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Sample records for evolutionary distant temporal

  1. Time warping of evolutionary distant temporal gene expression data based on noise suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papatsenko Dmitri

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative analysis of genome wide temporal gene expression data has a broad potential area of application, including evolutionary biology, developmental biology, and medicine. However, at large evolutionary distances, the construction of global alignments and the consequent comparison of the time-series data are difficult. The main reason is the accumulation of variability in expression profiles of orthologous genes, in the course of evolution. Results We applied Pearson distance matrices, in combination with other noise-suppression techniques and data filtering to improve alignments. This novel framework enhanced the capacity to capture the similarities between the temporal gene expression datasets separated by large evolutionary distances. We aligned and compared the temporal gene expression data in budding (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and fission (Schizosaccharomyces pombe yeast, which are separated by more then ~400 myr of evolution. We found that the global alignment (time warping properly matched the duration of cell cycle phases in these distant organisms, which was measured in prior studies. At the same time, when applied to individual ortholog pairs, this alignment procedure revealed groups of genes with distinct alignments, different from the global alignment. Conclusion Our alignment-based predictions of differences in the cell cycle phases between the two yeast species were in a good agreement with the existing data, thus supporting the computational strategy adopted in this study. We propose that the existence of the alternative alignments, specific to distinct groups of genes, suggests presence of different synchronization modes between the two organisms and possible functional decoupling of particular physiological gene networks in the course of evolution.

  2. Realigning thunder and lightning: temporal adaptation to spatiotemporally distant events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Navarra

    Full Text Available The brain is able to realign asynchronous signals that approximately coincide in both space and time. Given that many experience-based links between visual and auditory stimuli are established in the absence of spatiotemporal proximity, we investigated whether or not temporal realignment arises in these conditions. Participants received a 3-min exposure to visual and auditory stimuli that were separated by 706 ms and appeared either from the same (Experiment 1 or from different spatial positions (Experiment 2. A simultaneity judgment task (SJ was administered right afterwards. Temporal realignment between vision and audition was observed, in both Experiment 1 and 2, when comparing the participants' SJs after this exposure phase with those obtained after a baseline exposure to audiovisual synchrony. However, this effect was present only when the visual stimuli preceded the auditory stimuli during the exposure to asynchrony. A similar pattern of results (temporal realignment after exposure to visual-leading asynchrony but not after exposure to auditory-leading asynchrony was obtained using temporal order judgments (TOJs instead of SJs (Experiment 3. Taken together, these results suggest that temporal recalibration still occurs for visual and auditory stimuli that fall clearly outside the so-called temporal window for multisensory integration and appear from different spatial positions. This temporal realignment may be modulated by long-term experience with the kind of asynchrony (vision-leading that we most frequently encounter in the outside world (e.g., while perceiving distant events.

  3. Temporal knowledge and autobiographical memory: an evolutionary perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Skowronski, John J.; Sedikides, Constantine

    2007-01-01

    Section I: Philosophical issues 1. Evolutionary pyschology in the round , Robin Dunbar & Louise Barrett 2. The power of culture , Henry Plotkin 3. Evolution and psychology in philosophical perspective , Matteo Mameli 4. Niche construction, human behavioural ecology and evolutionary psychology , Kevin N Laland 5. Group level evolutionary processes , David Sloan Wilson Section II: The comparative Approach 6. Homologizing the mind , Drew Rendall, Hugh Nottman & John ...

  4. Critical factors in the empirical performance of temporal difference and evolutionary methods for reinforcement learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whiteson, S.; Taylor, M.E.; Stone, P.

    2010-01-01

    Temporal difference and evolutionary methods are two of the most common approaches to solving reinforcement learning problems. However, there is little consensus on their relative merits and there have been few empirical studies that directly compare their performance. This article aims to address

  5. Evolution in the block: common elements of 5S rDNA organization and evolutionary patterns in distant fish genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Daniel; García-Vázquez, Eva

    2012-01-01

    The 5S rDNA is organized in the genome as tandemly repeated copies of a structural unit composed of a coding sequence plus a nontranscribed spacer (NTS). The coding region is highly conserved in the evolution, whereas the NTS vary in both length and sequence. It has been proposed that 5S rRNA genes are members of a gene family that have arisen through concerted evolution. In this study, we describe the molecular organization and evolution of the 5S rDNA in the genera Lepidorhombus and Scophthalmus (Scophthalmidae) and compared it with already known 5S rDNA of the very different genera Merluccius (Merluccidae) and Salmo (Salmoninae), to identify common structural elements or patterns for understanding 5S rDNA evolution in fish. High intra- and interspecific diversity within the 5S rDNA family in all the genera can be explained by a combination of duplications, deletions, and transposition events. Sequence blocks with high similarity in all the 5S rDNA members across species were identified for the four studied genera, with evidences of intense gene conversion within noncoding regions. We propose a model to explain the evolution of the 5S rDNA, in which the evolutionary units are blocks of nucleotides rather than the entire sequences or single nucleotides. This model implies a "two-speed" evolution: slow within blocks (homogenized by recombination) and fast within the gene family (diversified by duplications and deletions).

  6. Optical appearance of distant galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchet, C.; Kline, M.I.

    1981-01-01

    We have used the recent evolutionary and K-corrections of Bruzual and Kron to predict the optical appearance of galaxies spanning a wide range of magnitudes and redshifts. It is found that nearly all galaxies with J< or approx. =25 are resolved in 1-arcsec seeing. At fixed apparent magnitude, galaxies with large redshifts are more diffuse in appearance than those at small z. This fact causes the most distant galaxies at any magnitude level to be missed, and, depending on the measurement algorithm employed, may cause the luminosities of detected galaxies to be seriously underestimated. Both of these effects deserve consideration when attempting to interpret number counts of faint galaxies. Observations made with the Space Telescope are expected to resolve nearly all galaxies at J< or approx. =27.5; however, several factors conspire to render Space Telescope observations less effective than certain ground-based CCD observations for the optical detection of distant galaxies. Finally, we note that most of our conclusions are unaffected by changes in the assumed cosmology

  7. Distant asteroids and Chiron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, L.M.; Vilas, F.; Hartmann, W.K.; Tholen, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    Knowledge of the physical properties of distant asteroids (a>3.3 AU) has grown dramatically over the past five years, due to systematic compositional and lightcurve studies. Most of these objects have red, dark surfaces, and their spectra show a reddening in spectral slope with heliocentric distance implying a change in surface composition. Trojans for which near-opposition phase curve information is available appear to show little or no opposition effect, unlike any dark solar system objects. The lightcurve amplitudes of Trojan and Hilda asteroids imply significantly more elongated shapes for these groups than for main-belt asteroids of comparable size. These recent observations are reviewed in the context of their implications for the formation and subsequent evolution of the distant asteroids, and their interrelations with the main belt, Chiron and comets

  8. Micro-evolutionary diversification among Indian Ocean parrots: temporal and spatial changes in phylogenetic diversity as a consequence of extinction and invasion

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, H; Jones, C G; Agapow, P-M; Tatayah, V; Groombridge, Jim J.

    2015-01-01

    Almost 90% of global bird extinctions have occurred on islands. The loss of endemic spe- cies from island systems can dramatically alter evolutionary trajectories of insular species biodiversity, resulting in a loss of evolutionary diversity important for species adaptation to changing environments. The Western Indian Ocean islands have been the scene of evolution for a large number of endemic parrots. Since their discovery in the 16th cen- tury, many of these parrots have become extinct or h...

  9. Determination of the power of multielement aerosol composition emission from distant industrial sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, S.A.; Kutsenogij, K.P.; Chankina, O.V.

    2008-01-01

    The results from the monitoring of the temporal variability of the multielement composition of atmospheric aerosols are presented. They are used to determine the emission power of a series of elements from distant sources.

  10. Evolutionary Nephrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Robert L

    2017-05-01

    Progressive kidney disease follows nephron loss, hyperfiltration, and incomplete repair, a process described as "maladaptive." In the past 20 years, a new discipline has emerged that expands research horizons: evolutionary medicine. In contrast to physiologic (homeostatic) adaptation, evolutionary adaptation is the result of reproductive success that reflects natural selection. Evolutionary explanations for physiologically maladaptive responses can emerge from mismatch of the phenotype with environment or evolutionary tradeoffs. Evolutionary adaptation to a terrestrial environment resulted in a vulnerable energy-consuming renal tubule and a hypoxic, hyperosmolar microenvironment. Natural selection favors successful energy investment strategy: energy is allocated to maintenance of nephron integrity through reproductive years, but this declines with increasing senescence after ~40 years of age. Risk factors for chronic kidney disease include restricted fetal growth or preterm birth (life history tradeoff resulting in fewer nephrons), evolutionary selection for APOL1 mutations (that provide resistance to trypanosome infection, a tradeoff), and modern life experience (Western diet mismatch leading to diabetes and hypertension). Current advances in genomics, epigenetics, and developmental biology have revealed proximate causes of kidney disease, but attempts to slow kidney disease remain elusive. Evolutionary medicine provides a complementary approach by addressing ultimate causes of kidney disease. Marked variation in nephron number at birth, nephron heterogeneity, and changing susceptibility to kidney injury throughout life history are the result of evolutionary processes. Combined application of molecular genetics, evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo), developmental programming and life history theory may yield new strategies for prevention and treatment of chronic kidney disease.

  11. Evolutionary Nephrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Chevalier

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Progressive kidney disease follows nephron loss, hyperfiltration, and incomplete repair, a process described as “maladaptive.” In the past 20 years, a new discipline has emerged that expands research horizons: evolutionary medicine. In contrast to physiologic (homeostatic adaptation, evolutionary adaptation is the result of reproductive success that reflects natural selection. Evolutionary explanations for physiologically maladaptive responses can emerge from mismatch of the phenotype with environment or from evolutionary tradeoffs. Evolutionary adaptation to a terrestrial environment resulted in a vulnerable energy-consuming renal tubule and a hypoxic, hyperosmolar microenvironment. Natural selection favors successful energy investment strategy: energy is allocated to maintenance of nephron integrity through reproductive years, but this declines with increasing senescence after ∼40 years of age. Risk factors for chronic kidney disease include restricted fetal growth or preterm birth (life history tradeoff resulting in fewer nephrons, evolutionary selection for APOL1 mutations (which provide resistance to trypanosome infection, a tradeoff, and modern life experience (Western diet mismatch leading to diabetes and hypertension. Current advances in genomics, epigenetics, and developmental biology have revealed proximate causes of kidney disease, but attempts to slow kidney disease remain elusive. Evolutionary medicine provides a complementary approach by addressing ultimate causes of kidney disease. Marked variation in nephron number at birth, nephron heterogeneity, and changing susceptibility to kidney injury throughout the life history are the result of evolutionary processes. Combined application of molecular genetics, evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo, developmental programming, and life history theory may yield new strategies for prevention and treatment of chronic kidney disease.

  12. A DISTANT QUASAR'S BRILLIANT LIGHT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The arrow in this image, taken by a ground-based telescope, points to a distant quasar, the brilliant core of an active galaxy residing billions of light-years from Earth. As light from this faraway object travels across space, it picks up information on galaxies and the vast clouds of material between galaxies as it moves through them. The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph aboard NASA's Hubble Space Telescope decoded the quasar's light to find the spectral 'fingerprints' of highly ionized (energized) oxygen, which had mixed with invisible clouds of hydrogen in intergalactic space. The quasar's brilliant beam pierced at least four separate filaments of the invisible hydrogen laced with the telltale oxygen. The presence of oxygen between the galaxies implies there are huge quantities of hydrogen in the universe. Credits: WIYN Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory in Arizona. The telescope is owned and operated by the University of Wisconsin, Indiana University, Yale University, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories.

  13. Evolutionary thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Tam

    2014-01-01

    Evolution as an idea has a lengthy history, even though the idea of evolution is generally associated with Darwin today. Rebecca Stott provides an engaging and thoughtful overview of this history of evolutionary thinking in her 2013 book, Darwin's Ghosts: The Secret History of Evolution. Since Darwin, the debate over evolution—both how it takes place and, in a long war of words with religiously-oriented thinkers, whether it takes place—has been sustained and heated. A growing share of this debate is now devoted to examining how evolutionary thinking affects areas outside of biology. How do our lives change when we recognize that all is in flux? What can we learn about life more generally if we study change instead of stasis? Carter Phipps’ book, Evolutionaries: Unlocking the Spiritual and Cultural Potential of Science's Greatest Idea, delves deep into this relatively new development. Phipps generally takes as a given the validity of the Modern Synthesis of evolutionary biology. His story takes us into, as the subtitle suggests, the spiritual and cultural implications of evolutionary thinking. Can religion and evolution be reconciled? Can evolutionary thinking lead to a new type of spirituality? Is our culture already being changed in ways that we don't realize by evolutionary thinking? These are all important questions and Phipps book is a great introduction to this discussion. Phipps is an author, journalist, and contributor to the emerging “integral” or “evolutionary” cultural movement that combines the insights of Integral Philosophy, evolutionary science, developmental psychology, and the social sciences. He has served as the Executive Editor of EnlightenNext magazine (no longer published) and more recently is the co-founder of the Institute for Cultural Evolution, a public policy think tank addressing the cultural roots of America's political challenges. What follows is an email interview with Phipps. PMID:26478766

  14. Evolutionary Demography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levitis, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    of biological and cultural evolution. Demographic variation within and among human populations is influenced by our biology, and therefore by natural selection and our evolutionary background. Demographic methods are necessary for studying populations of other species, and for quantifying evolutionary fitness......Demography is the quantitative study of population processes, while evolution is a population process that influences all aspects of biological organisms, including their demography. Demographic traits common to all human populations are the products of biological evolution or the interaction...

  15. Galactic Teamwork Makes Distant Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    During the period of reionization that followed the dark ages of our universe, hydrogen was transformed from a neutral state, which is opaque to radiation, to an ionized one, which is transparent to radiation. But what generated the initial ionizing radiation? The recent discovery of multiple distant galaxies offers evidence for how this process occurred.Two Distant GalaxiesWe believe reionization occurred somewhere between a redshift of z = 6 and 7, because Ly-emitting galaxies drop out at roughly this redshift. Beyond this distance, were generally unable to see the light from these galaxies, because the universe is no longer transparent to their emission. This is not always the case, however: if a bubble of ionized gas exists around a distant galaxy, the radiation can escape, allowing us to see the galaxy.This is true of two recently-discovered Ly-emitting galaxies, confirmed to be at a redshift of z~7 and located near one another in a region known as the Bremer Deep Field. The fact that were able to see the radiation from these galaxies means that they are in an ionized HII region presumably one of the earlier regions to have become reionized in the universe.But on their own, neither of these galaxies is capable of generating an ionized bubble large enough for their light to escape. So what ionized the region around them, and what does this mean for our understanding of how reionization occurred in the universe?A Little Help From FriendsLocation in different filters of the objects in the Hubble Bremer Deep Field catalog. The z~7 selection region is outlined by the grey box. BDF-521 and BDF-3299 were the two originally discovered galaxies; the remaining red markers indicate the additional six galaxies discovered in the same region. [Castellano et al. 2016]A team of scientists led by Marco Castellano (Rome Observatory, INAF) investigated the possibility that there are other, faint galaxies near these two that have helped to ionize the region. Performing a survey

  16. Evolutionary Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, Ulrik William

    2014-01-01

    , they are correlated among people who share environments because these individuals satisfice within their cognitive bounds by using cues in order of validity, as opposed to using cues arbitrarily. Any difference in expectations thereby arise from differences in cognitive ability, because two individuals with identical...... cognitive bounds will perceive business opportunities identically. In addition, because cues provide information about latent causal structures of the environment, changes in causality must be accompanied by changes in cognitive representations if adaptation is to be maintained. The concept of evolutionary......The concept of evolutionary expectations descends from cue learning psychology, synthesizing ideas on rational expectations with ideas on bounded rationality, to provide support for these ideas simultaneously. Evolutionary expectations are rational, but within cognitive bounds. Moreover...

  17. [Evolutionary medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wjst, M

    2013-12-01

    Evolutionary medicine allows new insights into long standing medical problems. Are we "really stoneagers on the fast lane"? This insight might have enormous consequences and will allow new answers that could never been provided by traditional anthropology. Only now this is made possible using data from molecular medicine and systems biology. Thereby evolutionary medicine takes a leap from a merely theoretical discipline to practical fields - reproductive, nutritional and preventive medicine, as well as microbiology, immunology and psychiatry. Evolutionary medicine is not another "just so story" but a serious candidate for the medical curriculum providing a universal understanding of health and disease based on our biological origin. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Evolutionary Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Gorelik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we advance the concept of “evolutionary awareness,” a metacognitive framework that examines human thought and emotion from a naturalistic, evolutionary perspective. We begin by discussing the evolution and current functioning of the moral foundations on which our framework rests. Next, we discuss the possible applications of such an evolutionarily-informed ethical framework to several domains of human behavior, namely: sexual maturation, mate attraction, intrasexual competition, culture, and the separation between various academic disciplines. Finally, we discuss ways in which an evolutionary awareness can inform our cross-generational activities—which we refer to as “intergenerational extended phenotypes”—by helping us to construct a better future for ourselves, for other sentient beings, and for our environment.

  19. A Pool of Distant Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Anyone who has wondered what it might be like to dive into a pool of millions of distant galaxies of different shapes and colours, will enjoy the latest image released by ESO. Obtained in part with the Very Large Telescope, the image is the deepest ground-based U-band image of the Universe ever obtained. It contains more than 27 million pixels and is the result of 55 hours of observations with the VIMOS instrument. A Sea of Galaxies ESO PR Photo 39/08 A Pool of Distant Galaxies This uniquely beautiful patchwork image, with its myriad of brightly coloured galaxies, shows the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S), arguably the most observed and best studied region in the entire sky. The CDF-S is one of the two regions selected as part of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS), an effort of the worldwide astronomical community that unites the deepest observations from ground- and space-based facilities at all wavelengths from X-ray to radio. Its primary purpose is to provide astronomers with the most sensitive census of the distant Universe to assist in their study of the formation and evolution of galaxies. The new image released by ESO combines data obtained with the VIMOS instrument in the U- and R-bands, as well as data obtained in the B-band with the Wide-Field Imager (WFI) attached to the 2.2 m MPG/ESO telescope at La Silla, in the framework of the GABODS survey. The newly released U-band image - the result of 40 hours of staring at the same region of the sky and just made ready by the GOODS team - is the deepest image ever taken from the ground in this wavelength domain. At these depths, the sky is almost completely covered by galaxies, each one, like our own galaxy, the Milky Way, home of hundreds of billions of stars. Galaxies were detected that are a billion times fainter than the unaided eye can see and over a range of colours not directly observable by the eye. This deep image has been essential to the discovery of a large number of new galaxies

  20. Evolutionary robotics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In evolutionary robotics, a suitable robot control system is developed automatically through evolution due to the interactions between the robot and its environment. It is a complicated task, as the robot and the environment constitute a highly dynamical system. Several methods have been tried by various investigators to ...

  1. Evolutionary institutionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstenberg, Dr Kai

    Institutions are hard to define and hard to study. Long prominent in political science have been two theories: Rational Choice Institutionalism (RCI) and Historical Institutionalism (HI). Arising from the life sciences is now a third: Evolutionary Institutionalism (EI). Comparative strengths and weaknesses of these three theories warrant review, and the value-to-be-added by expanding the third beyond Darwinian evolutionary theory deserves consideration. Should evolutionary institutionalism expand to accommodate new understanding in ecology, such as might apply to the emergence of stability, and in genetics, such as might apply to political behavior? Core arguments are reviewed for each theory with more detailed exposition of the third, EI. Particular attention is paid to EI's gene-institution analogy; to variation, selection, and retention of institutional traits; to endogeneity and exogeneity; to agency and structure; and to ecosystem effects, institutional stability, and empirical limitations in behavioral genetics. RCI, HI, and EI are distinct but complementary. Institutional change, while amenable to rational-choice analysis and, retrospectively, to criticaljuncture and path-dependency analysis, is also, and importantly, ecological. Stability, like change, is an emergent property of institutions, which tend to stabilize after change in a manner analogous to allopatric speciation. EI is more than metaphorically biological in that institutional behaviors are driven by human behaviors whose evolution long preceded the appearance of institutions themselves.

  2. Research traditions and evolutionary explanations in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méthot, Pierre-Olivier

    2011-02-01

    In this article, I argue that distinguishing 'evolutionary' from 'Darwinian' medicine will help us assess the variety of roles that evolutionary explanations can play in a number of medical contexts. Because the boundaries of evolutionary and Darwinian medicine overlap to some extent, however, they are best described as distinct 'research traditions' rather than as competing paradigms. But while evolutionary medicine does not stand out as a new scientific field of its own, Darwinian medicine is united by a number of distinctive theoretical and methodological claims. For example, evolutionary medicine and Darwinian medicine can be distinguished with respect to the styles of evolutionary explanations they employ. While the former primarily involves 'forward looking' explanations, the latter depends mostly on 'backward looking' explanations. A forward looking explanation tries to predict the effects of ongoing evolutionary processes on human health and disease in contemporary environments (e.g., hospitals). In contrast, a backward looking explanation typically applies evolutionary principles from the vantage point of humans' distant biological past in order to assess present states of health and disease. Both approaches, however, are concerned with the prevention and control of human diseases. In conclusion, I raise some concerns about the claim that 'nothing in medicine makes sense except in the light of evolution'.

  3. Molecular Composition Analysis of Distant Targets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a system capable of probing the molecular composition of cold solar system targets such as asteroids, comets, planets and moons from a distant vantage....

  4. [Distant mental influence on living organisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Ernesto

    2013-12-01

    This article reviews studies of distant mental influence on living organisms, including mental suggestions of sleeping and awakening, mental influence at long distances, mental interactions with remote biological systems, mental effects on physiological activity and the sense of being stared at. Significant effects of distant mental influence have been shown in several randomized controlled trials in humans, animals, plants, bacteria and cells in the laboratory. Although distant mental influence on living organisms appears to contradict our ordinary sense of reality and the laws defined by conventional science, several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the observed effects; they include skeptical, signal transfer, field, multidimensional space/time and quantum mechanics hypotheses. In conclusion, as the progress of physics continues to expand our comprehension of reality, a rational explanation for distant mind-matter interaction will emerge and, as history has shown repeatedly, the supernatural events will evolve into paranormal and then, into normal ones, as the scientific frontiers expand.

  5. Arming and firing system for DISTANT RUNNER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skenandore, L.H.; Johnson, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    Sandia A and F systems Division 1132 provided arming and firing support for the DISTANT RUNNER Test Program at White Sands Missile Range. This report describes the field support and the firing system that was used

  6. Gene Transfers Between Distantly Related Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Russell F.

    2003-01-01

    With the completion of numerous microbial genome sequences, reports of individual gene transfers between distantly related prokaryotes have become commonplace. On the other hand, transfers between prokaryotes and eukaryotes still excite the imagination. Many of these claims may be premature, but some are certainly valid. In this chapter, the kinds of supporting data needed to propose transfers between distantly related organisms and cite some interesting examples are considered.

  7. Einstein Ring in Distant Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, Rémi Cabanac and his European colleagues have discovered an amazing cosmic mirage, known to scientists as an Einstein Ring. This cosmic mirage, dubbed FOR J0332-3557, is seen towards the southern constellation Fornax (the Furnace), and is remarkable on at least two counts. First, it is a bright, almost complete Einstein ring. Second, it is the farthest ever found. ESO PR Photo 20a/05 ESO PR Photo 20a/05 Deep Image of a Region in Fornax (FORS/VLT) [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 434 pix - 60k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 867 pix - 276k] [Full Res - JPEG: 1859 x 2015 pix - 3.8M] ESO PR Photo 20b/05 ESO PR Photo 20b/05 Zoom-in on the Newly Found Einstein Ring (FORS/VLT) [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 575 pix - 168k] [Normal - JPEG: 630 x 906 pix - 880k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 20a/05 is a composite image taken in two bands (B and R) with VLT/FORS1 of a small portion of the sky (field-of-view 7x7' or 1/15th of the area of the full moon). The faintest object seen in the image has a magnitude 26, that is, it is 100 million times fainter than what can be observed with the unaided eye. The bright elliptical galaxy on the lower-left quadrant is a dwarf galaxy part of a large nearby cluster in the Fornax constellation. As for all deep images of the sky, this field shows a variety of objects, the brightest ponctual sources being stars from our Galaxy. By far the field is dominated by thousands of faint background galaxies the colours of which are related to the age of their dominant stellar population, their dust content and their distance. The newly found Einstein ring is visible in the top right part of the image. ESO PR Photo 20b/05 zooms-in on the position of the newly found cosmic mirage. ESO PR Photo 20c/05 ESO PR Photo 20c/05 Einstein Ring in Distant Universe (FORS/VLT) [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 584 pix - 104k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1168 pix - 292k] [Full Res - JPEG: 1502 x 2192 pix - 684k] Caption of ESO PR Photo 20c/05: The left image is magnified and centred

  8. Detection of cancer before distant metastasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coumans, F.A.W.; Siesling, Sabine; Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie

    2013-01-01

    Background To establish a distant metastasis (DM) cells must disseminate from the primary tumor and overcome a series of obstacles, the metastatic cascade. In this study we develop a mathematical model for this cascade to estimate the tumor size and the circulating tumor cell (CTC) load before the

  9. Detection of cancer before distant metastasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coumans, Frank A. W.; Siesling, Sabine; Terstappen, Leon W. M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: To establish a distant metastasis (DM) cells must disseminate from the primary tumor and overcome a series of obstacles, the metastatic cascade. In this study we develop a mathematical model for this cascade to estimate the tumor size and the circulating tumor cell (CTC) load before the

  10. Nearby Hot Stars May Change Our View of Distant Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    Nebula were thought to have formed only as the star evolved late into its lifetime, Walker and collaborators are now suggesting that all stars regardless of spectral type or evolutionary stage may be surrounded by swarms of tiny molecular clumps. Aroundstars that are hot enough, these clumps become the ionized plasma streamers that can cause interference with the light traveling to us from distant sources.Significant MassTo test this theory, Walker and collaborators explore observations of two distant radio quasars that have both exhibited intra-day variability over many years of observations. The team identified a hot A-type star near each of these two sources: J1819+3845 has Vega nearby, and PKS 1257326 has Alhakim.Locations of stars along the line of site to two distant quasars, J1819+3845 (top panel) and PKS 1257326 (bottom panel). Both have a nearby, hot star (blue markers) radially within 2 pc: Vega (z = 7.7 pc) and Alhakim (z = 18 pc), respectively. [Walker et al. 2017]By modeling the systems of the sources and stars, the authors show that the size, location, orientation, and numbers of plasma concentrations necessary to explain observations are all consistent with an environment similar to that of the Helix Nebula. Walker and collaborators find that the total mass in the molecular clumps surrounding the two stars would need to be comparable to the mass of the stars themselves.If this picture is correct, and if all stars are indeed surrounded by molecular clumps like these, then a substantial fraction of the mass of ourgalaxy could be contained in these clumps. Besides explaining distant quasar scintillation, this idea would therefore have a significant impact on our overall understanding of how mass in galaxies is distributed. More observations of twinkling quasars are the next step toward confirming this picture.CitationMark A. Walker et al 2017 ApJ 843 15. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa705c

  11. Evolutionary epistemology a multiparadigm program

    CERN Document Server

    Pinxten, Rik

    1987-01-01

    This volume has its already distant origin in an inter­national conference on Evolutionary Epistemology the editors organized at the University of Ghent in November 1984. This conference aimed to follow up the endeavor started at the ERISS (Epistemologically Relevant Internalist Sociology of Science) conference organized by Don Campbell and Alex Rosen­ berg at Cazenovia Lake, New York, in June 1981, whilst in­ jecting the gist of certain current continental intellectual developments into a debate whose focus, we thought, was in danger of being narrowed too much, considering the still underdeveloped state of affairs in the field. Broadly speaking, evolutionary epistemology today con­ sists of two interrelated, yet qualitatively distinct inves­ tigative efforts. Both are drawing on Darwinian concepts, which may explain why many people have failed to discriminate them. One is the study of the evolution of the cognitive apparatus of living organisms, which is first and foremost the province of biologists and...

  12. Light and shadow from distant worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Drake; Seager, Sara

    2009-11-19

    Exoplanets are distant worlds that orbit stars other than our Sun. More than 370 such planets are known, and a growing fraction of them are discovered because they transit their star as seen from Earth. The special transit geometry enables us to measure masses and radii for dozens of planets, and we have identified gases in the atmospheres of several giant ones. Within the next decade, we expect to find and study a 'habitable' rocky planet transiting a cool red dwarf star close to our Sun. Eventually, we will be able to image the light from an Earth-like world orbiting a nearby solar-type star.

  13. Attractive evolutionary equilibria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, Reinoud A.M.G.; Roorda, Berend

    2011-01-01

    We present attractiveness, a refinement criterion for evolutionary equilibria. Equilibria surviving this criterion are robust to small perturbations of the underlying payoff system or the dynamics at hand. Furthermore, certain attractive equilibria are equivalent to others for certain evolutionary

  14. Distant Site Effects of Ingested Prebiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Stephanie; Reid, Gregor

    2016-08-26

    The gut microbiome is being more widely recognized for its association with positive health outcomes, including those distant to the gastrointestinal system. This has given the ability to maintain and restore microbial homeostasis a new significance. Prebiotic compounds are appealing for this purpose as they are generally food-grade substances only degraded by microbes, such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, from which beneficial short-chain fatty acids are produced. Saccharides such as inulin and other fructo-oligosaccharides, galactooligosaccharides, and polydextrose have been widely used to improve gastrointestinal outcomes, but they appear to also influence distant sites. This review examined the effects of prebiotics on bone strength, neural and cognitive processes, immune functioning, skin, and serum lipid profile. The mode of action is in part affected by intestinal permeability and by fermentation products reaching target cells. As the types of prebiotics available diversify, so too will our understanding of the range of microbes able to degrade them, and the extent to which body sites can be impacted by their consumption.

