18. THE PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF SOYBEAN CULTIVARS TO ABIOTIC STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Špoljarević

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drought, temperature and salt stress are the most prominent among different types of abiotic stress in soybean production. This PhD dissertation aimed to investigate the physiological mechanisms of soybean response to the above mentioned stresses. The research was performed with 6 cultivars in the germination - emergence stage and two cultivars in the flowering stage. In the first experiment, soybean seed was germinated in paper towels soaked in water or the solution with given osmotic pressure. Two levels of drought (5% and 10% PEG solutions, salt (50 and 100 mM NaCl solutions and temperature stress (10°C and 30°C, as well as a control treatment (20°C, water were applied through a 7 day germination period. Seed germinability (% and morphological traits were analysed, as well as enzymatic and non-enzymatic parameters in hypocotyls. The most effective were higher level of drought stress and low temperature. High temperature stimulated seedling development and mild drought stress had a priming effect and increased germination rate. In the second experiment, two cultivars were grown in pots filled with soil and kept in the open until flowering, and afterwards exposed to different temperature degrees (30°C, 10°C and 20°C as control during 3 days in a climate chamber. The photosynthesis efficiency parameters and, like in first experiment, physiological indicators of plant stress response were determined in the leaf tissue. Highly significant treatment influence on the analysed parameters in the both growth stages, confirms that the applied treatments invoked the oxidative stress and defence reactions in soybean.

  19. Psycho-physiological responses to expressive piano performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Hidehiro; Furuya, Shinichi; Francis, Peter R; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2010-03-01

    The present study examined selected autonomic and cardio-respiratory responses of nine elite pianists during solo performances of the same single musical piece. The subjects performed the piece with and without self-perceived emotional expression, and with and without free ancillary body movements during expressive performance. Autonomic nervous system and cardio-respiratory parameters were continuously monitored during all experimental conditions. These parameters were heart rate (HR), sweating rate, the root mean square of successive difference (RMSSD) of heart rate variability and respiratory measurements such as oxygen consumption (VO(2)), minute ventilation, tidal volume and respiratory rate. Kinematics of the trunk and arms were recorded during all conditions. The subjects also provided subjective rating of the emotions that they experienced during their performances for each experimental condition. Analysis revealed that expressive performance clearly produced higher levels of valence and arousal than the non-expressive condition. This observation is consistent with current embodiment theory. The expressive condition also had significantly higher levels of HR, sweating rate, minute ventilation, and tidal volume, and lower levels of RMSSD and respiratory rate than the non-expressive condition. No difference was found for VO(2) between these conditions. The expressive condition with ancillary body movements did not significantly differentiate any of the physiological measures except for respiratory rate from those observed without such body movements. These findings suggested that expressive musical performance could modulate the emotion-related autonomic and cardio-respiratory responses that are independent of the effect of physiological load due to expressive ancillary body movements in playing the selected music on the piano. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Difference of physiological responses to swimming and running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, H; Tanaka, H; Minato, K

    1992-05-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the range of response to the treadmill running and swimming. Cardiovascular changes and substrates changes in blood were examined before and after healthy male subjects (swimming group (SG) has swimming habits and running group (RG) has practiced basketball or baseball or running more than four days a week) swam and ran for 10 to 15 minutes voluntarily. Average heart rate was recovered more quickly in case of running than swimming in the RG, but in the SG there was no difference. Diastolic blood pressure recovered to the rest condition faster in the SG than RG. In case that subjects have done familiar exercise, free fatty acids increased a little more after 10 minutes than in case of unfamiliar exercise. These results suggest that response of habitual exercise showed lesser change of diastolic blood pressure and more increase of free fatty acids. There might be a difference in physiological responses between usual sports and other kinds, so that we had to be careful when we apply different styles of activity to use training.

  1. Human physiological benefits of viewing nature: EEG responses to exact and statistical fractal patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerhall, C M; Laike, T; Küller, M; Marcheschi, E; Boydston, C; Taylor, R P

    2015-01-01

    Psychological and physiological benefits of viewing nature have been extensively studied for some time. More recently it has been suggested that some of these positive effects can be explained by nature's fractal properties. Virtually all studies on human responses to fractals have used stimuli that represent the specific form of fractal geometry found in nature, i.e. statistical fractals, as opposed to fractal patterns which repeat exactly at different scales. This raises the question of whether human responses like preference and relaxation are being driven by fractal geometry in general or by the specific form of fractal geometry found in nature. In this study we consider both types of fractals (statistical and exact) and morph one type into the other. Based on the Koch curve, nine visual stimuli were produced in which curves of three different fractal dimensions evolve gradually from an exact to a statistical fractal. The patterns were shown for one minute each to thirty-five subjects while qEEG was continuously recorded. The results showed that the responses to statistical and exact fractals differ, and that the natural form of the fractal is important for inducing alpha responses, an indicator of a wakefully relaxed state and internalized attention.

  2. Do host species evolve a specific response to slave-making ants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delattre Olivier

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social parasitism is an important selective pressure for social insect species. It is particularly the case for the hosts of dulotic (so called slave-making ants, which pillage the brood of host colonies to increase the worker force of their own colony. Such raids can have an important impact on the fitness of the host nest. An arms race which can lead to geographic variation in host defenses is thus expected between hosts and parasites. In this study we tested whether the presence of a social parasite (the dulotic ant Myrmoxenus ravouxi within an ant community correlated with a specific behavioral defense strategy of local host or non-host populations of Temnothorax ants. Social recognition often leads to more or less pronounced agonistic interactions between non-nestmates ants. Here, we monitored agonistic behaviors to assess whether ants discriminate social parasites from other ants. It is now well-known that ants essentially rely on cuticular hydrocarbons to discriminate nestmates from aliens. If host species have evolved a specific recognition mechanism for their parasite, we hypothesize that the differences in behavioral responses would not be fully explained simply by quantitative dissimilarity in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles, but should also involve a qualitative response due to the detection of particular compounds. We scaled the behavioral results according to the quantitative chemical distance between host and parasite colonies to test this hypothesis. Results Cuticular hydrocarbon profiles were distinct between species, but host species did not show a clearly higher aggression rate towards the parasite than toward non-parasite intruders, unless the degree of response was scaled by the chemical distance between intruders and recipient colonies. By doing so, we show that workers of the host and of a non-host species in the parasitized site displayed more agonistic behaviors (bites and ejections towards parasite

  3. Energy expenditure and physiological responses during indoor rock climbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermier, C M; Robergs, R A; McMinn, S M; Heyward, V H

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To report the physiological responses of indoor rock climbing. METHODS: Fourteen experienced climbers (nine men, five women) performed three climbing trials on an indoor climbing wall. Subjects performed three trials of increasing difficulty: (a) an easy 90 degrees vertical wall, (b) a moderately difficult negatively angled wall (106 degrees), and (c) a difficult horizontal overhang (151 degrees). At least 15 minutes separated each trial. Expired air was collected in a Douglas bag after four minutes of climbing and heart rate (HR) was recorded continuously using a telemetry unit. Arterialised blood samples were obtained from a hyperaemised ear lobe at rest and one or two minutes after each trial for measurement of blood lactate. RESULTS: Significant differences were found between trials for HR, lactate, oxygen consumption (VO2), and energy expenditure, but not for respiratory exchange ratio. Analysis of the HR and VO2 responses indicated that rock climbing does not elicit the traditional linear HR-VO2 relationship characteristic of treadmill and cycle ergometry exercise. During the three trials, HR increased to 74-85% of predicted maximal values and energy expenditure was similar to that reported for running at a moderate pace (8-11 minutes per mile). CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that indoor rock climbing is a good activity to increase cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular endurance. In addition, the traditional HR-VO2 relationship should not be used in the analysis of this sport, or for prescribing exercise intensity for climbing. PMID:9298558

  4. Energy expenditure and physiological responses during indoor rock climbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermier, C M; Robergs, R A; McMinn, S M; Heyward, V H

    1997-09-01

    To report the physiological responses of indoor rock climbing. Fourteen experienced climbers (nine men, five women) performed three climbing trials on an indoor climbing wall. Subjects performed three trials of increasing difficulty: (a) an easy 90 degrees vertical wall, (b) a moderately difficult negatively angled wall (106 degrees), and (c) a difficult horizontal overhang (151 degrees). At least 15 minutes separated each trial. Expired air was collected in a Douglas bag after four minutes of climbing and heart rate (HR) was recorded continuously using a telemetry unit. Arterialised blood samples were obtained from a hyperaemised ear lobe at rest and one or two minutes after each trial for measurement of blood lactate. Significant differences were found between trials for HR, lactate, oxygen consumption (VO2), and energy expenditure, but not for respiratory exchange ratio. Analysis of the HR and VO2 responses indicated that rock climbing does not elicit the traditional linear HR-VO2 relationship characteristic of treadmill and cycle ergometry exercise. During the three trials, HR increased to 74-85% of predicted maximal values and energy expenditure was similar to that reported for running at a moderate pace (8-11 minutes per mile). These data indicate that indoor rock climbing is a good activity to increase cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular endurance. In addition, the traditional HR-VO2 relationship should not be used in the analysis of this sport, or for prescribing exercise intensity for climbing.

  5. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES AND MOOD STATES AFTER DAILY REPEATED PROLONGED EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkka Väänänen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the physiological responses to daily repeated acute but non-competitive prolonged exercise during a 4-day march and a 2-day cross-country ski event to the cardiorespiratory, autonomic nervous, musculoskeletal and endocrine systems. Mood states were also evaluated after these repeated exercises. The data of these short-term follow-up (reversal field trials was collected from healthy, 23 to 48 year old Finnish male soldiers in 1993 (n=6 and 1994 (n=15 during the "International Four-Day Long-Distance March" in Nijmegen, The Netherlands, and from ten healthy, 22 to 48 year old Finnish male participants in 1995 during a 2-day Finlandia Ski Race in Lahti, Finland. Acute cardiovascular responses were estimated by measuring the heart rate during exercise. The responses of the autonomic nervous system were estimated by measuring the heart rates during the orthostatic test. The musculoskeletal responses were estimated by measuring the perceived pains, flexibility, functional strength, use of elastic energy and oedemic changes of the lower extremities. Hormonal responses were estimated from the urinary excretion of catecholamines, and the concentrations of serum cortisol, testosterone, luteinizing (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH. Mood states were assessed with the Profile of Mood States (POMS questionnaire. Daily walking time was 7-10 hours while the skiing time was 3 hours. Average heart rate during walking was 59% and skiing 87% of maximum heart rate. Morning heart rate in the supine position increased progressively through the marching period but not through the skiing experiment. After the first day, perceived pain increased significantly and remained at a similarly increased level until the end of the exercise period. Leg measurements showed no signs of oedema, decreases in flexibility, or functional strength. Catecholamine excretion rates during marches indicated cumulatively increased

  6. Physiological and biochemical responses of thyme plants to some antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALWA A. ORABI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Orabi SA, Talaat IM, Balbaa LK. 2014. Physiological and biochemical responses of thyme plants to some antioxidants. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 118-125. Two pot experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of tryptophan, nicotinamide and α-tocopherol (each at 50 and 100 mg/L on plant growth, essential oil yield and its main constituents. All treatments significantly promoted plant height, and increased fresh and dry mass (g/plant of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.. The treatment with 100 mg/L nicotinamide showed increasing in total potassium mainly in the first cut. Total soluble sugars, oil percentage and oil yield and protein recorded increments with tryptophan treatments. Treatment of Thymus plants with 100 mg/L nicotinamide observed the highest percentage of thymol (67.61%. Oxygenated compounds recorded the highest value with 50 mg/L α-tocopherol treatment, while the maximum non-oxygenated ones resulted from the application of 100 mg/L nicotinamide. All treatments under study significantly affected the activity of oxidoreductase enzymes (POX and PPO. Nicotinamide at the concentration of 100 mg/L recorded the highest increments in APX and GR and the lowest values in oxidoreductase enzyme activities added to the lowest values of lipid peroxidation to enhance the best protection of thyme plants.

  7. Physiological response of Moringa oleifera to stigmasterol and chelated zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARIMA GAMAL EL-DIN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available El-Moursi A, Talaat IM, Bekheta MA, Gamal El-Din K. 2012. Physiological response of Moringa oleifera to stigmasterol and chelated zinc. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 118-123. Two pot experiments were carried out in the screen of the National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt, during two successive seasons (2009/2010 and 2010/2011, respectively to study the effect of foliar spray with chelated zinc (100, 200 and 300 mg/L and stigmasterol (50, 100 and 150 mg/L on growth and chemical constituents of moringa plants. The results indicated that treatment of plants with 300 mg/L chelated zinc or 150 mg/L stigmasterol significantly influenced the vegetative growth of moringa plants. The same treatments also significantly increased total sugars%, total protein%, total phosphorous and microelements contents in the leaves. The changes in the pattern of protein electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE extracted from the newly formed leaves of moringa plants treated with different concentrations of chelated Zinc (Zn or stigmasterol showed beneficial influences for improving plant growth, leaves quality and quantity.

  8. Dataset on genetic and physiological adults׳ responses to social distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bonassi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Both expectations towards interactions with conspecifics, and genetic predispositions, affect adults׳ social behaviors. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we report data to investigate the interaction between genetic factors, (oxytocin receptor (OXTR and serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR polymorphisms, and adult interactional patterns in shaping physiological responses to social distress. During the presentation of distress vocalizations (cries of human female, infants and bonobos we assessed participants׳ (N = 42 males heart rate (HR and peripheral nose temperature, which index state of arousal and readiness to action. Self-reported questionnaires were used to evaluate participants’ interactional patterns towards peers (Attachment Style Questionnaire, Feeney et al., 1994 [1], and the quality of bond with intimate partners (Experiences in Close Relationships Scale, Fraley et al., 2000 [2]. To assess participants׳ genetic predispositions, the OXTR gene (regions rs53576, and rs2254298 and the 5-HTTLPR gene (region SLC6A4 were genotyped. The data set is made publicly available to enable critical or extended analyzes.

  9. Physiological and Perceived Exertion Responses during International Karate Kumite Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabben, Montassar; Sioud, Rim; Haddad, Monoem; Franchini, Emerson; Chaouachi, Anis; Coquart, Jeremy; Chaabane, Helmi; Chamari, Karim; Tourny-Chollet, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Investigate the physiological responses and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) in elite karate athletes and examine the relationship between a subjective method (Session-RPE) and two objective heart-rate (HR)-based methods to quantify training-load (TL) during international karate competition. Methods Eleven karatekas took part in this study, but only data from seven athletes who completed three matches in an international tournament were used (four men and three women). The duration of combat was 3 min for men and 2 min for women, with 33.6±7.6 min for the first interval period (match 1–2) and 14.5±3.1 min for the second interval period (match 2–3). HR was continuously recorded during each combat. Blood lactate [La-] and (RPE) were measured just before the first match and immediately after each match. Results Means total fights time, HR, %HRmax, [La-], and session-RPE were 4.7±1.6 min, 182±9 bpm, 91±3%, 9.02±2.12 mmol.L-1 and 4.2±1.2, respectively. No significant differences in %HRmax, [La-], and RPE were noticed across combats. Significant correlations were observed between RPE and both resting HR (r=0.60; P=0.004) and mean HR (r=0.64; P=0.02), session-RPE and Banister training-impulse (TRIMP) (r=0.84; Pkarate competition elicited near-maximal cardiovascular responses and high [La-]. Training should therefore include exercise bouts that sufficiently stimulate the zone between 90 and 100% HRmax. Karate coaches could use the RPE-method to follow competitor's competition loads and consider it in their technical and tactical training. PMID:24800001

  10. Physiological responses and physical performance during football in the heat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magni Mohr

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To examine the impact of hot ambient conditions on physical performance and physiological responses during football match-play. METHODS: Two experimental games were completed in temperate (∼ 21°C; CON and hot ambient conditions (∼ 43°C; HOT. Physical performance was assessed by match analysis in 17 male elite players during the games and a repeated sprint test was conducted after the two game trials. Core and muscle temperature were measured and blood samples were obtained, before and after the games. RESULTS: Muscle and core temperatures were ∼ 1°C higher (P14 km ⋅ h(-1 by 26% in HOT compared to CON, but peak sprint speed was 4% higher (P24 km ⋅ h(-1 between CON and HOT. In HOT, success rates for passes and crosses were 8 and 9% higher (P<0.05, respectively, compared to CON. Delta increase in core temperature and absolute core temperature in HOT were correlated to total game distance in the heat (r = 0.85 and r = 0.53, respectively; P<0.05, whereas, total and high intensity distance deficit between CON and HOT were not correlated to absolute or delta changes in muscle or core temperature. CONCLUSION: Total game distance and especially high intensity running were lower during a football game in the heat, but these changes were not directly related to the absolute or relative changes in core or muscle temperature. However, peak sprinting speed and execution of successful passes and crosses were improved in the HOT condition.

  11. Oxygen cost and physiological responses of recreational badminton match play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Pallav; Berg, Kris; Harder, Jeanette; Batelaan, Herman; McGRATH, Melanie

    2017-06-01

    Badminton, as an Olympic sport, is popular worldwide. However, the benefits of recreational badminton match play are not well known. The purpose of the study was to determine the oxygen cost of recreational badminton match play. Heart rate (HR), blood lactate (BL), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), step count and energy expenditure were also assessed. Fourteen male recreational badminton players aged 35.9±6.62 years participated in test sessions to assess oxygen uptake (VO2) and the related physiological responses of match play. During the match play sessions, participants played singles badminton matches for 30 min while wearing a portable metabolic system. VO2 and HR were continuously recorded while blood lactate and RPE were determined following warm-up, at 15 minutes and 30 minutes of match play. Step count was recorded at 15 minutes and 30 minutes of play. VO2 over 30 minutes was 34.4±5.8 mL/kg/min which was 76.1% of maximal oxygen uptake. Across three 10-minute periods of play, VO2 was not significantly different while HR was higher in the third 10-minute period than the first and second 10-minute periods (P=0.001). Mean HR over 30 minutes was 167.9±9.4 bpm. BL was significantly higher at 15 and 30 minutes than following warm-up while RPE of 17.57±1.91 after 30 minutes was significantly higher (P=0.009) than RPE of 15.79±1.63 at 15 minutes. Step count did not vary between the two 15-minute periods of play with a total of 2404±360 steps while energy expenditure over 30 minutes of play was 391.7±66 kcal. Recreational badminton match play can be categorized as vigorous intensity suggesting that it can be a viable means of achieving recommended physical activity and improving aerobic fitness.

  12. Physiological responses of Bituminaria bituminosa to heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Fernández, Domingo; Walker, David J; Romero-Espinar, Pascual; Flores, Pilar; del Río, José Antonio

    2011-12-15

    Two hydroponic experiments were performed to study the physiological responses to heavy metals (HMs) of two populations of Bituminaria bituminosa (L.) C.H. Stirton (Fabaceae): one ("C2") from a site contaminated by HMs and one from a non-contaminated site ("LA"). In the first, we studied the effects of elevated concentrations of Zn (12 and 61 μM). Population C2 was more tolerant in terms of root and shoot growth at 61 μM Zn, relative to control plants (1 μM Zn). The similar tissue Zn levels of the two populations suggest that C2 is more tolerant of high tissue Zn. Of the parameters measured that could be related to Zn phytotoxicity (micro and macronutrients, root hydraulic activity, water-extractable Zn and organic acids), none could explain totally the superior tolerance of C2. In the second assay, the effects of Cd (4.4 μM), Cu (7.8 μM) and Zn (76 μM) on plant accumulation of the furanocoumarins (FCs) psoralen and angelicin, which function as feeding deterrents and photo-activated toxins, were assessed. For population C2, all three HMs increased the root FC concentrations, while Cd also raised shoot levels. For LA, Cu raised the root concentrations of both FCs. There was a relationship between plant stress, manifested as proline accumulation and disruption of plant water relations, and increased FC accumulation. Higher tissue levels of FCs likely provide greater protection against bacterial or fungal infection and herbivores. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. 98 . original article weight gradient and physiological responses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    1996): Immunonutritional recovery of children with severe malnutrition Sante 64,201- 8. 8. Bonham M, O'Conner JM, Hannigan BM, Strain JJ (2002):. The immune system as a physiological indicator of marginal copper status. Br. J. Nutrition.

  14. Growth and other physiological responses of bivalves in laboratory experiments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Milford lab maintains data sets relating to a variety of growth and physiology trials. These include husbandry techniques (i.e. stocking density, container size,...

  15. Physiological calf responses to increased chromium supply in summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yari, M; Nikkhah, A; Alikhani, M; Khorvash, M; Rahmani, H; Ghorbani, G R

    2010-09-01

    The primary objective was to determine pre- and postweaning calf physiological responses to increased Cr supply under high ambient temperatures. In a randomized complete block design, 24 neonate Holstein calves (BW=41.5+/-1.9 kg) were grouped based on sex and randomly assigned to 3 treatments within each group. Treatments included either no supplemental Cr (control), 0.02 mg of supplemental Cr/kg of BW0.75, or 0.04 mg of supplemental Cr/kg of BW0.75. The average temperature-humidity index was 77 during the study. Chromium was provided as a commercial product in whole milk for preweaning calves and in a starter concentrate for postweaning calves. Calves were weaned at 1 kg of daily calf starter intake lasting for 6 consecutive days. A glucose tolerance test was conducted on d 25 postweaning. Treatments had no effects on preweaning dry matter intake, feed conversion ratio, average daily gain, and weaning age. Chromium decreased dry matter intake in postweaning calves; however, it did not affect growth and feed conversion ratio. Chromium lowered respiration rate at wk 5 without affecting fecal score and rectal temperature. Preweaning serum cortisol concentrations were altered by a 3-way interaction of Cr dose with calf sex and age. Preweaning serum glucose showed week-dependent increases by Cr. Serum insulin, urea, albumin, total protein, triiodothyronine, and thyroxin concentrations through weaning were not affected. The increasing Cr doses caused quadratic declines in serum thyroxin on d 21 postweaning, whereas blood triiodothyronine declined only with the higher Cr dose. Serum NEFA remained unchanged, but BHBA decreased by Cr in male calves on d 21 postweaning. The glucose tolerance test revealed linear reductions in area under insulin curve between 0 to 90 and 0 to 120 min after glucose infusion, suggesting improvements in peripheral insulin efficiency. Sex-dependent responses to Cr were observed for serum total protein and albumin concentrations at 21 d

  16. A wearable device for emotional recognition using facial expression and physiological response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangho Kwon; Da-Hye Kim; Wanjoo Park; Laehyun Kim

    2016-08-01

    This paper introduces a glasses-typed wearable system to detect user's emotions using facial expression and physiological responses. The system is designed to acquire facial expression through a built-in camera and physiological responses such as photoplethysmogram (PPG) and electrodermal activity (EDA) in unobtrusive way. We used video clips for induced emotions to test the system suitability in the experiment. The results showed a few meaningful properties that associate emotions with facial expressions and physiological responses captured by the developed wearable device. We expect that this wearable system with a built-in camera and physiological sensors may be a good solution to monitor user's emotional state in daily life.

  17. Personality, emotion, and individual differences in physiological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemmler, Gerhard; Wacker, Jan

    2010-07-01

    A dominant paradigm in biopsychological personality research seeks to establish links between emotional and motivational traits and habitual, transsituationally consistent individual differences in measures of physiological activity. An alternative approach conceptualizes traits as dispositions that are only operative in certain situational contexts and consequently predicts associations between emotional and motivational traits and physiological activity only for trait-relevant situational contexts in which the physiological systems underlying the traits in question are engaged. In the present paper we first examine and contrast these personistic and interactionistic conceptualizations of personality and personality-physiology associations and then present data from several large studies (N>100) in which electrocortical (e.g., frontal alpha asymmetry) and somatovisceral parameters were measured in various situational contexts (e.g., after the induction of either anger, or fear, or anxiety). As predicted by the interactionistic conceptualization of traits as dispositions the situational context and its subjective representation by the participants moderated the personality-physiology relationships for measures of both central and peripheral nervous system activity. We conclude by outlining the implications of the interactionistic approach for biopsychological personality research. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Behavioral and Physiological Response of Baleen Whales to Ships and Ship Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Behavioral and physiological response of baleen whales to...and physiological response of baleen whales to ships and ship noise off California using a combination of opportunistic and controlled research. Ship...a growing concern especially for several species including blue and right whales that appear to be particularly susceptible. Initial research

  19. The physiological response of chinook salmon smolts to two methods of radio-tagging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Niels; Davis, L.E.; Schreck, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    Smolts of hatchery-reared chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were radio-tagged by gastric insertion or surgical implant, and their physiological response was measured and compared to that of control insertion or surgical implant, and their physiological response was measured and compared...

  20. Differential Physiological Responses of Portuguese Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Genotypes under Aluminium Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luísa Garcia-Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The major limitation of cereal production in acidic soils is aluminium (Al phytotoxicity which inhibits root growth. Recent evidence indicates that different genotypes within the same species have evolved different mechanisms to cope with this stress. With these facts in mind, root responses of two highly Al tolerant Portuguese bread wheat genotypes—Barbela 7/72/92 and Viloso mole—were investigated along with check genotype Anahuac (Al sensitive, using different physiological and histochemical assays. All the assays confirmed that Barbela 7/72/92 is much more tolerant to Al phytotoxicity than Viloso Mole. Our results demonstrate that the greater tolerance to Al phytotoxicity in Barbela 7/72/92 than in Viloso Mole relies on numerous factors, including higher levels of organic acid (OAs efflux, particularly citrate efflux. This might be associated with the lower accumulation of Al in the root tips, restricting the Al-induced lipid peroxidation and the consequent plasma membrane integrity loss, thus allowing better root regrowth under Al stress conditions. Furthermore, the presence of root hairs in Barbela 7/72/92 might also help to circumvent Al toxicity by facilitating a more efficient uptake of water and nutrients, particularly under Al stress on acid soils. In conclusion, our findings confirmed that Portuguese bread wheat genotype Barbela 7/72/92 represents an alternative source of Al tolerance in bread wheat and could potentially be used to improve the wheat productivity in acidic soils.

  1. Genotypic variation in growth and physiological responses of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beyaz Fasulye, Boncuk Sırık, Kökez, Oturak and Sırık) was investigated in terms of morphological and physiological. Plants were grown in a plant growth chamber at 26/18°C (day/night) temperature with RH 70% and 450 m-2 s-1 light intensity.

  2. Physiological blockage in plants in response to postharvest stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flowers have been designed primarily for cutting because of the diversity of shapes, colors and also durability. However, ornamental plants are used in floral arrangements in vases and have limited shelf-life. Thus, this study showed that one of the factors contributing to this limitation is the physiological blockage that occurs ...

  3. Growth, physiology and yield responses of Amaranthus cruentus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amaranthus cruentus, Corchorus olitorius and Vigna unguiculata are traditional leafy vegetables with potential to improve nutritional security of vulnerable people. The promotion of these crops is partly hindered by the lack of agronomic information. The effect of plant spacing on growth, physiology and yield of these three ...

  4. Eco-physiological responses and symbiotic nitrogen fixation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nitrogen nutrition of Hedysarum carnosum, a pastoral legume common in Tunisian central and southern rangelands, largely depends on atmospheric nitrogen fixation. Yet, this process is greatly affected by environmental factors such as salinity. This study aimed to characterize the tolerance limits and the physiological ...

  5. Physiological response of one of South Africa's premier freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood plasma was analysed for concentrations of glucose, cortisol and lactate to determine the effects of angling duration, fish size and water temperature. ... to physiological disruptions in homeostasis and therefore handling and air exposure of angled fish should be included in future catch-and–release angling studies.

  6. Physiological blockage in plants in response to postharvest stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marcos

    2013-03-13

    Mar 13, 2013 ... Flowers have been designed primarily for cutting because of the diversity of shapes, colors and also durability. However, ornamental plants are used in floral arrangements in vases and have limited shelf- life. Thus, this study showed that one of the factors contributing to this limitation is the physiological.

  7. Physiological responses of batsmen during a simulated One Day ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is a limited amount of literature on the physiological cost of batting. Of the studies that have been completed, most have used protocols that are of short duration and high intensity, and it has been questioned whether this represents actual game play. Furthermore, it is difficult to study sports such as cricket ...

  8. From RECIST to PERCIST: Evolving Considerations for PET Response Criteria in Solid Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Wahl, Richard L.; Jacene, Heather; Kasamon, Yvette; Lodge, Martin A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the status and limitations of anatomic tumor response metrics including the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST), and RECIST 1.1. This article also reviews qualitative and quantitative approaches to metabolic tumor response assessment with 18F-FDG PET and proposes a draft framework for PET Response Criteria in Solid Tumors (PERCIST), version 1.0.

  9. Bullying at work, health outcomes, and physiological stress response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ase Marie; Hogh, Annie; Persson, Roger

    2006-01-01

    The relationships among bullying or witnessing bullying at work, self-reported health symptoms, and physiological stress reactivity were analysed in a sample of 437 employees (294 women and 143 men). Physiological stress reactivity was measured as cortisol in the saliva. Of the respondents, 5......% of the women (n=15) and 5% of the men (n=7) reported bullying, whereas 9% of the women (n=25) and 11% of the men (n=15) had witnessed bullying at work. The results indicated that the bullied respondents had lower social support from coworkers and supervisors, and they reported more symptoms of somatisation......, depression, anxiety, and negative affectivity (NA) than did the nonbullied respondents. Witnesses reported more symptoms of anxiety and lower support from supervisor than did the nonbullied employees. Concentrations of cortisol in the saliva were lower at awakening in bullied respondents compared...

  10. Dispositional emotion coping styles and physiological responses to expressive writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamagawa, Rie; Moss-Morris, Rona; Martin, Alexandra; Robinson, Elizabeth; Booth, Roger J

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of these two studies was to assess how repressors and defensive, high-anxious individuals exhibit their psychological and health characteristics subjectively through self-reports and objectively through physiological markers and ratings of emotional expression. Cross-sectional descriptive design (study one) and randomized controlled design (study two). In the first descriptive study, repressors, defensive, high-anxious individuals and low-anxious individuals were identified from a pool of 748 undergraduates. Participants were asked to complete questionnaires assessing psychological and health characteristics. In the second experimental study, the three groups were randomized into either emotional or non-emotional writing conditions. Participants were asked to write three essays on either an emotional or a non-emotional topic in a single day. In the first study, defensive, high-anxious individuals reported significantly more distress, symptoms, sickness behaviours and difficulty expressing anger relative to repressors. In the second study, there was a significant difference in salivary cortisol concentrations between the two writing conditions regardless of the emotional coping grouping. Analysis of the writing showed no significant differences among repressors, defensive, high-anxious and low-anxious individuals in their cognitive and affective expression. Whereas self-reports of health outcomes and psychological traits clearly distinguish repressors and defensive, high-anxious individuals, more objective indices of emotional expressiveness and physiology do not appear to do so. The results also indicate that expressive writing may be helpful to reduce physiological arousal towards emotionally charged memories. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Physiological responses to rock climbing in young climbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Audry Birute; Schöffl, Volker Rainer

    2007-12-01

    Key questions regarding the training and physiological qualities required to produce an elite rock climber remain inadequately defined. Little research has been done on young climbers. The aim of this paper was to review literature on climbing alongside relevant literature characterising physiological adaptations in young athletes. Evidence-based recommendations were sought to inform the training of young climbers. Of 200 studies on climbing, 50 were selected as being appropriate to this review, and were interpreted alongside physiological studies highlighting specific common development growth variables in young climbers. Based on injury data, climbers younger than 16 years should not participate in international bouldering competitions and intensive finger strength training is not recommended. The majority of climbing foot injuries result from wearing too small or unnaturally shaped climbing shoes. Isometric and explosive strength improvements are strongly associated with the latter stages of sexual maturation and specific ontogenetic development, while improvement in motor abilities declines. Somatotyping that might identify common physical attributes in elite climbers of any age is incomplete. Accomplished adolescent climbers can now climb identical grades and compete against elite adult climbers aged up to and >40 years. High-intensity sports training requiring leanness in a youngster can result in altered and delayed pubertal and skeletal development, metabolic and neuroendocrine aberrations and trigger eating disorders. This should be sensitively and regularly monitored. Training should reflect efficacious exercises for a given sex and biological age.

  12. Evolving social responsibility understandings, motivations, and career goals of undergraduate students initially pursuing engineering degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulifson, Gregory A.

    Engineers impact the lives of every person every day, and need to have a strong sense of social responsibility. Understanding what students think about social responsibility in engineering and their futures is very important. Further, by identifying influences that change these ideas and shape their conceptualizations, we can intervene to help prepare students for their responsibilities as part of the profession in the future. This thesis presents the experiences, in their own words, of 34 students who started in engineering. The study is composed of three parts: (i) engineering students' ideas about socially responsible engineering and what influenced these ideas, (ii) how students see themselves as future socially responsible engineers and how this idea changes over their first three years of college, and (iii) what social responsibility-related reasons students who leave engineering have for choosing a new major. Results show that students are complicated and have varied paths through and out of engineering studies. Students came up with their own ideas about socially responsible engineering that converged over the years on legal and safety related aspects of the profession. Relatedly, students identified with the engineering profession through internships and engineering courses, and rarely described socially responsible aspirations that could be accomplished with engineering. More often, those students who desired to help the disadvantaged through their engineering work left engineering. Their choice to leave was a combination of an unsupportive climate, disinterest in their classes, and a desire to combine their personal and professional social responsibility ambitions. If we want engineering students to push the engineering profession forward to be more socially responsible, we can identify the effective influences and develop a curriculum that encourages critical thinking about the social context and impacts of engineering. Additionally, a social

  13. The Fast-Evolving phy-2 Gene Modulates Sexual Development in Response to Light in the Model Fungus Neurospora crassa

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zheng; Li, Ning; Li, Jigang; Dunlap, Jay C.; Trail, Frances; Townsend, Jeffrey P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rapid responses to changes in incident light are critical to the guidance of behavior and development in most species. Phytochrome light receptors in particular play key roles in bacterial physiology and plant development, but their functions and regulation are less well understood in fungi. Nevertheless, genome-wide expression measurements provide key information that can guide experiments that reveal how genes respond to environmental signals and clarify their role in development. ...

  14. Molecular signatures of the evolving immune response in mice following a Bordetella pertussis infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raeven, R.H.M.; Brummelman, J.; Pennings, J.L.A.; Nijst, O.E.M.; Kuipers, B.; Blok, L.E.R.; Helm, K.; Riet, van E.; Jiskoot, W.; Els, van C.A.C.M.; Han, W.G.H.; Kersten, G.F.A.; Metz, B.

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide resurgence of pertussis necessitates the need for improvement of pertussis vaccines and vaccination strategies. Since natural infections induce a longer-lasting immunity than vaccinations, detailed knowledge of the immune responses following natural infection can provide important clues

  15. Physiologic responses of grizzly bears to different methods of capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattet, Marc R; Christison, Katina; Caulkett, Nigel A; Stenhouse, Gordon B

    2003-07-01

    The physiologic effects of two methods of capture, chemical immobilization of free-ranging (FR) bears by remote injection from a helicopter and physical restraint (PR) by leg-hold snare prior to chemical immobilization, were compared in 46 grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) handled during 90 captures between 1999 and 2001. Induction dosages and times were greater for FR bears than PR bears, a finding consistent with depletion of, or decreased sensitivity to, catecholamines. Free-ranging bears also had higher rectal temperatures 15 min following immobilization and temperatures throughout handling that correlated positively with induction time. Physically restrained bears had higher white blood cell counts, with more neutrophils and fewer lymphocytes and eosinophils, than did FR bears. This white blood cell profile was consistent with a stress leukogram, possibly affected by elevated levels of serum cortisol. Serum concentrations of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatine kinase were higher in PR bears that suggested muscle injury. Serum concentrations of sodium and chloride also were higher in PR bears and attributed to reduced body water volume through water deprivation and increased insensible water loss. Overall, different methods of capture resulted in different patterns of physiologic disturbance. Reducing pursuit and drug induction times should help to minimize increase in body temperature and alteration of acid-base balance in bears immobilized by remote injection. Minimizing restraint time and ensuring snare-anchoring cables are short should help to minimize loss of body water and prevent serious muscle injury in bears captured by leg-hold snare.

  16. Physiological and photosynthetic response of quinoa to drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Fghire

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage is a critical problem touching plant growth and yield in semi-arid areas, for instance the Mediterranean región. For this reason was studied the physiological basis of drought tolerance of a new, drought tolerant crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. tested in Morocco in two successive seasons, subject to four irrigation treatments (100, 50, and 33%ETc, and rainfed. The chlorophyll a fluorescence transients were analyzed by the JIP-test to transíate stress-induced damage in these transients to changes in biophysical parameter's allowing quantification of the energy flow through the photosynthetic apparatus. Drought stress induced a significant decrease in the maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry (Φpo = Fv/Fm, and the quantum yield of electron transport (Φeo. The amount of active Photosystem II (PSII reaction centers (RC per excited cross section (RC/CS also decreased when exposed to the highest drought stress. The effective antenna size of active RCs (ABS/RC increased and the effective dissipation per active reaction centers (DIo/RC increased by increasing drought stress during the growth season in comparison to the control. However the performance index (PI, was a very sensitive indicator of the physiological status of plants. Leaf area index, leaf water potential and stomatal conductance decreased as the drought increased. These results indicate that, in quinoa leaf, JIP-test can be used as a sensitive method for measuring drought stress effects.

  17. Physiological responses of Daphnia pulex to acid stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirow Ralph

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acidity exerts a determining influence on the composition and diversity of freshwater faunas. While the physiological implications of freshwater acidification have been intensively studied in teleost fish and crayfish, much less is known about the acid-stress physiology of ecologically important groups such as cladoceran zooplankton. This study analyzed the extracellular acid-base state and CO2 partial pressure (PCO2, circulation and ventilation, as well as the respiration rate of Daphnia pulex acclimated to acidic (pH 5.5 and 6.0 and circumneutral (pH 7.8 conditions. Results D. pulex had a remarkably high extracellular pH of 8.33 and extracellular PCO2 of 0.56 kPa under normal ambient conditions (pH 7.8 and normocapnia. The hemolymph had a high bicarbonate concentration of 20.9 mM and a total buffer value of 51.5 meq L-1 pH-1. Bicarbonate covered 93% of the total buffer value. Acidic conditions induced a slight acidosis (ΔpH = 0.16–0.23, a 30–65% bicarbonate loss, and elevated systemic activities (tachycardia, hyperventilation, hypermetabolism. pH 6.0 animals partly compensated the bicarbonate loss by increasing the non-bicarbonate buffer value from 2.0 to 5.1 meq L-1 pH-1. The extracellular PCO2 of pH 5.5 animals was significantly reduced to 0.33 kPa, and these animals showed the highest tolerance to a short-term exposure to severe acid stress. Conclusion Chronic exposure to acidic conditions had a pervasive impact on Daphnia's physiology including acid-base balance, extracellular PCO2, circulation and ventilation, and energy metabolism. Compensatory changes in extracellular non-bicarbonate buffering capacity and the improved tolerance to severe acid stress indicated the activation of defense mechanisms which may result from gene-expression mediated adjustments in hemolymph buffer proteins and in epithelial properties. Mechanistic analyses of the interdependence between extracellular acid-base balance and CO2 transport

  18. Dementias show differential physiological responses to salient sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip David Fletcher

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal responsiveness to salient sensory signals is often a prominent feature of dementia diseases, particularly the frontotemporal lobar degenerations, but has been little studied. Here we assessed processing of one important class of salient signals, looming sounds, in canonical dementia syndromes. We manipulated tones using intensity cues to create percepts of salient approaching (‘looming’ or less salient withdrawing sounds. Pupil dilatation responses and behavioural rating responses to these stimuli were compared in patients fulfilling consensus criteria for dementia syndromes (semantic dementia, n=10; behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, n=16, progressive non-fluent aphasia, n=12; amnestic Alzheimer’s disease, n=10 and a cohort of 26 healthy age-matched individuals. Approaching sounds were rated as more salient than withdrawing sounds by healthy older individuals but this behavioural response to salience did not differentiate healthy individuals from patients with dementia syndromes. Pupil responses to approaching sounds were greater than responses to withdrawing sounds in healthy older individuals and in patients with semantic dementia: this differential pupil response was reduced in patients with progressive nonfluent aphasia and Alzheimer’s disease relative both to the healthy control and semantic dementia groups, and did not correlate with nonverbal auditory semantic function. Autonomic responses to auditory salience are differentially affected by dementias and may constitute a novel biomarker of these diseases.

  19. Engaging Human Rights in the Response to the Evolving Zika Virus Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasanathan, Jennifer J K; MacCarthy, Sarah; Diniz, Debora; Torreele, Els; Gruskin, Sofia

    2017-04-01

    In late 2015, an increase in the number of infants born with microcephaly in poor communities in northeast Brazil prompted investigation of antenatal Zika infection as the cause. Zika now circulates in 69 countries, and has affected pregnancies of women in 29 countries. Public health officials, policymakers, and international organizations are considering interventions to address health consequences of the Zika epidemic. To date, public health responses have focused on mosquito vector eradication, sexual and reproductive health services, knowledge and technology including diagnostic test and vaccine development, and health system preparedness. We summarize responses to date and apply human rights and related principles including nondiscrimination, participation, the legal and policy context, and accountability to identify shortcomings and to offer suggestions for more equitable, effective, and sustainable Zika responses.

  20. Physiological responses of estuarine animals to cadmium pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theede, H.

    1980-03-01

    Toxic effects of cadmium contamination may be observed at all levels of organismic organization. In estuarine areas the sensitivity of euryhaline species to acute Cd toxicity is strongly modified by various abiotic factors, whereas long-term threshold values are less dependent on environmental parameters. Experiments with larval stages of the mollusc Mytilus edulis reveal that Cd effects on life functions such as development and growth are differentially modified by temperature and salinity. High Cd concentrations can be accumulated by adult bivalves of coastal areas without signs of physiological damage. Mechanisms of heavy-metal detoxication in these molluscs seem to be quite different from those known to exist in vertebrates. Among decapod crustaceans, stenoecous species tend to exhibit higher rates of Cd uptake than euryoecous ones. Rates of Cd uptake and of accumulation depend on external and internal factors. In adult Nereis succinea individuals sublethal Cd effects have been recorded on growth and food conversion (in terms of energy content).

  1. The association between parenting behavior and somatization in adolescents explained by physiological responses in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Sofie; Grietens, Hans; Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Hoppenbrouwers, Karel; Wiersema, Jan R; Baetens, Imke; Vos, Pieter; Van Leeuwen, Karla

    2014-08-01

    This study adds to the knowledge on somatization in adolescents by exploring its relation with parenting behavior and the mediating/moderating role of physiological responses in adolescents to parenting behavior. Eighteen adolescents with high and 18 adolescents with low somatization scores and their mothers completed a discussion task, from which observed parenting behavior scores were derived. Skin conductance in adolescents was measured before and during the discussion. For adolescents with high levels of physiological responses, unadaptive parenting was related to a higher chance of high somatization scores. For low physiologically responsive adolescents, the relation between parenting behavior and somatization was not significant. Parenting behavior is not univocally related to somatization in adolescents, but the association depends on physiological responses in adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of environmental temperature on physiological responses during submaximal and maximal exercises in soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MiHyun No

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: It is concluded that physiological responses and endurance exercise capacity are impaired under cool or hot conditions compared with moderate conditions, suggesting that environmental temperature conditions play an important role for exercise performance.

  3. Dissection of Ire1 functions reveals stress response mechanisms uniquely evolved in Candida glabrata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiga Miyazaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER is vital in all eukaryotes. When misfolded proteins accumulate in the ER lumen, the transmembrane kinase/endoribonuclease Ire1 initiates splicing of HAC1 mRNA to generate the bZIP transcription factor Hac1, which subsequently activates its target genes to increase the protein-folding capacity of the ER. This cellular machinery, called the unfolded protein response (UPR, is believed to be an evolutionarily conserved mechanism in eukaryotes. In this study, we comprehensively characterized mutant phenotypes of IRE1 and other related genes in the human fungal pathogen Candida glabrata. Unexpectedly, Ire1 was required for the ER stress response independently of Hac1 in this fungus. C. glabrata Ire1 did not cleave mRNAs encoding Hac1 and other bZIP transcription factors identified in the C. glabrata genome. Microarray analysis revealed that the transcriptional response to ER stress is not mediated by Ire1, but instead is dependent largely on calcineurin signaling and partially on the Slt2 MAPK pathway. The loss of Ire1 alone did not confer increased antifungal susceptibility in C. glabrata contrary to UPR-defective mutants in other fungi. Taken together, our results suggest that the canonical Ire1-Hac1 UPR is not conserved in C. glabrata. It is known in metazoans that active Ire1 nonspecifically cleaves and degrades a subset of ER-localized mRNAs to reduce the ER load. Intriguingly, this cellular response could occur in an Ire1 nuclease-dependent fashion in C. glabrata. We also uncovered the attenuated virulence of the C. glabrata Δire1 mutant in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis. This study has unveiled the unique evolution of ER stress response mechanisms in C. glabrata.

  4. Physiological and behavioural responses of livestock to road ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... to road transportation stress: A review. Adenkola, A. Y.1* ... 0.279% of turkeys transported to slaughter plant in Czech. Republic .... function of the immune system of animals. ... suppressing the immune response (Warris, 2004).

  5. Error consciousness predicts physiological response to an acute psychosocial stressor in men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, J.; Sun, X.; Wang, L.; Zhang, L.; Fernandez, G.; Yao, Z.

    2017-01-01

    There are substantial individual differences in the response towards acute stressor. The aim of the current study was to examine how the neural activity after an error response during a non-stressful state, prospectively predicts the magnitude of physiological stress response (e.g., cortisol

  6. Coping With Adults' Angry Behavior: Behavioral, Physiological, and Verbal Responses in Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigated 34 4- and 5-year-olds and their parents to determine the children's behavioral, physiological, and verbal responses to adults' angry behavior. Findings indicate behavioral and verbal responses of distress and an increase in systolic blood pressure in response to anger. (RJC)

  7. The evolving idea of social responsibility in bioethics: a welcome trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahola-Launonen, Johanna

    2015-04-01

    This article discusses the notion of social responsibility for personal health and well-being in bioethics. Although social responsibility is an intrinsic aspect of bioethics, and its role is increasingly recognized in certain areas, it can still be claimed that bioethics in general is committed to an individualistic theoretical framework that disregards the social context in which decisions, health, and well-being are situated. The philosophical premises of this framework regard individuals as rational decisionmakers who can be held accountable for their health conditions and who should be the primary objects of intervention in attempts to reduce lifestyle-associated chronic diseases. There are, however, social determinants of health that challenge this conclusion. Because their impact can be controlled, to a certain extent, by social and public policy decisions, their existence shows the inadequacy of the purely individualistic approach. I suggest, accordingly, that bioethics would benefit, both academically and societally, from a more social perspective. Bioethical studies that acknowledge, from the start, the social determinants of health would be more amenable to constructive multi- and interdisciplinarity, and a more balanced account of responsibility would further the contribution of sound bioethical work to sensible public policies.

  8. Assessing physiological tipping points in response to ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, S. T.; Dorey, N.; Lançon, P.; Thorndyke, M. S.

    2011-12-01

    Impact of near-future ocean acidification on marine invertebrates was mostly assessed in single-species perturbation experiment. Moreover, most of these experiments are short-term, only consider one life-history stage and one or few parameters. They do not take into account important processes such as natural variability and acclimation and evolutionary processes. In many studies published so far, there is a clear lack between the observed effects and individual fitness, most of the deviation from the control being considered as potentially negative for the tested species. However, individuals are living in a fluctuating world and changes can also be interpreted as phenotypic plasticity and may not translate into negative impact on fitness. For example, a vent mussel can survive for decades in very acidic waters despite a significantly reduced calcification compare to control (Tunnicliffe et al. 2009). This is possible thanks to the absence of predatory crabs as a result of acidic conditions that may also inhibit carapace formation. This illustrates the importance to take into account ecological interactions when interpreting single-species experiments and to consider the relative fitness between interacting species. To understand the potential consequence of ocean acidification on any given ecosystem, it is then critical to consider the relative impact on fitness for every interactive species and taking into account the natural fluctuation in environment (e.g. pH, temperature, food concentration, abundance) and discriminate between plasticity with no direct impact on fitness and teratology with direct consequence on survival. In this presentation, we will introduce the concept of "physiological tipping point" in the context of ocean acidification. This will be illustrated by some work done on sea urchin development. Embryos and larvae of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis were exposed to a range of pH from 8.1 to 6.5. When exposed to low pH, growth

  9. Physiological Responses of Kosteletzkya virginica to Coastal Wetland Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of salinity on growth and physiological indices of Kosteletzkya virginica seedlings were studied. Plant height, fresh weight (FW, dry weight (DW, and net photosynthetic rate (Pn increased at 100 mM NaCl and slightly declined at 200 mM, but higher salinity induced a significant reduction. Chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance (Gs, intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci, and transpiration rate (E were not affected under moderate salinities, while markedly decreased at severe salinities except for the increased Ci at 400 mM NaCl. Furthermore, no significant differences of Fv/Fm and ΦPSII were found at lower than 200 mM NaCl, whereas higher salinity caused the declines of Fv/Fm, ΦPSII, and qP similar to Pn, accompanied with higher NPQ. Besides, salt stress reduced the leaf RWC, but caused the accumulation of proline to alleviate osmotic pressure. The increased activities of antioxidant enzymes maintained the normal levels of MDA and relative membrane permeability. To sum up, Kosteletzkya virginica seedlings have good salt tolerance and this may be partly attributed to its osmotic regulation and antioxidant capacity which help to maintain water balance and normal ROS level to ensure the efficient photosynthesis. These results provided important implications for Kosteletzkya virginica acting as a promising multiuse species for reclaiming coastal soil.

  10. Physiological responses and energy expenditure during competitive fencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milia, Raffaele; Roberto, Silvana; Pinna, Marco; Palazzolo, Girolamo; Sanna, Irene; Omeri, Massimo; Piredda, Simone; Migliaccio, Gianmario; Concu, Alberto; Crisafulli, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    Fencing is an Olympic sport in which athletes fight one against one using bladed weapons. Contests consist of three 3-min bouts, with rest intervals of 1 min between them. No studies investigating oxygen uptake and energetic demand during fencing competitions exist, thus energetic expenditure and demand in this sport remain speculative. The aim of this study was to understand the physiological capacities underlying fencing performance. Aerobic energy expenditure and the recruitment of lactic anaerobic metabolism were determined in 15 athletes (2 females and 13 males) during a simulation of fencing by using a portable gas analyzer (MedGraphics VO2000), which was able to provide data on oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production and heart rate. Blood lactate was assessed by means of a portable lactate analyzer. Average group energetic expenditure during the simulation was (mean ± SD) 10.24 ± 0.65 kcal·min(-1), corresponding to 8.6 ± 0.54 METs. Oxygen uptakeand heart rate were always below the level of anaerobic threshold previously assessed during the preliminary incremental test, while blood lactate reached its maximum value of 6.9 ± 2.1 mmol·L(-1) during the final recovery minute between rounds. Present data suggest that physical demand in fencing is moderate for skilled fencers and that both aerobic energy metabolism and anaerobic lactic energy sources are moderately recruited. This should be considered by coaches when preparing training programs for athletes.

  11. Physiological and agronomical responses of Syrah grapevine under protected cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rita de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of Syrah grapevine under protected cultivation with different plastic films was evaluated during 2012 and 2013 seasons in South of Minas Gerais State. Agronomical and physiological measurements were done on eight years old grapevines, grafted onto ‘1103 Paulsen’ rootstock cultivated under uncovered conditions, covered with transparent and with diffuse plastic films. Both plastic covers induced the highest shoot growth rate and specific leaf area. The diffuse plastic induced greater differences on leaf area, pruning weight and leaf chlorophyll content as compared to uncovered vines. Grapevines under diffuse plastic also had the lowest rates of photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration. Leaf starch, glucose and fructose contents were not affected by treatment, but leaf sucrose was reduced by transparent plastic. The leaf and stem water potential were higher under diffuse plastic. In 2013, grapevines under diffuse plastic showed the highest yields mainly due to decreased rot incidence and increased cluster weight. Furthermore, berries under diffuse plastic showed the highest anthocyanins concentration. The use of diffuse plastic induces more agronomical benefits to produce Syrah grape under protected cultivation.

  12. Patterns and Pathways of Evolving Catchment Response in NE Italy on a Millennium Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, L. P. H. Rens; Feiken, H. Rik

    2015-04-01

    The meso-scale landscape dynamics model, CALEROS, has been developed to simulate the interactions between climate, soil production and erosion, vegetation and land use on geomorphological to human time scales. Starting from an initial landscape consisting of a DTM, soil distribution and underlying lithology, the landscape is free to develop in response to the imposed climate variability and seismicity. In addition to changes in soil distribution and bedrock lowering, this includes the establishment of vegetation as conditioned by a selection of plant functional types and, optionally, population and land use dynamics as conditioned by land use scenarios specifying technological and dietary constraints for different periods. As such CALEROS is well-suited to investigate the relative impacts of climate, land cover and human activities on the hydrological catchment response and the associated sediment fluxes due to soil erosion and mass movements. Here we use CALEROS to investigate the redistribution of water and sediment across a medium-sized catchment in NE Italy. Starting from the same initial conditions, the catchment is subjected respectively to conditions corresponding to the present-day sub-alpine and montane climates of NE Italy, with and without the introduction of agriculture around 5000 BC. For these two catchments, we establish patterns of co-evolution in soil properties and vegetation under pristine and anthropogenically impacted conditions on a millennium-scale. Using summary statistics to describe the emergent properties, we then delineate areas of uniform morphology and describe the various pathways of development. This information allows us to identify elements of consistent hydrological response and the associated transfer of material across different scales. It also provides essential information on feedbacks and the resulting convergence or divergence in landscape development under the impact of climatic events or human intervention. Although the

  13. Distress in response to emotional and sexual infidelity: evidence of evolved gender differences in Spanish students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Ana Maria; Vera-Villarroel, Pablo; Sierra, Juan Carlos; Zubeidat, Ihab

    2007-01-01

    The authors studied gender differences in response to hypothetical infidelity in Spanish students. Using a forced-choice methodology, the authors asked a sample of 266 participants to indicate which kind of infidelity would be more distressing: emotional or sexual. Men were significantly more distressed by sexual infidelity than were women, and women were significantly more distressed by emotional infidelity than were men. Results supported the hypothesis that particular infidelity types, which resemble adaptive problems that human beings faced in the past, contribute to the psychology of jealousy. The results are consistent with previous cross-cultural research.

  14. Shared and unique responses of plants to multiple individual stresses and stress combinations: physiological and molecular mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi ePandey

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In field conditions, plants are often simultaneously exposed to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses resulting in substantial yield loss. Plants have evolved various physiological and molecular adaptations to protect themselves under stress combinations. Emerging evidences suggest that plant responses to a combination of stresses are unique from individual stress responses. In addition, plants exhibit shared responses which are common to individual stresses and stress combination. In this review, we provide an update on the current understanding of both unique and shared responses. Specific focus of this review is on heat-drought stress as a major abiotic stress combination and, drought-pathogen and heat-pathogen as examples of abiotic-biotic stress combinations. We also comprehend the current understanding of molecular mechanisms of cross talk in relation to shared and unique molecular responses for plant survival under stress combinations. Thus, the knowledge of shared responses of plants from individual stress studies and stress combinations can be utilized to develop varieties with broad spectrum stress tolerance.

  15. Shared and unique responses of plants to multiple individual stresses and stress combinations: physiological and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Prachi; Ramegowda, Venkategowda; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa

    2015-01-01

    In field conditions, plants are often simultaneously exposed to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses resulting in substantial yield loss. Plants have evolved various physiological and molecular adaptations to protect themselves under stress combinations. Emerging evidences suggest that plant responses to a combination of stresses are unique from individual stress responses. In addition, plants exhibit shared responses which are common to individual stresses and stress combination. In this review, we provide an update on the current understanding of both unique and shared responses. Specific focus of this review is on heat-drought stress as a major abiotic stress combination and, drought-pathogen and heat-pathogen as examples of abiotic-biotic stress combinations. We also comprehend the current understanding of molecular mechanisms of cross talk in relation to shared and unique molecular responses for plant survival under stress combinations. Thus, the knowledge of shared responses of plants from individual stress studies and stress combinations can be utilized to develop varieties with broad spectrum stress tolerance.

  16. Physiological Response to Drought Stress at Different Stages in Peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drought is a major factor in reducing productivity in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). The objectives of this study were to: 1) investigate the response patterns of relative water content (RWC), specific leaf area (SLA), and leaf dry mater content (LDMC) to drought stress at three stages of 30 60, and ...

  17. Physiological responses of food animals to road transportation stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stress factors acting on animals during road transportation are numerous and the responses of the animal to them are complex, non-specific and often detrimental to their health and productivity. In spite of the numerous recommendations and guidelines by many countries on the welfare of animal transport order and ...

  18. Production and physiological responses of Italian ryegrass and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ryegrass and clover, when grown under optimal conditions in mixed stands interact in response to available light energy. With other resources non-limiting, pasture production is determined by the efficiency with which solar radiation is intercepted by canopies and converted into dry matter. The aim of this study was to ...

  19. Emotional Responses to Music: Experience, Expression, and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov; Carlsson, Fredrik; Hilmersson, Per; Juslin, Patrik N.

    2009-01-01

    A crucial issue in research on music and emotion is whether music evokes genuine emotional responses in listeners (the emotivist position) or whether listeners merely perceive emotions expressed by the music (the cognitivist position). To investigate this issue, we measured self-reported emotion, facial muscle activity, and autonomic activity in…

  20. Intake and physiological response of Jersey cows to cooling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to evaluate the response of Jersey cows to cooling measures in a hot environment, four cows were subjected to four cooling treatments using a Latin square design. Treatments consists of control (access to shade without extra cooling), cooling with fan, cooling with shower, cooling with fan and shower. Animals ...

  1. Climate response to the meltwater runoff from Greenland ice sheet: evolving sensitivity to discharging locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yonggang; Hallberg, Robert; Sergienko, Olga; Samuels, Bonnie L.; Harrison, Matthew; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) might have lost a large amount of its volume during the last interglacial and may do so again in the future due to climate warming. In this study, we test whether the climate response to the glacial meltwater is sensitive to its discharging location. Two fully coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models, CM2G and CM2M, which have completely different ocean components are employed to do the test. In each experiment, a prescribed freshwater flux of 0.1 Sv is discharged from one of the four locations around Greenland—Petermann, 79 North, Jacobshavn and Helheim glaciers. The results from both models show that the AMOC weakens more when the freshwater is discharged from the northern GIS (Petermann and 79 North) than when it is discharged from the southern GIS (Jacobshavn and Helheim), by 15% (CM2G) and 31% (CM2M) averaged over model year 50-300 (CM2G) and 70-300 (CM2M), respectively. This is due to easier access of the freshwater from northern GIS to the deepwater formation site in the Nordic Seas. In the long term (> 300 year), however, the AMOC change is nearly the same for freshwater discharged from any location of the GIS. The East Greenland current accelerates with time and eventually becomes significantly faster when the freshwater is discharged from the north than from the south. Therefore, freshwater from the north is transported efficiently towards the south first and then circulates back to the Nordic Seas, making its impact to the deepwater formation there similar to the freshwater discharged from the south. The results indicate that the details of the location of meltwater discharge matter if the short-term ( 300 years) climate response is focused upon.