  15. Optimizing transmission from distant wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattanariyankool, Sompop; Lave, Lester B.

    2010-01-01

    We explore the optimal size of the transmission line from distant wind farms, modeling the tradeoff between transmission cost and benefit from delivered wind power. We also examine the benefit of connecting a second wind farm, requiring additional transmission, in order to increase output smoothness. Since a wind farm has a low capacity factor, the transmission line would not be heavily loaded, on average; depending on the time profile of generation, for wind farms with capacity factor of 29-34%, profit is maximized for a line that is about 3/4 of the nameplate capacity of the wind farm. Although wind generation is inexpensive at a good site, transmitting wind power over 1600 km (about the distance from Wyoming to Los Angeles) doubles the delivered cost of power. As the price for power rises, the optimal capacity of transmission increases. Connecting wind farms lowers delivered cost when the wind farms are close, despite the high correlation of output over time. Imposing a penalty for failing to deliver minimum contracted supply leads to connecting more distant wind farms.

  16. Distant Site Effects of Ingested Prebiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Collins

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The gut microbiome is being more widely recognized for its association with positive health outcomes, including those distant to the gastrointestinal system. This has given the ability to maintain and restore microbial homeostasis a new significance. Prebiotic compounds are appealing for this purpose as they are generally food-grade substances only degraded by microbes, such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, from which beneficial short-chain fatty acids are produced. Saccharides such as inulin and other fructo-oligosaccharides, galactooligosaccharides, and polydextrose have been widely used to improve gastrointestinal outcomes, but they appear to also influence distant sites. This review examined the effects of prebiotics on bone strength, neural and cognitive processes, immune functioning, skin, and serum lipid profile. The mode of action is in part affected by intestinal permeability and by fermentation products reaching target cells. As the types of prebiotics available diversify, so too will our understanding of the range of microbes able to degrade them, and the extent to which body sites can be impacted by their consumption.

  17. COGcollator: a web server for analysis of distant relationships between homologous protein families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibrova, Daria V; Konovalov, Kirill A; Perekhvatov, Vadim V; Skulachev, Konstantin V; Mulkidjanian, Armen Y

    2017-11-29

    The Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) of proteins systematize evolutionary related proteins into specific groups with similar functions. However, the available databases do not provide means to assess the extent of similarity between the COGs. We intended to provide a method for identification and visualization of evolutionary relationships between the COGs, as well as a respective web server. Here we introduce the COGcollator, a web tool for identification of evolutionarily related COGs and their further analysis. We demonstrate the utility of this tool by identifying the COGs that contain distant homologs of (i) the catalytic subunit of bacterial rotary membrane ATP synthases and (ii) the DNA/RNA helicases of the superfamily 1. This article was reviewed by Drs. Igor N. Berezovsky, Igor Zhulin and Yuri Wolf.

  18. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 9. Evolutionary Stable Strategy: Application of Nash Equilibrium in Biology. General Article Volume 21 Issue 9 September 2016 pp 803- ... Keywords. Evolutionary game theory, evolutionary stable state, conflict, cooperation, biological games.

  19. When curiosity kills no cat - but mediates the relation between distant future thoughts and global processing across sensory modalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Förster, J.; Becker, D.

    2012-01-01

    Four studies examined the effect of primed temporal distance on global versus local perception, using auditory, haptic, gustatory, and olfactory stimuli. The studies show that thinking of the more distant (versus proximal) future facilitated Gestalt perception and impaired perception of details

  20. Neutral sheet crossings in the distant magnetotail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkila, W.J.; Slavin, J.A.; Smith, E.J.; Baker, D.N.; Zwickl, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    We have analyzed the magnetic field data from ISEE-3 in the distant magnetotail for 18 crossings of the cross-tail current sheet (or so-called natural sheet) to determine the direction of the normal component B/sub z/. The crossings occurred near the middle of the aberrated magnetotail (0 0.4 nT), consistent with closed field lines connected to the earth. In 3 cases B/sub z/ was very close to zero; in several instances there was structure in B/sub y/, suggesting localized currents with x or z directions. One may have been a magnetopause crossing. The strong preponderance of northward B/sub z/ favors a model of the magnetotail which is dominated by boundary layer plasma, flowing tailward on closed magnetic field lines, which requires the existence of an electric field in the sense from dusk to dawn. 37 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab

  1. Snake Envenomation Causing Distant Tracheal Myonecrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Khimani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Snakebites are often believed to be poisonous. However, this is not always the case. In fact, each bite differs from snake to snake, depending on if the snake is poisonous and if there is envenomation. Venom in pit viper snakebites is often associated with local necrosis. The abundant literature selections and research articles justify local myonecrosis due to envenomation, but there is not much in the literature regarding myonecrosis at a site distant from the snakebite. We hereby present a case of a 42-year-old man who was transferred to our emergency department after a rattlesnake bit him twice. The patient, besides developing local myonecrosis at the site of the snakebite, developed necrosis of the scrotum as well as tracheal pressure myonecrosis at the site of the endotracheal tube balloon. In this review, we will attempt to discuss the myonecrosis pathophysiology and management related to the rattle snakebite.

  2. Nucleoli and stress granules: connecting distant relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, Hicham; Stochaj, Ursula

    2014-10-01

    Nucleoli and cytoplasmic stress granules (SGs) are subcellular compartments that modulate the response to endogenous and environmental signals to control cell survival. In our opinion, nucleoli and SGs are functionally linked; they are distant relatives that combine forces when cellular homeostasis is threatened. Several lines of evidence support this idea; nucleoli and SGs share molecular building blocks, are regulated by common signaling pathways and communicate when vital cellular functions become compromised. Together, nucleoli and SGs orchestrate physiological responses that are directly relevant to stress and human health. As both compartments have established roles in neurodegenerative diseases, cancer and virus infections, we propose that these conditions will benefit from therapeutic interventions that target simultaneously nucleoli and SGs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Black-hole masses of distant quasars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    A brief overview of the methods commonly used to determine or estimate the black hole mass in quiescent or active galaxies is presented and it is argued that the use of mass-scaling relations is both a reliable and the preferred method to apply to large samples of distant quasars. The method uses...... that the black hole masses are very large, of order 1 to 10 billion solar masses, even at the highest redshifts of 4 to 6. The black holes must build up their mass very fast in the early universe. Yet they do not grow much larger than that: a maximum mass of about 10 billion solar masses is also observed....... Preliminary mass functions of active black holes are presented for several quasar samples, including the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Finally, common concerns related to the application of the mass scaling relations, especially for high redshift quasars, are briefly discussed....

  4. Arabic medical entity tagging using distant learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Cotik

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A semantic tagger aiming to detect relevant entities in Arabic medical documents and tagging them with their appropriate semantic class is presented. The system takes profit of a Multilingual Framework covering four languages (Arabic, English, French, and Spanish, in a way that resources available for each language can be used to improve the results of the others, this is specially important for less resourced languages as Arabic. The approach has been evaluated against Wikipedia pages of the four languages belonging to the medical domain. The core of the system is the definition of a base tagset consisting of the three most represented classes in SNOMED-CT taxonomy and the learning of a binary classifier for each semantic category in the tagset and each language, using a distant learning approach over three widely used knowledge resources, namely Wikipedia, Dbpedia, and SNOMED-CT.

  5. Evolutionary molecular medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesse, Randolph M; Ganten, Detlev; Gregory, T Ryan; Omenn, Gilbert S

    2012-05-01

    Evolution has long provided a foundation for population genetics, but some major advances in evolutionary biology from the twentieth century that provide foundations for evolutionary medicine are only now being applied in molecular medicine. They include the need for both proximate and evolutionary explanations, kin selection, evolutionary models for cooperation, competition between alleles, co-evolution, and new strategies for tracing phylogenies and identifying signals of selection. Recent advances in genomics are transforming evolutionary biology in ways that create even more opportunities for progress at its interfaces with genetics, medicine, and public health. This article reviews 15 evolutionary principles and their applications in molecular medicine in hopes that readers will use them and related principles to speed the development of evolutionary molecular medicine.

  6. Accessibility of observable and unobservable characteristics in autobiographical memories of recent and distant past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karylowski, Jerzy J; Mrozinski, Blazej

    2017-02-01

    Self-reports regarding how people visualise themselves during events that occurred in the past show that for events from the distant past individuals report assuming a more external perspective than for events from the recent past [Nigro, G., & Neisser, U. (1983). Point of view in personal memories. Cognitive Psychology, 15, 467-482; Pronin, E., & Ross, L. (2006). Temporal differences in trait self-ascription. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 90, 197-209]. Thus it appears that, with the passage of time, representations of self embodied in memories of past events lose their position of an insider and assume a more ordinary position of self as an object seen from the perspective of an outside observer. The purpose of the present experiment was to examine this shift using a performance-based measure of accessibility. Results showed that self-judgements regarding unobservable, covert characteristics were faster for recent-compared to more distant-autobiographical events. However, self-judgements regarding observable, overt characteristics were faster for more distant events. This suggests an accessibility-based mechanism underlying the shift from internal to the relatively more external perspective in forming self-images related to the distant past.

  7. THE MASSIVE DISTANT CLUSTERS OF WISE SURVEY: THE FIRST DISTANT GALAXY CLUSTER DISCOVERED BY WISE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gettings, Daniel P.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Mancone, Conor; Stanford, S. Adam; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Brodwin, Mark; Zeimann, Gregory R.; Masci, Frank J.; Papovich, Casey; Tanaka, Ichi; Wright, Edward L.

    2012-01-01

    We present spectroscopic confirmation of a z = 0.99 galaxy cluster discovered using data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). This is the first z ∼ 1 cluster candidate from the Massive Distant Clusters of WISE Survey to be confirmed. It was selected as an overdensity of probable z ∼> 1 sources using a combination of WISE and Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR8 photometric catalogs. Deeper follow-up imaging data from Subaru and WIYN reveal the cluster to be a rich system of galaxies, and multi-object spectroscopic observations from Keck confirm five cluster members at z = 0.99. The detection and confirmation of this cluster represents a first step toward constructing a uniformly selected sample of distant, high-mass galaxy clusters over the full extragalactic sky using WISE data.

  8. Pattern of distant lymph node metastasis in colorectal carcinoma and its correlation with distant organ metastasis: CT evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Sang Hoon; Park, Cheol Min; Cha, In Ho; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Suh, Won Hyuck

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the pattern of distant lymph node metastasis in colorectal carcinoma and its correlation with distant organ metastasis. We retrospectively reviewed abdominal CT scans of 46 patients with pathologically proven colorectal carcinoma. The incidence of distant lymphadenopathy in colorectal carcinoma was 30.4%(14/46). The most commonly involved distant lymph node was the left paraortic lymph node below the renal hilum(9/25). The most common type of distant lymphadenopathy was solitary type(7/14) and all of these lymphadenopathies were noted in the left paraortic lymph node below the renal hilum. Six cases of left sided colorectal carcinoma showed left paraortic lymphadenopathy with solitary type. The incidence of distant organ metastasis was 17.4%(8/46) and markedly increased if distant lymphadenopathy was multiple and confluent, or confluent type(5/7). The incidence of distant lymphadenopathy in colorectal carcinoma was not high and the most common lymphadenopathy was the left paraortic lymph node with solitary type below the renal hilum. The possibility of distant organ metastasis was high if distant lymphadenopathy was multiple and confluent, or confluent type

  9. Molecular Composition Analysis of Distant Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Gary B.; Lubin, Philip

    2017-01-01

    This document is the Final Report for NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Phase I Grant 15-NIAC16A-0145, titled Molecular Composition Analysis of Distant Targets. The research was focused on developing a system concept for probing the molecular composition of cold solar system targets, such as Asteroids, Comets, Planets and Moons from a distant vantage, for example from a spacecraft that is orbiting the target (Hughes et al., 2015). The orbiting spacecraft is equipped with a high-power laser, which is run by electricity from photovoltaic panels. The laser is directed at a spot on the target. Materials on the surface of the target are heated by the laser beam, and begin to melt and then evaporate, forming a plume of asteroid molecules in front of the heated spot. The heated spot glows, producing blackbody illumination that is visible from the spacecraft, via a path through the evaporated plume. As the blackbody radiation from the heated spot passes through the plume of evaporated material, molecules in the plume absorb radiation in a manner that is specific to the rotational and vibrational characteristics of the specific molecules. A spectrometer aboard the spacecraft is used to observe absorption lines in the blackbody signal. The pattern of absorption can be used to estimate the molecular composition of materials in the plume, which originated on the target. Focusing on a single spot produces a borehole, and shallow subsurface profiling of the targets bulk composition is possible. At the beginning of the Phase I research, the estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of the system was TRL-1. During the Phase I research, an end-to-end theoretical model of the sensor system was developed from first principles. The model includes laser energy and optical propagation, target heating, melting and evaporation of target material, plume density, thermal radiation from the heated spot, molecular cross section of likely asteroid materials, and estimation of the

  10. Evolution of microgastropods (Ellobioidea, Carychiidae): integrating taxonomic, phylogenetic and evolutionary hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Current biodiversity patterns are considered largely the result of past climatic and tectonic changes. In an integrative approach, we combine taxonomic and phylogenetic hypotheses to analyze temporal and geographic diversification of epigean (Carychium) and subterranean (Zospeum) evolutionary lineages in Carychiidae (Eupulmonata, Ellobioidea). We explicitly test three hypotheses: 1) morphospecies encompass unrecognized evolutionary lineages, 2) limited dispersal results in a close genetic relationship of geographical proximally distributed taxa and 3) major climatic and tectonic events had an impact on lineage diversification within Carychiidae. Results Initial morphospecies assignments were investigated by different molecular delimitation approaches (threshold, ABGD, GMYC and SP). Despite a conservative delimitation strategy, carychiid morphospecies comprise a great number of unrecognized evolutionary lineages. We attribute this phenomenon to historic underestimation of morphological stasis and phenotypic variability amongst lineages. The first molecular phylogenetic hypothesis for the Carychiidae (based on COI, 16S and H3) reveals Carychium and Zospeum to be reciprocally monophyletic. Geographical proximally distributed lineages are often closely related. The temporal diversification of Carychiidae is best described by a constant rate model of diversification. The evolution of Carychiidae is characterized by relatively few (long distance) colonization events. We find support for an Asian origin of Carychium. Zospeum may have arrived in Europe before extant members of Carychium. Distantly related Carychium clades inhabit a wide spectrum of the available bioclimatic niche and demonstrate considerable niche overlap. Conclusions Carychiid taxonomy is in dire need of revision. An inferred wide distribution and variable phenotype suggest underestimated diversity in Zospeum. Several Carychium morphospecies are results of past taxonomic lumping. By collecting

  11. Distant Metastases of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma after Definite Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Eun Ji; Lee, Hyung Sik; Moon, Sun Rock; Kim, Gwi Eon; Loh, John Juhn-Kyu

    1991-01-01

    One hundred and thirty five patients with carcinoma of the nasopharynx were treated by radiation therapy in the Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University between August 1977 and July 1987. Of the 30 patients omitted: 8 had distant metastases at initial diagnosis or during radiotherapy; 18 patients refused or did not received a full course of radiation therapy, and four had not been confirmed histologically. The remaining 105 patients were analyzed to determine the incidence and patter of distant metastases. Diagnosis of distant metastases was made based on clinical signs and radiography, even though histologic confirmation was not made. Twenty-six patients developed distant metastases after definite irradiation of nasopharynx and neck, an incidence rate of 24.8%. The common sites of distant metastases were, in descending order, bone, lung, liver, and brain. There was a strong correlation between Ho's N stage and distant metastases rate. But sex, age, histologic subtype (squamous cell and undifferentiated cell), AJC T and N stage, treatment modalities (radiotherapy alone and radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy) were not significant. Of those patients who developed distant metastases, 80.8% were discovered within 2 years of their radical radiotherapy. The prognosis for nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients developing distant metastases was poor: median survival was nine months and 80% of those patients died within two years of the initial diagnosis of distant metastasis

  12. Distant retrograde orbits and the asteroid hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perozzi, Ettore; Ceccaroni, Marta; Valsecchi, Giovanni B.; Rossi, Alessandro

    2017-08-01

    Distant Retrograde Orbits (DROs) gained a novel wave of fame in space mission design because of their numerous advantages within the framework of the US plans for bringing a large asteroid sample in the vicinity of the Earth as the next target for human exploration. DROs are stable solutions of the three-body problem that can be used whenever an object, whether of natural or artificial nature, is required to remain in the neighborhood of a celestial body without being gravitationally captured by it. As such, they represent an alternative option to Halo orbits around the collinear Lagrangian points L1 and L2. Also known under other names ( e.g., quasi-satellite orbits, cis-lunar orbits, family- f orbits) these orbital configurations found interesting applications in several mission profiles, like that of a spacecraft orbiting around the small irregularly shaped satellite of Mars Phobos or the large Jovian moon Europa. In this paper a basic explanation of the DRO dynamics is presented in order to clarify some geometrical properties that characterize them. Their accessibility is then discussed from the point of view of mission analysis under different assumptions. Finally, their relevance within the framework of the present asteroid hazard protection programs is shown, stressing the significant increase in warning time they would provide in the prediction of impactors coming from the direction of the Sun.

  13. Remembering the evolutionary Freud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Allan

    2006-03-01

    Throughout his career as a writer, Sigmund Freud maintained an interest in the evolutionary origins of the human mind and its neurotic and psychotic disorders. In common with many writers then and now, he believed that the evolutionary past is conserved in the mind and the brain. Today the "evolutionary Freud" is nearly forgotten. Even among Freudians, he is regarded to be a red herring, relevant only to the extent that he diverts attention from the enduring achievements of the authentic Freud. There are three ways to explain these attitudes. First, the evolutionary Freud's key work is the "Overview of the Transference Neurosis" (1915). But it was published at an inopportune moment, forty years after the author's death, during the so-called "Freud wars." Second, Freud eventually lost interest in the "Overview" and the prospect of a comprehensive evolutionary theory of psychopathology. The publication of The Ego and the Id (1923), introducing Freud's structural theory of the psyche, marked the point of no return. Finally, Freud's evolutionary theory is simply not credible. It is based on just-so stories and a thoroughly discredited evolutionary mechanism, Lamarckian use-inheritance. Explanations one and two are probably correct but also uninteresting. Explanation number three assumes that there is a fundamental difference between Freud's evolutionary narratives (not credible) and the evolutionary accounts of psychopathology that currently circulate in psychiatry and mainstream journals (credible). The assumption is mistaken but worth investigating.

  14. Evolutionary history of the angiosperm flora of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Li-Min; Mao, Ling-Feng; Yang, Tuo; Ye, Jian-Fei; Liu, Bing; Li, Hong-Lei; Sun, Miao; Miller, Joseph T.; Mathews, Sarah; Hu, Hai-Hua; Niu, Yan-Ting; Peng, Dan-Xiao; Chen, You-Hua; Smith, Stephen A.; Chen, Min; Xiang, Kun-Li; Le, Chi-Toan; Dang, Viet-Cuong; Lu, An-Ming; Soltis, Pamela S.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Li, Jian-Hua; Chen, Zhi-Duan

    2018-02-01

    High species diversity may result from recent rapid speciation in a ‘cradle’ and/or the gradual accumulation and preservation of species over time in a ‘museum’. China harbours nearly 10% of angiosperm species worldwide and has long been considered as both a museum, owing to the presence of many species with hypothesized ancient origins, and a cradle, as many lineages have originated as recent topographic changes and climatic shifts—such as the formation of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and the development of the monsoon—provided new habitats that promoted remarkable radiation. However, no detailed phylogenetic study has addressed when and how the major components of the Chinese angiosperm flora assembled to form the present-day vegetation. Here we investigate the spatio-temporal divergence patterns of the Chinese flora using a dated phylogeny of 92% of the angiosperm genera for the region, a nearly complete species-level tree comprising 26,978 species and detailed spatial distribution data. We found that 66% of the angiosperm genera in China did not originate until early in the Miocene epoch (23 million years ago (Mya)). The flora of eastern China bears a signature of older divergence (mean divergence times of 22.04-25.39 Mya), phylogenetic overdispersion (spatial co-occurrence of distant relatives) and higher phylogenetic diversity. In western China, the flora shows more recent divergence (mean divergence times of 15.29-18.86 Mya), pronounced phylogenetic clustering (co-occurrence of close relatives) and lower phylogenetic diversity. Analyses of species-level phylogenetic diversity using simulated branch lengths yielded results similar to genus-level patterns. Our analyses indicate that eastern China represents a floristic museum, and western China an evolutionary cradle, for herbaceous genera; eastern China has served as both a museum and a cradle for woody genera. These results identify areas of high species richness and phylogenetic diversity, and

  15. Grounded Eyes on Distant Watery Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-08-01

    , the authorshigh-resolution observations allowed them to resolve not only the stellar spectrum, but also the spectral lines fromthe hot Jupiter exoplanet itself.Obtaining a thermal spectrum of the planet permitted the team to break the usual observational degeneracy that occurs with exoplanet observations: they were able to disentangle the planet mass and its orbital inclination angle. Piskorz and collaborators found that the planet is roughly 1.7 Jupiter masses and its orbit is inclined 24 relative to our line of sight.Artists illustration of the closest three planets in the upsilon Andromedae system. The system also has a distant red-dwarf binary companion, as well as a possible fourth planet. [NASA/ESA/A. Feild (STScI)]These measurements of the orbital structure of upsilon Andromedae are critical for understanding this unusual system. With non-coplanar planets and a distant red-dwarf companion, the upsilon Andromedae system has long been suspected to lie on the precipice of instability. The new measurements of upsilon Andromeda bs orbital properties will help us to better understand how the system may have formed, evolved, and survived to today.Water FoundOne of the biggest benefits of spectroscopy of an exoplanet is the potentialto learn about its atmospheric composition. Using their NIRSPEC observations of upsilon Andromedae b and detailed atmospheric modeling, Piskorz and collaborators found that the planets opacity structure is dominated by water vapor at the wavelengths they probed.This detection of water vapor in upsilon Andromedae bs atmosphere and the constraints on the planets orbital properties demonstrate the power and potential of ground-based, high-resolution spectroscopy for characterizing exoplanets and constraining the architecture of distantsolar systems.CitationDanielle Piskorz et al 2017 AJ 154 78. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/aa7dd8

  16. Using Distant Sources in Local Seismic Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Bruce; Foulgr, Gillian

    2014-05-01

    Seismic tomography methods such as the 'ACH' method of Aki, Christoffersson & Husebye (1976, 1977) are subject to significant bias caused by the unknown wave-speed structure outside the study volume, whose effects are mathematically of the same order as the local-structure effects being studied. Computational experiments using whole-mantle wave-speed models show that the effects are also of comparable numerical magnitude (Masson & Trampert, 1997). Failure to correct for these effects will significantly corrupt computed local structures. This bias can be greatly reduced by solving for additional parameters defining the shapes, orientations, and arrival times of the incident wavefronts. The procedure is exactly analogous to solving for hypocentral locations in local-earthquake tomography. For planar incident wavefronts, each event adds three free parameters and the forward problem is surprisingly simple: The first-order change in the theoretical arrival time at observation point B resulting from perturbations in the incident-wave time t0 and slowness vector s is δtB ≡ δt0 + δs · rA = δtA, the change in the time of the plane wave at the point A where the un-perturbed ray enters the study volume (Julian and Foulger, submitted). This consequence of Fermat's principle apparently has not previously been recognized. In addition to eliminating the biasing effect of structure outside the study volume, this formalism enables us to combine data from local and distant events in studies of local structure, significantly improving resolution of deeper structure, particularly in places such as volcanic and geothermal areas where seismicity is confined to shallow depths. Many published models that were derived using ACH and similar methods probably contain significant artifacts and are in need of re-evaluation.

  17. Attractive evolutionary equilibria

    OpenAIRE

    Roorda, Berend; Joosten, Reinoud

    2011-01-01

    We present attractiveness, a refinement criterion for evolutionary equilibria. Equilibria surviving this criterion are robust to small perturbations of the underlying payoff system or the dynamics at hand. Furthermore, certain attractive equilibria are equivalent to others for certain evolutionary dynamics. For instance, each attractive evolutionarily stable strategy is an attractive evolutionarily stable equilibrium for certain barycentric ray-projection dynamics, and vice versa.

  18. Polymorphic Evolutionary Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Michael A

    2016-06-07

    In this paper, I present an analytical framework for polymorphic evolutionary games suitable for explicitly modeling evolutionary processes in diploid populations with sexual reproduction. The principal aspect of the proposed approach is adding diploid genetics cum sexual recombination to a traditional evolutionary game, and switching from phenotypes to haplotypes as the new game׳s pure strategies. Here, the relevant pure strategy׳s payoffs derived by summing the payoffs of all the phenotypes capable of producing gametes containing that particular haplotype weighted by the pertinent probabilities. The resulting game is structurally identical to the familiar Evolutionary Games with non-linear pure strategy payoffs (Hofbauer and Sigmund, 1998. Cambridge University Press), and can be analyzed in terms of an established analytical framework for such games. And these results can be translated into the terms of genotypic, and whence, phenotypic evolutionary stability pertinent to the original game. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Clonal Reproduction on Evolutionary Lag and Evolutionary Rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orive, Maria E; Barfield, Michael; Fernandez, Carlos; Holt, Robert D

    2017-10-01

    Evolutionary lag-the difference between mean and optimal phenotype in the current environment-is of keen interest in light of rapid environmental change. Many ecologically important organisms have life histories that include stage structure and both sexual and clonal reproduction, yet how stage structure and clonality interplay to govern a population's rate of evolution and evolutionary lag is unknown. Effects of clonal reproduction on mean phenotype partition into two portions: one that is phenotype dependent, and another that is genotype dependent. This partitioning is governed by the association between the nonadditive genetic plus random environmental component of phenotype of clonal offspring and their parents. While clonality slows phenotypic evolution toward an optimum, it can dramatically increase population survival after a sudden step change in optimal phenotype. Increased adult survival slows phenotypic evolution but facilitates population survival after a step change; this positive effect can, however, be lost given survival-fecundity trade-offs. Simulations indicate that the benefits of increased clonality under environmental change greatly depend on the nature of that change: increasing population persistence under a step change while decreasing population persistence under a continuous linear change requiring de novo variation. The impact of clonality on the probability of persistence for species in a changing world is thus inexorably linked to the temporal texture of the change they experience.

  20. ROSAT Discovers Unique, Distant Cluster of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Brightest X-ray Cluster Acts as Strong Gravitational Lens Based on exciting new data obtained with the ROSAT X-ray satellite and a ground-based telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory, a team of European astronomers [2] has just discovered a very distant cluster of galaxies with unique properties. It emits the strongest X-ray emission of any cluster ever observed by ROSAT and is accompanied by two extraordinarily luminous arcs that represent the gravitationally deflected images of even more distant objects. The combination of these unusual characteristics makes this cluster, now known as RXJ1347.5-1145, a most interesting object for further cosmological studies. DISCOVERY AND FOLLOW-UP OBSERVATIONS This strange cluster of galaxies was discovered during the All Sky Survey with the ROSAT X-ray satellite as a moderately intense X-ray source in the constellation of Virgo. It could not be identified with any already known object and additional ground-based observations were therefore soon after performed with the Max-Planck-Society/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla observatory in Chile. These observations took place within a large--scale redshift survey of X-ray clusters of galaxies detected by the ROSAT All Sky Survey, a so-called ``ESO Key Programme'' led by astronomers from the Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik and the Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera. The main aim of this programme is to identify cluster X-ray sources, to determine the distance to the X-ray emitting clusters and to investigate their overall properties. These observations permitted to measure the redshift of the RXJ1347.5-1145 cluster as z = 0.45, i.e. it moves away from us with a velocity (about 106,000 km/sec) equal to about one-third of the velocity of light. This is an effect of the general expansion of the universe and it allows to determine the distance as about 5,000 million light-years (assuming a Hubble constant of 75 km/sec/Mpc). In other words, we see these

  1. HUBBLE SPIES MOST DISTANT SUPERNOVA EVER SEEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers pinpointed a blaze of light from the farthest supernova ever seen, a dying star that exploded 10 billion years ago. The detection and analysis of this supernova, called 1997ff, is greatly bolstering the case for the existence of a mysterious form of dark energy pervading the cosmos, making galaxies hurl ever faster away from each other. The supernova also offers the first glimpse of the universe slowing down soon after the Big Bang, before it began speeding up. This panel of images, taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, shows the supernova's cosmic neighborhood; its home galaxy; and the dying star itself. Astronomers found this supernova in 1997 during a second look at the northern Hubble Deep Field [top panel], a tiny region of sky first explored by the Hubble telescope in 1995. The image shows the myriad of galaxies Hubble spied when it peered across more than 10 billion years of time and space. The white box marks the area where the supernova dwells. The photo at bottom left is a close-up view of that region. The white arrow points to the exploding star's home galaxy, a faint elliptical. Its redness is due to the billions of old stars residing there. The picture at bottom right shows the supernova itself, distinguished by the white dot in the center. Although this stellar explosion is among the brightest beacons in the universe, it could not be seen directly in the Hubble images. The stellar blast is so distant from Earth that its light is buried in the glow of its host galaxy. To find the supernova, astronomers compared two pictures of the 'deep field' taken two years apart. One image was of the original Hubble Deep Field; the other, the follow-up deep-field picture taken in 1997. Using special computer software, astronomers then measured the light from the galaxies in both images. Noting any changes in light output between the two pictures, the computer identified a blob of light in the 1997 picture

  2. Ancient Biomolecules and Evolutionary Inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellini, Enrico; Prohaska, Ana; Racimo, Fernando; Welker, Frido; Pedersen, Mikkel Winther; Allentoft, Morten E; de Barros Damgaard, Peter; Gutenbrunner, Petra; Dunne, Julie; Hammann, Simon; Roffet-Salque, Mélanie; Ilardo, Melissa; Moreno-Mayar, J Víctor; Wang, Yucheng; Sikora, Martin; Vinner, Lasse; Cox, Jürgen; Evershed, Richard P; Willerslev, Eske

    2018-04-25

    Over the last decade, studies of ancient biomolecules-particularly ancient DNA, proteins, and lipids-have revolutionized our understanding of evolutionary history. Though initially fraught with many challenges, the field now stands on firm foundations. Researchers now successfully retrieve nucleotide and amino acid sequences, as well as lipid signatures, from progressively older samples, originating from geographic areas and depositional environments that, until recently, were regarded as hostile to long-term preservation of biomolecules. Sampling frequencies and the spatial and temporal scope of studies have also increased markedly, and with them the size and quality of the data sets generated. This progress has been made possible by continuous technical innovations in analytical methods, enhanced criteria for the selection of ancient samples, integrated experimental methods, and advanced computational approaches. Here, we discuss the history and current state of ancient biomolecule research, its applications to evolutionary inference, and future directions for this young and exciting field. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biochemistry Volume 87 is June 20, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  3. Origins of evolutionary transitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-03-15

    Mar 15, 2014 ... ... of events: 'Entities that were capable of independent replication ... There have been many major evolutionary events that this definition of .... selection at level x to exclusive selection at x – will probably require a multiplicity ...