  2. Behavioral and physiological female responses to male sex ratio bias in a pond-breeding amphibian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grayson Kristine L

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The phenomenon of sexual conflict has been well documented, and in populations with biased operational sex ratios the consequences for the rarer sex can be severe. Females are typically a limited resource and males often evolve aggressive mating behaviors, which can improve individual fitness for the male while negatively impacting female condition and fitness. In response, females can adjust their behavior to minimize exposure to aggressive mating tactics or minimize the costs of mating harassment. While male-male competition is common in amphibian mating systems, little is known about the consequences or responses of females. The red-spotted newt (Notophthalmus viridescens is a common pond-breeding amphibian with a complex, well-studied mating system where males aggressively court females. Breeding populations across much of its range have male-biased sex ratios and we predicted that female newts would have behavioral mechanisms to mitigate mating pressure from males. We conducted four experiments examining the costs and behavioral responses of female N. viridescens exposed to a male-biased environment. Results In field enclosures, we found that female newts exposed to a male-biased environment during the five-month breeding season ended with lower body condition compared to those in a female-biased environment. Shorter-term exposure to a male-biased environment for five weeks caused a decrease in circulating total leukocyte and lymphocyte abundance in blood, which suggests females experienced physiological stress. In behavioral experiments, we found that females were more agitated in the presence of male chemical cues and females in a male-biased environment spent more time in refuge than those in a female-biased environment. Conclusions Our results indicate that male-biased conditions can incur costs to females of decreased condition and potentially increased risk of infection. However, we found that females can also

  3. Physiological response of BSC phototrophic community to EPS removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adessi, Alessandra; Cruz de Carvalho, Ricardo; Silvestre, Susana; Rossi, Federico; Mugnai, Gianmarco; Marques da Silva, Jorge; Branquinho, Cristina; De Philippis, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Biological Soil Crusts (BSCs) are associations between soil particles and varying proportions of cyanobacteria, heterotrophic bacteria, algae, fungi, lichens and mosses. BSCs play a major role in soil stabilization, and in drylands have been well acknowledged for mitigating desertification effects. Amongst the wide diversity of organisms that compose BSCs, cyanobacteria are the first primary producers: they colonize nutrient-limited soils, modifying the micro-environment through the excretion of large amounts of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs). EPSs represent a huge carbon and nitrogen source for other inhabitants of the crust, are three-dimensionally spread through the first millimeters of the soil, and have a recognized role in influencing the hydrological behavior of the crust. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role that EPSs play in the physiology of the phototrophic community residing on a light crust (without mosses or lichens, thus mainly inhabited by cyanobacteria and algae). In particular it was investigated whether the three-dimensional matrix in which EPSs are organized allowed light distribution and diffusion inside the crust, thus influencing photosynthesis. Non-invasive techniques were used to extract the polymeric matrix and to analyze photosynthetic performances in native and extracted BSC samples. Preliminary results suggested that the mild extraction protocol allowed to remove a portion of the matrix, and that this treatment revealed highly significant differences in the optical properties of the crusts comparing native and extracted samples. The extraction did not affect cell viability, as samples after the extraction were still photosynthetically active. However, chlorophyll variable fluorescence was significantly lower in the extracted samples than in native ones, and susceptibility to photoinhibition was significantly modified. Evaluating the role of the EPSs in the community is essential to further understand the

  4. Positional synchronization affects physical and physiological responses to preseason in professional football (soccer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folgado, Hugo; Gonçalves, Bruno; Sampaio, Jaime

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to identify changes in tactical, physical and physiological performances in large-sided games during the preseason of elite footballers. Thirty professional football players participated in several GK+8vs.8+GK large-sided games across the first four weeks of the season. Players were monitored by GPS units and heart rate monitors to quantify physical, physiological and tactical performances. The variables were compared according to the preseason period, players' positioning and professional experience. The training situation promoted similar physiological responses during the first and the last training period. However, players were revealed to have higher levels of positional synchronization during the last preseason period, indicating an improved tactical performance. Tactical variables seem to reflect the improvement of players' performance during the preseason, measured in large-sided games situation, while affecting both physical and physiological demands. These results highlight the potential of positioning derived variables, concurrently to physical and physiological variables, for football training optimization.

  5. Genetic Influences on Physiological and Subjective Responses to an Aerobic Exercise Session among Sedentary Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollis C. Karoly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine whether genetic variants suggested by the literature to be associated with physiology and fitness phenotypes predicted differential physiological and subjective responses to a bout of aerobic exercise among inactive but otherwise healthy adults. Method. Participants completed a 30-minute submaximal aerobic exercise session. Measures of physiological and subjective responding were taken before, during, and after exercise. 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that have been previously associated with various exercise phenotypes were tested for associations with physiological and subjective response to exercise phenotypes. Results. We found that two SNPs in the FTO gene (rs8044769 and rs3751812 were related to positive affect change during exercise. Two SNPs in the CREB1 gene (rs2253206 and 2360969 were related to change in temperature during exercise and with maximal oxygen capacity (VO2 max. The SLIT2 SNP rs1379659 and the FAM5C SNP rs1935881 were associated with norepinephrine change during exercise. Finally, the OPRM1 SNP rs1799971 was related to changes in norepinephrine, lactate, and rate of perceived exertion (RPE during exercise. Conclusion. Genetic factors influence both physiological and subjective responses to exercise. A better understanding of genetic factors underlying physiological and subjective responses to aerobic exercise has implications for development and potential tailoring of exercise interventions.

  6. Thermoregulatory responses in exercising rats: methodological aspects and relevance to human physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Samuel Penna; Prímola-Gomes, Thales Nicolau; Pires, Washington; Guimarães, Juliana Bohnen; Hudson, Alexandre Sérvulo Ribeiro; Kunstetter, Ana Cançado; Fonseca, Cletiana Gonçalves; Drummond, Lucas Rios; Damasceno, William Coutinho; Teixeira-Coelho, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Rats are used worldwide in experiments that aim to investigate the physiological responses induced by a physical exercise session. Changes in body temperature regulation, which may affect both the performance and the health of exercising rats, are evident among these physiological responses. Despite the universal use of rats in biomedical research involving exercise, investigators often overlook important methodological issues that hamper the accurate measurement of clear thermoregulatory responses. Moreover, much debate exists regarding whether the outcome of rat experiments can be extrapolated to human physiology, including thermal physiology. Herein, we described the impact of different exercise intensities, durations and protocols and environmental conditions on running-induced thermoregulatory changes. We focused on treadmill running because this type of exercise allows for precise control of the exercise intensity and the measurement of autonomic thermoeffectors associated with heat production and loss. Some methodological issues regarding rat experiments, such as the sites for body temperature measurements and the time of day at which experiments are performed, were also discussed. In addition, we analyzed the influence of a high body surface area-to-mass ratio and limited evaporative cooling on the exercise-induced thermoregulatory responses of running rats and then compared these responses in rats to those observed in humans. Collectively, the data presented in this review represent a reference source for investigators interested in studying exercise thermoregulation in rats. In addition, the present data indicate that the thermoregulatory responses of exercising rats can be extrapolated, with some important limitations, to human thermal physiology.

  7. Physiological Response of Plants to Temporary Changes in Gravity Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, Camilla; Mugnai, Sergio; Masi, Elisa; Azzarello, Elisa; Voigt, Boris; Baluska, Frantisek; Volkmann, Dieter; Mancuso, Stefano

    Gravity is the main factor that influences the direction of growth of plant organs, and has also a direct effect on the plant metabolism. When an organ, mainly roots, is turned by between 0 (vertical) and 90 (horizontal), the change of orientation is perceived by its organs producing the so-called gravitropic reaction, which involves a strong metabolic response. In order to study these reaction in real microgravity conditions, some experiments have been set up during six ESA parabolic flight campaign. Oxygen concentration in the solution, in which roots of Zea mays were placed, have been constantly monitored during normal, hyper-and microgravity conditions. An evident burst in oxygen fluxes started just 2.0 0.5 s after the imposition of microgravity conditions. No significant changes were noticed neither in normal nor in hyper-gravity conditions. These measurements were done using oxymeters, that revealed the onset of long lasting oxygen bursts appearing only during microgravity. Although the chemical nature of these oxygen bursts is still unknown, they may implicate a strong generation of reactive oxygen species as they exactly match the microgravity situation. Thus, our data strongly sug-gest that the sensing mechanism is not related to a general mechano-stress, which was imposed also during hypergravity, but is very specific of the microgravity situation. Moreover, it is well-known that stress rapidly induces reactive oxygen bursts which are associated with oxygen influx and reactive oxygen efflux from stressed plant tissues. Accordingly, our data indicate that microgravity represents a stress situation for plants, especially for root apices, and these bursts, probably ROS, are initiating and integrating adaptive responses of plant roots which resemble other unrelated stress situations. To validate this hypothesis we added to our ex-perimental set-up two very sensitive selective microelectrodes for H2 O2 and NO, and, even if the parabolic flights are not

  8. Excluded and behaving unethically: social exclusion, physiological responses, and unethical behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouchaki, Maryam; Wareham, Justin

    2015-03-01

    Across 2 studies, we investigated the ethical consequences of physiological responses to social exclusion. In Study 1, participants who were socially excluded were more likely to engage in unethical behavior to make money and the level of physiological arousal experienced during exclusion--measured using galvanic skin response--mediated the effects of exclusion on unethical behavior. Likewise, in Study 2, results from a sample of supervisor-subordinate dyads revealed a positive relationship between experience of workplace ostracism and unethical behaviors as rated by the immediate supervisors. This relationship was mediated by employees' reports of experienced physiological arousal. Together, the results of these studies demonstrate that physiological arousal accompanies social exclusion and provides an explanatory mechanism for the increased unethical behavior in both samples. Theoretical implications of these findings for research on ethical behavior and social exclusion in the workplace are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Renal response to acute acid loading--an organ physiological approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Engel, K; Kildeberg, P

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In previous studies of the renal response to acute NH4Cl acidosis no correlation was found between systemic acid-base status and the traditionally used quantity, renal net acid excretion (NAE). If NAE is to be considered a physiologically meaningful quantity then this is surprising......, as the extracellular acid-base status would be expected to be the key physiological trigger for renal NAE. The object of this study was to investigate the renal response to acute non-carbonic acid loading using a quantitative organ physiological approach. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five-h NH4Cl loading studies were...... from bone contributed substantially to the current net extrarenal NA input. CONCLUSION: From a physiological point of view, NB can be regarded as the actual substrate for renal acid-base control, and measurement of renal turnover of NB may give a more precise description of renal acid-base metabolism...

  10. Individual differences in behavioral and physiological responses to restraint stress in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geverink, N.A.; Schouten, W.G.P.; Gort, G.; Wiegant, V.M.

    2002-01-01

    Several recent studies on pigs have demonstrated a relationship between the degree of resistance displayed early in life in a so-called backtest and a variety of behavioural and physiological responses in piglets and young fattening pigs. To study whether pigs with diverging responses in the

  11. Cognitive aspects underlying pain and neuro-physiological responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Bedinoto Durgante

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La Psicología de la Salud ha investigado intensamente los posibles factores cognitivos implicados en, o responsables de, bienestar físico, emocional y comportamental de los individuos. Los estudios sobre el dolor se abordaron como un factor importante de preocupación en este ámbito, debido a que la construcción depende de diferencias individuales y susceptibles de poseer interpretaciones de los sujetos. Investigaciones han identificado que diferentes mecanismos cognitivos juegan un papel en los relatos de señales de dolor de los individuos a. El impacto de la cognición en la percepción del dolor de individuos puede incluso provocar respuestas neurológicas, que en algu - nos casos podrían evitarse mediante el uso de ciertas estrategias cognitivas. Este artículo describe los principales aspectos y procesos cognitivos del dolor y las res - puestas neurofisiológicas.

  12. Physiological responses to folate overproduction in Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vos Ric CH

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using a functional genomics approach we addressed the impact of folate overproduction on metabolite formation and gene expression in Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. We focused specifically on the mechanism that reduces growth rates in folate-overproducing cells. Results Metabolite formation and gene expression were determined in a folate-overproducing- and wild-type strain. Differential metabolomics analysis of intracellular metabolite pools indicated that the pool sizes of 18 metabolites differed significantly between these strains. The gene expression profile was determined for both strains in pH-regulated chemostat culture and batch culture. Apart from the expected overexpression of the 6 genes of the folate gene cluster, no other genes were found to be differentially expressed both in continuous and batch cultures. The discrepancy between the low transcriptome and metabolome response and the 25% growth rate reduction of the folate overproducing strain was further investigated. Folate production per se could be ruled out as a contributing factor, since in the absence of folate production the growth rate of the overproducer was also reduced by 25%. The higher metabolic costs for DNA and RNA biosynthesis in the folate overproducing strain were also ruled out. However, it was demonstrated that folate-specific mRNAs and proteins constitute 8% and 4% of the total mRNA and protein pool, respectively. Conclusion Folate overproduction leads to very little change in metabolite levels or overall transcript profile, while at the same time the growth rate is reduced drastically. This shows that Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 is unable to respond to this growth rate reduction, most likely because the growth-related transcripts and proteins are diluted by the enormous amount of gratuitous folate-related transcripts and proteins.

  13. Physiological and biochemical response to high temperature stress in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayamanesh, Shahnoosh; Keitel, Claudia; Ahmad, Nabil; Trethowan, Richard

    2016-04-01

    High temperature has been shown to lower the growth and yield of Okra, an important summer vegetable crop grown in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Australia. We aimed to characterise the physiological and biochemical response of Okra to heat stress. 150 genotypes from Pakistan and the AVRDC (The World Vegetable Centre) were screened for their physiological response (fluorescence, electrolyte leakage and yield) to heat in a greenhouse. Four genotypes (including heat tolerant and sensitive) were selected and subsequently grown in control and hot greenhouses. Daytime temperatures were on average 10°C warmer in the hot greenhouse, whereas nighttime temperatures were similar between the two temperature treatments. During a 12 week period, the physiological (assimilation rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, fluorescence, electrolyte leakage, water potential) and biochemical (carbohydrates, sugar alcohols, C content) response of the four genotypes to heat stress was assessed. The effect of heat stress on the C allocation patterns and yield in Okra will be discussed.

  14. What can an ecophysiological approach tell us about the physiological responses of marine invertebrates to hypoxia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, John I

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia (low O2) is a common and natural feature of many marine environments. However, human-induced hypoxia has been on the rise over the past half century and is now recognised as a major problem in the world's seas and oceans. Whilst we have information on how marine invertebrates respond physiologically to hypoxia in the laboratory, we still lack understanding of how they respond to such stress in the wild (now and in the future). Consequently, here the question 'what can an ecophysiological approach tell us about physiological responses of marine invertebrates to hypoxia' is addressed. How marine invertebrates work in the wild when challenged with hypoxia is explored using four case studies centred on different hypoxic environments. The recent integration of the various -omics into ecophysiology is discussed, and a number of advantages of, and challenges to, successful integration are suggested. The case studies and -omic/physiology integration data are used to inform the concluding part of the review, where it is suggested that physiological responses to hypoxia in the wild are not always the same as those predicted from laboratory experiments. This is due to behaviour in the wild modifying responses, and therefore more than one type of 'experimental' approach is essential to reliably determine the actual response. It is also suggested that assuming it is known what a measured response is 'for' can be misleading and that taking parodies of ecophysiology seriously may impede research progress. This review finishes with the suggestion that an -omics approach is, and is becoming, a powerful method of understanding the response of marine invertebrates to environmental hypoxia and may be an ideal way of studying hypoxic responses in the wild. Despite centring on physiological responses to hypoxia, the review hopefully serves as a contribution to the discussion of what (animal) ecophysiology looks like (or should look like) in the 21st century.

  15. Predator-induced physiological responses in tadpoles challenged with herbicide pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo BURRACO, Lidia Jiménez DUARTE, Ivan GOMEZ-MESTRE

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Predators induce plastic responses in multiple prey taxa, ranging from morphological to behavioral or physiological changes. In amphibians, tadpoles activate plastic responses to reduce predation risk by reducing their activity rate and altering their morphology, specifically tail depth and pigmentation. Furthermore, there is now evidence that tadpoles’ defenses are modified when predators combine with other stressful factors such as pollutants or competitors, but our knowledge on the physiological responses underlying these responses is still scarce. Here we study physiological responses in Pelobates cultripes tadpoles exposed to a natural predator (larvae of the aquatic beetle Dytiscus circumflexus, non-lethal concentrations of herbicide (glyphosate, 0.5 mg/L and 1.0 mg/L or both factors combined. We measured corticosterone levels, standard metabolic rate, oxidative damage (TBARS and activity of antioxidant enzymes, and immune response (via leukocyte count. Tadpoles reduced their corticosterone concentration by ca. 24% in the presence of predator cues, whereas corticosterone did not change in the presence of glyphosate. Two enzymes involved in antioxidant response also decreased in the presence of predators (14.7% and 13.2% respectively but not to glyphosate. Herbicide, however, increased the number of neutrophils and reduced that of lymphocytes, and had an interaction effect with predator presence. Standard metabolic rate did not vary across treatments in our experiment. Thus we show a marked physiological response to the presence of predators but little evidence for interaction between predators and low levels of herbicide. Multiple assessment of the physiological state of animals is important to understand the basis and consequences of phenotypic plasticity [Current Zoology 59 (4: 475–484, 2013].

  16. Evolving Concepts of Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Anuradha; Wenzel, Sally E.

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of asthma has evolved over time from a singular disease to a complex of various phenotypes, with varied natural histories, physiologies, and responses to treatment. Early therapies treated most patients with asthma similarly, with bronchodilators and corticosteroids, but these therapies had varying degrees of success. Similarly, despite initial studies that identified an underlying type 2 inflammation in the airways of patients with asthma, biologic therapies targeted toward these type 2 pathways were unsuccessful in all patients. These observations led to increased interest in phenotyping asthma. Clinical approaches, both biased and later unbiased/statistical approaches to large asthma patient cohorts, identified a variety of patient characteristics, but they also consistently identified the importance of age of onset of disease and the presence of eosinophils in determining clinically relevant phenotypes. These paralleled molecular approaches to phenotyping that developed an understanding that not all patients share a type 2 inflammatory pattern. Using biomarkers to select patients with type 2 inflammation, repeated trials of biologics directed toward type 2 cytokine pathways saw newfound success, confirming the importance of phenotyping in asthma. Further research is needed to clarify additional clinical and molecular phenotypes, validate predictive biomarkers, and identify new areas for possible interventions. PMID:26161792

  17. Physiological Responses to Salinity Vary with Proximity to the Ocean in a Coastal Amphibian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Gareth R; Brodie, Edmund D; Neuman-Lee, Lorin A; Mohammadi, Shabnam; Brusch, George A; Hopkins, Zoë M; French, Susannah S

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater organisms are increasingly exposed to elevated salinity in their habitats, presenting physiological challenges to homeostasis. Amphibians are particularly vulnerable to osmotic stress and yet are often subject to high salinity in a variety of inland and coastal environments around the world. Here, we examine the physiological responses to elevated salinity of rough-skinned newts (Taricha granulosa) inhabiting a coastal stream on the Pacific coast of North America and compare the physiological responses to salinity stress of newts living in close proximity to the ocean with those of newts living farther upstream. Although elevated salinity significantly affected the osmotic (body weight, plasma osmolality), stress (corticosterone), and immune (bactericidal ability) responses of newts, animals found closer to the ocean were generally less reactive to salt stress than those found farther upstream. Our results provide possible evidence for some physiological tolerance in this species to elevated salinity in coastal environments. As freshwater environments become increasingly saline and more stressful, understanding the physiological tolerances of vulnerable groups such as amphibians will become increasingly important to our understanding of their abilities to respond, to adapt, and, ultimately, to survive.

  18. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF DWARF COCONUT PLANTS UNDER WATER DEFICIT IN SALT - AFFECTED SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRE REUBER ALMEIDA DA SILVA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the physiological acclimation responses of young plants of the dwarf coconut cultivar ̳Jiqui Green‘ associated with tolerance to conditions of multiple abiotic stresses (drought and soil salinity, acting either independently or in combination. The study was conducted under controlled conditions and evaluated the following parameters: leaf gas exchange, quantum yield of chlorophyll a fluorescence, and relative contents of total chlorophyll (SPAD index. The experiment was conducted under a randomized block experimental design, in a split plot arrangement. In the plots, plants were exposed to different levels of water stress, by imposing potential crop evapotranspiration replacement levels equivalent to 100%, 80%, 60%, 40%, and 20%, whereas in subplots, plants were exposed to different levels of soil salinity (1.72, 6.25, 25.80, and 40.70 dS m - 1 . Physiological mechanisms were effectively limited when water deficit and salinity acted separately and/or together. Compared with soil salinity, water stress was more effective in reducing the measured physiological parameters. The magnitudes of the responses of plants to water supply and salinity depended on the intensity of stress and evaluation period. The physiological acclimation responses of plants were mainly related to stomatal regulation. The coconut tree has a number of physiological adjustment mechanisms that give the species partial tolerance to drought stress and/or salt, thereby enabling it to revegetate salinated areas, provided that its water requirements are at least partially met.

  19. Gender comparison of physiologic and perceptual responses in recreational marathon runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Mark; Sothern, Melinda; Tuuri, Georgianna; Tompkins, Connie; Koss, Cathie; Bonis, Marc

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this investigation was to compare gender differences in physiologic and perceptual responses during a 1-h run at recent marathon pace and running economy at three speeds in recreational marathon runners. In a counterbalanced design, 10 men and 10 women completed a 1-h treadmill run and a running economy test. Treadmill speed for the 1-h run ranged from 141 to 241 mmin(-1) and 134, 168, and 188 m x min(-1) for running economy. Physiologic parameters (oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production, pulmonary ventilation, and heart rate) and perceived exertion were measured. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare any gender differences (P body composition, and maximal physiologic function was reported. With the exception of an allometric expression of VO2 (mL x min(-1) kg BW(-0.75)), similar gender physiologic and perceptual responses were found during the 1-h run. Although not significant, the females exercised at a higher percent VO2(max) (8% to 9%) during the run. Similar gender differences were also noted during the running economy tests. Although the male runners completed a recent marathon significantly faster than the females, similar gender physiologic and perceptual responses were generally found during the 1-h treadmill run and the running economy tests.

  20. Subjective and Physiological Responses to Music Stimuli Controlled Over Activity and Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga; Moroki

    1999-01-01

    Results of physiological responses to music are inconclusive considering results of several studies, probably due to the insufficient control of the musical stimuli. The present study aimed to examine the effects of music type and preference on subjective and physiological responses using controlled stimuli by subjects' evaluations for music activity and preference. Subjects were 47 undergraduate students selected from a pool of 145 undergraduates. Results of evaluations of music activity and music preference for musical stimuli in preliminary research determined participation in the study. The music used in this study included the 4th movement of Tchaikovsky's Symphony No. 4 as an excitative piece and the 3rd movement of Mahler's Symphony No. 6 as a sedative one. The excitative music aroused feelings of vigor and tension more than did the sedative one, while sedative music eased tension. Favorite music, regardless of music type, lowered subjective tension. Physiological responses (heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure) were greater during excitative music than during sedative music. Music preference did not, however, affect physiological responses. These results indicate that the dominant factor affecting emotional response was music type but not preference.

  1. EFFECT OF AN ON-SIGHT LEAD ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO ROCK CLIMBING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Draper

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Rock climbing is a multi-discipline activity that encompasses forms such as bouldering, top roping and lead climbing on natural and artificial climbing surfaces. A major focus of research has been explanation of physiological functioning. More recent research indicates that anxiety levels are elevated for less experienced climbers and in response to lead climbing ascents. Research regarding the demands of rock climbing has placed a lesser focus on the interaction of psychological and physiological factors. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of an on-sight lead climb on the physiological and psychological demands of the climb in comparison with a subsequent lead climb. Ten intermediate level climbers volunteered to complete the two climbing trials, on-sight lead climb (OSLC and second lead climb (LC2. Climb time, lactate concentrations (baseline, pre climb, post climb and 15 min post climb, heart rate (1 min pre climb, peak HR, 1 min post climb and average climb across the duration of the climb, oxygen consumption, pre climb anxiety (CSAI-2R were assessed for each climber for both trials. Results indicated that there were significant differences in self reported pre climb somatic and cognitive anxiety (t(9 = 2.79, p = 0.01, t(9 = 1.94, p = 0.043, climb time (t(9 = 3.07, p = 0.0052 and post climb lactate concentrations between the climbs (t(9 = 2.58, p = 0.015. These results indicate that psychological as well as physiological stress impact upon the response to rock climbing. The higher anxiety levels associated with an OSLC are likely to have influenced the physiological responses for the intermediate climbers in this study. Future studies should take into account the type of climbing, experience of climbers and the number of ascents as well as taking into account the interaction between physiological and psychological factors in response to rock climbing

  2. Major Crop Species Show Differential Balance between Root Morphological and Physiological Responses to Variable Phosphorus Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Yang; Tang, Hongliang; Li, Haigang; Zhang, Fusuo; Rengel, Zed; Whalley, William R.; Shen, Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between root morphological and physiological responses to variable P supply in different plant species is poorly understood. We compared root morphological and physiological responses to P supply in seven crop species (Zea mays, Triticum aestivum, Brassica napus, Lupinus albus, Glycine max, Vicia faba, Cicer arietinum) treated with or without 100 mg P kg-1 in two soils (acidic and calcareous). Phosphorus deficiency decreased root length more in fibrous root species (Zea mays, Triticum aestivum, Brassica napus) than legumes. Zea mays and Triticum aestivum had higher root/shoot biomass ratio and Brassica napus had higher specific root length compared to legumes, whereas legumes (except soybean) had higher carboxylate exudation than fibrous root species. Lupinus albus exhibited the highest P-acquisition efficiency due to high exudation of carboxylates and acid phosphatases. Lupinus albus and Cicer arietinum depended mostly on root exudation (i.e., physiological response) to enhance P acquisition, whereas Zea mays, Triticum aestivum and Brassica napus had higher root morphology dependence, with Glycine max and Vicia faba in between. Principal component analysis using six morphological and six physiological responses identified root size and diameter as the most important morphological traits, whereas important physiological responses included carboxylate exudation, and P-acquisition and P-utilization efficiency followed by rhizosphere soil pH and acid phosphatase activity. In conclusion, plant species can be grouped on the basis of their response to soil P being primarily via root architectural or exudation plasticity, suggesting a potential benefit of crop-specific root-trait-based management to cope with variable soil P supply in sustainable grain production. PMID:28066491

  3. Growth and physiological responses to varied environments among populations of Pinus ponderosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianwei Zhang; Bert M. Cregg

    2005-01-01

    We investigated population responses in physiology, morphology, and growth of mature Pinus ponderosa trees to an environmental gradient across Nebraska, USA. Ten populations from western Nebraska and eastern Wyoming were grown in three 26-year-old provenance tests from the warmest and wettest site in the east (Plattsmouth) to the intermediate site in...

  4. Physiological response cascade of spring wheat to soil warming and drought

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weldearegay, Dawit Fisseha; Yan, F.; Rasmussen, Søren Kjærsgaard

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is affecting wheat production in Northern Europe; in particular, drought and soil warming during anthesis may cause significant yield losses of the crop. In a search for genotypes tolerant to these stresses, the physiological responses of three spring wheat cultivars to increased...

  5. Physiological and Perceived Responses in Different Levels of Exergames in Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Louisa Ming Yan; Sun, Feng Hua; Cheng, Chris Tsz Man

    2017-02-01

    Exergames have been suggested to increase the public's physical activity and to benefit cardiovascular health, particularly among the youth. However, not many studies compared the physiological and perceived responses between exergames and the authentic sports especially for elite athletes. This study aimed to investigate the physiological and perceived responses in different levels of Nintendo® Wii Fit™ U rowing exergames in one group of elite rowing athletes. All participants were asked to perform the authentic rowing on the indoor rowing machine on the first day and to play the rowing exergames on the second day, in three levels with 1 hour rest between levels. Oxygen consumption (VO2), lactate concentration, heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and muscle soreness scale (MSS) of the elite athletes were measured in three levels of rowing exergames and were compared with those measured in indoor rowing. Percentages of HR ranged from 57% to 64% and from 67% to 82% of peak HR in males and females, respectively. Percentages of RPE and MSS obtained from the three levels of rowing exergames ranged from 34% to 55% and from 2% to 33% of the peak RPE and the peak MSS, respectively, in authentic rowing. Physiological and perceived responses of elite rowing athletes could not reach their highest response in authentic rowing even for the hard level of exergames. This study contributed direct data on the physiological benefits of exergames against authentic rowing.

  6. Plant physiological response of strawberry fruit to chlorine dioxide gas treatment during postharvest storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorine dioxide, a strong oxidizing and sanitizing agent, is used as a postharvest sanitizer for fruits and vegetables and generally applied on a packing line using a chlorine dioxide generator. The objective of this research was to study the physiological responses of strawberries to ClO2 when app...

  7. Stressed out? Associations between perceived and physiological stress responses in adolescents : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ormel, Johan; Bosch, Nienke M.; Bouma, Esther M. C.; Van Roon, Arie M.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.; Riese, Harriette

    Studies regarding the interrelation of perceived and physiological stress indices have shown diverging results. Using a population sample of adolescents (N=715, 50.9% girls, mean age 16.11 years, SD=0.59), we tested three hypotheses: (1) perceived responses during social stress covary with

  8. Physiological Response and Childhood Anxiety: Association With Symptoms of Anxiety Disorders and Cognitive Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Carl F.; Zakem, Alan H.; Costa, Natalie M.; Cannon, Melinda F.; Watts, Sarah E.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the physiological response (skin conductance and heart rate [HR]) of youth exposed to a mildly phobic stimulus (video of a large dog) and its relation to child- and parent-reported anxiety symptoms and cognitive bias in a community-recruited sample of youth (n = 49). The results of this study indicated that HR and…

  9. Predicting individual responses to pravastatin using a physiologically based kinetic model for plasma cholesterol levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, van de N.C.A.; Rullmann, J.; Woutersen, R.A.; Ommen, van B.; Rietjens, I.; Graaf, de A.A.

    2014-01-01

    We used a previously developed physiologically based kinetic (PBK) model to analyze the effect of individual variations in metabolism and transport of cholesterol on pravastatin response. The PBK model is based on kinetic expressions for 21 reactions that interconnect eight different body

  10. Predicting individual responses to pravastatin using a physiologically based kinetic model for plasma cholesterol concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, N.C.A. van de; Rullmann, J.A.C.; Woutersen, R.A.; Ommen, B. van; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Graaf, A.A. de

    2014-01-01

    We used a previously developed physiologically based kinetic (PBK) model to analyze the effect of individual variations in metabolism and transport of cholesterol on pravastatin response. The PBK model is based on kinetic expressions for 21 reactions that interconnect eight different body

  11. Physiological responses in rock climbing with repeated ascents over a 10-week period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espana-Romero, Vanesa; Jensen, Randall L.; Sanchez, Xavier; Ostrowski, Megan L.; Szekely, Jay E.; Watts, Phillip B.

    The purpose was to analyze the physiological responses and energy expenditure during repeated ascents of the same climbing route over a 10-week period. Nine climbers completed nine ascents of a specific route spaced 1 week apart. Expired air was analyzed continuously during each ascent, and time of

  12. Physiological responses of Macoma balthica to copper pollution in the Baltic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokolowski, A.; Wolowicz, M.; Hummel, H.; Bogaards, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    Physiological and behavioral responses to Cu exposure were measured in the Baltic clam Macoma balthica from the Gulf of Gdansk, southern Baltic Sea. The burrowing activity, mortality rate, glycogen content, condition index and free amino acid (FAA) composition were analysed as indicators of stress

  13. Seedling Growth and Physiological Responses of Sixteen Eucalypt Taxa under Controlled Water Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo H. M. Silva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We assessed growth and physiological responses of Eucalyptus and Corymbia species to water limitation aiming to widen possibilities for plantations in dry climatic conditions. We selected 16 taxa: 4 Corymbia and 12 Eucalyptus species from the Subgenera Symphyomyrtus. Seedlings were evaluated from 100 to 170 days after sowing. Growth and physiological traits showed significant differences among taxa and between two levels of water availability. Water limitation significantly impacted biomass production and physiological characteristics, however in different levels. Leaf area and biomass production decreased 15%–48% under water limitation among taxa. Eucalyptus moluccana, CCV 2, and VM1 (drought tolerant clone showed the largest decrease in leaf area. Transpiration across taxa decreased 30%–57% and photosynthesis 14%–48% under water limited condition. Taxa from cold environments were less responsive in leaf area reduction under water limitation, and taxa from Exsertaria section showed lower reduction in photosynthesis (E. camaldulensis showed the lowest reduction. Responses to water limitation are related to the environment of origin. E. molucana, the only Adnataria species from a high precipitation region (>1500 mm year−1, was one of the most sensitive in reduction of biomass production, different behavior from the other Adnataria species, originated in regions with rainfall <750 mm year−1. Water limitation increased leaf-level water use efficiency by 18% on average, 8% in E. longirostrata, and 28% in E. camaldulensis, E. brassiana, and E. crebra. Growth and physiological responses observed show the potential of different eucalypts taxa to tolerate water limited environments.

  14. The association between parenting behavior and somatization in adolescents explained by physiological responses in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rousseau, Sofie; Grietens, Hans; Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Hoppenbrouwers, Karel; Wiersema, Jan R.; Baetens, Imke; Vos, Pieter; Van Leeuwen, Karla

    Introduction: This study adds to the knowledge on somatization in adolescents by exploring its relation with parenting behavior and the mediating/moderating role of physiological responses in adolescents to parenting behavior. Method: Eighteen adolescents with high and 18 adolescents with low

  15. Physiological responses of planting frozen and thawed Douglas-fir seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Anisul Islam; Kent G. Apostol; Douglass F. Jacobs; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2008-01-01

    We studied the short-term (7-day) physiological responses of planting thawed and frozen root plugs of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) seedlings in 2 separate experiments under cool-moist and warm-dry growing conditions, respectively. Our results showed that shoot water potential, root hydraulic conductance, net photosynthesis (A), and...

  16. The effects of autism and alexithymia on physiological and verbal responsiveness to music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Rory; Davis, Rob; Hill, Elisabeth

    2013-02-01

    It has been suggested that individuals with autism will be less responsive to the emotional content of music than typical individuals. With the aim of testing this hypothesis, a group of high-functioning adults on the autism spectrum was compared with a group of matched controls on two measures of emotional responsiveness to music, comprising physiological and verbal measures. Impairment in participants ability to verbalize their emotions (type-II alexithymia) was also assessed. The groups did not differ significantly on physiological responsiveness, but the autism group was significantly lower on the verbal measure. However, inclusion of the alexithymia score as a mediator variable nullified this group difference, suggesting that the difference was due not to absence of underlying emotional responsiveness to music in autism, but to a reduced ability to articulate it.

  17. Effect of an on-sight lead on the physiological and psychological responses to rock climbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Nick; Jones, Glenys A; Fryer, Simon; Hodgson, Chris; Blackwell, Gavin

    2008-01-01

    Rock climbing is a multi-discipline activity that encompasses forms such as bouldering, top roping and lead climbing on natural and artificial climbing surfaces. A major focus of research has been explanation of physiological functioning. More recent research indicates that anxiety levels are elevated for less experienced climbers and in response to lead climbing ascents. Research regarding the demands of rock climbing has placed a lesser focus on the interaction of psychological and physiological factors. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of an on-sight lead climb on the physiological and psychological demands of the climb in comparison with a subsequent lead climb. Ten intermediate level climbers volunteered to complete the two climbing trials, on-sight lead climb (OSLC) and second lead climb (LC2). Climb time, lactate concentrations (baseline, pre climb, post climb and 15 min post climb), heart rate (1 min pre climb, peak HR, 1 min post climb and average climb across the duration of the climb), oxygen consumption, pre climb anxiety (CSAI-2R) were assessed for each climber for both trials. Results indicated that there were significant differences in self reported pre climb somatic and cognitive anxiety (t(9) = 2.79, p = 0.01, t(9) = 1.94, p = 0.043), climb time (t(9) = 3.07, p = 0.0052) and post climb lactate concentrations between the climbs (t(9) = 2.58, p = 0.015). These results indicate that psychological as well as physiological stress impact upon the response to rock climbing. The higher anxiety levels associated with an OSLC are likely to have influenced the physiological responses for the intermediate climbers in this study. Future studies should take into account the type of climbing, experience of climbers and the number of ascents as well as taking into account the interaction between physiological and psychological factors in response to rock climbing. Key pointsFor intermediate climbers, there are significant differences in

  18. Physiology response of the indigenous cattle breeds to the environment in West Sumbawa, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aritonang, S. B.; Yuniati, R.; Abinawanto, Imron, M.; Bowolaksono, A.

    2017-07-01

    Heat stress in cattle welfare is a growing concern because of increase in ambient temperature due to global warming. Physiological adaptation is as a way to survive and reproduce by regulation internal body temperature. West Sumbawa is a dry tropic area in eastern Indonesia where its temperature range is 24-38 °C and relative humidity is 50-90 %. This study aimed to determine the physiological response of indigenous cattle i.e. Bali cattle and Sumbawa Ongole cattle to the environment in West Sumbawa. Skin and rectal temperature and respiration rate within one minute were measured as physiology profiles from seven Bali cattle and two Sumbawa Ongole cattle. They were measured every 7.00 am and 15.00 pm for five consecutive days in August 2016. The results of measurements physiology profiles differ significantly between morning and afternoon among cattle breeds. Body temperature and respiration rate were significantly different among breeds (p temperature was lower but respiration rate of Sumbawa Ongole was higher than Bali cattle. Increased respiration rate of breeds was positively correlated with Temperature and Humidity Index (THI) value (p temperature. Physiological response of Bali cattle to environmental West Sumbawa through the increase in body temperature, whereas Sumbawa Ongole cattle through increasing in respiration rate.

  19. Determinants and short-term physiological consequences of PHA immune response in lesser kestrel nestlings

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Airam; Broggi, Juli; Alcaide, Miguel; Negro, Juan J.; Figuerola, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Individual immune responses are likely affected by genetic, physiological, and environmental determinants. We studied the determinants and short-term consequences of Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) induced immune response, a commonly used immune challenge eliciting both innate and acquired immunity, on lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) nestlings in semi-captivity conditions and with a homogeneous diet composition. We conducted a repeated measures analyses of a set of blood parameters (carotenoids, tr...

  20. Physiological responses of reared sea bream (Sparus aurata Linnaeus, 1758) to an Amyloodinium ocellatum outbreak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreira, M.; Schrama, D.; Soares, F.

    2017-01-01

    about the host responses to A. ocellatum infestation is scarce. In this work, we analysed the proteome of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) plasma and relate it with haematological and immunological indicators, in order to enlighten the different physiological responses when exposed to an A....... ocellatum outbreak. Using 2D-DIGE, immunological and haematological analysis and in response to the A. ocellatum contamination we have identified several proteins associated with acute-phase response, inflammation, lipid transport, homoeostasis, and osmoregulation, wound healing, neoplasia and iron transport...

  1. Subjective and physiological emotional response in euthymic bipolar patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Mathieu; Aguillon-Hernandez, Nadia; Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique; Martineau, Joëlle; El-Hage, Wissam

    2014-12-15

    The euthymic phase of bipolar disorders may be associated with residual emotional and/or subsyndromal symptoms. The aim of this study was to compare subjective and physiologic emotional response to negative, neutral and positive emotion eliciting pictures between euthymic bipolar patients (n=26) and healthy controls (n=30). We evaluated emotional response using an emotional induction method with emotional pictures from the International Affective Picture System. We measured subjective emotional response with the Self-Assessment Manikin and physiological emotional response by measuring pupil size. No difference was found between euthymic bipolar patients and controls regarding subjective emotional response. However, upon viewing positive pictures, pupil dilation was significantly lower in euthymic bipolar patients compared to controls. This finding suggests that euthymic bipolar phase may be associated with reduced physiologic emotional response to positive valence, which is consistent with a more general negative emotional bias or can be understood as a residual emotional subsyndromal symptom. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ancestry trumps experience: Transgenerational but not early life stress affects the adult physiological stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Gail L; Robbins, Travis R; Cavigelli, Sonia A; Langkilde, Tracy

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to stressors can affect an organism's physiology and behavior as well as that of its descendants (e.g. through maternal effects, epigenetics, and/or selection). We examined the relative influence of early life vs. transgenerational stress exposure on adult stress physiology in a species that has populations with and without ancestral exposure to an invasive predator. We raised offspring of eastern fence lizards (Sceloporus undulatus) from sites historically invaded (high stress) or uninvaded (low stress) by predatory fire ants (Solenopsis invicta) and determined how this different transgenerational exposure to stress interacted with the effects of early life stress exposure to influence the physiological stress response in adulthood. Offspring from these high- and low-stress populations were exposed weekly to either sub-lethal attack by fire ants (an ecologically relevant stressor), topical treatment with a physiologically-appropriate dose of the stress-relevant hormone, corticosterone (CORT), or a control treatment from 2 to 43weeks of age. Several months after treatments ended, we quantified plasma CORT concentrations at baseline and following restraint, exposure to fire ants, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) injection. Exposure to fire ants or CORT during early life did not affect lizard stress physiology in adulthood. However, offspring of lizards from populations that had experienced multiple generations of fire ant-invasion exhibited more robust adult CORT responses to restraint and ACTH-injection compared to offspring from uninvaded populations. Together, these results indicate that transgenerational stress history may be at least as important, if not more important, than early life stress in affecting adult physiological stress responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Physiological responses to four hours of low-level repetitive work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, A Helene; Hansen, Åse Marie; Jensen, Bente R

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The study investigated physiological responses to 4 hours of standardized low-level repetitive work. It was hypothesized that accumulative effects not observed after 1 hour could be found after 4 hours of repetitive work. METHODS: Ten healthy women performed intermittent (5 seconds + 5...... the 4 hours. In accordance, the RPE recorded for the hand, forearm, and shoulder regions increased progressively. For the remaining physiological measures, no accumulative changes were found. Forearm muscle activity was higher during a mental reference task with lower exerted force than during...

  4. Metabolomics of Ramadan fasting: an opportunity for the controlled study of physiological responses to food intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput screening techniques that analyze the metabolic endpoints of biological processes can identify the contributions of genetic predisposition and environmental factors to the development of common diseases. Studies applying controlled physiological challenges can reveal dysregulation in metabolic responses that may be predictive for or associated with these diseases. However, large-scale epidemiological studies with well controlled physiological challenge conditions, such as extended fasting periods and defined food intake, pose logistic challenges. Culturally and religiously motivated behavioral patterns of life style changes provide a natural setting that can be used to enroll a large number of study volunteers. Here we report a proof of principle study conducted within a Muslim community, showing that a metabolomics study during the Holy Month of Ramadan can provide a unique opportunity to explore the pre-prandial and postprandial response of human metabolism to nutritional challenges. Up to five blood samples were obtained from eleven healthy male volunteers, taken directly before and two hours after consumption of a controlled meal in the evening on days 7 and 26 of Ramadan, and after an over-night fast several weeks after Ramadan. The observed increases in glucose, insulin and lactate levels at the postprandial time point confirm the expected physiological response to food intake. Targeted metabolomics further revealed significant and physiologically plausible responses to food intake by an increase in bile acid and amino acid levels and a decrease in long-chain acyl-carnitine and polyamine levels. A decrease in the concentrations of a number of phospholipids between samples taken on days 7 and 26 of Ramadan shows that the long-term response to extended fasting may differ from the response to short-term fasting. The present study design is scalable to larger populations and may be extended to the study of the metabolic response in defined patient

  5. Metabolomics of Ramadan fasting: an opportunity for the controlled study of physiological responses to food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Sweety; Krug, Susanne; Skurk, Thomas; Halama, Anna; Stank, Antonia; Artati, Anna; Prehn, Cornelia; Malek, Joel A; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Römisch-Margl, Werner; Adamski, Jerzy; Hauner, Hans; Suhre, Karsten

    2014-06-06

    High-throughput screening techniques that analyze the metabolic endpoints of biological processes can identify the contributions of genetic predisposition and environmental factors to the development of common diseases. Studies applying controlled physiological challenges can reveal dysregulation in metabolic responses that may be predictive for or associated with these diseases. However, large-scale epidemiological studies with well controlled physiological challenge conditions, such as extended fasting periods and defined food intake, pose logistic challenges. Culturally and religiously motivated behavioral patterns of life style changes provide a natural setting that can be used to enroll a large number of study volunteers. Here we report a proof of principle study conducted within a Muslim community, showing that a metabolomics study during the Holy Month of Ramadan can provide a unique opportunity to explore the pre-prandial and postprandial response of human metabolism to nutritional challenges. Up to five blood samples were obtained from eleven healthy male volunteers, taken directly before and two hours after consumption of a controlled meal in the evening on days 7 and 26 of Ramadan, and after an over-night fast several weeks after Ramadan. The observed increases in glucose, insulin and lactate levels at the postprandial time point confirm the expected physiological response to food intake. Targeted metabolomics further revealed significant and physiologically plausible responses to food intake by an increase in bile acid and amino acid levels and a decrease in long-chain acyl-carnitine and polyamine levels. A decrease in the concentrations of a number of phospholipids between samples taken on days 7 and 26 of Ramadan shows that the long-term response to extended fasting may differ from the response to short-term fasting. The present study design is scalable to larger populations and may be extended to the study of the metabolic response in defined patient

  6. Transforming Water: Social Influence Moderates Psychological, Physiological, and Functional Response to a Placebo Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum, Alia J; Phillips, Damon J; Goyer, J Parker; Akinola, Modupe; Higgins, E Tory

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates how social influence can alter physiological, psychological, and functional responses to a placebo product and how such responses influence the ultimate endorsement of the product. Participants consumed a product, "AquaCharge Energy Water," falsely-labeled as containing 200 mg of caffeine but which was actually plain spring water, in one of three conditions: a no social influence condition, a disconfirming social influence condition, and a confirming social influence condition. Results demonstrated that the effect of the product labeling on physiological alertness (systolic blood pressure), psychological alertness (self-reported alertness), functional alertness (cognitive interference), and product endorsement was moderated by social influence: participants experienced more subjective, physiological and functional alertness and stronger product endorsement when they consumed the product in the confirming social influence condition than when they consumed the product in the disconfirming social influence condition. These results suggest that social influence can alter subjective, physiological, and functional responses to a faux product, in this case transforming the effects of plain water.

  7. Physiological responses during exercise with video games in patients with cystic fibrosis: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonera, Raquel Pinto; Vendrusculo, Fernanda Maria; Donadio, Márcio Vinícius Fagundes

    2016-10-01

    Interactive video games are recently being used as an exercise tool in cystic fibrosis (CF). This study aimed to assess the literature describing whether video games generate a physiological response similar to the exercise intensity needed for training in CF. An online search in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, SciELO, LILACS and PEDro databases was conducted and original studies describing physiological responses of the use of video games as exercise in CF were included. In four, out of five studies, the heart rate achieved during video games was within the standards recommended for training (60-80%). Two studies assessed VO2 and showed higher levels compared to the six-minute walk test. No desaturation was reported. Most games were classified as moderate intensity. Only one study used a maximum exercise test as comparator. Interactive video games generate a heart rate response similar to the intensity required for training in CF patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF ELITE JUNIOR AUSTRALIAN RULES FOOTBALLERS DURING MATCH-PLAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Veale

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Australian Football (AF is Australia's major football code. Despite research in other football codes, to date, no data has been published on the physiological responses of AF players during match play. Fifteen athletes (17.28 ± 0.76 yrs participated in four pre-season matches, sanctioned by Australian Football League (AFL Victoria, investigating Heart Rate (HR, Blood Lactate (BLa, Core Temperature (Tcore, and Hydration status. Match HR was measured continuously using HR monitors. BLa was measured via finger prick lancet at the end of each quarter of play. Tcore was measured by use of ingestible temperature sensor and measured wirelessly at the end of each quarter of play. Hydration status was measured using refractometry, measuring urine specific gravity, and body weight pre and post-match. Environmental conditions were measured continuously during matches. Results of HR responses showed a high exertion of players in the 85-95% maximum HR range. Elevated mean BLa levels, compared to rest, were observed in all players over the duration of the matches (p = 0.007. Mean Tcore rose 0.68 °C between start and end of matches. Mean USG increased between 0.008 g/ml (p = 0.001 with mean body weight decreasing 1.88 kg (p = 0.001. This study illustrates physiological responses in junior AF players playing in the heat as well as providing physiological data for consideration by AF coaching staff when developing specific training programs. Continued research should consider physiological measurements under varying environments, and at all playing levels of AF, to ascertain full physiological responses during AF matches.

  9. The role of social toxicity in responses to a slowly-evolving environmental disaster: the case of amphibole asbestos exposure in Libby, Montana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Rebecca J W; Orom, Heather; Chung, Jae Eun; Hernandez, Tanis

    2014-09-01

    Experiencing a disaster has significant negative effects on psychological adjustment. Case study accounts point to two consistent trends in slowly-evolving environmental disasters: (a) patterns of negative social dynamics, and (b) relatively worse psychological outcomes than in natural disasters. Researchers have begun to explicitly postulate that the social consequences of slowly-evolving environmental disasters (e.g., community conflict) have their own effects on victims' psychological outcomes. This study tested a model of the relationship between those social consequences and psychological adjustment of victims of a slowly-evolving environmental disaster, specifically those whose health has been compromised by the amphibole asbestos disaster in Libby, MT. Results indicate that experiencing greater community conflict about the disaster was associated with greater family conflict about the disaster which, in turn, was associated with greater social constraints on talking with others about their disease, both directly and indirectly through experiencing stigmatization. Experiencing greater social constraints was associated with worse psychological adjustment, both directly and indirectly through failed social support. Findings have implications for understanding pathways by which social responses create negative effects on mental health in slowly-evolving environmental disasters. These pathways suggest points for prevention and response (e.g., social support, stigmatization of victims) for communities experiencing slowly-evolving environmental disasters.

  10. Hypoxia increases the behavioural activity of schooling herring: a response to physiological stress or respiratory distress?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert, Neill A.; Steffensen, John F.

    2006-01-01

    Pa and plasma glucose was generally reduced at  However, without any rise in anaerobically derived lactate levels, there was no evidence of respiratory distress at any set  We show that a shift in physiological homeostasis is indeed linked with an increase in the swimming speed of herring but the physiological......, glucose and osmolality). Herring in hypoxia increased their swimming speed by 11-39% but only when  was plasma cortisol also exhibited an increase with  plasma osmolality was subject to a transient rise at 8.5 k......Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus, increase their swimming speed during low O2 (hypoxia) and it has been hypothesised that the behavioural response is modulated by the degree of "respiratory distress" (i.e. a rise in anaerobic metabolism and severe physiological stress). To test directly whether...

  11. Physiological responses and partisan bias: beyond self-reported measures of party identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Michael Bang; Giessing, Ann; Nielsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    People are biased partisans: they tend to agree with policies from political parties they identify with, independent of policy content. Here, we investigate how physiological reactions to political parties shape bias. Using changes in galvanic skin conductance responses to the visual presentation of party logos, we obtained an implicit and physiological measure of the affective arousal associated with political parties. Subsequently, we exposed subjects to classical party cue experiments where the party sponsors of specific policies were experimentally varied. We found that partisan bias only obtains among those exhibiting a strong physiological reaction to the party source; being a self-reported party identifier is not sufficient on its own. This suggests that partisan bias is rooted in implicit, affective reactions.

  12. Summer and fall ants have different physiological responses to food macronutrient content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Steven C; Eubanks, Micky D; Gold, Roger E; Behmer, Spencer T

    2016-04-01

    Seasonally, long-lived animals exhibit changes in behavior and physiology in response to shifts in environmental conditions, including food abundance and nutritional quality. Ants are long-lived arthropods that, at the colony level, experience such seasonal shifts in their food resources. Previously we reported summer- and fall-collected ants practiced distinct food collection behavior and nutrient intake regulation strategies in response to variable food protein and carbohydrate content, despite being reared in the lab under identical environmental conditions and dietary regimes. Seasonally distinct responses were observed for both no-choice and choice dietary experiments. Using data from these same experiments, our objective here is to examine colony and individual-level physiological traits, colony mortality and growth, food processing, and worker lipid mass, and how these traits change in response to variable food protein-carbohydrate content. For both experiments we found that seasonality per se exerted strong effects on colony and individual level traits. Colonies collected in the summer maintained total worker mass despite high mortality. In contrast, colonies collected in the fall lived longer, and accumulated lipids, including when reared on protein-biased diets. Food macronutrient content had mainly transient effects on physiological responses. Extremes in food carbohydrate content however, elicited a compensatory response in summer worker ants, which processed more protein-biased foods and contained elevated lipid levels. Our study, combined with our previously published work, strongly suggests that underlying physiological phenotypes driving behaviors of summer and fall ants are likely fixed seasonally, and change circannually. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Cross-Adaptation: Heat and Cold Adaptation to Improve Physiological and Cellular Responses to Hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Oliver R; Taylor, Lee; Watt, Peter W; Maxwell, Neil S

    2017-09-01

    To prepare for extremes of heat, cold or low partial pressures of oxygen (O 2 ), humans can undertake a period of acclimation or acclimatization to induce environment-specific adaptations, e.g. heat acclimation (HA), cold acclimation (CA), or altitude training. While these strategies are effective, they are not always feasible due to logistical impracticalities. Cross-adaptation is a term used to describe the phenomenon whereby alternative environmental interventions, e.g. HA or CA, may be a beneficial alternative to altitude interventions, providing physiological stress and inducing adaptations observable at altitude. HA can attenuate physiological strain at rest and during moderate-intensity exercise at altitude via adaptations allied to improved O 2 delivery to metabolically active tissue, likely following increases in plasma volume and reductions in body temperature. CA appears to improve physiological responses to altitude by attenuating the autonomic response to altitude. While no cross-acclimation-derived exercise performance/capacity data have been measured following CA, post-HA improvements in performance underpinned by aerobic metabolism, and therefore dependent on O 2 delivery at altitude, are likely. At a cellular level, heat shock protein responses to altitude are attenuated by prior HA, suggesting that an attenuation of the cellular stress response and therefore a reduced disruption to homeostasis at altitude has occurred. This process is known as cross-tolerance. The effects of CA on markers of cross-tolerance is an area requiring further investigation. Because much of the evidence relating to cross-adaptation to altitude has examined the benefits at moderate to high altitudes, future research examining responses at lower altitudes should be conducted, given that these environments are more frequently visited by athletes and workers. Mechanistic work to identify the specific physiological and cellular pathways responsible for cross-adaptation between

  14. Physiological and growth responses of arctic plants to a field experiment simulating climatic change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapin, F.S. III [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Shaver, G.R. [Marine Biological Lab., Woods Hole, MA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Field manipulations of light, temperature, nutrients, and length of growing season in directions simulating global environmental change altered biomass of the four most abundant vascular plant species in tussock tundra of northern Alaska. These species are Betula nana, Ledum palustre, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, and Eriophorum vaginatum. Biomass response reflected changes in both growth and mortality, with growth being stimulated by treatments that enhanced biomass,a and mortality being enhanced by all treatments (except in Vaccinium). Those species with highest leaf and stem turnover (the graminoid and deciduous shrub) initially showed large positive responses to nutrient addition. By contrast, slow-turnover evergeen species showed little initial change in production in response to our manipulations, and their long-term biomass responses were in the opposite direction to those of the responsive species. Short-term measurement of leaf expansion, photosynthesis, and phosphate uptake showed little correlation with net production of biomass change in response to manipulations because of compensatory mechanisms at levels of growth and allocation. Changes in nutrient distribution among species accounted for many of the long-term changes in biomass and productivity. Processes that are readily integrated at annual time steps (e.g., shoot growth, shoot mortality, allocation) were more useful than instantaneous physiological measurements in predicting decadal vegetation changes because (1) compensating responses among physiological processes buffer plant responses at progressively longer time scales, (2) species interactions in the community buffer ecosystem processes such as productivity and nutrient cycling from changes in growth of individual species, and (3) different time lags between physiological, demographic, and ecosystem processes complicate modeling of long-term responses from short-term mechanism. 76 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Physiological and behavioral responses in Drosophila melanogaster to odorants present at different plant maturation stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versace, Elisabetta; Eriksson, Anna; Rocchi, Federico; Castellan, Irene; Sgadò, Paola; Haase, Albrecht

    2016-09-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster feeds and oviposits on fermented fruit, hence its physiological and behavioral responses are expected to be tuned to odorants abundant during later stages of fruit maturation. We used a population of about two-hundred isogenic lines of D. melanogaster to assay physiological responses (electroantennograms (EAG)) and behavioral correlates (preferences and choice ratio) to odorants found at different stages of fruit maturation. We quantified electrophysiological and behavioral responses of D. melanogaster for the leaf compound β-cyclocitral, as well as responses to odorants mainly associated with later fruit maturation stages. Electrophysiological and behavioral responses were modulated by the odorant dose. For the leaf compound we observed a steep dose-response curve in both EAG and behavioral data and shallower curves for odorants associated with later stages of maturation. Our data show the connection between sensory and behavioral responses and are consistent with the specialization of D. melanogaster on fermented fruit and avoidance of high doses of compounds associated with earlier stages of maturation. Odor preferences were modulated in a non-additive way when flies were presented with two alternative odorants, and combinations of odorants elicited higher responses than single compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Physiological responses of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica as indicators of fish farm impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Marta [Departament d' Ecologia, Universitat de Barcelona Avda. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Garcia, Tania [Departament d' Ecologia, Universitat de Barcelona Avda. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: irulagun@hotmail.com; Invers, Olga [Departament d' Ecologia, Universitat de Barcelona Avda. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ruiz, Juan Manuel [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia C/Varadero 1, 30740 San Pedro del Pinatar, Murcia (Spain)

    2008-05-15

    The development of aquaculture along the Mediterranean coastline degrades the marine environment, in particular Posidonia oceanica meadows, which, in extreme cases, show high mortality. Here we studied the effects of organic matter and nutrient input from the effluents of three fish farms, located along the Mediterranean coast, on P. oceanica physiology. For this purpose, we measured physiological variables such as total nitrogen (N) content, free amino acid (FAA) concentration and composition, N stable isotope ratio ({delta}{sup 15}N), total phosphorus (P) content and total non-structural carbohydrate (TNC) content in plant tissues and epiphytes affected by organic discharges (highly impacted stations: HI, and less impacted stations: LI) and compared these results with those obtained in references sites (control stations: C). For all the descriptors analyzed in P. oceanica epiphytes, the values recorded in the vicinity of cages were, in general, much higher than those in C. Leaves did not respond consistently in any case. Total N content and {delta}{sup 15}N in epiphytes together with the total P content in rhizomes and epiphytes were the physiological descriptors that showed the most consistent responses to fish farm effluents. On the basis of these observations, we conclude that fish farm activities strongly affect the physiological parameters of nearby P. oceanica meadows. We propose that changes in these physiological parameters may be useful indicators of marine environmental degradation in studies that monitor the effects of fish farming.

  17. Morpho-physiological responses of a subtropical strain of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Cyanobacteria to different light intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Wojciechowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The toxigenic cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii previously restricted to tropical latitudes, has been increasingly reported in temperate lakes in recent decades. The causes of its biogeographical expansion are under investigation, but efficient physiological adaptation to changes in temperature and light regimes are likely to be involved. The present study evaluated the morpho-physiological responses of a strain of C. raciborskii from southern Brazil to nine light intensities, from 9 to 250 µmol photons m-2 s-1. Blooms of this cyanobacterium are regularly recorded in the region. Morpho-physiological responses were measured based on growth rate and trichome length. Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii showed slow growth at low light intensities, 9 and 20 µmol photons m-2 s-1, and responded morphologically by increasing the length of trichomes. In turn, the strain displayed constant maximum growth rates at light intensities higher than 50 µmol photons m-2 s-1. These results support the hypothesis that C. raciborskii can survive under low light conditions and continue to produce viable trichomes. Moreover, the strain achieved high growth rates under a relatively wide range of light intensities, a physiological adaptation that can potentially be a competitive advantage in the phytoplankton community.

  18. Approaches to scaling up physiological responses of forests to air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luxmoore, R.J.

    1991-12-31

    The regional distribution of a forest specie encompasses favorable and unfavorable environments. Modeling of physiological responses of trees to air pollutants in such a range of environments requires a consistent level of modeling detail for both above- and below-ground processes. A source-sink framework is recommended as a suitable physiological basis for modeling the feed forward and feedback relationships between photosynthesis and carbon utilization of forest stands distributed over a heterogeneous region. The variability of soil and plant properties over a region can be represented with frequency distributions of model input variables and these can be efficiently propagated through a simulator with a Monte Carlo procedure called Latin hypercube sampling. The outputs from this method (e.g. forest production, site index) are in the form of frequency distributions that can be compared statistically for alternative air pollutant exposure scenarios. These outputs from physiological modeling can also be used as input distributions in longer time-step models of forest succession and forest management. Selection of suitable variables to propagate from one scale to another is a critical challenge in simulation of long-term forest responses to air pollutants over regional spatial scales. An index of storage carbohydrate is suggested as one important variable for transfer from physiological modeling to forest succession modeling for scaling up purposes.