  4. Evolutionary relationships among Astroviridae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukashov, Vladimir V.; Goudsmit, Jaap

    2002-01-01

    To study the evolutionary relationships among astroviruses, all available sequences for members of the family Astroviridae were collected. Phylogenetic analysis distinguished two deep-rooted groups: one comprising mammalian astroviruses, with ovine astrovirus being an outlier, and the other

  5. Evolutionary Multiplayer Games

    OpenAIRE

    Gokhale, Chaitanya S.; Traulsen, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary game theory has become one of the most diverse and far reaching theories in biology. Applications of this theory range from cell dynamics to social evolution. However, many applications make it clear that inherent non-linearities of natural systems need to be taken into account. One way of introducing such non-linearities into evolutionary games is by the inclusion of multiple players. An example is of social dilemmas, where group benefits could e.g.\\ increase less than linear wi...

  6. Distant Supernovae Indicate Ever-Expanding Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    ,000 million light-years) is observed on five dates with the SUSI camera at the 3.6-m New Technology Telescope (NTT). The host galaxy is clearly visible and the supernova reaches its maximum brightness around 13 March 1997, after which it fades. In PR Photo 50b/98 of another supernova that was found at the same time, the image of the host galaxy is barely visible, most probably because it is a low surface brightness galaxy . Here, the redshift of the supernova is z = 0.40 (distance 6,000 million light-years) and the brightness peaks around 16 March 1997. Technical information: All images were obtained through an R (red) optical filtre. The image quality varies somewhat from image to image. Exposure times and seeing values: Photo 50a/98 - 11 March (300 sec; 0.73 arcsec); 13 March (600 sec; 0.79 arcsec); 16 March (600 sec; 0.72 arcsec); 29 March (1200 sec; 1.17 arcsec); 5 April (300 sec; 0.55 arcsec) and Photo 50b/98 - 11 March (300 sec; 0.50 arcsec); 13 March (600 sec; 0.81 arcsec); 16 March (600 sec; 0.90 arcsec); 29 March (1200 sec; 0.83 arcsec); 7 April (300 sec; 1.43 arcsec); 7 May (1800 sec; 1.22 arcsec). These explosions, known as Type Ia Supernovae , are distinguished by their very uniform properties, including their intrinsic brightness; this makes them ideal for the measurement of large distances, cf. ESO PR Photos 50a/98 and 50b/98 , as well as ESO Press Release 09/95. It is by means of observations of remote objects of this type that the all-important distances could be determined with sufficient accuracy. In particular, coordinated observing campaigns of Type Ia Supernovae were carried out at several of the world's major observatories. In this way it became possible to secure the crucial data that provide the basis of the new analysis. Distances to Type Ia Supernovae are larger than expected The new observations show that, compared to their nearby twins, distant supernovae appear too dim, even for a Universe which has been freely coasting (i.e. with no change of the

  7. Distant education of gifted children in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogozhkina I. B.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Distant teaching which helps to realize the main principles of contemporary education: «teaching throughout» and «lifelong teaching» becomes more and more indemand. The possibility to get education for the residents of remote districts, excess to contemporary data bases, scientific libraries and learning materials of high quality, possibility to study at a time convenient for a student and in a tempo acceptable to the one makes distant education one of the most effective form of work with gifted children. System of distant education in the USA which is one of the most sophisticated one involves a big variety of programs and courses for both ordinary and gifted students. The article analyzes the existing in the USA on-line programs for gifted children, reveals their advantages and disadvantages, discusses the distant forms of work applicable to teaching of gifted children in Russia.

  8. Double streams of protons in the distant geomagnetic tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villante, U.; Lazarus, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    Two intermingled streams of protons have been observed in the distant geomagnetic tail. The number densities of the two streams are comparable, and their velocity difference tends to lie along the field direction. The lower-velocity stream is probably composed of magnetosheath protons which have diffused through the boundary of the distant tail. The higher-velocity stream appears to originate in the field reversal region.

  9. Hyperbolic Discounting of the Far-Distant Future

    OpenAIRE

    Anchugina, Nina; Ryan, Matthew; Slinko, Arkadii

    2017-01-01

    We prove an analogue of Weitzman's (1998) famous result that an exponential discounter who is uncertain of the appropriate exponential discount rate should discount the far-distant future using the lowest (i.e., most patient) of the possible discount rates. Our analogous result applies to a hyperbolic discounter who is uncertain about the appropriate hyperbolic discount rate. In this case, the far-distant future should be discounted using the probability-weighted harmonic mean of the possible...

  10. Double streams of protons in the distant geomagnetic tail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villante, U.; Lazarus, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    Two intermingled streams of protons have been observed in the distant geomagnetic tail. The number densities of the two streams are comparable, and their velocity difference tends to lie along the field direction. The lower-velocity stream is probably composed of magnetosheath protons which have diffused through the boundary of the distant tail. The higher-velocity stream appears to originate in the field reversal region

  11. Proteomics in evolutionary ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, B; Millar, A H

    2016-03-01

    Evolutionary ecologists are traditionally gene-focused, as genes propagate phenotypic traits across generations and mutations and recombination in the DNA generate genetic diversity required for evolutionary processes. As a consequence, the inheritance of changed DNA provides a molecular explanation for the functional changes associated with natural selection. A direct focus on proteins on the other hand, the actual molecular agents responsible for the expression of a phenotypic trait, receives far less interest from ecologists and evolutionary biologists. This is partially due to the central dogma of molecular biology that appears to define proteins as the 'dead-end of molecular information flow' as well as technical limitations in identifying and studying proteins and their diversity in the field and in many of the more exotic genera often favored in ecological studies. Here we provide an overview of a newly forming field of research that we refer to as 'Evolutionary Proteomics'. We point out that the origins of cellular function are related to the properties of polypeptide and RNA and their interactions with the environment, rather than DNA descent, and that the critical role of horizontal gene transfer in evolution is more about coopting new proteins to impact cellular processes than it is about modifying gene function. Furthermore, post-transcriptional and post-translational processes generate a remarkable diversity of mature proteins from a single gene, and the properties of these mature proteins can also influence inheritance through genetic and perhaps epigenetic mechanisms. The influence of post-transcriptional diversification on evolutionary processes could provide a novel mechanistic underpinning for elements of rapid, directed evolutionary changes and adaptations as observed for a variety of evolutionary processes. Modern state-of the art technologies based on mass spectrometry are now available to identify and quantify peptides, proteins, protein

  12. Applying evolutionary anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Mhairi A; Lawson, David W

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary anthropology provides a powerful theoretical framework for understanding how both current environments and legacies of past selection shape human behavioral diversity. This integrative and pluralistic field, combining ethnographic, demographic, and sociological methods, has provided new insights into the ultimate forces and proximate pathways that guide human adaptation and variation. Here, we present the argument that evolutionary anthropological studies of human behavior also hold great, largely untapped, potential to guide the design, implementation, and evaluation of social and public health policy. Focusing on the key anthropological themes of reproduction, production, and distribution we highlight classic and recent research demonstrating the value of an evolutionary perspective to improving human well-being. The challenge now comes in transforming relevance into action and, for that, evolutionary behavioral anthropologists will need to forge deeper connections with other applied social scientists and policy-makers. We are hopeful that these developments are underway and that, with the current tide of enthusiasm for evidence-based approaches to policy, evolutionary anthropology is well positioned to make a strong contribution. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Applying Evolutionary Anthropology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Mhairi A; Lawson, David W

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary anthropology provides a powerful theoretical framework for understanding how both current environments and legacies of past selection shape human behavioral diversity. This integrative and pluralistic field, combining ethnographic, demographic, and sociological methods, has provided new insights into the ultimate forces and proximate pathways that guide human adaptation and variation. Here, we present the argument that evolutionary anthropological studies of human behavior also hold great, largely untapped, potential to guide the design, implementation, and evaluation of social and public health policy. Focusing on the key anthropological themes of reproduction, production, and distribution we highlight classic and recent research demonstrating the value of an evolutionary perspective to improving human well-being. The challenge now comes in transforming relevance into action and, for that, evolutionary behavioral anthropologists will need to forge deeper connections with other applied social scientists and policy-makers. We are hopeful that these developments are underway and that, with the current tide of enthusiasm for evidence-based approaches to policy, evolutionary anthropology is well positioned to make a strong contribution. PMID:25684561

  14. Archaeogenetics in evolutionary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, Abigail; Rühli, Frank

    2016-09-01

    Archaeogenetics is the study of exploration of ancient DNA (aDNA) of more than 70 years old. It is an important part of the wider studies of many different areas of our past, including animal, plant and pathogen evolution and domestication events. Hereby, we address specifically the impact of research in archaeogenetics in the broader field of evolutionary medicine. Studies on ancient hominid genomes help to understand even modern health patterns. Human genetic microevolution, e.g. related to abilities of post-weaning milk consumption, and specifically genetic adaptation in disease susceptibility, e.g. towards malaria and other infectious diseases, are of the upmost importance in contributions of archeogenetics on the evolutionary understanding of human health and disease. With the increase in both the understanding of modern medical genetics and the ability to deep sequence ancient genetic information, the field of archaeogenetic evolutionary medicine is blossoming.

  15. Part E: Evolutionary Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    of Computational Intelligence. First, comprehensive surveys of genetic algorithms, genetic programming, evolution strategies, parallel evolutionary algorithms are presented, which are readable and constructive so that a large audience might find them useful and – to some extent – ready to use. Some more general...... kinds of evolutionary algorithms, have been prudently analyzed. This analysis was followed by a thorough analysis of various issues involved in stochastic local search algorithms. An interesting survey of various technological and industrial applications in mechanical engineering and design has been...... topics like the estimation of distribution algorithms, indicator-based selection, etc., are also discussed. An important problem, from a theoretical and practical point of view, of learning classifier systems is presented in depth. Multiobjective evolutionary algorithms, which constitute one of the most...

  16. Evolutionary Statistical Procedures

    CERN Document Server

    Baragona, Roberto; Poli, Irene

    2011-01-01

    This proposed text appears to be a good introduction to evolutionary computation for use in applied statistics research. The authors draw from a vast base of knowledge about the current literature in both the design of evolutionary algorithms and statistical techniques. Modern statistical research is on the threshold of solving increasingly complex problems in high dimensions, and the generalization of its methodology to parameters whose estimators do not follow mathematically simple distributions is underway. Many of these challenges involve optimizing functions for which analytic solutions a

  17. Protoplanetary disc response to distant tidal encounters in stellar clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, A. J.; Clarke, C. J.; Rosotti, G.; Booth, R. A.

    2018-04-01

    The majority of stars form in a clustered environment. This has an impact on the evolution of surrounding protoplanetary discs (PPDs) due to either photoevaporation or tidal truncation. Consequently, the development of planets depends on formation environment. Here, we present the first thorough investigation of tidally induced angular momentum loss in PPDs in the distant regime, partly motivated by claims in the literature for the importance of distant encounters in disc evolution. We employ both theoretical predictions and dynamical/hydrodynamical simulations in 2D and 3D. Our theoretical analysis is based on that of Ostriker (1994) and leads us to conclude that in the limit that the closest approach distance xmin ≫ r, the radius of a particle ring, the fractional change in angular momentum scales as (xmin/r)-5. This asymptotic limit ensures that the cumulative effect of distant encounters is minor in terms of its influence on disc evolution. The angular momentum transfer is dominated by the m = 2 Lindblad resonance for closer encounters and by the m = 1, ω = 0 Lindblad resonance at large xmin/r. We contextualize these results by comparing expected angular momentum loss for the outer edge of a PPD due to distant and close encounters. Contrary to the suggestions of previous works, we do not find that distant encounters contribute significantly to angular momentum loss in PPDs. We define an upper limit for closest approach distance where interactions are significant as a function of arbitrary host to perturber mass ratio M2/M1.

  18. EVOLUTIONARY FOUNDATIONS FOR MOLECULAR MEDICINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesse, Randolph M.; Ganten, Detlev; Gregory, T. Ryan; Omenn, Gilbert S.

    2015-01-01

    Evolution has long provided a foundation for population genetics, but many major advances in evolutionary biology from the 20th century are only now being applied in molecular medicine. They include the distinction between proximate and evolutionary explanations, kin selection, evolutionary models for cooperation, and new strategies for tracing phylogenies and identifying signals of selection. Recent advances in genomics are further transforming evolutionary biology and creating yet more opportunities for progress at the interface of evolution with genetics, medicine, and public health. This article reviews 15 evolutionary principles and their applications in molecular medicine in hopes that readers will use them and others to speed the development of evolutionary molecular medicine. PMID:22544168

  19. Evolutionary trends in Heteroptera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobben, R.H.

    1968-01-01

    1. This work, the first volume of a series dealing with evolutionary trends in Heteroptera, is concerned with the egg system of about 400 species. The data are presented systematically in chapters 1 and 2 with a critical review of the literature after each family.

    2. Chapter 3 evaluates facts

  20. Evolutionary mysteries in meiosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenormand, Thomas; Engelstädter, Jan; Johnston, Susan E.; Wijnker, Erik; Haag, Christoph R.

    2016-01-01

    Meiosis is a key event of sexual life cycles in eukaryotes. Its mechanistic details have been uncovered in several model organisms, and most of its essential features have received various and often contradictory evolutionary interpretations. In this perspective, we present an overview of these

  1. Applications of Evolutionary Computation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mora, Antonio M.; Squillero, Giovanni; Di Chio, C; Agapitos, Alexandros; Cagnoni, Stefano; Cotta, Carlos; Fernández De Vega, F; Di Caro, G A; Drechsler, R.; Ekárt, A; Esparcia-Alcázar, Anna I.; Farooq, M; Langdon, W B; Merelo-Guervós, J.J.; Preuss, M; Richter, O.-M.H.; Silva, Sara; Sim$\\$~oes, A; Squillero, Giovanni; Tarantino, Ernesto; Tettamanzi, Andrea G B; Togelius, J; Urquhart, Neil; Uyar, A S; Yannakakis, G N; Smith, Stephen L; Caserta, Marco; Ramirez, Adriana; Voß, Stefan; Squillero, Giovanni; Burelli, Paolo; Mora, Antonio M.; Squillero, Giovanni; Jan, Mathieu; Matthias, M; Di Chio, C; Agapitos, Alexandros; Cagnoni, Stefano; Cotta, Carlos; Fernández De Vega, F; Di Caro, G A; Drechsler, R.; Ekárt, A; Esparcia-Alcázar, Anna I.; Farooq, M; Langdon, W B; Merelo-Guervós, J.J.; Preuss, M; Richter, O.-M.H.; Silva, Sara; Sim$\\$~oes, A; Squillero, Giovanni; Tarantino, Ernesto; Tettamanzi, Andrea G B; Togelius, J; Urquhart, Neil; Uyar, A S; Yannakakis, G N; Caserta, Marco; Ramirez, Adriana; Voß, Stefan; Squillero, Giovanni; Burelli, Paolo; Esparcia-Alcazar, Anna I; Silva, Sara; Agapitos, Alexandros; Cotta, Carlos; De Falco, Ivanoe; Cioppa, Antonio Della; Diwold, Konrad; Ekart, Aniko; Tarantino, Ernesto; Vega, Francisco Fernandez De; Burelli, Paolo; Sim, Kevin; Cagnoni, Stefano; Simoes, Anabela; Merelo, J.J.; Urquhart, Neil; Haasdijk, Evert; Zhang, Mengjie; Squillero, Giovanni; Eiben, A E; Tettamanzi, Andrea G B; Glette, Kyrre; Rohlfshagen, Philipp; Schaefer, Robert; Caserta, Marco; Ramirez, Adriana; Voß, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The application of genetic and evolutionary computation to problems in medicine has increased rapidly over the past five years, but there are specific issues and challenges that distinguish it from other real-world applications. Obtaining reliable and coherent patient data, establishing the clinical

  2. Evolutionary perspectives on ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Martin

    2017-10-01

    From an evolutionary perspective, ageing is a decrease in fitness with chronological age - expressed by an increase in mortality risk and/or decline in reproductive success and mediated by deterioration of functional performance. While this makes ageing intuitively paradoxical - detrimental to individual fitness - evolutionary theory offers answers as to why ageing has evolved. In this review, I first briefly examine the classic evolutionary theories of ageing and their empirical tests, and highlight recent findings that have advanced our understanding of the evolution of ageing (condition-dependent survival, positive pleiotropy). I then provide an overview of recent theoretical extensions and modifications that accommodate those new discoveries. I discuss the role of indeterminate (asymptotic) growth for lifetime increases in fecundity and ageing trajectories. I outline alternative views that challenge a universal existence of senescence - namely the lack of a germ-soma distinction and the ability of tissue replacement and retrogression to younger developmental stages in modular organisms. I argue that rejuvenation at the organismal level is plausible, but includes a return to a simple developmental stage. This may exempt a particular genotype from somatic defects but, correspondingly, removes any information acquired during development. A resolution of the question of whether a rejuvenated individual is the same entity is central to the recognition of whether current evolutionary theories of ageing, with their extensions and modifications, can explain the patterns of ageing across the Tree of Life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Editorial overview: Evolutionary psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gangestad, S.W.; Tybur, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Functional approaches in psychology - which ask what behavior is good for - are almost as old as scientific psychology itself. Yet sophisticated, generative functional theories were not possible until developments in evolutionary biology in the mid-20th century. Arising in the last three decades,

  4. Biochemistry and evolutionary biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biochemical information has been crucial for the development of evolutionary biology. On the one hand, the sequence information now appearing is producing a huge increase in the amount of data available for phylogenetic analysis; on the other hand, and perhaps more fundamentally, it allows understanding of the ...

  5. Evolutionary Biology Today

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hindi and English. Port 1. Resonance, Vo1.7 ... they use. Of course, many evolutionary biologists do work with fossils or DNA, or both, but there are also large numbers of ... The first major division that I like to make is between studies focussed ...

  6. Learning: An Evolutionary Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Joanna

    2009-01-01

    This paper draws on the philosophy of Karl Popper to present a descriptive evolutionary epistemology that offers philosophical solutions to the following related problems: "What happens when learning takes place?" and "What happens in human learning?" It provides a detailed analysis of how learning takes place without any direct transfer of…

  7. Complex systems, evolutionary planning?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertolini, L.; de Roo, G.; Silva, E.A.

    2010-01-01

    Coping with uncertainty is a defining challenge for spatial planners. Accordingly, most spatial planning theories and methods are aimed at reducing uncertainty. However, the question is what should be done when this seems impossible? This chapter proposes an evolutionary interpretation of spatial

  8. Molluscan Evolutionary Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanninger, Andreas Wilhelm Georg; Koop, Damien; Moshel-Lynch, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Brought together by Winston F. Ponder and David R. Lindberg, thirty-six experts on the evolution of the Mollusca provide an up-to-date review of its evolutionary history. The Mollusca are the second largest animal phylum and boast a fossil record of over 540 million years. They exhibit remarkable...

  9. Using Ancient DNA to Understand Evolutionary and Ecological Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre; Cooper, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Ancient DNA provides a unique means to record genetic change through time and directly observe evolutionary and ecological processes. Although mostly based on mitochondrial DNA, the increasing availability of genomic sequences is leading to unprecedented levels of resolution. Temporal studies of ...

  10. Distant metastases in differentiated thyroid carcinoma: diagnosis and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, A.; Cross, G.; Pitoia, F.

    2017-01-01

    Distant metastases occur in less than 10% of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. In these patients, overall survival at 10 years is considerably reduced. Whereas cure is the initial goal of treatment, stabilisation of the disease and management of symptoms have become the primary objective in many patients with persistent radio-iodine refractory progressive disease. In the last decade, several targeted therapies have shown encouraging results in patients with advanced disease. The objective of this review is to describe the characteristics, diagnosis, overall survival, and the local and systemic available treatments for patients with distant metastases from differentiated thyroid cancer. (authors) [es

  11. Neural correlates of self-appraisals in the near and distant future: an event-related potential study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangmei Luo

    Full Text Available To investigate perceptual and neural correlates of future self-appraisals as a function of temporal distance, event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded while participants (11 women, eight men made judgments about the applicability of trait adjectives to their near future selves (i.e., one month from now and their distant future selves (i.e., three years from now. Behavioral results indicated people used fewer positive adjectives, more negative adjectives, recalled more specific events coming to mind and felt more psychologically connected to the near future self than the distant future self. Electrophysiological results demonstrated that negative trait adjectives elicited more positive ERP deflections than did positive trait adjectives in the interval between 550 and 800 ms (late positive component within the near future self condition. However, within the same interval, there were no significant differences between negative and positive traits adjectives in the distant future self condition. The results suggest that negative emotional processing in future self-appraisals is modulated by temporal distance, consistent with predictions of construal level theory.

  12. Temporal networks

    CERN Document Server

    Saramäki, Jari

    2013-01-01

    The concept of temporal networks is an extension of complex networks as a modeling framework to include information on when interactions between nodes happen. Many studies of the last decade examine how the static network structure affect dynamic systems on the network. In this traditional approach  the temporal aspects are pre-encoded in the dynamic system model. Temporal-network methods, on the other hand, lift the temporal information from the level of system dynamics to the mathematical representation of the contact network itself. This framework becomes particularly useful for cases where there is a lot of structure and heterogeneity both in the timings of interaction events and the network topology. The advantage compared to common static network approaches is the ability to design more accurate models in order to explain and predict large-scale dynamic phenomena (such as, e.g., epidemic outbreaks and other spreading phenomena). On the other hand, temporal network methods are mathematically and concept...

  13. Atypical modulation of distant functional connectivity by cognitive state in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhen eYou

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether modulation of functional connectivity by cognitive state differed between pre-adolescent children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD and age and IQ-matched control children. Children underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during two states, a resting state followed by a sustained attention task. A voxel-wise method was used to characterize functional connectivity at two levels, local (within a voxel’s 14 mm neighborhood and distant (outside of the voxel’s 14 mm neighborhood to the rest of the brain and regions exhibiting Group X State interaction were identified for both types of connectivity maps. Distant functional connectivity of regions in the left frontal lobe (dorsolateral [BA 11, 10]; supplementary motor area extending into dorsal anterior cingulate [BA 32/8]; and premotor [BA 6, 8, 9], right parietal lobe (paracentral lobule [BA 6 ]; angular gyrus [BA 39/40], and left posterior middle temporal cortex (BA 19/39 showed a Group X State interaction such that relative to the resting state, connectivity reduced (i.e., became focal in control children but increased (i.e., became diffuse in ASD children during the task state. Higher state-related increase in distant connectivity of left frontal and right angular gyrus predicted worse inattention in ASD children. Two graph theory measures (global efficiency and modularity were also sensitive to Group X State differences, with the magnitude of state-related change predicting inattention in the ASD children. Our results indicate that as ASD children transition from an unconstrained to a sustained attentional state, functional connectivity of frontal and parietal regions with the rest of the brain becomes more widespread in a manner that may be maladaptive as it was associated with attention problems in everyday life.

  14. Reichenbach and the conventionality of distant simultaneity in perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieks, D.G.B.J.

    2008-01-01

    We take another look at Reichenbach’s 1920 conversion to conventionalism, with a special eye to the background of his ‘conventionality of distant simultaneity’ thesis. We argue that elements of Reichenbach earlier neo-Kantianism can still be discerned in his later work and, related to this, that his

  15. Mycorrhizae support oaks growing in a phylogenetically distant neighbourhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yguel, B.; Courty, P.E.; Jactel, H.; Pan, X.; Butenschoen, O.; Murray, P.J.; Prinzing, A.

    2014-01-01

    Host-plants may rarely leave their ancestral niche and in which case they tend to be surrounded by phylogenetically distant neighbours. Phylogenetically isolated host-plants might share few mutualists with their neighbours and might suffer from a decrease in mutualist support. In addition host

  16. Synchronization scenario of two distant mutually coupled semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulet, Josep; Mirasso, Claudio; Heil, Tilmann

    2004-01-01

    We present numerical and experimental investigations of the synchronization of the coupling-induced instabilities in two distant mutually coupled semiconductor lasers. In our experiments, two similar Fabry-Perot lasers are coupled via their coherent optical fields. Our theoretical framework is ba...

  17. Enhancing Distant Learning through Email Communication: A Case of BOU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, K. M. Rezanur; Anwar, Sadat; Numan, Sharker Md.

    2008-01-01

    Today computer has replaced all means of traditional communication significantly. Many distant learning tools claim to be interactive, but few can offer two-way communication. Email is the most popular means of communication medium now-a-days. Therefore, it may be used as an educational tool for learning. In present socioeconomic condition of…

  18. Notes on the genus Pirdana Distant, 1886 (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de R.; Treadaway, C.G.

    1993-01-01

    In the Oriental genus Pirdana Distant, 1886, the new species P. fusca is described from Samar (E Philippines). The phylogeny of the genus is discussed and as a consequence the endemic Sulawesi taxon P. hyela ismene (Felder & Felder, [1867]) is given back its species rank, bringing the total number

  19. Evolutionary constrained optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Deb, Kalyanmoy

    2015-01-01

    This book makes available a self-contained collection of modern research addressing the general constrained optimization problems using evolutionary algorithms. Broadly the topics covered include constraint handling for single and multi-objective optimizations; penalty function based methodology; multi-objective based methodology; new constraint handling mechanism; hybrid methodology; scaling issues in constrained optimization; design of scalable test problems; parameter adaptation in constrained optimization; handling of integer, discrete and mix variables in addition to continuous variables; application of constraint handling techniques to real-world problems; and constrained optimization in dynamic environment. There is also a separate chapter on hybrid optimization, which is gaining lots of popularity nowadays due to its capability of bridging the gap between evolutionary and classical optimization. The material in the book is useful to researchers, novice, and experts alike. The book will also be useful...

  20. Introduction to Evolutionary Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Xinjie

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) are becoming increasingly attractive for researchers from various disciplines, such as operations research, computer science, industrial engineering, electrical engineering, social science, economics, etc. This book presents an insightful, comprehensive, and up-to-date treatment of EAs, such as genetic algorithms, differential evolution, evolution strategy, constraint optimization, multimodal optimization, multiobjective optimization, combinatorial optimization, evolvable hardware, estimation of distribution algorithms, ant colony optimization, particle swarm opti

  1. Evolutionary games on graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, György; Fáth, Gábor

    2007-07-01

    Game theory is one of the key paradigms behind many scientific disciplines from biology to behavioral sciences to economics. In its evolutionary form and especially when the interacting agents are linked in a specific social network the underlying solution concepts and methods are very similar to those applied in non-equilibrium statistical physics. This review gives a tutorial-type overview of the field for physicists. The first four sections introduce the necessary background in classical and evolutionary game theory from the basic definitions to the most important results. The fifth section surveys the topological complications implied by non-mean-field-type social network structures in general. The next three sections discuss in detail the dynamic behavior of three prominent classes of models: the Prisoner's Dilemma, the Rock-Scissors-Paper game, and Competing Associations. The major theme of the review is in what sense and how the graph structure of interactions can modify and enrich the picture of long term behavioral patterns emerging in evolutionary games.

  2. Evolutionary mysteries in meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenormand, Thomas; Engelstädter, Jan; Johnston, Susan E; Wijnker, Erik; Haag, Christoph R

    2016-10-19

    Meiosis is a key event of sexual life cycles in eukaryotes. Its mechanistic details have been uncovered in several model organisms, and most of its essential features have received various and often contradictory evolutionary interpretations. In this perspective, we present an overview of these often 'weird' features. We discuss the origin of meiosis (origin of ploidy reduction and recombination, two-step meiosis), its secondary modifications (in polyploids or asexuals, inverted meiosis), its importance in punctuating life cycles (meiotic arrests, epigenetic resetting, meiotic asymmetry, meiotic fairness) and features associated with recombination (disjunction constraints, heterochiasmy, crossover interference and hotspots). We present the various evolutionary scenarios and selective pressures that have been proposed to account for these features, and we highlight that their evolutionary significance often remains largely mysterious. Resolving these mysteries will likely provide decisive steps towards understanding why sex and recombination are found in the majority of eukaryotes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Weird sex: the underappreciated diversity of sexual reproduction'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Asymmetric Evolutionary Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAvoy, Alex; Hauert, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary game theory is a powerful framework for studying evolution in populations of interacting individuals. A common assumption in evolutionary game theory is that interactions are symmetric, which means that the players are distinguished by only their strategies. In nature, however, the microscopic interactions between players are nearly always asymmetric due to environmental effects, differing baseline characteristics, and other possible sources of heterogeneity. To model these phenomena, we introduce into evolutionary game theory two broad classes of asymmetric interactions: ecological and genotypic. Ecological asymmetry results from variation in the environments of the players, while genotypic asymmetry is a consequence of the players having differing baseline genotypes. We develop a theory of these forms of asymmetry for games in structured populations and use the classical social dilemmas, the Prisoner’s Dilemma and the Snowdrift Game, for illustrations. Interestingly, asymmetric games reveal essential differences between models of genetic evolution based on reproduction and models of cultural evolution based on imitation that are not apparent in symmetric games. PMID:26308326

  4. Project Temporalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell; Justesen, Lise; Mouritsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how animals can become stakeholders in interaction with project management technologies and what happens with project temporalities when new and surprising stakeholders become part of a project and a recognized matter of concern to be taken...... into account. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a qualitative case study of a project in the building industry. The authors use actor-network theory (ANT) to analyze the emergence of animal stakeholders, stakes and temporalities. Findings – The study shows how project temporalities can...... multiply in interaction with project management technologies and how conventional linear conceptions of project time may be contested with the emergence of new non-human stakeholders and temporalities. Research limitations/implications – The study draws on ANT to show how animals can become stakeholders...

  5. On the Existence of Evolutionary Learning Equilibriums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masudul Alam Choudhury

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The usual kinds of Fixed-Point Theorems formalized on the existence of competitive equilibrium that explain much of economic theory at the core of economics can operate only on bounded and closed sets with convex mappings. But these conditions are hardly true of the real world of economic and financial complexities and perturbations. The category of learning sets explained by continuous fields of interactive, integrative and evolutionary behaviour caused by dynamic preferences at the individual and institutional and social levels cannot maintain the assumption of closed, bounded and convex sets. Thus learning sets and multi-system inter-temporal relations explained by pervasive complementarities and  participation between variables and entities, and evolution by learning, have evolutionary equilibriums. Such a study requires a new methodological approach. This paper formalizes such a methodology for evolutionary equilibriums in learning spaces. It briefly points out the universality of learning equilibriums in all mathematical structures. For a particular case though, the inter-systemic interdependence between sustainable development and ethics and economics in the specific understanding of learning domain is pointed out.

  6. Functional Sites Induce Long-Range Evolutionary Constraints in Enzymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin R Jack

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Functional residues in proteins tend to be highly conserved over evolutionary time. However, to what extent functional sites impose evolutionary constraints on nearby or even more distant residues is not known. Here, we report pervasive conservation gradients toward catalytic residues in a dataset of 524 distinct enzymes: evolutionary conservation decreases approximately linearly with increasing distance to the nearest catalytic residue in the protein structure. This trend encompasses, on average, 80% of the residues in any enzyme, and it is independent of known structural constraints on protein evolution such as residue packing or solvent accessibility. Further, the trend exists in both monomeric and multimeric enzymes and irrespective of enzyme size and/or location of the active site in the enzyme structure. By contrast, sites in protein-protein interfaces, unlike catalytic residues, are only weakly conserved and induce only minor rate gradients. In aggregate, these observations show that functional sites, and in particular catalytic residues, induce long-range evolutionary constraints in enzymes.

  7. Evolution and development: some insights from evolutionary theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVID JEAN R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental biology and evolutionary biology are both mature integrative disciplines which started in the 19th century and then followed parallel and independent scientific pathways. Recently, a genetical component has stepped into both disciplines (developmental genetics and evolutionary genetics pointing out the need for future convergent maturation. Indeed, the Evo-Devo approach is becoming popular among developmental biologists, based on the facts that distant groups share a common ancestry, that precise phylogenies can be worked out and that homologous genes often play similar roles during the development of very different organisms. In this essay, I try to show that the real future of Evo-Devo thinking is still broader. The evolutionary theory is a set of diverse concepts which can and should be used in any biological field. Evolutionary thinking trains to ask « why » questions and to provide logical and plausible answers. It can shed some light on a diversity of general problems such as how to distinguish homologies from analogies, the costs and benefits of multicellularity, the origin of novel structures (e.g. the head, or the evolution of sexual reproduction. In the next decade, we may expect a progressive convergence between developmental genetics and quantitative genetics.

  8. Studies in evolutionary agroecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wille, Wibke

    of population performance will increase in frequency. Yield, one of the fundamental agronomic variables, is not an individual, but a population characteristic. A farmer wants a high yield per hectare; he is not interested in the performance of individual plants. When individual selection and population...... of Evolutionary Agroecology that the highest yielding individuals do not necessarily perform best as a population. The investment of resources into strategies and structures increasing individual competitive ability carries a cost. If a whole population consists of individuals investing resources to compete...

  9. Towards Adaptive Evolutionary Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Sebastian HOlt; Rask, Nina; Risi, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents first results from an interdisciplinary project, in which the fields of architecture, philosophy and artificial life are combined to explore possible futures of architecture. Through an interactive evolutionary installation, called EvoCurtain, we investigate aspects of how...... to the development of designs tailored to the individual preferences of inhabitants, changing the roles of architects and designers entirely. Architecture-as-it-could-be is a philosophical approach conducted through artistic methods to anticipate the technological futures of human-centered development within...

  10. How do probiotics and prebiotics function at distant sites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, G; Abrahamsson, T; Bailey, M; Bindels, L B; Bubnov, R; Ganguli, K; Martoni, C; O'Neill, C; Savignac, H M; Stanton, C; Ship, N; Surette, M; Tuohy, K; van Hemert, S

    2017-08-24

    The realisation that microbes regarded as beneficial to the host can impart effects at sites distant from their habitat, has raised many possibilities for treatment of diseases. The objective of a workshop hosted in Turku, Finland, by the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics, was to assess the evidence for these effects and the extent to which early life microbiome programming influences how the gut microbiota communicates with distant sites. In addition, we examined how probiotics and prebiotics might affect the skin, airways, heart, brain and metabolism. The growing levels of scientific and clinical evidence showing how microbes influence the physiology of many body sites, leads us to call for more funding to advance a potentially exciting avenue for novel therapies for many chronic diseases.

  11. Screening of exciplex formation by distant electron transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorenko, S G; Khokhlova, S S; Burshtein, A I

    2012-01-12

    The excitation quenching by reversible exciplex formation, combined with irreversible but distant electron transfer, is considered by means of the integral encounter theory (IET). Assuming that the quenchers are in great excess, the set of IET equations for the excitations, free ions, and exciplexes is derived. Solving these equations gives the Laplace images of all these populations, and these are used to specify the quantum yields of the corresponding reaction products. It appears that diffusion facilitates the exciplex production and the electron transfer. On the other hand the stronger the electron transfer is, the weaker is the exciplex production. At slow diffusion the distant quenching of excitations by ionization prevents their reaching the contact where they can turn into exciplexes. This is a screening effect that is most pronounced when the ionization rate is large.

  12. ENHANCING DISTANT LEARNING THROUGH EMAIL COMMUNICATION: A Case of BOU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Rezanur RAHMAN

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Today computer has replaced all means of traditional communication significantly. Many distant learning tools claim to be interactive, but few can offer two-way communication. Email is the most popular means of communication medium now-a-days. Therefore, it may be used as an educational tool for learning. In present socio-economic condition of Bangladesh, learners can afford computer, cell phone and Internet. We took this opportunity to investigate the prospective use of these tools for distant learning. The present survey has been carried out to understand the present status of Internet knowledge among the learners and their views for possible introduction of e-mail communication as supporting tool for learning. BOU’s available infrastructural facilities for providing Internet support have been investigated. Furthermore, possible solutions have been pointed out to provide e-mail facility to the learner in a cost effective way.

  13. Entanglement of distant superconducting quantum interference device rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zukarnain, Z Ahmad; Konstadopoulou, A; Vourdas, A; Migliore, R; Messina, A

    2005-01-01

    We consider two distant mesoscopic SQUID rings, approximated with two-level systems, interacting with two-mode microwaves. The Hamiltonian of the system is used to calculate its time evolution. The cases with microwaves which at t = 0 are in separable states (classically correlated) or entangled states (quantum mechanically correlated) are studied. It is shown that the Josephson currents in the two SQUID rings are also correlated

  14. CANDiS: Coupled & Attention-Driven Neural Distant Supervision

    OpenAIRE

    Nagarajan, Tushar; Sharmistha; Talukdar, Partha

    2017-01-01

    Distant Supervision for Relation Extraction uses heuristically aligned text data with an existing knowledge base as training data. The unsupervised nature of this technique allows it to scale to web-scale relation extraction tasks, at the expense of noise in the training data. Previous work has explored relationships among instances of the same entity-pair to reduce this noise, but relationships among instances across entity-pairs have not been fully exploited. We explore the use of inter-ins...

  15. Thyrotoxicosis associated with distant metastatic follicular carcinoma of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, W.D.; Jones, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    In a man with metastatic follicular carcinoma of the thyroid, thyrotoxicosis developed after total thyroidectomy and was successfully treated with antithyroid medications. Treatment with radioactive iodine decreased the size of the distant metastasis and eventually diminished thyroid hormone production. Follicular carcinoma complicated by hyperthyroidism requires vigorous control of the hypermetabolic state. Treatment with radioactive iodine can effectively reduce metabolic complications and tumor bulk, and yields a remission rate as high as 33%

  16. Reaction enhancement of initially distant scalars by Lagrangian coherent structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, Kenneth R.; Crimaldi, John P.; Meiss, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Turbulent fluid flows have long been recognized as a superior means of diluting initial concentrations of scalars due to rapid stirring. Conversely, experiments have shown that the structures responsible for this rapid dilution can also aggregate initially distant reactive scalars and thereby greatly enhance reaction rates. Indeed, chaotic flows not only enhance dilution by shearing and stretching but also organize initially distant scalars along transiently attracting regions in the flow. To show the robustness of this phenomenon, a hierarchical set of three numerical flows is used: the periodic wake downstream of a stationary cylinder, a chaotic double gyre flow, and a chaotic, aperiodic flow consisting of interacting Taylor vortices. We demonstrate that Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS), as identified by ridges in finite time Lyapunov exponents, are directly responsible for this coalescence of reactive scalar filaments. When highly concentrated filaments coalesce, reaction rates can be orders of magnitude greater than would be predicted in a well-mixed system. This is further supported by an idealized, analytical model that was developed to quantify the competing effects of scalar dilution and coalescence. Chaotic flows, known for their ability to efficiently dilute scalars, therefore have the competing effect of organizing initially distant scalars along the LCS at timescales shorter than that required for dilution, resulting in reaction enhancement

  17. Distant Supervision for Relation Extraction with Ranking-Based Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Relation extraction has benefited from distant supervision in recent years with the development of natural language processing techniques and data explosion. However, distant supervision is still greatly limited by the quality of training data, due to its natural motivation for greatly reducing the heavy cost of data annotation. In this paper, we construct an architecture called MIML-sort (Multi-instance Multi-label Learning with Sorting Strategies, which is built on the famous MIML framework. Based on MIML-sort, we propose three ranking-based methods for sample selection with which we identify relation extractors from a subset of the training data. Experiments are set up on the KBP (Knowledge Base Propagation corpus, one of the benchmark datasets for distant supervision, which is large and noisy. Compared with previous work, the proposed methods produce considerably better results. Furthermore, the three methods together achieve the best F1 on the official testing set, with an optimal enhancement of F1 from 27.3% to 29.98%.

  18. Core principles of evolutionary medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunspan, Daniel Z; Nesse, Randolph M; Barnes, M Elizabeth; Brownell, Sara E

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background and objectives Evolutionary medicine is a rapidly growing field that uses the principles of evolutionary biology to better understand, prevent and treat disease, and that uses studies of disease to advance basic knowledge in evolutionary biology. Over-arching principles of evolutionary medicine have been described in publications, but our study is the first to systematically elicit core principles from a diverse panel of experts in evolutionary medicine. These principles should be useful to advance recent recommendations made by The Association of American Medical Colleges and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute to make evolutionary thinking a core competency for pre-medical education. Methodology The Delphi method was used to elicit and validate a list of core principles for evolutionary medicine. The study included four surveys administered in sequence to 56 expert panelists. The initial open-ended survey created a list of possible core principles; the three subsequent surveys winnowed the list and assessed the accuracy and importance of each principle. Results Fourteen core principles elicited at least 80% of the panelists to agree or strongly agree that they were important core principles for evolutionary medicine. These principles over-lapped with concepts discussed in other articles discussing key concepts in evolutionary medicine. Conclusions and implications This set of core principles will be helpful for researchers and instructors in evolutionary medicine. We recommend that evolutionary medicine instructors use the list of core principles to construct learning goals. Evolutionary medicine is a young field, so this list of core principles will likely change as the field develops further. PMID:29493660

  19. Practical advantages of evolutionary computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, David B.

    1997-10-01

    Evolutionary computation is becoming a common technique for solving difficult, real-world problems in industry, medicine, and defense. This paper reviews some of the practical advantages to using evolutionary algorithms as compared with classic methods of optimization or artificial intelligence. Specific advantages include the flexibility of the procedures, as well as their ability to self-adapt the search for optimum solutions on the fly. As desktop computers increase in speed, the application of evolutionary algorithms will become routine.

  20. Development of Distant Learning Laboratory and Creation of Educational Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considine, Michelle

    1995-01-01

    The Office of Education's fundamental goal is to disseminate information, mostly that which relates to science and technology. In this attempt, as I have observed, the office has many programs bringing both students and teachers to NASA Langley to expose them to the facilities and to teach them some about the scientific theory and about available modern technology. As a way of expanding the audience that can be reached, as the expense of bringing people in is limiting, Marchelle Canright has proposed establishing a center dedicated to researching and producing distant learning videos. Although distant learning through telecommunications is not a new concept, as many universities, colleges, and precollege level schools offer televised courses, the research in this field has been limited. Many of the standing distant learning broadcasts are simply recordings of teachers in classrooms giving lectures to their own students; they are not aimed at the television audience. In some cases the videos are produced without a Live-lecture atmosphere, but are still only classroom lectures. In either case, however, the full range of capabilities of video production are not being fully utilized. Methods for best relaying educational material have not been explored. Possibilities for including computerized images and video clips for the purpose of showing diagrams and processes, as well as examples in fitting cases, may add considerably to the educational value of these videos. Also, through Internet and satellite links, it is possible for remote students to interact with the teachers during televised sessions. These possibilities might, also, add to the effectiveness of distant learning programs. Ms. Canright's proposed center will be dedicated to researching these possibilities and eventually spreading the results to distant learning program managers. This is the project I was involved in over the summer. As implied, the center is still at the foundation stages. Ms. Canright has

  1. Skeletal remodelling suggests the turtle's shell is not an evolutionary straitjacket

    OpenAIRE

    Cordero, Gerardo Antonio; Quinteros, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Recent efforts to decipher the enigma of the turtle's shell revealed that distantly related turtle species deploy diverse processes during shell development. Even so, extant species share in common a shoulder blade (scapula) that is encapsulated within the shell. Thus, evolutionary change in the correlated development of the shell and scapula probably underpins the evolution of highly derived shell morphologies. To address this expectation, we conducted one of the most phylogenetically compre...

  2. Temporal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Petter; Saramäki, Jari

    2012-10-01

    A great variety of systems in nature, society and technology-from the web of sexual contacts to the Internet, from the nervous system to power grids-can be modeled as graphs of vertices coupled by edges. The network structure, describing how the graph is wired, helps us understand, predict and optimize the behavior of dynamical systems. In many cases, however, the edges are not continuously active. As an example, in networks of communication via e-mail, text messages, or phone calls, edges represent sequences of instantaneous or practically instantaneous contacts. In some cases, edges are active for non-negligible periods of time: e.g., the proximity patterns of inpatients at hospitals can be represented by a graph where an edge between two individuals is on throughout the time they are at the same ward. Like network topology, the temporal structure of edge activations can affect dynamics of systems interacting through the network, from disease contagion on the network of patients to information diffusion over an e-mail network. In this review, we present the emergent field of temporal networks, and discuss methods for analyzing topological and temporal structure and models for elucidating their relation to the behavior of dynamical systems. In the light of traditional network theory, one can see this framework as moving the information of when things happen from the dynamical system on the network, to the network itself. Since fundamental properties, such as the transitivity of edges, do not necessarily hold in temporal networks, many of these methods need to be quite different from those for static networks. The study of temporal networks is very interdisciplinary in nature. Reflecting this, even the object of study has many names-temporal graphs, evolving graphs, time-varying graphs, time-aggregated graphs, time-stamped graphs, dynamic networks, dynamic graphs, dynamical graphs, and so on. This review covers different fields where temporal graphs are considered

  3. Comparative molecular analysis of evolutionarily distant glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Sardina pilchardus and Octopus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baibai, Tarik; Oukhattar, Laila; Mountassif, Driss; Assobhei, Omar; Serrano, Aurelio; Soukri, Abdelaziz

    2010-12-01

    The NAD(+)-dependent cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, EC 1.2.1.12), which is recognized as a key to central carbon metabolism in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis and as an important allozymic polymorphic biomarker, was purified from muscles of two marine species: the skeletal muscle of Sardina pilchardus Walbaum (Teleost, Clupeida) and the incompressible arm muscle of Octopus vulgaris (Mollusca, Cephalopoda). Comparative biochemical studies have revealed that they differ in their subunit molecular masses and in pI values. Partial cDNA sequences corresponding to an internal region of the GapC genes from Sardina and Octopus were obtained by polymerase chain reaction using degenerate primers designed from highly conserved protein motifs. Alignments of the deduced amino acid sequences were used to establish the 3D structures of the active site of two enzymes as well as the phylogenetic relationships of the sardine and octopus enzymes. These two enzymes are the first two GAPDHs characterized so far from teleost fish and cephalopod, respectively. Interestingly, phylogenetic analyses indicated that the sardina GAPDH is in a cluster with the archetypical enzymes from other vertebrates, while the octopus GAPDH comes together with other molluscan sequences in a distant basal assembly closer to bacterial and fungal orthologs, thus suggesting their different evolutionary scenarios.

  4. Complexity in Evolutionary Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, P.

    2010-01-01

    Darwin's principle of evolution by natural selection is readily casted into a mathematical formalism. Molecular biology revealed the mechanism of mutation and provides the basis for a kinetic theory of evolution that models correct reproduction and mutation as parallel chemical reaction channels. A result of the kinetic theory is the existence of a phase transition in evolution occurring at a critical mutation rate, which represents a localization threshold for the population in sequence space. Occurrence and nature of such phase transitions depend critically on fitness landscapes. The fitness landscape being tantamount to a mapping from sequence or genotype space into phenotype space is identified as the true source of complexity in evolution. Modeling evolution as a stochastic process is discussed and neutrality with respect to selection is shown to provide a major challenge for understanding evolutionary processes (author)

  5. Spore: Spawning Evolutionary Misconceptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Thomas E.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Schrader, P. G.

    2010-10-01

    The use of computer simulations as educational tools may afford the means to develop understanding of evolution as a natural, emergent, and decentralized process. However, special consideration of developmental constraints on learning may be necessary when using these technologies. Specifically, the essentialist (biological forms possess an immutable essence), teleological (assignment of purpose to living things and/or parts of living things that may not be purposeful), and intentionality (assumption that events are caused by an intelligent agent) biases may be reinforced through the use of computer simulations, rather than addressed with instruction. We examine the video game Spore for its depiction of evolutionary content and its potential to reinforce these cognitive biases. In particular, we discuss three pedagogical strategies to mitigate weaknesses of Spore and other computer simulations: directly targeting misconceptions through refutational approaches, targeting specific principles of scientific inquiry, and directly addressing issues related to models as cognitive tools.

  6. Evolutionary games under incompetence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleshnina, Maria; Filar, Jerzy A; Ejov, Vladimir; McKerral, Jody C

    2018-02-26

    The adaptation process of a species to a new environment is a significant area of study in biology. As part of natural selection, adaptation is a mutation process which improves survival skills and reproductive functions of species. Here, we investigate this process by combining the idea of incompetence with evolutionary game theory. In the sense of evolution, incompetence and training can be interpreted as a special learning process. With focus on the social side of the problem, we analyze the influence of incompetence on behavior of species. We introduce an incompetence parameter into a learning function in a single-population game and analyze its effect on the outcome of the replicator dynamics. Incompetence can change the outcome of the game and its dynamics, indicating its significance within what are inherently imperfect natural systems.

  7. Evolutionary process of deep-sea bathymodiolus mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Jun-Ichi; de Oliveira Martins, Leonardo; Fujita, Yuko; Matsumoto, Hiroto; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro

    2010-04-27

    Since the discovery of deep-sea chemosynthesis-based communities, much work has been done to clarify their organismal and environmental aspects. However, major topics remain to be resolved, including when and how organisms invade and adapt to deep-sea environments; whether strategies for invasion and adaptation are shared by different taxa or unique to each taxon; how organisms extend their distribution and diversity; and how they become isolated to speciate in continuous waters. Deep-sea mussels are one of the dominant organisms in chemosynthesis-based communities, thus investigations of their origin and evolution contribute to resolving questions about life in those communities. We investigated worldwide phylogenetic relationships of deep-sea Bathymodiolus mussels and their mytilid relatives by analyzing nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated sequence data showed that mussels of the subfamily Bathymodiolinae from vents and seeps were divided into four groups, and that mussels of the subfamily Modiolinae from sunken wood and whale carcasses assumed the outgroup position and shallow-water modioline mussels were positioned more distantly to the bathymodioline mussels. We provisionally hypothesized the evolutionary history of Bathymodilolus mussels by estimating evolutionary time under a relaxed molecular clock model. Diversification of bathymodioline mussels was initiated in the early Miocene, and subsequently diversification of the groups occurred in the early to middle Miocene. The phylogenetic relationships support the "Evolutionary stepping stone hypothesis," in which mytilid ancestors exploited sunken wood and whale carcasses in their progressive adaptation to deep-sea environments. This hypothesis is also supported by the evolutionary transition of symbiosis in that nutritional adaptation to the deep sea proceeded from extracellular

  8. Evolutionary process of deep-sea bathymodiolus mussels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ichi Miyazaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since the discovery of deep-sea chemosynthesis-based communities, much work has been done to clarify their organismal and environmental aspects. However, major topics remain to be resolved, including when and how organisms invade and adapt to deep-sea environments; whether strategies for invasion and adaptation are shared by different taxa or unique to each taxon; how organisms extend their distribution and diversity; and how they become isolated to speciate in continuous waters. Deep-sea mussels are one of the dominant organisms in chemosynthesis-based communities, thus investigations of their origin and evolution contribute to resolving questions about life in those communities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We investigated worldwide phylogenetic relationships of deep-sea Bathymodiolus mussels and their mytilid relatives by analyzing nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4 genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated sequence data showed that mussels of the subfamily Bathymodiolinae from vents and seeps were divided into four groups, and that mussels of the subfamily Modiolinae from sunken wood and whale carcasses assumed the outgroup position and shallow-water modioline mussels were positioned more distantly to the bathymodioline mussels. We provisionally hypothesized the evolutionary history of Bathymodilolus mussels by estimating evolutionary time under a relaxed molecular clock model. Diversification of bathymodioline mussels was initiated in the early Miocene, and subsequently diversification of the groups occurred in the early to middle Miocene. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The phylogenetic relationships support the "Evolutionary stepping stone hypothesis," in which mytilid ancestors exploited sunken wood and whale carcasses in their progressive adaptation to deep-sea environments. This hypothesis is also supported by the evolutionary transition of

  9. Open Issues in Evolutionary Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fernando; Duarte, Miguel; Correia, Luís; Oliveira, Sancho Moura; Christensen, Anders Lyhne

    2016-01-01

    One of the long-term goals in evolutionary robotics is to be able to automatically synthesize controllers for real autonomous robots based only on a task specification. While a number of studies have shown the applicability of evolutionary robotics techniques for the synthesis of behavioral control, researchers have consistently been faced with a number of issues preventing the widespread adoption of evolutionary robotics for engineering purposes. In this article, we review and discuss the open issues in evolutionary robotics. First, we analyze the benefits and challenges of simulation-based evolution and subsequent deployment of controllers versus evolution on real robotic hardware. Second, we discuss specific evolutionary computation issues that have plagued evolutionary robotics: (1) the bootstrap problem, (2) deception, and (3) the role of genomic encoding and genotype-phenotype mapping in the evolution of controllers for complex tasks. Finally, we address the absence of standard research practices in the field. We also discuss promising avenues of research. Our underlying motivation is the reduction of the current gap between evolutionary robotics and mainstream robotics, and the establishment of evolutionary robotics as a canonical approach for the engineering of autonomous robots.

  10. Evolutionary economics and industry location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, R.A.; Frenken, K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper aims to provide the outlines of an evolutionary economic geography of industry location. We discuss two evolutionary explanations of industry location, that is, one that concentrates on spin-offs, and one that focuses attention on knowledge and agglomeration economies. We claim that both

  11. Contemporary issues in evolutionary biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These discussions included, among others, the possible consequences of nonDNA-based inheritance—epigenetics and cultural evolution, niche construction, and developmental mechanisms on our understanding of the evolutionary process, speciation, complexity in biology, and constructing a formal evolutionary theory.

  12. Contemporary issues in evolutionary biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We are delighted to bring to the readers, a set of peer-reviewed papers on evolutionary biology, published as a special issue of the Journal of Genetics. These papers emanated from ruminations upon and discussions at the Foundations of. Evolutionary Theory: the Ongoing Synthesis meeting at Coorg, India, in February ...

  13. Fixation Time for Evolutionary Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Pu-Yan; Zhang, Pei-Ai

    Evolutionary graph theory (EGT) is recently proposed by Lieberman et al. in 2005. EGT is successful for explaining biological evolution and some social phenomena. It is extremely important to consider the time of fixation for EGT in many practical problems, including evolutionary theory and the evolution of cooperation. This study characterizes the time to asymptotically reach fixation.

  14. Applications of evolutionary economic geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, R.A.; Frenken, K.; Puranam, Krishna Kishore; Ravi Kumar Jain B., xx

    2008-01-01

    This paper is written as the first chapter of an edited volume on evolutionary economics and economic geography (Frenken, K., editor, Applied Evolutionary Economics and Economic Geography, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, expected publication date February 2007). The paper reviews empirical applications of

  15. Selections from 2017: Hubble Survey Explores Distant Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-12-01

    Editors note:In these last two weeks of 2017, well be looking at a few selections that we havent yet discussed on AAS Nova from among the most-downloaded paperspublished in AAS journals this year. The usual posting schedule will resume in January.CANDELS Multi-Wavelength Catalogs: Source Identification and Photometry in the CANDELS COSMOSSurvey FieldPublished January2017Main takeaway:A publication led byHooshang Nayyeri(UC Irvine and UC Riverside) early this year details acatalog of sources built using the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey(CANDELS), a survey carried out by cameras on board the Hubble Space Telescope. The catalogliststhe properties of 38,000 distant galaxies visiblewithin the COSMOS field, a two-square-degree equatorial field explored in depthto answer cosmological questions.Why its interesting:Illustration showing the three-dimensional map of the dark matter distribution in theCOSMOS field. [Adapted from NASA/ESA/R. Massey(California Institute of Technology)]The depth and resolution of the CANDELS observations areuseful for addressingseveral major science goals, including the following:Studying the most distant objects in the universe at the epoch of reionization in the cosmic dawn.Understanding galaxy formation and evolution during the peak epoch of star formation in the cosmic high noon.Studying star formation from deep ultravioletobservations and studying cosmology from supernova observations.Why CANDELS is a major endeavor:CANDELS isthe largest multi-cycle treasury program ever approved on the Hubble Space Telescope using over 900 orbits between 2010 and 2013 withtwo cameras on board the spacecraftto study galaxy formation and evolution throughout cosmic time. The CANDELS images are all publicly available, and the new catalogrepresents an enormous source of information about distant objectsin our universe.CitationH. Nayyeri et al 2017 ApJS 228 7. doi:10.3847/1538-4365/228/1/7

  16. Learning in professionally 'distant' contexts: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mausz, Justin; Tavares, Walter

    2017-08-01

    The changing nature of healthcare education and delivery is such that clinicians will increasingly find themselves practicing in contexts that are physically and/or conceptually different from the settings in which they were trained, a practice that conflicts on some level with socio-cultural theories of learning that emphasize learning in context. Our objective was therefore to explore learning in 'professionally distant' contexts. Using paramedic education, where portions of training occur in hospital settings despite preparing students for out-of-hospital work, fifty-three informants (11 current students, 13 recent graduates, 16 paramedic program faculty and 13 program coordinators/directors) took part in five semi-structured focus groups. Participants reflected on the value and role of hospital placements in paramedic student development. All sessions were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. In this context six educational advantages and two challenges were identified when using professionally distant learning environments. Learning could still be associated with features such as (a) engagement through "authenticity", (b) technical skill development, (c) interpersonal skill development, (d) psychological resilience, (e) healthcare system knowledge and (f) scaffolding. Variability in learning and misalignment with learning goals were identified as potential threats. Learning environments that are professionally distant from eventual practice settings may prove meaningful by providing learners with foundational and preparatory learning experiences for competencies that may be transferrable. This suggests that where learning occurs may be less important than how the experience contributes to the learner's development and the meaning or value he/she derives from it.