  19. Physiological and performance responses to a training camp in the heat in professional Australian football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racinais, Sebastien; Buchheit, Martin; Bilsborough, Johann; Bourdon, Pitre C; Cordy, Justin; Coutts, Aaron J

    2014-07-01

    To examine the physiological and performance responses to a heat-acclimatization camp in highly trained professional team-sport athletes. Eighteen male Australian Rules Football players trained for 2 wk in hot ambient conditions (31-33°C, humidity 34-50%). Players performed a laboratory-based heat-response test (24-min walk + 24 min seated; 44°C), a YoYo Intermittent Recovery Level 2 Test (YoYoIR2; indoor, temperate environment, 23°C) and standardized training drills (STD; outdoor, hot environment, 32°C) at the beginning and end of the camp. The heat-response test showed partial heat acclimatization (eg, a decrease in skin temperature, heart rate, and sweat sodium concentration, P test (r = -.52, 90%CI [-.77; -.12]). There was no clear correlation between the performance improvements in temperate and hot ambient conditions (r < .26). Running performance in both hot and temperate environments was improved after a football training camp in hot ambient conditions that stimulated heat acclimatization. However, physiological and performance responses were highly individual, and the absence of correlations between physical-performance improvements in hot and temperate environments suggests that their physiological basis might differ.

  20. Physiological and gene expression responses of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants differ according to irrigation placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado, Ana; Capote, Nieves; Romero, Fernando; Dodd, Ian C; Colmenero-Flores, José M

    2014-10-01

    To investigate effects of soil moisture heterogeneity on plant physiology and gene expression in roots and leaves, three treatments were implemented in sunflower plants growing with roots split between two compartments: a control (C) treatment supplying 100% of plant evapotranspiration, and two treatments receiving 50% of plant evapotranspiration, either evenly distributed to both compartments (deficit irrigation - DI) or unevenly distributed to ensure distinct wet and dry compartments (partial rootzone drying - PRD). Plants receiving the same amount of water responded differently under the two irrigation systems. After 3 days, evapotranspiration was similar in C and DI, but 20% less in PRD, concomitant with decreased leaf water potential (Ψleaf) and increased leaf xylem ABA concentration. Six water-stress responsive genes were highly induced in roots growing in the drying soil compartment of PRD plants, and their expression was best correlated with local soil water content. On the other hand, foliar gene expression differed significantly from that of the root and correlated better with xylem ABA concentration and Ψleaf. While the PRD irrigation strategy triggered stronger physiological and molecular responses, suggesting a more intense and systemic stress reaction due to local dehydration of the dry compartment of PRD plants, the DI strategy resulted in similar water savings without strongly inducing these responses. Correlating physiological and molecular responses in PRD/DI plants may provide insights into the severity and location of water deficits and may enable a better understanding of long-distance signalling mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Patterns of physiological and affective responses to vehicle pass-by noises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Notbohm

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic noise is considered causing annoyance and severe health effects like cardiovascular disease (CVD. The present laboratory study examines the importance of individual factors, namely age, gender and personality traits on short term physiological and affective response to vehicle pass-by noises. Four groups of subjects (20-30 vs. 40-55 year-old male or female, n = 66 in total were exposed to a series of vehicle pass-by noises. Physiological responses (finger-pulse amplitude [FPA], skin conductance level [SCL] were registered during the exposure; affective responses and judgements regarding the sounds were assessed by questionnaires. Noise sensitivity and sensation seeking were measured by validated questionnaires. The results show different patterns of response depending on age, gender and personality. The strongest sympathetic stress reaction as measured by SCL was found for the older female group. In regression analysis, the SCL response was predicted by the female gender and low score of sensation seeking only (adjusted R2 = 0.139. The FPA response was strongest among the young men and age was the only significant predictor. For affective responses of pleasantness and activation, regression analysis proved noise sensitivity and sensation seeking to be significant predictors (adjusted R2 = 0.187 respectively 0.154. Age, gender and personality influence physiological and affective reactions to traffic noise, which might affect health conditions. Especially, a potential risk of older women for CVD owing to noise should be investigated further. Individual sensitiveness in terms of noise sensitivity or sensation seeking proves to be important for explaining differences in response to noise.

  2. Response of Two Mytilids to a Heatwave: The Complex Interplay of Physiology, Behaviour and Ecological Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabarria, Celia; Gestoso, Ignacio; Lima, Fernando P; Vázquez, Elsa; Comeau, Luc A; Gomes, Filipa; Seabra, Rui; Babarro, José M F

    2016-01-01

    Different combinations of behavioural and physiological responses may play a crucial role in the ecological success of species, notably in the context of biological invasions. The invasive mussel Xenostrobus securis has successfully colonised the inner part of the Galician Rias Baixas (NW Spain), where it co-occurs with the commercially-important mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. This study investigated the effect of a heatwave on the physiological and behavioural responses in monospecific or mixed aggregations of these species. In a mesocosm experiment, mussels were exposed to simulated tidal cycles and similar temperature conditions to those experienced in the field during a heat-wave that occurred in the summer of 2013, when field robo-mussels registered temperatures up to 44.5°C at low tide. The overall responses to stress differed markedly between the two species. In monospecific aggregations M. galloprovincialis was more vulnerable than X. securis to heat exposure during emersion. However, in mixed aggregations, the presence of the invader was associated with lower mortality in M. galloprovincialis. The greater sensitivity of M. galloprovincialis to heat exposure was reflected in a higher mortality level, greater induction of Hsp70 protein and higher rates of respiration and gaping activity, which were accompanied by a lower heart rate (bradycardia). The findings show that the invader enhanced the physiological performance of M. galloprovincialis, highlighting the importance of species interactions in regulating responses to environmental stress. Understanding the complex interactions between ecological factors and physiological and behavioural responses of closely-related species is essential for predicting the impacts of invasions in the context of future climate change.

  3. Effects of prolonged running in the heat and cool environments on selected physiological parameters and salivary lysozyme responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur S. Ibrahim

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: This study found similar lysozyme responses between both hot and cool trials. Thus, room/ambient temperature did not affect lysozyme responses among recreational athletes. Nevertheless, the selected physiological parameters were significantly affected by room temperature.

  4. Acute Effect of A Judo Contest on Muscular Performance Parameters And Physiological Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Serrano-Huete

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is necessary to know accurately the physical effects of judo contest on athletes in order to quantify how successive judo bouts impair muscular performance parameters and physiological response associated with the aim to create specific training programs that take the demands of judo bout into account. Purpose: The purpose of current study was to characterise the evolution of muscular performance parameters and physiological response during a judo contest. Methods: Twenty-nine men performed five 5-minute bouts with 15 minutes of passive rest. Immediately after the bouts, some muscular performance parameters and physiological variables were measured, in this order: Borg´s rate of perceived exertion (RPE, maximal dynamic strength in upper body (MDS, countermovement jump (CMJ, dominant (DHS and non-dominant handgrip isometric strength (NDHS. Lactate (LAC was measured 3 minutes after each bout and 1 minute before the next too. Heart rate (HR was monitored during the contest. ANOVA to compare baseline test data and successive bouts was used. Results: ANOVA revealed significant differences in HRmean (p=0.045, LAC (p<0.001 and in RPE (p<0.001. A decrease in NDHS (p<0.001, DHS (p<0.001, MDS (p<0.001 was found. Some significant correlations were found between NDHS and DMPV (r=0.368, p=0.050, DMS (r=0.369, p=0.050 and DMXS (r=0.405, p=0.029; between DHS and DLACb (r=0.430, p=0.020, DMXS (r=0.379, p=0.043, DMP (r=0.369, p=0.050 and DRPE (r=0.456, p=0.013; between CMJ and DPM (r=0.381, p=0.041, DPMX (r=0.417, p=0.024, DFM (r=0.423, p=0.022 and DDHS (r=0.348, p=0.040. These results show a high decrease of muscular performance parameters and an increase of physiological parameters, specially between baseline test and postbout 5, but gradual between all bouts. Conclusion: Judo contest can be considered a high intensity exercise, due to high levels of physiological parameters and the decrease in force production obtained. Keywords: judo contest

  5. Maintaining evolvability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, James F

    2008-12-01

    Although molecular methods, such as QTL mapping, have revealed a number of loci with large effects, it is still likely that the bulk of quantitative variability is due to multiple factors, each with small effect. Typically, these have a large additive component. Conventional wisdom argues that selection, natural or artificial, uses up additive variance and thus depletes its supply. Over time, the variance should be reduced, and at equilibrium be near zero. This is especially expected for fitness and traits highly correlated with it. Yet, populations typically have a great deal of additive variance, and do not seem to run out of genetic variability even after many generations of directional selection. Long-term selection experiments show that populations continue to retain seemingly undiminished additive variance despite large changes in the mean value. I propose that there are several reasons for this. (i) The environment is continually changing so that what was formerly most fit no longer is. (ii) There is an input of genetic variance from mutation, and sometimes from migration. (iii) As intermediate-frequency alleles increase in frequency towards one, producing less variance (as p --> 1, p(1 - p) --> 0), others that were originally near zero become more common and increase the variance. Thus, a roughly constant variance is maintained. (iv) There is always selection for fitness and for characters closely related to it. To the extent that the trait is heritable, later generations inherit a disproportionate number of genes acting additively on the trait, thus increasing genetic variance. For these reasons a selected population retains its ability to evolve. Of course, genes with large effect are also important. Conspicuous examples are the small number of loci that changed teosinte to maize, and major phylogenetic changes in the animal kingdom. The relative importance of these along with duplications, chromosome rearrangements, horizontal transmission and polyploidy

  6. Physiological responses at the lactate-minimum-intensity with and without prior high-intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagatto, Alessandro Moura; Padulo, Johnny; Silva, Adelino Ramos Sanchez da; Müller, Paulo de Tarso Guerrero; Miyagi, Willian Eiji; Gobatto, Claudio Alexandre

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the physiological responses during exercise-to-exhaustion at the lactate-minimum-intensity with and without prior high-intensity exercise. Eleven recreationally trained males performed a graded exercise test, a lactate minimum test and two constant-load tests at lactate-minimum-intensity until exhaustion, which were applied with or without prior hyperlactatemia induction (i.e., 30-s Wingate test). The physiological responses were significantly different (P  0.05). In conclusion, the constant-load exercises performed at lactate-minimum-intensity with or without prior high-intensity exercise did not lead to the steady state of all analysed parameters; however, variables such as [La(-)], pH and [HCO3] - altered at the beginning of effort performed after high-intensity exercise - were reestablished after approximately 30 min of exercise.

  7. Relationship between Aflatoxin Contamination and Physiological Responses of Corn Plants under Drought and Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacer Bellaloui

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased aflatoxin contamination in corn by the fungus Aspergillus flavus is associated with frequent periods of drought and heat stress during the reproductive stages of the plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between aflatoxin contamination and physiological responses of corn plants under drought and heat stress. The study was conducted in Stoneville, MS, USA under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions. Five commercial hybrids, P31G70, P33F87, P32B34, P31B13 and DKC63-42 and two inbred germplasm lines, PI 639055 and PI 489361, were evaluated. The plants were inoculated with Aspergillus flavus (K-54 at mid-silk stage, and aflatoxin contamination was determined on the kernels at harvest. Several physiological measurements which are indicators of stress response were determined. The results suggested that PI 639055, PI 489361 and hybrid DKC63-42 were more sensitive to drought and high temperature stress in the non-irrigated plots and P31G70 was the most tolerant among all the genotypes. Aflatoxin contamination was the highest in DKC63-42 and PI 489361 but significantly lower in P31G70. However, PI 639055, which is an aflatoxin resistant germplasm, had the lowest aflatoxin contamination, even though it was one of the most stressed genotypes. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed. These results suggested that the physiological responses were associated with the level of aflatoxin contamination in all the genotypes, except PI 639055. These and other physiological responses related to stress may help examine differences among corn genotypes in aflatoxin contamination.

  8. Psychotherapy Participants Show Increased Physiological Responsiveness to a Lab Stressor Relative to Matched Controls

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick R Steffen; Louise eFidalgo; Dominic eSchmuck; Yoko eTsui; Tracy eBrown

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that psychotherapy participants show increased physiological responsiveness to stress. The purpose of the present study was to examine differences between individuals participating in outpatient psychotherapy and matched controls using an experimental design. Forty-two psychotherapy participants and forty-eight matched controls were assessed on cardiovascular and cortisol functioning at baseline, during the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), and during a twenty-m...

  9. The Fire-Walker’s High: Affect and Physiological Responses in an Extreme Collective Ritual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Ronald; Xygalatas, Dimitris; Mitkidis, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    How do people feel during extreme collective rituals? Despite longstanding speculation, few studies have attempted to quantify ritual experiences. Using a novel pre/post design, we quantified physiological fluctuations (heart rates) and self-reported affective states from a collective fire......, suggesting empathetic identification effects. Thus, witnessing the ritualistic suffering of loved ones may be more exhausting than experiencing suffering oneself. The findings demonstrate that the level of ritual involvement is important for shaping affective responses to collective rituals. Enduring...

  10. The Physiological Response of Soybean Genotypes to VAM Inoculation on Selected Drought Stress Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAPSOH

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Present research was aimed to study physiological changes of soybean which were inoculated with vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (VAM. Glomus etunicatum was exposed to moderate and severe drought condition. Symbiotic association with VAM improved adaptability as it was shown by the increasing leaf proline content. The MLG 3474 and Sindoro are the more tolerant genotypes while the responses of plant to VAM on improving the adaptability to drought were larger on Lokon.

  11. Transient physiological responses of planting frozen root plugs of Douglas-fir seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Anisul Islam; Douglass F. JAcobs; Kent G. Apostol; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2008-01-01

    Short-term physiological responses of planting frozen (FR) and rapidly thawed (TR) root plugs of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings were examined through time series (0 h, 6 h, 12 h, 1 day, 3 days, and 7 days) measurements in two separate experiments: 10 C day: 6 C night, RH 75% and 30 C day: 20 C night, RH 50%, respectively...

  12. The effect of melody on the physiological responses of heel sticks pain in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marofi, Maryam; Nikobakht, Farzaneh; Badiee, Zohreh; Golchin, Mehri

    2015-01-01

    During health care in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), infants undergo extremely painful procedures, which may cause problems, if not controlled, such as changes in the pattern of respiratory rate, heart rate, and blood oxygen saturation. The present study aimed to find the effect of melody on the physiological responses of neonates' heel stick pain. This quasi-experimental study was conducted in Alzahra Hospital (Isfahan, Iran) for 5 months. Fifty infants were selected through convenient sampling method and were randomly assigned in equal numbers to two groups (n = 25). In the melody group (intervention), a selected melody was played for the infants at a distance of 1 m from them, with a sound intensity of 65 dB, from 3 minutes before, during, and after the heel stick procedure, respectively, and their physiological responses were observed with a monitoring system and recorded at the afore-mentioned time periods. Physiological responses were also recorded in the control group (no intervention) 3 min before, during, and after the heel stick procedure, respectively. Means of respiratory and pulse rates in the melody and control groups showed a significant difference at different time points. But the mean blood oxygen saturation in the melody group showed no significant difference at different time points, although the difference was significant in the control group. The results showed that melody could maintain more balance in some physiological responses of infants, such as the respiratory rate and pulse rate during the Guthrie test. Therefore, melody is recommended to be used to prevent the destructive effects of pain in infants during painful procedures.

  13. Determinants and short-term physiological consequences of PHA immune response in lesser kestrel nestlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Airam; Broggi, Juli; Alcaide, Miguel; Negro, Juan José; Figuerola, Jordi

    2014-08-01

    Individual immune responses are likely affected by genetic, physiological, and environmental determinants. We studied the determinants and short-term consequences of Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) induced immune response, a commonly used immune challenge eliciting both innate and acquired immunity, on lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) nestlings in semi-captivity conditions and with a homogeneous diet composition. We conducted a repeated measures analyses of a set of blood parameters (carotenoids, triglycerides, β-hydroxybutyrate, cholesterol, uric acid, urea, total proteins, and total antioxidant capacity), metabolic (resting metabolic rate), genotypic (MHC class II B heterozygosity), and biometric (body mass) variables. PHA challenge did not affect the studied physiological parameters on a short-term basis (immune response (skin swelling), but the change of body mass, cholesterol, total antioxidant capacity, and triglycerides between sessions (i.e., post-pre treatment) were also positively correlated to PHA response. No relationships were detected between MHC gene heterozygosity or resting metabolic rate and PHA response. Our results indicate that PHA response in lesser kestrel nestlings growing in optimal conditions does not imply a severe energetic cost 12 hr after challenge, but is condition-dependent as a rapid mobilization of carotenoids and decrease of triglycerides is elicited on a short-term basis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Ethylene and the Regulation of Physiological and Morphological Responses to Nutrient Deficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, María José; Romera, Francisco Javier; Lucena, Carlos; Alcántara, Esteban; Pérez-Vicente, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    To cope with nutrient deficiencies, plants develop both morphological and physiological responses. The regulation of these responses is not totally understood, but some hormones and signaling substances have been implicated. It was suggested several years ago that ethylene participates in the regulation of responses to iron and phosphorous deficiency. More recently, its role has been extended to other deficiencies, such as potassium, sulfur, and others. The role of ethylene in so many deficiencies suggests that, to confer specificity to the different responses, it should act through different transduction pathways and/or in conjunction with other signals. In this update, the data supporting a role for ethylene in the regulation of responses to different nutrient deficiencies will be reviewed. In addition, the results suggesting the action of ethylene through different transduction pathways and its interaction with other hormones and signaling substances will be discussed. PMID:26175512

  15. Serum Response Factor (SRF mediated gene activity in physiological and pathological processes of neuronal motility

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    Bernd eKnoll

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the transcription factor SRF (serum response factor was shown to contribute to various physiological processes linked to neuronal motility. The latter include cell migration, axon guidance and e.g. synapse function relying on cytoskeletal dynamics, neurite outgrowth, axonal and dendritic differentiation, growth cone motility and neurite branching. SRF teams up with MRTFs (myocardin related transcription factors and TCFs (ternary complex factors to mediate cellular actin cytoskeletal dynamics and the immediate-early gene (IEG response, a bona fide indicator of neuronal activation. Herein, I will discuss how SRF and cofactors might modulate physiological processes of neuronal motility. Further, potential mechanisms engaged by neurite growth promoting molecules and axon guidance cues to target SRF’s transcriptional machinery in physiological neuronal motility will be presented. Of note, altered cytoskeletal dynamics and rapid initiation of an IEG response are a hallmark of injured neurons in various neurological disorders. Thus, SRF and its MRTF and TCF cofactors might emerge as a novel trio modulating peripheral and central axon regeneration.

  16. Differential physiological responses and tolerance to potentially toxic elements in biodiesel tree Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Minami; Malambane, Goitseone; Yamada, Satoshi; Suharsono, Sony; Tsujimoto, Hisashi; Moseki, Baleseng; Akashi, Kinya

    2018-01-26

    Environmental pollution by potentially toxic elements (PTEs) has become a serious problem with increasing industrialization and the disturbance of natural biogeochemical cycles. Jatropha is an oilseed-bearing shrub with high potential for biodiesel production in arid regions. In this study, we examined the physiological responses of this plant to five representative PTEs (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn) in a hydroponic culture. Application of higher concentrations of Cd and Zn led to severe leaf chlorosis, and Cd, Cu, and Ni treatments resulted in significant growth retardation. Higher enrichment of the applied PTEs in the shoots was observed for Zn- and Cd-treated plants, with the latter reaching 24-fold enrichment in plants exposed to 10 μM Cd, suggesting that Jatropha can cope with relatively higher internal concentrations of toxic Cd. Although Cd stress led to the disturbance of essential mineral homeostasis and photosynthesis, this induced an increase in thiol compounds in the roots, suggesting defensive responses of Jatropha to PTEs. This study showed that Jatropha exhibits distinct sensitivities and physiological responses to different PTEs. This study also provides basic knowledge for diagnosing the physiological status of Jatropha trees for potential dual use in afforestation and as a sustainable energy supply.

  17. Evidence of Rapid Modulation by Social Information of Subjective, Physiological, and Neural Responses to Emotional Expressions

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    Martial Mermillod

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests that conceptual or emotional factors could influence the perceptual processing of stimuli. In this article, we aimed to evaluate the effect of social information (positive, negative, or no information related to the character of the target on subjective (perceived and felt valence and arousal, physiological (facial mimicry as well as on neural (P100 and N170 responses to dynamic emotional facial expressions (EFE that varied from neutral to one of the six basic emotions. Across three studies, the results showed reduced ratings of valence and arousal of EFE associated with incongruent social information (Study 1, increased electromyographical responses (Study 2, and significant modulation of P100 and N170 components (Study 3 when EFE were associated with social (positive and negative information (vs. no information. These studies revealed that positive or negative social information reduces subjective responses to incongruent EFE and produces a similar neural and physiological boost of the early perceptual processing of EFE irrespective of their congruency. In conclusion, the article suggests that the presence of positive or negative social context modulates early physiological and neural activity preceding subsequent behavior.

  18. Physiological Imaging-Defined, Response-Driven Subvolumes of a Tumor

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    Farjam, Reza [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Tsien, Christina I.; Feng, Felix Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Gomez-Hassan, Diana [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Hayman, James A.; Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Cao, Yue, E-mail: yuecao@umich.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To develop an image analysis framework to delineate the physiological imaging-defined subvolumes of a tumor in relating to treatment response and outcome. Methods and Materials: Our proposed approach delineates the subvolumes of a tumor based on its heterogeneous distributions of physiological imaging parameters. The method assigns each voxel a probabilistic membership function belonging to the physiological parameter classes defined in a sample of tumors, and then calculates the related subvolumes in each tumor. We applied our approach to regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and Gd-DTPA transfer constant (K{sup trans}) images of patients who had brain metastases and were treated by whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT). A total of 45 lesions were included in the analysis. Changes in the rCBV (or K{sup trans})–defined subvolumes of the tumors from pre-RT to 2 weeks after the start of WBRT (2W) were evaluated for differentiation of responsive, stable, and progressive tumors using the Mann-Whitney U test. Performance of the newly developed metrics for predicting tumor response to WBRT was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results: The percentage decrease in the high-CBV-defined subvolumes of the tumors from pre-RT to 2W was significantly greater in the group of responsive tumors than in the group of stable and progressive tumors (P<.007). The change in the high-CBV-defined subvolumes of the tumors from pre-RT to 2W was a predictor for post-RT response significantly better than change in the gross tumor volume observed during the same time interval (P=.012), suggesting that the physiological change occurs before the volumetric change. Also, K{sup trans} did not add significant discriminatory information for assessing response with respect to rCBV. Conclusion: The physiological imaging-defined subvolumes of the tumors delineated by our method could be candidates for boost target, for which further development and evaluation

  19. Exercise performance and physiological responses: the potential role of redox imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Kavey; Robinson, Nathaniel; Ives, Stephen J

    2017-04-01

    Increases in oxidative stress or decreases in antioxidant capacity, or redox imbalance, are known to alter physiological function and has been suggested to influence performance. To date, no study has sought to manipulate this balance in the same participants and observe the impact on physiological function and performance. Using a single-blind, placebo-controlled, and counterbalanced design, this study examined the effects of increasing free radicals, via hyperoxic exposure (FiO2 = 1.0), and/or increasing antioxidant capacity, through consuming an antioxidant cocktail (AOC; vitamin-C, vitamin-E, α-lipoic acid), on 5-kilometer (km) cycling time-trial performance, and the physiological and fatigue responses in healthy college-aged males. Hyperoxic exposure prior to the 5 km TT had no effect on performance, fatigue, or the physiological responses to exercise. The AOC significantly reduced average power output (222 ± 11 vs. 214 ± 12 W), increased 5 km time (516 ± 17 vs. 533 ± 18 sec), suppressed ventilation (VE; 116 ± 5 vs. 109 ± 13 L/min), despite similar oxygen consumption (VO2; 43.1 ± 0.8 vs. 44.9 ± 0.2 mL/kg per min), decreased VE/VO2 (35.9 ± 2.0 vs. 32.3 ± 1.5 L/min), reduced economy (VO2/W; 0.20 ± 0.01 vs. 0.22 ± 0.01), increased blood lactate (10 ± 0.7 vs. 11 ± 0.7 mmol), and perception of fatigue (RPE; 7.39 ± 0.4 vs. 7.60 ± 0.3) at the end of the TT, as compared to placebo (main effect, placebo vs. AOC, respectively). Our data demonstrate that prior to exercise, ingesting an AOC, but not exposure to hyperoxia, likely disrupts the delicate balance between pro- and antioxidant forces, which negatively impacts ventilation, blood lactate, economy, perception of fatigue, and performance (power output and 5 km time) in young healthy males. Thus, caution is warranted in athletes taking excess exogenous antioxidants. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of

  20. Evolving digital ecological networks.

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    Miguel A Fortuna

    Full Text Available "It is hard to realize that the living world as we know it is just one among many possibilities" [1]. Evolving digital ecological networks are webs of interacting, self-replicating, and evolving computer programs (i.e., digital organisms that experience the same major ecological interactions as biological organisms (e.g., competition, predation, parasitism, and mutualism. Despite being computational, these programs evolve quickly in an open-ended way, and starting from only one or two ancestral organisms, the formation of ecological networks can be observed in real-time by tracking interactions between the constantly evolving organism phenotypes. These phenotypes may be defined by combinations of logical computations (hereafter tasks that digital organisms perform and by expressed behaviors that have evolved. The types and outcomes of interactions between phenotypes are determined by task overlap for logic-defined phenotypes and by responses to encounters in the case of behavioral phenotypes. Biologists use these evolving networks to study active and fundamental topics within evolutionary ecology (e.g., the extent to which the architecture of multispecies networks shape coevolutionary outcomes, and the processes involved.

  1. The Activity Demands and Physiological Responses Encountered During Basketball Match-Play: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Emilija; Stojiljković, Nenad; Scanlan, Aaron T; Dalbo, Vincent J; Berkelmans, Daniel M; Milanović, Zoran

    2018-01-01

    Basketball is a popular, court-based team sport that has been extensively studied over the last decade. The purpose of this article was to provide a systematic review regarding the activity demands and physiological responses experienced during basketball match-play according to playing period, playing position, playing level, geographical location, and sex. An electronic database search of relevant articles published prior to 30 September 2016 was performed with PubMed, MEDLINE, ERIC, Google Scholar, SCIndex, and ScienceDirect. Studies that measured activity demands and/or physiological responses during basketball match-play were included. Following screening, 25 articles remained for review. During live playing time across 40-min matches, male and female basketball players travel 5-6 km at average physiological intensities above lactate threshold and 85% of maximal heart rate (HR). Temporal comparisons show a reduction in vigorous activities in the fourth quarter, likely contributing to lower blood lactate concentrations and HR responses evident towards the end of matches. Guards tend to perform a higher percentage of live playing time sprinting and performing high-intensity shuffling compared with forwards and centers. Guards also perform less standing and walking during match-play compared with forwards and centers. Variations in activity demands likely account for the higher blood lactate concentrations and HR responses observed for guards compared with forwards and centers. Furthermore, higher-level players perform a greater intermittent workload than lower-level players. Moreover, geographical differences may exist in the activity demands (distance and frequency) and physiological responses between Australian, African, and European basketball players, whereby Australian players sustain greater workloads. While activity demands and physiological data vary across playing positions, playing levels, and geographical locations, male and female players competing

  2. Morpho-Physiological and Proteome Level Responses to Cadmium Stress in Sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Abu Hena Mostafa; Kim, Sang-Woo; Oh, Myeong-Won; Lee, Moon-Soon; Chung, Keun-Yook; Xin, Zhanguo; Woo, Sun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) stress may cause serious morphological and physiological abnormalities in addition to altering the proteome in plants. The present study was performed to explore Cd-induced morpho-physiological alterations and their potential associated mechanisms in Sorghum bicolor leaves at the protein level. Ten-day-old sorghum seedlings were exposed to different concentrations (0, 100, and 150 μM) of CdCl2, and different morpho-physiological responses were recorded. The effects of Cd exposure on protein expression patterns in S. bicolor were investigated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) in samples derived from the leaves of both control and Cd-treated seedlings. The observed morphological changes revealed that the plants treated with Cd displayed dramatically altered shoot lengths, fresh weights and relative water content. In addition, the concentration of Cd was markedly increased by treatment with Cd, and the amount of Cd taken up by the shoots was significantly and directly correlated with the applied concentration of Cd. Using the 2-DE method, a total of 33 differentially expressed protein spots were analyzed using MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Of these, treatment with Cd resulted in significant increases in 15 proteins and decreases in 18 proteins. Major changes were absorbed in the levels of proteins known to be involved in carbohydrate metabolism, transcriptional regulation, translation and stress responses. Proteomic results revealed that Cd stress had an inhibitory effect on carbon fixation, ATP production and the regulation of protein synthesis. Our study provides insights into the integrated molecular mechanisms involved in responses to Cd and the effects of Cd on the growth and physiological characteristics of sorghum seedlings. We have aimed to provide a reference describing the mechanisms involved in heavy metal damage to plants. PMID:26919231

  3. Adrenocortical responsiveness to infusions of physiological doses of ACTH is not altered in posttraumatic stress disorder

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    Allen D Radant

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Early studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD reported that abnormal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA system was associated with the disorder. However, subsequent studies attempting to identify a specific aspect of HPA dysfunction that characterizes PTSD have been marked by considerable inconsistency of results. A facet of HPA regulation that has been considered but not definitively investigated is the possibility that the responsiveness of the adrenal cortex to physiological concentrations of ACTH is diminished in PTSD. Relationships between PTSD and the adrenal androgen dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA have also been postulated. In this study we investigated the magnitude and time course of changes in concentrations of plasma cortisol and DHEA in response to bolus infusions of physiological doses of ACTH 1-24 in PTSD patients and control subjects. We found no evidence for PTSD-related alterations in cortisol or DHEA secretion in response to stimulation by low doses of ACTH and conclude that adrenocortical responsiveness is normal in PTSD. Results from this and other studies suggest that the occurrence of defects in HPA function in PTSD may be specific responses to particular combinations of trauma type, genetic susceptibility, and individual history.

  4. [Effects of Different Genres of Music on the Psycho-Physiological Responses of Undergraduates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsin-Ping; Liu, Yu-Chen; Lin, Mei-Feng

    2016-12-01

    Undergraduate students face tremendous stressors from learning, interpersonal relationships, and life. Stress may cause adaptation exhaustion and stress-related disorders. While the results of recent clinical studies indicate that music interventions may alleviate stress, there is a dearth of research exploring the discrete effects of various genres of music on psycho-physiological status. To explore the effects of listening to different genres of music on the psycho-physiological responses of undergraduates. A one-group, pretest-posttest design was used. A total of 122 undergraduates were assigned to the following four music subgroups according to their musical preference: joyful, tense, sad, and peaceful. Students in each subgroup listened to the self-selected music for 15 minutes during the experiment. A physiological data acquisition systems, the State Anxiety Inventory, and the Visual Analogue Scale for anxiety and depression were used to measure the psycho-physiological responses of participants before, during, and after music listening. Descriptive and inferential analyses were performed using SPSS 20.0. Results: Depression significantly decreased in the peaceful music group compared to the sad music group after the intervention. Further, significant differences in heart rate variability were identified during the intervention among the groups. The change in low frequency (LF) in the joyful music group was lower than the other three groups; the change in high frequency (HF) in the peaceful music group was lower than in the tension and joyful music groups; and the change in LF/HF in the peaceful music group was lower than in the sad and joyful music groups. Additionally, the subsamples with high state anxiety experienced more change in HF while listening to tense music than to peaceful music, reflecting an upward trend after listening for 10 minutes. The findings indicate that listening to different genres of music induces different psycho-physiological

  5. The joy of heartfelt music: An examination of emotional and physiological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynar, Emily; Cvejic, Erin; Schubert, Emery; Vollmer-Conna, Ute

    2017-10-01

    Music-listening can be a powerful therapeutic tool for mood rehabilitation, yet quality evidence for its validity as a singular treatment is scarce. Specifically, the relationship between music-induced mood improvement and meaningful physiological change, as well as the influence of music- and person-related covariates on these outcomes are yet to be comprehensively explored. Ninety-four healthy participants completed questionnaires probing demographics, personal information, and musical background. Participants listened to two prescribed musical pieces (one classical, one jazz), an "uplifting" piece of their own choice, and an acoustic control stimulus (white noise) in randomised order. Physiological responses (heart rate, respiration, galvanic skin response) were recorded throughout. After each piece, participants rated their subjective responses on a series of Likert scales. Subjectively, the self-selected pieces induced the most joy, and the classical piece was perceived as most relaxing, consistent with the arousal ratings proposed by a music selection panel. These two stimuli led to the greatest overall improvement in composite emotional state from baseline. Psycho-physiologically, self-selected pieces often elicited a "eustress" response ("positive arousal"), whereas classical music was associated with the highest heart rate variability. Very few person-related covariates appeared to affect responses, and music-related covariates (besides self-selection) appeared arbitrary. These data provide strong evidence that optimal music for therapy varies between individuals. Our findings additionally suggest that the self-selected music was most effective for inducing a joyous state; while low arousal classical music was most likely to shift the participant into a state of relaxation. Therapy should attempt to find the most effective and "heartfelt" music for each listener, according to therapeutic goals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Responses to mineral nutrient availability and heterogeneity in physiologically integrated sedges from contrasting habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hertefeldt, T; Falkengren-Grerup, U; Jónsdóttir, I S

    2011-05-01

    Clonal plants from poor habitats benefit less from morphologically plastic responses to heterogeneity than plants from more productive sites. In addition, physiological integration has been suggested to either increase or decrease the foraging efficiency of clonal plants. We tested the capacity for biomass production and morphological response in two closely related, rhizomatous species from habitats that differ in resource availability, Carex arenaria (from poor sand dunes) and C. disticha (from nutrient-richer, moister habitats). We expected lower total biomass production and reduced morphological plasticity in C. arenaria, and that both species would produce more ramets in high nutrient patches, either in response to signals transported through physiological integration, or by locally determined responses to nutrient availability. To investigate mineral nutrient heterogeneity, plants were grown in boxes divided into two compartments with homogeneous or heterogeneous supply of high (H) or low (L) nutrient levels, resulting in four treatments, H-H, H-L, L-H and L-L. Both C. arenaria and C. disticha produced similar biomass in high nutrient treatments. C. disticha responded to high nutrients by increased biomass production and branching of the young parts and by altering root:shoot ratio and rhizome lengths, while C. arenaria showed localised responses to high nutrients in terms of local biomass and branch production in high nutrient patches. The results demonstrated that although it has a conservative morphology, C. arenaria responded to nutrient heterogeneity through morphological plasticity. An analysis of costs and benefits of integration on biomass production showed that young ramets of both species benefited significantly from physiological integration, but no corresponding costs were found. This suggests that plants from resource-poor but dynamic habitats like sand dunes respond morphologically to high nutrient patches. The two species responded to nutrient

  7. Genotypic Differences in Architectural and Physiological Responses to Water Restriction in Rose Bush

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    Camille eLi-Marchetti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The shape and, therefore, the architecture of the plant are dependent on genetic and environmental factors such as water supply. The architecture determines the visual quality, a key criterion underlying the decision to purchase an ornamental potted plant. The aim of this study was to analyze genotypic responses of eight rose bush cultivars to alternation of water restriction and re-watering periods, with soil water potential of -20kPa and -10 kPa respectively. Responses were evaluated at the architectural level through 3D digitalization using six architectural variables and at the physiological level by measuring stomatal conductance, water content, hormones (abscisic acid, auxin, cytokinins, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid, sugars (sucrose, fructose and glucose and proline. Highly significant genotype and watering effects were revealed for all the architectural variables measured, as well as genotype x watering interaction, with three distinct genotypic architectural responses to water restriction - weak, moderate and strong - represented by Hw336, ‘Baipome’ and ‘The Fairy’, respectively. The physiological analysis explained, at least in part, the more moderate architectural response of ‘Baipome’ compared to ‘The Fairy’, but not that of Hw336 which is an interspecific hybrid. Such physiological responses could be related to: (i the maintenance of the stimulation of budbreak and photosynthetic activity in ‘Baipome’ during water restriction periods due to a higher concentration in conjugated cytokinins (cCK and to a lower concentration in salicylic acid (SA; (ii a better resumption of budbreak during the re-watering periods due to a lower concentration in abscisic acid (ABA during this period. When associated with the six architectural descriptors, cCK, SA and ABA, which explained the genotypic differences in this study, could be used as selection criteria for breeding programs aimed at improving plant shape and tolerance to

  8. The energetic, physiological, and behavioral response of lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris) to simulated longline capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyoucos, Ian A; Suski, Cory D; Mandelman, John W; Brooks, Edward J

    2017-05-01

    Commercial fisheries bycatch is a considerable threat to elasmobranch population recovery, and techniques to mitigate sub-lethal consequences can be improved with data on the energetic, physiological, and behavioral response of individuals to capture. This study sought to estimate the effects of simulated longline capture on the behavior, energy use, and physiological stress of juvenile lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris). Captive sharks equipped with acceleration biologgers were subjected to 1h of simulated longline capture. Swimming behaviors were identified from acceleration data using a machine-learning algorithm, energetic costs were estimated using accelerometer-calibrated relationships and respirometry, and physiological stress was quantified with point-of-care blood analyzers. During capture, sharks exhibited nine-fold increases in the frequency of burst swimming, 98% reductions in resting, and swam as often as unrestrained sharks. Aerobic metabolic rates during capture were 8% higher than for unrestrained sharks, and accounted for a 57.7% increase in activity costs when excess post-exercise oxygen consumption was included. Lastly, sharks exhibited significant increases in blood lactate and glucose, but no change in blood pH after 1h of capture. Therefore, these results provide preliminary insight into the behavioral and energetic responses of sharks to capture, and have implications for mitigating sub-lethal consequences of capture for sharks as commercial longline bycatch. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Physiological Responses of Salvinia natans L. to Aluminium Stress and Its Interaction with Putrescine

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    C. Mandal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Salvinia natans L. a water fern is displayed with some of its physiological attributes in response to aluminium (Al stress in aqua culture as well as its interaction with externally applied putrescine (put. At the tissue level the Al deposition is prominent and mostly distributed in the intracellular spaces as well as cellular interfaces. The accumulation of Al and its induced oxidative damages are also revealed through Evan’s blue staining. In both the cases dose dependent responses of Al induced oxidative damages and its mitigation with Put was the resultant. Under non enzymatic antioxidation pathways, anthocyanin and flavonoids were the two phenolics over expressed as a function of Al and ameliorated with Put application. The property of root membranes was changed with an up regulation of H+/ATPase activity which was moderated by Put.The peroxidase activity particularly those were restricted to the wall bound also showed variability according to Al doses as revealed through in gel staining. From these studies of Al accumulation and its concomitant changes in physiological attributes in Salvinia plants, the species could be selected as a potential hyper accumulator of Al. The role of Put in Al accumulation as well as its moderation has been discussed with reference to physiological activities.

  10. Transcriptome profiles link environmental variation and physiological response of Mytilus californianus between Pacific tides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, Sean P; Menge, Bruce A; Hofmann, Gretchen E

    2012-02-01

    SUMMARY: The marine intertidal zone is characterized by large variation in temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen and the supply of nutrients and food on seasonal and daily time scales. These oceanic fluctuations drive of ecological processes such as recruitment, competition and consumer-prey interactions largely via physiological mehcanisms. Thus, to understand coastal ecosystem dynamics and responses to climate change, it is crucial to understand these mechanisms.Here we utilize transcriptome analysis of the physiological response of the mussel Mytilus californianus at different spatial scales to gain insight into these mechanisms. We used mussels inhabiting different vertical locations within Strawberry Hill on Cape Perpetua, OR and Boiler Bay on Cape Foulweather, OR to study inter- and intra-site variation of gene expression.The results highlight two distinct gene expression signatures related to the cycling of metabolic activity and perturbations to cellular homeostasis. Intermediate spatial scales show a strong influence of oceanographic differences in food and stress environments between sites separated by ~65 km.Together, these new insights into environmental control of gene expression may allow understanding of important physiological drivers within and across populations.

  11. Growth and Physiological Responses to Water Depths in Carex schmidtii Meinsh.

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    Hong Yan

    Full Text Available A greenhouse experiment was performed to investigate growth and physiological responses to water depth in completely submerged condition of a wetland plant Carex schmidtii Meinsh., one of the dominant species in the Longwan Crater Lake wetlands (China. Growth and physiological responses of C. schmidtii were investigated by growing under control (non-submerged and three submerged conditions (5 cm, 15 cm and 25 cm water level. Total biomass was highest in control, intermediate in 5 cm treatment and lowest in the other two submerged treatments. Water depth prominently affected the first-order lateral root to main root mass ratio. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH activity decreased but malondialdehyde (MDA content increased as water depth increased. The starch contents showed no differences among the various treatments at the end of the experiment. However, soluble sugar contents were highest in control, intermediate in 5 cm and 15 cm treatments and lowest in 25 cm treatment. Our data suggest that submergence depth affected some aspects of growth and physiology of C. schmidtii, which can reduce anoxia damage not only through maintaining the non-elongation strategy in shoot part but also by adjusting biomass allocation to different root orders rather than adjusting root-shoot biomass allocation.

  12. Meta-analysis of digital game and study characteristics eliciting physiological stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vijgh, Benny; Beun, Robbert-Jan; Van Rood, Maarten; Werkhoven, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Digital games have been used as stressors in a range of disciplines for decades. Nonetheless, the underlying characteristics of these stressors and the study in which the stressor was applied are generally not recognized for their moderating effect on the measured physiological stress responses. We have therefore conducted a meta-analysis that analyzes the effects of characteristics of digital game stressors and study design on heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, in studies carried out from 1976 to 2012. In order to assess the differing quality between study designs, a new scale is developed and presented, coined reliability of effect size. The results show specific and consistent moderating functions of both game and study characteristics, on average accounting for around 43%, and in certain cases up to 57% of the variance found in physiological stress responses. Possible cognitive and physiological processes underlying these moderating functions are discussed, and a new model integrating these processes with the moderating functions is presented. These findings indicate that a digital game stressor does not act as a stressor by virtue of being a game, but rather derives its stressor function from its characteristics and the methodology in which it is used. This finding, together with the size of the associated moderations, indicates the need for a standardization of digital game stressors. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  13. Growth and physiological responses of some Capsicum frutescens varieties to copper stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadid, Nurul; Maziyah, Rizka; Nurcahyani, Desy Dwi; Mubarokah, Nilna Rizqiyah

    2017-06-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient participating in various physiological processes. However, excessive uptake of this micronutrient could potentially affect plant growth and development as well as plant productivity. In this present work, growth and physiological responses of some Capsicum frustescens varieties to Cu stress were determined. Three C. frutescens varieties used in this work were var. Bara, CF 291, and Genie. In addition, these varieties were treated with different concentration of Cu (0, 30, 70, and 120 ppm). The growth and physiological responses measured in this work included plant height, root length, malondialdehyde (MDA), and chlorophyll. The result showed that all varieties tested relatively displayed plant growth reduction including plant height and root length. Likewise, an increase of MDA level, a major bioindicator for oxidative damage was also found in all varieties following exposure to elevated Cu concentration. Finally, the chlorophyll content was also affected indicated by a decreased amount of chlorophyll, especially in var. CF291. The overall results demonstrated that elevated Cu concentration might decrease C. frutescens productivity where among the three varieties tested, var CF 291 seemed to be the most sensitive varieties to Cu stress.

  14. Physiological stress response to loss of social influence and threats to masculinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Catherine J

    2014-02-01

    Social influence is an important component of contemporary conceptualizations of masculinity in the U.S. Men who fail to achieve masculinity by maintaining social influence in the presence of other men may be at risk of stigmatization. As such, men should be especially likely to exhibit a stress response to loss of social influence in the presence of other men. This study assesses whether men who lose social influence exhibit more of a stress response than men who gain social influence, using data collected in a laboratory setting where participants were randomly assigned into four-person groups of varying sex compositions. The groups were videotaped working on two problem-solving tasks. Independent raters assessed change in social influence using a well-validated measure borrowed from experimental work in the Status Characteristics Theory tradition. Cortisol is used as a measure of stress response because it is known to increase in response to loss of social esteem. Results show that young men who lose social influence while working with other young men exhibit cortisol response. In contrast women do not exhibit cortisol response to loss of social influence, nor do men working with women. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that loss of social influence in men may be associated with a physiological stress response because maintaining social influence is very important to men while in the presence of other men. This physiological response to loss of social influence underscores the importance to men of achieving masculinity through gaining and maintaining social influence, and avoiding the stigma associated with the failure to do so. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Traces of unconscious mental processes in introspective reports and physiological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivonin, Leonid; Chang, Huang-Ming; Diaz, Marta; Catala, Andreu; Chen, Wei; Rauterberg, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Unconscious mental processes have recently started gaining attention in a number of scientific disciplines. One of the theoretical frameworks for describing unconscious processes was introduced by Jung as a part of his model of the psyche. This framework uses the concept of archetypes that represent prototypical experiences associated with objects, people, and situations. Although the validity of Jungian model remains an open question, this framework is convenient from the practical point of view. Moreover, archetypes found numerous applications in the areas of psychology and marketing. Therefore, observation of both conscious and unconscious traces related to archetypal experiences seems to be an interesting research endeavor. In a study with 36 subjects, we examined the effects of experiencing conglomerations of unconscious emotions associated with various archetypes on the participants' introspective reports and patterns of physiological activations. Our hypothesis for this experiment was that physiological data may predict archetypes more precisely than introspective reports due to the implicit nature of archetypal experiences. Introspective reports were collected using the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) technique. Physiological measures included cardiovascular, electrodermal, respiratory responses and skin temperature of the subjects. The subjects were stimulated to feel four archetypal experiences and four explicit emotions by means of film clips. The data related to the explicit emotions served as a reference in analysis of archetypal experiences. Our findings indicated that while prediction models trained on the collected physiological data could recognize the archetypal experiences with accuracy of 55 percent, similar models built based on the SAM data demonstrated performance of only 33 percent. Statistical tests enabled us to confirm that physiological observations are better suited for observation of implicit psychological constructs like archetypes than

  16. Traces of unconscious mental processes in introspective reports and physiological responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Ivonin

    Full Text Available Unconscious mental processes have recently started gaining attention in a number of scientific disciplines. One of the theoretical frameworks for describing unconscious processes was introduced by Jung as a part of his model of the psyche. This framework uses the concept of archetypes that represent prototypical experiences associated with objects, people, and situations. Although the validity of Jungian model remains an open question, this framework is convenient from the practical point of view. Moreover, archetypes found numerous applications in the areas of psychology and marketing. Therefore, observation of both conscious and unconscious traces related to archetypal experiences seems to be an interesting research endeavor. In a study with 36 subjects, we examined the effects of experiencing conglomerations of unconscious emotions associated with various archetypes on the participants' introspective reports and patterns of physiological activations. Our hypothesis for this experiment was that physiological data may predict archetypes more precisely than introspective reports due to the implicit nature of archetypal experiences. Introspective reports were collected using the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM technique. Physiological measures included cardiovascular, electrodermal, respiratory responses and skin temperature of the subjects. The subjects were stimulated to feel four archetypal experiences and four explicit emotions by means of film clips. The data related to the explicit emotions served as a reference in analysis of archetypal experiences. Our findings indicated that while prediction models trained on the collected physiological data could recognize the archetypal experiences with accuracy of 55 percent, similar models built based on the SAM data demonstrated performance of only 33 percent. Statistical tests enabled us to confirm that physiological observations are better suited for observation of implicit psychological constructs

  17. Adaptive biochemical and physiological responses of Eriobotrya japonica to fluoride air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elloumi, Nada; Zouari, Mohamed; Mezghani, Imed; Ben Abdallah, Ferjani; Woodward, Steve; Kallel, Monem

    2017-06-19

    The biochemical and physiological effects of fluoride were investigated in loquat trees (Eriobotrya japonica) grown in the vicinity of a phosphate fertilizer plant in Tunisia. Photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (E), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were assessed; along with photosynthetic pigments, lipid peroxidation, electrolytic leakage (EL) and total phenolic contents in foliage and roots of trees at different distances from the phosphate fertilizer plant. All assessed parameters showed significant discrepancies in comparison with unpolluted sites. Obtained results showed high oxidative stress indices including H2O2, lipid peroxidation, and EL, SOD, CAT and GPx activities and proline contents in leaves and roots at the polluted sites as compared to control. In contrast, leaf Pn, Gs, E and photosynthetic pigment contents were low as compared to the control. These results indicate that even though antioxidant responses increased near the factory, adverse effects on physiology were pronounced.

  18. Mitigating Physiological Responses to Layoff Threat: An Experimental Test of the Efficacy of Two Coping Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahira M. Probst

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to assess real-time physiological reactions to the threat of layoffs and to determine whether the use of an emotion-focused vs. problem-focused coping intervention would be more efficacious in attenuating these physiological reactions. A 2 (coping intervention × 4 (within-subjects time points mixed experimental design was used to test the hypotheses. Eighty-four undergraduates participated in this laboratory experiment during which their galvanic skin response (GSR and heart rate (HR were continuously monitored. Analyses indicate that individuals instructed to utilize an emotion-focused coping strategy experienced a significantly greater decline in their GSR compared to those utilizing the problem-focused coping method. Results suggest organizations conducting layoffs might focus first on dealing with the emotional aftermath of downsizing before focusing on problem-solving tasks, such as resume writing and other traditional outplacement activities.

  19. Mitigating Physiological Responses to Layoff Threat: An Experimental Test of the Efficacy of Two Coping Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Tahira M; Jiang, Lixin

    2016-03-18

    The purpose of the current study was to assess real-time physiological reactions to the threat of layoffs and to determine whether the use of an emotion-focused vs. problem-focused coping intervention would be more efficacious in attenuating these physiological reactions. A 2 (coping intervention) × 4 (within-subjects time points) mixed experimental design was used to test the hypotheses. Eighty-four undergraduates participated in this laboratory experiment during which their galvanic skin response (GSR) and heart rate (HR) were continuously monitored. Analyses indicate that individuals instructed to utilize an emotion-focused coping strategy experienced a significantly greater decline in their GSR compared to those utilizing the problem-focused coping method. Results suggest organizations conducting layoffs might focus first on dealing with the emotional aftermath of downsizing before focusing on problem-solving tasks, such as resume writing and other traditional outplacement activities.

  20. Examining subjective and physiological responses to norm violation using text-based vignettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhuber, Eva G; Tsankova, Elena; Kappas, Arvid

    2016-01-13

    In this article, we describe a paradigm using text-based vignettes for the study of social and cultural norm violation. Towards this aim, a range of scenarios depicting instances of norm violations was generated and tested with respect to their ability in evoking subjective and physiological responses. In Experiment 1, participants evaluated 29 vignettes on how upsetting, excusable and realistic the described behaviour appeared to be. Based on those ratings we selected and extended three norm violation vignettes for Experiment 2 in which participants' physiological responses were obtained in addition to their subjective ratings. In both studies, the vignettes were successful in eliciting negative responses to norm violations and were significantly affected by the perceivers' level of ethnocultural empathy. The trait measure of cultural empathy further predicted facial electromyography (EMG) activity at muscle sites associated with disgust (M. Levator Labii), thereby suggesting a potential moral response to norm-violating scenarios. We discuss the methodological merits and implications of this vignettes paradigm for investigating perceived norm transgressions and make recommendations for future work. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  1. Adaptation and Response of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis to Bile: a Proteomic and Physiological Approach▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Borja; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine; Stuer-Lauridsen, Birgitte; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Anglade, Patricia; Baraige, Fabienne; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G.; Johansen, Eric; Zagorec, Monique; Margolles, Abelardo

    2007-01-01

    Bile salts are natural detergents that facilitate the digestion and absorption of the hydrophobic components of the diet. However, their amphiphilic nature makes them very inhibitory for bacteria and strongly influences bacterial survival in the gastrointestinal tract. Adaptation to and tolerance of bile stress is therefore crucial for the persistence of bacteria in the human colonic niche. Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, a probiotic bacterium with documented health benefits, is applied largely in fermented dairy products. In this study, the effect of bile salts on proteomes of B. animalis subsp. lactis IPLA 4549 and its bile-resistant derivative B. animalis subsp. lactis 4549dOx was analyzed, leading to the identification of proteins which may represent the targets of bile salt response and adaptation in B. animalis subsp. lactis. The comparison of the wild-type and the bile-resistant strain responses allowed us to hypothesize about the resistance mechanisms acquired by the derivative resistant strain and about the bile salt response in B. animalis subsp. lactis. In addition, significant differences in the levels of metabolic end products of the bifid shunt and in the redox status of the cells were also detected, which correlate with some differences observed between the proteomes. These results indicate that adaptation and response to bile in B. animalis subsp. lactis involve several physiological mechanisms that are jointly dedicated to reduce the deleterious impact of bile on the cell's physiology. PMID:17827318

  2. Adaptation and response of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis to bile: a proteomic and physiological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Borja; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine; Stuer-Lauridsen, Birgitte; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Anglade, Patricia; Baraige, Fabienne; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G; Johansen, Eric; Zagorec, Monique; Margolles, Abelardo

    2007-11-01

    Bile salts are natural detergents that facilitate the digestion and absorption of the hydrophobic components of the diet. However, their amphiphilic nature makes them very inhibitory for bacteria and strongly influences bacterial survival in the gastrointestinal tract. Adaptation to and tolerance of bile stress is therefore crucial for the persistence of bacteria in the human colonic niche. Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, a probiotic bacterium with documented health benefits, is applied largely in fermented dairy products. In this study, the effect of bile salts on proteomes of B. animalis subsp. lactis IPLA 4549 and its bile-resistant derivative B. animalis subsp. lactis 4549dOx was analyzed, leading to the identification of proteins which may represent the targets of bile salt response and adaptation in B. animalis subsp. lactis. The comparison of the wild-type and the bile-resistant strain responses allowed us to hypothesize about the resistance mechanisms acquired by the derivative resistant strain and about the bile salt response in B. animalis subsp. lactis. In addition, significant differences in the levels of metabolic end products of the bifid shunt and in the redox status of the cells were also detected, which correlate with some differences observed between the proteomes. These results indicate that adaptation and response to bile in B. animalis subsp. lactis involve several physiological mechanisms that are jointly dedicated to reduce the deleterious impact of bile on the cell's physiology.

  3. F response and H reflex analysis of physiological unity of gravity and antigravity muscles in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, H A; Fisher, M A

    1977-01-01

    Observational differences between reflex (H reflex) and antidromic (F response) activation of segmental motoneurons by a peripheral electrical stimulus are described. In contrast to H reflexes, the percentage of F responses found after a series of stimuli is directly related to the pick-up field of the recording electrode consistent with this response being due to the variable activation of a small fraction of the available motoneuron pool. Despite the differing physiological mechanisms, both F responses and H reflexes can be used to demonstrate similar relative "central excitatory states" for antigravity muscles (i.e. extensors in the lower extremity and flexors in the upper extremity) and their antagonist gravity muscles. H reflexes were elicited not only in their usual location in certain antigravity muscles but also in unusual locations by length/tension changes in agonist and antagonist groups as well as by passive stretch. The data argue for the physiological unity of similarly acting gravity and antigravity muscles as well as supporting a meaningful role of group II afferents in normal segmental motoneuron pool excitability.

  4. Swimming performance and physiological responses to exhaustive exercise in radio-tagged and untagged Pacific lampreys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, M.G.; Bayer, J.M.; Seelye, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    Populations of Pacific lamprey Lampetra tridentata have declined in the Columbia River basin. One factor that may have contributed to this reduction in population size is an excessive use of energy by adult lampreys as they negotiate fishways at dams during spawning migrations. To gain an understanding of the performance capacity of Pacific lampreys, we estimated the critical swimming speed (Ucrit) and documented physiological responses of radio-tagged and untagged adult lampreys exercised to exhaustion. The mean (??SD) Ucrit of untagged lampreys was 86.2 ?? 7.5 cm/s at 15??C, whereas the Ucrit for radio-tagged lampreys was 81.5 ?? 7.0 cm/s, a speed that was significantly lower than that of untagged fish. The physiological responses of tagged and untagged lampreys subjected to exhaustive exercise included decreases in blood pH of 0.3-0.5 units, a 40% decrease in muscle glycogen levels, a 22% increase in hematocrit for untagged fish only, and a 4- to 5-fold increase in muscle and a 40- to 100-fold increase in plasma lactate concentrations. These physiological changes were significant compared with resting control fish and usually returned to resting levels by 1-4 h after fatigue. Our estimates of Ucrit for Pacific lampreys are the first quantitative measures of their swimming performance and suggest that these fish may have difficulty negotiating fishways at dams on the Columbia River, which can have water velocities approaching 2 m/s. Our physiological results indicate that tagged and untagged Pacific lampreys show similar metabolic dysfunction after exhaustive exercise but recover quickly from a single exposure to such a stressor.

  5. The effects of music on physiological responses and sedation scores in sedated, mechanically ventilated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Boukje M; Gamel, Claudia; van der Bijl, Jaap J; Bots, Michiel L; Kesecioglu, Jozef

    2010-04-01

    A pilot study designed as future randomised controlled trial was carried out to determine the effects of music on physiological responses and sedation scores in sedated, mechanically ventilated patients. Mechanically ventilated ICU patients, even when receiving intravenous sedatives, may experience stress and anxiety. One possible intervention to reduce stress and anxiety is listening to music. A randomised controlled trial design with repeated measures was used. Data were collected over a six-month period in 2006. Twenty subjects were randomly assigned to either the experimental or control group. Subjects in the experimental group listened to music three times for 30 minutes over two days; subjects in the control group undertook three 30 minute rest periods. Physiological effects of music on systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure and heart and respiratory rate were assessed. Sedation scores were also measured. Physiological parameters did not show a significant difference between the groups. Patients in the experimental group showed significantly higher Ramsay (sedation) scores than patients in the control group after the first session. The higher scores indicate that patients were less responsive to external stimuli. Our results suggest that listening to music leads to higher sedation scores in sedated, mechanically ventilated ICU patients. No significant decreases in physiological parameters were observed. Listening to music showed no negative changes in the condition of these patients. Future research should focus on the use of other measures, such as stress hormones, to assess stress in sedated, mechanically ventilated ICU patients. For the sedated, mechanically ventilated ICU patient, the benefit of music may lie in the associated (deeper) level of sedation that is achieved, which in turn may make the patient less susceptible to stress and anxiety.

  6. Shotgun proteomics reveals physiological response to ocean acidification in Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmins-Schiffman, Emma; Coffey, William D; Hua, Wilber; Nunn, Brook L; Dickinson, Gary H; Roberts, Steven B

    2014-11-03

    Ocean acidification as a result of increased anthropogenic CO2 emissions is occurring in marine and estuarine environments worldwide. The coastal ocean experiences additional daily and seasonal fluctuations in pH that can be lower than projected end-of-century open ocean pH reductions. In order to assess the impact of ocean acidification on marine invertebrates, Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) were exposed to one of four different p CO2 levels for four weeks: 400 μatm (pH 8.0), 800 μatm (pH 7.7), 1000 μatm (pH 7.6), or 2800 μatm (pH 7.3). At the end of the four week exposure period, oysters in all four p CO2 environments deposited new shell, but growth rate was not different among the treatments. However, micromechanical properties of the new shell were compromised by elevated p CO2. Elevated p CO2 affected neither whole body fatty acid composition, nor glycogen content, nor mortality rate associated with acute heat shock. Shotgun proteomics revealed that several physiological pathways were significantly affected by ocean acidification, including antioxidant response, carbohydrate metabolism, and transcription and translation. Additionally, the proteomic response to a second stress differed with p CO2, with numerous processes significantly affected by mechanical stimulation at high versus low p CO2 (all proteomics data are available in the ProteomeXchange under the identifier PXD000835). Oyster physiology is significantly altered by exposure to elevated p CO2, indicating changes in energy resource use. This is especially apparent in the assessment of the effects of p CO2 on the proteomic response to a second stress. The altered stress response illustrates that ocean acidification may impact how oysters respond to other changes in their environment. These data contribute to an integrative view of the effects of ocean acidification on oysters as well as physiological trade-offs during environmental stress.