  17. Evolutionary Explanations of Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Kardum

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews several most important evolutionary mechanisms that underlie eating disorders. The first part clarifies evolutionary foundations of mental disorders and various mechanisms leading to their development. In the second part selective pressures and evolved adaptations causing contemporary epidemic of obesity as well as differences in dietary regimes and life-style between modern humans and their ancestors are described. Concerning eating disorders, a number of current evolutionary explanations of anorexia nervosa are presented together with their main weaknesses. Evolutionary explanations of eating disorders based on the reproductive suppression hypothesis and its variants derived from kin selection theory and the model of parental manipulation were elaborated. The sexual competition hypothesis of eating disorder, adapted to flee famine hypothesis as well as explanation based on the concept of social attention holding power and the need to belonging were also explained. The importance of evolutionary theory in modern conceptualization and research of eating disorders is emphasized.

  18. Unfair and Anomalous Evolutionary Dynamics from Fluctuating Payoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollmeier, Frank; Nagler, Jan

    2018-02-01

    Evolution occurs in populations of reproducing individuals. Reproduction depends on the payoff a strategy receives. The payoff depends on the environment that may change over time, on intrinsic uncertainties, and on other sources of randomness. These temporal variations in the payoffs can affect which traits evolve. Understanding evolutionary game dynamics that are affected by varying payoffs remains difficult. Here we study the impact of arbitrary amplitudes and covariances of temporally varying payoffs on the dynamics. The evolutionary dynamics may be "unfair," meaning that, on average, two coexisting strategies may persistently receive different payoffs. This mechanism can induce an anomalous coexistence of cooperators and defectors in the prisoner's dilemma, and an unexpected selection reversal in the hawk-dove game.

  19. Temporal naturalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolin, Lee

    2015-11-01

    Two people may claim both to be naturalists, but have divergent conceptions of basic elements of the natural world which lead them to mean different things when they talk about laws of nature, or states, or the role of mathematics in physics. These disagreements do not much affect the ordinary practice of science which is about small subsystems of the universe, described or explained against a background, idealized to be fixed. But these issues become crucial when we consider including the whole universe within our system, for then there is no fixed background to reference observables to. I argue here that the key issue responsible for divergent versions of naturalism and divergent approaches to cosmology is the conception of time. One version, which I call temporal naturalism, holds that time, in the sense of the succession of present moments, is real, and that laws of nature evolve in that time. This is contrasted with timeless naturalism, which holds that laws are immutable and the present moment and its passage are illusions. I argue that temporal naturalism is empirically more adequate than the alternatives, because it offers testable explanations for puzzles its rivals cannot address, and is likely a better basis for solving major puzzles that presently face cosmology and physics. This essay also addresses the problem of qualia and experience within naturalism and argues that only temporal naturalism can make a place for qualia as intrinsic qualities of matter.

  20. Ensembles generated from crystal structures of single distant homologues solve challenging molecular-replacement cases in AMPLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigden, Daniel J; Thomas, Jens M H; Simkovic, Felix; Simpkin, Adam; Winn, Martyn D; Mayans, Olga; Keegan, Ronan M

    2018-03-01

    Molecular replacement (MR) is the predominant route to solution of the phase problem in macromolecular crystallography. Although routine in many cases, it becomes more effortful and often impossible when the available experimental structures typically used as search models are only distantly homologous to the target. Nevertheless, with current powerful MR software, relatively small core structures shared between the target and known structure, of 20-40% of the overall structure for example, can succeed as search models where they can be isolated. Manual sculpting of such small structural cores is rarely attempted and is dependent on the crystallographer's expertise and understanding of the protein family in question. Automated search-model editing has previously been performed on the basis of sequence alignment, in order to eliminate, for example, side chains or loops that are not present in the target, or on the basis of structural features (e.g. solvent accessibility) or crystallographic parameters (e.g. B factors). Here, based on recent work demonstrating a correlation between evolutionary conservation and protein rigidity/packing, novel automated ways to derive edited search models from a given distant homologue over a range of sizes are presented. A variety of structure-based metrics, many readily obtained from online webservers, can be fed to the MR pipeline AMPLE to produce search models that succeed with a set of test cases where expertly manually edited comparators, further processed in diverse ways with MrBUMP, fail. Further significant performance gains result when the structure-based distance geometry method CONCOORD is used to generate ensembles from the distant homologue. To our knowledge, this is the first such approach whereby a single structure is meaningfully transformed into an ensemble for the purposes of MR. Additional cases further demonstrate the advantages of the approach. CONCOORD is freely available and computationally inexpensive, so

  1. An evolutionary framework for the Jovian and Saturnian satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The position of the satellite within the protonebula, the influence of the parent planet, particularly the relative effects of tidal (gravitational) as opposed to radiogenic (internal) heat generating processes, as well as the type of ice, exert a control on the evolutionary histories of the Jovian and Saturnian satellites. The landscapes of the moons are modified by surface deformational processes (tectonic activity derived from within the body) and externally derived cratering. The geological history of the Galilean satellites is deduced from surface stratigraphic successions of geological units. Io and Europa, with crater-free surfaces, are tectonically more advanced than crater-saturated Callisto. Two thermal-drive models are proposed based on: an expression for externally derived gravitational influences between two bodies; and internal heat generation via radiogenic decay (expressed by surface area/volume ratio). Both parameters, for the Galilean satellites, are plotted against an inferred product of tectonic processes - the age of the surface terrain. From these diagrams, the tectonic evolutionary state of the more distant Saturnian system are predicted. These moons are fitted into an evolutionary framework for the Solar System. 34 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  2. Negotiation From a Near and Distant Time Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Marlone D.; Trope, Yaacov; Carnevale, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Across 3 experiments, the authors examined the effects of temporal distance on negotiation behavior. They found that greater temporal distance from negotiation decreased preference for piecemeal, single-issue consideration over integrative, multi-issue consideration (Experiment 1). They also found that greater temporal distance from an event being negotiated increased interest in conceding on the lowest priority issue and decreased interest in conceding on the highest priority issue (Experiment 2). Lastly, they found increased temporal distance from an event being negotiated produced a greater proportion of multi-issue offers, a greater likelihood of conceding on the lowest priority issue in exchange for a concession on the highest priority issue, and greater individual and joint outcomes (Experiment 3). Implications for conflict resolution and construal level theory are discussed. PMID:17014295

  3. Overview by Pioneer observations of the distant geomagnetic tail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villante, U [L' Aquila Univ. (Italy). Istituto de Astrofisica

    1977-03-01

    Pioneer 7 and Pioneer 8 spacecraft provided the only direct observations of the geomagnetic tail at geocentric distances as large as 1000 Rsub(e) and 500 Rsub(e) respectively. The presence of a low density plasma flow in the region of expected tail and the intermittent and short duration character of the tail encounters suggested in the past a distant tail structure remarkably different from its near-earth and cislunar shape. However the recent discovery of the plasma mantle allows interpretation of the Pioneer observations in terms of a distant tail that possibly is still preserving most of its near-earth characteristics. In particular, the region of tail encounters and the magnitude and direction of the observed magnetic field might be consistent with a cylindrical tail with a modestly increased cross-section. Neutral sheet observations also appear to be consistent with the most recent bidimensional tail models. Finally, as in the cislunar region, the double peaked proton energy spectra can be interpreted in terms of a partial intermingling of plasma sheet and plasma mantle populations.

  4. Skipping Posterior Dynamic Transpedicular Stabilization for Distant Segment Degenerative Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgehan Solmaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To date, there is still no consensus on the treatment of spinal degenerative disease. Current surgical techniques to manage painful spinal disorders are imperfect. In this paper, we aimed to evaluate the prospective results of posterior transpedicular dynamic stabilization, a novel surgical approach that skips the segments that do not produce pain. This technique has been proven biomechanically and radiologically in spinal degenerative diseases. Methods. A prospective study of 18 patients averaging 54.94 years of age with distant spinal segment degenerative disease. Indications consisted of degenerative disc disease (57%, herniated nucleus pulposus (50%, spinal stenosis (14.28%, degenerative spondylolisthesis (14.28%, and foraminal stenosis (7.1%. The Oswestry Low-Back Pain Disability Questionnaire and visual analog scale (VAS for pain were recorded preoperatively and at the third and twelfth postoperative months. Results. Both the Oswestry and VAS scores showed significant improvement postoperatively (P<0.05. We observed complications in one patient who had spinal epidural hematoma. Conclusion. We recommend skipping posterior transpedicular dynamic stabilization for surgical treatment of distant segment spinal degenerative disease.

  5. Efficiency of entanglement of distant atoms by projective measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares Renteria, Georgina; Zippilli, Stefano; Morigi, Giovanna [Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Rohde, Felix; Schuck, Carsten; Eschner, Juergen [ICFO - Institut de CIencies Fotoniques, 08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    We compare the efficiency of two schemes for the preparation of entangled states of distant atoms. In these proposals the atoms do not interact and the entanglement is realized by means of the measurement of the scattered field which project the two atoms into the desired state. We quantify the efficiency of the schemes using the fidelity between the state of the system after the detection of a photon and an ideal entangled state of the two atoms. In the first scheme the atoms interact with two optical cavities and the enhanced probability of emission into the cavities allows for high detection efficiency. This scheme is limited by the finite probability of emission of two photons. Thus, even under the assumption of perfect detection efficiency, the fidelity of the scheme never reaches unity. In the second scheme emission of two photons is suppressed by low excitation strength, but the detection efficiency is low since the atoms scatter into free space and only a small fraction of the photons is measured. In this case the fidelity is conditioned on single-photon detection and results to be higher. The comparison is quantitatively evaluated for an ongoing experiment with two distant trapped single Ca+ ions.

  6. Video-mediated communication to support distant family connectedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Ryoko; Driessnack, Martha

    2013-02-01

    It can be difficult to maintain family connections with geographically distant members. However, advances in computer-human interaction (CHI) systems, including video-mediated communication (VMC) are emerging. While VMC does not completely substitute for physical face-to-face communication, it appears to provide a sense of virtual copresence through the addition of visual and contextual cues to verbal communication between family members. The purpose of this study was to explore current patterns of VMC use, experiences, and family functioning among self-identified VMC users separated geographically from their families. A total of 341 participants (ages 18 to above 70) completed an online survey and Family APGAR. Ninty-six percent of the participants reported that VMC was the most common communication method used and 60% used VMC at least once/week. The most common reason cited for using VMC over other methods of communication was the addition of visual cues. A significant difference between the Family APGAR scores and the number of positive comments about VMC experience was also found. This exploratory study provides insight into the acceptance of VMC and its usefulness in maintaining connections with distant family members.

  7. A young source of optical emission from distant radio galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, F; Fèvre, O Le; Angonin, M C

    1993-03-25

    DISTANT radio galaxies provide valuable insights into the properties of the young Universe-they are the only known extended optical sources at high redshift and might represent an early stage in the formation and evolution of galaxies in general. This extended optical emission often has very complex morphologies, but the origin of the light is still unclear. Here we report spectroscopic observations for several distant radio galaxies (0.75≤ z ≤ 1.1) in which the rest-frame spectra exhibit featureless continua between 2,500 Å and 5,000 Å. We see no evidence for the break in the spectrum at 4,000 Å expected for an old stellar population 1-3 , and suggest that young stars or scattered emissions from the active nuclei are responsible for most of the observed light. In either case, this implies that the source of the optical emission is com-parable in age to the associated radio source, namely 10 7 years or less.

  8. Chemical evolutionary games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristotelous, Andreas C; Durrett, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Inspired by the use of hybrid cellular automata in modeling cancer, we introduce a generalization of evolutionary games in which cells produce and absorb chemicals, and the chemical concentrations dictate the death rates of cells and their fitnesses. Our long term aim is to understand how the details of the interactions in a system with n species and m chemicals translate into the qualitative behavior of the system. Here, we study two simple 2×2 games with two chemicals and revisit the two and three species versions of the one chemical colicin system studied earlier by Durrett and Levin (1997). We find that in the 2×2 examples, the behavior of our new spatial model can be predicted from that of the mean field differential equation using ideas of Durrett and Levin (1994). However, in the three species colicin model, the system with diffusion does not have the coexistence which occurs in the lattices model in which sites interact with only their nearest neighbors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evolutionary and developmental modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacquaniti, Francesco; Ivanenko, Yuri P; d'Avella, Andrea; Zelik, Karl E; Zago, Myrka

    2013-01-01

    The identification of biological modules at the systems level often follows top-down decomposition of a task goal, or bottom-up decomposition of multidimensional data arrays into basic elements or patterns representing shared features. These approaches traditionally have been applied to mature, fully developed systems. Here we review some results from two other perspectives on modularity, namely the developmental and evolutionary perspective. There is growing evidence that modular units of development were highly preserved and recombined during evolution. We first consider a few examples of modules well identifiable from morphology. Next we consider the more difficult issue of identifying functional developmental modules. We dwell especially on modular control of locomotion to argue that the building blocks used to construct different locomotor behaviors are similar across several animal species, presumably related to ancestral neural networks of command. A recurrent theme from comparative studies is that the developmental addition of new premotor modules underlies the postnatal acquisition and refinement of several different motor behaviors in vertebrates.

  10. Clonality and evolutionary history of rhabdomyosarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To infer the subclonality of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS and predict the temporal order of genetic events for the tumorigenic process, and to identify novel drivers, we applied a systematic method that takes into account germline and somatic alterations in 44 tumor-normal RMS pairs using deep whole-genome sequencing. Intriguingly, we find that loss of heterozygosity of 11p15.5 and mutations in RAS pathway genes occur early in the evolutionary history of the PAX-fusion-negative-RMS (PFN-RMS subtype. We discover several early mutations in non-RAS mutated samples and predict them to be drivers in PFN-RMS including recurrent mutation of PKN1. In contrast, we find that PAX-fusion-positive (PFP subtype tumors have undergone whole-genome duplication in the late stage of cancer evolutionary history and have acquired fewer mutations and subclones than PFN-RMS. Moreover we predict that the PAX3-FOXO1 fusion event occurs earlier than the whole genome duplication. Our findings provide information critical to the understanding of tumorigenesis of RMS.

  11. Temporal contingency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C.R.; Craig, Andrew R.; Shahan, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    Contingency, and more particularly temporal contingency, has often figured in thinking about the nature of learning. However, it has never been formally defined in such a way as to make it a measure that can be applied to most animal learning protocols. We use elementary information theory to define contingency in such a way as to make it a measurable property of almost any conditioning protocol. We discuss how making it a measurable construct enables the exploration of the role of different contingencies in the acquisition and performance of classically and operantly conditioned behavior. PMID:23994260

  12. Temporal contingency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R; Craig, Andrew R; Shahan, Timothy A

    2014-01-01

    Contingency, and more particularly temporal contingency, has often figured in thinking about the nature of learning. However, it has never been formally defined in such a way as to make it a measure that can be applied to most animal learning protocols. We use elementary information theory to define contingency in such a way as to make it a measurable property of almost any conditioning protocol. We discuss how making it a measurable construct enables the exploration of the role of different contingencies in the acquisition and performance of classically and operantly conditioned behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Industrial Applications of Evolutionary Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, Ernesto; Tonda, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    This book is intended as a reference both for experienced users of evolutionary algorithms and for researchers that are beginning to approach these fascinating optimization techniques. Experienced users will find interesting details of real-world problems, and advice on solving issues related to fitness computation, modeling and setting appropriate parameters to reach optimal solutions. Beginners will find a thorough introduction to evolutionary computation, and a complete presentation of all evolutionary algorithms exploited to solve different problems. The book could fill the gap between the

  14. Horizontal transfer of short and degraded DNA has evolutionary implications for microbes and eukaryotic sexual reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overballe-Petersen, Søren; Willerslev, Eske

    2014-10-01

    Horizontal gene transfer in the form of long DNA fragments has changed our view of bacterial evolution. Recently, we discovered that such processes may also occur with the massive amounts of short and damaged DNA in the environment, and even with truly ancient DNA. Although it presently remains unclear how often it takes place in nature, horizontal gene transfer of short and damaged DNA opens up the possibility for genetic exchange across distinct species in both time and space. In this essay, we speculate on the potential evolutionary consequences of this phenomenon. We argue that it may challenge basic assumptions in evolutionary theory; that it may have distant origins in life's history; and that horizontal gene transfer should be viewed as an evolutionary strategy not only preceding but causally underpinning the evolution of sexual reproduction. © 2014 The Authors. BioEssays Published by WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Molluscan Evolutionary Genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simison, W. Brian; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-12-01

    In the last 20 years there have been dramatic advances in techniques of high-throughput DNA sequencing, most recently accelerated by the Human Genome Project, a program that has determined the three billion base pair code on which we are based. Now this tremendous capability is being directed at other genome targets that are being sampled across the broad range of life. This opens up opportunities as never before for evolutionary and organismal biologists to address questions of both processes and patterns of organismal change. We stand at the dawn of a new 'modern synthesis' period, paralleling that of the early 20th century when the fledgling field of genetics first identified the underlying basis for Darwin's theory. We must now unite the efforts of systematists, paleontologists, mathematicians, computer programmers, molecular biologists, developmental biologists, and others in the pursuit of discovering what genomics can teach us about the diversity of life. Genome-level sampling for mollusks to date has mostly been limited to mitochondrial genomes and it is likely that these will continue to provide the best targets for broad phylogenetic sampling in the near future. However, we are just beginning to see an inroad into complete nuclear genome sequencing, with several mollusks and other eutrochozoans having been selected for work about to begin. Here, we provide an overview of the state of molluscan mitochondrial genomics, highlight a few of the discoveries from this research, outline the promise of broadening this dataset, describe upcoming projects to sequence whole mollusk nuclear genomes, and challenge the community to prepare for making the best use of these data.

  16. Evolutionary disarmament in interspecific competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisdi, E; Geritz, S A

    2001-12-22

    Competitive asymmetry, which is the advantage of having a larger body or stronger weaponry than a contestant, drives spectacular evolutionary arms races in intraspecific competition. Similar asymmetries are well documented in interspecific competition, yet they seldom lead to exaggerated traits. Here we demonstrate that two species with substantially different size may undergo parallel coevolution towards a smaller size under the same ecological conditions where a single species would exhibit an evolutionary arms race. We show that disarmament occurs for a wide range of parameters in an ecologically explicit model of competition for a single shared resource; disarmament also occurs in a simple Lotka-Volterra competition model. A key property of both models is the interplay between evolutionary dynamics and population density. The mechanism does not rely on very specific features of the model. Thus, evolutionary disarmament may be widespread and may help to explain the lack of interspecific arms races.

  17. Evolutionary computation for reinforcement learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whiteson, S.; Wiering, M.; van Otterlo, M.

    2012-01-01

    Algorithms for evolutionary computation, which simulate the process of natural selection to solve optimization problems, are an effective tool for discovering high-performing reinforcement-learning policies. Because they can automatically find good representations, handle continuous action spaces,

  18. Evolutionary genetics: the Drosophila model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Evolutionary genetics straddles the two fundamental processes of life, ... of the genus Drosophila have been used extensively as model systems in experimental ... issue will prove interesting, informative and thought-provoking for both estab-.

  19. Integrating genomics into evolutionary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Juan Antonio; Marigorta, Urko M; Navarro, Arcadi

    2014-12-01

    The application of the principles of evolutionary biology into medicine was suggested long ago and is already providing insight into the ultimate causes of disease. However, a full systematic integration of medical genomics and evolutionary medicine is still missing. Here, we briefly review some cases where the combination of the two fields has proven profitable and highlight two of the main issues hindering the development of evolutionary genomic medicine as a mature field, namely the dissociation between fitness and health and the still considerable difficulties in predicting phenotypes from genotypes. We use publicly available data to illustrate both problems and conclude that new approaches are needed for evolutionary genomic medicine to overcome these obstacles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evolutionary robotics – A review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    a need for a technique by which the robot is able to acquire new behaviours automatically .... Evolutionary robotics is a comparatively new field of robotics research, which seems to ..... Technical Report: PCIA-94-04, Institute of Psychology,.

  1. Radon at the Mauna Loa Observatory: transport from distant continents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittlestone, S.; Robinson, E.; Ryan, S.

    1992-01-01

    Continuous measurements of radon have been made at an altitude of 3400m at the Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii. Concentrations ranged from about 20 to more than 700mBq m -3 . These were similar to values at remote Macquarie I., some 2000 km south of Australia in the Southern Ocean. At Mauna Loa, the radon concentrations could usually be separated into free tropospheric and island influenced categories on the basis of local meteorological observations. On one occasion a long range transport event from Asia brought relatively high radon concentrations to Mauna Loa and persisted for several days. The Asian origin of this event was supported by wind trajectories. This measurement program demonstrates the value of radon data in evaluating air transport models and the influence of transport from distant continents on baseline atmospheric measurements. (author)

  2. Topological networks for quantum communication between distant qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Nicolai; Büchler, Hans Peter

    2017-11-01

    Efficient communication between qubits relies on robust networks, which allow for fast and coherent transfer of quantum information. It seems natural to harvest the remarkable properties of systems characterized by topological invariants to perform this task. Here, we show that a linear network of coupled bosonic degrees of freedom, characterized by topological bands, can be employed for the efficient exchange of quantum information over large distances. Important features of our setup are that it is robust against quenched disorder, all relevant operations can be performed by global variations of parameters, and the time required for communication between distant qubits approaches linear scaling with their distance. We demonstrate that our concept can be extended to an ensemble of qubits embedded in a two-dimensional network to allow for communication between all of them.

  3. Combined Therapy for Distant Metastasis of Sacral Chordoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birol Özkal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chordomas are known as rare primary malign tumours that have formed from primitive notochord remains. Sacral chordomas grow slowly but locally and aggressively. Chordomas are locally invasive and have low tendency to metastasis and have a poor prognosis in long-term follow-up. Metastasis may be seen in a rate of 5–40% of the chordomas. Metastasis of chordomas is common in liver, lung, lymph nodes, peritoneum, and brain. The treatment approaches, including surgery, have been discussed in the literature before. Susceptibility to radiotherapy and chemotherapy is controversial in these tumours. The success of surgical treatment affects survival directly. In this report, we will report a sacral chordoma case in which an intraperitoneal distant metastasis occurred and discuss the surgical approach.

  4. Migratory neighbors and distant invaders: tumor-associated niche cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wels, Jared; Kaplan, Rosandra N.; Rafii, Shahin; Lyden, David

    2008-01-01

    The cancer environment is comprised of tumor cells as well as a wide network of stromal and vascular cells participating in the cellular and molecular events necessary for invasion and metastasis. Tumor secretory factors can activate the migration of host cells, both near to and far from the primary tumor site, as well as promote the exodus of cells to distant tissues. Thus, the migration of stromal cells and tumor cells among specialized microenvironments takes place throughout tumor and metastatic progression, providing evidence for the systemic nature of a malignancy. Investigations of the tumor–stromal and stromal–stromal cross-talk involved in cellular migration in cancer may lead to the design of novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:18316475

  5. Evolutionary Game Theory: A Renaissance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Newton

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic agents are not always rational or farsighted and can make decisions according to simple behavioral rules that vary according to situation and can be studied using the tools of evolutionary game theory. Furthermore, such behavioral rules are themselves subject to evolutionary forces. Paying particular attention to the work of young researchers, this essay surveys the progress made over the last decade towards understanding these phenomena, and discusses open research topics of importance to economics and the broader social sciences.

  6. Freud: the first evolutionary psychologist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCroy, D

    2000-04-01

    An evolutionary perspective on attachment theory and psychoanalytic theory brings these two fields together in interesting ways. Application of the evolutionary principle of parent-offspring conflict to attachment theory suggests that attachment styles represent context-sensitive, evolved (adaptive) behaviors. In addition, an emphasis on offspring counter-strategies to adult reproductive strategies leads to consideration of attachment styles as overt manifestations of psychodynamic mediating processes, including the defense mechanisms of repression and reaction formation.

  7. Comparative profiling of miRNAs and target gene identification in distant-grafting between tomato and Lycium (goji berry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A B M Khaldun

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Local translocation of small RNAs between cells is proved. Long distance translocation between rootstock and scion is also well documented in the homo-grafting system, but the process in distant-grafting is widely unexplored where rootstock and scion belonging to different genera. Micro RNAs are a class of small, endogenous, noncoding, gene silencing RNAs that regulate target genes of a wide range of important biological pathways in plants. In this study, tomato was grafted onto goji (Lycium chinense Mill. to reveal the insight of miRNAs regulation and expression patterns within a distant-grafting system. Goji is an important traditional Chinese medicinal plant with enriched phytochemicals. Illumina sequencing technology has identified 68 evolutionary known miRNAs of 37 miRNA families. Moreover, 168 putative novel miRNAs were also identified. Compared with control tomato, 43 (11 known and 32 novels and 163 (33 known and 130 novels miRNAs were expressed significantly different in shoot and fruit of grafted tomato, respectively. The fruiting stage was identified as the most responsive in the distant-grafting approach and 123 miRNAs were found as up-regulating in the grafted fruit which is remarkably higher compare to the grafted shoot tip (28. Potential targets of differentially expressed miRNAs were found to be involved in diverse metabolic and regulatory pathways. ADP binding activities, molybdopterin synthase complex and RNA helicase activity were found as enriched terms in GO (Gene Ontology analysis. Additionally, ‘metabolic pathways’ was revealed as the most significant pathway in KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis. The information of the small RNA transcriptomes that are obtained from this study might be the first miRNAs elucidation for a distant-grafting system, particularly between goji and tomato. The results from this study will provide the insights into the molecular aspects of miRNA-mediated regulation in the

  8. Quest for the most distant objects in the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanipe, J.

    1988-01-01

    Far out in the distant universe, between 10 billion and 11 billion years away in space and time, lies a region where the majority of known quasars resides. Astronomers have known about this stratum of quasars for over two decades and have spent the better part of that time trying to understand why these objects seem predisposed to congregate at this distance. The most plausible explanation is that there were more quasars 10 billion or 11 billion years ago than there are now and that this region represents, in effect, the quasar spawning grounds. For astronomers this quasar stratum has played an important role in demarcating the edge of the observable universe. Beyond lies only a handful of more distant quasars, and beyond that lies a vast, impenetrable region that extends back to a time before the quasars formed, when matter and photons went their separate ways 700,000 years after the Big Bang. But a recent flurry of back-to-back quasar discoveries may spell the beginning of the end of this theory. Between August 1986 and late September 1987 more than a half-dozen quasars were detected at 12 billion light-years, which is beyond what astronomers had considered the edge of the universe. Although the new quasars may not seem to be too far out of bounds, a little distance translates into a lot of time in the development of the young universe. The final stroke would be the discovery of quasars or possibly primeval galaxies in a region of space thought to predate the formation of galaxies. Theorists would then be forced to discard established models that explain how galaxies formed and evolved and to devise new theories that better reflect observations. This would cause a major revolution in astronomy

  9. Distant drivers or local signals: where do mercury trends in western Arctic belugas originate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loseto, L L; Stern, G A; Macdonald, R W

    2015-03-15

    Temporal trends of contaminants are monitored in Arctic higher trophic level species to inform us on the fate, transport and risk of contaminants as well as advise on global emissions. However, monitoring mercury (Hg) trends in species such as belugas challenge us, as their tissue concentrations reflect complex interactions among Hg deposition and methylation, whale physiology, dietary exposure and foraging patterns. The Beaufort Sea beluga population showed significant increases in Hg during the 1990 s; since that time an additional 10 years of data have been collected. During this time of data collection, changes in the Arctic have affected many processes that underlie the Hg cycle. Here, we examine Hg in beluga tissues and investigate factors that could contribute to the observed trends after removing the effect of age and size on Hg concentrations and dietary factors. Finally, we examine available indicators of climate variability (Arctic Oscillation (AO), the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and sea-ice minimum (SIM) concentration) to evaluate their potential to explain beluga Hg trends. Results reveal a decline in Hg concentrations from 2002 to 2012 in the liver of older whales and the muscle of large whales. The temporal increases in Hg in the 1990 s followed by recent declines do not follow trends in Hg emission, and are not easily explained by diet markers highlighting the complexity of feeding, food web dynamics and Hg uptake. Among the regional-scale climate variables the PDO exhibited the most significant relationship with beluga Hg at an eight year lag time. This distant signal points us to consider beluga winter feeding areas. Given that changes in climate will impact ecosystems; it is plausible that these climate variables are important in explaining beluga Hg trends. Such relationships require further investigation of the multiple connections between climate variables and beluga Hg. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. RNA Editing During Sexual Development Occurs in Distantly Related Filamentous Ascomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, Ines; Dahlmann, Tim A; Kück, Ulrich; Nowrousian, Minou

    2017-04-01

    RNA editing is a post-transcriptional process that modifies RNA molecules leading to transcript sequences that differ from their template DNA. A-to-I editing was found to be widely distributed in nuclear transcripts of metazoa, but was detected in fungi only recently in a study of the filamentous ascomycete Fusarium graminearum that revealed extensive A-to-I editing of mRNAs in sexual structures (fruiting bodies). Here, we searched for putative RNA editing events in RNA-seq data from Sordaria macrospora and Pyronema confluens, two distantly related filamentous ascomycetes, and in data from the Taphrinomycete Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Like F. graminearum, S. macrospora is a member of the Sordariomycetes, whereas P. confluens belongs to the early-diverging group of Pezizomycetes. We found extensive A-to-I editing in RNA-seq data from sexual mycelium from both filamentous ascomycetes, but not in vegetative structures. A-to-I editing was not detected in different stages of meiosis of S. pombe. A comparison of A-to-I editing in S. macrospora with F. graminearum and P. confluens, respectively, revealed little conservation of individual editing sites. An analysis of RNA-seq data from two sterile developmental mutants of S. macrospora showed that A-to-I editing is strongly reduced in these strains. Sequencing of cDNA fragments containing more than one editing site from P. confluens showed that at the beginning of sexual development, transcripts were incompletely edited or unedited, whereas in later stages transcripts were more extensively edited. Taken together, these data suggest that A-to-I RNA editing is an evolutionary conserved feature during fruiting body development in filamentous ascomycetes. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  11. Evolutionary biology and life histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown, C. R.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The demographic processes that drive the spread of populations through environments and in turn determine the abundance of organisms are the same demographic processes that drive the spread of genes through populations and in turn determine gene frequencies and fitness. Conceptually, marked similarities exist in the dynamic processes underlying population ecology and those underlying evolutionary biology. Central to an understanding of both disciplines is life history and its component demographic rates, such as survival, fecundity, and age of first breeding, and biologists from both fields have a vested interest in good analytical machinery for the estimation and analysis of these demographic rates. In the EURING conferences, we have been striving since the mid 1980s to promote a quantitative understanding of demographic rates through interdisciplinary collaboration between ecologists and statisticians. From the ecological side, the principal impetus has come from population biology, and in particular from wildlife biology, but the importance of good quantitative insights into demographic processes has long been recognized by a number of evolutionary biologists (e.g., Nichols & Kendall, 1995; Clobert, 1995; Cooch et al., 2002. In organizing this session, we have aimed to create a forum for those committed to gaining the best possible understanding of evolutionary processes through the application of modern quantitative methods for the collection and interpretation of data on marked animal populations. Here we present a short overview of the material presented in the session on evolutionary biology and life histories. In a plenary talk, Brown & Brown (2004 explored how mark–recapture methods have allowed a better understanding of the evolution of group–living and alternative reproductive tactics in colonial cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota. By estimating the number of transient birds passing through colonies of different sizes, they

  12. Transplantes cardiopulmonar e pulmonar com doador em localidade distante Distant donor procurement for heart-lung and lung transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Sérgio Fragomeni

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Em situações específicas, os transplantes clínicos cardiopulmonar e pulmonar são, hoje, formas estabelecidas de tratamento para estágio final de doença cardiopulmonar e pulmonar. A obtenção de doadores adequados permanece o maior problema e a remoção de órgãos em localidades distantes é, hoje, uma necessidade. Embora muitos métodos de preservação pulmonar possam ser empregados, para períodos isquémicos de até 5 horas, a hipotermia e o uso de solução cardioplégica com infusão da solução de Collins modificada no tronco pulmonar tem sido método simples e eficiente para preservação do bloco coração-pulmão. Descrevemos, aqui, o método corrente que empregamos, com o qual os transplantes cardiopulmonar e pulmonar combinados foram sucedidos de excelente função cárdio-respiratória.In special situations, clinical heart-lung and lung transplantation are today established methods of therapy for end stage cardiopulmonary and pulmonary disease. Adequate donor availability remains a major problem and distant organ procurement is today a necessity. Although many methods of lung preservation can be used, for periods of up to 5 hours, hypothermic storage with cardioplegic arrest and pulmonary artery flush with modified Collins solution has proven to be a simple and reliable method of heart-lung preservation. We here describe our current method of heart-lung block protection, in which heart-lung and double lung transplantation were performed followed by excelent cardiac and pulmonary function.

  13. Distant World in Peril Discovered from La Silla

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Giant Exoplanet Orbits Giant Star Summary When, in a distant future, the Sun begins to expand and evolves into a "giant" star, the surface temperature on the Earth will rise dramatically and our home planet will eventually be incinerated by that central body. Fortunately for us, this dramatic event is several billion years away. However, that sad fate will befall another planet, just discovered in orbit about the giant star HD 47536, already within a few tens of millions of years. At a distance of nearly 400 light-years from us, it is the second-remotest planetary system discovered to date [1]. This is an interesting side-result of a major research project, now carried out by a European-Brazilian team of astronomers [2]. In the course of a three-year spectroscopic survey, they have observed about 80 giant stars in the southern sky with the advanced FEROS spectrograph on the 1.52-m telescope installed at the ESO La Silla Observatory (Chile). It is one of these stars that has just been found to host a giant planet. This is only the fourth such case known and with a diameter of about 33 million km (or 23.5 times that of our Sun), HD 47536 is by far the largest of those giant stars [1]. The distance of the planet from the star is still of the order of 300 million km (or twice the distance of the Earth from the Sun), a safe margin now, but this will not always be so. The orbital period is 712 days, i.e., somewhat less than two Earth years, and the planet's mass is 5 - 10 times that of Jupiter. The presence of exoplanets in orbit around giant stars, some of which will eventually perish into their central star (be "cannibalized"), provides a possible explanation of the anomalous abundance of certain chemical elements that is observed in the atmospheres of some stars, cf. ESO PR 10/01. This interesting discovery bodes well for coming observations of exoplanetary systems with new, more powerful instruments, like HARPS to be installed next year at the ESO 3.6-m telescope on

  14. Temporal Glare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritschel, Tobias; Ihrke, Matthias; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2009-01-01

    Glare is a consequence of light scattered within the human eye when looking at bright light sources. This effect can be exploited for tone mapping since adding glare to the depiction of high-dynamic range (HDR) imagery on a low-dynamic range (LDR) medium can dramatically increase perceived contra...... to initially static HDR images. By conducting psychophysical studies, we validate that our method improves perceived brightness and that dynamic glare-renderings are often perceived as more attractive depending on the chosen scene.......Glare is a consequence of light scattered within the human eye when looking at bright light sources. This effect can be exploited for tone mapping since adding glare to the depiction of high-dynamic range (HDR) imagery on a low-dynamic range (LDR) medium can dramatically increase perceived contrast....... Even though most, if not all, subjects report perceiving glare as a bright pattern that fluctuates in time, up to now it has only been modeled as a static phenomenon. We argue that the temporal properties of glare are a strong means to increase perceived brightness and to produce realistic...

  15. Evolutionary foundations for cancer biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktipis, C Athena; Nesse, Randolph M

    2013-01-01

    New applications of evolutionary biology are transforming our understanding of cancer. The articles in this special issue provide many specific examples, such as microorganisms inducing cancers, the significance of within-tumor heterogeneity, and the possibility that lower dose chemotherapy may sometimes promote longer survival. Underlying these specific advances is a large-scale transformation, as cancer research incorporates evolutionary methods into its toolkit, and asks new evolutionary questions about why we are vulnerable to cancer. Evolution explains why cancer exists at all, how neoplasms grow, why cancer is remarkably rare, and why it occurs despite powerful cancer suppression mechanisms. Cancer exists because of somatic selection; mutations in somatic cells result in some dividing faster than others, in some cases generating neoplasms. Neoplasms grow, or do not, in complex cellular ecosystems. Cancer is relatively rare because of natural selection; our genomes were derived disproportionally from individuals with effective mechanisms for suppressing cancer. Cancer occurs nonetheless for the same six evolutionary reasons that explain why we remain vulnerable to other diseases. These four principles-cancers evolve by somatic selection, neoplasms grow in complex ecosystems, natural selection has shaped powerful cancer defenses, and the limitations of those defenses have evolutionary explanations-provide a foundation for understanding, preventing, and treating cancer.

  16. Radio Selection of the Most Distant Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daddi, E.; Jin, S.; Strazzullo, V.; Sargent, M. T.; Wang, T.; Ferrari, C.; Schinnerer, E.; Smolčić, V.; Calabró, A.; Coogan, R.; Delhaize, J.; Delvecchio, I.; Elbaz, D.; Gobat, R.; Gu, Q.; Liu, D.; Novak, M.; Valentino, F.

    2017-09-01

    We show that the most distant X-ray-detected cluster known to date, Cl J1001 at {z}{spec}=2.506, hosts a strong overdensity of radio sources. Six of them are individually detected (within 10\\prime\\prime ) in deep 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 75 resolution VLA 3 GHz imaging, with {S}3{GHz}> 8 μ {Jy}. Of the six, an active galactic nucleus (AGN) likely affects the radio emission in two galaxies, while star formation is the dominant source powering the remaining four. We searched for cluster candidates over the full COSMOS 2 deg2 field using radio-detected 3 GHz sources and looking for peaks in {{{Σ }}}5 density maps. Cl J1001 is the strongest overdensity by far with > 10σ , with a simple {z}{phot}> 1.5 preselection. A cruder photometric rejection of zsamples of the first generation of forming galaxy clusters. In these remarkable structures, widespread star formation and AGN activity of massive galaxy cluster members, residing within the inner cluster core, will ultimately lead to radio continuum as one of the most effective means for their identification, with detection rates expected in the ballpark of 0.1-1 per square degree at z≳ 2.5. Samples of hundreds such high-redshift clusters could potentially constrain cosmological parameters and test cluster and galaxy formation models.

  17. A molecular study of microbe transfer between distant environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Sean D; Raes, Jeroen; Foerstner, Konrad U; Harrington, Eoghan D; Dalevi, Daniel; Bork, Peer

    2008-07-09

    Environments and their organic content are generally not static and isolated, but in a constant state of exchange and interaction with each other. Through physical or biological processes, organisms, especially microbes, may be transferred between environments whose characteristics may be quite different. The transferred microbes may not survive in their new environment, but their DNA will be deposited. In this study, we compare two environmental sequencing projects to find molecular evidence of transfer of microbes over vast geographical distances. By studying synonymous nucleotide composition, oligomer frequency and orthology between predicted genes in metagenomics data from two environments, terrestrial and aquatic, and by correlating with phylogenetic mappings, we find that both environments are likely to contain trace amounts of microbes which have been far removed from their original habitat. We also suggest a bias in direction from soil to sea, which is consistent with the cycles of planetary wind and water. Our findings support the Baas-Becking hypothesis formulated in 1934, which states that due to dispersion and population sizes, microbes are likely to be found in widely disparate environments. Furthermore, the availability of genetic material from distant environments is a possible font of novel gene functions for lateral gene transfer.

  18. A molecular study of microbe transfer between distant environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean D Hooper

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Environments and their organic content are generally not static and isolated, but in a constant state of exchange and interaction with each other. Through physical or biological processes, organisms, especially microbes, may be transferred between environments whose characteristics may be quite different. The transferred microbes may not survive in their new environment, but their DNA will be deposited. In this study, we compare two environmental sequencing projects to find molecular evidence of transfer of microbes over vast geographical distances. METHODOLOGY: By studying synonymous nucleotide composition, oligomer frequency and orthology between predicted genes in metagenomics data from two environments, terrestrial and aquatic, and by correlating with phylogenetic mappings, we find that both environments are likely to contain trace amounts of microbes which have been far removed from their original habitat. We also suggest a bias in direction from soil to sea, which is consistent with the cycles of planetary wind and water. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the Baas-Becking hypothesis formulated in 1934, which states that due to dispersion and population sizes, microbes are likely to be found in widely disparate environments. Furthermore, the availability of genetic material from distant environments is a possible font of novel gene functions for lateral gene transfer.

  19. Distant interplanetary wake of Venus: plasma observations from pioneer Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalov, J.D.; Barnes, A.

    1982-01-01

    In June 1979 the Pioneer Venus orbiter made its first series of passes through the distant solar wind wake of Venus at distances of 8--12 R/sub V/ behind the planet. During this period the plasma analyzer aboard the spacecraft detected disturbed magnetosheath plasma that intermittently disappeared and reappeared, suggesting a tattered, filamentary cavity trailing behind the planet. The magnetosheath dropouts almost always occurred inside the region of 'magnetotail' observed by Russell et al. Sporadic bursts of energetic ions (E/q> or approx. =4kV) are detected inside and, occasionally, outside the magnetotail; all such bursts are consistent with identification of the ion as O + of planetary origin moving at the local magnetosheath flow speed. The morphology of the plasma dropouts and of the O + bursts is analyzed in detail. The cavity appears to contract at times of high solar wind dynamic pressure. The intensity of the O + component is highly variable, and appears not to be strongly correlated with solar wind dynamic pressure. The most intense bursts correspond to a flux 7 ions cm - 2 s - 1 . This maximum flux, if steady and filling a cylinder 1 R/sub V/ in radius would correspond to a mass loss rate of 25 ions s - 1 ; the intermittency and variability of the flux suggest that the true mean loss rate is very much lower. The kinetic temperature of the O + component is estimated as 10 5 --10 6 K in order of magnitude

  20. Distant Influence of Kuroshio Eddies on North Pacific Weather Patterns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaohui; Chang, Ping; Saravanan, R; Montuoro, Raffaele; Hsieh, Jen-Shan; Wu, Dexing; Lin, Xiaopei; Wu, Lixin; Jing, Zhao

    2015-12-04

    High-resolution satellite measurements of surface winds and sea-surface temperature (SST) reveal strong coupling between meso-scale ocean eddies and near-surface atmospheric flow over eddy-rich oceanic regions, such as the Kuroshio and Gulf Stream, highlighting the importance of meso-scale oceanic features in forcing the atmospheric planetary boundary layer (PBL). Here, we present high-resolution regional climate modeling results, supported by observational analyses, demonstrating that meso-scale SST variability, largely confined in the Kuroshio-Oyashio confluence region (KOCR), can further exert a significant distant influence on winter rainfall variability along the U.S. Northern Pacific coast. The presence of meso-scale SST anomalies enhances the diabatic conversion of latent heat energy to transient eddy energy, intensifying winter cyclogenesis via moist baroclinic instability, which in turn leads to an equivalent barotropic downstream anticyclone anomaly with reduced rainfall. The finding points to the potential of improving forecasts of extratropical winter cyclones and storm systems and projections of their response to future climate change, which are known to have major social and economic impacts, by improving the representation of ocean eddy-atmosphere interaction in forecast and climate models.

  1. Understanding the star formation modes in the distant universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmi, Fadia

    2012-01-01

    The goal of my PhD study consists at attempt to understand what are the main processes at the origin of the star formation in the galaxies over the last 10 billion years. While it was proposed in the past that merging of galaxies has a dominant role to explain the triggering of the star formation in the distant galaxies having high star formation rates, in the opposite, more recent studies revealed scaling laws linking the star formation rate in the galaxies to their stellar mass or their gas mass. The small dispersion of these laws seems to be in contradiction with the idea of powerful stochastic events due to interactions, but rather in agreement with the new vision of galaxy history where the latter are continuously fed by intergalactic gas. We were especially interested in one of this scaling law, the relation between the star formation (SFR) and the stellar mass (M*) of galaxies, commonly called the main sequence of star forming galaxies. We studied this main sequence, SFR-M"*, in function of the morphology and other physical parameters like the radius, the colour, the clumpiness. The goal was to understand the origin of the sequence's dispersion related to the physical processes underlying this sequence in order to identify the main mode of star formation controlling this sequence. This work needed a multi-wavelength approach as well as the use of galaxies profile simulation to distinguish between the different galaxy morphological types implied in the main sequence. (author) [fr

  2. Evolutionary engineering for industrial microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanee, Niti; Fisher, Adam B; Fong, Stephen S

    2012-01-01

    Superficially, evolutionary engineering is a paradoxical field that balances competing interests. In natural settings, evolution iteratively selects and enriches subpopulations that are best adapted to a particular ecological niche using random processes such as genetic mutation. In engineering desired approaches utilize rational prospective design to address targeted problems. When considering details of evolutionary and engineering processes, more commonality can be found. Engineering relies on detailed knowledge of the problem parameters and design properties in order to predict design outcomes that would be an optimized solution. When detailed knowledge of a system is lacking, engineers often employ algorithmic search strategies to identify empirical solutions. Evolution epitomizes this iterative optimization by continuously diversifying design options from a parental design, and then selecting the progeny designs that represent satisfactory solutions. In this chapter, the technique of applying the natural principles of evolution to engineer microbes for industrial applications is discussed to highlight the challenges and principles of evolutionary engineering.

  3. Evolutionary Aesthetics and Print Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Luczaj

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the extent to which predictions based on the theory of evolutionary aesthetics are utilized by the advertising industry. The purpose of a comprehensive content analysis of print advertising is to determine whether the items indicated by evolutionists such as animals, flowers, certain types of landscapes, beautiful humans, and some colors are part of real advertising strategies. This article has shown that many evolutionary hypotheses (although not all of them are supported by empirical data. Along with these hypotheses, some inferences from Bourdieu’s cultural capital theory were tested. It turned out that advertising uses both biological schemata and cultural patterns to make an image more likable.

  4. The evolutionary psychology of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shawaf, Laith

    2016-10-01

    An evolutionary psychological perspective suggests that emotions can be understood as coordinating mechanisms whose job is to regulate various psychological and physiological programs in the service of solving an adaptive problem. This paper suggests that it may also be fruitful to approach hunger from this coordinating mechanism perspective. To this end, I put forward an evolutionary task analysis of hunger, generating novel a priori hypotheses about the coordinating effects of hunger on psychological processes such as perception, attention, categorization, and memory. This approach appears empirically fruitful in that it yields a bounty of testable new hypotheses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Diversity-Guided Evolutionary Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursem, Rasmus Kjær

    2002-01-01

    Population diversity is undoubtably a key issue in the performance of evolutionary algorithms. A common hypothesis is that high diversity is important to avoid premature convergence and to escape local optima. Various diversity measures have been used to analyze algorithms, but so far few...... algorithms have used a measure to guide the search. The diversity-guided evolutionary algorithm (DGEA) uses the wellknown distance-to-average-point measure to alternate between phases of exploration (mutation) and phases of exploitation (recombination and selection). The DGEA showed remarkable results...

  6. Structure versus time in the evolutionary diversification of avian carotenoid metabolic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Erin S; Badyaev, Alexander V

    2018-05-01

    Historical associations of genes and proteins are thought to delineate pathways available to subsequent evolution; however, the effects of past functional involvements on contemporary evolution are rarely quantified. Here, we examined the extent to which the structure of a carotenoid enzymatic network persists in avian evolution. Specifically, we tested whether the evolution of carotenoid networks was most concordant with phylogenetically structured expansion from core reactions of common ancestors or with subsampling of biochemical pathway modules from an ancestral network. We compared structural and historical associations in 467 carotenoid networks of extant and ancestral species and uncovered the overwhelming effect of pre-existing metabolic network structure on carotenoid diversification over the last 50 million years of avian evolution. Over evolutionary time, birds repeatedly subsampled and recombined conserved biochemical modules, which likely maintained the overall structure of the carotenoid metabolic network during avian evolution. These findings explain the recurrent convergence of evolutionary distant species in carotenoid metabolism and weak phylogenetic signal in avian carotenoid evolution. Remarkable retention of an ancient metabolic structure throughout extensive and prolonged ecological diversification in avian carotenoid metabolism illustrates a fundamental requirement of organismal evolution - historical continuity of a deterministic network that links past and present functional associations of its components. © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  7. Active Tobacco Smoking and Distant Metastasis in Patients With Oropharyngeal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBride, Sean M. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ali, Nawal N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Margalit, Danielle N. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Chan, Annie W., E-mail: awchan@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Distant metastasis is the site of first relapse in approximately one-third of patients with locally advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma, irrespective of human papillomavirus status. Yet the risk factors associated with distant metastasis are not well characterized. We sought to characterize the relationship between smoking status and distant metastasis. Methods and Materials: We evaluated the association between tobacco smoking status and distant metastasis in a retrospective cohort study of 132 patients who underwent definitive radiation therapy and chemotherapy for Stage III-IVA/B oropharyngeal cancer. Information on tobacco smoking was prospectively collected by patient questionnaires and physician notes at the time of diagnosis. Thirty-three percent of the patients were nonsmokers, 51% were former smokers, 16% were active smokers. The cumulative lifetime tobacco smoking in pack-years was 20 (range, 0-150). Results: With a median follow-up time of 52 months, the overall rate of distant metastasis at 4 years was 8%. Distant metastasis was the most common first site of relapse, occurring in 56% of the patients with recurrences. Active smokers had higher rates of distant metastasis than non-active smokers (including never- and former smokers; 31% vs. 4%, p < 0.001) and former smokers (31% vs. 3%, p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in the risk of distant metastasis for patients with lifetime cumulative pack-years >20 and {<=}20 (10% vs. 4%, p = 0.19). In univariate analysis, active smoking (p = 0.0004) and N category (p = 0.009) were predictive of increased risk of distant metastasis. In multivariate analysis, active smoking was the most significant predictive factor for increased risk of distant metastasis (hazard ratio, 12.7, p < 0.0001). Conclusions: This study identified a strong association between active smoking and distant metastasis in patients with oropharyngeal cancer.

  8. Sustainability and the anthropogenic alteration of evolutionary processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cairns, Jr.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Persuasive evidence indicates that Earth is now experiencing a major biotic crisis. Even if humankind ceases severe stress on natural systems, the crisis will probably disrupt the basic evolutionary processes that characterized the period preceding the agricultural and industrial revolutions.Proliferation of drug and pesticide resistant species and opportunistic species that thrive in human-dominated ecosystems will become increasingly common. The effect on humankind of altering basic evolutionary processes is uncertain because the understanding of these processes is not robust. The probable result will not be an environment as favorable to humans as the one that has existed for most of human history. Humans probably have altered the environment since Homo sapiens first appeared. However, only in the last two centuries has the degree and rate of change reached levels now considered by many people to be ‘normal’, even though the record shows they are not.Greatly improved technology has facilitated increased exploitation of natural resources to unsustainablelevels. This exploitation, in turn, has led to exponential human population growth, which has depleted natural capital (living systems and the services they provide. Economic globalization has ensured that ecosystems far distant from consumers can be and are profitably exploited. Economicgrowth has become a universal mantra that is coupled with a conviction that such growth can continue indefinitely on a finite planet. A major paradigm shift is essential if sustainable use of the planet is to become a reality.

  9. Quantum Temporal Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Tsang, Mankei; Psaltis, Demetri

    2006-01-01

    The concept of quantum temporal imaging is proposed to manipulate the temporal correlation of entangled photons. In particular, we show that time correlation and anticorrelation can be converted to each other using quantum temporal imaging.

  10. New View of Distant Galaxy Reveals Furious Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    A furious rate of star formation discovered in a distant galaxy shows that galaxies in the early Universe developed either much faster or in a different way from what astronomers have thought. "This galaxy is forming stars at an incredible rate," said Wei-Hao Wang, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, New Mexico. The galaxy, Wang said, is forming the equivalent of 4,000 Suns a year. This is a thousand times more violent than our own Milky Way Galaxy. Location of Distant Galaxy Visible-light, left (from HST) and Infrared, right, (from Spitzer) Images: Circles indicate location of GOODS 850-5. CREDIT: Wang et al., STScI, Spitzer, NASA, NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for high-resolution file (1 MB) The galaxy, called GOODS 850-5, is 12 billion light-years from Earth, and thus is seen as it was only about 1.5 billion years after the Big Bang. Wang and his colleagues observed it using the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's Submillimeter Array (SMA) on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. Young stars in the galaxy were enshrouded in dust that was heated by the stars and radiated infrared light strongly. Because of the galaxy's great distance from Earth, the infrared light waves have been stretched out to submillimeter-length radio waves, which are seen by the SMA. The waves were stretched or "redshifted," as astronomers say, by the ongoing expansion of the Universe. "This evidence for prolific star formation is hidden by the dust from visible-light telescopes," Wang explained. The dust, in turn, was formed from heavy elements that had to be built up in the cores of earlier stars. This indicates, Wang said, that significant numbers of stars already had formed, then spewed those heavy elements into interstellar space through supernova explosions and stellar winds. "Seeing the radiation from this heated dust revealed star formation we could have found in no other way," Wang said. Similar dusty galaxies in the early Universe may contain most of the

  11. A Hubble Diagram of Distant Type IA Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamuy, M.; Phillips, M. M.; Suntzeff, N. B.; Aviles, R.; Maza, J.

    1993-12-01

    Due to their extreme luminosities at maximum light, type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have long been considered among the most attractive cosmological standard candles. Although nearly all work to date has been devoted to attempts to use these objects to determine the local rate of expansion of the universe (Ho), SNe Ia also provide one of the few direct techniques for measuring the deceleration parameter qo. However, in a recent study of nine well-observed events based largely on data obtained at CTIO, Phillips (1993, ApJ, 413, L105) found clear evidence for a significant intrinsic dispersion in SNe Ia absolute magnitudes amounting to ~ 0.8 mag in B, ~ 0.7 mag in V, and ~ 0.5 mag in I. Such a range in peak luminosity could introduce a subtantial Malmquist bias into searches for distant (z rate of the B light curve. Interestingly, the most luminous SNe in our sample all occurred in spiral galaxies, which is true for Phillips' sample of nearby SNe Ia as well. This is opposite to what one would expect if dust extinction were important. These findings are consistent with recent speculations that the progenitors of SNe Ia are white dwarfs covering a range of masses, and also suggest that the brightest events may be found in galaxies which are still actively forming stars. The implications for the use of SNe Ia to measure qo are briefly discussed. This research has been supported by Grant 92/0312 from Fondo Nacional de Ciencias y Tecnología (FONDECYT-Chile).

  12. Evolutionary Psychology and Intelligence Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to unify two subfields of psychology that have hitherto stood separately: evolutionary psychology and intelligence research/differential psychology. I suggest that general intelligence may simultaneously be an evolved adaptation and an individual-difference variable. Tooby and Cosmides's (1990a) notion of random quantitative…

  13. Darwinian foundations for evolutionary economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoelhorst, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper engages with the methodological debate on the contribution of Darwinism to Veblen's (1898) evolutionary research program for economics. I argue that ontological continuity, generalized Darwinism, and multi-level selection are necessary building blocks for an explanatory framework that can

  14. Ernst Mayr and Evolutionary Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 7. Polemics and Synthesis: Ernst Mayr and Evolutionary Biology. Renee M Borges. General Article Volume 10 Issue 7 July 2005 pp 21-33. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  15. Evolutionary Biology Research in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 10. Evolutionary Biology Research in India. Information and Announcements Volume 5 Issue 10 October 2000 pp 102-104. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/10/0102-0104 ...

  16. Realism, Relativism, and Evolutionary Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, M.

    Against recent attempts to forge a reconciliation between constructionism and realism, I contend that, in psychology at least, stirring up conflict is a more fruitful strategy. To illustrate this thesis, I confront a school of psychology with strong realist leanings, evolutionary psychology, with

  17. Ancient Biomolecules and Evolutionary Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellini, Enrico; Prohaska, Ana; Racimo, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    Over the last decade, studies of ancient biomolecules-particularly ancient DNA, proteins, and lipids-have revolutionized our understanding of evolutionary history. Though initially fraught with many challenges, the field now stands on firm foundations. Researchers now successfully retrieve nucleo...

  18. Genetical Genomics for Evolutionary Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, J.C.P.; Smant, G.; Jansen, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    Genetical genomics combines acquired high-throughput genomic data with genetic analysis. In this chapter, we discuss the application of genetical genomics for evolutionary studies, where new high-throughput molecular technologies are combined with mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) on the genome

  19. Evolutionary trends in directional hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carr, Catherine E; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Tympanic hearing is a true evolutionary novelty that arose in parallel within early tetrapods. We propose that in these tetrapods, selection for sound localization in air acted upon pre-existing directionally sensitive brainstem circuits, similar to those in fishes. Auditory circuits in birds...

  20. Evolutionary dynamics of mammalian karyotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Alberto Redi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This special volume of Cytogenetic and Genome Research (edited by Roscoe Stanyon, University of Florence and Alexander Graphodatsky, Siberian division of the Russian Academy of Sciences is dedicated to the fascinating long search of the forces behind the evolutionary dynamics of mammalian karyotypes, revealed after the hypotonic miracle of the 1950s....

  1. Haldane and modern evolutionary genetics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Brian Charlesworth

    2017-11-24

    Nov 24, 2017 ... q(t) of an allele at a locus among the gametes produced at time t, to its .... the importance of disease as an evolutionary factor, which is now a ..... VII. Selection intensity as a function of mortality rate. Proc. Camb. Philos. Soc.