  7. Physiological and behavioural responses of Gammarus pulex (Crustacea: Amphipoda) exposed to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felten, V. [Laboratoire d' Ecotoxicologie, CEMAGREF, 3 bis quai Chauveau, CP 220, 69336 Lyon Cedex 09 (France)], E-mail: vincent.felten@univ-reims.fr; Charmantier, G. [Equipe Adaptation Ecophysiologique et Ontogenese, UMR 5119 Ecolag, Universite Montpellier II, Place E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 05 (France); Mons, R. [Laboratoire d' Ecotoxicologie, CEMAGREF, 3 bis quai Chauveau, CP 220, 69336 Lyon Cedex 09 (France); Geffard, A. [Laboratoire d' Eco-toxicologie, Universite de Reims Champagne Ardenne, Faculte des Sciences, Moulin de la Housse, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Rousselle, P. [Laboratoire Biodiversite et Fonctionnement des Ecosystemes, Universite de Metz, Campus Bridoux, Rue du General Delestraint, 57 070 Metz (France); Coquery, M. [Laboratoire de Chimie Environnementale, CEMAGREF, 3 bis quai Chauveau, CP 220, 69336 Lyon Cedex 09 (France); Garric, J.; Geffard, O. [Laboratoire d' Ecotoxicologie, CEMAGREF, 3 bis quai Chauveau, CP 220, 69336 Lyon Cedex 09 (France)

    2008-02-18

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cadmium on physiological and behavioural responses in Gammarus pulex. In a first experiment, cadmium LC50s for different times were evaluated in 264 h experiment under continuous mode of exposure (LC50{sub 96h} = 82.1 {mu}g L{sup -1}, LC50{sub 120h} = 37.1 {mu}g L{sup -1}, LC50{sub 168h} = 21.6 {mu}g L{sup -1}, LC50{sub 264h} = 10.5 {mu}g L{sup -1}). In a second experiment, the physiological and behavioural responses of the amphipod exposed to cadmium (0, 7.5 and 15 {mu}g L{sup -1}) were investigated under laboratory conditions. The mortality and the whole body cadmium concentration of organisms exposed to cadmium were significantly higher than in controls. Concerning physiological responses, cadmium exposure exerted a significant decrease on osmolality and haemolymph Ca{sup 2+} concentration, but not on haemolymph Na{sup +} and Cl{sup -} concentrations, whereas the Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase activity was significantly increased. Behavioural responses, such as feeding rate, locomotor and ventilatory activities, were significantly reduced in Cd exposed organisms. Mechanism of cadmium action and consequent energetic reallocation in favour of maintenance functions (i.e., osmoregulation) are discussed. The results of this study indicate that osmolality and locomotor activity in G. pulex could be effective ecophysiological/behavioural markers to monitor freshwater ecosystem and to assess the health of organisms.

  8. Century long assessment of herbaceous plants' physiological responses to climate change in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Gutierrez, Cristina; Kahmen, Ansgar

    2017-04-01

    The isotopic analysis of archived plant material offers the exceptional opportunity to reconstruct the physiological activity of plants over long time periods and thus, to assess plant responses to environmental changes during the last centuries. In addition, the stable isotope analysis of herbarium samples offers the opportunity to reconstruct the physiological processes of a large range of different plant species and from different environments. Interestingly, only few studies have to date assessed these archives. We will present a novel analysis of leaf nitrogen, oxygen and carbon isotope ratios of more than a thousand herbarium specimens collected since 1800 until present from the unique herbaria hold at the University of Basel. The objective of our study was to assess century-long physiological responses of herbaceous plant species from different plant functional groups and along an altitudinal gradient in Switzerland. The goal of our study was to determine with our investigations the long-term responses of plants to climate change. Such investigations are important as they allow to assess long-term processes of acclimation and adaptation in plants to global enviromental change. In our study we found that herbaceous plants have increased their intrinsic water use efficiency in response to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration but this increment was higher in plants from higher altitudes, due to the higher efficiency of CO2 assimilation of alpine plants compared to plants from lowlands. There were also differences among functional groups, with grasses and forbs showing the highest increments. In addition, herbaceous plants showed a decreasing trend with time in their N isotopic composition, which may indicate progressive N limitation due to higher biological activity with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration.

  9. Intra-individual psychological and physiological responses to acute laboratory stressors of different intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoluda, Nadine; Strahler, Jana; Schlotz, Wolff; Niederberger, Larissa; Marques, Sofia; Fischer, Susanne; Thoma, Myriam V; Spoerri, Corinne; Ehlert, Ulrike; Nater, Urs M

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of stress is understood as a multidimensional concept which can be captured by psychological and physiological measures. There are various laboratory stress protocols which enable stress to be investigated under controlled conditions. However, little is known about whether these protocols differ with regard to the induced psycho-physiological stress response pattern. In a within-subjects design, 20 healthy young men underwent four of the most common stress protocols (Stroop test [Stroop], cold pressor test [CPT], Trier Social Stress Test [TSST], and bicycle ergometer test [Ergometer]) and a no-stress control condition (rest) in a randomized order. For the multidimensional assessment of the stress response, perceived stress, endocrine and autonomic biomarkers (salivary cortisol, salivary alpha-amylase, and heart rate) were obtained during the experiments. All stress protocols evoked increases in perceived stress levels, with the highest levels in the TSST, followed by Ergometer, Stroop, and CPT. The highest HPA axis response was found in the TSST, followed by Ergometer, CPT, and Stroop, whilst the highest autonomic response was found in the Ergometer, followed by TSST, Stroop, and CPT. These findings suggest that different stress protocols differentially stimulate various aspects of the stress response. Physically demanding stress protocols such as the Ergometer test appear to be particularly suitable for evoking autonomic stress responses, whereas uncontrollable and social-evaluative threatening stressors (such as the TSST) are most likely to elicit HPA axis stress responses. The results of this study may help researchers in deciding which stress protocol to use, depending on the individual research question. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Functional genomics to assess biological responses to marine pollution at physiological and evolutionary timescales: toward a vision of predictive ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Noah M; Whitehead, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Marine pollution is ubiquitous, and is one of the key factors influencing contemporary marine biodiversity worldwide. To protect marine biodiversity, how do we surveil, document and predict the short- and long-term impacts of pollutants on at-risk species? Modern genomics tools offer high-throughput, information-rich and increasingly cost-effective approaches for characterizing biological responses to environmental stress, and are important tools within an increasing sophisticated kit for surveiling and assessing impacts of pollutants on marine species. Through the lens of recent research in marine killifish, we illustrate how genomics tools may be useful for screening chemicals and pollutants for biological activity and to reveal specific mechanisms of action. The high dimensionality of transcriptomic responses enables their usage as highly specific fingerprints of exposure, and these fingerprints can be used to diagnose environmental problems. We also emphasize that molecular pathways recruited to respond at physiological timescales are the same pathways that may be targets for natural selection during chronic exposure to pollutants. Gene complement and sequence variation in those pathways can be related to variation in sensitivity to environmental pollutants within and among species. Furthermore, allelic variation associated with evolved tolerance in those pathways could be tracked to estimate the pace of environmental health decline and recovery. We finish by integrating these paradigms into a vision of how genomics approaches could anchor a modernized framework for advancing the predictive capacity of environmental and ecotoxicological science. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Physiological thermal limits predict differential responses of bees to urban heat-island effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblin, April L; Youngsteadt, Elsa; López-Uribe, Margarita M; Frank, Steven D

    2017-06-01

    Changes in community composition are an important, but hard to predict, effect of climate change. Here, we use a wild-bee study system to test the ability of critical thermal maxima (CTmax, a measure of heat tolerance) to predict community responses to urban heat-island effects in Raleigh, NC, USA. Among 15 focal species, CTmax ranged from 44.6 to 51.3°C, and was strongly predictive of population responses to urban warming across 18 study sites (r(2) = 0.44). Species with low CTmax declined the most. After phylogenetic correction, solitary species and cavity-nesting species (bumblebees) had the lowest CTmax, suggesting that these groups may be most sensitive to climate change. Community responses to urban and global warming will likely retain strong physiological signal, even after decades of warming during which time lags and interspecific interactions could modulate direct effects of temperature. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. Maintaining evolvability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-12-23

    Dec 23, 2008 ... inherit a disproportionate number of genes acting additively on the trait, thus increasing genetic variance. For these ... Keywords. polygenes; additive genetic variance; epistasis; dominance; selection response; quantitative genetics. Journal of ..... The effect of epistasis on homozygous viability depression in.

  13. Application of the Copenhagen Soccer Test in high-level women players - locomotor activities, physiological response and sprint performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendiksen, Mads; Pettersen, Svein Arne; Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the physiological response, sprint performance and technical ability in various phases of the Copenhagen Soccer Test for Women (CSTw) and investigated whether the locomotor activities of the CSTw were comparable to competitive match-play (CM). Physiological measurements and physical/...

  14. Biochemical, physiological and molecular responses of Ricinus communis seeds and seedlings to different temperatures: a multi-omics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro de Jesus, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    Biochemical, physiological and molecular responses of Ricinus communis seeds and seedlings to different temperatures: a multi-omics approach by Paulo Roberto Ribeiro de Jesus The main objective of this thesis was to provide a detailed analysis of physiological,

  15. Reflectance properties and physiological responses of Salicornia virginica to heavy metal and petroleum contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Pablo H; Pushnik, James C; Lay, Mui; Ustin, Susan L

    2005-09-01

    Wetland ecosystems of California are located in highly populated areas and subject to high levels of contamination. Monitoring of wetlands to assess degrees of pollution damage requires periodic retrieval of information over large areas, which can be effectively accomplished by rapidly evolving remote sensing technologies. The biophysical principles of remote sensing of vegetation under stress need to be understood in order to correctly interpret the information obtained at the scale of canopies. To determine the potential to remotely characterize and monitor pollution, plants of Salicornia virginica, a major component of wetland communities in California, were treated with two metals and two crude oil types to study their sensitivity to pollutants and how this impacted their reflectance characteristics. Several growth and physiological parameters, as well as shoot reflectance were measured and correlated with symptoms and contamination levels. Significant differences between treatments were found in at least some of the measured parameters in all pollutants. Reflectance was sensitive to early stress levels only for cadmium and the lightweight petroleum. Pollutants that differ in their way of action also had different plant reflectance signatures. The high degree of correlation between reflectance features and stress indicators highlights the potential of using remote sensing to assess the type and degree of pollution damage.

  16. Physiological response and activity profile in recreational small-sided football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Nielsen, Jens Jung; Bangsbo, Jens

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effect of the number of players on the activity profile and physiological response to small-sided recreational football games with fixed relative pitch size. Twelve untrained men (age: 33.0 ± 6.4 (± standard deviation) years, fat%: 22.4 ± 6.1%, VO2 max: 43.3 ± 5.2 mL/min/kg) compl......We examined the effect of the number of players on the activity profile and physiological response to small-sided recreational football games with fixed relative pitch size. Twelve untrained men (age: 33.0 ± 6.4 (± standard deviation) years, fat%: 22.4 ± 6.1%, VO2 max: 43.3 ± 5.2 m......L/min/kg) completed three football sessions of 4 times 12 min with 3v3, 5v5, or 7v7 in a randomized order. Pitch sizes were 80 m(2) per player. Activity profile (10 Hz global positioning system), heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured, and blood samples were collected before and during...... accelerations (500 ± 139 vs 459 ± 143 and 396 ± 144) were higher (P football games, with similar physiological responses for 6-14 players when pitch size is adapted, providing further evidence...

  17. Gender- and hydration- associated differences in the physiological response to spinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Hernández-Torres, Rosa Patricia; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Torres-Durán, Patricia Victoria; Juárez-Oropeza, Marco Antonio; Viloria, María; Villalobos-Molina, Rafael

    2014-03-01

    There is scarce and inconsistent information about gender-related differences in the hydration of sports persons, as well as about the effects of hydration on performance, especially during indoor sports. To determine the physiological differences between genders during in indoor physical exercise, with and without hydration. 21 spinning sportspeople (12 men and 9 women) participated in three controlled, randomly assigned and non-sequential hydration protocols, including no fluid intake and hydration with plain water or a sports drink (volume adjusted to each individual every 15 min), during 90 min of spinning exercise. The response variables included body mass, body temperature, heart rate and blood pressure. During exercise without hydration, men and women lost ~2% of body mass, and showed higher body temperature (~0.2°C), blood pressure (~4 mmHg) and heart rate (~7 beats/min) compared to exercises with hydration. Body temperature and blood pressure were higher for men than for women during exercise without hydration, differences not observed during exercise with hydration. Between 42-99% of variance in body temperature, blood pressure and heart rate could be explained by the physical characteristics of subjects and the work done. During exercise with hydration (either with water or sport drink), the physiological response was similar for both genders. Exercise without hydration produced physical stress, which could be prevented with either of the fluids (plain water was sufficient). Gender differences in the physiological response to spinning (body temperature, mean blood pressure and heart rate) can be explained in part by the distinct physical characteristics of each individual. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. Physiological responses and lipid storage of the coral Lophelia pertusa at varying food density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baussant, Thierry; Nilsen, Marianne; Ravagnan, Elisa; Westerlund, Stig; Ramanand, Sreerekha

    2017-01-01

    Despite the importance of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa to deep-sea reef ecosystem functioning, current knowledge of key physiological responses to available food resources is scarce. Scenarios with varying food density may help to understand how corals deal with seasonal variations in the dark ocean and might be used to study consequences of anthropogenic activities potentially affecting food availability. Thus, the physiological responses of L. pertusa to varying food (Artemia salina nauplii) concentration, ranging from 20% to 300% of carbon equivalent turned over by basal coral respiration, were investigated. A starvation group was also included. Measurements of respiration, growth, mucus production, and energy reserves (storage fatty acids) were performed at several time intervals over 26 weeks. In general, data showed a stronger effect of experimental time on measured responses, but no significant influence of food density treatment. In starved corals, respiration rate declined to 52% of initial respiration, while skeleton growth rate was maintained at the same rate as Artemia-fed corals throughout the investigation. Mucus production measured as the sum of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) was also similar across food treatments, but POC production exceeded that of DOC at the highest food density. No marked effect was observed on storage fatty acids. These results confirm that L. pertusa is highly resilient to environmental conditions with suboptimal food densities over a time scale of months. Regulation of several physiological processes, including respiration and mucus production, possibly in combination with an opportunistic feeding strategy, contributed to this tolerance to maintain viable corals. Thus, it appears that L. pertusa is well adapted to life in the deep sea.

  19. Physiological and behavioural responses of young horses to hot iron branding and microchip implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erber, R; Wulf, M; Becker-Birck, M; Kaps, S; Aurich, J E; Möstl, E; Aurich, C

    2012-02-01

    Branding is the traditional and well-established method used to mark horses, but recently microchip transponders for implantation have become available. In this study, behaviour, physiological stress variables and skin temperature in foals were determined in response to hot-iron branding (n=7) and microchip implantation (n=7). Salivary cortisol concentrations increased in response to branding (1.8 ± 0.2 ng/mL) and microchip implantation (1.4 ± 0.1ng/mL), but cortisol release over time did not differ. In response to both manipulations there was a transient increase in heart rate (PBranding and microchip implantation induced a comparable aversive behaviour (branding, score 3.86 ± 0.85; microchip, score 4.00 ± 0.82). Both techniques thus caused similar physiological and behavioural changes indicative of stress. Acutely, implantation of a microchip was as stressful as branding in foals. Branding caused a necrotising skin burn lasting at least 7 days. Moreover branding, but not microchip implantation (P<0.001), was accompanied by a generalized increase in skin temperature which was comparable to low degree post-burn hypermetabolism in humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Larval damselflies in extreme environments: behavioral and physiological response to hypoxic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, Christine K; Chapman, Lauren J

    2004-09-01

    The extensive papyrus (Cyperus papyrus) swamps of East and Central Africa form a habitat of great ecological importance due to their extent, the extreme and chronic hypoxia of the interior swamp, and the unique assemblages of water-breathing insects that characterize these communities, including zygopteran (damselfly) larvae. The major goal of this study was to quantify physiological and behavioral responses of gilled and gill-less damselfly larvae of a papyrus swamp specialist, Proischnura subfurcatum, to low-oxygen conditions. Gill autotomization was common in P. subfurcatum of the Rwembaita Swamp in Kibale National Park, Uganda, with one to three gills missing from 56% of the specimens surveyed. We examined behavioral (ventilation activity and vertical migration) and physiological (metabolic rate) response to hypoxia in gilled and gill-less P. subfurcatum. Behavioral response to progressive hypoxia indicated that gill-less individuals rely more on use of wing sheaths (lifting and spreading) than gilled P. subfurcatum larvae. However, both morphs migrated to the surface to gain contact with atmospheric air under extreme hypoxia. On average, the rate of oxygen consumption of gill-less individuals was 51% lower than that of gilled individuals. This observed metabolic depression in gill-less P. subfurcatum may be attributed to the loss of major respiratory appendages. However, the apparent ability of both gilled and gill-less individuals to maintain their metabolic rates to a similar critical tension suggests other mechanisms may compensate for loss of gills, though not enough to mediate metabolic depression.

  1. Competitive active video games: Physiological and psychological responses in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisón, Juan F; Cebolla, Ausias; Guixeres, Jaime; Álvarez-Pitti, Julio; Escobar, Patricia; Bruñó, Alejandro; Lurbe, Empar; Alcañiz, Mariano; Baños, Rosa

    2015-10-01

    Recent strategies to reduce sedentary behaviour in children include replacing sedentary screen time for active video games. Active video game studies have focused principally on the metabolic consumption of a single player, with physiological and psychological responses of opponent-based multiplayer games to be further evaluated. To determine whether adding a competitive component to playing active video games impacts physiological and psychological responses in players. Sixty-two healthy Caucasian children and adolescents, nine to 14 years years of age, completed three conditions (8 min each) in random order: treadmill walking, and single and opponent-based Kinect active video games. Affect, arousal, rate of perceived exertion, heart rate and percentage of heart rate reserve were measured for each participant and condition. Kinect conditions revealed significantly higher heart rate, percentage of heart rate reserve, rate of perceived exertion and arousal when compared with treadmill walking (Pvideo games improved children's psychological responses (affect and rate of perceived exertion) compared with single play, providing a solution that may contribute toward improved adherence to physical activity.

  2. Physiological and self-assessed emotional responses to emotion-eliciting films in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elices, Matilde; Soler, Joaquim; Fernández, Cristina; Martín-Blanco, Ana; Jesús Portella, María; Pérez, Víctor; Alvarez, Enrique; Carlos Pascual, Juan

    2012-12-30

    According to Linehan's biosocial model, the core characteristic of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is emotional dysregulation. In the present study, we investigated two components of this model: baseline emotional intensity and emotional reactivity. A total of 60 women, 30 with BPD diagnosis and 30 age and sex-matched healthy subjects (HCs), participated in two experiments. In the first experiment, we evaluated emotional responses to six films designed to elicit discrete emotions (anger, fear, sadness, disgust, amusement and neutral). The second experiment evaluated emotional reactions to three emotion-eliciting films containing BPD-specific content (sexual abuse, emotional dependence and abandonment/separation). Skin conductance level, heart rate, and subjective emotional response were recorded for each film. Although self-reported data indicated that negative emotions at baseline were stronger in the BPD group, physiological measures showed no differences between the groups. Physiological results should be interpreted with caution since most BPD participants were under pharmacological treatment. BPD subjects presented no subjective heightened reactivity to most of the discrete emotion-eliciting films. Subjective responses to amusement and "BPD-specific content" films revealed significant between-group differences. These findings suggest that the main characteristic of BPD might be negative emotional intensity rather than heightened emotional reactivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Physiological Responses of Slow-Growing Chickens under Diurnally Cycling Temperature in a Hot Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Mutibvu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Free-range chicken production has significantly increased in recent years and it often entails exposing birds to cyclic environmental conditions. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of bird strain and sex, and rearing system on the physiological responses of Potchefstroom Koekoek (PK, Ovambo (OV and Naked Neck (NN chickens reared in a hot environment. Body weight (BW, rectal temperature (RT, respiratory rate (RR and heart rate (HR were determined weekly for 4 weeks, in 3 slow-growing chicken strains under cyclic environmental conditions. A total of 288, 20-week old Potchefstroom Koekoek (PK, Ovambo (OV and Naked Neck (NN chickens were separated by sex and allocated to extensive and intensive rearing systems. Ambient temperature and relative humidity (RH were used to compute a temperature humidity index (THI. A Proc MIXED model was used to analyze fixed effects and a linear regression model was fitted to test the relationship between THI and response parameters. All factors studied influenced (p0.05 RT. Higher BW (p0.05. Week and rearing system affected (p>0.05 RR. THI showed significant correlation with RR and HR. THI was higher in intensive than extensive rearing. Physiological responses of PK, OV and NN are comparable under similar rearing conditions.

  4. Physiological Responses of Water-Polo Players Under Different Tactical Strategie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petros G. Botonis, Argyris G. Toubekis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of defense tactical strategy on physiological responses characterizing playing intensity in water-polo game. In the first part of the study, fourteen players were assigned to defending (n = 7 and offending (n = 7 groups and participated in nine 4-min plays applying three different defending systems: press, static-zone and zone-press, in front of the defense court of one goalpost. In the second part, 18 players participated in nine different real full court water-polo games consisting of 3X15min of live-time playing periods. Both in defense court plays and real games, the three defense systems were played in a counterbalanced order and heart rate (HR was continuously recorded. Additionally, in defense court plays, blood lactate concentration (La was measured at the end of each 4-min period. Mean HR within defense court plays was higher in press (153 ± 10 beats.min-1 than in static-zone (140 ± 11 beats.min-1 and zone-press (143 ± 16 beats.min-1, p 0.05. Defenders and offenders showed similar HR and La responses across the tactical modes. In conclusion, defense tactical strategies affect physiological responses within a part of the game but do not affect the overall playing intensity of a real water-polo game. Tactical strategies similarly affect offenders and defenders.

  5. Do infants find snakes aversive? Infants' physiological responses to "fear-relevant" stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, Cat; LoBue, Vanessa

    2016-02-01

    In the current research, we sought to measure infants' physiological responses to snakes-one of the world's most widely feared stimuli-to examine whether they find snakes aversive or merely attention grabbing. Using a similar method to DeLoache and LoBue (Developmental Science, 2009, Vol. 12, pp. 201-207), 6- to 9-month-olds watched a series of multimodal (both auditory and visual) stimuli: a video of a snake (fear-relevant) or an elephant (non-fear-relevant) paired with either a fearful or happy auditory track. We measured physiological responses to the pairs of stimuli, including startle magnitude, latency to startle, and heart rate. Results suggest that snakes capture infants' attention; infants showed the fastest startle responses and lowest average heart rate to the snakes, especially when paired with a fearful voice. Unexpectedly, they also showed significantly reduced startle magnitude during this same snake video plus fearful voice combination. The results are discussed with respect to theoretical perspectives on fear acquisition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. TRANSCRIPTOMIC CHANGES DRIVE PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO PROGRESSIVE DROUGHT STRESS AND REHYDRATION IN TOMATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo eIovieno

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tomato is a major crop in the Mediterranean basin, where the cultivation in the open field is often vulnerable to drought. In order to adapt and survive to naturally occurring cycles of drought stress and recovery, plants employ a coordinated array of physiological, biochemical and molecular responses. Transcriptomic studies on tomato responses to drought and subsequent recovery are few in number. As the search for novel traits to improve the genetic tolerance to drought increases, a better understanding of these responses is required. To address this need we designed a study in which we induced two cycles of prolonged drought stress and a single recovery by rewatering in tomato. In order to dissect the complexity of plant responses to drought, we analyzed the physiological responses (stomatal conductance, CO2 assimilation and chlorophyll fluorescence, abscisic acid (ABA and proline contents. In addition to the physiological and metabolite assays, we generated transcriptomes for multiple points during the stress and recovery cycles. Cluster analysis of differentially expressed genes between the conditions has revealed potential novel components in stress response. The observed reduction in leaf gas exchanges and efficiency of the photosystem PSII was concomitant with a general down-regulation of genes belonging to the photosynthesis, light harvesting and photosystem I and II category induced by drought stress. Gene ontology (GO categories such as cell proliferation and cell cycle were also significantly enriched in the down-regulated fraction of genes upon drought stress, which may contribute to explain the observed growth reduction. Several histone variants were also repressed during drought stress, indicating that chromatin associated processes are also affected by drought. As expected, ABA accumulated after prolonged water deficit, driving the observed enrichment of stress related GOs in the up-regulated gene fractions, which included

  7. Plant growth enhancement and associated physiological responses are coregulated by ethylene and gibberellin in response to harpin protein Hpa1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojie; Han, Bing; Xu, Manyu; Han, Liping; Zhao, Yanying; Liu, Zhilan; Dong, Hansong; Zhang, Chunling

    2014-04-01

    The harpin protein Hpa1 produced by the bacterial blight pathogen of rice induces several growth-promoting responses in plants, activating the ethylene signaling pathway, increasing photosynthesis rates and EXPANSIN (EXP) gene expression levels, and thereby enhancing the vegetative growth. This study was attempted to analyze any mechanistic connections among the above and the role of gibberellin in these responses. Hpa1-induced growth enhancement was evaluated in Arabidopsis, tomato, and rice. And growth-promoting responses were determined mainly as an increase of chlorophyll a/b ratio, which indicates a potential elevation of photosynthesis rates, and enhancements of photosynthesis and EXP expression in the three plant species. In Arabidopsis, Hpa1-induced growth-promoting responses were partially compromised by a defect in ethylene perception or gibberellin biosynthesis. In tomato and rice, compromises of Hpa1-induced growth-promoting responses were caused by a pharmacological treatment with an ethylene perception inhibitor or a gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor. In the three plant species, moreover, Hpa1-induced growth-promoting responses were significantly impaired, but not totally eliminated, by abolishing ethylene perception or gibberellin synthesis. However, simultaneous nullifications in both ethylene perception and gibberellin biosynthesis almost canceled the full effects of Hpa1 on plant growth, photosynthesis, and EXP2 expression. Theses results suggest that ethylene and gibberellin coregulate Hpa1-induced plant growth enhancement and associated physiological and molecular responses.

  8. Physiological responses of Tunisian grapevine varieties to bicarbonate-induced iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksouri, Riadh; Gharsalli, Mohamed; Lachaal, Mokhtar

    2005-03-01

    Plants are frequently submitted to iron deficiency when growing on calcareous soils, which contain high concentrations of bicarbonate. The purpose of this study was to investigate the variability of physiological responses of Tunisian grapevine varieties to bicarbonate-induced iron chlorosis. Vine woodcuttings of seven autochthonous Tunisian varieties (Khamri, Mahdaoui, Blan3, Saouadi, Arich Dressé, Beldi and Balta4), two rootstocks (140Ru and S.O.4), and an introduced table variety (Cardinal) were cultivated on inert sand for 2 months using a complete nutrient solution (20 microM Fe) that was either well supplied or not supplied with 10 mM HCO3-. Young leaves of plants cultivated on bicarbonate-enriched medium showed characteristic symptoms of iron chlorosis, although the intensity of the symptoms depended on the variety and the rootstock. Chlorosis score confirmed these observations since the most sensitive varieties showed the highest values. This variability in tolerance to iron deficiency was also displayed when analysing the physiological parameters (shoot length, plant dry weight, and chlorophyll concentration) and the iron contents in the 4th leaf. Analysis of morphological and physiological parameters showed three behaviour groups. The first one corresponded to tolerant varieties (Khamri, Mahdaoui, and the root-stock: 140Ru), the second included moderately tolerant vines (Saouadi, Arich Dressé, Blanc3, and the rootstock: S.O.4) and the third represented the sensitive ones (Balta4, Beldi, and Cardinal).

  9. Physiological responses of preterm newborn infants submitted to classical music therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Camila Mendes; Cação, Jessica Marcelle R; Silva, Karin Cristina dos S; Marques, Cassia Fernandes; Merey, Leila Simone F

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the physiological effects of music therapy on hospitalized preterm newborns. A noncontrolled clinical trial including 12 newborn infants with gestational age classical music therapy twice a day (morning and afternoon) for three consecutive days. The variables: heart and respiratory rates, oxygen saturation, diastolic and systolic arterial pressures, and body temperature were analyzed before and immediately after each music therapy session. There was a decrease in the heart rate after the second session of music therapy (paired t-test; p=0.002), and an increase at the end of the third session (paired t-test; p=0.005). Respiratory rate decreased during the fourth and fifth sessions (paired t-test; p=0.01 and 0.03, respectively). Regarding oxygen saturation, there was an increase after the fifth session (p=0.008). Comparison of physiological parameters among sessions, for the six studied sessions, showed only that the gain in oxygen saturation during the fifth session was significantly higher than during the sixth one (Tukey's test after variance analysis; p=0.04). Music therapy may modify short-term physiological responses of hospitalized preterm newborn infants.

  10. Exposure of engineered nanomaterials to plants: Insights into the physiological and biochemical responses-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuverza-Mena, Nubia; Martínez-Fernández, Domingo; Du, Wenchao; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; Bonilla-Bird, Nestor; López-Moreno, Martha L; Komárek, Michael; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2017-01-01

    Recent investigations show that carbon-based and metal-based engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), components of consumer goods and agricultural products, have the potential to build up in sediments and biosolid-amended agricultural soils. In addition, reports indicate that both carbon-based and metal-based ENMs affect plants differently at the physiological, biochemical, nutritional, and genetic levels. The toxicity threshold is species-dependent and responses to ENMs are driven by a series of factors including the nanomaterial characteristics and environmental conditions. Effects on the growth, physiological and biochemical traits, production and food quality, among others, have been reported. However, a complete understanding of the dynamics of interactions between plants and ENMs is not clear enough yet. This review presents recent publications on the physiological and biochemical effects that commercial carbon-based and metal-based ENMs have in terrestrial plants. This document focuses on crop plants because of their relevance in human nutrition and health. We have summarized the mechanisms of interaction between plants and ENMs as well as identified gaps in knowledge for future investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Physiological and Emotional Responses of Disabled Children to Therapeutic Clowns: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shauna Kingsnorth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This pilot study examined the effects of Therapeutic Clowning on inpatients in a pediatric rehabilitation hospital. Ten disabled children with varied physical and verbal expressive abilities participated in all or portions of the data collection protocol. Employing a mixed-method, single-subject ABAB study design, measures of physiological arousal, emotion and behavior were obtained from eight children under two conditions—television exposure and therapeutic clown interventions. Four peripheral autonomic nervous system (ANS signals were recorded as measures of physiological arousal; these signals were analyzed with respect to measures of emotion (verbal self reports of mood and behavior (facial expressions and vocalizations. Semistructured interviews were completed with verbally expressive children (n = 7 and nurses of participating children (n = 13. Significant differences among children were found in response to the clown intervention relative to television exposure. Physiologically, changes in ANS signals occurred either more frequently or in different patterns. Emotionally, children's (self and nurses' (observed reports of mood were elevated positively. Behaviorally, children exhibited more positive and fewer negative facial expressions and vocalizations of emotion during the clown intervention. Content and themes extracted from the interviews corroborated these findings. The results suggest that this popular psychosocial intervention has a direct and positive impact on hospitalized children. This pilot study contributes to the current understanding of the importance of alternative approaches in promoting well-being within healthcare settings.

  12. Near-UV radiation acts as a beneficial factor for physiological responses in cucumber plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani-Sano, Makiko; Tezuka, Takafumi

    2013-11-05

    Effects of near-UV radiation on the growth and physiological activity of cucumber plants were investigated morphologically, physiologically and biochemically using 3-week-old seedlings grown under polyvinyl chloride films featuring transmission either above 290 nm or above 400 nm in growth chambers. The hypocotyl length and leaf area of cucumber seedlings were reduced but the thickness of leaves was enhanced by near-UV radiation, due to increased upper/lower epidermis thickness, palisade parenchyma thickness and volume of palisade parenchyma cells. Photosynthetic and respiratory activities were also promoted by near-UV radiation, associated with general enhancement of physiological/biochemical responses. Particularly, metabolic activities in the photosynthetic system of chloroplasts and the respiratory system of mitochondria were analyzed under the conditions of visible light with and without near-UV radiation. For example, the activities of NAD(P)-dependent enzymes such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) in chloroplasts and isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) in mitochondria were elevated, along with levels of pyridine nucleotides (nicotinamide coenzymes) [NAD(H) and NADP(H)] and activity of NAD kinase (NADP forming enzyme). Taken together, these data suggest that promotion of cucumber plant growth by near-UV radiation involves activation of carbon and nitrogen metabolism in plants. The findings of this research showed that near-UV radiation reaching the Earth's surface is a beneficial factor for plant growth. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Responses of corn physiology and yield to six agricultural practices over three years in middle Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chih-Li; Hui, Dafeng; Deng, Qi; Wang, Junming; Reddy, K Chandra; Dennis, Sam

    2016-06-07

    Different agricultural practices may have substantial impacts on crop physiology and yield. However, it is still not entirely clear how multiple agricultural practices such as tillage, biochar and different nutrient applications could influence corn physiology and yield. We conducted a three-year field experiment to study the responses of corn physiology, yield, and soil respiration to six different agricultural practices. The six treatments included conventional tillage (CT) or no tillage (NT), in combination with nitrogen type (URAN or chicken litter) and application method, biochar, or denitrification inhibitor. A randomized complete block design was applied with six replications. Leaf photosynthetic rate, transpiration, plant height, leaf area index (LAI), biomass, and yield were measured. Results showed that different agricultural practices had significant effects on plant leaf photosynthesis, transpiration, soil respiration, height, and yield, but not on LAI and biomass. The average corn yield in the NT-URAN was 10.03 ton/ha, 28.9% more than in the CT-URAN. Compared to the NT-URAN, the NT-biochar had lower soil respiration and similar yield. All variables measured showed remarkable variations among the three years. Our results indicated that no tillage treatment substantially increased corn yield, probably due to the preservation of soil moisture during drought periods.

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF OBESITY AND AMBIENT TEMPERATURE ON PHYSIOLOGICAL AND OXIDATIVE RESPONSES TO SUBMAXIMAL EXERCISE

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, N.; Kim, K.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of obesity and ambient temperature on physiological responses and markers of oxidative stress to submaximal exercise in obese and lean people. Sixteen healthy males were divided into an obese group (n=8, %fat: 27.00±3.00%) and a lean group (n=8, %fat: 13.85±2.45%). Study variables were measured during a 60 min submaximal exercise test at 60% VO2max in a neutral (21±1°C) and a cold (4±1°C) environment. Heart rate, blood lactate, rectal temperature, serum lev...

  15. The Effects of Caffeine Supplementation on Physiological Responses to Submaximal Exercise in Endurance-Trained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaister, Mark; Williams, Benjamin Henley; Muniz-Pumares, Daniel; Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Foley, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on physiological responses to submaximal exercise, with a focus on blood lactate concentration ([BLa]). Using a randomised, single-blind, crossover design; 16 endurance-trained, male cyclists (age: 38 ± 8 years; height: 1.80 ± 0.05 m; body mass: 76.6 ± 7.8 kg; [Formula: see text]: 4.3 ± 0.6 L∙min-1) completed four trials on an electromagnetically-braked cycle ergometer. Each trial consisted of a six-stage incremental test (3 minute stages) followed by 30 minutes of passive recovery. One hour before trials 2-4, participants ingested a capsule containing 5 mg∙kg-1 of either caffeine or placebo (maltodextrin). Trials 2 and 3 were designed to evaluate the effects of caffeine on various physiological responses during exercise and recovery. In contrast, Trial 4 was designed to evaluate the effects of caffeine on [BLa] during passive recovery from an end-exercise concentration of 4 mmol∙L-1. Relative to placebo, caffeine increased [BLa] during exercise, independent of exercise intensity (mean difference: 0.33 ± 0.41 mmol∙L-1; 95% likely range: 0.11 to 0.55 mmol∙L-1), but did not affect the time-course of [BLa] during recovery (p = 0.604). Caffeine reduced ratings of perceived exertion (mean difference: 0.5 ± 0.7; 95% likely range: 0.1 to 0.9) and heart rate (mean difference: 3.6 ± 4.2 b∙min-1; 95% likely range: 1.3 to 5.8 b∙min-1) during exercise, with the effect on the latter dissipating as exercise intensity increased. Supplement × exercise intensity interactions were observed for respiratory exchange ratio (p = 0.004) and minute ventilation (p = 0.034). The results of the present study illustrate the clear, though often subtle, effects of caffeine on physiological responses to submaximal exercise. Researchers should be aware of these responses, particularly when evaluating the physiological effects of various experimental interventions.

  16. Physiological response of chia seeds (Salvia hispanica – Lamiales: Lamiaceae) to salt stress

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Stefanello; Luiz Augusto Salles das Neves; Marisa Aparecida Binotto Abbad; Bruna Boucinha Viana

    2015-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n4p35 The study of salinity tolerance provides valuable information about the propagation of species and can help in both characterizing cultures and in providing correct recommendations for cultivation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the physiological response of chia seeds to salt stress. Seeds were placed on paper in aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) at osmotic potentials equivalent to zero, -0.05, -0.10, -0.15, -0.20, -0.25, and -0.3...

  17. Physiological responses of white clover clones to ozone in the 2000 ICP-crops experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzini, G.; Pucciariello, C.; Nali, C. [Univ. deli Studie di Pisa, Pisa (Italy). Dipt. di Coltivazione e Difesa delle Specie Legnose

    2002-07-01

    A field campaign with a white clover clones system was conducted over summer 2000, in accordance with UN/ECE protocol, at a suburban site of Central Italy. Results confirm that the clones have a high capacity in displaying measurable differences in growth response to ozone, so that the system can be useful for monitoring tropospheric ozone also in the Mediterranean area. Physiological parameters, like the light-saturated rates of photosynthesis, stomatal conductance to water vapour and CO{sub 2} intercellular concentration, also show significant differences. (orig.)

  18. Emotional Responses during Reading: Physiological Responses Predict Real-Time Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Samantha G.; Willett, John B.; Fischer, Kurt W.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between emotional responses and reading performance in middle-school students. Although a large number of prior studies have investigated the relationship between emotion and reading, those studies have concentrated primarily on relatively static and distal measures of emotion. In this research, we measured…

  19. Using Neural Response Telemetry to Monitor Physiological Responses to Acoustic Stimulation in Hybrid Cochlear Implant Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Paul J; Tejani, Viral D; Scheperle, Rachel A; Brown, Carolyn J

    This report describes the results of a series of experiments where we use the neural response telemetry (NRT) system of the Nucleus cochlear implant (CI) to measure the response of the peripheral auditory system to acoustic stimulation in Nucleus Hybrid CI users. The objectives of this study were to determine whether they could separate responses from hair cells and neurons and to evaluate the stability of these measures over time. Forty-four CI users participated. They all had residual acoustic hearing and used a Nucleus Hybrid S8, S12, or L24 CI or the standard lateral wall CI422 implant. The NRT system of the CI was used to trigger an acoustic stimulus (500-Hz tone burst or click), which was presented at a low stimulation rate (10, 15, or 50 per second) to the implanted ear via an insert earphone and to record the cochlear microphonic, the auditory nerve neurophonic and the compound action potential (CAP) from an apical intracochlear electrode. To record acoustically evoked responses, a longer time window than is available with the commercial NRT software is required. This limitation was circumvented by making multiple recordings for each stimulus using different time delays between the onset of stimulation and the onset of averaging. These recordings were then concatenated off-line. Matched recordings elicited using positive and negative polarity stimuli were added off-line to emphasize neural potentials (SUM) and subtracted off-line to emphasize potentials primarily generated by cochlear hair cells (DIF). These assumptions regarding the origin of the SUM and DIF components were tested by comparing the magnitude of these derived responses recorded using various stimulation rates. Magnitudes of the SUM and DIF components were compared with each other and with behavioral thresholds. SUM and DIF components were identified for most subjects, consistent with both hair cell and neural responses to acoustic stimulation. For a subset of the study participants, the DIF

  20. Temperature Insensitivity and Behavioural Reduction of the Physiological Stress Response to Longline Capture by the Gummy Shark, Mustelus antarcticus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guida, Leonardo; Walker, Terence I; Reina, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    .... We investigated the effect of SST and behaviour on the physiological stress response to capture of the gummy shark, Mustelus antarcticus, and compared our results to a laboratory study using similar...

  1. Physiological and transcriptional responses to high temperature in Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis C1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyakampol, Jaruta; Cheevadhanarak, Supapon; Sutheeworapong, Sawannee; Chaijaruwanich, Jeerayut; Senachak, Jittisak; Siangdung, Wipawan; Jeamton, Wattana; Tanticharoen, Morakot; Paithoonrangsarid, Kalyanee

    2015-03-01

    Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis is a well-known commercial cyanobacterium that is used as a food and in feed supplements. In this study, we examined the physiological changes and whole-genome expression in A. platensis C1 exposed to high temperature. We found that photosynthetic activity was significantly decreased after the temperature was shifted from 35°C to 42°C for 2 h. A reduction in biomass production and protein content, concomitant with the accumulation of carbohydrate content, was observed after prolonged exposure to high temperatures for 24 h. Moreover, the results of the expression profiling in response to high temperature at the designated time points (8 h) revealed two distinct phases of the responses. The first was the immediate response phase, in which the transcript levels of genes involved in different mechanisms, including genes for heat shock proteins; genes involved in signal transduction and carbon and nitrogen metabolism; and genes encoding inorganic ion transporters for magnesium, nitrite and nitrate, were either transiently induced or repressed by the high temperature. In the second phase, the long-term response phase, both the induction and repression of the expression of genes with important roles in translation and photosynthesis were observed. Taken together, the results of our physiological and transcriptional studies suggest that dynamic changes in the transcriptional profiles of these thermal-responsive genes might play a role in maintaining cell homeostasis under high temperatures, as reflected in the growth and biochemical composition, particularly the protein and carbohydrate content, of A. platensis C1. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Kangaroo care by fathers and mothers: comparison of physiological and stress responses in preterm infants.

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    Srinath, B K; Shah, J; Kumar, P; Shah, P S

    2016-05-01

    To compare physiological and biochemical responses in stable preterm neonates and their parents following kangaroo mother care (KMC) and kangaroo father care (KFC). We conducted a prospective cross-over design study of stable preterm neonates of KFC for 1 h on consecutive days in a random order. Heart rate, temperature, blood pressure, oxygen saturation and salivary cortisol in infants before and after kangaroo care and heart rate, temperature and salivary cortisol in parents before and after kangaroo care were measured. Pairwise comparisons of changes in these measures were analyzed. Twenty-six sets of neonates and their parents were studied for physiological parameters, of which 19 had adequate samples for salivary cortisol assessment. The infants had a mean birth weight of 1096 g (s.d.=217) and a mean postmenstrual age at study of 32 weeks (s.d.=2). There were no significant differences in the changes in mean heart rate (P=0.51), temperature (P=0.37), oxygen saturation (P=0.50), systolic blood pressure (P=0.32), mean blood pressure (0.10) and salivary cortisol (P=0.50) before and after KMC or KFC in the neonates. The changes in mean heart rate (P=0.62), temperature (P=0.28) and salivary cortisol (P=0.59) before and after kangaroo care were similar between mothers and fathers. No significant differences in physiological and stress responses were identified following KMC or KFC in preterm neonates. KFC may be as safe and as effective as KMC.

  3. Physiological responses and characteristics of table tennis matches determined in official tournaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagatto, Alessandro M; Morel, Erika A; Gobatto, Claudio A

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the physiological responses and the match characteristics of table tennis and also to compare these responses in 2 different performance-level athletes from official tournaments. Twenty male table tennis players (12 regional experience-RP and 8 national and international experience-NP) were participants in the study. Blood lactate concentration ([LAC]) and heart rate (HR) were measured as physiological parameters in 21 official table tennis matches, and other 12 matches had recorded the duration of rally (DR), rest time, effort and rest ratio (E:R), total playing time (TPT), effective playing time (EPT), and frequency of shots by video analyses. The [LAC] verified in all matches was 1.8 mmol.L (+/-0.8), whereas the [LAC] peak was 2.2 mmol.L (+/-0.8). There were no significant differences between the 2 groups (p > 0.05) in both parameters. The HR was 164 b.min (+/-14), corresponding to 81.2% (+/-7.4) of the predicted maximum HR. As characteristics of the matches, the DR corresponded to 3.4 seconds (+/-1.7), rest time to 8.1 seconds (+/-5.1), E:R to 0.4 (+/-0.2), TPT to 970.5 seconds (+/-336.1), EPT to 44.3% (+/-23.7), and frequency of shots to 35.3 balls.min (+/-7.7). Among groups, the rest time was lower in RP than in NP. Consistently, the E:R and EPT were higher in RP than in NP (p < 0.05). The results suggest that table tennis matches present the aerobic system as a principal output energy, the phosphagenic system being the most important during efforts. The information pertaining to the physiological profile and the characteristics of table tennis should be used by coaches planning physical training and specific exercise prescriptions aiming at achieving maximal sport performance.

  4. Physiological and behavioural responses to noxious stimuli in the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared R Eckroth

    Full Text Available In the present study, our aim was to compare physiological and behavioural responses to different noxious stimuli to those of a standardized innocuous stimulus, to possibly identify aversive responses indicative of injury detection in a commercially important marine teleost fish, the Atlantic cod. Individual fish were administered with a noxious stimulus to the lip under short-term general anaesthesia (MS-222. The noxious treatments included injection of 0.1% or 2% acetic acid, 0.005% or 0.1% capsaicin, or piercing the lip with a commercial fishing hook. Counts of opercular beat rate (OBR at 10, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min and observations of behaviour at 30 and 90 min post-treatment were compared with pre-treatment values and with control fish injected with physiological saline, an innocuous stimulus. Circulatory levels of physiological stress indicators were determined in all fish at 120 minutes post-treatment. All treatments evoked temporarily increased OBR that returned to pre-treatment levels at 60 minutes (saline, 0.005% capsaicin, hook, 90 minutes (0.1% acetic acid, 0.1% capsaicin, or 120 minutes (2% acetic acid, but with no significant differences from the control group at any time point. Fish treated with 0.1% and 2% acetic acid and 0.1% capsaicin displayed increased hovering close to the bottom of the aquaria and fish given 2% acetic acid and 0.1% capsaicin also displayed a reduced use of shelter. The only effect seen in hooked fish was brief episodes of lateral head shaking which were not seen pre-treatment or in the other groups, possibly reflecting a resiliency to tissue damage in the mouth area related to the tough nature of the Atlantic cod diet. There were no differences between groups in circulatory stress indicators two hours after treatment. This study provides novel data on behavioural indicators that could be used to assess potentially aversive events in Atlantic cod.

  5. Physiological responses to single versus double stepping pattern of ascending the stairs.

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    Aziz, Abdul Rashid; Teh, Kong Chuan

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the physiological responses and energy cost between two ascending patterns, the single-step (SS) and the double-step (DS), in climbing a public staircase. In the SS pattern, a person climbs one step at a time whilst in the double-step (DS) pattern, the individual traverses two steps in a single stride. Advocates of each stepping pattern claimed that their type of ascent is physically more taxing and expends more calories. Thirty subjects (10 males and 20 females) climbed a typical 11-storey flat (each step height of 0.15 m, a total of 180 steps and a vertical displacement of 27.0 m). The subjects climbed using either the SS pattern at a tempo of 100 steps x min(-1) or the DS pattern at 50 steps x min(-1). The prescribed stepping frequencies ensured that an equal amount of total work was performed between the SS and DS patterns. The climbing patterns were performed in random order. Physiological measures during the last 30 s of the climbs were used in the comparative analysis. The results showed that ventilation, oxygen uptake and heart rate values were significantly higher (all p expenditure during the SS pattern was calculated to be only marginally higher than the DS pattern. In conclusion, ascending with the SS pattern led to significantly higher physiological responses compared to the DS pattern. The higher calorie expended with the SS compared to the DS pattern was deemed to be of little practical significance.

  6. Physiological Responses During Multiplay Exergaming in Young Adult Males are Game-Dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGuire Stephen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Regular moderate-intensity exercise provides health benefits. The aim of this study was to examine whether the selected exercise intensity and physiological responses during exergaming in a single and multiplayer mode in the same physical space were game-dependent. Ten males (mean ±SD, age: 23 ±5 years, body mass: 84.2 ±15.6 kg, body height: 180 ±7 cm, body mass index: 26.0 ±4.0 kg·m−2 played the games Kinect football, boxing and track & field (3 × ~10 min, ~ 2 min rest periods in similar time sequence in two sessions. Physiological responses were measured with the portable Cosmed K4b2 pulmonary gas exchange system. Single play demands were used to match with a competitive opponent in a multiplay mode. A within-subjects crossover design was used with one-way ANOVA and a post-hoc t-test for analysis (p<0.05. Minute ventilation, oxygen uptake and the heart rate were at least 18% higher during a multiplayer mode for Kinect football and boxing but not for track & field. Energy expenditure was 21% higher during multiplay football. Single play track & field had higher metabolic equivalent than single play football (5.7 ±1.6, range: 3.2-8.6 vs 4.1 ±1.0, range: 3.0-6.1, p<0.05. Exergaming in a multiplayer mode can provide higher physiological demands but the effects are game-dependent. It seems that exergaming with low intensity in a multiplayer mode may provide a greater physical challenge for participants than in a single play mode but may not consistently provide sufficient intensity to acquire health benefits when played regularly as part of a programme to promote and maintain health in young adults.

  7. Physiological and Behavioural Responses to Noxious Stimuli in the Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckroth, Jared R.; Aas-Hansen, Øyvind; Sneddon, Lynne U.; Bichão, Helena; Døving, Kjell B.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, our aim was to compare physiological and behavioural responses to different noxious stimuli to those of a standardized innocuous stimulus, to possibly identify aversive responses indicative of injury detection in a commercially important marine teleost fish, the Atlantic cod. Individual fish were administered with a noxious stimulus to the lip under short-term general anaesthesia (MS-222). The noxious treatments included injection of 0.1% or 2% acetic acid, 0.005% or 0.1% capsaicin, or piercing the lip with a commercial fishing hook. Counts of opercular beat rate (OBR) at 10, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min and observations of behaviour at 30 and 90 min post-treatment were compared with pre-treatment values and with control fish injected with physiological saline, an innocuous stimulus. Circulatory levels of physiological stress indicators were determined in all fish at 120 minutes post-treatment. All treatments evoked temporarily increased OBR that returned to pre-treatment levels at 60 minutes (saline, 0.005% capsaicin, hook), 90 minutes (0.1% acetic acid, 0.1% capsaicin), or 120 minutes (2% acetic acid), but with no significant differences from the control group at any time point. Fish treated with 0.1% and 2% acetic acid and 0.1% capsaicin displayed increased hovering close to the bottom of the aquaria and fish given 2% acetic acid and 0.1% capsaicin also displayed a reduced use of shelter. The only effect seen in hooked fish was brief episodes of lateral head shaking which were not seen pre-treatment or in the other groups, possibly reflecting a resiliency to tissue damage in the mouth area related to the tough nature of the Atlantic cod diet. There were no differences between groups in circulatory stress indicators two hours after treatment. This study provides novel data on behavioural indicators that could be used to assess potentially aversive events in Atlantic cod. PMID:24936652

  8. Complexity of physiological responses decreases in high-stress musical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamon, Aaron; Aufegger, Lisa; Wasley, David; Looney, David; Mandic, Danilo P

    2013-12-06

    For musicians, performing in front of an audience can cause considerable apprehension; indeed, performance anxiety is felt throughout the profession, with wide ranging symptoms arising irrespective of age, skill level and amount of practice. A key indicator of stress is frequency-specific fluctuations in the dynamics of heart rate known as heart rate variability (HRV). Recent developments in sensor technology have made possible the measurement of physiological parameters reflecting HRV non-invasively and outside of the laboratory, opening research avenues for real-time performer feedback to help improve stress management. However, the study of stress using standard algorithms has led to conflicting and inconsistent results. Here, we present an innovative and rigorous approach which combines: (i) a controlled and repeatable experiment in which the physiological response of an expert musician was evaluated in a low-stress performance and a high-stress recital for an audience of 400 people, (ii) a piece of music with varying physical and cognitive demands, and (iii) dynamic stress level assessment with standard and state-of-the-art HRV analysis algorithms such as those within the domain of complexity science which account for higher order stress signatures. We show that this offers new scope for interpreting the autonomic nervous system response to stress in real-world scenarios, with the evolution of stress levels being consistent with the difficulty of the music being played, superimposed on the stress caused by performing in front of an audience. For an emerging class of algorithms that can analyse HRV independent of absolute data scaling, it is shown that complexity science performs a more accurate assessment of average stress levels, thus providing greater insight into the degree of physiological change experienced by musicians when performing in public.

  9. Physiological Responses During Multiplay Exergaming in Young Adult Males are Game-Dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Stephen; Willems, Mark Et

    2015-06-27

    Regular moderate-intensity exercise provides health benefits. The aim of this study was to examine whether the selected exercise intensity and physiological responses during exergaming in a single and multiplayer mode in the same physical space were game-dependent. Ten males (mean ±SD, age: 23 ±5 years, body mass: 84.2 ±15.6 kg, body height: 180 ±7 cm, body mass index: 26.0 ±4.0 kg·m(-2)) played the games Kinect football, boxing and track & field (3 × ∼10 min, ∼ 2 min rest periods) in similar time sequence in two sessions. Physiological responses were measured with the portable Cosmed K4b(2) pulmonary gas exchange system. Single play demands were used to match with a competitive opponent in a multiplay mode. A within-subjects crossover design was used with one-way ANOVA and a post-hoc t-test for analysis (pmultiplayer mode for Kinect football and boxing but not for track & field. Energy expenditure was 21% higher during multiplay football. Single play track & field had higher metabolic equivalent than single play football (5.7 ±1.6, range: 3.2-8.6 vs 4.1 ±1.0, range: 3.0-6.1, pmultiplayer mode can provide higher physiological demands but the effects are game-dependent. It seems that exergaming with low intensity in a multiplayer mode may provide a greater physical challenge for participants than in a single play mode but may not consistently provide sufficient intensity to acquire health benefits when played regularly as part of a programme to promote and maintain health in young adults.

  10. A Review of Cardiac Autonomic Measures: Considerations for Examination of Physiological Response in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benevides, Teal W.; Lane, Shelly J.

    2015-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is responsible for multiple physiological responses, and dysfunction of this system is often hypothesized as contributing to cognitive, affective, and behavioral responses in children. Research suggests that examination of ANS activity may provide insight into behavioral dysregulation in children with autism…

  11. Using physiology to predict the responses of ants to climatic warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Sarah E; Penick, Clint A; Pelini, Shannon L; Ellison, Aaron M; Gotelli, Nicholas J; Sanders, Nathan J; Dunn, Robert R

    2013-12-01

    Physiological intolerance of high temperatures places limits on organismal responses to the temperature increases associated with global climatic change. Because ants are geographically widespread, ecologically diverse, and thermophilic, they are an ideal system for exploring the extent to which physiological tolerance can predict responses to environmental change. Here, we expand on simple models that use thermal tolerance to predict the responses of ants to climatic warming. We investigated the degree to which changes in the abundance of ants under warming reflect reductions in the thermal niche space for their foraging. In an eastern deciduous forest system in the United States with approximately 40 ant species, we found that for some species, the loss of thermal niche space for foraging was related to decreases in abundance with increasing experimental climatic warming. However, many ant species exhibited no loss of thermal niche space. For one well-studied species, Temnothorax curvispinosus, we examined both survival of workers and growth of colonies (a correlate of reproductive output) as functions of temperature in the laboratory, and found that the range of thermal tolerances for colony growth was much narrower than for survival of workers. We evaluated these functions in the context of experimental climatic warming and found that the difference in the responses of these two attributes to temperature generates differences in the means and especially the variances of expected fitness under warming. The expected mean growth of colonies was optimized at intermediate levels of warming (2-4°C above ambient); yet, the expected variance monotonically increased with warming. In contrast, the expected mean and variance of the survival of workers decreased when warming exceeded 4°C above ambient. Together, these results for T. curvispinosus emphasize the importance of measuring reproduction (colony growth) in the context of climatic change: indeed, our examination

  12. Behavioural and physiological responses of Gammarus fossarum (Crustacea Amphipoda) exposed to silver.

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    Arce Funck, J; Danger, M; Gismondi, E; Cossu-Leguille, C; Guérold, F; Felten, V

    2013-10-15

    The study aims at investigating the effects of silver (Ag), a re-emerging contaminant, on physiological and behavioural responses in Gammarus fossarum. In a first experiment, G. fossarum Ag LC50s were evaluated during 96 h under semi-static mode of exposure. Juveniles appeared to be more sensitive to Ag (LC5096h: 1.01 μg L(-1)) than ovigerous females (LC5096h: 1.9 μg L(-1)) and adult males (LC5096h: 2.2 μg L(-1)). In a second experiment, the physiological (osmo-/ionoregulation; antioxidant enzymes; lipid peroxidation (LPO)) and behavioural (locomotor activity and ventilation) responses of male G. fossarum exposed to Ag (0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 μg L(-1)) were investigated. The mortality and Ag bioconcentration of gammarids exposed to Ag were significantly higher than controls. Concerning physiological responses, a 48 h-exposure to Ag had no impact on catalase activity but led to a significant decrease of haemolymph osmolality and [Na(+)]. On the contrary, LPO, Se-GPx and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity were significantly increased. Behavioural responses, such as locomotor and ventilatory activities, were also significantly reduced in Ag exposed gammarids. After 96 h-exposure, especially to 0.5 μg Ag L(-1), most responses (ventilation, locomotor activity, haemolymph osmolality and [Na(+)]) were even more pronounced and haemolymph [Cl(-)] was significantly decreased but, contrary to observations after 48 h-exposure, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was significantly reduced. Our results demonstrate the drastic effects of realistic [Ag] concentration (0.5 μg Ag L(-1)) on an ubiquitous and functionally important freshwater invertebrate (implied in detritus breakdown), but also strongly suggest an energetic reallocation to the detriment of locomotor activity and in favour of maintenance functions (i.e., osmoregulation and detoxification). These results highlight the risk represented by Ag and the need to perform integrated studies (at different scales, from individual to

  13. Effects of music on physiological and behavioral responses of premature infants: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, Zahra; Eskandari, Narges; Ahmari Tehran, Hoda; Eshagh Hossaini, Seyed Kamal; Sangi, Sareh

    2013-08-01

    Despite persuasive theories about the beneficial effects of music and singing in developmental care for premature infants, few small studies are available in this regard. We conducted this study to investigate the physiological and behavioral responses of premature infants to recorded lullaby music and silence. In a randomized controlled trial, 90 premature infants in the neonatal care unit of a hospital in Qom (Iran) were randomly allocated to intervention (lullaby and silence) or control groups. Lullaby music was played via headphones at a volume of 50-60 dB. In the silence group, headphones were placed on the infants' ears while no music was played. The three groups were surveyed for physiological responses including oxygen saturation, respiratory and heart rates, and behavioral states every five minutes before, during, and after the intervention. The three groups were not significantly different in terms of mean values of respiratory and heart rates, oxygen saturation, and behavioral states of infants. Similarly, no significant within group differences in respiratory and heart rates, oxygen saturation, and behavioral states were observed at different times. Our findings did not support the beneficial effects of music for premature infants. However, music is a noninvasive, non-pharmaceutical, and relatively low-cost intervention that can be implemented at infants' bedside. Thus further research is warranted to determine whether the effects noted in previous studies can be consistently replicated in diverse settings and with diverse groups of preterm infants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of modified multistage field test on performance and physiological responses in wheelchair basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissland, Thierry; Faupin, Arnaud; Borel, Benoit; Berthoin, Serge; Leprêtre, Pierre-Marie

    2015-01-01

    A bioenergetical analysis of manoeuvrability and agility performance for wheelchair players is inexistent. It was aimed at comparing the physiological responses and performance obtained from the octagon multistage field test (MFT) and the modified condition in "8 form" (MFT-8). Sixteen trained wheelchair basketball players performed both tests in randomized condition. The levels performed (end-test score), peak values of oxygen uptake (VO2peak), minute ventilation (VEpeak), heart rate (HRpeak), peak and relative blood lactate (Δ[Lact(-)] = peak--rest values), and the perceived rating exertion (RPE) were measured. MFT-8 induced higher VO2peak and VEpeak values compared to MFT (VO2peak: 2.5 ± 0.6 versus 2.3 ± 0.6 L · min(-1) and VEpeak: 96.3 ± 29.1 versus 86.6 ± 23.4 L · min(-1); P wheelchair players, MFT-8 had no effect on test performance but generates higher physiological responses than MFT. It could be explained by demands of wheelchair skills occurring in 8 form during the modified condition.

  15. Recent insights into physiological responses to nutrients by the cylindrospermopsin producing cyanobacterium, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burford, Michele A.; Willis, Anusuya; Chuang, Ann; Man, Xiao; Orr, Phil

    2017-11-01

    The harmful cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is a widespread species increasingly being recorded in freshwater systems around the world. Studies have demonstrated some key attributes of this species which may explain its global dominance. It has a high level of flexibility with respect to light and nutrients, being capable of growth under low and variable light conditions. However, it is the strategy with respect to nutrient utilization that has received more attention. Unlike many bloom forming species, the dominance of this species is not simply linked to higher nutrient loads. In fact it appears that it is more competitive when phosphorus and nitrogen availability is low and/or variable. An important component of this flexibility appears to be the result of within-population strain variability in responses to nutrients, as well as key physiological adaptations. Strain variability also appears to have an effect on the population-level cell quota of toxins, specifically cylindrospermopsins (CYNs). Field studies in Australia showed that populations had the highest proportion of toxic strains when dissolved inorganic phosphorus was added, resulting in stoichiometrically balanced nitrogen and phosphorus within the cells. These strategies are part of an arsenal of responses to environmental conditions, making it a challenging species to manage. However, our ability to improve bloom prediction will rely on a more detailed understanding of the complex physiology and ecology of this species.