  2. Waiting for Shadows from the Distant Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    How can we hope to measure the hundreds of thousands of objects in our distant solar system? A team of astronomers is harnessing citizen science to begin to tackle this problem!A light curve from an occultation collected by a RECON site in Quincy, California. As the objects shadow passes, the background stars light dims. [RECON/Charley Arrowsmith (Feather River College)]Occultation InformationEstimates currently place the number of Kuiper belt objects larger than 100 km across at over 100,000. Knowing the sizes and characteristics of these objects is important for understanding the composition of the outer solar system and constraining models of the solar systems formation and evolution.Unfortunately, measuring small, dim bodies at large distances is incredibly difficult! One of the best ways to obtain the sizes of these objects is to watch as they occult a distant star. Timing the object as it passes across the face of the star can give us a good measure of its size and shape, when observed from multiple stations in the path of the shadow.An Extended NetworkOccultations by nearby objects (like main-belt asteroids) can be predicted fairly accurately, but those by trans-Neptunian objects are much more poorly constrained. Only ~900 trans-Neptunian objects have approximately known paths, and occultation-shadow predictions for these objects are often only accurate to ~1000km on the Earths surface. So how can we ensure that theres a telescope in the right location, ready to observe when an occultation occurs?Map of the 56 RECON sites distributed over 2000 km in the western United States. [Buie et al. 2016]The simplest answer is to set up a huge network of observing stations, and wait for the shadows to come to the network. With this approach, even if the predicted path isnt precisely known, some of the stations will still observe the occultation.Due to the number of stations needed, this project lends itself perfectly to citizen science. In a recently published paper by

  3. Automatic Camera Control System for a Distant Lecture with Videoing a Normal Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganuma, Akira; Nishigori, Shuichiro

    The growth of a communication network technology enables students to take part in a distant lecture. Although many lectures are conducted in universities by using Web contents, normal lectures using a blackboard are still held. The latter style lecture is good for a teacher's dynamic explanation. A way to modify it for a distant lecture is to…

  4. De afstand tussen close en distant : Methoden en vraagstellingen in computationeel letterkundig onderzoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stronks, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the gap between close and distant reading methods and research design is discussed to establish if the two could profitably be combined. In the current situation, the use of close and distant reading techniques is not evenly distributed among literary scholars specializing in Dutch

  5. SU-F-R-46: Predicting Distant Failure in Lung SBRT Using Multi-Objective Radiomics Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Z; Folkert, M; Iyengar, P; Zhang, Y; Wang, J [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To predict distant failure in lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by using a new multi-objective radiomics model. Methods: Currently, most available radiomics models use the overall accuracy as the objective function. However, due to data imbalance, a single object may not reflect the performance of a predictive model. Therefore, we developed a multi-objective radiomics model which considers both sensitivity and specificity as the objective functions simultaneously. The new model is used to predict distant failure in lung SBRT using 52 patients treated at our institute. Quantitative imaging features of PET and CT as well as clinical parameters are utilized to build the predictive model. Image features include intensity features (9), textural features (12) and geometric features (8). Clinical parameters for each patient include demographic parameters (4), tumor characteristics (8), treatment faction schemes (4) and pretreatment medicines (6). The modelling procedure consists of two steps: extracting features from segmented tumors in PET and CT; and selecting features and training model parameters based on multi-objective. Support Vector Machine (SVM) is used as the predictive model, while a nondominated sorting-based multi-objective evolutionary computation algorithm II (NSGA-II) is used for solving the multi-objective optimization. Results: The accuracy for PET, clinical, CT, PET+clinical, PET+CT, CT+clinical, PET+CT+clinical are 71.15%, 84.62%, 84.62%, 85.54%, 82.69%, 84.62%, 86.54%, respectively. The sensitivities for the above seven combinations are 41.76%, 58.33%, 50.00%, 50.00%, 41.67%, 41.67%, 58.33%, while the specificities are 80.00%, 92.50%, 90.00%, 97.50%, 92.50%, 97.50%, 97.50%. Conclusion: A new multi-objective radiomics model for predicting distant failure in NSCLC treated with SBRT was developed. The experimental results show that the best performance can be obtained by combining

  6. Evolutionary growth process of highly conserved sequences in vertebrate genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Minaka; Noda, Akiko Ogura; Sakate, Ryuichi; Imanishi, Tadashi

    2012-08-01

    Genome sequence comparison between evolutionarily distant species revealed ultraconserved elements (UCEs) among mammals under strong purifying selection. Most of them were also conserved among vertebrates. Because they tend to be located in the flanking regions of developmental genes, they would have fundamental roles in creating vertebrate body plans. However, the evolutionary origin and selection mechanism of these UCEs remain unclear. Here we report that UCEs arose in primitive vertebrates, and gradually grew in vertebrate evolution. We searched for UCEs in two teleost fishes, Tetraodon nigroviridis and Oryzias latipes, and found 554 UCEs with 100% identity over 100 bps. Comparison of teleost and mammalian UCEs revealed 43 pairs of common, jawed-vertebrate UCEs (jUCE) with high sequence identities, ranging from 83.1% to 99.2%. Ten of them retain lower similarities to the Petromyzon marinus genome, and the substitution rates of four non-exonic jUCEs were reduced after the teleost-mammal divergence, suggesting that robust conservation had been acquired in the jawed vertebrate lineage. Our results indicate that prototypical UCEs originated before the divergence of jawed and jawless vertebrates and have been frozen as perfect conserved sequences in the jawed vertebrate lineage. In addition, our comparative sequence analyses of UCEs and neighboring regions resulted in a discovery of lineage-specific conserved sequences. They were added progressively to prototypical UCEs, suggesting step-wise acquisition of novel regulatory roles. Our results indicate that conserved non-coding elements (CNEs) consist of blocks with distinct evolutionary history, each having been frozen since different evolutionary era along the vertebrate lineage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Non-Chemical Distant Cellular Interactions as a potential confounder of Cell Biology Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashkan eFarhadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Distant cells can communicate with each other through a variety of methods. Two such methods involve electrical and/or chemical mechanisms. Non-chemical, distant cellular interactions may be another method of communication that cells can use to modify the behavior of other cells that are mechanically separated. Moreover, non-chemical, distant cellular interactions may explain some cases of confounding effects in Cell Biology experiments. In this article, we review non-chemical, distant cellular interactions studies to try to shed light on the mechanisms in this highly unconventional field of cell biology. Despite the existence of several theories that try to explain the mechanism of non-chemical, distant cellular interactions, this phenomenon is still speculative. Among candidate mechanisms, electromagnetic waves appear to have the most experimental support. In this brief article, we try to answer a few key questions that may further clarify this mechanism.

  8. Active Tobacco Smoking and Distant Metastasis in Patients With Oropharyngeal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBride, Sean M.; Ali, Nawal N.; Margalit, Danielle N.; Chan, Annie W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Distant metastasis is the site of first relapse in approximately one-third of patients with locally advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma, irrespective of human papillomavirus status. Yet the risk factors associated with distant metastasis are not well characterized. We sought to characterize the relationship between smoking status and distant metastasis. Methods and Materials: We evaluated the association between tobacco smoking status and distant metastasis in a retrospective cohort study of 132 patients who underwent definitive radiation therapy and chemotherapy for Stage III–IVA/B oropharyngeal cancer. Information on tobacco smoking was prospectively collected by patient questionnaires and physician notes at the time of diagnosis. Thirty-three percent of the patients were nonsmokers, 51% were former smokers, 16% were active smokers. The cumulative lifetime tobacco smoking in pack-years was 20 (range, 0–150). Results: With a median follow-up time of 52 months, the overall rate of distant metastasis at 4 years was 8%. Distant metastasis was the most common first site of relapse, occurring in 56% of the patients with recurrences. Active smokers had higher rates of distant metastasis than non-active smokers (including never- and former smokers; 31% vs. 4%, p 20 and ≤20 (10% vs. 4%, p = 0.19). In univariate analysis, active smoking (p = 0.0004) and N category (p = 0.009) were predictive of increased risk of distant metastasis. In multivariate analysis, active smoking was the most significant predictive factor for increased risk of distant metastasis (hazard ratio, 12.7, p < 0.0001). Conclusions: This study identified a strong association between active smoking and distant metastasis in patients with oropharyngeal cancer.

  9. Towards a mechanistic foundation of evolutionary theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doebeli, Michael; Ispolatov, Yaroslav; Simon, Burt

    2017-02-15

    Most evolutionary thinking is based on the notion of fitness and related ideas such as fitness landscapes and evolutionary optima. Nevertheless, it is often unclear what fitness actually is, and its meaning often depends on the context. Here we argue that fitness should not be a basal ingredient in verbal or mathematical descriptions of evolution. Instead, we propose that evolutionary birth-death processes, in which individuals give birth and die at ever-changing rates, should be the basis of evolutionary theory, because such processes capture the fundamental events that generate evolutionary dynamics. In evolutionary birth-death processes, fitness is at best a derived quantity, and owing to the potential complexity of such processes, there is no guarantee that there is a simple scalar, such as fitness, that would describe long-term evolutionary outcomes. We discuss how evolutionary birth-death processes can provide useful perspectives on a number of central issues in evolution.

  10. Applied evolutionary economics and economic geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenken, K.

    2007-01-01

    Applied Evolutionary Economics and Economic Geography" aims to further advance empirical methodologies in evolutionary economics, with a special emphasis on geography and firm location. It does so by bringing together a select group of leading scholars including economists, geographers and

  11. Evolutionary biology of bacterial and fungal pathogens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baquero, F

    2008-01-01

    ... and Evolutionary Dynamics of Pathogens * 21 Keith A. Crandall and Marcos Pérez-Losada II. Evolutionary Genetics of Microbial Pathogens 4. Environmental and Social Influences on Infectious Disea...

  12. The evolution of early-type galaxies in distant clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanford, S.A.; Eisenhardt, P.R.; Dickinson, M.

    1998-01-01

    We present results from an optical-infrared photometric study of early-type (E+S0) galaxies in 19 galaxy clusters out to z=0.9. The galaxy sample is selected on the basis of morphologies determined from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFPC2 images and is photometrically defined in the K band in order to minimize redshift-dependent selection biases. Using new ground-based photometry in five optical and infrared bands for each cluster, we examine the evolution of the color-magnitude relation for early-type cluster galaxies, considering its slope, intercept, and color scatter around the mean relation. New multiwavelength photometry of galaxies in the Coma Cluster is used to provide a baseline sample at z∼0 with which to compare the distant clusters. The optical - IR colors of the early-type cluster galaxies become bluer with increasing redshift in a manner consistent with the passive evolution of an old stellar population formed at an early cosmic epoch. The degree of color evolution is similar for clusters at similar redshift and does not depend strongly on the optical richness or X-ray luminosity of the cluster, which suggests that the history of early-type galaxies is relatively insensitive to environment, at least above a certain density threshold. The slope of the color-magnitude relationship shows no significant change out to z=0.9, which provides evidence that it arises from a correlation between galaxy mass and metallicity, not age. Finally, the intrinsic scatter in the optical - IR colors of the galaxies is small and nearly constant with redshift, which indicates that the majority of giant, early-type galaxies in clusters share a common star formation history, with little perturbation due to uncorrelated episodes of later star formation. Taken together, our results are consistent with models in which most early-type galaxies in rich clusters are old, formed the majority of their stars at high redshift in a well-synchronized fashion, and evolved quiescently

  13. Distant gammatherapy results of patients with esophagus cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraliyev, O.K.; Beibutov, Sh.M.; Quilieva, A.O.; Nasirova, F.J.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The problem of esophagus cancer therapy gains the particular meaning for Azerbaijan where this disease incidence exceeds the parameters of neighboring countries by almost two times. 1240 patients with esophagus cancer were under our observation for more than 15 years who had been subjected to the distant static gamma therapy on apparatuses 'Agat-R' and 'Rockus M'. There were 732 men (59 % )and 508 women (41 %). The patients' age ranged from 24-88 years. Disease duration since the appearance of the first symptoms till entering to the department was 4-8 months on the average. Esophagus cancer is often localized in the places of the physiological stenosis. So tumour was localised in the neck region esophagus in 45 patients (4.1%), in upper pectoral in 104 ones (9.5%), in middle pectoral in 594 ones (54.5%) in lower pectoral in 299 ones (27.4%) in abdominal regions of esophagus 48 patients(4.5%).The extent of dimensions of tumour esophagus was ranged within 2-13 cm, only it was less than 5 cm in 6.5% patients. The opportune surgical treatment ensures the perfect recovery. However, the early stage of the disease can develop asymptomatically. The patients with the 1st stage of lesion were only 8 (0.8%) with the 2nd one 408(37.4%), with the 3rd one 607(55.7%), with the 4th one 67(6.1%). Radiation therapy was applied in the cases of inoperable and also in patient who were older than 60 or refused operation. 1090 patients (88%) finished the treatment course. Local summary doses have formed 50-70 Grey, the momentary ones-2-2.5 Grey on the medium. The rest of the patients haven't finished the treatment due to several reasons. The results of the treatment are as follows: We observed clinical cure in 389 patients (35.7%), an improvement in 541 (499%), the process stabilisation or an absence of effect in 160 (14.3%). 40.1% of patients lived for more than 1 year, 18.4% for more than 2 years,12.0% for more than 3 years and 7.0% for more than 5 years. It was established

  14. The citation field of evolutionary economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfsma, Wilfred; Leydesdorff, Loet

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary economics has developed into an academic field of its own, institutionalized around, amongst others, the Journal of Evolutionary Economics (JEE). This paper analyzes the way and extent to which evolutionary economics has become an interdisciplinary journal, as its aim was: a journal

  15. Essays on nonlinear evolutionary game dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ochea, M.I.

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary game theory has been viewed as an evolutionary repair of rational actor game theory in the hope that a population of boundedly rational players may attain convergence to classic rational solutions, such as the Nash Equilibrium, via some learning or evolutionary process. In this thesis

  16. NASA Telescopes Help Identify Most Distant Galaxy Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    WASHINGTON -- Astronomers have uncovered a burgeoning galactic metropolis, the most distant known in the early universe. This ancient collection of galaxies presumably grew into a modern galaxy cluster similar to the massive ones seen today. The developing cluster, named COSMOS-AzTEC3, was discovered and characterized by multi-wavelength telescopes, including NASA's Spitzer, Chandra and Hubble space telescopes, and the ground-based W.M. Keck Observatory and Japan's Subaru Telescope. "This exciting discovery showcases the exceptional science made possible through collaboration among NASA projects and our international partners," said Jon Morse, NASA's Astrophysics Division director at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Scientists refer to this growing lump of galaxies as a proto-cluster. COSMOS-AzTEC3 is the most distant massive proto-cluster known, and also one of the youngest, because it is being seen when the universe itself was young. The cluster is roughly 12.6 billion light-years away from Earth. Our universe is estimated to be 13.7 billion years old. Previously, more mature versions of these clusters had been spotted at 10 billion light-years away. The astronomers also found that this cluster is buzzing with extreme bursts of star formation and one enormous feeding black hole. "We think the starbursts and black holes are the seeds of the cluster," said Peter Capak of NASA's Spitzer Science Center at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. "These seeds will eventually grow into a giant, central galaxy that will dominate the cluster -- a trait found in modern-day galaxy clusters." Capak is first author of a paper appearing in the Jan. 13 issue of the journal Nature. Most galaxies in our universe are bound together into clusters that dot the cosmic landscape like urban sprawls, usually centered around one old, monstrous galaxy containing a massive black hole. Astronomers thought that primitive versions of these clusters, still forming and clumping

  17. Towards General Temporal Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boehlen, Michael H.; Gamper, Johann; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2008-01-01

    associated with the management of temporal data. Indeed, temporal aggregation is complex and among the most difficult, and thus interesting, temporal functionality to support. This paper presents a general framework for temporal aggregation that accommodates existing kinds of aggregation, and it identifies...

  18. Schroedinger operators and evolutionary strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asselmeyer, T.

    1997-01-01

    First we introduce a simple model for the description of evolutionary algorithms, which is based on 2nd order partial differential equations for the distribution function of the individuals. Then we turn to the properties of Boltzmann's and Darwin's strategy. the next chapter is dedicated to the mathematical properties of Schroedinger operators. Both statements on the spectral density and their reproducibility during the simulation are summarized. The remaining of this chapter are dedicated to the analysis of the kernel as well as the dependence of the Schroedinger operator on the potential. As conclusion from the results of this chapter we obtain the classification of the strategies in dependence of the fitness. We obtain the classification of the evolutionary strategies, which are described by a 2nd order partial differential equation, in relation to their solution behaviour. Thereafter we are employed with the variation of the mutation distribution

  19. Exponential Expansion in Evolutionary Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Peter; Jagtfelt, Tue

    2013-01-01

    This article attempts to solve current problems of conceptual fragmentation within the field of evolutionary economics. One of the problems, as noted by a number of observers, is that the field suffers from an assemblage of fragmented and scattered concepts (Boschma and Martin 2010). A solution...... to this problem is proposed in the form of a model of exponential expansion. The model outlines the overall structure and function of the economy as exponential expansion. The pictographic model describes four axiomatic concepts and their exponential nature. The interactive, directional, emerging and expanding...... concepts are described in detail. Taken together it provides the rudimentary aspects of an economic system within an analytical perspective. It is argued that the main dynamic processes of the evolutionary perspective can be reduced to these four concepts. The model and concepts are evaluated in the light...

  20. Preventive evolutionary medicine of cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Michael E; Thomas, Frédéric; Assenat, Eric; Hibner, Urszula

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that once an individual reaches an age of sufficiently low Darwinian fitness, (s)he will have reduced chances of keeping cancerous lesions in check. While we clearly need to better understand the emergence of precursor states and early malignancies as well as their mitigation by the microenvironment and tissue architecture, we argue that lifestyle changes and preventive therapies based in an evolutionary framework, applied to identified high-risk populations before incipient neoplasms become clinically detectable and chemoresistant lineages emerge, are currently the most reliable way to control or eliminate early tumours. Specifically, the relatively low levels of (epi)genetic heterogeneity characteristic of many if not most incipient lesions will mean a relatively limited set of possible adaptive traits and associated costs compared to more advanced cancers, and thus a more complete and predictable understanding of treatment options and outcomes. We propose a conceptual model for preventive treatments and discuss the many associated challenges.

  1. Probing the evolutionary history of epigenetic mechanisms: what can we learn from marine diatoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achal Rastogi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress made on epigenetic studies revealed the conservation of epigenetic features in deep diverse branching species including Stramenopiles, plants and animals. This suggests their fundamental role in shaping species genomes across different evolutionary time scales. Diatoms are a highly successful and diverse group of phytoplankton with a fossil record of about 190 million years ago. They are distantly related from other super-groups of Eukaryotes and have retained some of the epigenetic features found in mammals and plants suggesting their ancient origin. Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Thalassiosira pseudonana, pennate and centric diatoms, respectively, emerged as model species to address questions on the evolution of epigenetic phenomena such as what has been lost, retained or has evolved in contemporary species. In the present work, we will discuss how the study of non-model or emerging model organisms, such as diatoms, helps understand the evolutionary history of epigenetic mechanisms with a particular focus on DNA methylation and histone modifications.

  2. Pattern of distant recurrence according to the molecular subtypes in Korean women with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Hyung Seok

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Distant recurrence is one of the most important risk factors in overall survival, and distant recurrence is related to a complex biologic interaction of seed and soil factors. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between the molecular subtypes and patterns of distant recurrence in patients with breast cancer. Methods In an investigation of 313 women with breast cancer who underwent surgery from 1994 and 2000, the expressions of estrogen and progestrone receptor (ER/PR, and human epithelial receptor-2 (HER2 were evaluated. The subtypes were defined as luminal-A, luminal-HER2, HER2-enriched, and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC according to ER, PR, and HER2 status. Results Bone was the most common site of distant recurrence. The incidence of first distant recurrence site was significantly different among the subtypes. Brain metastasis was more frequent in the luminal-HER2 and TNBC subtypes. In subgroup analysis, overall survival in patients with distant recurrence after 24 months after surgery was significantly different among the subtypes. Conclusions Organ-specific metastasis may depend on the molecular subtype of breast cancer. Tailored strategies against distant metastasis concerning the molecular subtypes in breast cancer may be considered.

  3. Passivity and Evolutionary Game Dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Shinkyu; Shamma, Jeff S.; Martins, Nuno C.

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates an energy conservation and dissipation -- passivity -- aspect of dynamic models in evolutionary game theory. We define a notion of passivity using the state-space representation of the models, and we devise systematic methods to examine passivity and to identify properties of passive dynamic models. Based on the methods, we describe how passivity is connected to stability in population games and illustrate stability of passive dynamic models using numerical simulations.

  4. Passivity and Evolutionary Game Dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Shinkyu

    2018-03-21

    This paper investigates an energy conservation and dissipation -- passivity -- aspect of dynamic models in evolutionary game theory. We define a notion of passivity using the state-space representation of the models, and we devise systematic methods to examine passivity and to identify properties of passive dynamic models. Based on the methods, we describe how passivity is connected to stability in population games and illustrate stability of passive dynamic models using numerical simulations.

  5. [Evolutionary perspective in precocious puberty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Ze'ev

    2014-10-01

    Pubertal development is subject to substantial heritability, but much variation remains to be explained, including fast changes over the last 150 years, that cannot be explained by changes of gene frequency in the population. This article discusses the influence of environmental factors to adjust maturational tempo in the service of fitness goals. Utilizing evolutionary development thinking (evo-devo), the author examines adolescence as an evolutionary life-history stage in its developmental context. The transition from the preceding stage of juvenility entails adaptive plasticity in response to energy resources, social needs of adolescence and maturation toward youth and adulthood. Using Belsky's evolutionary theory of socialization, I show that familial psychosocial environment during the infancy-childhood and childhood-juvenility transitions foster a fast life-history and reproductive strategy rather than early maturation being just a risk factor for aggression and delinquency. The implications of the evo-devo framework for theory building, illuminates new directions in the understanding of precocious puberty other than a diagnosis of a disease.

  6. Incorporating Development Into Evolutionary Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Bjorklund

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Developmental thinking is gradually becoming integrated within mainstream evolutionary psychology. This is most apparent with respect to the role of parenting, with proponents of life history theory arguing that cognitive and behavioral plasticity early in life permits children to select different life history strategies, with such strategies being adaptive solutions to different fitness trade-offs. I argue that adaptations develop and are based on the highly plastic nature of infants’ and children’s behavior/cognition/brains. The concept of evolved probabilistic cognitive mechanisms is introduced, defined as information processing mechanisms evolved to solve recurrent problems faced by ancestral populations that are expressed in a probabilistic fashion in each individual in a generation and are based on the continuous and bidirectional interaction over time at all levels of organization, from the genetic through the cultural. Early perceptual/cognitive biases result in behavior that, when occurring in a species-typical environment, produce continuous adaptive changes in behavior (and cognition, yielding adaptive outcomes. Examples from social learning and tool use are provided, illustrating the development of adaptations via evolved probabilistic cognitive mechanisms. The integration of developmental concepts into mainstream evolutionary psychology (and evolutionary concepts into mainstream developmental psychology will provide a clearer picture of what it means to be human.

  7. Testing evolutionary convergence on Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chela-Flores, Julian [Instituto de Estudios Avanzados, Caracas (Venezuela); [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)

    2002-11-01

    A major objective in solar system exploration is the insertion of appropriate biology-oriented experiments in future missions. We discuss various reasons for suggesting that this type of research be considered a high priority for feasibility studies and, subsequently, for technological development of appropriate melters and submersibles. Based on numerous examples, we argue in favour of the assumption that Darwin's theory is valid for the evolution of life anywhere in the universe. We have suggested how to obtain preliminary insights into the question of the distribution of life in the universe. Universal evolution of intelligent behaviour is at the end of an evolutionary pathway, in which evolution of ion channels in the membrane of microorganisms occurs in its early stages. Further, we have argued that a preliminary test of this conjecture is feasible with experiments on the Europan surface or ocean, involving evolutionary biosignatures (ion channels). This aspect of the exploration for life in the solar system should be viewed as a complement to the astronomical approach for the search of evidence of the later stages of the evolutionary pathways towards intelligent behaviour. (author)

  8. Evolutionary ecology of virus emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, John J

    2017-02-01

    The cross-species transmission of viruses into new host populations, termed virus emergence, is a significant issue in public health, agriculture, wildlife management, and related fields. Virus emergence requires overlap between host populations, alterations in virus genetics to permit infection of new hosts, and adaptation to novel hosts such that between-host transmission is sustainable, all of which are the purview of the fields of ecology and evolution. A firm understanding of the ecology of viruses and how they evolve is required for understanding how and why viruses emerge. In this paper, I address the evolutionary mechanisms of virus emergence and how they relate to virus ecology. I argue that, while virus acquisition of the ability to infect new hosts is not difficult, limited evolutionary trajectories to sustained virus between-host transmission and the combined effects of mutational meltdown, bottlenecking, demographic stochasticity, density dependence, and genetic erosion in ecological sinks limit most emergence events to dead-end spillover infections. Despite the relative rarity of pandemic emerging viruses, the potential of viruses to search evolutionary space and find means to spread epidemically and the consequences of pandemic viruses that do emerge necessitate sustained attention to virus research, surveillance, prophylaxis, and treatment. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  9. Clearing the Cosmic Fog - The Most Distant Galaxy Ever Measured

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    distances to such faint and remote objects is an enormous challenge and can only reliably be done using spectroscopy from very large ground-based telescopes [4], by measuring the redshift of the galaxy's light. Matt Lehnert takes up the story: "After the announcement of the candidate galaxies from Hubble we did a quick calculation and were excited to find that the immense light collecting power of the VLT, when combined with the sensitivity of the infrared spectroscopic instrument, SINFONI, and a very long exposure time might just allow us to detect the extremely faint glow from one of these remote galaxies and to measure its distance." On special request to ESO's Director General they obtained telescope time on the VLT and observed a candidate galaxy called UDFy-38135539 [5] for 16 hours. After two months of very careful analysis and testing of their results, the team found that they had clearly detected the very faint glow from hydrogen at a redshift of 8.6, which makes this galaxy the most distant object ever confirmed by spectroscopy. A redshift of 8.6 corresponds to a galaxy seen just 600 million years after the Big Bang. Co-author Nicole Nesvadba (Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale) sums up this work, "Measuring the redshift of the most distant galaxy so far is very exciting in itself, but the astrophysical implications of this detection are even more important. This is the first time we know for sure that we are looking at one of the galaxies that cleared out the fog which had filled the very early Universe." One of the surprising things about this discovery is that the glow from UDFy-38135539 seems not to be strong enough on its own to clear out the hydrogen fog. "There must be other galaxies, probably fainter and less massive nearby companions of UDFy-38135539, which also helped make the space around the galaxy transparent. Without this additional help the light from the galaxy, no matter how brilliant, would have been trapped in the surrounding hydrogen fog and we

  10. Incidence and sites of distant metastases from head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlito, A; Shaha, A R; Silver, C E; Rinaldo, A; Mondin, V

    2001-01-01

    The incidence of distant metastases in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is relatively small in comparison to other malignancies. Distant metastases adversely impact survival and may significantly affect treatment planning. The incidence of distant metastases is influenced by location of the primary tumor, initial T and N stage of the neoplasm, and the presence or absence of regional control above the clavicle. Patients with advanced nodal disease have a high incidence of distant metastases, particularly in the presence of jugular vein invasion or extensive soft tissue disease in the neck. Primary tumors of advanced T stages in the hypopharynx, oropharynx and oral cavity are associated with the highest incidence of distant metastases. Pulmonary metastases are the most frequent in SCC, accounting for 66% of distant metastases. It may be difficult to distinguish pulmonary metastasis from a new primary tumor, particularly if solitary. Other metastatic sites include bone (22%), liver (10%), skin, mediastinum and bone marrow. An important question remains as to how intensely pre- and postoperative screening for distant metastases should be performed. Preoperative chest X-ray is warranted in all cases. If the primary tumor and nodal status place the patient at high risk for pulmonary metastasis, then preoperative computed tomography scan of the chest should be done. Screening for distant metastases at other sites is usually not indicated in SCC of the upper aerodigestive tract. Postoperatively, annual X-rays of the chest are usually sufficient, but in high-risk situations a chest X-ray performed every 3-6 months may be beneficial. Certain histologic types of primary tumor have greater or lesser propensity to metastasize distantly, and have a different natural history. Adenoid cystic carcinoma metastasizes frequently, even in the absence of extensive local or regional disease. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinomas also metastasize widely

  11. Surgical resection of solitary distant metastasis from locoregionally controlled advanced hypopharyngeal malignancy: A ray of hope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelakkot G Prameela

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Head and neck malignancies have always been challenging for the clinician, both with regards to locoregional control and distant metastasis. Aggressive approaches translate to an acceptable locoregional control, but distant failures pose a dilemma. Newer, sophisticated, imaging modalities have helped in early diagnosis of solitary metastasis, and in turn have opened up an array of interventional procedures, which to some extent improve the disease-free survival and quality of life, as was seen in the present case of locoregionally controlled advanced hypopharyngeal malignancy who presented with solitary distant metastasis. Still, diligent care needs to be taken not to aggravate the scenario with these interventions.

  12. The nucleobase cation symporter 1 of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and that of the evolutionarily distant Arabidopsis thaliana display parallel function and establish a plant-specific solute transport profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Jessica R; Hunt, Kevin A; Minton, Janet A; Schultes, Neil P; Mourad, George S

    2013-09-01

    The single cell alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is capable of importing purines as nitrogen sources. An analysis of the annotated C. reinhardtii genome reveals at least three distinct gene families encoding for known nucleobase transporters. In this study the solute transport and binding properties for the lone C. reinhardtii nucleobase cation symporter 1 (CrNCS1) are determined through heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. CrNCS1 acts as a transporter of adenine, guanine, uracil and allantoin, sharing similar - but not identical - solute recognition specificity with the evolutionary distant NCS1 from Arabidopsis thaliana. The results suggest that the solute specificity for plant NCS1 occurred early in plant evolution and are distinct from solute transport specificities of single cell fungal NCS1 proteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. The interaction of grammatical aspect and temporal distance in motion descriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eAnderson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Grammatical aspect is known to shape event understanding. However, little is known about how it interacts with other important temporal information, such as recent and distant past. The current work uses computer-mouse tracking (Spivey, Grosjean, & Knoblich, 2005 to explore the interaction of aspect and temporal context. Participants in our experiment listened to past motion event descriptions that varied according to aspect (simple past, past progressive and temporal distance (recent past, distant past while viewing scenes with paths and implied destinations. Participants used a computer mouse to place characters into the scene to match event descriptions. Our results indicated that aspect and temporal context interact in interesting ways. When aspect placed emphasis on the ongoing details of the event and the temporal context was recent (thus, making fine details available in memory, this match between conditions elicited smoother and faster computer mouse movements than when conditions mismatched. Likewise, when aspect placed emphasis on the less-detailed end state of the event and temporal context was in the distant past (thus making fine details less available, this match between conditions also elicited smoother and faster computer mouse movements.