  16. Physiologic responses and energy expenditure of kinect active video game play in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Stephen R; Morris, Michael M; Fallows, Stephen J; Buckley, John P

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the physiologic responses and energy expenditure of active video gaming using Kinect for the Xbox 360. Comparison study. Kirkby Sports College Centre for Learning, Liverpool, England. Eighteen schoolchildren (10 boys and 8 girls) aged 11 to 15 years. A comparison of a traditional sedentary video game and 2 Kinect activity-promoting video games, Dance Central and Kinect Sports Boxing, each played for 15 minutes. Physiologic responses and energy expenditure were measured using a metabolic analyzer. Heart rate, oxygen uptake, and energy expenditure. Heart rate, oxygen uptake, and energy expenditure were considerably higher (P video game play compared with rest and sedentary video game play. The mean (SD) corresponding oxygen uptake values for the sedentary, dance, and boxing video games were 6.1 (1.3), 12.8 (3.3), and 17.7 (5.1) mL · min-1 · kg-1, respectively. Energy expenditures were 1.5 (0.3), 3.0 (1.0), and 4.4 (1.6) kcal · min-1, respectively. Dance Central and Kinect Sports Boxing increased energy expenditure by 150% and 263%, respectively, above resting values and were 103% and 194% higher than traditional video gaming. This equates to an increased energy expenditure of up to 172 kcal · h-1 compared with traditional sedentary video game play. Played regularly, active gaming using Kinect for the Xbox 360 could prove to be an effective means for increasing physical activity and energy expenditure in children.

  17. Transcriptomic Profiling and Physiological Analysis of Haloxylon ammodendron in Response to Osmotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Juan Gao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Haloxylon ammodendron, a perennial xero-halophyte, is an essential species for investigating the effects of drought on desert tree. To gain a comprehensive knowledge on the responses of H. ammodendron to drought stress, we specially performed the molecular and physiological analysis of H. ammodendron in response to −0.75 MPa osmotic stress for six and 24 h in lab condition via RNA-seq and digital gene expression (DGE. In total, 87,109 unigenes with a mean length of 680 bp and 13,486 potential simple sequence repeats (SSRs were generated, and 3353 differentially expressed genes (DEGs in shoots and 4564 in roots were identified under stress. These DEGs were mainly related to ion transporters, signal transduction, ROS-scavenging, photosynthesis, cell wall organization, membrane stabilization and hormones. Moreover, the physiological changes of inorganic ions and organic solute content, peroxidase (POD activity and osmotic potential were in accordance with dynamic transcript profiles of the relevant genes. In this study, a detailed investigation of the pathways and candidate genes identified promote the research on the molecular mechanisms of abiotic stress tolerance in the xero-halophytic species. Our data provides valuable genetic resources for future improvement of forage and crop species for better adaptation to abiotic stresses.

  18. Physiological responses of Brazilian amphibians to an enzootic infection of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovo, Rafael P; Andrade, Denis V; Toledo, Luís Felipe; Longo, Ana V; Rodriguez, David; Haddad, Célio F B; Zamudio, Kelly R; Becker, C Guilherme

    2016-01-13

    Pathophysiological effects of clinical chytridiomycosis in amphibians include disorders of cutaneous osmoregulation and disruption of the ability to rehydrate, which can lead to decreased host fitness or mortality. Less attention has been given to physiological responses of hosts where enzootic infections of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) do not cause apparent population declines in the wild. Here, we experimentally tested whether an enzootic strain of Bd causes significant mortality and alters host water balance (evaporative water loss, EWL; skin resistance, R(s); and water uptake, WU) in individuals of 3 Brazilian amphibian species (Dendropsophus minutus, n = 19; Ischnocnema parva, n = 17; Brachycephalus pitanga, n = 15). Infections with enzootic Bd caused no significant mortality, but we found an increase in R(s) in 1 host species concomitant with a reduction in EWL. These results suggest that enzootic Bd infections can indeed cause sub-lethal effects that could lead to reduction of host fitness in Brazilian frogs and that these effects vary among species. Thus, our findings underscore the need for further assessment of physiological responses to Bd infections in different host species, even in cases of sub-clinical chytridiomycosis and long-term enzootic infections in natural populations.

  19. Physiological stress response to video-game playing: the contribution of built-in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Sylvie; Béland, Renée; Dionne-Fournelle, Odrée; Crête, Martine; Lupien, Sonia J

    2005-04-01

    Recent studies on video game playing have uncovered a wide range of measurable physiological effects on the organism, such as increases in cardiovascular activity and breathing responses. However, the exact source of these effects remains unclear. Given the well-known effects of sound on physiological activity, especially those of noise and of music, and on the secretion of the stress hormone cortisol in particular, we hypothesized that music may be a major source of stress during video game playing. We thus examined the effect of built-in music on cortisol secretion as a consequence of video game playing. Players were assigned quasi-randomly to either a Music or a Silence condition. Four saliva samples were taken, that is, after practice (T1), immediately after having played for 10 minutes (T2), 15 minutes after the end of the experiment (T3), and 30 minutes after the end of the experiment (T4). The results show that the Music group had significantly higher cortisol levels at T3, that is, when cortisol levels are assumed to reflect the stress induced by the game. These findings suggest for the first time that the auditory input contributes significantly to the stress response found during video game playing.

  20. [Physiological response to acetic acid stress of Acetobacter pasteuranus during vinegar fermentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhengliang; Yang, Hailin; Xia, Xiaole; Wang, Wu; Leng, Yunwei; Yu, Xiaobin; Quan, Wu

    2014-03-04

    The aim of the study is to propose a dynamic acetic acid resistance mechanism through analysis on response of cellular morphology, physiology and metabolism of A. pasteurianus CICIM B7003 during vinegar fermentation. Vinegar fermentation was carried out in a Frings 9 L acetator by strain B7003 and cultures were sampled at different cellular growth phases. Simultaneously, percentage of capsular polysaccharide versus dry cells weight, ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids, transcription of acetic acid resistance genes, activity of alcohol respiratory chain enzymes and ATPase were detected for these samples to assay the responses of bacterial morphology, physiology and metabolism. When acetic acid was existed, no obvious capsular polysaccharide was secreted by cells. As vinegar fermentation proceeding, percentage of capsular polysaccharide versus dry cells weight was reduced from 2.5% to 0.89%. Ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids was increased obviously which can improve membrane fluidity. Also transcription level of acetic acid resistance genes was promoted. Interestingly, activity of alcohol respiratory chain and ATPase was not inhibited but promoted obviously with acetic acid accumulation which could provide enough energy for acetic acid resistance mechanism. On the basis of the results obtained from the experiment, A. pasteurianus CICIM B7003 relies mainly on the cooperation of changes of extracellular capsular polysaccharide and membrane fatty acids, activation of acid resistance genes transcription, enhancement of activity of alcohol respiratory chain and rapid energy production to tolerate acidic environment.

  1. Effects of arm insulation on physiological responses during running in the cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Ryo; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Matsumoto, Takaaki

    2017-04-13

    Individuals who exercise outdoors in winter expose themselves to cold conditions, which have detrimental effects on physiological responses and exercise performance. Many runners wear arm warmers to protect against cold. However, the effects of these warmers remain unclear. This study aimed to determine the effect of arm insulation on physiological responses during running in a cold environment. Twelve healthy men (mean ± SD age, 22.4 ± 3.9 years; height, 1.71 ± 0.07 m; mass, 66.9 ± 8.1 kg; maximal oxygen consumption, 52.3 ± 4.79 mL/kg/min) ran on a treadmill at an intensity of 70% maximal oxygen consumption for 30 min in a climatic chamber at 5C wearing (ARM) or not wearing (CON) a tight-fitting polyester sleeve on the forearm. During the first 10 min of exercise, esophageal temperature was significantly higher (p Thermal sensation was significantly higher (p thermal sensation and lower plasma norepinephrine concentration indicate that arm insulation suppressed cold stress and attenuated the production of plasma lactate in the early stages of exercise.

  2. Analysis of natural variation in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) reveals physiological responses underlying drought tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Wang, Yanping; Cheng, Zhangmin; Ye, Tiantian; Chan, Zhulong

    2012-01-01

    Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) is a widely used warm-season turfgrass and one of the most drought tolerant species. Dissecting the natural variation in drought tolerance and physiological responses will bring us powerful basis and novel insight for plant breeding. In the present study, we evaluated the natural variation of drought tolerance among nine bermudagrass varieties by measuring physiological responses after drought stress treatment through withholding water. Three groups differing in drought tolerance were identified, including two tolerant, five moderately tolerant and two susceptible varieties. Under drought stress condition, drought sensitive variety (Yukon) showed relative higher water loss, more severe cell membrane damage (EL), and more accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) and malondialdehyde (MDA), while drought tolerant variety (Tifgreen) exhibited significantly higher antioxidant enzymes activities. Further results indicated that drought induced cell injury in different varieties (Yukon, SR9554 and Tifgreen) exhibited liner correlation with leaf water content (LWC), H₂O₂ content, MDA content and antioxidant enzyme activities. Additionally, Tifgreen plants had significantly higher levels of osmolytes (proline level and soluble sugars) when compared with Yukon and SR9554 under drought stress condition. Taken together, our results indicated that natural variation of drought stress tolerance in bermudagrass varieties might be largely related to the induced changes of water status, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidant defense system.

  3. Analysis of natural variation in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon reveals physiological responses underlying drought tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Shi

    Full Text Available Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon is a widely used warm-season turfgrass and one of the most drought tolerant species. Dissecting the natural variation in drought tolerance and physiological responses will bring us powerful basis and novel insight for plant breeding. In the present study, we evaluated the natural variation of drought tolerance among nine bermudagrass varieties by measuring physiological responses after drought stress treatment through withholding water. Three groups differing in drought tolerance were identified, including two tolerant, five moderately tolerant and two susceptible varieties. Under drought stress condition, drought sensitive variety (Yukon showed relative higher water loss, more severe cell membrane damage (EL, and more accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂ and malondialdehyde (MDA, while drought tolerant variety (Tifgreen exhibited significantly higher antioxidant enzymes activities. Further results indicated that drought induced cell injury in different varieties (Yukon, SR9554 and Tifgreen exhibited liner correlation with leaf water content (LWC, H₂O₂ content, MDA content and antioxidant enzyme activities. Additionally, Tifgreen plants had significantly higher levels of osmolytes (proline level and soluble sugars when compared with Yukon and SR9554 under drought stress condition. Taken together, our results indicated that natural variation of drought stress tolerance in bermudagrass varieties might be largely related to the induced changes of water status, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidant defense system.

  4. Analysis of Natural Variation in Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) Reveals Physiological Responses Underlying Drought Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhangmin; Ye, Tiantian; Chan, Zhulong

    2012-01-01

    Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) is a widely used warm-season turfgrass and one of the most drought tolerant species. Dissecting the natural variation in drought tolerance and physiological responses will bring us powerful basis and novel insight for plant breeding. In the present study, we evaluated the natural variation of drought tolerance among nine bermudagrass varieties by measuring physiological responses after drought stress treatment through withholding water. Three groups differing in drought tolerance were identified, including two tolerant, five moderately tolerant and two susceptible varieties. Under drought stress condition, drought sensitive variety (Yukon) showed relative higher water loss, more severe cell membrane damage (EL), and more accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA), while drought tolerant variety (Tifgreen) exhibited significantly higher antioxidant enzymes activities. Further results indicated that drought induced cell injury in different varieties (Yukon, SR9554 and Tifgreen) exhibited liner correlation with leaf water content (LWC), H2O2 content, MDA content and antioxidant enzyme activities. Additionally, Tifgreen plants had significantly higher levels of osmolytes (proline level and soluble sugars) when compared with Yukon and SR9554 under drought stress condition. Taken together, our results indicated that natural variation of drought stress tolerance in bermudagrass varieties might be largely related to the induced changes of water status, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidant defense system. PMID:23285294

  5. Growth and physiological responses of maize (Zea mays L.) to porous silica nanoparticles in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suriyaprabha, R.; Karunakaran, G.; Yuvakkumar, R.; Prabu, P.; Rajendran, V., E-mail: veerajendran@gmail.com [K. S. Rangasamy College of Technology, Centre for Nano Science and Technology (India); Kannan, N. [K. S. Rangasamy College of Arts and Science, Department of Biotechnology (India)

    2012-12-15

    The present study aims to explore the effect of high surface area (360.85 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}) silica nanoparticles (SNPs) (20-40 nm) extracted from rice husk on the physiological and anatomical changes during maize growth in sandy loam soil at four concentrations (5-20 kg ha{sup -1}) in comparison with bulk silica (15-20 kg ha{sup -1}). The plant responses to nano and bulk silica treatments were analyzed in terms of growth characteristics, phyto compounds such as total protein, chlorophyll, and other organic compounds (gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy), and silica accumulation (high-resolution scanning electron microscopy). Growth characteristics were much influenced with increasing concentration of SNPs up to 15 kg ha{sup -1} whereas at 20 kg ha{sup -1}, no significant increments were noticed. Silica accumulation in leaves was high at 10 and 15 kg ha{sup -1} (0.57 and 0.82 %) concentrations of SNPs. The observed physiological changes show that the expression of organic compounds such as proteins, chlorophyll, and phenols favored to maize treated with nanosilica especially at 15 kg ha{sup -1} compared with bulk silica and control. Nanoscale silica regimes at 15 kg ha{sup -1} has a positive response of maize than bulk silica which help to improve the sustainable farming of maize crop as an alternative source of silica fertilizer.

  6. Effects of Modified Multistage Field Test on Performance and Physiological Responses in Wheelchair Basketball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissland, Thierry; Faupin, Arnaud; Borel, Benoit; Berthoin, Serge; Leprêtre, Pierre-Marie

    2015-01-01

    A bioenergetical analysis of manoeuvrability and agility performance for wheelchair players is inexistent. It was aimed at comparing the physiological responses and performance obtained from the octagon multistage field test (MFT) and the modified condition in “8 form” (MFT-8). Sixteen trained wheelchair basketball players performed both tests in randomized condition. The levels performed (end-test score), peak values of oxygen uptake (VO2peak), minute ventilation (VEpeak), heart rate (HRpeak), peak and relative blood lactate (Δ[Lact−] = peak – rest values), and the perceived rating exertion (RPE) were measured. MFT-8 induced higher VO2peak and VEpeak values compared to MFT (VO2peak: 2.5 ± 0.6 versus 2.3 ± 0.6 L·min−1 and VEpeak: 96.3 ± 29.1 versus 86.6 ± 23.4 L·min−1; P < 0.05) with no difference in other parameters. Significant relations between VEpeak and end-test score were correlated for both field tests (P < 0.05). At exhaustion, MFT attained incompletely VO2peak and VEpeak. Among experienced wheelchair players, MFT-8 had no effect on test performance but generates higher physiological responses than MFT. It could be explained by demands of wheelchair skills occurring in 8 form during the modified condition. PMID:25802841

  7. Effects of Modified Multistage Field Test on Performance and Physiological Responses in Wheelchair Basketball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Weissland

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A bioenergetical analysis of manoeuvrability and agility performance for wheelchair players is inexistent. It was aimed at comparing the physiological responses and performance obtained from the octagon multistage field test (MFT and the modified condition in “8 form” (MFT-8. Sixteen trained wheelchair basketball players performed both tests in randomized condition. The levels performed (end-test score, peak values of oxygen uptake (VO2peak, minute ventilation (VEpeak, heart rate (HRpeak, peak and relative blood lactate (Δ[Lact−] = peak – rest values, and the perceived rating exertion (RPE were measured. MFT-8 induced higher VO2peak and VEpeak values compared to MFT (VO2peak: 2.5 ± 0.6 versus 2.3 ± 0.6 L·min−1 and VEpeak: 96.3 ± 29.1 versus 86.6 ± 23.4 L·min−1; P<0.05 with no difference in other parameters. Significant relations between VEpeak and end-test score were correlated for both field tests (P<0.05. At exhaustion, MFT attained incompletely VO2peak and VEpeak. Among experienced wheelchair players, MFT-8 had no effect on test performance but generates higher physiological responses than MFT. It could be explained by demands of wheelchair skills occurring in 8 form during the modified condition.

  8. The effects of poor sleep on cognitive, affective, and physiological responses to a laboratory stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paula G; Cribbet, Matthew R; Rau, Holly K; Gunn, Heather E; Czajkowski, Laura A

    2013-08-01

    Recent research suggests that poor sleep may be associated with altered stress regulation. This study aims to examine the associations between prior-night and prior-month sleep measures and affective, cognitive, and physiological responses to a laboratory stressor. Ninety-eight (50 % female) young adults completed measures of sleep quality in the context of a laboratory stress study. Measures included positive (PA) and negative affects (NA) and blood pressure (BP) reactivity, as well as change in pre-sleep arousal. Prior-month poor sleep quality and sleep disturbances predicted dampened BP reactivity. Both prior-night and prior-month sleep quality predicted greater decrease in PA. Sleep-associated monitoring predicted NA reactivity and prolonged cognitive and affective activation. Prior-month sleep continuity predicted greater cognitive pre-sleep arousal change, and prior-month sleep quality, daytime dysfunction, and disturbances predicted prolonged cognitive and affective activation. Findings suggest that inadequate sleep confers vulnerability to poor cognitive, affective, and physiological responses to stress.

  9. Characterisation of physiological and immunological responses in beef cows to abrupt weaning and subsequent housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGee Mark

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weaning involves the permanent separation of the calf from the dam and has been shown to be stressful for both. The objectives of this study were to characterise the effect of i abrupt weaning and ii subsequent housing on the extended physiological and immunological responses of beef cows. At weaning (day (d 0, mean age of calf (s.d. 212 (24.5 d, cows were abruptly separated from their calves and returned to the grazing area. After 35 d at pasture, cows were housed in a slatted floor shed and offered grass silage ad libitum plus a mineral-vitamin supplement daily. Rectal body temperature was recorded and blood samples were obtained on i d 0 (weaning, 2, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and subsequently on ii d 0 (housing, 2, 7, 14 and 21 for physiological, haematological and immunological measurements. Results Post-weaning, concentration of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone were unchanged (P > 0.05. Rectal body temperature, neutrophil number and neutrophil: lymphocyte ratio increased (P 0.05. On d 2 post-housing, neutrophil number and neutrophil: lymphocyte ratio increased (P Conclusions A transitory increase in neutrophil number and decrease in lymphocyte number, increased neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio coupled with decreased interferon-γ production, and increased concentration of acute phase proteins indicate a stress response in cows post-weaning, whereas post-housing, changes were less marked.

  10. Taste and physiological responses to glucosinolates: seed predator versus seed disperser.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Samuni-Blank

    Full Text Available In contrast to most other plant tissues, fleshy fruits are meant to be eaten in order to facilitate seed dispersal. Although fleshy fruits attract consumers, they may also contain toxic secondary metabolites. However, studies that link the effect of fruit toxins with seed dispersal and predation are scarce. Glucosinolates (GLSs are a family of bitter-tasting compounds. The fleshy fruit pulp of Ochradenus baccatus was previously found to harbor high concentrations of GLSs, whereas the myrosinase enzyme, which breaks down GLSs to produce foul tasting chemicals, was found only in the seeds. Here we show the differential behavioral and physiological responses of three rodent species to high dose (80% Ochradenus' fruits diets. Acomys russatus, a predator of Ochradenus' seeds, was the least sensitive to the taste of the fruit and the only rodent to exhibit taste-related physiological adaptations to deal with the fruits' toxins. In contrast, Acomys cahirinus, an Ochradenus seed disperser, was more sensitive to a diet containing the hydrolyzed products of the GLSs. A third rodent (Mus musculus was deterred from Ochradenus fruits consumption by the GLSs and their hydrolyzed products. We were able to alter M. musculus avoidance of whole fruit consumption by soaking Ochradenus fruits in a water solution containing 1% adenosine monophosphate, which blocks the bitter taste receptor in mice. The observed differential responses of these three rodent species may be due to evolutionary pressures that have enhanced or reduced their sensitivity to the taste of GLSs.

  11. Dynamics of food availability, body condition and physiological stress response in breeding Black-legged Kittiwakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Wingfield, J.C.; Piatt, John F.

    1999-01-01

    1. The seasonal dynamics of body condition (BC), circulating corticosterone levels (baseline, BL) and the adrenocortical response to acute stress (SR) were examined in long-lived Black-legged Kittiwakes, Rissa tridactyla, breeding at Duck (food-poor colony) and Gull (food-rich colony) Islands in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska. It was tested whether the dynamics of corticosterone levels reflect a seasonal change in bird physiological condition due to reproduction and/or variation in foraging conditions. 2. BC declined seasonally, and the decline was more pronounced in birds at the food-poor colony. BL and SR levels of corticosterone rose steadily through the reproductive season, and BL levels were significantly higher in birds on Duck island compared with those on Gull Island. During the egg-laying and chick-rearing stages, birds had lower SR on Duck Island than on Gull Island. 3. The results suggest that, in addition to a seasonal change in bird physiology during reproduction, local ecological factors such as food availability affect circulating levels of corticosterone and adrenal response to acute stress.

  12. Physiological and psychological responses of humans to the index of greenness of an interior space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji-Young; Park, Sin-Ae; Jung, Soo-Jin; Lee, Ji-Young; Son, Ki-Cheol; An, Youn-Joo; Lee, Sang-Woo

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the optimal index of greenness in terms of psychophysiological responses and subjective preference. We recruited 103 adult (51 male, 52 female) participants, who were examined individually in an interior space (lab) setting at Konkuk University, Seoul, South Korea. Participants observed plants in the space for 3min per experimental index of greenness (5%, 20%, 50%, and 80%). During this period, heart rate variability (HRV) and electroencephalographic (EEG) physiological responses were measured, and the participant's preference for index of greenness and subjective index of greenness was determined via surveys. HRV values were normal, and not significantly different, except that male participants showed higher mean variability between cardiac NN intervals and greater autonomic activity than female participants (Pspace, even a small amount of greenery may exert a relaxing effect on people. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Systems Biology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Physiology and its DNA Damage Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fazio, Alessandro

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a model organism in biology, being widely used in fundamental research, the first eukaryotic organism to be fully sequenced and the platform for the development of many genomics techniques. Therefore, it is not surprising that S. cerevisiae has also been widely...... used in the field of systems biology during the last decade. This thesis investigates S. cerevisiae growth physiology and DNA damage response by using a systems biology approach. Elucidation of the relationship between growth rate and gene expression is important to understand the mechanisms regulating...... cell growth. In order to study this relationship, we have grown S. cerevisiae cells in chemostat at defined growth rates and measured the transcriptional response. We have applied a complex experimental design, involving three factors: specific growth rate, oxygen availability and nutrient limitation...

  14. Growth temperature exerts differential physiological and transcriptional responses in laboratory and wine strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizarra, Francisco J.; Jewett, Michael Christopher; Nielsen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been widely used as a model for studying eukaryotic cells and mapping the molecular mechanisms of many different human diseases. Industrial wine yeasts, on the other hand, have been selected on the basis of their adaptation to stringent...... global insight into how growth temperature affects differential physiological and transcriptional responses in laboratory and wine strains of S. cerevisiae....... environmental conditions and the organoleptic properties that they confer to wine. Here, we used a two-factor design to study the responses of a standard laboratory strain, CEN.PK113-7D, and an industrial wine yeast strain, EC1118, to growth temperatures of 15 degrees C and 30 degrees C in nitrogen...

  15. Different Training Loads Partially Influence Physiological Responses to the Preparation Period in Basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferioli, Davide; Bosio, Andrea; La Torre, Antonio; Carlomagno, Domenico; Connolly, Darragh R; Rampinini, Ermanno

    2018-03-01

    Ferioli, D, Bosio, A, La Torre, A, Carlomagno, D, Connolly, DR, and Rampinini, E. Different training loads partially influence physiological responses to preparation period in basketball. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 790-797, 2018-The aim of this study was to compare the session rating of perceived exertion training load (sRPE-TL), training volume (TV), and the changes in physical fitness between professional (n = 14) and semiprofessional (n = 18) basketball players during the preparation period. Furthermore, relationships between sRPE-TL and TV with changes in physical fitness level were investigated. The players performed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test-level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) before and after the preparation period. In addition, physiological responses to a standardized 6-minute continuous running test (Mognoni's test) and to a standardized 5-minute high-intensity intermittent running test (HIT) were measured. Session rating of perceived exertion-TL and TV were greater for professional (5,241 ± 1787 AU; 914 ± 122 minutes) compared with semiprofessional players (2,408 ± 487 AU; 583 ± 65 minutes). Despite these differences, Yo-Yo IR1 performance improvements (∼30%) and physiological adaptations to the Mognoni's test were similar between the 2 groups. Furthermore, physiological adaptations to HIT were slightly greater for professional compared with semiprofessional players; however, the magnitude of these effects was only small/moderate. No clear relationships were found between sRPE-TL and changes in Yo-Yo IR1 performance and Mognoni's test (rs ± 90% confidence interval [CI]: Yo-Yo IR1, 0.18 ± 0.30; Mognoni's test, -0.14 ± 0.29). Only moderate relationships were found between sRPE-TL and changes in HIT (rs ± 90% CI: [La], -0.48 ± 0.23; [H], -0.42 ± 0.25). These results raise doubts on the effectiveness of using high sRPE-TL and TV during the preparation period to improve the physical fitness level of players. The Yo-Yo IR1 seems to be sensitive to

  16. Neuromuscular Responses and Physiological Changes During Small-Sided Games in Wheelchair Basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturricastillo, Aitor; Yanci, Javier; Granados, Cristina

    2018-01-01

    The aim was to analyze the changes of physical performance and physiological responses during a high-intensity training task in wheelchair basketball (WB) players. Thirteen Spanish first division WB male players participated in this study. A test battery (change of direction ability, sprints, and sled towing) was performed to study neuromuscular responses before (pre) and after (post) the small-sided games (SSG). Furthermore, tympanic temperature and blood lactate concentration were measured before and immediately after players finished the SSG. The SSG tasks consisted in four players against four, 4 bouts of 4 min with 2 min of recovery periods. There was a 1.10% decline in performance in both 5- and 20-m sprints (p < .01; effect size [ES] ≤ 0.14), 1.82% decline in 5-m sled towing (p < .05; ES = 0.18), and 2.68% decline in 20-m sled towing (p < .01; ES = 0.27) between pre- and post-SSG. As in physical performance results, significant differences were observed between pre and post in physiological markers, with increasing tympanic temperature (36.21 ± 0.60 °C to 36.97 ± 0.59 °C; p < .001; ES = 1.27) and blood lactate concentrations (1.95 ± 1.30 mmol/L to 5.84 ± 2.04 mmol/L; p < .001; ES = 2.99) after SSG. The SSG produced a decrease in sprint and sled towing performance after 16 min of intense exercise. Moreover, the decrease in physical performance was accompanied with an increase in physiological responses. These neuromuscular responses could be similar in the real game; thus, coaching staff could benefit from this information when changing bench players.

  17. Time to evolve? Potential evolutionary responses of fraser river sockeye salmon to climate change and effects on persistence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reed, Thomas E; Schindler, Daniel E; Hague, Merran J; Patterson, David A; Meir, Eli; Waples, Robin S; Hinch, Scott G

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary adaptation affects demographic resilience to climate change but few studies have attempted to project changes in selective pressures or quantify impacts of trait responses on population...

  18. Hydrocarbonoclastic Alcanivorax Isolates Exhibit Different Physiological and Expression Responses to n-dodecane

    KAUST Repository

    Barbato, Marta

    2016-12-21

    Autochthonous microorganisms inhabiting hydrocarbon polluted marine environments play a fundamental role in natural attenuation and constitute promising resources for bioremediation approaches. Alcanivorax spp. members are ubiquitous in contaminated surface waters and are the first to flourish on a wide range of alkanes after an oil-spill. Following oil contamination, a transient community of different Alcanivorax spp. develop, but whether they use a similar physiological, cellular and transcriptomic response to hydrocarbon substrates is unknown. In order to identify which cellular mechanisms are implicated in alkane degradation, we investigated the response of two isolates belonging to different Alcanivorax species, A. dieselolei KS 293 and A. borkumensis SK2 growing on n-dodecane (C12) or on pyruvate. Both strains were equally able to grow on C12 but they activated different strategies to exploit it as carbon and energy source. The membrane morphology and hydrophobicity of SK2 changed remarkably, from neat and hydrophilic on pyruvate to indented and hydrophobic on C12, while no changes were observed in KS 293. In addition, SK2 accumulated a massive amount of intracellular grains when growing on pyruvate, which might constitute a carbon reservoir. Furthermore, SK2 significantly decreased medium surface tension with respect to KS 293 when growing on C12, as a putative result of higher production of biosurfactants. The transcriptomic responses of the two isolates were also highly different. KS 293 changes were relatively balanced when growing on C12 with respect to pyruvate, giving almost the same amount of upregulated (28%), downregulated (37%) and equally regulated (36%) genes, while SK2 transcription was upregulated for most of the genes (81%) when growing on pyruvate when compared to C12. While both strains, having similar genomic background in genes related to hydrocarbon metabolism, retained the same capability to grow on C12, they nevertheless presented very

  19. Animal models and their importance to human physiological responses in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, C. M.

    1996-01-01

    Two prominent theories to explain the physiological effects of microgravity relate to the cascade of changes associated with the cephalic shifts of fluids and the absence of tissue deformation forces. One-g experiments for humans used bed rest and the head-down tilt (HDT) method, while animal experiments have been conducted using the tail-suspended, head-down, and hindlimbs non-weightbearing model. Because of the success of the HDT approach with rats to simulate the gravitational effects on the musculoskeletal system exhibited by humans, the same model has been used to study the effects of gravity on the cardiopulmonary systems of humans and other vertebrates. Results to date indicate the model is effective in producing comparable changes associated with blood volume, erythropoiesis, cardiac mass, baroreceptor responsiveness, carbohydrate metabolism, post-flight VO2max, and post-flight cardiac output during exercise. Inherent with these results is the potential of the model to be useful in investigating responsible mechanisms. The suspension model has promise in understanding the capillary blood PO2 changes in space as well as the arterial PO2 changes in subjects participating in a HDT experiment. However, whether the model can provide insights on the up-or-down regulation of adrenoreceptors remains to be determined, and many investigators believe the HDT approach should not be followed to study gravitational influences on pulmonary function in either humans or animals. It was concluded that the tail-suspended animal model had sufficient merit to study in-flight and post-flight human physiological responses and mechanisms.

  20. Analysis of the Physiological and Molecular Responses of Dunaliella salina to Macronutrient Deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hexin Lv

    Full Text Available The halotolerant chlorophyte Dunaliella salina can accumulate up to 10% of its dry weight as β-carotene in chloroplasts when subjected to adverse conditions, including nutrient deprivation. However, the mechanisms of carotenoid biosynthesis are poorly understood. Here, the physiological and molecular responses to the deprivation of nitrogen (-N, sulfur (-S, phosphorus (-P and different combinations of those nutrients (-N-P, -N-S, -P-S and -N-P-S were compared to gain insights into the underlying regulatory mechanisms of carotenoid biosynthesis. The results showed that both the growth and photosynthetic rates of cells were decreased during nutrient deprivation, accompanied by lipid globule accumulation and reduced chlorophyll levels. The SOD and CAT activities of the cells were altered during nutrient deprivation, but their responses were different. The total carotenoid contents of cells subjected to multiple nutrient deprivation were higher than those of cells subjected to single nutrient deprivation and non-stressed cells. The β-carotene contents of cells subjected to -N-P, -N-S and -N-P-S were higher than those of cells subjected to single nutrient deprivation. Cells subjected to sulfur deprivation accumulated more lutein than cells subjected to nitrogen and phosphorous deprivation. In contrast, no cumulative effects of nutrient deprivation on the transcription of genes in the carotenogenic pathway were observed because MEP and carotenogenic pathway genes were up-regulated during single nutrient deprivation but were downregulated during multiple nutrient deprivation. Therefore, we proposed that the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway of D. salina is regulated at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels and that a complex crosstalk occurs at the physiological and molecular levels in response to the deprivation of different nutrients.

  1. Physiological responses and tolerance of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) exposed to chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Han; Wang, Guodong; Lou, Lili; Lv, Jinyin

    2016-11-01

    Selection of kenaf species with chromium (Cr) tolerance and exploring the physiological mechanisms involved in Cr tolerance are crucial for application of these species to phyto-remediation. In the present study, a hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the variation in two kenaf cultivars, K39-2 and Zhe50-3 under Cr stress. At the same Cr concentration, the tolerance index (TI) of K39-2 was higher than that of Zhe50-3, indicating that K39-2 may be more tolerant to Cr than Zhe50-3. It was also observed that high concentration of chromium was accumulated both in the shoots and the roots of Hibiscus cannabinus L. The leaves of K39-2 accumulated 4760.28mgkg(-1) of dry weight under 1.50mM Cr stress, and the roots accumulated 11,958.33mgkg(-1). Physiological response shows that the antioxidant enzymes' superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase activity (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities increased in the leaves and decreased in roots of the Cr-stressed plants nearly compared to the control. Moreover, the variation of antioxidant enzymes activities indicated Zhe50-3 was more vulnerable than K39-2, and the contents of the non-protein thiol pool (GSH, NPT and PCs) were higher in K39-2 than Zhe50-3 with the increased Cr concentration. Based on the observations above, it can be concluded that the well-coordinated physiological changes confer a greater Cr tolerance to K39-2 than Zhe50-3 under Cr exposure, and Hibiscus cannabinus L. has a great accumulation capacity for chromium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Understanding the physiological responses of a tropical crop (Capsicum chinense Jacq. at high temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Garruña-Hernández

    Full Text Available Temperature is one of the main environmental factors involved in global warming and has been found to have a direct effect on plants. However, few studies have investigated the effect of higher temperature on tropical crops. We therefore performed an experiment with a tropical crop of Habanero pepper (Capsicum Chinense Jacq.. Three growth chambers were used, each with 30 Habanero pepper plants. Chambers were maintained at a diurnal maximum air temperature (DMT of 30 (chamber 1, 35 (chamber 2 and 40°C (chamber 3. Each contained plants from seedling to fruiting stage. Physiological response to variation in DMT was evaluated for each stage over the course of five months. The results showed that both leaf area and dry mass of Habanero pepper plants did not exhibit significant differences in juvenile and flowering phenophases. However, in the fruiting stage, the leaf area and dry mass of plants grown at 40°C DMT were 51 and 58% lower than plants at 30°C DMT respectively. Meanwhile, an increase in diurnal air temperature raised both stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, causing an increase in temperature deficit (air temperature - leaf temperature. Thus, leaf temperature decreased by 5°C, allowing a higher CO2 assimilation rate in plants at diurnal maximum air temperature (40°C. However, in CO2 measurements when leaf temperature was set at 40°C, physiological parameters decreased due to an increase in stomatal limitation. We conclude that the thermal optimum range in a tropical crop such as Habanero pepper is between 30 and 35°C (leaf temperature, not air temperature. In this range, gas exchange through stomata is probably optimal. Also, the air temperature-leaf temperature relationship helps to explain how temperature keeps the major physiological processes of Habanero pepper healthy under experimental conditions.

  3. Physiological responses of growing pigs to high ambient temperature and/or inflammatory challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Reis Furtado Campos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Global warming is one of the major environmental threats facing the world in the 21st century. This fact will have a significant impact on pig production due to its direct effects on welfare, health, and performance of pigs. Besides, the effects of high temperatures will presumably become more important over the next decades due to the development of pig production in developing countries mainly located in tropical and subtropical areas, where animals are often exposed to ambient temperatures above their thermal comfort zone. Furthermore, pigs reared in tropical areas are often confronted to sanitary challenges including poor hygiene conditions, lack of respect for sanitary rules, and pathogens. This results in the stimulation of the immune system and, as a consequence, in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and neuroendocrine adjustments that, in turn, usually have a negative impact on growth and feed efficiency. Although the effects of high ambient temperature and disease on pig physiology and performance have been well documented in literature, little is known about the associated effects of both factors. This understanding may contribute to a better quantification and comprehension of the physiological and metabolic disturbances occurring in practical conditions of pig production in tropical areas and, more generally, in many other geographic areas that will be influenced by the perspective of global warming. Therefore, the objective of this work is to provide an overview of recent research advances on the physiological responses of growing pigs during acclimation to high ambient temperature and on the potential effects of high ambient temperature on the ability of growing pigs to resist, cope with, or recover from an inflammatory challenge.

  4. Understanding the physiological responses of a tropical crop (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) at high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garruña-Hernández, René; Orellana, Roger; Larque-Saavedra, Alfonso; Canto, Azucena

    2014-01-01

    Temperature is one of the main environmental factors involved in global warming and has been found to have a direct effect on plants. However, few studies have investigated the effect of higher temperature on tropical crops. We therefore performed an experiment with a tropical crop of Habanero pepper (Capsicum Chinense Jacq.). Three growth chambers were used, each with 30 Habanero pepper plants. Chambers were maintained at a diurnal maximum air temperature (DMT) of 30 (chamber 1), 35 (chamber 2) and 40°C (chamber 3). Each contained plants from seedling to fruiting stage. Physiological response to variation in DMT was evaluated for each stage over the course of five months. The results showed that both leaf area and dry mass of Habanero pepper plants did not exhibit significant differences in juvenile and flowering phenophases. However, in the fruiting stage, the leaf area and dry mass of plants grown at 40°C DMT were 51 and 58% lower than plants at 30°C DMT respectively. Meanwhile, an increase in diurnal air temperature raised both stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, causing an increase in temperature deficit (air temperature - leaf temperature). Thus, leaf temperature decreased by 5°C, allowing a higher CO2 assimilation rate in plants at diurnal maximum air temperature (40°C). However, in CO2 measurements when leaf temperature was set at 40°C, physiological parameters decreased due to an increase in stomatal limitation. We conclude that the thermal optimum range in a tropical crop such as Habanero pepper is between 30 and 35°C (leaf temperature, not air temperature). In this range, gas exchange through stomata is probably optimal. Also, the air temperature-leaf temperature relationship helps to explain how temperature keeps the major physiological processes of Habanero pepper healthy under experimental conditions.

  5. Effects of routine handling and tagging procedures on physiological stress responses in juvenile chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, C.S.; Thompson, D.A.; Blankenship, H.L.; Schreck, C.B.

    1998-01-01

    Juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were subjected to handling and tagging protocols typical of normal hatchery operations and monitored for their physiological response to stress. Treatments included coded-wire-tagging, counting, ventral fin clipping, adipose fin clipping, and a procedure simulating a pond split. Treatment fish were also subjected to a standardized stress challenge (1 h confinement) to evaluate their ability to deal with disturbances subsequent to a handling or tagging procedure. Circulating levels of cortisol and glucose were used as indicators of stress. Each of the treatments elicited very similar responses among treatment groups. Cortisol increased from resting levels of about 20 ng/mL to about 90 ng/mL by 1 h poststress and returned to near resting levels by 8 h poststress. Glucose levels increased from 50 mg/dL to about 80 mg/dL by 1 h poststress and remained elevated for much of the experiment. The cortisol and glucose responses to the confinement stress did not differ over time or among treatments. However, the confinement stress results do suggest a small but significant cumulative response, indicating small residual effects of the original handling protocols. No deaths were noted among treatment groups.

  6. Global transcriptional, physiological and metabolite analyses of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough responses to salt adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Z.; Zhou, A.; Baidoo, E.; He, Q.; Joachimiak, M. P.; Benke, P.; Phan, R.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Hemme, C.L.; Huang, K.; Alm, E.J.; Fields, M.W.; Wall, J.; Stahl, D.; Hazen, T.C.; Keasling, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Zhou, J.

    2009-12-01

    The response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to salt adaptation (long-term NaCl exposure) was examined by physiological, global transcriptional, and metabolite analyses. The growth of D. vulgaris was inhibited by high levels of NaCl, and the growth inhibition could be relieved by the addition of exogenous amino acids (e.g., glutamate, alanine, tryptophan) or yeast extract. Salt adaptation induced the expression of genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis and transport, electron transfer, hydrogen oxidation, and general stress responses (e.g., heat shock proteins, phage shock proteins, and oxidative stress response proteins). Genes involved in carbon metabolism, cell motility, and phage structures were repressed. Comparison of transcriptomic profiles of D. vulgaris responses to salt adaptation with those of salt shock (short-term NaCl exposure) showed some similarity as well as a significant difference. Metabolite assays showed that glutamate and alanine were accumulated under salt adaptation, suggesting that they may be used as osmoprotectants in D. vulgaris. A conceptual model is proposed to link the observed results to currently available knowledge for further understanding the mechanisms of D. vulgaris adaptation to elevated NaCl.

  7. A carboxylesterase, Esterase-6, modulates sensory physiological and behavioral response dynamics to pheromone in Drosophila

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    Chertemps Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insects respond to the spatial and temporal dynamics of a pheromone plume, which implies not only a strong response to 'odor on', but also to 'odor off'. This requires mechanisms geared toward a fast signal termination. Several mechanisms may contribute to signal termination, among which odorant-degrading enzymes. These enzymes putatively play a role in signal dynamics by a rapid inactivation of odorants in the vicinity of the sensory receptors, although direct in vivo experimental evidences are lacking. Here we verified the role of an extracellular carboxylesterase, esterase-6 (Est-6, in the sensory physiological and behavioral dynamics of Drosophila melanogaster response to its pheromone, cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA. Est-6 was previously linked to post-mating effects in the reproductive system of females. As Est-6 is also known to hydrolyze cVA in vitro and is expressed in the main olfactory organ, the antenna, we tested here its role in olfaction as a putative odorant-degrading enzyme. Results We first confirm that Est-6 is highly expressed in olfactory sensilla, including cVA-sensitive sensilla, and we show that expression is likely associated with non-neuronal cells. Our electrophysiological approaches show that the dynamics of olfactory receptor neuron (ORN responses is strongly influenced by Est-6, as in Est-6° null mutants (lacking the Est-6 gene cVA-sensitive ORN showed increased firing rate and prolonged activity in response to cVA. Est-6° mutant males had a lower threshold of behavioral response to cVA, as revealed by the analysis of two cVA-induced behaviors. In particular, mutant males exhibited a strong decrease of male-male courtship, in association with a delay in courtship initiation. Conclusions Our study presents evidence that Est-6 plays a role in the physiological and behavioral dynamics of sex pheromone response in Drosophila males and supports a role of Est-6 as an odorant-degrading enzyme (ODE in male

  8. Physiological Responses and Lactation to Cutaneous Evaporative Heat Loss in , , and Their Crossbreds

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    Wang Jian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous evaporative heat loss in Bos indicus and Bos taurus has been well documented. Nonetheless, how crossbreds with different fractional genetic proportions respond to such circumstances is of interest. A study to examine the physiological responses to cutaneous evaporative heat loss, also lactation period and milk yield, were conducted in Sahiwal (Bos indicus, n = 10, 444±64.8 kg, 9±2.9 years, Holstein Friesian (Bos taurus, HF100% (n = 10, 488±97.9 kg, 6±2.8 years and the following crossbreds: HF50% (n = 10, 355±40.7 kg, 2±0 years and HF87.5% (n = 10, 489±76.8 kg, 7±1.8 years. They were allocated so as to determine the physiological responses of sweating rate (SR, respiration rate (RR, rectal temperature (RT, and skin temperature (ST with and without hair from 06:00 h am to 15:00 h pm. And milk yield during 180 days were collected at days from 30 to 180. The ambient temperature-humidity-index (THI increased from less than 80 in the early morning to more than 90 in the late afternoon. The interaction of THI and breed were highly affected on SR, RR, RT, and ST (p0.05 but did change over time. The ST with and without hair were similar, and was higher in HF100% (37.4°C; 38.0°C and their crossbred HF50% (35.5°C; 35.5°C and HF87.5% (37.1°C; 37.9°C than Sahiwal (34.8°C; 34.8°C (p<0.01. Moreover, the early lactation were higher at HF100% (25 kg and 87.5% (25 kg than HF50% (23 kg which were higher than Sahiwal (18 kg while the peak period of lactation was higher at HF100% (35 kg than crossbreds both HF87.5% and HF50% (32 kg which was higher than Sahiwal (26 kg (p<0.05. In conclusion, sweating and respiration were the main vehicle for dissipating excess body heat for Sahiwal, HF and crossbreds, respectively. The THI at 76 to 80 were the critical points where the physiological responses to elevated temperature displayed change.

  9. Physiological responses of Indian jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk.) fruit to storage temperature under modified atmosphere packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jat, Laxman; Pareek, Sunil; Shukla, Kunj B

    2013-06-01

    The effect of storage temperature on physiological responses in Indian jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk. cv. Gola) fruit was investigated. Freshly harvested fruits at physiological maturity characterised by colour-turning stage were stored at ambient temperature, 12 and 6 °C for 21, 35 and 35 days respectively. Headspace O2, CO2 and C2H4, moisture content, respiration, ethylene production, firmness, tristimulus colour, chroma, hue angle and chilling injury index were monitored during fruit storage. Rates of respiration and ethylene production increased after 1 week of storage at ambient temperature, while peaks were observed after 2 weeks at 12 and 6 °C. Headspace O2 decreased continuously during storage, while CO2 and C2H4 increased at all storage temperatures. Moisture content and firmness also decreased during storage. Hunter L* values increased during storage, which correlated with the darkening of fruit colour. Fruit stored at ambient temperature did not show any chilling injury symptoms, while chilling injury appeared on day 28 under 12 °C storage and on day 21 under 6 °C storage. Indian jujube fruit showed high rates of respiration and ethylene production that were significantly affected by different storage temperatures. Lower temperatures increased the shelf life of the fruit, but chilling injury was a problem under 6 °C storage. Indian jujube fruit could be stored at 6 °C for up to 35 days if chilling injury could be alleviated. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Physiological response to lipid peroxidation in ischemia and reperfusion during carotid endarterectomy

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    Cordeddu Lina

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study we aimed to assess lipid peroxidation during carotid endarterectomy by the formation of PUFA hydroperoxides (PUFAHP and isoprostanes (IP and concomitant peroxisomal beta-oxidation as a physiological mechanism to limit their concentration. Two markers of peroxisomal beta oxidation have been evaluated, formation of 2,3 dinor from IP and conjugated esadecadienoic acid (CD 16:2 from peroxisomal beta-oxidation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, an unusual fatty acid present in small concentration in our diet and preferentially beta-oxidised in peroxisomes. The study was conducted on 30 patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy. Blood samplings were performed before, during endarterectomy in the "ischemic phase", and 30 seconds, 30 minutes and 2 hours after reperfusion. Results The results showed that PUFAHP increased significantly after 30 min of reperfusion in patients with controlateral stenosis > 50%, and steeply decreased after 2 hour of reperfusion. Interestingly, IP increased in a similar fashion of PUFAHP but never significantly. Both ratios CD16:2/CLA and DIN/IP also increased significantly after 30 min of reperfusion to decrease thereafter. Conclusions Our data show that lipid peroxidation takes place only in patients with high controlateral stenosis and within 2 hours occurs a physiological response aimed to decrease IP and PUFAHP by increasing their catabolism in peroxisomes.

  11. Effects of mouldy core and core rot on physiological and biochemical responses of apple fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shunfeng; Zhang, Lihua; Liu, Xinghua

    2011-11-01

    Apple mouldy core (MC) and core rot (CR) are pathogenic disorders associated with the core region of fruits of susceptible varieties that have open calyx tubes. MC is not economically important because its symptoms are restricted to within the seed cavities, but CR is an important postharvest disease because its symptoms penetrate the fruit flesh and bring about economic losses. Recently, most studies have focused on causal agents and control of apple MC and CR. However, there is little information on the physiological and biochemical responses of apple fruits with MC and CR. The results indicated that MC and CR have different effects on the physiological and biochemical indices of apple fruits. Higher polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and total phenolic content were found in MC, dry CR (DCR) and asymptomatic tissue of wet CR (asympWCR) fruits than in healthy fruits, as well as significantly higher catalase and peroxidase activities in DCR and symptomatic tissue of WCR (sympWCR) fruits respectively, while asympWCR fruits showed a marked increase in malondialdehyde content, membrane permeability and superoxide production and a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase activity. The findings suggest that PPO and phenolic compounds may play a key role in the defence system of apple fruits against MC and CR. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plantlets to gradient saline stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui-Juan; Yang, Hong-Yu; Bai, Jiang-Ping; Liang, Xin-Yue; Lou, Yan; Zhang, Jun-Lian; Wang, Di; Zhang, Jin-Lin; Niu, Shu-Qi; Chen, Ying-Long

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that impacts plant growth and reduces the productivity of field crops. Compared to field plants, test tube plantlets offer a direct and fast approach to investigate the mechanism of salt tolerance. Here we examined the ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. c.v. “Longshu No. 3”) plantlets to gradient saline stress (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mM NaCl) with two consequent observations (2 and 6 weeks, respectively). The results showed that, with the increase of external NaCl concentration and the duration of treatments, (1) the number of chloroplasts and cell intercellular spaces markedly decreased, (2) cell walls were thickened and even ruptured, (3) mesophyll cells and chloroplasts were gradually damaged to a complete disorganization containing more starch, (4) leaf Na and Cl contents increased while leaf K content decreased, (5) leaf proline content and the activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased significantly, and (6) leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased significantly and stomatal area and chlorophyll content decline were also detected. Severe salt stress (200 mM NaCl) inhibited plantlet growth. These results indicated that potato plantlets adapt to salt stress to some extent through accumulating osmoprotectants, such as proline, increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as CAT and SOD. The outcomes of this study provide ultrastructural and physiological insights into characterizing potential damages induced by salt stress for selecting salt-tolerant potato cultivars. PMID:25628634

  13. Differential response to ocean acidification in physiological traits of Concholepas concholepas populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardies, Marco A.; Arias, María Belén; Poupin, María Josefina; Manríquez, Patricio H.; Torres, Rodrigo; Vargas, Cristian A.; Navarro, Jorge M.; Lagos, Nelson A.

    2014-07-01

    Phenotypic adaptation to environmental fluctuations frequently occurs by preexisting plasticity and its role as a major component of variation in physiological diversity is being widely recognized. Few studies have considered the change in phenotypic flexibility among geographic populations in marine calcifiers to ocean acidification projections, despite the fact that this type of study provides understanding about how the organism may respond to this chemical change in the ocean. We examined the geographic variation in CO2 seawater concentrations in the phenotype and in the reaction norm of physiological traits using a laboratory mesocosm approach with short-term acclimation in two contrasting populations (Antofagasta and Calfuco) of the intertidal snail Concholepas concholepas. Our results show that elevated pCO2 conditions increase standard metabolic rates in both populations of the snail juveniles, likely due to the higher energy cost of homeostasis. Juveniles of C. concholepas in the Calfuco (southern) population showed a lower increment of metabolic rate in high-pCO2 environments concordant with a lesser gene expression of a heat shock protein with respect to the Antofagasta (northern) population. Combined these results indicate a negative effect of ocean acidification on whole-organism functioning of C. concholepas. Finally, the significant Population × pCO2 level interaction in both studied traits indicates that there is variation between populations in response to high-pCO2 conditions.

  14. The relationship between climbing ability and physiological responses to rock climbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baláš, Jiří; Panáčková, Michaela; Strejcová, Barbora; Martin, Andrew J; Cochrane, Darryl J; Kaláb, Miloš; Kodejška, Jan; Draper, Nick

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between submaximal and maximal physiological responses to rock climbing for climbers of differing abilities. Twenty-six male climbers performed a submaximal climbing test on a known circuit at 90° (vertical) and 105° (15° overhanging) inclination and speed 25 movements · min(-1). A maximal test was undertaken on a similar circuit at the same speed with inclination increasing by 10° for each successive 3 min stage. Mean oxygen consumption and heart rate (HR) increased with wall inclination and climbers reached a mean (± SD) peak VO2 of 40.3 ± 3.5 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1) during the maximal test. Self-reported climbing ability was negatively correlated with VO2 and HR during the submaximal test at 90° (VO2, r = -0.82; HR, and r = -0.66) and at 105° (VO2, r = -0.84; HR, and r = -0.78) suggesting an increased exercise economy for climbers with a higher ability level. Findings from this study indicate that there is a relationship between wall inclination and the physiological demand of a climb. However, the increased technical ability and fitness of higher level climbers appears to an extent to offset the increased demand through improved exercise economy which in turn leads to an increased time to exhaustion and an improvement in performance.

  15. Synthesis of nitric oxide in human osteoblasts in response to physiologic stimulation of electrotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Ayman; Kim, Paul; Cho, Michael

    2006-12-01

    Electrotherapy for bone healing, remodeling and wound healing may be mediated by modulation of nitric oxide (NO). Using NO-specific fluorophore (DAF-2), we report here that application of non-invasive, physiologic electrical stimulation induces NO synthesis in human osteoblasts, and that such NO generation is comparable to that induced by estrogen treatment. For example, application of a sinusoidal 1 Hz, 2 V/cm (peak to peak) electrical stimulation (ES) increases NO-bound DAF-2 fluorescence intensity by a 2-fold within 60 min exposure by activating nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Increase in the NO level is found to depend critically on the frequency and strength of ES. While the frequency of 1 Hz ES seems optimal, the ES strength >0.5 V/cm is required to induce significant NO increase, however. Nitric oxide synthesis in response to ES is completely prevented by blocking estrogen receptors using a competitive inhibitor, suggesting that NO generation is likely initiated by activation of estrogen receptors at the cell surface. Based on these findings, physiologic stimulation of electrotherapy appears to represent a potential non-invasive, non-genomic, and novel physical technique that could be used to regulate NO-mediated bone density and facilitate bone remodeling without adverse effects associated with hormone therapy.

  16. Physiological responses of the eustigmatophycean Nannochloropsis salina to aqueous diesel fuel pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania Farag Mohammad

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The marine eustigmatophycean microalga Nannochloropsis(Monallantus salina Hibberd was cultivated in a batchculture in the presence of various concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%of an aqueous extract of diesel fuel oil in order to assess the influenceof the pollutant on the growth and certain physiological responses of themicroalga. The growth data revealed a significant negative effect of thevarious pollutant concentrations on the algal cell number(p ≤ 0.05. However, at the mid-logarithmic growth phase (day 8,the algal cells were analysed for chlorophyll a, β-glucan,amino acid pool, C/N ratio and elemental composition. According to ourresults, N. salina was significantly affected by the pollution withregard to the different physiological parameters examined, and thissignificance may be negative, positive or variable. The effect of thepollutant on cellular β-glucan and the total amount of amino acidswas negative; however, the composition of the cellular amino acid poolremained unaffected. A positive effect of the pollutant on cellular chl aand the C/N ratio was observed. In addition, the pollutant showed variableeffects on the composition of different elements, as shown byenergy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Also, an existencecorrelation between different elements was statistically reported.

  17. Music listening alleviates anxiety and physiological responses in patients receiving spinal anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wen-Ping; Wu, Pao-Yuan; Lee, Meng-Ying; Ho, Lun-Hui; Shih, Whei-Mei

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of listening to music on the anxiety levels and physiological responses of surgical patients receiving spinal anesthesia. An experimental design was used in the study with an experimental group (n=50) and a control group (n=50). The experimental group received 30min of musical intervention and routine nursing care in the Post-Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU) while the control group received only routine nursing care. The study found significant differences in both anxiety and physiological indices between the two groups. The mean score of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) in the study group decreased from a pre-test score of 59.0 to a post-test score of 31.20 (t=28.63, pmusic while in the recovery room may decrease the level of anxiety in surgical patients receiving spinal anesthesia. The results of this study can serve as a reference for PACU nurses in utilizing music listening programs to achieve the goal of holistic care. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Response of Wheat Physiological and Agronomic Traits to Water Stress and Zeolite Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mirzakhani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With increasing water deficit in agricultural production, quantity and quality of these products will be affected. In order to evaluate the response of wheat physiological and agronomic characteristics to water stress and zeolite application, this study was carried out in field of Arak Payam Noor University in 2009. A split-plot arrangement of treatments in a randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Water stress (I0= Control irrigation, I1= Irrigation about 85% plant requirement water, I2= Irrigation about 70% of plant requirement water, I3= Irrigation about 55% of plant requirement water, were assigned in the main plots and different levels of zeolite application (Z0= without zeolite application, Z1= 3 ton ha-1, Z2= 6 ton ha-1, Z3= 9 ton ha-1 in sub plots. Each sub plot consisted of 4 rows, 5 m long with 50 cm between rows space and 5 cm between plants on the rows. Results indicated that un-stress irrigation (control irrigation with average spike biological yield (36.51 g per 10 plant and zeolite application (9 ton ha-1 with average (34.02 g per 10 plant were significantly superior to the other treatments. The maximum and minimum of grain yield obtained of treatments (control irrigation + 9 ton ha-1 of zeolite and (irrigation about 55% of plant requirement water + 3 ton ha-1 of zeolite, respectively. Zeolite application was positive affected on almost of agronomic and physiologic traits in wheat.

  19. Physiological Stress Responses in Amphibian Larvae to Multiple Stressors Reveal Marked Anthropogenic Effects even below Lethal Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burraco, Pablo; Gomez-Mestre, Ivan

    Natural and anthropogenic disturbances cause profound alterations in organisms, inducing physiological adjustments to avoid, reduce, or remedy the impact of disturbances. In vertebrates, the stress response is regulated via neuroendocrine pathways, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis that regulates the secretion of glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids have cascading effects on multiple physiological pathways, affecting the metabolic rate, reactive oxygen species production, or immune system. Determining the extent to which natural and anthropogenic environmental factors induce stress responses in vertebrates is of great importance in ecology and conservation biology. Here we study the physiological stress response in spadefoot toad tadpoles (Pelobates cultripes) against three levels of a series of natural and anthropogenic stressors common to many aquatic systems: salinity (0, 6, and 9 ppt), herbicide (0, 1, and 2 mg/L acid equivalent of glyphosate), water acidity (pH 4.5, 7.0, and 9.5), predators (absent, native, and invasive), and temperature (21°, 25°, and 29°C). The physiological stress response was assessed examining corticosterone levels, standard metabolic rate, activity of antioxidant enzymes, oxidative cellular damage in lipids, and immunological status. We found that common stressors substantially altered the physiological state of tadpoles. In particular, salinity and herbicides cause dramatic physiological changes in tadpoles. Moreover, tadpoles reduced corticosterone levels in the presence of natural predators but did not do so against invasive predators, indicating a lack of innate recognition. Corticosterone and the antioxidant enzyme glutathione reductase were the most sensitive parameters to stress in this study. Anthropogenic perturbations of aquatic systems pose serious threats to larval amphibians even at nonlethal concentrations, judging from the marked physiological stress responses generated, and reveal the importance of

  20. Predicting individual responses to pravastatin using a physiologically based kinetic model for plasma cholesterol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pas, Niek C A; Rullmann, Johan A C; Woutersen, Ruud A; van Ommen, Ben; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; de Graaf, Albert A

    2014-08-01

    We used a previously developed physiologically based kinetic (PBK) model to analyze the effect of individual variations in metabolism and transport of cholesterol on pravastatin response. The PBK model is based on kinetic expressions for 21 reactions that interconnect eight different body cholesterol pools including plasma HDL and non-HDL cholesterol. A pravastatin pharmacokinetic model was constructed and the simulated hepatic pravastatin concentration was used to modulate the reaction rate constant of hepatic free cholesterol synthesis in the PBK model. The integrated model was then used to predict plasma cholesterol concentrations as a function of pravastatin dose. Predicted versus observed values at 40 mg/d pravastatin were 15 versus 22 % reduction of total plasma cholesterol, and 10 versus 5.6 % increase of HDL cholesterol. A population of 7,609 virtual subjects was generated using a Monte Carlo approach, and the response to a 40 mg/d pravastatin dose was simulated for each subject. Linear regression analysis of the pravastatin response in this virtual population showed that hepatic and peripheral cholesterol synthesis had the largest regression coefficients for the non-HDL-C response. However, the modeling also showed that these processes alone did not suffice to predict non-HDL-C response to pravastatin, contradicting the hypothesis that people with high cholesterol synthesis rates are good statin responders. In conclusion, we have developed a PBK model that is able to accurately describe the effect of pravastatin treatment on plasma cholesterol concentrations and can be used to provide insight in the mechanisms behind individual variation in statin response.

  1. Glyphosate resistance in Ambrosia trifida: Part 2. Rapid response physiology and non-target-site resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Marcelo L; Van Horn, Christopher R; Robertson, Renae; Segobye, Kabelo; Weller, Stephen C; Young, Bryan G; Johnson, William G; Douglas Sammons, R; Wang, Dafu; Ge, Xia; d' Avignon, André; Gaines, Todd A; Westra, Philip; Green, Amanda C; Jeffery, Taylor; Lespérance, Mackenzie A; Tardif, François J; Sikkema, Peter H; Christopher Hall, J; McLean, Michael D; Lawton, Mark B; Schulz, Burkhard

    2017-03-08

    The glyphosate-resistant rapid response (GR RR) resistance mechanism in Ambrosia trifida is not due to target-site resistance (TSR) mechanisms. This study explores the physiology of the rapid response and the possibility of reduced translocation and vacuolar sequestration as non-target-site resistance (NTSR) mechanisms. GR RR leaf discs accumulated hydrogen peroxide within minutes of glyphosate exposure, but only in mature leaf tissue. The rapid response required energy either as light or exogenous sucrose. The combination of phenylalanine and tyrosine inhibited the rapid response in a dose-dependent manner. Reduced glyphosate translocation was observed in GR RR, but only when associated with tissue death caused by the rapid response. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies indicated that glyphosate enters the cytoplasm and reaches chloroplasts, and it is not moved into the vacuole of GR RR, GR non-rapid response or glyphosate-susceptible A. trifida. The GR RR mechanism of resistance is not associated with vacuole sequestration of glyphosate, and the observed reduced translocation is likely a consequence of rapid tissue death. Rapid cell death was inhibited by exogenous application of aromatic amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine. The mechanism by which these amino acids inhibit rapid cell death in the GR RR phenotype remains unknown, and it could involve glyphosate phytotoxicity or other agents generating reactive oxygen species. Implications of these findings are discussed. The GR RR mechanism is distinct from the currently described glyphosate TSR or NTSR mechanisms in other species. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Acute Physiological and Thermoregulatory Responses to Extended Interval Training in Endurance Runners: Influence of Athletic Performance and Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Pinillos Felipe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the acute impact of extended interval training (EIT on physiological and thermoregulatory levels, as well as to determine the influence of athletic performance and age effect on the aforementioned response in endurance runners. Thirty-one experienced recreational male endurance runners voluntarily participated in this study. Subjects performed EIT on an outdoor running track, which consisted of 12 runs of 400 m. The rate of perceived exertion, physiological response through the peak and recovery heart rate, blood lactate, and thermoregulatory response through tympanic temperature, were controlled. A repeated measures analysis revealed significant differences throughout EIT in examined variables. Cluster analysis grouped according to the average performance in 400 m runs led to distinguish between athletes with a higher and lower sports level. Cluster analysis was also performed according to age, obtaining an older group and a younger group. The one-way analysis of variance between groups revealed no significant differences (p≥0.05 in the response to EIT. The results provide a detailed description of physiological and thermoregulatory responses to EIT in experienced endurance runners. This allows a better understanding of the impact of a common training stimulus on the physiological level inducing greater accuracy in the training prescription. Moreover, despite the differences in athletic performance or age, the acute physiological and thermoregulatory responses in endurance runners were similar, as long as EIT was performed at similar relative intensity.

  3. Soccer small-sided games in young players: rule modification to induce higher physiological responses

    OpenAIRE

    Halouani, J; Chtourou, H; Dellal, A; Chaouachi, A; Chamari, K

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the physiological responses of 3 forms of players’ numbers during two different games rules of small-sided games (SSG: stop-ball vs. small-goals rules). Eighteen youth amateur soccer players (age 13.5±0.7 years; height 168.9±6.1cm; body mass 63.1±7.7 kg) participated in this study and performed 3 SSGs with varying players’ number (2vs.2; 3vs.3 and 4vs.4): stop-ball SSG (SB-SSG) vs. small-goals SSG (SG-SSG) in a randomized and counter-balanced order on a c...

  4. Comparative reproductive and physiological responses of northern bobwhite and scaled quail to water deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, W.M.; Patino, R.; Lutz, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    We compared reproductive and physiological responses of captive female northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) under control and water deprivation conditions. Scaled quail required less food and water to reproduce successfully under control conditions than northern bobwhite. Additionally, in scaled quail, serum osmolality levels and kidney mass were unaffected by water deprivation, whereas in northern bobwhite, serum osmolality levels increased and kidney mass declined. This finding indicates that scaled quail may have osmoregulatory abilities superior to those of northern bobwhite. Under control conditions, northern bobwhite gained more body mass and produced more but smaller eggs than scaled quail. Under water deprivation conditions, northern bobwhite lost more body mass but had more laying hens with a higher rate of egg production than scaled quail. Our data suggest that northern bobwhite allocated more resources to reproduction than to body maintenance, while scaled quail apparently forego reproduction in favor of body maintenance during water deprivation conditions.

  5. Physiological responses and performance in a simulated trampoline gymnastics competition in elite male gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Peter; Scott, Suzanne; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2013-01-01

    Physiological responses and performance were examined during and after a simulated trampoline competition (STC). Fifteen elite trampoline gymnasts participated, of which eight completed two routines (EX1 and EX2) and a competition final (EX3). Trampoline-specific activities were quantified by video-analysis. Countermovement jump (CMJ) and 20 maximal trampoline jump (20-MTJ) performances were assessed. Heart rate (HR) and quadriceps muscle temperature (Tm) were recorded and venous blood was drawn. A total of 252 ± 16 jumps were performed during the STC. CMJ performance declined (P trampoline gymnastic competition includes a high number of repeated explosive and energy demanding jumps, which impairs jump performance during and 24 h post-competition.

  6. Benzoic-Imine-Based Physiological-pH-Responsive Materials for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaozhong; Yang, Zhenzhong

    2016-10-06

    The benzoic imine is a dynamic covalent bond, which is stable around neutral pH value (ca. 7.4), but starts to hydrolyze at the extracellular pH value of solid tumors (ca. 6.5) and rapidly disintegrates at endosome and lysosome pH values (ca. 4.5-6.5). This characteristic is promising for the construction of physiological-pH-responsive materials, such as polymeric micelles, nanoparticles, and hydrogels for pharmaceutical and tissue-engineering applications. This Focus Review summarizes recent progress in the design and synthesis of pH-sensitive materials that contain the benzoic imine bond with biomedical objectives. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Physiological responses in rock climbing with repeated ascents over a 10-week period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    España-Romero, Vanesa; Jensen, Randall L; Sanchez, Xavier; Ostrowski, Megan L; Szekely, Jay E; Watts, Phillip B

    2012-03-01

    The purpose was to analyze the physiological responses and energy expenditure during repeated ascents of the same climbing route over a 10-week period. Nine climbers completed nine ascents of a specific route spaced 1 week apart. Expired air was analyzed continuously during each ascent, and time of ascent was recorded to the nearest second. Energy expenditure during climbing (EE(CLM)), and during climbing +10 min recovery (EE(TOT)) was calculated by the Weir and Zuntz equations. Differences among ascents 1, 4, 6 and 9 were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA. Climbing time was longer for ascent 1 compared with ascents 4, 6 and 9 (P climbing route decreased the climbing time and absolute energy expenditure during climbing. Initially, the decrease in climbing energy expenditure is accompanied by an increase in energy expenditure during recovery; however, by the ninth ascent, the total energy expenditure of the task is lower than for ascent 1.

  8. Concurrent nematode infection and pregnancy induce physiological responses that impair linear growth in the murine foetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odiere, M R; Koski, K G; Weiler, H A; Scott, M E

    2010-05-01

    This study examined concurrent stresses of nematode infection and pregnancy using pregnant and non-pregnant CD1 mice infected 3 times with 0, 50 or 100 Heligmosomoides bakeri larvae. Physiological, energetic, immunological and skeletal responses were measured in maternal and foetal compartments. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was elevated by pregnancy, but not by the trickle infection. Energy demands during pregnancy were met through increased food intake and fat utilization whereas mice lowered their body temperature during infection. Both infection and pregnancy increased visceral organ mass and both altered regional bone area and mineralization. During pregnancy, lumbar mineralization was lower but femur area and mineralization were higher. On the other hand, infection lowered maternal femur bone area and this was associated with higher IFN-gamma in maternal serum of heavily infected pregnant mice. Infection also reduced foetal crown-rump length which was associated with higher amniotic fluid IL-1 beta.

  9. Physiological responses to novel carbohydrates as assessed using canine and avian models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Brenda K; Parsons, Carl M; Swanson, Kelly S; Fahey, George C

    2008-09-10

    The objective was to quantify in vitro digestion, true metabolizable energy (TME(n)) content, glycemic and insulinemic responses, and gastrointestinal tolerance to fructose (Fruc), maltodextrin (Malt), polydextrose (Poly), pullulan (Pull), resistant starch (RS), sorbitol (Sorb), and xanthan gum (Xan). Limited digestion of RS, Poly, and Xan occurred. Fruc, Malt, and Sorb resulted in the highest (P insulin in the glycemic tests. Gastrointestinal tolerance was examined for diets containing carbohydrates at either 100 or 200% of the adequate intake (AI) value for dietary fiber. At 100% and 200% AI, Malt, RS, and Sorb resulted in ideal fecal scores, while Pull and Xan resulted in looser stools and Poly resulted in diarrhea. The carbohydrates studied varied widely in physiological outcomes. Certain carbohydrates could potentially benefit large bowel health.

  10. Physiological response of chia seeds (Salvia hispanica – Lamiales: Lamiaceae to salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Stefanello

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n4p35 The study of salinity tolerance provides valuable information about the propagation of species and can help in both characterizing cultures and in providing correct recommendations for cultivation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the physiological response of chia seeds to salt stress. Seeds were placed on paper in aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl at osmotic potentials equivalent to zero, -0.05, -0.10, -0.15, -0.20, -0.25, and -0.30 MPa. The parameters evaluated were germination percentage, first count, and germination speed index. According to the results, germination and vigor of the chia seeds decrease as salt concentration increases. Therefore, it was concluded that chia seeds are moderately tolerant to salinity levels used in this work and can be intolerant at lower osmotic potentials and in the early stages of seedling development.

  11. Physiological response of chia seeds (Salvia hispanica – Lamiales: Lamiaceae to salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Stefanello

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of salinity tolerance provides valuable information about the propagation of species and can help in both characterizing cultures and in providing correct recommendations for cultivation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the physiological response of chia seeds to salt stress. Seeds were placed on paper in aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl at osmotic potentials equivalent to zero, -0.05, -0.10, -0.15, -0.20, -0.25, and -0.30 MPa. The parameters evaluated were germination percentage, first count, and germination speed index. According to the results, germination and vigor of the chia seeds decrease as salt concentration increases. Therefore, it was concluded that chia seeds are moderately tolerant to salinity levels used in this work and can be intolerant at lower osmotic potentials and in the early stages of seedling development.

  12. The yo-yo IR2 test: physiological response, reliability, and application to elite soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni; Nybo, Lars

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose: To examine the physiological response, reliability, and validity of the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 test (Yo-Yo IR2). Methods: Thirteen normally trained male subjects carried out four Yo-Yo IR2 tests, an incremental treadmill test (ITT), and various sprint tests. Muscle...... improved (P training. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the Yo-Yo IR2 test is reproducible and can be used to evaluate an athlete's ability to perform intense intermittent exercise with a high rate of aerobic and anaerobic energy...... turnover. Specifically, the Yo-Yo IR2 test was shown to be a sensitive tool to differentiate between intermittent exercise performance of soccer players in different seasonal periods and at different competitive levels and playing positions....

  13. Physiological responses of the M1sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop) plants to gamma radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyaz, Ramazan; Sancak, Cengiz; Yildiz, Çiğdem; Kuşvuran, Şebnem; Yildiz, Mustafa

    2016-12-01

    Effects of gamma radiation on physiological responses of the M 1 sainfoin plants were investigated. Seeds of sainfoin ecotype 'Koçaş' were exposed to 0, 400, 500 and 600Gy from a 6 0 Co source at a dose rate of 0.483 kGyh -1 . Irradiated and unirradiated seeds were sown into culture vessels containing MS-basal medium to be cultured for 30 days under in vitro conditions. At the end of this period, seedlings, which germinated from the radiated and unirradiated seeds, were transferred into pots in a growth chamber for 30 days more. Chlorophyll contents, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR), as well as contents of monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDA) and proline were examined in unirradiated and irradiated 60-day-old seedlings. Overall, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT and GR) and contents of chlorophyll and proline in the leaves tended to increase after irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. By contrast, the activity of APX decreased. The lipid peroxidation characterized by the MDA content remained unchanged, except after irradiation to 500Gy. The highest CAT activity and the highest proline content were observed after irradiation to the highest dose of 600Gy. The highest SOD and GR activities were observed after irradiation to the lowest tested dose of 400Gy. This is the first study that provided basic information on the impact of gamma radiation on physiological responses of sainfoin and its radiosensitivity. These findings will be useful in development of a mutation breeding program of sainfoin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Soil microbial communities buffer physiological responses to drought stress in three hardwood species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannenberg, Steven A; Phillips, Richard P

    2017-03-01

    Trees possess myriad adaptations for coping with drought stress, but the extent to which their drought responses are influenced by interactions with soil microbes is poorly understood. To explore the role of microbes in mediating tree responses to drought stress, we exposed saplings of three species (Acer saccharum, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Quercus alba) to a four week experimental drought in mesocosms. Half of the pots were inoculated with a live soil slurry (i.e., a microbial inoculum derived from soils beneath the canopies of mature A. saccharum, L. tulipifera or Q. alba stands), while the other half of the pots received a sterile soil slurry. Soil microbes ameliorated drought stress in L. tulipifera by minimizing reductions in leaf water potential and by reducing photosynthetic declines. In A. saccharum, soil microbes reduced drought stress by lessening declines in leaf water potential, though these changes did not buffer the trees from declining photosynthetic rates. In Q. alba, soil microbes had no effects on leaf physiological parameters during drought stress. In all species, microbes had no significant effects on dynamic C allocation during drought stress, suggesting that microbial effects on plant physiology were unrelated to source-sink dynamics. Collectively, our results suggest that soil microbes have the potential to alter key parameters that are used to diagnose drought sensitivity (i.e., isohydry or anisohydry). To the extent that our results reflect dynamics occurring in forests, a revised perspective on plant hydraulic strategies that considers root-microbe interactions may lead to improved predictions of forest vulnerability to drought.

  15. Physiological, biochemical and molecular responses of Mentha aquatica L. to manganese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Mehrdad; Zarinkamar, Fatemeh; Soltani, Bahram Mohammad

    2017-11-01

    Mentha aquatica is an aromatic herb which possesses valuable terpenoids constituents. Here, we intended to evaluate the effects of the different manganese (Mn) concentrations on the physiological, biochemical and molecular responses in M. aquatica. Basic Hoagland's solution (control), 40, 80, and 160 μM of Mn supplied as MnSO4·H2O were applied to the nutrient solution. The results indicated that the different concentrations of Mn differently affected the physiological, biochemical and molecular responses in M. aquatica. The growth parameters (biomass and photosynthetic pigments) and expression levels of β-caryophyllene synthase (CPS), limonene synthase (Ls), geranyl diphosphate synthase (Gpps), and menthofuran synthase (Mfs) genes were increased at the moderate Mn concentrations (40 and 80 μM) and began to decrease at the higher levels. However, the contents of anthocyanins, flavonoids, malonaldehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), Mn accumulation, activities of antioxidant enzymes, yield of essential oils and the expression levels of 1-Deoxy d-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (Dxs) and isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (Ippi) genes were gradually increased with increasing concentration of Mn in the nutrient solution. Also, the content and chemical composition of terpenoid constituents were altered in the Mn-treated plants. Here, we suggest that the application of external Mn in nutrient solution elevates the growth and expression levels of the genes that are involved in the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway in M. aquatica. Nevertheless, the extent and stability of these growth and gene expression elevation are varied among the different Mn treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Physiological and biochemical responses of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp to ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warin Pimpa

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate physiological and biochemical responses of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp to ozone. There were two main factors of the experiment; level of ozone concentration at 40 and 70 ppb and plant ages at 7 and 21 days. Plants were grown in fumigation chambers in which inlet air was filtered by a charcoal filter. Additional ozone was given 8 hours/day for 7 days in ozone fumigating chambers. The ozone concentration in the control chambers was less than 10 ppb. The results showed the biomass of ozone-fumigated plants was significantly lower and leaf injury of ozone fumigated plants was significantly greater compared to the control group. The major visible-injury symptom appeared as chlorosis on the upper surface of the leaves. Antioxidant levels in the charcoal filtered (CF plants and ozoned plants had significant differences because of their detoxification role in removing ozone and its derivatives. The ozone treatment of 7-day-old plants showed superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and ascorbate peroxidase (APX levels significantly higher than in 21-day-old plants and total ascorbate concentrations significantly lower than 21-day-old plants. These results showed that different ozone concentrations exhibit different effects on antioxidant production. Analysis of antioxidants daily for 7 days found that antioxidant levels rapidly changed. Notably, SOD and total ascorbate could be selected as indicators for ozone-effect monitoring in plants. This indicates that cowpea is sensitive to ozone and may be usable as an ozone bioindicator. In conclusion, plant age, ozone concentration and the duration to exposure to ozone were the main physiological or biochemical responses of cowpea. An efficient defense system was generated from a combination of antioxidants.

  17. Influence of playing style on the physiological responses of offensive players in table tennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C; Favier-Ambrosini, B; Mousset, K; Brault, S; Zouhal, H; Prioux, J

    2015-12-01

    The study aimed to analyse the influence of playing style on the physiological responses of offensive players and on match characteristics during table tennis matches. Eight table tennis players were involved in the study. Among them, six players with an offensive playing style (Off) played respectively two matches: one against an offensive player (Off vs. Off matches) and the other one against a defensive opponent (Off vs. Def matches). Duration of rally (DR), real playing time (RPT), effective playing time (EPT), frequency of shots by minutes, and shots per rally were measured. Heart rate (HR) was monitored continuously while rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was obtained after each match. Blood lactate concentrations ([La]) were measured both at the end of each set and at the end of the match. DR (5.4±0.7 s vs. 3.2±0.4 s), RPT, EPT (31.8±5.0% vs. 20.3±1.7%), shots per rally (6.6±0.9 vs. 4.6±0.9), HRmean (146.0±5.9 bpm vs. 139.9±9.0 bpm), HRmean relative to the predicted maximal HR (HRmax-p) (74.8±4.0% vs. 71.7±4.3%) and RPE (7.0±1.1 vs. 5.5±1.5) were significantly higher (P0.05) for HRpeak, [La]mean and [La]peak were noticed between Off vs. Def matches and Off vs. Off matches. Table tennis playing style influences match characteristics and the offensive player's physiological responses.

  18. Age differences in physiological responses to self-paced and incremental [Formula: see text] testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Lauren A; Mauger, Alexis R; Hopker, James G

    2017-01-01

    A self-paced maximal exercise protocol has demonstrated higher [Formula: see text] values when compared against traditional tests. The aim was to compare physiological responses to this self-paced [Formula: see text] protocol (SPV) in comparison to a traditional ramp [Formula: see text] (RAMP) protocol in young (18-30 years) and old (50-75 years) participants. Forty-four participants (22 young; 22 old) completed both protocols in a randomised, counter-balanced, crossover design. The SPV included 5 × 2 min stages, participants were able to self-regulate their power output (PO) by using incremental 'clamps' in ratings of perceived exertion. The RAMP consisted of either 15 or 20 W min(-1). Expired gases, cardiac output (Q), stroke volume (SV), muscular deoxyhaemoglobin (deoxyHb) and electromyography (EMG) at the vastus lateralis were recorded throughout. Results demonstrated significantly higher [Formula: see text] in the SPV (49.68 ± 10.26 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) vs. the RAMP (47.70 ± 9.98 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) in the young, but not in the old group (>0.05). Q and SV were significantly higher in the SPV vs. the RAMP in the young (group (>0.05). No differences seen in deoxyHb and EMG for either age groups (>0.05). Peak PO was significantly higher in the SPV vs. the RAMP in both age groups (group. However, older participants achieved similar [Formula: see text] values in both protocols, mostly likely due to age-related differences in cardiovascular responses to incremental exercise, despite them achieving a higher physiological workload in the SPV.

  19. Characterisation of physiological and immunological responses in beef cows to abrupt weaning and subsequent housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Eilish M; Earley, Bernadette; McGee, Mark; Doyle, Sean

    2010-07-20

    Weaning involves the permanent separation of the calf from the dam and has been shown to be stressful for both. The objectives of this study were to characterise the effect of i) abrupt weaning and ii) subsequent housing on the extended physiological and immunological responses of beef cows. At weaning (day (d) 0, mean age of calf (s.d.) 212 (24.5) d), cows were abruptly separated from their calves and returned to the grazing area. After 35 d at pasture, cows were housed in a slatted floor shed and offered grass silage ad libitum plus a mineral-vitamin supplement daily. Rectal body temperature was recorded and blood samples were obtained on i) d 0 (weaning), 2, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and subsequently on ii) d 0 (housing), 2, 7, 14 and 21 for physiological, haematological and immunological measurements. Post-weaning, concentration of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone were unchanged (P > 0.05). Rectal body temperature, neutrophil number and neutrophil: lymphocyte ratio increased (P pre-weaning baseline. Lymphocyte and neutrophil number decreased (P pre-weaning baseline. Interferon-gamma production decreased (P pre-weaning baseline. An increase (P pre-weaning baseline. Concentration of glucose increased on d 2 to 28, whereas non-esterified fatty acid decreased on d 2 to 35 compared with pre-weaning baseline. Post-housing, concentrations of cortisol, rectal body temperature, total leukocyte number, and glucose were unchanged (P > 0.05). On d 2 post-housing, neutrophil number and neutrophil: lymphocyte ratio increased (P pre-housing baseline. Concentration of haptoglobin increased (P post-housing. A transitory increase in neutrophil number and decrease in lymphocyte number, increased neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio coupled with decreased interferon-gamma production, and increased concentration of acute phase proteins indicate a stress response in cows post-weaning, whereas post-housing, changes were less marked.

  20. Effect of carrying a rifle on physiology and biomechanical responses in biathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, Thomas; Bishop, Phil; Höök, Martina; Willis, Sarah; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of carrying a rifle on the physiological and biomechanical responses of well-trained biathletes. Ten elite biathletes (five men and five women) performed ski skating with (R) or without a rifle (NR) on a treadmill using the V2 (5° incline) and V1 techniques (8°) at 8 and 6 km·h(-1), respectively, as well as at racing intensity (approximately 95% of peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2peak), 10.7 ± 0.8 and 7.7 ± 0.9 km·h(-1), respectively). V˙O2, ventilation (V˙(E)), HR, blood lactate concentration (BLa), and cycle characteristics as well as pole and leg kinetics were evaluated during these trials. Metabolic data were all higher for R than for NR, as follows: V˙O2, +2.5%; V˙(E), +8.1%; RER, +4.2%; all P < 0.001; HR, +1.7%; and BLa, +15.1%; both P < 0.05. Biomechanically, carrying a rifle reduced cycle time and length, poling and arm swing times, and leg ground contact time and increased cycle rate, the peak and impulse of leg force, average cycle force, and impulse of forefoot force (all P < 0.05). With the exception of elevated pole forces when V2 skating at racing velocity, there were no differences between the peak and impulse of pole force. The difference in V˙(E) between R and NR was greater for the women than that for men (P < 0.05), and the difference in BLa also tended to be larger for the women (P < 0.1). Carrying a rifle elevated physiological responses, accelerated cycle rate, and involved greater leg work, with no differences between the V1 and V2 techniques.

  1. Physiological Responses during Cycling With Oval Chainrings (Q-Ring and Circular Chainrings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Cordova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the physiological responses of cyclists using round (C-ring or oval (Q-ring chainrings during an incremental test until exhaustion. Following a randomized design, fourteen male elite cyclists [age (mean ± SD: 21.1 ± 2.1 yr; VO2max: 78.5 ± 5.3 mL·kg-1min-1] performed two incremental maximal tests separated by 48 h (one with C-rings, the other with Q-rings. Starting at 100 W, the workload was increased by 25 W every 3 min until volitional exhaustion. Maximal heart rate, power output and oxygen consumption were compared. Blood lactate was monitored throughout the test. After the incremental test, 4 intermittent 20-s maximal sprints with a 60-s recovery period in between were performed. Maximal isometric voluntary contractions were performed at rest and immediately after each 20-s maximal sprint, and the force and EMG RMS amplitude were recorded from the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis muscles. For the incremental exercise test, no significant differences were found in the maximal power output (P=0.12, oxygen consumption (P=0.39, and heart rate (P=0.32 between Q-rings and C-rings. Throughout the incremental test, lactate levels were comparable when using both the C-rings and Q-rings (P=0.47. During the short sprints, power output was 2.5–6.5% greater for Q-rings than for C-rings (P=0.22. The decline in EMG RMS amplitude observed during the incremental tests was comparable for Q-rings and C-rings (0.42. These findings indicate that the oval chainring design, presented here as “Q-rings”, did not significantly influence the physiological response to an incremental exercise test as compared to a conventional chainring.

  2. Multiple sprint work : physiological responses, mechanisms of fatigue and the influence of aerobic fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaister, Mark

    2005-01-01

    The activity patterns of many sports (e.g. badminton, basketball, soccer and squash) are intermittent in nature, consisting of repeated bouts of brief (physiological response to this type of exercise. During a single short (5- to 6-second) sprint, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is resynthesised predominantly from anaerobic sources (phosphocreatine [PCr] degradation and glycolysis), with a small (<10%) contribution from aerobic metabolism. During recovery, oxygen uptake (V-O2) remains elevated to restore homeostasis via processes such as the replenishment of tissue oxygen stores, the resynthesis of PCr, the metabolism of lactate, and the removal of accumulated intracellular inorganic phosphate (Pi). If recovery periods are relatively short, V-O2 remains elevated prior to subsequent sprints and the aerobic contribution to ATP resynthesis increases. However, if the duration of the recovery periods is insufficient to restore the metabolic environment to resting conditions, performance during successive work bouts may be compromised. Although the precise mechanisms of fatigue during multiple sprint work are difficult to elucidate, evidence points to a lack of available PCr and an accumulation of intracellular Pi as the most likely causes. Moreover, the fact that both PCr resynthesis and the removal of accumulated intracellular Pi are oxygen-dependent processes has led several authors to propose a link between aerobic fitness and fatigue during multiple sprint work. However, whilst the theoretical basis for such a relationship is compelling, corroborative research is far from substantive. Despite years of investigation, limitations in analytical techniques combined with

  3. Diatom Transcriptional and Physiological Responses to Changes in Iron Bioavailability across Ocean Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie R. Cohen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Changes in iron (Fe bioavailability influence diatom physiology and community composition, and thus have a profound impact on primary productivity and ecosystem dynamics. Iron limitation of diatom growth rates has been demonstrated in both oceanic and coastal waters of the Northeast Pacific Ocean and is predicted to become more pervasive in future oceans. However, it is unclear how the strategies utilized by phytoplankton to cope with low Fe bioavailability and resupply differ across these ocean provinces. We investigated the response of diatom communities to variable Fe conditions through incubation experiments performed in the Fe mosaic of the California Upwelling Zone and along a natural Fe gradient in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Through coupling gene expression of two dominant diatom taxa (Pseudo-nitzschia and Thalassiosira with biological rate process measurements, we provide an in-depth examination of the physiological and molecular responses associated with varying Fe status. Following Fe enrichment, oceanic diatoms showed distinct differential expression of gene products involved in nitrogen assimilation, photosynthetic carbon fixation, and vitamin production compared to diatoms from low-Fe coastal sites, possibly driven by the chronic nature of Fe stress at the oceanic site. Genes of interest involved in Fe and N metabolism additionally exhibited divergent expression patterns between the two diatom taxa investigated, demonstrating that diverse diatoms may invoke alternative strategies when dealing with identical changes in their environment. We report here several mechanisms used distinctly by coastal or oceanic diatom communities as well as numerous taxa-specific strategies for coping with Fe stress and rearranging nutrient metabolism following Fe enrichment.

  4. Physiological responses to ergometer and on-water incremental rowing tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Andrew J; Rice, Anthony J; Gore, Christopher J

    2010-09-01

    This study evaluated the validity of ergometer tests against the criterion of on-water rowing and determined the reliability of field measurements by comparing results between ergometer (ERG) and on-water (OW) tests. Seven male rowers completed incremental tests on a Concept2 rowing ergometer and in a single scull. Average power output, oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration (BLa) and distance completed were measured during each ERG and OW workload. DATA TREATMENT: Linear regression between power output and HR, BLa, VO2 and distance allowed submaximal results to be compared between ERG and OW tests at equivalent intensities based on five standard power outputs. Submaximal results were analyzed using repeated measure factorial ANOVAs and maximal data used dependent t tests (P < .05), the magnitude of differences were also classified using effect size analyses. The reliability of repeated measurements was established using Typical Error. Differences between ERG and OW submaximal results were not statistically significant for power output, HR, BLa, and VO2, but distance completed (P < .001) was higher during the ERG test. However, the magnitude of physiological response differences between the ERG and OW tests varied between individuals. Mean HR at anaerobic threshold showed good agreement between both tests (r = .81), but the standard error of the estimate was 9 beats per minute. Individual variation in physiological response differences between ERG and OW tests meant that training intensity recommendations from the ERG test were not applicable to on-water training for some rowers, but provided appropriate prescriptions for most athletes.

  5. Transcriptome analysis of a wild bird reveals physiological responses to the urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Hannah; Videvall, Elin; Andersson, Martin N; Isaksson, Caroline

    2017-03-14

    Identifying the molecular basis of environmentally induced phenotypic variation presents exciting opportunities for furthering our understanding of how ecological processes and the environment can shape the phenotype. Urban and rural environments present free-living organisms with different challenges and opportunities, which have marked consequences for the phenotype, yet little is known about responses at the molecular level. We characterised transcriptomes from an urban and a rural population of great tits Parus major, demonstrating striking differences in gene expression profiles in both blood and liver tissues. Differentially expressed genes had functions related to immune and inflammatory responses, detoxification, protection against oxidative stress, lipid metabolism, and regulation of gene expression. Many genes linked to stress responses were expressed at higher levels in the urban birds, in accordance with our prediction that urban animals are exposed to greater environmental stress. This is one of the first studies to reveal transcriptional differences between urban- and rural-dwelling animals and suggests an important role for epigenetics in mediating environmentally induced physiological variation. The study provides valuable resources for developing further in-depth studies of the mechanisms driving phenotypic variation in the urban context at larger spatial and temporal scales.

  6. An integrative overview of the molecular and physiological responses of sugarcane under drought conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, Camilo Elber; Giordano, Andrea; de Almeida Soares, Eduardo; Rhys Williams, Thomas Christopher; Mesquita, Rosilene Oliveira; Vidigal, Pedro Marcus Pereira; de Santana Lopes, Amanda; Pacheco, Túlio Gomes; Rogalski, Marcelo; de Oliveira Ramos, Humberto Josué; Loureiro, Marcelo Ehlers

    2017-08-01

    Drought is the main abiotic stress constraining sugarcane production. However, our limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the drought stress responses of sugarcane impairs the development of new technologies to increase sugarcane drought tolerance. Here, an integrated approach was performed to reveal the molecular and physiological changes in two closely related sugarcane cultivars, including the most extensively planted cultivar in Brazil (cv. RB867515), in response to moderate (-0.5 MPa) and severe (-1 MPa) drought stress at the transcriptional, translational, and posttranslational levels. The results show common and cultivar exclusive changes in specific genes related to photosynthesis, carbohydrate, amino acid, and phytohormone metabolism. The novel phosphoproteomics and redox proteomic analysis revealed the importance of posttranslational regulation mechanisms during sugarcane drought stress. The shift to soluble sugar, secondary metabolite production, and activation of ROS eliminating processes in response to drought tolerance were mechanisms exclusive to cv. RB867515, helping to explain the better performance and higher production of this cultivar under these stress conditions.

  7. Reducing the meta-emotional problem decreases physiological fear response during exposure in phobics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Couyoumdjian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders may not only be characterized by specific symptomatology (e.g., tachycardia in response to the fearful stimulus (primary problem or first-level emotion but also by the tendency to negatively evaluate oneself for having those symptoms (secondary problem or negative meta-emotion. An exploratory study was conducted driven by the hypothesis that reducing the secondary or meta-emotional problem would also diminish the fear response to the phobic stimulus. Thirty-three phobic participants were exposed to the phobic target before and after undergoing a psychotherapeutic intervention addressed to reduce the meta-emotional problem or a control condition. The electrocardiogram was continuously recorded to derive heart rate (HR and variability (HRV measures and affect ratings were obtained. Addressing the meta-emotional problem had the effect of reducing the physiological but not the subjective symptoms of anxiety after phobic exposure. Present preliminary findings support the role of the meta-emotional problem in the maintenance of the response to the fearful stimulus (primary problem.

  8. Physiological and Transcriptional Responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Zinc Limitation in Chemostat Cultures †

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, Raffaele; Hazelwood, Lucie A.; De Hulster, Erik A. F.; Walsh, Michael C.; Knijnenburg, Theo A.; Reinders, Marcel J. T.; Walker, Graeme M.; Pronk, Jack T.; Daran, Jean-Marc; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale

    2007-01-01

    Transcriptional responses of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Zn availability were investigated at a fixed specific growth rate under limiting and abundant Zn concentrations in chemostat culture. To investigate the context dependency of this transcriptional response and eliminate growth rate-dependent variations in transcription, yeast was grown under several chemostat regimens, resulting in various carbon (glucose), nitrogen (ammonium), zinc, and oxygen supplies. A robust set of genes that responded consistently to Zn limitation was identified, and the set enabled the definition of the Zn-specific Zap1p regulon, comprised of 26 genes and characterized by a broader zinc-responsive element consensus (MHHAACCBYNMRGGT) than so far described. Most surprising was the Zn-dependent regulation of genes involved in storage carbohydrate metabolism. Their concerted down-regulation was physiologically relevant as revealed by a substantial decrease in glycogen and trehalose cellular content under Zn limitation. An unexpectedly large number of genes were synergistically or antagonistically regulated by oxygen and Zn availability. This combinatorial regulation suggested a more prominent involvement of Zn in mitochondrial biogenesis and function than hitherto identified. PMID:17933919

  9. Miniaturized iPS-Cell-Derived Cardiac Muscles for Physiologically Relevant Drug Response Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebsch, Nathaniel; Loskill, Peter; Deveshwar, Nikhil; Spencer, C Ian; Judge, Luke M; Mandegar, Mohammad A; Fox, Cade B; Mohamed, Tamer M A; Ma, Zhen; Mathur, Anurag; Sheehan, Alice M; Truong, Annie; Saxton, Mike; Yoo, Jennie; Srivastava, Deepak; Desai, Tejal A; So, Po-Lin; Healy, Kevin E; Conklin, Bruce R

    2016-04-20

    Tissue engineering approaches have the potential to increase the physiologic relevance of human iPS-derived cells, such as cardiomyocytes (iPS-CM). However, forming Engineered Heart Muscle (EHM) typically requires >1 million cells per tissue. Existing miniaturization strategies involve complex approaches not amenable to mass production, limiting the ability to use EHM for iPS-based disease modeling and drug screening. Micro-scale cardiospheres are easily produced, but do not facilitate assembly of elongated muscle or direct force measurements. Here we describe an approach that combines features of EHM and cardiospheres: Micro-Heart Muscle (μHM) arrays, in which elongated muscle fibers are formed in an easily fabricated template, with as few as 2,000 iPS-CM per individual tissue. Within μHM, iPS-CM exhibit uniaxial contractility and alignment, robust sarcomere assembly, and reduced variability and hypersensitivity in drug responsiveness, compared to monolayers with the same cellular composition. μHM mounted onto standard force measurement apparatus exhibited a robust Frank-Starling response to external stretch, and a dose-dependent inotropic response to the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol. Based on the ease of fabrication, the potential for mass production and the small number of cells required to form μHM, this system provides a potentially powerful tool to study cardiomyocyte maturation, disease and cardiotoxicology in vitro.

  10. Physiological response to etho-ecological stressors in male Alpine chamois: timescale matters!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlatti, Luca; Palme, Rupert; Lovari, Sandro

    2014-07-01

    From a life history perspective, glucocorticoids secreted by the neuroendocrine system, integrating different sources of stress through an adaptive feedback mechanism, may have important consequences on individual fitness. Although stress responses have been the object of several investigations, few studies have explored the role of proximate mechanisms responsible for the potential trade-offs between physiological stress and life history traits integrating social and environmental stressors. In 2011 and 2012, we collected data on faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) in a marked male population of Alpine chamois, within the Gran Paradiso National Park (Italy). Using a model selection approach we analysed the effect of potential etho-ecological stressors such as age, social status (territorial vs. non-territorial males), minimum temperature, snow depth and precipitation on FCM variation. To correctly interpret environmentally and socially induced stress responses, we conducted model selections over multiple temporal scales defined a priori: year, cold months, spring, warm months, mating season. Over the year, FCM levels showed a negative relationship with minimum temperature, but altogether, climatic stressors had negligible effects on glucocorticoid secretion, possibly owing to good adaptations of chamois to severe weather conditions. Age was negatively related to FCM during the rut, possibly due to greater experience of older males in agonistic contests. Social status was an important determinant of FCM excretion: while both the `stress of subordination' and the `stress of domination' hypotheses received some support in spring and during the mating season, respectively, previous data suggest that only the latter may have detrimental fitness consequences on male chamois.

  11. Physiological responses of root-less epiphytic plants to acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováčik, Jozef; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Bačkor, Martin; Stork, František; Hedbavny, Josef

    2011-03-01

    Selected physiological responses of Tillandsia albida (Bromeliaceae) and two lichens (Hypogymnia physodes and Xanthoria parietina) exposed to simulated acid rain (AR) over 3 months were studied. Pigments were depressed in all species being affected the most in Tillandsia. Amounts of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide were elevated and soluble proteins decreased only in AR-exposed Hypogymnia. Free amino acids were slightly affected among species and only glutamate sharply decreased in AR-exposed Xanthoria. Slight increase in soluble phenols but decrease in flavonoids in almost all species suggests that the latter are not essential for tolerance to AR. Almost all phenolic acids in Tillandsia leaves decreased in response to AR and activities of selected enzymes (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, polyphenol oxidase, ascorbate- and guaiacol-peroxidase) were enhanced by AR. In lichens, considerable increase in metabolites (physodalic acid, atranorin and parietin) in response to AR was found but amount of ergosterol was unchanged. Macronutrients (K, Ca, Mg) decreased more pronouncedly in comparison with micronutrients in all species. Xanthoria showed higher tolerance in comparison with Hypogymnia, suggesting that could be useful for long-term biomonitoring.

  12. Video Analysis of Factors Associated With Response Time to Physiologic Monitor Alarms in a Children's Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafide, Christopher P; Localio, A Russell; Holmes, John H; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Stemler, Shannon; MacMurchy, Matthew; Zander, Miriam; Roberts, Kathryn E; Lin, Richard; Keren, Ron

    2017-06-01

    Bedside monitor alarms alert nurses to life-threatening physiologic changes among patients, but the response times of nurses are slow. To identify factors associated with physiologic monitor alarm response time. This prospective cohort study used 551 hours of video-recorded care administered by 38 nurses to 100 children in a children's hospital medical unit between July 22, 2014, and November 11, 2015. Patient, nurse, and alarm-level factors hypothesized to predict response time. We used multivariable accelerated failure-time models stratified by each nurse and adjusted for clustering within patients to evaluate associations between exposures and response time to alarms that occurred while the nurse was outside the room. The study participants included 38 nurses, 100% (n = 38) of whom were white and 92% (n = 35) of whom were female, and 100 children, 51% (n = 51) of whom were male. The race/ethnicity of the child participants was 45% (n = 45) black or African American, 33% (n = 33) white, 4% (n = 4) Asian, and 18% (n = 18) other. Of 11 745 alarms among 100 children, 50 (0.5%) were actionable. The adjusted median response time among nurses was 10.4 minutes (95% CI, 5.0-15.8) and varied based on the following variables: if the patient was on complex care service (5.3 minutes [95% CI, 1.4-9.3] vs 11.1 minutes [95% CI, 5.6-16.6] among general pediatrics patients), whether family members were absent from the patient's bedside (6.3 minutes [95% CI, 2.2-10.4] vs 11.7 minutes [95% CI, 5.9-17.4] when family present), whether a nurse had less than 1 year of experience (4.4 minutes [95% CI, 3.4-5.5] vs 8.8 minutes [95% CI, 7.2-10.5] for nurses with 1 or more years of experience), if there was a 1 to 1 nursing assignment (3.5 minutes [95% CI, 1.3-5.7] vs 10.6 minutes [95% CI, 5.3-16.0] for nurses caring for 2 or more patients), if there were prior alarms requiring intervention (5.5 minutes [95% CI, 1.5-9.5] vs 10.7 minutes [5.2-16.2] for patients

  13. Distinct physiological and molecular responses in Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to aluminum oxide nanoparticles and ionic aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yujian; Fan, Xiaoji; Li, Xingxing; Zhang, Zhenyan; Sun, Liwei; Fu, Zhengwei; Lavoie, Michel; Pan, Xiangliang; Qian, Haifeng

    2017-09-01

    Nano-aluminium oxide (nAl2O3) is one of the most widely used nanomaterials. However, nAl2O3 toxicity mechanisms and potential beneficial effects on terrestrial plant physiology remain poorly understood. Such knowledge is essential for the development of robust nAl2O3 risk assessment. In this study, we studied the influence of a 10-d exposure to a total selected concentration of 98 μM nAl2O3 or to the equivalent molar concentration of ionic Al (AlCl3) (196 μM) on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana on the physiology (e.g., growth and photosynthesis, membrane damage) and the transcriptome using a high throughput state-of-the-art technology, RNA-seq. We found no evidence of nAl2O3 toxicity on photosynthesis, growth and lipid peroxidation. Rather the nAl2O3 treatment stimulated root weight and length by 48% and 39%, respectively as well as photosynthesis opening up the door to the use of nAl2O3 in biotechnology and nano agriculture. Transcriptomic analyses indicate that the beneficial effect of nAl2O3 was related to an increase in the transcription of several genes involved in root growth as well as in root nutrient uptake (e.g., up-regulation of the root hair-specific gene family and root development genes, POLARIS protein). By contrast, the ionic Al treatment decreased shoot and root weight of Arabidopsis thaliana by 57.01% and 45.15%, respectively. This toxic effect was coupled to a range of response at the gene transcription level including increase transcription of antioxidant-related genes and transcription of genes involved in plant defense response to pathogens. This work provides an integrated understanding at the molecular and physiological level of the effects of nAl2O3 and ionic Al in Arabidopsis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Performance Aspects and Physiological Responses in Male Amateur Boxing Competitions: A Brief Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slimani, Maamer; Chaabène, Helmi; Davis, Philip; Franchini, Emerson; Cheour, Foued; Chamari, Karim

    2017-04-01

    Slimani, M, Chaabène, H, Davis, P, Franchini, E, Cheour, F, and Chamari, K. Performance aspects and physiological responses in male amateur boxing competitions: a brief review. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 1132-1141, 2017-Boxing is one of the most popular striking combat sports in the world. The aim of this review was to present data concerning performance analysis (time-motion and technical-tactical analysis) and physiological responses (i.e., blood lactate concentration [BLC], heart rate, and oxygen consumption) during novice and elite male simulated and official amateur boxing competitions in any age category. The present review shows that boxing competition is a high-intensity intermittent striking combat sport. Typically, the activity-to-rest ratio was higher in elite (18:1) than in novice (9:1) boxers and significant differences were observed between rounds (first round = 16:1, second round = 8:1, and third round = 6:1) in novice boxers. Thus, total stop-time and total stop-frequency increased over subsequent rounds in novice boxers. The technical-tactical aspects in elite and novice boxing bouts were different between rounds and dependent on the match outcome (i.e., winners vs. losers). Particularly, the current review highlights that triple-punch combinations, total combinations, block- and counter-punch combinations, total punches to the head, technical performance effectiveness, and defensive- and offensive-skills effectiveness may have contributed to win in novice and elite boxing competitions. Higher frequencies of technical movements were also observed in elite compared with novice boxers. From a physiological point of view, BLC increased significantly from postround 1 compared with postround 3 in novice boxing match. BLC was also higher in official than in simulated elite boxing matches in senior compared with junior boxers and in medium heavy-weight category compared with light- and medium-weight categories in junior boxing competition. A higher

  15. Physiological responses to fertilization recorded in tree rings: Isotopic lessons from a long-term fertilization trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen fertilizer applications are common land use management tools, but details on physiological responses to these applications are often lacking, particularly for long-term responses over decades of forest management. We used tree ring growth patterns and stable isotopes to ...

  16. Physiological responses to fertilization recorded in tree rings: isotopic lessons from a long-term fertilization trial - 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen fertilizer applications are common land-use management tools, but details on physiological responses to these applications are often lacking, particularly for long-term responses over decades of forest management. We used tree-ring growth patterns and stable isotopes to...

  17. Physiological, proteomic and transcriptional responses of wheat to combination of drought or waterlogging with late spring low temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiangnan; Cai, Jian; Liu, Fulai

    2014-01-01

    Spring low temperature events affect winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) during late vegetative or reproductive development, exposing plants to a subzero low temperature stress when winter hardening is lost. The increased climatic variability results in wheat being exposed to more frequent adverse...... impacts of combined low temperature and water stress, including drought and waterlogging. The responses of potted wheat plants cultivated in climatic chambers to these environmental perturbations were investigated at physiological, proteomic and transcriptional levels. At the physiological level...

  18. How to Regulate the Acute Physiological Response to “Aerobic” High-Intensity Interval Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschakert, Gerhard; Kroepfl, Julia; Mueller, Alexander; Moser, Othmar; Groeschl, Werner; Hofmann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The acute physiological processes during “aerobic” high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) and their regulation are inadequately studied. The main goal of this study was to investigate the acute metabolic and cardiorespiratory response to long and short HIIE compared to continuous exercise (CE) as well as its regulation and predictability. Six healthy well-trained sport students (5 males, 1 female; age: 25.7 ± 3.1 years; height: 1.80 ± 0.04 m; weight: 76.7 ± 6.4 kg; VO2max: 4.33 ± 0.7 l·min-1) performed a maximal incremental exercise test (IET) and subsequently three different exercise sessions matched for mean load (Pmean) and exercise duration (28 min): 1) long HIIE with submaximal peak workloads (Ppeak = power output at 95 % of maximum heart rate), peak workload durations (tpeak) of 4 min, and recovery durations (trec) of 3 min, 2) short HIIE with Ppeak according to the maximum power output (Pmax) from IET, tpeak of 20 s, and individually calculated trec (26.7 ± 13.4 s), and 3) CE with a target workload (Ptarget) equating to Pmean of HIIE. In short HIIE, mean lactate (Lamean) (5.22 ± 1.41 mmol·l-1), peak La (7.14 ± 2.48 mmol·l-1), and peak heart rate (HRpeak) (181.00 ± 6.66 b·min-1) were significantly lower compared to long HIIE (Lamean: 9.83 ± 2.78 mmol·l-1; Lapeak: 12.37 ± 4.17 mmol·l-1, HRpeak: 187.67 ± 5.72 b·min-1). No significant differences in any parameters were found between short HIIE and CE despite considerably higher peak workloads in short HIIE. The acute metabolic and peak cardiorespiratory demand during “aerobic” short HIIE was significantly lower compared to long HIIE and regulable via Pmean. Consequently, short HIIE allows a consciously aimed triggering of specific and desired or required acute physiological responses. Key points High-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) with short peak workload durations (tpeak) induce a lower acute metabolic and peak cardiorespiratory response compared to intervals with long tpeak

  19. Ape conservation physiology: fecal glucocorticoid responses in wild Pongo pygmaeus morio following human visitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Muehlenbein

    Full Text Available Nature-based tourism can generate important revenue to support conservation of biodiversity. However, constant exposure to tourists and subsequent chronic activation of stress responses can produce pathological effects, including impaired cognition, growth, reproduction, and immunity in the same animals we are interested in protecting. Utilizing fecal samples (N = 53 from 2 wild habituated orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio (in addition to 26 fecal samples from 4 wild unhabituated orangutans in the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, we predicted that i fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations would be elevated on the day after tourist visitation (indicative of normal stress response to exposure to tourists on the previous day compared to samples taken before or during tourist visitation in wild, habituated orangutans, and ii that samples collected from habituated animals would have lower fecal glucocorticoid metabolites than unhabituated animals not used for tourism. Among the habituated animals used for tourism, fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were significantly elevated in samples collected the day after tourist visitation (indicative of elevated cortisol production on the previous day during tourist visitation. Fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were also lower in the habituated animals compared to their age-matched unhabituated counterparts. We conclude that the habituated animals used for this singular ecotourism project are not chronically stressed, unlike other species/populations with documented permanent alterations in stress responses. Animal temperament, species, the presence of coping/escape mechanisms, social confounders, and variation in amount of tourism may explain differences among previous experiments. Acute alterations in glucocorticoid measures in wildlife exposed to tourism must be interpreted conservatively. While permanently altered stress responses can be detrimental

  20. Ape conservation physiology: fecal glucocorticoid responses in wild Pongo pygmaeus morio following human visitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlenbein, Michael P; Ancrenaz, Marc; Sakong, Rosman; Ambu, Laurentius; Prall, Sean; Fuller, Grace; Raghanti, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    Nature-based tourism can generate important revenue to support conservation of biodiversity. However, constant exposure to tourists and subsequent chronic activation of stress responses can produce pathological effects, including impaired cognition, growth, reproduction, and immunity in the same animals we are interested in protecting. Utilizing fecal samples (N = 53) from 2 wild habituated orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) (in addition to 26 fecal samples from 4 wild unhabituated orangutans) in the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, we predicted that i) fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations would be elevated on the day after tourist visitation (indicative of normal stress response to exposure to tourists on the previous day) compared to samples taken before or during tourist visitation in wild, habituated orangutans, and ii) that samples collected from habituated animals would have lower fecal glucocorticoid metabolites than unhabituated animals not used for tourism. Among the habituated animals used for tourism, fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were significantly elevated in samples collected the day after tourist visitation (indicative of elevated cortisol production on the previous day during tourist visitation). Fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were also lower in the habituated animals compared to their age-matched unhabituated counterparts. We conclude that the habituated animals used for this singular ecotourism project are not chronically stressed, unlike other species/populations with documented permanent alterations in stress responses. Animal temperament, species, the presence of coping/escape mechanisms, social confounders, and variation in amount of tourism may explain differences among previous experiments. Acute alterations in glucocorticoid measures in wildlife exposed to tourism must be interpreted conservatively. While permanently altered stress responses can be detrimental, preliminary results

  1. Wildfire policy and management in England: an evolving response from Fire and Rescue Services, forestry and cross-sector groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzard, Rob; McMorrow, Julia; Aylen, Jonathan

    2016-06-05

    Severe wildfires are an intermittent problem in England. The paper presents the first analysis of wildfire policy, showing its halting evolution over two decades. First efforts to coordinate wildfire management came from local fire operation groups, where stakeholders such as fire services, land owners and amenity groups shared knowledge and equipment to tackle the problem. A variety of structures and informal management solutions emerged in response to local needs. Knowledge of wildfire accumulated within regional and national wildfire forums and academic networks. Only later did the need for central emergency planning and the response to climate change produce a national policy response. Fire statistics have allowed wildfires to be spatially evidenced on a national scale only since 2009. National awareness of wildfire was spurred by the 2011 fire season, and the high-impact Swinley Forest fire, which threatened critical infrastructure and communities within 50 miles of London. Severe wildfire was included in the National Risk Register for the first time in 2013. Cross-sector approaches to wildfire proved difficult as government responsibility is fragmented along the hazard chain. Stakeholders such as the Forestry Commission pioneered good practice in adaptive land management to build fire resilience into UK forests. The grass-roots evolution of participatory solutions has also been a key enabling process. A coordinated policy is now needed to identify best practice and to promote understanding of the role of fire in the ecosystem.This article is part of a themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Physiological and morphological response patterns of Populus deltoides to alluvial groundwater pumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, David J; D'Amico, Donald R; Scott, Michael L

    2003-02-01

    We examined the physiological and morphological response patterns of plains cottonwood [ Populus deltoides subsp. monilifera (Aiton) Eck.] to acute water stress imposed by groundwater pumping. Between 3 and 27 July 1996, four large pumps were used to withdraw alluvial groundwater from a cottonwood forest along the South Platte River, near Denver, Colorado, USA. The study was designed as a stand-level, split-plot experiment with factorial treatments including two soil types (a gravel soil and a loam topsoil over gravel), two water table drawdown depths ( approximately 0.5 m and >1.0 m), and one water table control (no drawdown) per soil type. Measurements of water table depth, soil water potential (Psi(s)), predawn and midday shoot water potential (Psi(pd) and Psi(md)), and D/H (deuterium/hydrogen) ratios of different water sources were made in each of six 600-m(2) plots prior to, during, and immediately following pumping. Two additional plots were established and measured to examine the extent to which surface irrigation could be used to mitigate the effects of deep drawdown on P. deltoides for each soil type. Recovery of tree water status following pumping was evaluated by measuring stomatal conductance ( g(s)) and xylem water potential (Psi(xp)) on approximately hourly time steps from before dawn to mid-afternoon on 11 August 1996 in watered and unwatered, deep-drawdown plots on gravel soils. P. deltoides responded to abrupt alluvial water table decline with decreased shoot water potential followed by leaf mortality. Psi(pd) and percent leaf loss were significantly related to the magnitude of water table declines. The onset and course of these responses were influenced by short-term variability in surface and ground water levels, acting in concert with physiological and morphological adjustments. Decreases in Psi(pd) corresponded with increases in Psi(md), suggesting shoot water status improved in response to stomatal closure and crown dieback. Crown dieback

  3. Transcriptomic and metabolic responses of Staphylococcus aureus exposed to supra-physiological temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proctor Richard A

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous evaluation by different molecular and physiological assays of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus responses to heat shock exposure yielded a still fragmentary view of the mechanisms determining bacterial survival or death at supra-physiological temperatures. This study analyzed diverse facets of S. aureus heat-shock adjustment by recording global transcriptomic and metabolic responses of bacterial cultures shifted for 10 min from 37°C to a sub-lethal (43°C or eventually lethal (48°C temperature. A relevant metabolic model of the combined action of specific stress response mechanisms with more general, energy-regulating metabolic pathways in heat-shocked S. aureus is presented. Results While S. aureus cultures shifted to 43°C or left at 37°C showed marginal differences in growth and survival rates, bacterial cultures exposed to 48°C showed a rapid growth arrest followed by a subsequent decline in viable counts. The most substantial heat shock-induced changes at both 43°C and 48°C occurred in transcript levels of HrcA- and CtsR-regulated genes, encoding classical chaperones DnaK and GroESL, and some Hsp100/Clp ATPases components, respectively. Other metabolic pathways up-regulated by S. aureus exposure at 48°C included genes encoding several enzymes coping with oxidative stress, and DNA damage, or/and impaired osmotic balance. Some major components of the pentose phosphate cycle and gluconeogenesis were also up-regulated, which reflected depletion of free glucose by bacterial cultures grown in Mueller-Hinton broth prior to heat shock. In contrast, most purine- and pyrimidine-synthesis pathway components and amino acyl-tRNA synthetases were down-regulated at 48°C, as well as arginine deiminase and major fermentative pathway components, such as alcohol, lactate and formate dehydrogenases. Despite the heat-induced, increased requirements for ATP-dependent macromolecular repair mechanisms combined with declining

  4. Physiological Responses and Yield of Wheat Plants in Zinc-Mediated Alleviation of Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyun Ma

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the physiological responses of wheat to zinc (Zn fertilizer application under drought stress, pot, and field experiments were conducted on wheat plants grown under different soil moistures and treated with soil and foliar Zn applications. Photosynthetic characteristics, antioxidant content, Zn element concentration, and the transcription level of genes involved in antioxidant biosynthesis were analyzed. Zn application increased SPAD and Fv/Fm of wheat flag leaves, while decreased lipid peroxidation levels and H2O2 content. Zn application increased the antioxidant content (ascorbate, reduced glutathione, total phenolic, and total flavonoid of wheat flag leaves, and enhanced the relative expression levels of two antioxidant enzyme genes, four ascorbate–glutathione cycle genes, and two flavonoid biosynthesis pathway genes under drought stress. Soil Zn application increased grain yield and Zn concentration by 10.5 and 15.8%, 22.6 and 9.7%, and 28.2 and 32.8% under adequate water supply, moderate drought, and severe drought, respectively. Furthermore, foliar application of Zn in the field increased grain yield and grain Zn concentration under both adequate water supply and rain-fed conditions. Zn plays a role in alleviating wheat plant drought stress by Zn-mediated increase in photosynthesis pigment and active oxygen scavenging substances, and reduction in lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, Zn fertilizer could regulate multiple antioxidant defense systems at the transcriptional level in response to drought.

  5. Physiological and molecular responses to drought stress in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-feng

    2014-10-01

    Plant drought stress response and tolerance are complex biological processes. In order to reveal the drought tolerance mechanism in rubber tree, physiological responses and expressions of genes involved in energy biosynthesis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging were systematically analyzed following drought stress treatment. Results showed that relative water content (RWC) in leaves was continuously decreased with the severity of drought stress. Wilting leaves were observed at 7 day without water (dww). Total chlorophyll content was increased at 1 dww, but decreased from 3 dww. However, the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline were significantly increased under drought stress. Peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were markedly enhanced at 1 and 3 dww, respectively. Meanwhile, the soluble sugar content was constant under drought stress. These indicated that photosynthetic activity and membrane lipid integrity were quickly attenuated by drought stress in rubber tree, and osmoregulation participated in drought tolerance mechanism in rubber tree. Expressions of energy biosynthesis and ROS scavenging systems related genes, including HbCuZnSOD, HbMnSOD, HbAPX, HbCAT, HbCOA, HbATP, and HbACAT demonstrated that these genes were significantly up-regulated by drought stress, and reached a maximum at 3 dww, then followed by a decrease from 5 dww. These results suggested that drought stress adaption in rubber tree was governed by energy biosynthesis, antioxidative enzymes, and osmoregulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Metabolic and physiologic characteristics of skeletal muscle determine its response to clenbuterol treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundal, Santosh; Katoch, Surender S; Sharma, Sushma

    2006-06-01

    beta-Adrenoceptor agonists are reported to induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy and hence serve as valuable adjunct to the treatment of wasting disorders. In the present study, we attempted to find out whether metabolic and physiologic characteristics of fibres are important in determining skeletal muscle response to clenbuterol (an adrenergic receptor agonist) therapy, as proposed in the treatment of wasting disorders. The treatment of mice with clenbuterol (2 mg/kg body wt for 30 days) resulted in skeletal muscle hypertrophy, more common amongst fast-twitch glycolytic fibres/muscle, with increase in body mass and a parallel rise in muscle mass to body mass ratio. Measurement of fibre diameters in soleus (rich in slow-twitch oxidative fibres), ALD or anterior latissimus dorsi (with a predominance of fast-twitch glycolytic fibres) and gastrocnemius (a mixed-type of muscle) from clenbuterol-treated mice for 30 days revealed noticeable increase in the per cent population of narrow slow-twitch fibre and a corresponding decline in white-type or fast-twitch glycolytic fibres in gastrocnemius and ALD. As revealed by counting of muscle cells in soleus, narrow red fibres declined with corresponding increase in white-type glycolytic fibres population. A significant decline in the succinic dehydrogenase activity was observed, thereby suggesting abnormality in oxidative activity of skeletal muscles in response to clenbuterol therapy.

  7. Differential physiological and biochemical responses of two Vigna species under enhanced UV-B radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Dwivedi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Differential physiological and biochemical responses of two Vigna spp. i.e. Vigna mungo (L. and Vigna acontifolia (Jacq. seedlings exposed to enhanced ultraviolet-B (ambient+supplemental, 280–320 nm radiation were studied. UV-B radiation accelerated the generation of ROS i.e. superoxide radical (O2·−–, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and hydroxyl radical (·−OH in leaves, and concomitantly damaging effects on lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage and growth in both Vigna spp. were noticed in dose dependent manner, but V. mungo exhibited greater UV-B damaging effects. UV-B stress induced positive response on antioxidants: superoxide dismutase (SOD and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX activity, and contents of proline, ascorbic acid, total phenolic contents (TPCs and total flavonoid contents (TFCs in leaves of both spp., however, catalase (CAT exhibited varied activity. The study concludes that substantially higher contents of TPCs and TFCs in epidermal layer, proline and ascorbic acid, and higher CAT activity before and after enhanced UV-B exposure probably attributed greater tolerance to V. acontifolia species, thus exhibited lesser UV-B induced damaging effects on cellular components and growth than that of V. mungo. This study also suggests that V. acontifolia is comparatively resistant to UV-B and thus may be useful for practical cultivation.

  8. Physiological and Biochemical Responses in Two Ornamental Shrubs to Drought Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Stefania; Farieri, Elisa; Ferrante, Antonio; Romano, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress is one of the most important abiotic stress limiting the plant survival and growth in the Mediterranean environment. In this work, two species typically grown in Mediterranean areas with different drought responses were used. Two shrubs, with slow (Photinia × fraseri Dress 'Red Robin') or fast (Eugenia uniflora L. 'Etna Fire') adaptation ability to drought, were subjected to three water regimes: well-watered (WW), moderate (MD), and severe (SD) drought stress conditions for 30 days. Net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm), relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll content, proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase) were measured. Results showed that RWC and proline were higher in Eugenia than in Photinia, demonstrating the greater tolerance of the latter to the water stress. The drought stress levels applied did not compromise photosynthetic efficiency through stomatal regulation, while a reduction of Fv/Fm ratio was observed at the end of the experimental period. MDA significantly increased after 30 days in both species. The antioxidant enzyme activities showed different responses to water stress conditions. In both species, the water stress scores showed positive, while proline content showed negative correlations with all physiological parameters.

  9. Hydrogel efficiency and physiological responses of seedless citrus cultivars seedlings under water deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Alice Ferreira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Water is a limiting factor in citrus development which makes hydric replacement a common practice in plantations where its distribution is scarce. The hydroretentor gel has been one of the available technologies for water supply to plants and may also be an alternative that contributes to the rational use of water for planting citrus seedlings. This study evaluated the efficiency of hydrogel as an alternative to minimize the effects of water deficit in seedlings of seedless cultivars of tangerines ('Ortanique', 'Okitsu' and 'Clemenules' and oranges ('Navelina', 'Navelate' and 'Lanelate', all grafted on Poncirus trifoliata. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in a randomized blocks design, where plants with hydrogel were compared to plants under conventional irrigation and also to plants under water deficit, in a triple factorial arrangement. The rates of carbon liquid assimilation, stomatal conductance and transpiration and the ratio between internal and external CO2 concentrations were evaluated. It was verified that the effect of the hydrogel for maintaining the hydric status of citrus seedlings is variable and dependent on physiological mechanisms of response to water deficit. There was no response of 'Ortanique' and 'Navelate'seedlings to the hydrogel application. The hydrogel promoted the recovering and maintenance of the hydric status of 'Okitsu', 'Clemenules', 'Navelina' and 'Lanelate' seedlings, however, these cultivars were sensitive to changes in the water status, with considerable reduction of gas exchange.

  10. Physiological changes of pepper accessions in response to salinity and water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia López-Serrano

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available New sources of water stress and salinity tolerances are needed for crops grown in marginal lands. Pepper is considered one of the most important crops in the world. Many varieties belong to the genus Capsicum spp., and display wide variability in tolerance/sensitivity terms in response to drought and salinity stress. The objective was to screen seven salt/drought-tolerant pepper accessions to breed new cultivars that could overcome abiotic stresses, or be used as new crops in land with water and salinity stress. Fast and effective physiological traits were measured to achieve the objective. The present study showed wide variability of the seven pepper accessions in response to both stresses. Photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration reduced mainly under salinity due to stomatal and non-stomatal (Na+ accumulation constraints and, to a lesser extent, in the accessions grown under water stress. A positive relationship between CO2 fixation and fresh weight generation was observed for both stresses. Decreases in Ys and YW and increased proline were observed only when accessions were grown under salinity. However, these factors were not enough to alleviate salt effects and an inverse relation was noted between plant salt tolerance and proline accumulation. Under water stress, A31 was the least affected and A34 showed the best tolerance to salinity in terms of photosynthesis and biomass.

  11. Comparative physiological responses of Solanum nigrum and Solanum torvum to cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin; Zhu, Yiyong; Ge, Qing; Li, Yulong; Sun, Jianhang; Zhang, Yuan; Liu, Xiaojing

    2012-10-01

    • Under cadmium (Cd) stress, Solanum nigrum accumulated threefold more Cd in its leaves and was tolerant to Cd, whereas its low Cd-accumulating relative, Solanum torvum, suffered reduced growth and marked oxidative damage. However, the physiological mechanisms that are responsible for differential Cd accumulation and tolerance between the two Solanum species are largely unknown. • Here, the involvement of antioxidative capacity and the accumulation of organic and amino acids in response to Cd stress in the two Solanum species were assessed. • Solanum nigrum contains higher antioxidative capacity than does S. torvum under Cd toxicity. Metabolomics analysis indicated that Cd treatment also markedly increased the production of several organic and amino acids in S. nigrum. Pretreatment with proline and histidine increased Cd accumulation; moreover, pretreatment with citric acid increased Cd accumulation in leaves but decreased Cd accumulation in roots, which indicates that its biosynthesis could be linked to Cd long-distance transport and accumulation in leaves. • Our data provide novel metabolite evidence regarding the enhancement of citric acid and amino acid biosynthesis in Cd-treated S. nigrum, support the role of these metabolites in improving Cd tolerance and accumulation, and may help to provide a better understanding of stress adaptation in other Solanum species. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Part 2: effect of training surface on acute physiological responses after sport-specific training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnie, Martyn J; Dawson, Brian; Pinnington, Hugh; Landers, Grant; Peeling, Peter

    2013-04-01

    This study compared the effect of sand and grass training surfaces during a sport-specific conditioning session in well-trained team sport athletes (n = 10). The participants initially completed a preliminary testing session to gather baseline (BASE) performance data for vertical jump, repeated sprint ability, and 3-km running time trial. Three days subsequent to BASE, all the athletes completed the first sport-specific conditioning session, which was followed by a repeat of the BASE performance tests the following day (24 hours postexercise). Seven days later, the same training session was completed on the opposing surface and was again followed 24 hours later by the BASE performance tests. During each session, blood lactate, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and heart rate (HR) were recorded, with player movement patterns also monitored via global positioning system units. Additionally, venous blood was collected preexercise, postexercise, and 24 hours postexercise, and analyzed for serum concentrations of Myoglobin, Haptoglobin, and C-Reactive Protein. Results showed significantly higher HR and RPE responses on SAND (p > 0.05), despite significantly lower distance and velocity outputs for the training session (p > 0.05). There were no differences in 24 hours postexercise performance (p > 0.05), and blood markers of muscle damage, inflammation and hemolysis were also similar between the surfaces (p > 0.05). These results suggest that performing a sport-specific conditioning session on a sand (vs. grass) surface can result in a greater physiological response, without any additional decrement to next-day performance.

  13. Quantification of clinical scores through physiological recordings in low-responsive patients: a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieser Martin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Clinical scores represent the gold standard in characterizing the clinical condition of patients in vegetative or minimally conscious state. However, they suffer from problems of sensitivity, specificity, subjectivity and inter-rater reliability. In this feasibility study, objective measures including physiological and neurophysiological signals are used to quantify the clinical state of 13 low-responsive patients. A linear regression method was applied in nine patients to obtain fixed regression coefficients for the description of the clinical state. The statistical model was extended and evaluated with four patients of another hospital. A linear mixed models approach was introduced to handle the challenges of data sets obtained from different locations. Using linear backward regression 12 variables were sufficient to explain 74.4% of the variability in the change of the clinical scores. Variables based on event-related potentials and electrocardiogram account for most of the variability. These preliminary results are promising considering that this is the first attempt to describe the clinical state of low-responsive patients in such a global and quantitative way. This new model could complement the clinical scores based on objective measurements in order to increase diagnostic reliability. Nevertheless, more patients are necessary to prove the conclusions of a statistical model with 12 variables.

  14. Role of polyamine transport in Streptococcus pneumoniae response to physiological stress and murine septicemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pratik; Romero, Damian G; Swiatlo, Edwin

    2008-09-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae has a potential ABC-type transporter (Pot) for extracellular polyamines. Polyamine transport protein D (PotD) is a membrane-associated, surface protein that putatively binds polyamines such as putrescine and spermidine. In this study we used quantitative PCR (qPCR) to analyze potD mRNA expression under physiologically relevant stress conditions in vitro, during in vivo infection, and in the presence of polyamines and choline. Expression of potD mRNA was elevated 2- and 4-fold when cells were grown at either 34 or 42 degrees C, respectively, in a choline restricted environment. Expression increased by 5- and 11-fold in response to oxidative stress in either low or high choline environments, respectively. Putrescine led to an increase in potD mRNA transcription, while choline and spermidine resulted in decreased gene expression. Transcription of potD in pneumococci harvested from blood of systemically infected mice was 43-fold higher compared to in vitro transcription levels. Flow cytometry analysis using PotD antiserum confirmed increased PotD expression on the pneumococcal surface. These results indicate that polyamines and polyamine transport systems potentially play an important role in Streptococcus pneumoniae pathogenesis, and may be important for bacterial response to temperature shock, oxidative stress, choline limitation and in vivo growth.

  15. Physiological and biochemical responses of Hibiscus sabdariffa to drought stress in the presence of salicylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Mirshekari

    2017-08-01

    Salicylic acid (SA is one of the important signal molecules, which modulates plant responses to environmental stress. In the present work, impact of exogenous SA on some physiological and biochemical traits of Hibiscus sabdariffa in response to drought stress was studied. Hibiscus sabdariffa seedlings were exposed to six drought levels (0, -0.05, -0.1, -0.5, -0.75, and 1 MPa with two SA concentrations (0 and 500 µM in 5 days intervals up to 20 days in a factorial design. During drought stress period, the root and shoot growth, relative water content, pigments content, non-reducing sugar and starch content was significantly decreased. SA treatment cause prevention of the growth reduction and improvement of relative water content. Protein concentration was roughly unchanged during drought stress with SA, while, reducing sugars accumulates and non-reducing sugars and starch significantly decreases. The results show that exogenous SA application on leaves during drought stress can ameliorate detrimental effects of stress through reducing water loss and accumulating reducing sugars, which cause preserving turgor pressure of the cells.

  16. Effects of prolonged head-down bed rest on physiological responses to moderate hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeppky, J. A.; Roach, R. C.; Selland, M. A.; Scotto, P.; Greene, E. R.; Luft, U. C.

    1993-01-01

    To determine the effects of hypoxia on physiological responses to simulated zero-gravity cardiopulmonary and fluid balance measurements were made in 6 subjects before and during 5-degree head-down bed rest (HDBR) over 8 d at 10,678 ft and a second time at this altitude as controls (CON). The V-dot(O2)(max) increased by 9 percent after CON, but fell 3 percent after HDBR. This reduction in work capacity during HDBR could be accounted for by inactivity. The heart rate response to a head-up tilt was greatly enhanced following HDBR, while mean blood pressure was lower. No significant negative impact of HDBR was noted on the ability to acclimatize to hypoxia in terms of pulmonary mechanics, gas exchange, circulatory or mental function measurements. No evidence of pulmonary interstitial edema or congestion was noted during HDBR at the lower PIO2 and blood rheology properties were not negatively altered. Symptoms of altitude illness were more prevalent, but not marked, during HDBR and arterial blood gases and oxygenation were not seriously effected by simulated microgravity. Declines in base excess with altitude were similar in both conditions. The study demonstrated a minimal effect of HDBR on the ability to adjust to this level of hypoxia.

  17. Diet and cooling interactions on physiological responses of grazing dairy cows, milk production and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, M. R.; Valtorta, S. E.; Leva, P. E.; Gaggiotti, M. C.; Conti, G. A.; Gregoret, R. F.

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effects of diet and cooling in the holding pen before milking on rectal temperature, respiration rate and milk production and composition. Fifty-eight lactating Holstein cows were used in a factorial split-plot design, at Rafaela Experimental Station from 12 January to 3 March 2003. The treatments were combinations of two diets: control (CD) and balanced (BD) with two levels of cooling before milking: none (NSF) and a sprinkler and fans (SF). Forage:concentrate ratios for CD and BD were 81:19 and 68:32, respectively. Cows were milked twice daily. Milk production was recorded daily, and milk composition (fat, protein, lactose and urea) was analysed twice a week. The physiological data were recorded once a week, before the cattle entered the holding pen and after milking, in the afternoon. Average maximum weekly temperature humidity index was 75.4 and ranged from 61.4 to 83. There were highly significant effects of cooling on physiological responses. Milk production was affected by diet and cooling, with no interaction; the highest and lowest production of milk was 22.42 and 20.07 l/cow per day, for BD+SF and CD+NSF, respectively. Protein was affected by diet, and was higher for BD (3.17 vs. 3.08%). There were interaction effects on milk fat at the 8% level, the highest concentration being 3.65% for BD+NFS. It was concluded that under grazing conditions, cooling by sprinkler and fans before milking improves the comfort of dairy cows, and that the effects on milk production and composition are enhanced when diets are specially formulated for heat-stress periods.

  18. Manganese modulates the physiological and biochemical responses of Mentha aquatica L. to ultraviolet radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Mehrdad; Zarinkamar, Fatemeh; Shafaghat, Zahra

    2018-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation as an environmental factor alters the physiological and metabolic processes in plants. Manganese (Mn) is an essential element that is required for plant growth and development. This experiment was conducted in order to determine the effects of Mn supply and UV radiation on the physiological and metabolic responses in Mentha aquatica. With this aim, three levels of Mn and UV treatments were used as follows: basic Hoagland's nutrient solution without UV radiation (control), Mn supply (100μM), UV radiation (2h daily), and UV+100μM Mn. After three weeks of treatments, the root and shoot dry weights and the contents of photosynthetic pigments were decreased under UV radiation condition. However, the contents of flavonoids, soluble carbohydrate, anthocyanins, malonaldehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase) were increased. Interestingly, Mn at 100μM concentration decreased the harmful effects of UV radiation on M. aquatica. In addition, the clear differences were observed in the terpene constituents of M. aquatica after the Mn and UV treatments. In this study, 1, 8-cineole, menthofuran and β-caryophyllene were the most abundant constituents of essential oils in both the control and treated plants. The correlation analysis between pairs of the primary and secondary metabolites showed that there were positive and negative correlations among the variables under the Mn supply and UV radiation conditions. These findings clearly display a positive effect of external Mn up to 100μM in the nutrient solution on the resistant of M. aquatica to UV radiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. The Relationship between Climbing Ability and Physiological Responses to Rock Climbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Baláš

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between submaximal and maximal physiological responses to rock climbing for climbers of differing abilities. Methods. Twenty-six male climbers performed a submaximal climbing test on a known circuit at 90° (vertical and 105° (15° overhanging inclination and speed 25 movements·min−1. A maximal test was undertaken on a similar circuit at the same speed with inclination increasing by 10° for each successive 3 min stage. Results. Mean oxygen consumption and heart rate (HR increased with wall inclination and climbers reached a mean (±SD peak V˙O2 of 40.3 ± 3.5 mL·kg−1·min−1 during the maximal test. Self-reported climbing ability was negatively correlated with V˙O2 and HR during the submaximal test at 90° (V˙O2, r=−0.82; HR, and r=−0.66 and at 105° (V˙O2, r=−0.84; HR, and r=−0.78 suggesting an increased exercise economy for climbers with a higher ability level. Conclusion. Findings from this study indicate that there is a relationship between wall inclination and the physiological demand of a climb. However, the increased technical ability and fitness of higher level climbers appears to an extent to offset the increased demand through improved exercise economy which in turn leads to an increased time to exhaustion and an improvement in performance.

  20. Revisiting concepts of thermal physiology: predicting responses of mammals to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Duncan; Snelling, Edward P; Hetem, Robyn S; Maloney, Shane K; Strauss, W Maartin; Fuller, Andrea

    2018-02-26

    1.The accuracy of predictive models (also known as mechanistic or causal models) of animal responses to climate change depends on properly incorporating the principles of heat transfer and thermoregulation into those models. Regrettably, proper incorporation of these principles is not always evident. 2.We have revisited the relevant principles of thermal physiology and analyzed how they have been applied in predictive models of large mammals, which are particularly vulnerable, to climate change. We considered dry heat exchange, evaporative heat transfer, the thermoneutral zone and homeothermy, and we examined the roles of size and shape in the thermal physiology of large mammals. 3.We report on the following misconceptions in influential predictive models: underestimation of the role of radiant heat transfer, misassignment of the role and misunderstanding of the sustainability of evaporative cooling, misinterpretation of the thermoneutral zone as a zone of thermal tolerance or as a zone of sustainable energetics, confusion of upper critical temperature and critical thermal maximum, overestimation of the metabolic energy cost of evaporative cooling, failure to appreciate that the current advantages of size and shape will become disadvantageous as climate change advances, misassumptions about skin temperature, and lastly, misconceptions about the relationship between body core temperature and its variability with body mass in large mammals. 4.Not all misconceptions invalidate the models, but we believe that preventing inappropriate assumptions from propagating will improve model accuracy, especially as models progress beyond their current typically-static format to include genetic and epigenetic adaptation that can result in phenotypic plasticity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Light quality influences the virulence and physiological responses of Colletotrichum acutatum causing anthracnose in pepper plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S-M; Ramkumar, G; Lee, Y H

    2013-08-01

    To explore the effects of light quality on the physiology and pathogenicity of Colletotrichum acutatum, we analysed the morphological traits, melanin production and virulence of the pathogen under different light wavelengths. The influence of light wavelength on the mycelial growth and conidial germination of C. acutatum was investigated using red, green, blue and white light sources. Red and green light reduced the mycelial growth in comparison with blue and white light, and dark conditions. The least percentage of conidial germination was observed under blue light, while the germination rate among white, red and green light, as well as in the dark, was insignificant. In comparison with its influence on mycelial growth and conidial germination, light wavelength significantly affected the pathogen's virulence towards hot pepper fruits. The highest disease severity was observed under blue light, which was at least a twofold increase compared with the disease severity under other light conditions. To elucidate the effect of light on the disparity in virulence, scytalone was assayed by HPLC, and scd1 gene expression was examined with real-time PCR. The highest and lowest scytalone production was observed in the cultures incubated under blue (10.9 mAU) and green light (1.5 mAU), respectively. Higher scd1 gene expression (~ 40-fold increase) was observed in cultures incubated under blue and white light in comparison with those incubated in the dark. This study revealed that light affects the growth, colonial morphology and virulence of C. acutatum. The pathogen needs light for its active melanin production and also to attain higher virulence. This is the first report on the effect of light quality on the virulence of C. acutatum. The findings of this study will broaden our knowledge of the influence of light on physiological responses of fungal pathogens. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. The Relationship between Climbing Ability and Physiological Responses to Rock Climbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.; Cochrane, Darryl J.; Kaláb, Miloš; Kodejška, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between submaximal and maximal physiological responses to rock climbing for climbers of differing abilities. Methods. Twenty-six male climbers performed a submaximal climbing test on a known circuit at 90° (vertical) and 105° (15° overhanging) inclination and speed 25 movements·min−1. A maximal test was undertaken on a similar circuit at the same speed with inclination increasing by 10° for each successive 3 min stage. Results. Mean oxygen consumption and heart rate (HR) increased with wall inclination and climbers reached a mean (±SD) peak V˙O2 of 40.3 ± 3.5 mL·kg−1 ·min−1 during the maximal test. Self-reported climbing ability was negatively correlated with V˙O2 and HR during the submaximal test at 90° (V˙O2, r = −0.82; HR, and r = −0.66) and at 105° (V˙O2, r = −0.84; HR, and r = −0.78) suggesting an increased exercise economy for climbers with a higher ability level. Conclusion. Findings from this study indicate that there is a relationship between wall inclination and the physiological demand of a climb. However, the increased technical ability and fitness of higher level climbers appears to an extent to offset the increased demand through improved exercise economy which in turn leads to an increased time to exhaustion and an improvement in performance. PMID:24587742

  3. Patterns and Pathways of Evolving Catchment Response in a Medium-Sized Mediterranean Catchment on a Millennium Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, L. P. H.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2012-04-01

    The meso-scale landscape dynamics model, CALEROS, has been developed to simulate the interactions between climate, soil production and erosion, vegetation and land use on geomorphological to human time scales in Mediterranean environments. Starting from an initial landscape consisting of a DTM, soil distribution and underlying lithology, the landscape is free to develop in response to the imposed climate variability and seismicity. In addition to changes in soil distribution and bedrock lowering, this includes the establishment of vegetation as conditioned by a selection of plant functional types and, optionally, population and land use dynamics as conditioned by land use scenarios specifying technological and dietary constraints for different periods. As such CALEROS is well-suited to investigate the relative impacts of climate, land cover and human activities on the hydrological catchment response and the associated sediment fluxes due to soil erosion and mass movements. Here we use CALEROS to i) investigate the redistribution of water and sediment across the landscape in a medium-sized Mediterranean catchment (Contrada Maddalena; ~14km2, Calabria, Italy) and ii) to establish patterns of co-evolution in soil properties and vegetation under pristine and anthropogenically impacted conditions on a millennium-scale. Using summary statistics to describe the emergent properties and to verify them against observations, we then delineate areas of uniform morphology and describe the various pathways of development. This information allows us to identify elements of consistent hydrological response and the associated transfer of material across different scales. It also provides essential information on essential feedbacks and the resulting convergence or divergence in landscape development under the impact of climatic or seismic events or human intervention. Although the results are evidently conditioned by the physiographic setting of the study area and by the

  4. Physiological and perceptual responses of sedentary women while walking at a self-selected pace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Hallage

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological and perceptual responses of sedentary women while walking at a self-selected pace. The sample was made up of forty-one women with a median age of 32.6 ± 8.6 years. Subjects underwent an incremental test until exhaustion on a treadmill in order to determine their maximum physiological and perceptual responses. The subjects then a 20-minute walking test at their self-selected pace to determine physiological and perceptual responses. Descriptive analysis was in the form of measures of central tendency, variability and relative frequency. Mean exercise intensity during the walking bout was 57.3 ± 12.1% of peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak and 74.4 ± 9.3% of peak heart rate (HRpeak, corresponding to 88.4 ± 19.8% and 85.6 ± 21.6% of the fi gures obtained at ventilatory threshold (VT, respectively. Nevertheless, the rating of perceived effort (RPE and affective valence (AV during the walking session returned mean values of 11.9 ± 2.1 and 2.4 ± 2.0, which correspond to 100.7 ± 20.0% and 96.0 ± 2.0% of the fi gures obtained at VT, respectively. In conclusion, the exercise intensity that was self-selected by this group of sedentary women meets current recommendations for moderate intensity exercise and was associated with increased pleasure.RESUMO O objetivo desse estudo foi verifi car os parâmetros fi siológicos e perceptivos durante a realização de caminhada de intensidade preferida por mulheres adultas, previamente sedentárias. Foram investigados 41 sujeitos (idade 32,6 ± 8,6 anos, os quais realizaram, inicialmente, um teste de esteira incremental até a exaustão para a determinação de respostas fi siológicas e perceptivas máximas e, posteriormente, um teste de caminhada em esteira por 20 minutos em uma intensidade auto-selecionada, no qual parâmetros fi siológicos e perceptivos foram obtidos. Medidas de tendência central e variabilidade foram empregadas para a an

  5. Comparison of the physiological responses to different small-sided games in elite young soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köklü, Yusuf; Aşçi, Alper; Koçak, Fatma Unver; Alemdaroğlu, Utku; Dündar, Uğur

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the blood lactate (La-), heart rate (HR) and percentage of maximum HR (%HRmax) responses among the small-sided games (SSGs) in elite young soccer players. Sixteen players (average age 15.7 6 0.4 years; height 176.8 6 4.6 cm; body mass 65.5 6 5.6 kg; VO2max 53.1 6 5.9 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1); HRmax 195.9 6 7.4 b · min(-1)) volunteered to perform the YoYo intermittent recovery test and 6 bouts of soccer drills including 1-a-side, 2-a-side, 3-a-side, and 4-a-side games without a goalkeeper in random order at 2-day intervals. The differences in La-, HR and%HRmax either among the SSGs or among the bouts were identified using 4 x 6 (games x exercise bouts) 2-way analysis of variance with repeated measures. Significant differences were found on La-, HR, and %HRmax among the bouts (p ≤ 0.05). The 3-a-side and 4-a-side games were significantly higher than 1-a-side and 2-a-side games on HR and %HRmax (p ≤ 0.05), whereas the 1-a-side game significantly resulted in higher La- responses compared to other SSGs. This study demonstrated that physiological responses during the 1-a-side and 2-a-side games were different compared to 3-a-side and 4-a-side games. Therefore, it can be concluded that a decreased number of players results in increased intensity during SSGs including 6 bouts. These results suggest that coaches should pay attention on choosing the SSG type and the number of bouts to improve desired physical conditioning of elite young soccer players in soccer training.

  6. Exogenous sodium sulfide improves morphological and physiological responses of a hybrid Populus species to nitrogen dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanbo; Bellaloui, Nacer; Sun, Guangyu; Tigabu, Mulualem; Wang, Jinghong

    2014-06-15

    Gaseous nitrogen dioxide (NO2) can disturb normal plant growth and trigger complex physiological responses. NO2-induced responses are influenced by biotic or abiotic factors. In this study, we investigated the effects of exogenous sodium sulfide (Na2S, 5mmolL(-1)) on epidermis and stomata related physico-chemical responses of hybrid poplar cuttings (Pouplus alba×P. berolinensis) to gaseous NO2 (4μl1(-1)) for three time periods (0, 14 and 48h). We also investigated hydrogen sulfide (H2S), nitrate-nitrogen and nitrate reductase activity (NR) in control and Na2S treated plants. Our results showed that NO2 exposure for 48h led to the decline of NR, maximal PSII quantum yield (Fv/Fm), net photosynthetic rate (Pn), and dark respiration rate (Rd). The maximum rate for the post-illumination carbon dioxide burst (PIB) occurred in 48-h exposed leaves 13-15s after darkening. Moreover, NO2 exposure resulted in a significant increase in nitrogen percentage (from 0 to 33%) and a decrease in the macro and micro-elements of leaf surface. Spraying Na2S aqueous solution on the leaf surfaces significantly increased the thicknesses of palisade/spongy tissue and H2S content. Na2S pretreatment alleviated NO2-caused toxic effects as indicated by increased NR and higher values of Pn, Fv/Fm, and actual photochemical efficiency in light (ФPSII) compared with the control. Na2S pretreatment had no significant impacts on PIB-based photorespiration or elements composition of a leaf surface. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Physiological and transcriptional responses of two contrasting Populus clones to nitrogen stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Li, Xiaodong; Zhang, Sheng; Korpelainen, Helena; Li, Chunyang

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal mechanisms responsible for nitrogen (N) stress in two contrasting Populus clones. Leaves of Nanlin 1388 (N stress-insensitive clone hybrids of Populus deltoides Bart.CV. × Populus euramericana (Dode) Guineir CV) and Nanlin 895 (N stress-sensitive clone hybrids of Populus deltoides Bart.CV. × Populus euramericana (Dode) Guineir CV) were harvested and analyzed. Different responses visible in photosynthesis, N and carbon contents, physiological traits, and chlorophyll were observed. The Solexa/Illumina's digital gene expression system was used to investigate differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs under N stress. Target profiling, and biological network and function analyses were also performed. Randomly selected mRNAs and miRNAs were validated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In all, 110 Nanlin 1388 and 122 Nanlin 895 miRNAs were differentially expressed, among which 34 and 23 miRNAs were newly found in the two clones, respectively. Under N stress, a total of 329 and 98 mRNAs were regulated in N stress-insensitive and -sensitive clones, respectively. Notably, the miR396 family and its regulated mRNAs were altered in both clones under N stress, while miR646 was regulated only in the N stress-insensitive clone (Nanlin 1388), and miR156, miR319 and miR393 in the N stress-sensitive clone (Nanlin 895). Gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses also proved several clone-specific functions and pathways. These findings may be significant for understanding the genetic responses of Populus to N stress. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Physiological responses of Pinus sylvestris to changing carbon dioxide and ozone concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holopainen, T. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Palomaeki, V. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Faculty of Forestry; Helmisaari, H.S. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Helsinki (Finland)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this research is to study the effects of elevated ozone, carbon dioxide and their combination on ultrastructural, physiological and biochemical responses of Scots pine needles and how these effects are reflected to photosynthesis, carbohydrate and nutrient allocation and finally to shoot and root growth of trees. In addition the interactions of the studied trees and mycorrhizal fungi as well as insect herbivores are studied. The exposures have been running only for two growing periods and it seems necessary to continue the experiment over the third growing season in 1996. Since the analyses are partially incomplete, only preliminary conclusions are possible at the moment. The slightly increased shoot growth and needle width and increased amount of starch in chloroplasts point to the slight stimulating effect of elevated CO{sub 2} among the chamber treatments. Altogether the growth of the seedlings was best in the chamberless treatment indicating a negative chamber effect. The elevated ozone significantly increased the chlorotic mottling and overall yellowing of second year needles as well as caused increased density of chloroplast stroma and declined photosynthesis, all these responses being often related to ozone exposures. The ozone related responses appeared at both CO{sub 2} levels indicating no clear protection due to elevated CO{sub 2}. The ozone or carbon dioxide treatments were not able to significantly change nutrient concentrations, insect herbivory or carbon allocation among the secondary compounds of needles. A tendency of increased carbon allocation to fine roots due to ozone but not so clearly to CO{sub 2} was observed

  9. Proteomic and Physiological Analyses Reveal Putrescine Responses in Roots of Cucumber Stressed by NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghui Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is a major environmental constraint that threatens agricultural productivity. Different strategies have been developed to improve crop salt tolerance, among which the effects of polyamines have been well reported. To gain a better understanding of the cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. responses to NaCl and unravel the underlying mechanism of exogenous putrescine (Put alleviating salt-induced damage, comparative proteomic analysis was conducted on cucumber roots treated with NaCl and/or Put for 7 days. The results showed that exogenous Put restored the root growth inhibited by NaCl. 62 differentially expressed proteins implicated in various biological processes were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. The four largest categories included proteins involved in defense response (24.2%, protein metabolism (24.2%, carbohydrate metabolism (19.4% and amino acid metabolism (14.5%. Exogenous Put up-regulated most identified proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, implying an enhancement in energy generation. Proteins involved in defense response and protein metabolism were differently regulated by Put, which indicated the roles of Put in stress resistance and proteome rearrangement. Put also increased the abundance of proteins involved in amino acid metabolism. Meanwhile, physiological analysis showed that Put could further up-regulated the levels of free amino acids in salt stressed-roots. In addition, Put also improved endogenous polyamines contents by regulating the transcription levels of key enzymes in polyamine metabolism. Taken together, these results suggest that Put may alleviate NaCl-induced growth inhibition through degradation of misfolded/damaged proteins, activation of stress defense, and the promotion of carbohydrate metabolism to generate more energy.

  10. Physiological responses to nitrogen and sulphur addition and raised temperature in Sphagnum balticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granath, Gustaf; Wiedermann, Magdalena M; Strengbom, Joachim

    2009-09-01

    Sphagnum, the main genus which forms boreal peat, is strongly affected by N and S deposition and raised temperature, but the physiological mechanisms behind the responses are largely unknown. We measured maximum photosynthetic rate (NP(max)), maximum efficiency of photosystem II [variable fluorescence (F (v))/maximum fluorescence yield (F (m))] and concentrations of N, C, chlorophyll and carotenoids as responses to N and S addition and increased temperature in Sphagnum balticum (a widespread species in the northern peatlands) in a 12-year factorial experiment. NP(max) did not differ between control (0.2 g N m(-2) year(-1)) and high N (3.0 g N m(-2) year(-1)), but was higher in the mid N treatment (1.5 g N m(-2) year(-1)). N, C, carotenoids and chlorophyll concentration increased in shoot apices after N addition. F (v)/F (m) did not differ between N treatments. Increased temperature (+3.6 degrees C) had a small negative effect on N concentration, but had no significant effect on NP(max) or F (v)/F (m). Addition of 2 g S m(-2) year(-1) showed a weak negative effect on NP(max) and F (v)/F (m). Our results suggest a unimodal response of NP(max) to N addition and tissue N concentration in S. balticum, with an optimum N concentration for photosynthetic rate of ~13 mg N g(-1). In conclusion, high S deposition may reduce photosynthetic capacity in Sphagnum, but the negative effects may be relaxed under high N availability. We suggest that previously reported negative effects on Sphagnum productivity under high N deposition are not related to negative effects on the photosynthetic apparatus, but differences in optimum N concentration among Sphagnum species may affect their competitive ability under different N deposition regimes.

  11. Blackcurrant Alters Physiological Responses and Femoral Artery Diameter during Sustained Isometric Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew David Cook

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Blackcurrant is rich in anthocyanins that may affect exercise-induced physiological responses. We examined tissue oxygen saturation, muscle activity, cardiovascular responses and femoral artery diameter during a submaximal sustained isometric contraction. In a randomised, double-blind, crossover design, healthy men (n = 13, age: 25 ± 4 years, BMI: 25 ± 3 kg·m−2, mean ± SD ingested New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC extract (600 mg∙day−1 CurraNZ™ or placebo (PL for 7-days separated by 14-days washout. Participants produced isometric maximal voluntary contractions (iMVC and a 120-s 30%iMVC of the quadriceps with electromyography (EMG, near-infrared spectroscopy, hemodynamic and ultrasound recordings. There was no effect of NZBC extract on iMVC (NZBC: 654 ± 73, PL: 650 ± 78 N. During the 30%iMVC with NZBC extract, total peripheral resistance, systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure were lower with increased cardiac output and stroke volume. With NZBC extract, EMG root mean square of the vastus medialis and muscle oxygen saturation were lower with higher total haemoglobin. During the 30%iMVC, femoral artery diameter was increased with NZBC extract at 30 (6.9%, 60 (8.2%, 90 (7.7% and 120 s (6.0%. Intake of NZBC extract for 7-days altered cardiovascular responses, muscle oxygen saturation, muscle activity and femoral artery diameter during a 120-s 30%iMVC of the quadriceps. The present study provides insight into the potential mechanisms for enhanced exercise performance with intake of blackcurrant.

  12. Evolvable Neural Software System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    The Evolvable Neural Software System (ENSS) is composed of sets of Neural Basis Functions (NBFs), which can be totally autonomously created and removed according to the changing needs and requirements of the software system. The resulting structure is both hierarchical and self-similar in that a given set of NBFs may have a ruler NBF, which in turn communicates with other sets of NBFs. These sets of NBFs may function as nodes to a ruler node, which are also NBF constructs. In this manner, the synthetic neural system can exhibit the complexity, three-dimensional connectivity, and adaptability of biological neural systems. An added advantage of ENSS over a natural neural system is its ability to modify its core genetic code in response to environmental changes as reflected in needs and requirements. The neural system is fully adaptive and evolvable and is trainable before release. It continues to rewire itself while on the job. The NBF is a unique, bilevel intelligence neural system composed of a higher-level heuristic neural system (HNS) and a lower-level, autonomic neural system (ANS). Taken together, the HNS and the ANS give each NBF the complete capabilities of a biological neural system to match sensory inputs to actions. Another feature of the NBF is the Evolvable Neural Interface (ENI), which links the HNS and ANS. The ENI solves the interface problem between these two systems by actively adapting and evolving from a primitive initial state (a Neural Thread) to a complicated, operational ENI and successfully adapting to a training sequence of sensory input. This simulates the adaptation of a biological neural system in a developmental phase. Within the greater multi-NBF and multi-node ENSS, self-similar ENI s provide the basis for inter-NBF and inter-node connectivity.

  13. Physiological Responses to Prolonged Drought Differ Among Three Oak (Quercus) Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C. E.; Moore, G. W.; Vogel, J. G.; Muir, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The physiological response of plants to water stress provides insights into which species may survive in exceptional drought conditions. This study conducted on a remnant post oak savanna site in College Station, Texas, examined how drought affected the physiology of three native oak species. In June 2014, after a period of equal watering, we subjected three year old Quercus shumardii (Shumard oak; SO), Q. virginiana (live oak; LO), and Q. macrocarpa (bur oak; BO) saplings to one of two watering treatments: 1) watered, receiving the equivalent of theaverage precipitation rate and 2) droughted, receiving a 100% reduction in precipitation. We measured predawn (ΨPD) and midday (ΨMD) leaf water potential; midday gas exchange (MGE) parameters including photosynthesis (Al), transpiration (T), stomatal conductance (gsw); and leaf soluble (SS) and non-soluble sugar (NSS) concentrations monthly between June and October 2014. Drought stress responses were evident after only one month of induced drought. Droughted saplings showed reduced ΨPD, ΨMD, and MGE (P ≤ 0.05) in comparison to watered saplings of the same species. LO saplings exhibited greater MGE (P ≤ 0.05) while maintaining similar LWP to their respective watered and droughted BO and SO counterparts. Droughted LO exhibited MGE rates similar to those of watered BO and SO (P ≤ 0.05), while watered LO adjusted its MGE rates to changes in water availability better than BO and LO during short-term drought. Compared to water saplings, droughted saplings had greater leaf SS (P = 0.08) and lower NSS concentrations (P = 0.10), possibly due to the conversion of NSS to SS and other simple compounds and reduced consumption of SS for growth by the droughted saplings. Although SO and BO exhibited similar photosynthesis rates, leaf total sugar (SS+NSS) concentration was greater in SO (P ≤ 0.05). By displaying the greatest average photosynthesis rate (P ≤ 0.05), LO should have accumulated the greatest amount of carbon

  14. Physiological Responses, Growth Rate and Blood Metabolites Under Feed Restriction and Thermal Exposure in Kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.K. Hooda

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to study the cumulative effect of thermal stress and feed restriction in kids. Twelve kids of Alpine x Beetle cross were divided into two groups. Group 1 served as control and group 2 was put on restricted feeding and exposed at 40, 42 and 44oC. Body weights of both groups were similar before thermal exposure and feed restriction. Body weight of group 1 increased significantly and were higher than group 2 throughout the experiment. Body weight gain, average daily gain and feed conversion efficiency were comparable in both groups after removal of thermal stress and switching over to ad libitum feeding (42-63 days. Body weights of group 2 remained lower than group 1, the losses in body weights of group 2 could not be compensated and there was approximately 25% loss in body weight at the end of experiment. Physiological responses of group 2 were significantly lower before exposure to high temperature but increased significantly after exposure at temperature 40, 42 and 44oC and the increase was in commensurate with the increase in exposure temperature. Blood glucose, total protein, albumin and serum enzymes decreased significantly on exposure at higher temperature and differences were higher in feed restricted group. T3, T4 and cortisol concentration were similar in both groups before feed restriction and thermal stress. T3, T4 concentration decreased while cortisol concentration increased significantly after exposure to high temperature. Variations in plasma enzymes, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, SGOT and SGPT were not significant before feed restriction and thermal stress. The activities of acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase decreased whereas that of SGOT and SGPT increased significantly on exposure at temperature 40oC and subsequent changes at temperature 42 and 44oC were not significant. The study indicated that animals of group 2 experienced more stress as observed by significant alteration in body

  15. Physiological responses to a tap dance choreography: comparisons with graded exercise test and prescription recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Samantha M L; Simões, Herbert G; Moreira, Sergio R; Lima, Ricardo M; Almeida, Jeeser A; Ribeiro, Fabiana M R; Puga, Guilherme M; Campbell, Carmen S G

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the physiological responses to a tap dance choreography and to compare with those observed during a maximal treadmill exercise test, in tap dancers. Eight women (19.6 +/- 2.4 years; 162.3 +/- 4.4 cm; 54.0 +/- 2.3 kg; 20.5 +/- 1.4 kg.m; and 5.1 +/- 2.6 years of tap dance training) were submitted to the following procedures: (a) graded exercise test (GXT) on a treadmill until volitional exhaustion with 0.8 km.h of increment at each 3 and 1 minute of interval between stages and (b) tap dance choreography (TAP)-"The Shim Sham Shimmy"-consisting of 9 stages of 3 minutes with 1-minute rest between stages. Expired gas analyses were performed in all experimental sessions, providing breath-by-breath values for respiratory exchange rate (RER), oxygen uptake (VO(2)), and carbon dioxide production (CO2). Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were also measured. During the rest period between stages, blood samples (25 microl) were collected from the ear lobe for lactate threshold (LT) determination. It was observed that at the end of the TAP, subjects achieved an average of 83.8 +/- 6.2% of the HRmax and 68.9 +/- 11.3% of the VO(2)max, both previously identified in the GXT. The choreography demanded 204.7 +/- 31.3 kcal, an average RER of 0.88 +/- 0.05 and mean RPE of 13 +/- 2. The VO(2), HR, and RPE values did not significantly differ from those at the LT intensity identified during the GTX. Based on the present results, it was concluded that the TAP performance in the "The Shim Sham Shimmy" choreography elicited acute physiologic responses similar to those observed at the LT intensity, thus suggesting that Tap Dance constitutes a useful exercise modality for aerobic fitness and cardiovascular health improvements.

  16. Hemolysis exacerbates hyperfibrinolysis, whereas platelolysis shuts down fibrinolysis: evolving concepts of the spectrum of fibrinolysis in response to severe injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Hunter B; Moore, Ernest E; Gonzalez, Eduardo; Hansen, Kirk C; Dzieciatkowska, Monika; Chapman, Michael P; Sauaia, Angela; West, Bernadette; Banerjee, Anirban; Silliman, Christopher C

    2015-01-01

    We have recently identified a spectrum of fibrinolysis in response to injury, in which there is increased mortality in patients who have either excessive fibrinolysis (hyperfibrinolysis [HF]) or impaired fibrinolysis (shutdown). The regulation of the fibrinolytic system after trauma remains poorly understood. Our group's previous proteomic and metabolomic work identified elevated red blood cell (RBC) degradation products in trauma patients manifesting HF. We therefore hypothesized that hemolysis was contributory to the pathogenesis of HF. Given the central role of platelets in the cell-based model of coagulation, we further investigated the potential role of platelet lysis in mediation of the fibrinolytic system. Red blood cells from healthy donors were frozen in liquid nitrogen and vortexed to create mechanical membrane disruption. Platelets were prepared in a similar fashion. Assays were performed with citrated whole blood mixed ex vivo with either RBC or platelet lysates. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) was then added to promote fibrinolysis, mimicking the tPA release from ischemic endothelium during hemorrhagic shock. The degree of fibrinolysis was evaluated with thromboelastography. To identify the mediators of the fibrinolysis system present in RBC and platelet lysates, these lysates were passed over immobilized tPA and plasminogen affinity columns to capture protein-binding partners from RBC or platelet lysates. The addition of 75 ng/mL of tPA to whole blood increased fibrinolysis from median 30-min lysis of 1.4% (interquartile range [IQR], 0.9%-2.0%) to 8.9% (IQR, 6.5%-11.5%). Red blood cell lysate with tPA increased fibrinolysis to 20.1% (IQR, 12.5%-33.7%), which was nearly three times as much lysis as tPA alone (P fibrinolysis to 0.35% (IQR, 0.2%-0.8%; P fibrinolysis and trauma. Red blood cell lysate is a potent enhancer of fibrinolysis, whereas platelet lysate inhibits fibrinolysis. Intracellular proteins from circulating blood cells contain proteins

  17. Societal response to chronic environmental change: The role of evolving scientific and technical information in state coastal erosion management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Mark; James, Thomas E.; Deyle, Robert E.

    1992-06-01

    Natural hazards, such as acute storm events, often exacerbate chronic change processes and heighten public awareness of overt and latent risks to society. This paper reports the results of a study of the development of coastal erosion management policies from 1960 to 1990 in Florida, Massachusetts, and North Carolina, all of which have been subject to marked chronic and acute environmental changes. The case studies were guided by a conceptual framework that links acute and chronic environmental changes with state and federal policity initiatives as well as the scientific community. We traced the evolution of policies and programs and the policy innovation process in these states that were designed to mitigate the risks associated with coastal erosion, and documented the role that scientific and technical information played. From information drawn from published and unpublished literature as well as personal interviews, the case studies reveal a wide variation in policy responses to coastal erosion phenomena and exhibit differing degrees of program success. Although the case studies preclude broad generalizations, they illustrate clearly the importance of institution to enable policy enterpreneurs and other key individuals a base for acquiring and using scientific and technical information for policy development and implementation.

  18. Nutritional and physiological responses of finishing pigs exposed to a permanent heat exposure during three weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yue; Feng, Yuejin; Yang, Peige; Feng, Jinghai; Lin, Hai; Gu, Xianhong

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of a permanent heat exposure during 21 days on pig performance, nutrient digestibility, physiological response and key enzyme of skeletal muscle energy metabolism. Twenty-four male finishing pigs (crossbreed castrates, 79.0 ± 1.50 kg body weight) were allocated to three groups (n = 8): (1) Control (ambient temperature (AT) 22°C, ad libitum feeding), (2) Group HE (AT 30°C, ad libitum feeding) and (3) Group PF (AT 22°C, pair-fed to Group HE). The permanent heat exposure decreased feed intake (p weight gain (p cortisol, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase were also significantly increased in Group HE (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the heat exposure changed intracellular energy metabolism, where the AMP-activated protein kinase was activated (p = 0.02). This was combined with changes in parameters of glycolysis such as an accumulation of lactic acid (p = 0.02) and a drop of pH24 h (p = 0.02), an increase of hexokinase and pyruvate kinase activity (p < 0.01) and, finally, the maturation process of post mortem muscle was influenced. Due to pair-feeding it was possible to evaluate the effects of heat exposure, which were not dependent on reduced feed intake. Such effects were, e.g., reduced nutrient digestibility and changed activities of several enzymes in muscle and blood serum.

  19. Physiological and metabolic responses of gestating Brahman cows to repeated transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, D M; Lewis, A W; Neuendorff, D A; Carroll, J A; Burdick Sanchez, N C; Vann, R C; Welsh, T H; Randel, R D

    2015-02-01

    This study characterized physiological responses to repeated transportation (TRANS) of gestating cows of differing temperaments. Cows were classified as Calm (C; = 10), Intermediate (I; = 28), or Temperamental (T; = 10). Based on artificial insemination date and pregnancy confirmation, cows were TRANS for 2 h on d 60 (TRANS1), 80 (TRANS2), 100 (TRANS3), 120 (TRANS4), and 140 (TRANS5) ± 5 d of gestation. Indwelling vaginal temperature (VT) monitoring devices were inserted 24 h before each TRANS with VT recorded from 2 h before TRANS and averaged into 5-min intervals through 30 min after TRANS. Serum samples were collected before loading and on unloading from the trailer to determine concentrations of cortisol, glucose, and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). Data were analyzed by repeated measures analysis in SAS. Serum cortisol concentrations were affected by temperament ( 0.10) with repeated TRANS events. Serum glucose concentrations were affected ( seasonal changes, and learning from repeated handling and transport, repeated transport is a useful model of repeated stress in studying the effects of temperament.

  20. The fire-walker's high: affect and physiological responses in an extreme collective ritual.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Fischer

    Full Text Available How do people feel during extreme collective rituals? Despite longstanding speculation, few studies have attempted to quantify ritual experiences. Using a novel pre/post design, we quantified physiological fluctuations (heart rates and self-reported affective states from a collective fire-walking ritual in a Mauritian Hindu community. Specifically, we compared changes in levels of happiness, fatigue, and heart rate reactivity among high-ordeal participants (fire-walkers, low-ordeal participants (non-fire-walking participants with familial bonds to fire-walkers and spectators (unrelated/unknown to the fire-walkers. We observed that fire-walkers experienced the highest increase in heart rate and reported greater happiness post-ritual compared to low-ordeal participants and spectators. Low-ordeal participants reported increased fatigue after the ritual compared to both fire-walkers and spectators, suggesting empathetic identification effects. Thus, witnessing the ritualistic suffering of loved ones may be more exhausting than experiencing suffering oneself. The findings demonstrate that the level of ritual involvement is important for shaping affective responses to collective rituals. Enduring a ritual ordeal is associated with greater happiness, whereas observing a loved-one endure a ritual ordeal is associated with greater fatigue post-ritual.

  1. Physiological Response of Crocidolomia pavonana to the Calophyllum soulattri Active Fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDY SYAHPUTRA

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the physiological response of the cabbage head caterpillar Crocidolomia pavonana treated with an active fraction of Calophyllum soulattri bark extract. Extraction of the test plant materials were performed with maceration method using methanol, continued by counter-current distribution separation in ethylacetate and water. Methanol fractionation of C. soulattri was performed by vaccuum liquid chromatography and the bioassays were conducted by a leaf-feeding method. The results showed that the dichloromethane fraction of C. soulattri had strong insecticidal activity against C. pavonana larvae, with LC50 of 0.05%. Sublethal treatments with the active fraction at LC15, LC50, and LC85 reduced the relative growth rate of the fourth instars by 48.9-94.1%. The treatments with the fraction at LC15 and LC50 to the fourth instars reduced the activity of invertase and protease enzyme by 20.7-24.1 and 14.4-25.14%, respectively, but increased the activity of trehalase by 26.7-120% as compared with controls.

  2. The effects of poling on physiological, kinematic and kinetic responses in roller ski skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasaas, Erik; Hegge, Ann Magdalen; Ettema, Gertjan; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the effects of poling on physiological, kinematic and kinetic responses in the G4 skating technique where the poling movement is synchronized with the leg push-off on one side (strong side) followed by a forward arm swing during the leg push-off on the other side (weak side). G4 skating with (G4-P) and without (G4-NP) poling was compared in 17 elite male cross-country skiers during 4-min submaximal tests on a 2% inclined roller ski treadmill at 10, 15 and 20 km h(-1). G4-P demonstrated less ventilatory stress and higher gross efficiency compared to G4-NP at all velocities, and the blood lactate concentration was lower at the high velocity (all P ski forces, increased ski velocities and less angling and edging of the skis (all P ski forces on the strong side were lower than on the weak side with G4-P at all velocities (all P ski forces at a given work rate with G4-P demonstrate the effectiveness of poling in the G4 skating technique. Thus, poling provides possibilities to increase total propulsion, to reduce ski forces and to enhance skiing efficiency.

  3. The Physiological Basis and Clinical Use of the Binaural Interaction Component of the Auditory Brainstem Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, Georg M.; Tollin, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    The auditory brainstem response (ABR) is a sound-evoked non-invasively measured electrical potential representing the sum of neuronal activity in the auditory brainstem and midbrain. ABR peak amplitudes and latencies are widely used in human and animal auditory research and for clinical screening. The binaural interaction component (BIC) of the ABR stands for the difference between the sum of the monaural ABRs and the ABR obtained with binaural stimulation. The BIC comprises a series of distinct waves, the largest of which (DN1) has been used for evaluating binaural hearing in both normal hearing and hearing-impaired listeners. Based on data from animal and human studies, we discuss the possible anatomical and physiological bases of the BIC (DN1 in particular). The effects of electrode placement and stimulus characteristics on the binaurally evoked ABR are evaluated. We review how inter-aural time and intensity differences affect the BIC and, analyzing these dependencies, draw conclusion about the mechanism underlying the generation of the BIC. Finally, the utility of the BIC for clinical diagnoses are summarized. PMID:27232077

  4. Physiological responses of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. plants due to different copper concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Copstein Cuchiara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available At low concentrations, Cu is considered as an essential micronutrient for plants and as a constituent and activator of several enzymes. However, when in excess, Cu can negatively affect plant growth and metabolism. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate physiological responses of sweet potato plants at different Cu concentrations by measuring morphological parameters, antioxidant metabolism, stomatal characteristics, and mineral profile. For this purpose, sweet potato plants were grown hydroponically in complete nutrient solution for six days. Then, the plants were transferred to solutions containing different Cu concentrations, 0.041 (control, 0.082, and 0.164 mM, and maintained for nine days. The main effect of increased Cu concentration was observed in the roots. The sweet potato plants grown in 0.082 mM Cu solution showed increased activity of antioxidant enzymes and no changes in growth parameters. However, at a concentration of 0.164 mM, Cu was transported from the roots to the shoots. This concentration altered morpho-anatomical characteristics and activated the antioxidant system because of the stress generated by excess Cu. On the basis of the results, it can be concluded that the sweet potato plants were able to tolerate Cu toxicity until 0.082 mM.

  5. Physiological response of gmelina (Gmelina arborea Roxb. to hydric conditions of the colombian Caribbean

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    Rojas Andrea

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Gmelina is an important forest species because of its adaptability to different tropical environments, rapid growth and high quality wood for many uses. Although the species thrives in lowlands, both wet and dry, water availability is the main limiting factor for production in the latter. The transpiration rate, stomatal resistance, water potential and chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments content were monitored for three climatic seasons (rainy, transitional and dry and three ages (seedling (2-10 months, juvenile (10-16 months and adult (48-60 months, in order to observe the physiological response of gmelina to conditions in northern Colombia. Transpiration rates decreased with the age of the trees and the critical value of leaf water potential, that generates stomatal closure, was observed below -2.6 MPa. The dry season resulted in increased carotenoid content, in contrast to the content of chlorophyll A, B and total.

  6. Physiological Responses and Performance Analysis Difference between Official and Simulated Karate Combat Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabène, Helmi; Mkaouer, Bessem; Franchini, Emerson; Souissi, Nafaa; Selmi, Mohamed Amine; Nagra, Yassine; Chamari, Karim

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to compare physiological responses and time-motion analysis between official and simulated karate combat. Methods Ten high-level karatekas participated in this study, which included official and simulated karate combat. Results Karatekas used more upper-limb attack techniques during official combat compared to simulated ones (6±3 vs 3±1; P=0.05, respectively). For official and simulated karate matches, the numbers of high-intensity actions (i.e. offensive and defensive fighting activity) were 14±6 and 18±5, respectively (P>0.05), lasting from karate match, the activity and rest duration were 10.0±3.4s and 16.2±4.1s, respectively (E:R ratio 1:1.5), while high-intensity actions were 1.5±0.3s, resulting in an E:R ratio of 1:11. Blood lactate concentration was higher during official (11.14±1.82 mmol.l-1) compared to simulated karate combat (7.80±2.66 mmol.l-1) (Pkarate combat condition. Conclusion Official and simulated matches differ considerably, therefore coaches should create new strategies during training sessions to achieve the same effort and pause profile of competitive matches and/or that athletes should be submitted to frequent competitions to adapt themselves to the profile of this event. PMID:24868428

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF OBESITY AND AMBIENT TEMPERATURE ON PHYSIOLOGICAL AND OXIDATIVE RESPONSES TO SUBMAXIMAL EXERCISE

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    N. Ahn

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of obesity and ambient temperature on physiological responses and markers of oxidative stress to submaximal exercise in obese and lean people. Sixteen healthy males were divided into an obese group (n=8, %fat: 27.00±3.00% and a lean group (n=8, %fat: 13.85±2.45%. Study variables were measured during a 60 min submaximal exercise test at 60% VO2max in a neutral (21±1°C and a cold (4±1°C environment. Heart rate, blood lactate, rectal temperature, serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and superoxide dismutase (SOD were measured at rest, during exercise and in recovery. Heart rate of both groups was significantly lower (P<0.05 in the cold than the warm environment, but there were no significant differences between the two groups. Serum SOD activity increased to a significantly greater extent (P<0.05 in the cold than the neutral environment, and remained elevated for longer during exercise in the obese group than the lean group. Serum MDA level during submaximal exercise was not significantly different between conditions or groups. Cold stress in exercise may challenge antioxidant defence mechanisms in obese subjects, but lipid peroxidation remains unchanged.

  8. Physiological Modeling of Responses to Upper vs Lower Lobe Lung Volume Reduction in Homogeneous Emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arschang eValipour

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: In clinical trials, homogeneous emphysema patients have responded well to upper lobe volume reduction but not lower lobe volume reduction. Materials/Methods: To understand the physiological basis for this observation, a computer model was developed to simulate the effects of upper and lower lobe lung volume reduction on RV/TLC and lung recoil in homogeneous emphysema.Results: Patients with homogeneous emphysema received either upper or lower lobe volume reduction therapy based on findings of radionucleotide scintigraphy scanning. CT analysis of lobar volumes showed that patients undergoing upper (n=18; -265 mL/site and lower lobe treatment (n=11; -217 mL/site experienced similar reductions in lung volume. However, only upper lobe treatment improved FEV1 (+11.1±14.7% vs -4.4±15.8% and RV/TLC (-5.4± 8.1% vs -2.4±8.6%. Model simulations provided an unexpected explanation for this response. Increases in transpulmonary pressure subsequent to volume reduction increased RV/TLC in upper lobe alveoli, while caudal shifts in airway closure decreased RV/TLC in lower lobe alveoli. Upper lobe treatment, which eliminates apical alveoli with high RV/TLC values, lowers the average RV/TLC of the lung. Conversely, lower lobe treatment, which eliminates caudal alveoli with low RV/TLC values, has less effect. Conclusions: Lower lobe treatment in homogeneous emphysema is uniformly less effective than upper lobe treatment.

  9. Physiological responses to ocean acidification and warming synergistically reduce condition of the common cockle Cerastoderma edule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, E Z; Briffa, M; Moens, T; Van Colen, C

    2017-09-01

    The combined effect of ocean acidification and warming on the common cockle Cerastoderma edule was investigated in a fully crossed laboratory experiment. Survival of the examined adult organisms remained high and was not affected by elevated temperature (+3 °C) or lowered pH (-0.3 units). However, the morphometric condition index of the cockles incubated under high pCO 2 conditions (i.e. combined warming and acidification) was significantly reduced after six weeks of incubation. Respiration rates increased significantly under low pH, with highest rates measured under combined warm and low pH conditions. Calcification decreased significantly under low pH while clearance rates increased significantly under warm conditions and were generally lower in low pH treatments. The observed physiological responses suggest that the reduced food intake under hypercapnia is insufficient to support the higher energy requirements to compensate for the higher costs for basal maintenance and growth in future high pCO 2 waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Physiology and gene expression profiles of Dekkera bruxellensis in response to carbon and nitrogen availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros Pita, Will; Silva, Denise Castro; Simões, Diogo Ardaillon; Passoth, Volkmar; de Morais, Marcos Antonio

    2013-11-01

    The assimilation of nitrate, a nitrogenous compound, was previously described as an important factor favoring Dekkera bruxellensis in the competition with Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the industrial sugarcane substrate. In this substrate, nitrogen sources are limited and diverse, and a recent report showed that amino acids enable D. bruxellensis to grow anaerobically. Thus, understanding the regulation of nitrogen metabolism is one fundamental aspect to comprehend the competiveness of D. bruxellensis in the fermentation environment. In the present study, we evaluated the physiological and transcriptional profiles of D. bruxellensis in response to different carbon and nitrogen supplies to determine their influence on growth, sugar consumption, and ethanol production. Besides, the expression of genes coding for nitrogen permeases and enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of glutamate and energetic metabolism were investigated under these conditions. Our data revealed that genes related to nitrogen uptake in D. bruxellensis are under the control of nitrogen catabolite repression. Moreover, we provide indications that glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamate synthase may switch roles as the major pathway for glutamate biosynthesis in D. bruxellensis. Finally, our data showed that in nonoptimal growth conditions, D. bruxellensis leans toward the respiratory metabolism. The results presented herein show that D. bruxellensis and S. cerevisiae share similar regulation of GDH–GOGAT pathway, while D. bruxellensis converts less glucose to ethanol than S. cerevisiae do when nitrogen is limited. The consequence of this particularity to the industrial process is discussed.

  11. Evaluation of Sleeping Comfort of Bed Mattresses using Physiological and Psychological Response Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoi, Masataka; Kamijo, Masayoshi; Yoshida, Hiroaki

    The purpose of this study is to create a method of evaluating the quality of sleep based on the elastic properties of bed mattresses through measurement of physiological and psychological responses while sleeping. We gathered Profile of Mood States (POMS) results before and after sleep, and investigated changes in subjects' moods according to sleep. A total of 4 bed mattresses with different degrees of elasticity were prepared. They were all pocket coil mattresses. We conducted polysomnography (PSG) testing on subjects with a bioamplifier while they slept in each bed mattress, so that sleeping depth indicating the quality of sleep could be estimated. PSG is a comprehensive recording of the biophysiological changes that occur during sleep. As a result, the sleep depth of bed mattress with a high degree of elasticity increased in the PSG evaluation. Because the hip sinks in deeply from the waist, it is not easy to turn over on mattresses with a low degree of elasticity. We have therefore considered that the sleep depth of the subjects became shallow as a result. We have concluded that it is possible to estimate the quality of sleep through analysis of PSG and POMS results.

  12. Atomic force microscopy study of nano-physiological response of ladybird beetles to photostimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guz, Natalia V; Dokukin, Maxim E; Sokolov, Igor

    2010-09-22

    Insects are of interest not only as the most numerous and diverse group of animals but also as highly efficient bio-machines varying greatly in size. They are the main human competitors for crop, can transmit various diseases, etc. However, little study of insects with modern nanotechnology tools has been done. Here we applied an atomic force microscopy (AFM) method to study stimulation of ladybird beetles with light. This method allows for measuring of the internal physiological responses of insects by recording surface oscillations in different parts of the insect at sub-nanometer amplitude level and sub-millisecond time. Specifically, we studied the sensitivity of ladybird beetles to light of different wavelengths. We demonstrated previously unknown blindness of ladybird beetles to emerald color (∼500nm) light, while being able to see UV-blue and green light. Furthermore, we showed how one could study the speed of the beetle adaptation to repetitive flashing light and its relaxation back to the initial stage. The results show the potential of the method in studying insects. We see this research as a part of what might be a new emerging area of "nanophysiology" of insects.

  13. Presence of a dog reduces subjective but not physiological stress responses to an analog trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Peyk, Peter; Streb, Markus; Holz, Elena; Michael, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Dogs are known to have stress and anxiety reducing effects. Several studies have shown that dogs are able to calm people during cognitive and performance stressors. Recently, therapy dogs have been proposed as a treatment adjunct for post-traumatic stress disorder patients. In this study we aimed to investigate, whether dogs also have anxiety- and stress reducing effect during "traumatic stressors." 80 healthy female participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions. They were exposed to a "traumatic" film clip (trauma-film-paradigm). For one group of participants a friendly dog was present during the film, one group of participants was accompanied by a friendly human, another control group watched the film with a toy animal and the last group watched the film clip alone. Participants that were accompanied by the dog during the film reported lower anxiety ratings and less negative affect after the film clip as compared to the "toy dog group" and the "alone group." Results of the "dog group" were comparable to the group that was accompanied by a friendly human. There were no differences in physiological stress responses between the four conditions. Our results show that dogs are able to lessen subjectively experienced stress and anxiety during a "traumatic" stress situation. This effect was comparable to that of social support by a friendly person. Implications for PTSD patients are discussed.

  14. [Physiological response and bioaccumulation of Panax notoginseng to cadmium under hydroponic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zi-wei; Yang, Ye; Cui, Xiu-ming; Liao, Pei-ran; Ge, Jin; Wang, Cheng-xiao; Yang, Xiao-yan; Liu, Da-hui

    2015-08-01

    The physiological response and bioaccumulation of 2-year-old Panax notoginseng to cadmium stress was investigated under a hydroponic experiment with different cadmium concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 10 μmol · L(-1)). Result showed that low concentration (2.5 μmol · L(-1)) of cadmium could stimulate the activities of SOD, POD, APX in P. notoginseng, while high concentration (10 μmol · L(-1)) treatment made activities of antioxidant enzyme descended obviously. But, no matter how high the concentration of cadmium was, the activities of CAT were inhibited. The Pn, Tr, Gs in P. notoginseng decreased gradually with the increase of cadmium concentration, however Ci showed a trend from rise to decline. The enrichment coefficients of different parts in P. notoginseng ranked in the order of hair root > root > rhizome > leaf > stem, and all enrichment coefficients decreased with the increase of concentration of cadmium treatments; while the cadmium content in different parts of P. notoginseng and the transport coefficients rose. To sum up, cadmium could affect antioxidant enzyme system and photosynthetic system of P. notoginseng; P. notoginseng had the ability of cadmium enrichment, so we should plant it in suitable place reduce for reducing the absorption of cadmium; and choose medicinal parts properly to lessen cadmium intake.

  15. Physiological responses in Alpine skiers during on-snow training simulation in the cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, E; Ohya, T; Ito, R; Matsumoto, T; Kitagawa, K

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the physiological responses to cold stimulus during intermittent high-intensity exercise simulating on-snow alpine ski training. 7 male alpine skiers performed intermittent high-intensity exercises composed of 4 bouts of cycling exercise at 140% VO 2max intensity for 30 s with 10-min rests on a cycle ergometer in cold (1°C) and control (22°C) conditions. The subjects wore racing suits, middle layers and half pants designed for alpine skiers. Rectal temperature and mean skin temperature were lower in the cold condition than in the control condition (36.8 ± 0.5 vs. 37.1 ± 0.1°C and 28.4 ± 0.6 vs. 33.3 ± 0.6°C, respectively). Oxygen consumption during rests and the last 2 bouts of exercise was higher in the cold condition than in the control condition. Although plasma noradrenaline and serum triglyceride were higher in the cold condition than in the control condition, plasma glucose, adrenaline and serum glycerol were lower. Serum free fatty acid and plasma lactate concentrations did not differ significantly between the 2 conditions. These results indicate that a cold stimulus affects body temperature and energy metabolism and may lead to a decrease in exercise capacity in alpine skiers during on-snow training. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Stimulation of Deprivation Cycles with Spirulina platensis Feed Supplementation on Osphronemus gouramy Physiological Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorta Basar Ida Simanjuntak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina platensis is a phytoplankton, the cell wall composed of complex sugars so easily digested by fish. The present study was carried out to investigate stimulation cycle of feed deprivation with feed supplemented S. platensis the best to increase growth, hematological and body composition of gurami (Osphronemus gouramy. Groups of 24 fish, each in triplicate, were exposed to four different treatment for a period of 56 days. Sample measurements of growth done every 14 days, hematological and body composition measurements carried out at the end of the experiment. Growth was significantly different between stimulation cycle of feed deprivation and the control (P<0.05. Conclusions result showed that stimulation cycles of feed deprivation could not improve growth and hematological, but could improve body composition. Feed deprivation is done to reduce the cost of production, high production costs due to high feed prices. During research on feed deprivation is done by giving commercial feed, this study is to provide feed supplementation S. platensis. Thus, the results of this study can be useful for science as S. platensis information can be used as a food supplement and and for the people cultivating gurami should be fed daily supplementation of S. platensis.How to CiteSimanjuntak, S. B. I., Wibowo, E. S. & Indarmawan, I. (2016. Stimulation of Deprivation Cycles with Spirulina platensis Feed Supplementation on Osphronemus gouramy Physiological Responses. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(3,  378-385. 

  17. Physiological and behavioural stress responses in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) to noise associated with construction work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westlund, K; Fernström, A-L; Wergård, E-M; Fredlund, H; Hau, J; Spångberg, M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the behavioural and physiological responses to environmental disturbances (live and recorded dynamite explosions) in laboratory non-human primates in preparation for a future tunnel construction underneath our animal facility. In a pilot study (A) on 20 female Macaca fascicularis, a day of test blasts resulted in an increase in faecal cortisol and immunoreactive cortisol metabolites (CICM), and the animals reacted behaviourally with vertical flight and vocalizations. In a follow-up study (B), we assessed the impact of 10 days of exposure to recorded detonations on the behaviour and CICM in 16 M. fascicularis. In the latter study we introduced a predictive signal, serving as a conditional stimulus, to half of the animals. We found no significant effects of the noise in the Signal group; while the Control groups' CICM values were affected. The behaviour was largely unaffected in the two groups. It was decided not to introduce a research moratorium on biomedical research planned to be conducted during the future tunnel construction, and that a conditional stimulus ('warning signal') will be used.

  18. Immune and physiological responses of pufferfish (Takifugu obscurus) under cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chang-Hong; Ye, Chao-Xia; Guo, Zhi-Xun; Wang, An-Li

    2017-05-01

    Low temperature is an important environmental factor in aquaculture farming that affects the survival and growth of organisms. In the present study, we investigated the effects of low temperature on biochemical parameters, oxidative stress and apoptosis in pufferfish. In the stress group, water temperature decreased from 25 °C to 13 °C at a rate of 1 °C/1 h. Fish blood and liver were collected to assay biochemical parameters, oxidative stress and expression of genes at 25 °C, 21 °C, 17 °C, 13 °C and 13 °C for 24 h. The results showed that low temperature could decrease total blood cell count, inhibit cell viability, and subsequently lead to DNA damage. Biochemical parameters such as plasma protein and ALP significantly declined in fish under low temperature, while a significant increase in AST, ALT, LDH and glucose was observed. The gene expression of antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT), HSP90 and C3 were induced by low temperature stress. Furthermore, the gene expression of apoptotic related genes including P53, caspase-9 and caspase-3 were up-regulated, suggesting that caspase-dependent pathway could play important roles in low temperature-induced apoptosis in fish. This study may provide baseline information about how cold stress affects the physiological responses and apoptosis in fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Physiological and psychophysiological responses to an exer-game training protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Shaw; Pinsker, Russell; Naik, Rutika; Noah, J Adam

    2016-03-01

    Exer-games and virtual reality offer alternative opportunities to provide neuro-rehabilitation and exercise that are fun. Our goal was to determine how effective they are in achieving motor learning goals and fitness benefits as players gain experience. We employed a repeated measures design to determine changes in physical exertion and engagement with training. Fourteen healthy adults trained on the XBOX Kinect video game Dance Central using a skill-based protocol to examine changes in energy expenditure (EE), heart rate (HR), METs, limb movement, game proficiency, and player engagement in initial, post-training, and transfer-testing of a full-body dance exer-game. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance, pgame scores, also increased from initial to post-training and transfer-testing (p≤0.002). Limb movement and player engagement remained unchanged. It is important to understand whether player physiological and psychophysiological responses change with continued game-play. Although Dance Central involves whole-body movement, physical exertion remained at moderate levels after training. As exer-game and virtual reality systems move from their initial novelty, research about how players react to continued involvement with a game can guide game developers to maintain a freshness through game progression that preserves the participant's attentional focus, minimizes attrition and maintains a prescribed level of energy exertion. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Physiological response of Cu and Cu mine tailing remediation of Paulownia fortunei (Seem) Hemsl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zao-Fa; Huang, Su-Zhen; Han, Yu-Lin; Zhao, Jiu-Zhou; Fu, Jia-Jia

    2012-04-01

    The physiological responses and Cu accumulation of Paulownia fortunei (Seem) Hemsl. were studied under 15.7-157 μmol L(-1) Cu treatments in liquid culture for 14 days; the impacts of Cu concentration in the seedlings were evaluated under Cu mine tailing culture with acetic acid and EDTA treatment for 60 days. Results showed that the concentrations of Chl-a, Chl-b and Carotenoids significantly increased (p tailing experienced unsuccessful growth and loss of leaves in all treatments due to poor nutrition of the Cu tailing. The dry weight of P. fortunei increased under all the treatments of acetic acid after 60 days exposure. However, dry weight significantly decreased under both levels of EDTA. The Cu concentrations increased significantly in roots and decreased in leaves when each was treated with both concentrations of acetic acid. The Cu concentrations in the roots, stems and leaves increased significantly, and the concentrations of Cu in the stems and leaves under the treatment of 2 μmol L(-1) EDTA reached 189.5 and 763.1 μg g(-1) DW, respectively. The result indicated that SOD, CAT, proline and soluble sugars played an important role in coping with the oxidative stress of copper. Acetic acid could promote growth and EDTA at the experimental levels, which could also enhance Cu absorption and translocation into the stems and leaves of P. fortune. Furthermore, acetic acid and EDTA could be rationally utilized in Cu-contaminated soil.

  1. Presence of a dog reduces subjective but not physiological stress responses to an analogue trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna eLass-Hennemann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dogs are known to have stress and anxiety reducing effects. Several studies have shown that dogs are able to calm people during cognitive and performance stressors. Recently, therapy dogs have been proposed as a treatment adjunct for PTSD patients. In this study we aimed to investigate, whether dogs also have anxiety- and stress reducing effect during traumatic stressors. 80 healthy female participants were randomly assigned to one of 4 conditions. They were exposed to a traumatic film clip (trauma-film-paradigm. For one group of participants a friendly dog was present during the film, one group of participants was accompanied by a friendly human, another control group watched the film with a toy animal and the last group watched the film clip alone. Participants that were accompanied by the dog during the film reported lower anxiety ratings and less negative affect after the film clip as compared to the toy dog group and the alone group. Results of the dog group were comparable to the group that was accompanied by a friendly human. There were no differences in physiological stress responses between the four conditions. Our results show that dogs are able to lessen subjectively experienced stress and anxiety during a traumatic stress situation. This effect was comparable to that of social support by a friendly person. Implications for PTSD patients are discussed.

  2. Adolescents with psychopathic traits report reductions in physiological responses to fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Abigail A; Finger, Elizabeth C; Schechter, Julia C; Jurkowitz, Ilana T N; Reid, Marguerite E; Blair, R J R

    2011-08-01

    Psychopathy is characterized by profound affective deficits, including shallow affect and reduced empathy. Recent research suggests that these deficits may apply particularly to negative emotions, or to certain negative emotions such as fear. Despite increased focus on the cognitive and neural underpinnings of psychopathy, little is known about how psychopathy is associated with emotional deficits across a range of emotions. In addition, the relationship between psychopathy and the subjective experience of emotion has not yet been assessed.   Eighteen 10-17-year-olds with psychopathic traits and 24 comparison children and adolescents reported on their subjective experiences of emotion during five recent emotionally evocative life events, following a paradigm developed by Scherer and colleagues (Scherer & Wallbott, 1994). Group comparisons were then performed to assess variations in subjective experiences across emotions. As predicted, psychopathy was associated with reductions in the subjective experience of fear relative to other emotions. Children and adolescents with psychopathic traits reported fewer symptoms associated with sympathetic nervous system arousal during fear-evoking experiences. Rather than being related to uniformly impoverished emotional experience, psychopathic traits appear to be associated with greater deficits in subjective experiences of fear. This pattern of responding supports and extends previous observations that psychopathy engenders deficits in fear learning, physiological responses to threats, and the recognition of fear in others. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2010 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  3. Atomic force microscopy study of nano-physiological response of ladybird beetles to photostimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V Guz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insects are of interest not only as the most numerous and diverse group of animals but also as highly efficient bio-machines varying greatly in size. They are the main human competitors for crop, can transmit various diseases, etc. However, little study of insects with modern nanotechnology tools has been done. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we applied an atomic force microscopy (AFM method to study stimulation of ladybird beetles with light. This method allows for measuring of the internal physiological responses of insects by recording surface oscillations in different parts of the insect at sub-nanometer amplitude level and sub-millisecond time. Specifically, we studied the sensitivity of ladybird beetles to light of different wavelengths. We demonstrated previously unknown blindness of ladybird beetles to emerald color (∼500nm light, while being able to see UV-blue and green light. Furthermore, we showed how one could study the speed of the beetle adaptation to repetitive flashing light and its relaxation back to the initial stage. CONCLUSIONS: The results show the potential of the method in studying insects. We see this research as a part of what might be a new emerging area of "nanophysiology" of insects.

  4. Effects of foliage plants on human physiological and psychological responses at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumeno, Desto; Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    2015-02-01

    Escalation of task demands and time pressures tends to make a worker run into work stress, which leads to mental fatigue and depression. The mental fatigue can be reduced when attention capacity is restored. Nature can serve as a source of fascination which can restore the attention capacity. People bring plants indoors so they can experience nature in their workplace. The stress and fatigue are also affected by air temperatures. The increase or decrease of temperatures from the comfort zone may induce the stress and fatigue. The objective of this study is to investigate the intervention of using foliage plants placed inside a building at different air temperature levels. The effects of foliage plants on human stress and fatigue were measured by human physiological responses such as heart rate, amylase level, electroencephalography (EEG), and the secondary task-reaction time. Several different tasks, namely typing, math and logical sequences are included in the investigation of these studies. Fifteen subjects, with the age ranged from 22 to 38 years old have participated in the study using within subject design. From the study, it is revealed that the presence of foliage plants at several temperatures have different effects on meditation, secondary task reaction time and typing accuracy. This study also revealed that the presence of plants on several types of tasks has different effects of attention which are useful for increasing work performance.

  5. Presence of a dog reduces subjective but not physiological stress responses to an analog trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Peyk, Peter; Streb, Markus; Holz, Elena; Michael, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Dogs are known to have stress and anxiety reducing effects. Several studies have shown that dogs are able to calm people during cognitive and performance stressors. Recently, therapy dogs have been proposed as a treatment adjunct for post-traumatic stress disorder patients. In this study we aimed to investigate, whether dogs also have anxiety- and stress reducing effect during “traumatic stressors.” 80 healthy female participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions. They were exposed to a “traumatic” film clip (trauma-film-paradigm). For one group of participants a friendly dog was present during the film, one group of participants was accompanied by a friendly human, another control group watched the film with a toy animal and the last group watched the film clip alone. Participants that were accompanied by the dog during the film reported lower anxiety ratings and less negative affect after the film clip as compared to the “toy dog group” and the “alone group.” Results of the “dog group” were comparable to the group that was accompanied by a friendly human. There were no differences in physiological stress responses between the four conditions. Our results show that dogs are able to lessen subjectively experienced stress and anxiety during a “traumatic” stress situation. This effect was comparable to that of social support by a friendly person. Implications for PTSD patients are discussed. PMID:25250009

  6. Sensing human physiological response using wearable carbon nanotube-based fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Loh, Kenneth J.; Koo, Helen S.

    2016-04-01

    Flexible and wearable sensors for human monitoring have received increased attention. Besides detecting motion and physical activity, measuring human vital signals (e.g., respiration rate and body temperature) provide rich data for assessing subjects' physiological or psychological condition. Instead of using conventional, bulky, sensing transducers, the objective of this study was to design and test a wearable, fabric-like sensing system. In particular, multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-latex thin films of different MWCNT concentrations were first fabricated using spray coating. Freestanding MWCNT-latex films were then sandwiched between two layers of flexible fabric using iron-on adhesive to form the wearable sensor. Second, to characterize its strain sensing properties, the fabric sensors were subjected to uniaxial and cyclic tensile load tests, and they exhibited relatively stable electromechanical responses. Finally, the wearable sensors were placed on a human subject for monitoring simple motions and for validating their practical strain sensing performance. Overall, the wearable fabric sensor design exhibited advances such as flexibility, ease of fabrication, light weight, low cost, noninvasiveness, and user comfort.

  7. Effect of picloram herbicide on physiological responses of Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowen Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng., a major invasive weed in southwestern China, has caused great economic losses. In order to find a new herbicide to control E. adenophorum, experiments were conducted to study its physiological and biochemical responses to low and high doses of picloram herbicide (4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropyridine-2-carboxylic acid. Electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde, and free proline were stimulated by picloram, showing a remarkably increase (p < 0.05 with high herbicide concentration (60, 120, and 240 g ai ha-1. The treated plants exhibited lower osmotic adjustment capacity, high dosage lipid peroxide levels and more free-proline accumulation. It was found that low doses (12 and 24 g ai ha-1 of picloram initially increased catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutases and protein, but these indicators decreased (p < 0.05 with the increase of treating time (after 3 d and dose (120 and 240 g ai ha-1. In addition, the structures of chloroplasts and mitochondria were seriously deformed. These results indicated E. adenophorum can improve its herbicide-tolerance by increasing the antioxidative system activity at the initial period of low picloram stress. However, this protective function disappeared with increasing of treating time and picloram dosage. Eupatorium adenophorum responded differently to low and high concentrations of picloram and ultrastructural changes are an important cause of death in E. adenophorum.

  8. Physiological responses of Kobresia pygmaea to warming in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau permafrost region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Wang, G. X.; Yang, L. D.; Guo, J. Y.; Li, N.

    2012-02-01

    Kobresia pygmaea (C. B. Clarke) C. B. Clarke is one dominant herbaceous species in the alpine meadows of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. From 2006 to 2009, a warming experiment was conducted in this permafrost region. Two 2-year warming treatments with an annual average warming of 2.1 °C and 4.4 °C, and one 4-year warming treatment with an annual average warming of 2.3 °C were established to examine physiological responses of K. pygmaea to warming. Our results indicated that 2-years of warming increased malondialdehyde and non-structural carbohydrates in the plants. There was no effect of 2-year warming on electrolyte leakage and free proline content. In the 2-year warming treatment, superoxide dismutase activity and peroxidase activity increased, ascorbate peroxidase activity and ascorbic acid only increased in 2-year high warming treatment, whereas in the 4-year warming treatment, active oxygen species, electrolyte leakage, UV-absorbing compounds and anthocyanins decreased. The 4-year warming treatment also significantly increased non-structural carbonhydrate and free proline accumulation for osmotic adjustment. The results of this study suggest that K. pygmaea could adapt to a warmer environment in the future.

  9. Physiological response to drought stress in Camptotheca acuminata seedlings from two provenances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeqing eYing

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is a key environmental factor limiting the growth and productivity of plants. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological responses of Camptotheca acuminata (C. acuminata to different drought stresses and compare the drought tolerance between the provenances Kunming (KM and Nanchang (NC, which are naturally distributed in different rainfall zones with annual rainfalls of 1000-1100 mm and 1600-1700 mm, respectively. We determined relative water content (RWC, chlorophyll content (Chl(a+b, net photosynthesis (Pn, gas exchange parameters, relative leakage conductivity (REC, malondialdehyde (MDA content and superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase (POD activities of C. acuminata seedlings under both moderate (50% of maximum field capacity and severe drought stress (30% of maximum field capacity. As the degree of water stress increased, RWC, Chl(a+b content, Pn, stomatal conductance (Gs, transpiration rate (Tr and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci values decreased, but water use efficiency (WUE, REC, MDA content and SOD and POD activities increased in provenances KM and NC. Under moderate and severe drought stress, provenance KM had higher RWC, Chl(a+b, Pn, WUE, SOD and POD and lower Gs, Tr, Ci and REC in leaves than provenance NC. The results indicated that provenance KM may maintain stronger drought tolerance via improvements in water-retention capacity, antioxidant enzyme activity and membrane integrity.

  10. Response of Boron and Light on Morph-Physiology and Pod Yield of Two Peanut Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Quamruzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Boron is an important micronutrient that enhances vegetative growth and yield of crops, like peanut. Light also plays an important role in pegging of peanut. There has been little information regarding the application of boron and light in peanut in Bangladesh. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted to study the response of boron and light on morph-physiology and pod yield of two peanut varieties. Treatments considered two peanut varieties, namely, Dhaka-1 and BARI Chinabadam-8, three levels of boron (B, namely, 0-kg B ha−1 (B0, 1-kg B ha−1 (B1, and 2-kg B ha−1 (B2, and two levels of light, namely, normal day light (≈12 h light and normal day light + 6 h extended red light at night (≈18 h light. Result revealed that days to first-last emergence and days to first-50% flowering took shorter times and vegetative growth, pods dry weight plant−1, pod yield, and germination were markedly increased with the application of boron. Vegetative growth and germinations were significantly increased in light, but the lowest leaf area, pods dry weight plant−1, and pod yield were found in light. Without germination, the highest vegetative growth, reproductive unit, and pod yield were observed from BARI Chinabadam-8. Days to first-last emergence, days to first-50% flowering, and number of branches plant−1 were found linearly related to pod yield.

  11. Forest response to CO{sub 2} enrichment: Physiology and ecology of loblolly pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strain, B.R.; Thomas, R.B.

    1997-03-10

    This report covers the results of a long-term project with the primary objective of developing and testing hypotheses on the environmental and physiological controls of loblolly pine response to atmospheric CO{sub 2} enrichment. Earlier research under DOE funding had provided information from loblolly pine and other plant species which allowed the development of specific hypotheses. Phase 1 of this research was a two year pot study of loblolly seedlings to determine the interaction of CO{sub 2} enrichment with soil nutrition. Phase 2 began with the enrichment of loblolly seedlings being grown in the ground, rather than pots, and continued through December 1995. Phase 3 began in April 1994 with the enrichment of undisturbed Piedmont North Carolina old field undergoing succession, including herbaceous annual plants, perennial grasses, and loblolly pine tree seedlings. Phase 3 was designed to gather preliminary information on a regenerating loblolly forest to be used for the development of hypotheses and measurement techniques for a long-term Free Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment (FACE) study of regenerating forest in Duke Forest.

  12. Comparison of physiological responses to open water kayaking and kayak ergometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Someren, K A; Phillips, G R; Palmer, G S

    2000-04-01

    This study compared the physiological responses of simulated kayaking on a K1 ERGO kayak ergometer with open water paddling. Nine well-trained male kayakers (VO2peak 4.27 +/- 0.58 L x min(-1), age 24 +/- 4 yr, mass 77.3 +/- 6.4 kg, height 179.5 +/- 5.3 cm; [mean +/- SD]) performed two 4 min exercise bouts on open water (OW) and on an air braked kayak ergometer (Erg). During exercise, expired air and heart rate (HR) were continuously measured. The distance covered during OW (992 +/- 47.1 m) was highly correlated (r2 = 0.86) with the total work performed in Erg (47.64 +/- 7.67 kJ). There were no differences between trials for oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production or estimated carbohydrate oxidation. However, during OW, minute ventilation was significantly higher at 60 and 90 s (104.2 +/- 16.4 vs. 92.6 +/- 20.4 L x min(-1) and 120.5 +/- 15.8 vs. 111.7 +/- 17.6 L x min(-1) for 60 and 90 s, respectively, p kayaking.

  13. The psycho-physiological responses of partners in the process of divorce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigita Kričaj Korelc

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to establish whether the partners who are in the process of separating and those, who evaluate their partnership as successful, differ from each other in emotional, behavioural and somatic responses, and whether there are differences between them in personal strenght, tackling and in different styles of defensive behaviour. According to that, the author followed a psycho-physiological integrational model of disease existence and biopsychosocial model of health and disease. The results showed that the separating partners of both gender experience subjectively stronger emotional states with negative hedonic note and manifest more mood and adaptable emotional disturbances in quality and quantity as a reaction to the stressful events. They also respond strongly with somatic disturbances without organic basis or defined physical causes. Partners in separation also engage more nonadaptive and risk taking behaviors. In addition their use of all disposable strategies of coping is more vigorous and frequent. Obtained results also show some specific cross gender features and differences in receiving and responding to the separation of a matrimony.

  14. Transcriptomic response to injury sheds light on the physiological costs of reproduction in ant queens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wyschetzki, Katharina; Lowack, Helena; Heinze, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    The trade-off between reproduction and longevity is widespread among multicellular organisms. As an important exception, the reproductive females of perennial social insects (ants, honeybees, termites) are simultaneously highly fertile and very long-lived relative to their nonreproductive nestmates. The observation that increased fecundity is not coupled with decreased lifespan suggests that social insect queens do not have to reallocate resources between reproduction and self-maintenance. If queens have to compensate for the costs of reproduction on the level of the individual, the activation of other energy-demanding physiological processes might force them to reduce the production of eggs. To test this hypothesis in ant queens, we increased immunity costs by injury and measured the effect of this treatment on egg-laying rates and genomewide gene expression. Amputation of both middle legs led to a temporary decrease in egg-laying rates and affected the expression of 947 genes corresponding to 9% of the transcriptome. The changes comprised the upregulation of the immune and wound healing response on the one hand, and the downregulation of germ cell development, central nervous system development and learning ability on the other hand. Injury strongly influenced metabolism by inducing catabolism and repressing amino acid and nitrogen compound metabolism. By comparing our results to similar transcriptomic studies in insects, we found a highly consistent upregulation of immune genes due to sterile and septic wounding. The gene expression changes, complemented by the temporary decline of egg-laying rates, clearly reveal a trade-off between reproduction and the immune response in social insect queens. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Physiological and cytokine response to acute exercise under hypoxic conditions: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Fábio S; Lemos, Valdir A; Bittar, Irene G; Caris, Aline V; Dos Santos, Ronaldo V; Tufik, Sergio; Zagatto, Alessandro M; de Souza, Claudio T; Pimentel, Gustavo D; De Mello, Marco T

    2017-04-01

    Studies have demonstrated that exercise in hypoxia situations induces a cytotoxicity effects. However, the cytokines participation in this condition is remaining unknown. Thus, the aim the present study was to evaluate physiological parameters and inflammatory profiles in response to acute exercise after five hours of hypoxic conditions. Fourteen healthy men were distributed randomly into two groups: normoxic exercise (N.=7) and hypoxic exercise (N.=7). All volunteers were blinded to the protocol. Initially, all subjects were submitted to chamber normobaric in a room fitted for altitude simulations of up to 4500 m, equivalent to a barometric pressure of 433 mmHg. All analyses began at 7:00 a.m. and was maintained for 5 hours; the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) was 13.5%. The groups began a 60-minute session of physical exercise starting at 11:00 a.m., at 50% of peak VO2 (50% VO2peak). Blood was collected for cytokine analysis in the morning upon waking, before the 60-minute exercise session and immediately thereafter. The heart rate during 60 minutes' exercise training was significantly increased in both exercise groups (P<0.05), and the oxygen saturation was reduced under hypoxic conditions during exercise (P<0.05). After exercise, significant increases were found for IL-1ra and IL-10 under hypoxic conditions (P<0.05) and for IL-6 for both groups (P<0.05). TNF-α was not altered under either environmental condition. Our data demonstrate that acute exercise performance in hypoxic conditions can promotes early inflammatory response, leads for immunosuppression state.

  16. Physiological Response of In Vitro Cultured MAGNOLIA SP. to Nutrient Medium Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sokolov Rossen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the regeneration response of in vitro cultured Magnolia × soulangeana ‘Alexandrina’ and Magnolia liliiflora ‘Nigra’ to nutrient medium composition. In the primary culture (initiated from dormant axillary buds combinations of Murashige and Skoog (MS basal salts with 6-benzylaminopurine and α-naphthaleneacetic acid were tested. The primary explants of cv. ‘Alexandrina’ expressed higher regeneration rate than cv. ‘Nigra’. For both species, the regen eration was most strongly potentiated at addition of 0.25 mg dm−3 of the cytokinin alone. The auxin exerted undesir–able effects. Several basal salts media were applied in proliferation stage and their physiological effects were evaluated in reference to traditionally used MS. At culturing on Chée & Pool C2d Vitis Medium (VM that is for the first time introduced to magnolia and on MS, M. liliiflora formed more but less elongated shoots than M. soulangeana. However, on VM, substantial increase (25-30% of the number of axillary shoots and leaves, shoot length and fresh and dry weights over MS was established for both species. This suggested VM as promising composition of nutrients in multiplication stage. Microshoots obtained on MS, VM, Rugini Olive Medium and DKW Juglans Medium were successfully rooted in vitro and subsequently established ex vitro. The findings expand the information on magnolia response to culture conditions and contribute to elaboration of innovative elements of protocols for establishing tissue cultures with high regeneration capacity.

  17. Familiarity bias and physiological responses in contagious yawning by dogs support link to empathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Romero

    Full Text Available In humans, the susceptibility to yawn contagion has been theoretically and empirically related to our capacity for empathy. Because of its relevance to evolutionary biology, this phenomenon has been the focus of recent investigations in non-human species. In line with the empathic hypothesis, contagious yawning has been shown to correlate with the level of social attachment in several primate species. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris have also shown the ability to yawn contagiously. To date, however, the social modulation of dog contagious yawning has received contradictory support and alternative explanations (i.e., yawn as a mild distress response could explain positive evidence. The present study aims to replicate contagious yawning in dogs and to discriminate between the two possible mediating mechanisms (i.e., empathic vs. distress related response. Twenty-five dogs observed familiar (dog's owner and unfamiliar human models (experimenter acting out a yawn or control mouth movements. Concurrent physiological measures (heart rate were additionally monitored for twenty-one of the subjects. The occurrence of yawn contagion was significantly higher during the yawning condition than during the control mouth movements. Furthermore, the dogs yawned more frequently when watching the familiar model than the unfamiliar one demonstrating that the contagiousness of yawning in dogs correlated with the level of emotional proximity. Moreover, subjects' heart rate did not differ among conditions suggesting that the phenomenon of contagious yawning in dogs is unrelated to stressful events. Our findings are consistent with the view that contagious yawning is modulated by affective components of the behavior and may indicate that rudimentary forms of empathy could be present in domesticated dogs.

  18. Effects of flunixin meglumine administration on physiological and performance responses of transported feeder cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, R F; Cappellozza, B I; Guarnieri Filho, T A; Bohnert, D W

    2013-11-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effects of flunixin meglumine administration on physiological and performance responses of transported cattle during feedlot receiving. Forty-five Angus × Hereford steers were ranked by BW on d 0 and assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1) transport for 1,280 km in a commercial livestock trailer and administration of flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg BW; intravenous) at loading (d 0) and unloading (d 1; FM), 2) transport for 1,280 km in a commercial livestock trailer and administration of 0.9% saline (0.022 mL/kg BW; intravenous) at loading (d 0) and unloading (d 1; TRANS), or 3) no transport and administration of 0.9% saline (0.022 mL/kg BW; intravenous) concurrently with loading (d 0) and unloading (d 1) of FM and TRANS cohorts (CON). Upon arrival and processing for treatment administration on d 1, steers within each treatment were ranked by BW and assigned to 15 feedlot pens (5 pens/treatment, 3 steers/pen). Full BW was recorded before (d -1 and 0) treatment application and at the end of experiment (d 28 and 29) for ADG calculation. Total DMI was evaluated daily from d 1 to 28. Blood samples were collected on d 0 (before treatment administration), 1 (after unloading but before treatment administration), 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28. Body weight shrink from d 0 to 1 was less (Pflunixin meglumine reduced the cortisol and acute-phase protein responses elicited by road transport but did not improve receiving performance of feeder cattle.

  19. EFFECT OF MC4R POLYMORPHISM ON PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS RESPONSE IN PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Salajpal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R is a G-protein coupled receptor predominantly expressed in hypothalamic regions which are known for their roles in feeding behavior, energy homeostasis and HPA axis regulation. In this study, we analyzed the effect of a missense mutation (Asp298Asn in the porcine MC4R gene on physiological stress response and carcass composition in pigs of two crosses: A (♀Duroc x ♂Swedish Landrace x ♂Pietrain (n=25 and B (♀Swedish Landrace x ♂Large White x ♂Pietrain (n=21. All pigs included in this study were heterozygous (Nn for the stress syndrome gen. Blood samples were collected before loading and at exsanguinations to measure cortisol, lactate, glucose, serum enzymes activity and some haematological parameters. Because only one pig with AA genotype was observed, there was no indicated effect of this genotype on investigated parameters. The heterozygous (AG pigs showed a lower increase (P<0.05 in CK and AST activity after exsanguinations as well as trend towards lower increase (P<0.10 in cortisol and lactate levels and higher increase (P<0.10 in RBC and haemoglobin content. Higher increase (P<0.05 in LDH activity was observed in GG homozygous pigs from group B, but not in pigs from group A. In addition, the heterozygous (AG pigs had a higher backfat thickness and lower estimated lean (P<0.05 than homozygous (GG pigs. These results may support a possible role of the MC4R Asp298Asn polymorphism in the genetic basis of stress response and economically important traits in pigs.

  20. Physiological and Thermal Responses of MS Patients to Head and Vest Cooling: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Bernadette; Webbon, Bruce W.; Ku, Yu-Tsuan E.; Lee, Hank C.; Montgomery, Leslie D.; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Personal cooling systems are used to alleviate symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) and to prevent increased core temperature during daily activities. The objective of this study was to determine the operating characteristics and the physiologic changes produced by short term application of the stationary thermal control system used by most clinical institutions. The Life Enhancement Tech (LET) Mark VII portable cooling system and a lightweight Head-vest active cooling garment were used to cool the head and chest regions of 4 male and 3 female MS patients (30 to 66 yrs. old) in this study. The subjects, seated in an upright position at normal room temperature (approx. 24 C), were tested for 60 min. with the liquid cooling garment (LCG) operated at 50 F. Oral, right and left ear temperatures and cooling system parameters were logged manually every 5 min. Arm, leg, chest and rectal temperatures, heart rate, respiration, and an activity index were recorded continuously on a U.F.I., Inc., Biolog ambulatory monitor. All temperature responses showed extreme variation among subjects. The cold-sensitive subject's rectal temperature increased initially in response to cooling; the heat sensitive subject's rectal temperature decreased. After 40 min. of cooling and during recovery, all subjects'rectal temperatures decreased. Oral temperatures began to decrease after 30 min. of cooling. After 60 min. of cooling, temperature drops ranged from approx. 0.3 - 0.8 C. Oral temperatures continued to decrease during recovery (approx. 0.2 C). The car temperature of the heat sensitive subject was increased after cooling, other subjects exhibited an ear temperature decrease (0.0 - 0.5 C). These data indicate that head and vest cooling may be used to reduce the oral temperatures of MS patients by the approximate amount needed for symptomatic relief as shown by other researchers. The combination of a small subject population and a large subject variance does not permit us to draw statistical

  1. Physiological response of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans exposed to binary mixture of uranium and cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margerit, A.; Gilbin, R. [French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety - IRSN (France); Gomez, E. [Universite Montpellier 1 (France)

    2014-07-01

    Both uranium (U) and cadmium (Cd) are natural ubiquitous substances whose occurrence may be magnified in the vicinity of some Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facility (NFCF) (e.g. uranium mining area) or intensive farming areas. Natural U is a mainly chemo-toxic radioelement, with a slight radio-toxic activity, while Cd is a fully chemo-toxic trace metal. Due to their possible co-occurrence, the study of their combined effects on ecosystems may be of interest in a risk assessment perspective. MixTox tool is a simple descriptive model commonly used to study the effects of chemical mixtures. It relies on dose response, concentration addition and response addition concepts to describe combined toxicant effects and identify possible Synergistic/Antagonistic - Constant/Dose-level/Dose ratio dependent - interactions. In the present study, toxicity of binary mixture of U and Cd was assessed on physiological parameters, maximal length and brood size, in the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. A 49 condition fractional factorial design was used with U and Cd concentrations ranging from 0.95 to 1.3 mM and 0.006 to 0.04 mM, respectively. Dose response curves obtained for U and Cd on maximal length and brood size were consistent with published data. Using MixTox tool, the best description of these endpoints was met with the response addition concept and the dose-ratio dependent interaction model. A significant antagonism was identified when Cd toxicity is preponderant in the mixture and was confirmed with experimental observations. On the other hand, no significant interaction could be identified when U toxicity was preponderant in the mixture. Interaction between the two chemicals may occur during the exposure, the toxicokinetics and/or during the toxico-dynamic phases. Based on the results of this study, a probable hypothesis would be that U, whose toxicity is in the mM range, reduces bioaccumulation of Cd, whose toxicity is in the range of 10 μM. A bioaccumulation assay of U and Cd

  2. A qualitative study of governance of evolving response to non-communicable diseases in low-and middle- income countries: current status, risks and options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Manju; Nusrat, Sharmin; Hawken, Laura H

    2012-10-16

    Segmented service delivery with consequent inefficiencies in health systems was one of the main concerns raised during scaling up of disease-specific programs in the last two decades. The organized response to NCD is in infancy in most LMICs with little evidence on how the response is evolving in terms of institutional arrangements and policy development processes. Drawing on qualitative review of policy and program documents from five LMICs and data from global key-informant surveys conducted in 2004 and 2010, we examine current status of governance of response to NCDs at national level along three dimensions- institutional arrangements for stewardship and program management and implementation; policies/plans; and multisectoral coordination and partnerships. Several positive trends were noted in the organization and governance of response to NCDs: shift from specific NCD-based programs to integrated NCD programs, increasing inclusion of NCDs in sector-wide health plans, and establishment of high-level multisectoral coordination mechanisms.Several areas of concern were identified. The evolving NCD-specific institutional structures are being treated as 'program management and implementation' entities rather than as lead 'technical advisory' bodies, with unclear division of roles and responsibilities between NCD-specific and sector-wide structures. NCD-specific and sector-wide plans are poorly aligned and lack prioritization, costing, and appropriate targets. Finally, the effectiveness of existing multisectoral coordination mechanisms remains questionable. The 'technical functions' and 'implementation and management functions' should be clearly separated between NCD-specific units and sector-wide institutional structures to avoid duplicative segmented service delivery systems. Institutional capacity building efforts for NCDs should target both NCD-specific units (for building technical and analytical capacity) and sector-wide organizational units (for building

  3. A qualitative study of governance of evolving response to non-communicable diseases in low-and middle- income countries: current status, risks and options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Manju

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Segmented service delivery with consequent inefficiencies in health systems was one of the main concerns raised during scaling up of disease-specific programs in the last two decades. The organized response to NCD is in infancy in most LMICs with little evidence on how the response is evolving in terms of institutional arrangements and policy development processes. Methods Drawing on qualitative review of policy and program documents from five LMICs and data from global key-informant surveys conducted in 2004 and 2010, we examine current status of governance of response to NCDs at national level along three dimensions— institutional arrangements for stewardship and program management and implementation; policies/plans; and multisectoral coordination and partnerships. Results Several positive trends were noted in the organization and governance of response to NCDs: shift from specific NCD-based programs to integrated NCD programs, increasing inclusion of NCDs in sector-wide health plans, and establishment of high-level multisectoral coordination mechanisms. Several areas of concern were identified. The evolving NCD-specific institutional structures are being treated as ‘program management and implementation’ entities rather than as lead ‘technical advisory’ bodies, with unclear division of roles and responsibilities between NCD-specific and sector-wide structures. NCD-specific and sector-wide plans are poorly aligned and lack prioritization, costing, and appropriate targets. Finally, the effectiveness of existing multisectoral coordination mechanisms remains questionable. Conclusions The ‘technical functions’ and ‘implementation and management functions’ should be clearly separated between NCD-specific units and sector-wide institutional structures to avoid duplicative segmented service delivery systems. Institutional capacity building efforts for NCDs should target both NCD-specific units (for building

  4. Evolvable synthetic neural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An evolvable synthetic neural system includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to at least one neural basis function. Each neural basis function includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to a heuristic neural system to perform high-level functions and an autonomic neural system to perform low-level functions. In some embodiments, the evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy.

  5. Dried citrus pulp modulates the physiological and acute phase responses of crossbred heifers to an endotoxin challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the effect of feeding dried citrus pulp (CP) pellets on the physiological and acute phase responses (APR) of newly-received crossbred heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Heifers (n=24; 218.3±2.4 kg) were obtained from commercial sale barns and transported...

  6. Cone restraining and head-only electrical stunning in broilers: Effects on physiological responses and meat quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, E.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Verhoeven, M.T.W.; Hindle, V.A.

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate a new electrical stunning system for broilers. The objective of the first experiment was to evaluate the behavioral, neural, and physiological responses of 27 broilers after head-only electrical stunning while their bodies were restrained in cone-shaped

  7. The physiological response of the marine platyhelminth Macrostomum lignano to different environmental oxygen concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Ingraham, G A; Bickmeyer, U; Abele, D

    2013-07-15

    The respiration rate of meiofauna is difficult to measure, and the response to variations in the environmental oxygen concentration has so far been mainly addressed through behavioral investigation. We investigated the effect of different oxygen concentrations on the physiology of the marine platyhelminth Macrostomum lignano. Respiration was measured using batches of 20 animals in a glass microtiter plate equipped with optical oxygen sensor spots. At higher oxygen saturations (>12 kPa), the animals showed a clear oxyconforming behavior. However, below this value, the flatworms kept respiration rates constant at 0.064±0.001 nmol O2 l(-1) h(-1) individual(-1) down to 3 kPa PO2, and this rate was increased by 30% in animals that were reoxygenated after enduring a period of 1.5 h in anoxia. Physiological changes related to tissue oxygenation were assessed using live imaging techniques with different fluorophores in animals maintained in normoxic (21 kPa), hyperoxic (40 kPa) or near-anoxic (~0 kPa) conditions and subjected to anoxia-reoxygenation. The pH-sensitive dyes Ageladine-A and BCECF both indicated that pHi under near-anoxia increases by about 0.07-0.10 units. Mitochondrial membrane potential, Δψm, was higher in anoxic and hyperoxic than in normoxic conditions (JC1 dye data). Staining with ROS-sensitive dyes - DHE for detection of superoxide anion (O2•(-)) formation and C-H DFFDA for other ROS species aside from O2•(-) (H2O2, HOO• and ONOO) - showed increased ROS formation following anoxia-reoxygenation treatment. Animals exposed to hyperoxic, normoxic and anoxic treatments displayed no significant differences in O2•(-) formation, whereas mitochondrial ROS formation as detected by C-H2DFFDA was higher after hyperoxic exposure and lowest under near-anoxia conditions compared with the normoxic control group. Macrostomum lignano seems to be a species that is tolerant of a wide range of oxygen concentrations (being able to maintain aerobic metabolism from

  8. Relationship between rowing ergometer performance and physiological responses to upper and lower body exercises in rowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürimäe, Toivo; Perez-Turpin, Jose A; Cortell-Tormo, Joan M; Chinchilla-Mira, Ivan J; Cejuela-Anta, Roberto; Mäestu, Jarek; Purge, Priit; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this investigation was to compare the physiological responses of 2000 m rowing ergometer test with 7-min bench pull and leg press tests. We hypothesised that leg press exercise contributes to 2000 m rowing ergometer test results, rather than bench pull performed by arms. College level rowers (n=12) performed 2000 m rowing test and after one day 7-min bench pull and leg press (50% from the 1 RM). Stroke rate, heart rate (HR), blood lactate (LA) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during all tests. The number of repetitions was highest during 2000 m rowing test (194.2+/-19.5) and lowest during bench pull (122.6+/-17.7) (during leg press 173.5+/-11.8). Differences between 2000 m rowing test, leg press and bench pull tests were significant in mean and maximal HR. In LA concentration, the highest values were at 3rd min of recovery after rowing test (14.8+/-1.7 mmol l(-1)). Between bench pull (8.8+/-1.9 and 8.5+/-2.7 mmol l(-1)) and leg press (11.8+/-2.5 and 11.2+/-2.3 mmol l(-1)) tests, the difference in LA concentration was not significant (p>0.05). Ratings of perceived exertion were highest in 2000 m rowing test (19.3+/-0.9), difference with leg press and bench pull tests was not significant. There were significant relationships in mean and maximal HR (r=0.713-0.767) and Borg scale (r=0.764) during rowing test and leg press. The number of repetitions during leg press exercise correlated significantly with rowing test time (r=-0.677). In conclusion, this study suggests that in rowers there are major differences in the physiological adaptation to upper body and leg exercise, performed at similar intensities. Leg press exercise could be used to measure sport-specific strength endurance in rowers. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. TAKING THE PULSE OF PROLONGED EXPOSURE THERAPY: PHYSIOLOGICAL REACTIVITY TO TRAUMA IMAGERY AS AN OBJECTIVE MEASURE OF TREATMENT RESPONSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangelin, Bethany C; Tuerk, Peter W

    2015-12-01

    Physiological reactivity to trauma-related cues is a primary symptom of PTSD and can be assessed objectively using script-driven imagery paradigms. However, subjective self-reported symptom measures are the most common outcome indices utilized in PTSD treatment trials and clinic settings. We examined physiological reactivity during a short trauma imagery task as an objective index of response to PTSD treatment, optimized for use in routine clinical care settings. Participants were 35 male combat veterans receiving prolonged exposure (PE) therapy in a Veterans Affairs outpatient clinic. In addition to traditional subjective self-reported and clinician-rated symptom measures, patients also completed a script-driven imagery task in which heart rate (HR) and skin conductance (SC) were recorded at three assessment points across treatment. We examined changes in subjective symptom measures and objective trauma-specific physiological reactivity over the course of PE, and investigated the association between pretreatment physiological reactivity and treatment response. Patients who completed PE showed significantly diminished HR and SC reactivity to trauma imagery across therapy. Additionally, individuals showing greater trauma-specific HR reactivity at pretreatment showed greater reductions in subjectively reported PTSD symptoms at posttreatment. Findings support the utility of physiological reactivity during trauma imagery as an objective outcome measure that has the potential to be incorporated into evidence-based PTSD treatment in routine clinical settings, or prospective studies related to the individualization of care at pretreatment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Physiological and Biomechanical Responses of Highly Trained Distance Runners to Lower-Body Positive Pressure Treadmill Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kyle R; Janecke, Jessica N

    2017-11-21

    As a way to train at faster running speeds, add training volume, prevent injury, or rehabilitate after an injury, lower-body positive pressure treadmills (LBPPT) have become increasingly commonplace among athletes. However, there are conflicting evidence and a paucity of data describing the physiological and biomechanical responses to LBPPT running in highly trained or elite caliber runners at the running speeds they habitually train at, which are considerably faster than those of recreational runners. Furthermore, data is lacking regarding female runners' responses to LBPPT running. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the physiological and biomechanical responses to LBPPT running in highly trained male and female distance runners. Fifteen highly trained distance runners (seven male; eight female) completed a single running test composed of 4 × 9-min interval series at fixed percentages of body weight ranging from 0 to 30% body weight support (BWS) in 10% increments on LBPPT. The first interval was always conducted at 0% BWS; thereafter, intervals at 10, 20, and 30% BWS were conducted in random order. Each interval consisted of three stages of 3 min each, at velocities of 14.5, 16.1, and 17.7 km·h-1 for men and 12.9, 14.5, and 16.1 km·h-1 for women. Expired gases, ventilation, breathing frequency, heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and stride characteristics were measured during each running speed and BWS. Male and female runners had similar physiological and biomechanical responses to running on LBPPT. Increasing BWS increased stride length (p  0.05), and small-large effects on HR and RPE (p  0.05). The results indicate the male and female distance runners have similar physiological and biomechanical responses to LBPPT running. Overall, the biomechanical changes during LBPPT running all contributed to less metabolic cost and corresponding physiological changes.

  11. ULTRAVIOLET PROTECTIVE COMPOUNDS AS A RESPONSE TO ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Life on Earth has evolved adaptations to many environmental stresses over the epochs. One consistent stress has been exposure to ultraviolet radiation. In response to UVR organisms have adapted myriad responses; behavioral, morphological and physiological. Behaviorally, some orga...

  12. Mortality, bioaccumulation and physiological responses in juvenile freshwater mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea) chronically exposed to copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Marianna B; Loro, Vania L; Bianchini, Adalto; Wood, Chris M; Gillis, Patricia L

    2013-01-15

    Several studies have indicated that the early life stages of freshwater mussels are among the most sensitive aquatic organisms to inorganic chemicals, including copper. However, little is known about the toxic mode of action and sub-lethal effects of copper exposure in this group of imperiled animals. In this study, the physiological effects of long-term copper exposure (survival, growth, copper bioaccumulation, whole-body ion content, oxygen consumption, filtration rate, ATPase activities, and biomarkers of oxidative stress) were evaluated in juvenile (6 month old) mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea). The mussels' recovery capacity and their ability to withstand further acute copper challenge were also evaluated in secondary experiments following the 28 day exposure by assessing survival, copper bioaccumulation and whole-body ion content. Mussels chronically exposed to 2 and 12 μg Cu/L showed significantly higher mortality than those held under control conditions (mortality 20.9, 69.9 and 12.5%, respectively), indicating that juvenile L. siliquoidea is underprotected by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) biotic ligand model (BLM)-derived chronic water quality criteria (WQC) (2.18 μg Cu/L) and the hardness-derived USEPA WQC (12.16 μg Cu/L). Soft tissue copper burden increased equally for both copper exposures, suggesting that chronic toxicity is not associated with copper bioaccumulation. Several physiological disturbances were also observed during chronic copper exposure. Most relevant was a decrease in whole-body sodium content paralleled by an inhibition of Na(+) K(+)-ATPase activity, indicating a metal-induced ionoregulatory disturbance. Filtration and oxygen consumption rates were also affected. Redox parameters (reactive oxygen production, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity, and glutathione (GSH) concentration) did not show clear responses, but membrane damage as lipid peroxidation (LPO) was

  13. Behavioral and physiological responses to child-directed speech as predictors of communication outcomes in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Linda R; Baranek, Grace T; Roberts, Jane E; David, Fabian J; Perryman, Twyla Y

    2010-08-01

    To determine the extent to which behavioral and physiological responses during child-directed speech (CDS) correlate concurrently and predictively with communication skills in young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Twenty-two boys with ASD (initial mean age: 35 months) participated in a longitudinal study. At entry, behavioral (i.e., percentage looking) and physiological (i.e., vagal activity) measures were collected during the presentation of CDS stimuli. A battery of standardized communication measures was administered at entry and readministered 12 months later. Percentage looking during CDS was strongly correlated with all entry and follow-up communication scores; vagal activity during CDS was moderately to strongly correlated with entry receptive language, follow-up expressive language, and social-communicative adaptive skills. After controlling for entry communication skills, vagal activity during CDS accounted for significant variance in follow-up communication skills, but percentage looking during CDS did not. Behavioral and physiological responses to CDS are significantly related to concurrent and later communication skills of children with ASD. Furthermore, higher vagal activity during CDS predicts better communication outcomes 12 months later, after initial communication skills are accounted for. Further research is needed to better understand the physiological mechanisms underlying variable responses to CDS among children with ASD.

  14. Effect of F(I)O(2) on physiological responses and cycling performance at moderate altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilber, Randall L; Holm, Paige L; Morris, David M; Dallam, George M; Callan, Samuel D

    2003-07-01

    To evaluate physiological responses and exercise performance during a "live high-train low via supplemental oxygen" (LH + TLO(2)) interval workout in trained endurance athletes. Subjects (N = 19) were trained male cyclists who were permanent residents of moderate altitude (1800-1900 m). Testing was conducted at 1860 m (P(B) 610-612 Torr, P(I)O(2) approximately 128 Torr). Subjects completed three randomized, single-blind trials in which they performed a standardized interval workout while inspiring a medical-grade gas with F(I)O(2) 0.21 (P(I)O(2) approximately 128 Torr), F(I)O(2) 0.26 (P(I)O(2) approximately 159 Torr), and F(I)O(2) 0.60 (P(I)O(2) approximately 366 Torr). The standardized interval workout consisted of 6 x 100 kJ performed on a dynamically calibrated cycle ergometer at a self-selected workload and pedaling cadence with a work:recovery ratio of 1:1.5. Compared with the control trial (21% O(2)), average total time (min:s) for the 100-kJ work interval was 5% and 8% (P Arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (S(p)O(2)) was significantly higher by 5% (26% O(2)) and 8% (60% O(2)) in the supplemental oxygen trials. We concluded that a typical LH + TLO(2) training session results in significant increases in arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation, [V02] and average power output contributing to a significant improvement in exercise performance.

  15. Instrumentation enabling study of plant physiological response to elevated night temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarpley Lee

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global climate warming can affect functioning of crops and plants in the natural environment. In order to study the effects of global warming, a method for applying a controlled heating treatment to plant canopies in the open field or in the greenhouse is needed that can accept either square wave application of elevated temperature or a complex prescribed diurnal or seasonal temperature regime. The current options are limited in their accuracy, precision, reliability, mobility or cost and scalability. Results The described system uses overhead infrared heaters that are relatively inexpensive and are accurate and precise in rapidly controlling the temperature. Remote computer-based data acquisition and control via the internet provides the ability to use complex temperature regimes and real-time monitoring. Due to its easy mobility, the heating system can randomly be allotted in the open field or in the greenhouse within the experimental setup. The apparatus has been successfully applied to study the response of rice to high night temperatures. Air temperatures were maintained within the set points ± 0.5°C. The incorporation of the combination of air-situated thermocouples, autotuned proportional integrative derivative temperature controllers and phase angled fired silicon controlled rectifier power controllers provides very fast proportional heating action (i.e. 9 ms time base, which avoids prolonged or intense heating of the plant material. Conclusion The described infrared heating system meets the utilitarian requirements of a heating system for plant physiology studies in that the elevated temperature can be accurately, precisely, and reliably controlled with minimal perturbation of other environmental factors.

  16. Physiological response of wild dugongs (Dugong dugon) to out-of-water sampling for health assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyon, Janet M.; Sneath, Helen L.; Long, Trevor; Bonde, Robert K.

    2010-01-01

    The dugong (Dugong dugon) is a vulnerable marine mammal with large populations living in urban Queensland waters. A mark-recapture program for wild dugongs has been ongoing in southern Queensland since 2001. This program has involved capture and in-water sampling of more than 700 dugongs where animals have been held at the water surface for 5 min to be gene-tagged, measured, and biopsied. In 2008, this program expanded to examine more comprehensively body condition, reproductive status, and the health of wild dugongs in Moreton Bay. Using Sea World's research vessel, captured dugongs were lifted onto a boat and sampled out-of-water to obtain accurate body weights and morphometrics, collect blood and urine samples for baseline health parameters and hormone profiles, and ultrasound females for pregnancy status. In all, 30 dugongs, including two pregnant females, were sampled over 10 d and restrained on deck for up to 55 min each while biological data were collected. Each of the dugongs had their basic temperature-heart rate-respiration (THR) monitored throughout their period of handling, following protocols developed for the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus). This paper reports on the physiological response of captured dugongs during this out-of-water operation as indicated by their vital signs and the suitability of the manatee monitoring protocols to this related sirenian species. A recommendation is made that the range of vital signs of these wild dugongs be used as benchmark criteria of normal parameters for other studies that intend to sample dugongs out-of-water.

  17. Physiological and morphological responses of pine and willow saplings to post-fire salvage logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millions, E. L.; Letts, M. G.; Harvey, T.; Rood, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    With global warming, forest fires may be increasing in frequency, and post-fire salvage logging may become more common. The ecophysiological impacts of this practice on tree saplings remain poorly understood. In this study, we examined the physiological and morphological impacts of increased light intensity, due to post-fire salvage logging, on the conifer Pinus contorta (pine) and deciduous broadleaf Salix lucida (willow) tree and shrub species in the Crowsnest Pass region of southern Alberta. Photosynthetic gas-exchange and plant morphological measurements were taken throughout the summer of 2013 on approximately ten year-old saplings of both species. Neither species exhibited photoinhibition, but different strategies were observed to acclimate to increased light availability. Willow saplings were able to slightly elevate their light-saturated rate of net photosynthesis (Amax) when exposed to higher photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), thus increasing their growth rate. Willow also exhibited increased leaf inclination angles and leaf mass per unit area (LMA), to decrease light interception in the salvage-logged plot. By contrast, pine, which exhibited lower Amax and transpiration (E), but higher water-use efficiency (WUE = Amax/E) than willow, increased the rate at which electrons were moved through and away from the photosynthetic apparatus in order to avoid photoinhibition. Acclimation indices were higher in willow saplings, consistent with the hypothesis that species with short-lived foliage exhibit greater acclimation. LMA was higher in pine saplings growing in the logged plot, but whole-plant and branch-level morphological acclimation was limited and more consistent with a response to decreased competition in the logged plot, which had much lower stand density.

  18. Hyperlactemia induction modes affect the lactate minimum power and physiological responses in cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagatto, Alessandro M; Padulo, Johnny; Müller, Paulo T G; Miyagi, Willian E; Malta, Elvis S; Papoti, Marcelo

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the influence of hyperlactemia and blood acidosis induction on lactate minimum intensity (LMI). Twenty recreationally trained males who were experienced in cycling (15 cyclists and 5 triathletes) participated in this study. The athletes underwent 3 lactate minimum tests on an electromagnetic cycle ergometer. The hyperlactemia induction methods used were graded exercise test (GXT), Wingate test (WAnT), and 2 consecutive Wingate tests (2 × WAnTs). The LMI at 2 × WAnTs (200.3 ± 25.8 W) was statistically higher than the LMI at GXT (187.3 ± 31.9 W) and WAnT (189.8 ± 26.0 W), with similar findings for blood lactate, oxygen uptake, and pulmonary ventilation at LMI. The venous pH after 2 × WAnTs was lower (7.04 ± 0.24) than in (p ≤ 0.05) the GXT (7.19 ± 0.05) and WAnT (7.19 ± 0.05), whereas the blood lactate response was higher. In addition, similar findings were observed for bicarbonate concentration [HCO3] (2 × WAnTs lower than WAnT; 15.3 ± 2.6 mmol·L and 18.2 ± 2.7 mmol·L1, respectively) (p ≤ 0.05). However, the maximal aerobic power and total time measured during the incremental phase also did not differ. Therefore, we can conclude that the induction mode significantly affects pH, blood lactate, and [HCO3] and consequently they alter the LMI and physiological parameters at LMI.

  19. Effect of recorded male lullaby on physiologic response of neonates in NICU.

    Science.gov (United Sta