  14. The use of electron beams as probes of the distant magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winckler, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter reports on experiments in which electron beams have been injected into the magnetosphere in order to diagnose plasma processes at a great distance by measurements made in the ionosphere. Topics considered include the beam injecting rocket system in the ionosphere; beam detection and analysis; echo detection by particle counters; echo analysis; the structure of echoes; the atmosphere as a detector; radio and radar methods; perturbation of the distant magnetosphere by beam injection; changes in the injected beam in the near-rocket region; some observations of the distant magnetosphere by beams; the comparison of distant and local electric fields; electron diffusion; the distant magnetic field; and future possibilities. Conjugate locations, field line lengths, electric and magnetic drifts, field fluctuations, and electron scattering and diffusion are analyzed. Echo detection by particle counters on some of the ECHO rocket series is discussed in detail

  15. Hedonic Benefits of Close and Distant Interaction Partners: The Mediating Roles of Social Approval and Authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venaglia, Rachel B; Lemay, Edward P

    2017-09-01

    The current research utilized ecological momentary assessment methodology to examine affective responses to interacting with close versus distant interaction partners during naturally occurring social interactions, and to test predictions regarding the mediating roles of perceived social approval and authenticity. Analysis of 4,602 social interactions reported by 176 participants suggested that, relative to interactions with distant partners, interactions with close partners were characterized by more positive affect. This effect was mediated by perceived social approval and authenticity. These findings suggest that social interactions with close others confer greater hedonic benefits relative to interactions with distant partners due to greater confidence in social approval and feelings of authenticity. Exploratory analyses suggested that interactions with close partners featured warmer and less shy behavior, and that participants who placed more importance on close relationships (as measured by high relational-interdependent self-construal) experienced more approval and authenticity in their interactions, particularly with distant partners.

  16. Distant galaxy formed stars only 250 million years after the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwens, Rychard

    2018-05-01

    Little is known about the star-birth activity of the earliest galaxies. Observations of a particularly distant galaxy provide evidence for such activity when the Universe was just 2% of its current age.

  17. Distant Tail Behavior During High Speed Solar Wind Streams and Magnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C. M.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1997-01-01

    We have examined the ISEE 3 distant tail data during three intense magnetic storms and have identified the tail response to high-speed solar wind streams, interplanetary magnetic clouds, and near-Earth storms.

  18. (abstract) The Distant Tail Behavior During High Speed Solar Wind Streams and Magnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C. M.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1996-01-01

    We have examined the ISEE-3 distant tail data during three intense magnetic storms and have identified the tail response to high speed solar wind streams, interplanetary magnetic clouds, and near-Earth storms.

  19. The relationship of local and distant failure from endometrial cancer: defining a clinical paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corn, Benjamin W.; Lanciano, Rachelle; D'Agostino, Ralph; Kiggundu, Edward; Purser, Phillip; Greven, Kathryn M.

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: The Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) has recently activated a phase III protocol (no. 156) that randomizes women with intermediate risk endometrial cancer to pelvic irradiation (RT) vs. chemotherapy (cisplatin, doxorubicin). This study design presumes that chemotherapy will be able to control local disease, or that local disease is a minimal problem and that distant metastases arise independent of local failure. Recently, statistical methods have been developed to rigorously assess the relationship between local and distant failures. Such methodology has successfully been applied to a variety of tumors including those arising in the prostate, breast, and cervix. To date, no published data are available to generate an hypothesis to characterize the relationship between local and distant failure for endometrial cancer. The present analysis was undertaken to determine the effect of loco-regional control on subsequent metastatic dissemination among women with pathologically staged endometrial cancer treated by hysterectomy followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. METHODS: The series consisted of 394 patients with FIGO stages I-IVa endometrial cancer who were surgically staged prior to irradiation [median external beam dose 46 Gy +/- brachytherapy (median vaginal surface dose=30 Gy)]. The duration of follow-up ranged from 2 to 80 months, with a median of 50 months. Multiple factors were evaluated to determine the associations with distant relapse including FIGO pathological stage, grade, histopathologic subtype (adeno, vs papillary/papillary-serous/clear cell), depth of myometrial penetration, age, and local disease status. Time dependent survival models were generated to assess the influence of local failure on distant metastases. RESULTS: For the entire series, the 5 year actuarial rates of local and distant failures were 9% and 20%, respectively. Women who failed locally had a >6-fold risk of failing distantly compared to those who remained locally controlled (p=0

  20. Gravitational effect of distant earth relief within the territory of former Czechoslovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikuška, J.; Pašteka, R.; Mrlina, Jan; Marušiak, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2008), s. 381-396 ISSN 0039-3169 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3012308 Grant - others:EC(XE) ENK6-CT2000-00056; APVV(SK) APVV-99-002905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : Bouguer gravity anomaly * distant topographic effect * distant bathymetric correction Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.770, year: 2008

  1. Wolves (Canis lupus) and Dogs (Canis familiaris) Differ in Following Human Gaze Into Distant Space But Respond Similar to Their Packmates’ Gaze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werhahn, Geraldine; Virányi, Zsófia; Barrera, Gabriela; Sommese, Andrea; Range, Friederike

    2017-01-01

    Gaze following into distant space is defined as visual co-orientation with another individual’s head direction allowing the gaze follower to gain information on its environment. Human and nonhuman animals share this basic gaze following behavior, suggested to rely on a simple reflexive mechanism and believed to be an important prerequisite for complex forms of social cognition. Pet dogs differ from other species in that they follow only communicative human gaze clearly addressed to them. However, in an earlier experiment we showed that wolves follow human gaze into distant space. Here we set out to investigate whether domestication has affected gaze following in dogs by comparing pack-living dogs and wolves raised and kept under the same conditions. In Study 1 we found that in contrast to the wolves, these dogs did not follow minimally communicative human gaze into distant space in the same test paradigm. In the observational Study 2 we found that pack-living dogs and wolves, similarly vigilant to environmental stimuli, follow the spontaneous gaze of their conspecifics similarly often. Our findings suggest that domestication did not affect the gaze following ability of dogs itself. The results raise hypotheses about which other dog skills might have been altered through domestication that may have influenced their performance in Study 1. Because following human gaze in dogs might be influenced by special evolutionary as well as developmental adaptations to interactions with humans, we suggest that comparing dogs to other animal species might be more informative when done in intraspecific social contexts. PMID:27244538

  2. Wolves (Canis lupus) and dogs (Canis familiaris) differ in following human gaze into distant space but respond similar to their packmates' gaze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werhahn, Geraldine; Virányi, Zsófia; Barrera, Gabriela; Sommese, Andrea; Range, Friederike

    2016-08-01

    Gaze following into distant space is defined as visual co-orientation with another individual's head direction allowing the gaze follower to gain information on its environment. Human and nonhuman animals share this basic gaze following behavior, suggested to rely on a simple reflexive mechanism and believed to be an important prerequisite for complex forms of social cognition. Pet dogs differ from other species in that they follow only communicative human gaze clearly addressed to them. However, in an earlier experiment we showed that wolves follow human gaze into distant space. Here we set out to investigate whether domestication has affected gaze following in dogs by comparing pack-living dogs and wolves raised and kept under the same conditions. In Study 1 we found that in contrast to the wolves, these dogs did not follow minimally communicative human gaze into distant space in the same test paradigm. In the observational Study 2 we found that pack-living dogs and wolves, similarly vigilant to environmental stimuli, follow the spontaneous gaze of their conspecifics similarly often. Our findings suggest that domestication did not affect the gaze following ability of dogs itself. The results raise hypotheses about which other dog skills might have been altered through domestication that may have influenced their performance in Study 1. Because following human gaze in dogs might be influenced by special evolutionary as well as developmental adaptations to interactions with humans, we suggest that comparing dogs to other animal species might be more informative when done in intraspecific social contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Prognostic aspects of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in synchronous distant metastatic rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jing; Xu, Qing; Song, Jia-Cheng; Li, Yan; Xu, Lu-Lu; Shi, Hai-Bin [First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Department of Radiology, Nanjing (China); Huang, Dong-Ya [First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Department of General Surgery, Nanjing (China)

    2017-05-15

    To explore the correlations between DCE-MRI quantitative parameters and synchronous distant metastasis and the clinicopathological factors in rectal cancers. Sixty-three patients with rectal cancer (synchronous distant metastasis, n = 31; non-metastasis, n = 32) were enrolled in this study. Student's t test and ANOVA were used to compare DCE-MRI parameters (K{sup trans}, K{sub ep} and V{sub e}). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to find the reasonable threshold of DCE-MRI parameters to differentiate lesions with synchronous distant metastasis from those without metastasis. The K{sup trans}, K{sub ep}, and V{sub e} value were significantly higher in the lesions with distant metastasis than in the lesions without distant metastasis (0.536 ± 0.242 vs. 0.299 ± 0.118 min{sup -1}, p < 0.001; 1.598 ± 0.477 vs. 1.341 ± 0.390 min{sup -1}, p = 0.022; and 0.324 ± 0.173 vs. 0.249 ± 0.091, p = 0.034; respectively). The K{sup trans} showed the highest AUCs of 0.788 (p < 0.001), with sensitivity of 61.29 % and specificity of 87.5 %, respectively. DCE-MRI parameters may represent a prognostic indicator for synchronous distant metastases in patients with rectal cancer. (orig.)

  4. Introduced species as evolutionary traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaepfer, Martin A.; Sherman, P.W.; Blossey, B.; Runge, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Invasive species can alter environments in such a way that normal behavioural decision-making rules of native species are no longer adaptive. The evolutionary trap concept provides a useful framework for predicting and managing the impact of harmful invasive species. We discuss how native species can respond to changes in their selective regime via evolution or learning. We also propose novel management strategies to promote the long-term co-existence of native and introduced species in cases where the eradication of the latter is either economically or biologically unrealistic.

  5. Multidimensional extended spatial evolutionary games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krześlak, Michał; Świerniak, Andrzej

    2016-02-01

    The goal of this paper is to study the classical hawk-dove model using mixed spatial evolutionary games (MSEG). In these games, played on a lattice, an additional spatial layer is introduced for dependence on more complex parameters and simulation of changes in the environment. Furthermore, diverse polymorphic equilibrium points dependent on cell reproduction, model parameters, and their simulation are discussed. Our analysis demonstrates the sensitivity properties of MSEGs and possibilities for further development. We discuss applications of MSEGs, particularly algorithms for modelling cell interactions during the development of tumours. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Feminist Encounters with Evolutionary Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    O'Neill, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This Section of Australian Feminist Studies is the product of an event that took place at King’s College London in January 2015, hosted as part of the UK-based ‘Critical Sexology’ seminar series. Participants at this event – feminist scholars working across the fields of lin- guistics, cultural studies, sociology, and psychology – were invited to reflect on their encounters with evolutionary psychology (EP). As the event organiser, I was interested to prompt a discussion about how EP shapes t...

  7. Improving processes through evolutionary optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Thomas R

    2011-09-01

    As systems evolve over time, their natural tendency is to become increasingly more complex. Studies on complex systems have generated new perspectives on management in social organizations such as hospitals. Much of this research appears as a natural extension of the cross-disciplinary field of systems theory. This is the 18th in a series of articles applying complex systems science to the traditional management concepts of planning, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling. In this article, I discuss methods to optimize complex healthcare processes through learning, adaptation, and evolutionary planning.

  8. Historical change and evolutionary theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Roger D

    2007-09-01

    Despite advances in fields like genetics, evolutionary psychology, and human behavior and evolution--which generally focus on individual or small group behavior from a biological perspective--evolutionary biology has made little impact on studies of political change and social history. Theories of natural selection often seem inapplicable to human history because our social behavior is embedded in language (which makes possible the concepts of time and social identity on which what we call "history" depends). Peter Corning's Holistic Darwinism reconceptualizes evolutionary biology, making it possible to go beyond the barriers separating the social and natural sciences. Corning focuses on two primary processes: "synergy" (complex multivariate interactions at multiple levels between a species and its environment) and "cybernetics" (the information systems permitting communication between individuals and groups over time). Combining this frame of reference with inclusive fitness theory, it is possible to answer the most important (and puzzling) question in human history: How did a species that lived for millennia in hunter-gatherer bands form centralized states governing large populations of non-kin (including multi-ethnic empires as well as modern nation-states)? The fragility and contemporary ethnic violence in Kenya and the Congo should suffice as evidence that these issues need to be taken seriously. To explain the rise and fall of states as well as changes in human laws and customs--the core of historical research--it is essential to show how the provision of collective goods can overcome the challenge of self-interest and free-riding in some instances, yet fail to do so in others. To this end, it is now possible to consider how a state providing public goods can--under circumstances that often include effective leadership--contribute to enhanced inclusive fitness of virtually all its members. Because social behavior needs to adapt to ecology, but ecological

  9. Evolutionary rates at codon sites may be used to align sequences and infer protein domain function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazelhurst Scott

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequence alignments form part of many investigations in molecular biology, including the determination of phylogenetic relationships, the prediction of protein structure and function, and the measurement of evolutionary rates. However, to obtain meaningful results, a significant degree of sequence similarity is required to ensure that the alignments are accurate and the inferences correct. Limitations arise when sequence similarity is low, which is particularly problematic when working with fast-evolving genes, evolutionary distant taxa, genomes with nucleotide biases, and cases of convergent evolution. Results A novel approach was conceptualized to address the "low sequence similarity" alignment problem. We developed an alignment algorithm termed FIRE (Functional Inference using the Rates of Evolution, which aligns sequences using the evolutionary rate at codon sites, as measured by the dN/dS ratio, rather than nucleotide or amino acid residues. FIRE was used to test the hypotheses that evolutionary rates can be used to align sequences and that the alignments may be used to infer protein domain function. Using a range of test data, we found that aligning domains based on evolutionary rates was possible even when sequence similarity was very low (for example, antibody variable regions. Furthermore, the alignment has the potential to infer protein domain function, indicating that domains with similar functions are subject to similar evolutionary constraints. These data suggest that an evolutionary rate-based approach to sequence analysis (particularly when combined with structural data may be used to study cases of convergent evolution or when sequences have very low similarity. However, when aligning homologous gene sets with sequence similarity, FIRE did not perform as well as the best traditional alignment algorithms indicating that the conventional approach of aligning residues as opposed to evolutionary rates remains the

  10. Genome-wide investigation reveals high evolutionary rates in annual model plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Jia-Xing; Li, Jinpeng; Wang, Dan; Araki, Hitoshi; Tian, Dacheng; Yang, Sihai

    2010-11-09

    associated with annual/perennial life history. Although we acknowledge current limitations of this kind of study, mainly due to a small sample size available and a distant taxonomic relationship of the model organisms, our results indicate that the genome-wide survey is a promising approach toward further understanding of the mechanism determining the molecular evolutionary rate at the genomic level.

  11. Conceptual Barriers to Progress Within Evolutionary Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laland, Kevin N; Odling-Smee, John; Feldman, Marcus W; Kendal, Jeremy

    2009-08-01

    In spite of its success, Neo-Darwinism is faced with major conceptual barriers to further progress, deriving directly from its metaphysical foundations. Most importantly, neo-Darwinism fails to recognize a fundamental cause of evolutionary change, "niche construction". This failure restricts the generality of evolutionary theory, and introduces inaccuracies. It also hinders the integration of evolutionary biology with neighbouring disciplines, including ecosystem ecology, developmental biology, and the human sciences. Ecology is forced to become a divided discipline, developmental biology is stubbornly difficult to reconcile with evolutionary theory, and the majority of biologists and social scientists are still unhappy with evolutionary accounts of human behaviour. The incorporation of niche construction as both a cause and a product of evolution removes these disciplinary boundaries while greatly generalizing the explanatory power of evolutionary theory.

  12. Evolutionary potential games on lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabó, György; Borsos, István

    2016-01-01

    Game theory provides a general mathematical background to study the effect of pair interactions and evolutionary rules on the macroscopic behavior of multi-player games where players with a finite number of strategies may represent a wide scale of biological objects, human individuals, or even their associations. In these systems the interactions are characterized by matrices that can be decomposed into elementary matrices (games) and classified into four types. The concept of decomposition helps the identification of potential games and also the evaluation of the potential that plays a crucial role in the determination of the preferred Nash equilibrium, and defines the Boltzmann distribution towards which these systems evolve for suitable types of dynamical rules. This survey draws parallel between the potential games and the kinetic Ising type models which are investigated for a wide scale of connectivity structures. We discuss briefly the applicability of the tools and concepts of statistical physics and thermodynamics. Additionally the general features of ordering phenomena, phase transitions and slow relaxations are outlined and applied to evolutionary games. The discussion extends to games with three or more strategies. Finally we discuss what happens when the system is weakly driven out of the “equilibrium state” by adding non-potential components representing games of cyclic dominance.

  13. Evolutionary potential games on lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabó, György, E-mail: szabo@mfa.kfki.hu; Borsos, István, E-mail: borsos@mfa.kfki.hu

    2016-04-05

    Game theory provides a general mathematical background to study the effect of pair interactions and evolutionary rules on the macroscopic behavior of multi-player games where players with a finite number of strategies may represent a wide scale of biological objects, human individuals, or even their associations. In these systems the interactions are characterized by matrices that can be decomposed into elementary matrices (games) and classified into four types. The concept of decomposition helps the identification of potential games and also the evaluation of the potential that plays a crucial role in the determination of the preferred Nash equilibrium, and defines the Boltzmann distribution towards which these systems evolve for suitable types of dynamical rules. This survey draws parallel between the potential games and the kinetic Ising type models which are investigated for a wide scale of connectivity structures. We discuss briefly the applicability of the tools and concepts of statistical physics and thermodynamics. Additionally the general features of ordering phenomena, phase transitions and slow relaxations are outlined and applied to evolutionary games. The discussion extends to games with three or more strategies. Finally we discuss what happens when the system is weakly driven out of the “equilibrium state” by adding non-potential components representing games of cyclic dominance.

  14. The Evolutionary Puzzle of Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri-Jean Aubin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of self-destruction are difficult to reconcile with evolution’s first rule of thumb: survive and reproduce. However, evolutionary success ultimately depends on inclusive fitness. The altruistic suicide hypothesis posits that the presence of low reproductive potential and burdensomeness toward kin can increase the inclusive fitness payoff of self-removal. The bargaining hypothesis assumes that suicide attempts could function as an honest signal of need. The payoff may be positive if the suicidal person has a low reproductive potential. The parasite manipulation hypothesis is founded on the rodent—Toxoplasma gondii host-parasite model, in which the parasite induces a “suicidal” feline attraction that allows the parasite to complete its life cycle. Interestingly, latent infection by T. gondii has been shown to cause behavioral alterations in humans, including increased suicide attempts. Finally, we discuss how suicide risk factors can be understood as nonadaptive byproducts of evolved mechanisms that malfunction. Although most of the mechanisms proposed in this article are largely speculative, the hypotheses that we raise accept self-destructive behavior within the framework of evolutionary theory.

  15. Evolutionary potential games on lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, György; Borsos, István

    2016-04-01

    Game theory provides a general mathematical background to study the effect of pair interactions and evolutionary rules on the macroscopic behavior of multi-player games where players with a finite number of strategies may represent a wide scale of biological objects, human individuals, or even their associations. In these systems the interactions are characterized by matrices that can be decomposed into elementary matrices (games) and classified into four types. The concept of decomposition helps the identification of potential games and also the evaluation of the potential that plays a crucial role in the determination of the preferred Nash equilibrium, and defines the Boltzmann distribution towards which these systems evolve for suitable types of dynamical rules. This survey draws parallel between the potential games and the kinetic Ising type models which are investigated for a wide scale of connectivity structures. We discuss briefly the applicability of the tools and concepts of statistical physics and thermodynamics. Additionally the general features of ordering phenomena, phase transitions and slow relaxations are outlined and applied to evolutionary games. The discussion extends to games with three or more strategies. Finally we discuss what happens when the system is weakly driven out of the "equilibrium state" by adding non-potential components representing games of cyclic dominance.

  16. Evolutionary Models for Simple Biosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnoli, Franco

    The concept of evolutionary development of structures constituted a real revolution in biology: it was possible to understand how the very complex structures of life can arise in an out-of-equilibrium system. The investigation of such systems has shown that indeed, systems under a flux of energy or matter can self-organize into complex patterns, think for instance to Rayleigh-Bernard convection, Liesegang rings, patterns formed by granular systems under shear. Following this line, one could characterize life as a state of matter, characterized by the slow, continuous process that we call evolution. In this paper we try to identify the organizational level of life, that spans several orders of magnitude from the elementary constituents to whole ecosystems. Although similar structures can be found in other contexts like ideas (memes) in neural systems and self-replicating elements (computer viruses, worms, etc.) in computer systems, we shall concentrate on biological evolutionary structure, and try to put into evidence the role and the emergence of network structure in such systems.

  17. Regional systems of innovation: an evolutionary perspective

    OpenAIRE

    P Cooke; M G Uranga; G Etxebarria

    1998-01-01

    The authors develop the concept of regional systems of innovation and relate it to preexisting research on national systems of innovation. They argue that work conducted in the 'new regional science' field is complementary to systems of innovation approaches. They seek to link new regional work to evolutionary economics, and argue for the development of evolutionary regional science. Common elements of interest to evolutionary innovation research and new regional science are important in unde...

  18. Phylogenetic niche conservatism and the evolutionary basis of ecological speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyron, R Alexander; Costa, Gabriel C; Patten, Michael A; Burbrink, Frank T

    2015-11-01

    Phylogenetic niche conservatism (PNC) typically refers to the tendency of closely related species to be more similar to each other in terms of niche than they are to more distant relatives. This has been implicated as a potential driving force in speciation and other species-richness patterns, such as latitudinal gradients. However, PNC has not been very well defined in most previous studies. Is it a pattern or a process? What are the underlying endogenous (e.g. genetic) and exogenous (e.g. ecological) factors that cause niches to be conserved? What degree of similarity is necessary to qualify as PNC? Is it possible for the evolutionary processes causing niches to be conserved to also result in niche divergence in different habitats? Here, we revisit these questions, codifying a theoretical and operational definition of PNC as a mechanistic evolutionary process resulting from several factors. We frame this both from a macroevolutionary and population-genetic perspective. We discuss how different axes of physical (e.g. geographic) and environmental (e.g. climatic) heterogeneity interact with the fundamental process of PNC to produce different outcomes of ecological speciation. We also review tests for PNC, and suggest ways that these could be improved or better utilized in future studies. Ultimately, PNC as a process has a well-defined mechanistic basis in organisms, and future studies investigating ecological speciation would be well served to consider this, and frame hypothesis testing in terms of the processes and expected patterns described herein. The process of PNC may lead to patterns where niches are conserved (more similar than expected), constrained (divergent within a limited subset of available niches), or divergent (less similar than expected), based on degree of phylogenetic relatedness between species. © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  19. Evolutionary Acquisition and Spiral Development Tutorial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hantos, P

    2005-01-01

    .... NSS Acquisition Policy 03-01 provided some space-oriented customization and, similarly to the original DOD directives, also positioned Evolutionary Acquisition and Spiral Development as preferred...

  20. Population and evolutionary dynamics in spatially structured seasonally varying environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jane M; Travis, Justin M J; Daunt, Francis; Burthe, Sarah J; Wanless, Sarah; Dytham, Calvin

    2018-03-25

    Increasingly imperative objectives in ecology are to understand and forecast population dynamic and evolutionary responses to seasonal environmental variation and change. Such population and evolutionary dynamics result from immediate and lagged responses of all key life-history traits, and resulting demographic rates that affect population growth rate, to seasonal environmental conditions and population density. However, existing population dynamic and eco-evolutionary theory and models have not yet fully encompassed within-individual and among-individual variation, covariation, structure and heterogeneity, and ongoing evolution, in a critical life-history trait that allows individuals to respond to seasonal environmental conditions: seasonal migration. Meanwhile, empirical studies aided by new animal-tracking technologies are increasingly demonstrating substantial within-population variation in the occurrence and form of migration versus year-round residence, generating diverse forms of 'partial migration' spanning diverse species, habitats and spatial scales. Such partially migratory systems form a continuum between the extreme scenarios of full migration and full year-round residence, and are commonplace in nature. Here, we first review basic scenarios of partial migration and associated models designed to identify conditions that facilitate the maintenance of migratory polymorphism. We highlight that such models have been fundamental to the development of partial migration theory, but are spatially and demographically simplistic compared to the rich bodies of population dynamic theory and models that consider spatially structured populations with dispersal but no migration, or consider populations experiencing strong seasonality and full obligate migration. Second, to provide an overarching conceptual framework for spatio-temporal population dynamics, we define a 'partially migratory meta-population' system as a spatially structured set of locations that can

  1. Long-distance thermal temporal ghost imaging over optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xin; Zhang, Wei; Li, Hao; You, Lixing; Wang, Zhen; Huang, Yidong

    2018-02-01

    A thermal ghost imaging scheme between two distant parties is proposed and experimentally demonstrated over long-distance optical fibers. In the scheme, the weak thermal light is split into two paths. Photons in one path are spatially diffused according to their frequencies by a spatial dispersion component, then illuminate the object and record its spatial transmission information. Photons in the other path are temporally diffused by a temporal dispersion component. By the coincidence measurement between photons of two paths, the object can be imaged in a way of ghost imaging, based on the frequency correlation between photons in the two paths. In the experiment, the weak thermal light source is prepared by the spontaneous four-wave mixing in a silicon waveguide. The temporal dispersion is introduced by single mode fibers of 50 km, which also could be looked as a fiber link. Experimental results show that this scheme can be realized over long-distance optical fibers.

  2. Context dependent DNA evolutionary models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Ledet

    This paper is about stochastic models for the evolution of DNA. For a set of aligned DNA sequences, connected in a phylogenetic tree, the models should be able to explain - in probabilistic terms - the differences seen in the sequences. From the estimates of the parameters in the model one can...... start to make biologically interpretations and conclusions concerning the evolutionary forces at work. In parallel with the increase in computing power, models have become more complex. Starting with Markov processes on a space with 4 states, and extended to Markov processes with 64 states, we are today...... studying models on spaces with 4n (or 64n) number of states with n well above one hundred, say. For such models it is no longer possible to calculate the transition probability analytically, and often Markov chain Monte Carlo is used in connection with likelihood analysis. This is also the approach taken...

  3. Quantum Mechanics predicts evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torday, J S

    2018-07-01

    Nowhere are the shortcomings of conventional descriptive biology more evident than in the literature on Quantum Biology. In the on-going effort to apply Quantum Mechanics to evolutionary biology, merging Quantum Mechanics with the fundamentals of evolution as the First Principles of Physiology-namely negentropy, chemiosmosis and homeostasis-offers an authentic opportunity to understand how and why physics constitutes the basic principles of biology. Negentropy and chemiosmosis confer determinism on the unicell, whereas homeostasis constitutes Free Will because it offers a probabilistic range of physiologic set points. Similarly, on this basis several principles of Quantum Mechanics also apply directly to biology. The Pauli Exclusion Principle is both deterministic and probabilistic, whereas non-localization and the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle are both probabilistic, providing the long-sought after ontologic and causal continuum from physics to biology and evolution as the holistic integration recognized as consciousness for the first time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evolutionary dynamics of incubation periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottino-Loffler, Bertrand; Scott, Jacob G; Strogatz, Steven H

    2017-12-21

    The incubation period for typhoid, polio, measles, leukemia and many other diseases follows a right-skewed, approximately lognormal distribution. Although this pattern was discovered more than sixty years ago, it remains an open question to explain its ubiquity. Here, we propose an explanation based on evolutionary dynamics on graphs. For simple models of a mutant or pathogen invading a network-structured population of healthy cells, we show that skewed distributions of incubation periods emerge for a wide range of assumptions about invader fitness, competition dynamics, and network structure. The skewness stems from stochastic mechanisms associated with two classic problems in probability theory: the coupon collector and the random walk. Unlike previous explanations that rely crucially on heterogeneity, our results hold even for homogeneous populations. Thus, we predict that two equally healthy individuals subjected to equal doses of equally pathogenic agents may, by chance alone, show remarkably different time courses of disease.

  5. Evolutionary Games and Social Conventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2007-01-01

    -defined metaphors of individual learning and social imitation processes, from which a revised theory of convention may be erected (see Sugden 2004, Binmore 1993 and Young 1998). This paper makes a general argument in support of the evolutionary turn in the theory of convention by a progressive exposition of its...... in Aumann (1976) and which, together with the assumptions of perfect rationality, came to be defining of classical game theory. However, classical game theory is currently undergoing severe crisis as a tool for exploring social phenomena; a crisis emerging from the problem of equilibrium selection around......Some thirty years ago Lewis published his Convention: A Philosophical Study (Lewis, 2002). This laid the foundation for a game-theoretic approach to social conventions, but became more famously known for its seminal analysis of common knowledge; the concept receiving its canonical analysis...

  6. Bacterial Actins? An Evolutionary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Russell F.; York, Amanda L.

    2003-01-01

    According to the conventional wisdom, the existence of a cytoskeleton in eukaryotes and its absence in prokaryotes constitute a fundamental divide between the two domains of life. An integral part of the dogma is that a cytoskeleton enabled an early eukaryote to feed upon prokaryotes, a consequence of which was the occasional endosymbiosis and the eventual evolution of organelles. Two recent papers present compelling evidence that actin, one of the principal components of a cytoskeleton, has a homolog in Bacteria that behaves in many ways like eukaryotic actin. Sequence comparisons reveml that eukaryotic actin and the bacterial homolog (mreB protein), unlike many other proteins common to eukaryotes and Bacteria, have very different and more highly extended evolutionary histories.

  7. EDEN: evolutionary dynamics within environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münch, Philipp C.; Stecher, Bärbel; McHardy, Alice C.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Summary Metagenomics revolutionized the field of microbial ecology, giving access to Gb-sized datasets of microbial communities under natural conditions. This enables fine-grained analyses of the functions of community members, studies of their association with phenotypes and environments, as well as of their microevolution and adaptation to changing environmental conditions. However, phylogenetic methods for studying adaptation and evolutionary dynamics are not able to cope with big data. EDEN is the first software for the rapid detection of protein families and regions under positive selection, as well as their associated biological processes, from meta- and pangenome data. It provides an interactive result visualization for detailed comparative analyses. Availability and implementation EDEN is available as a Docker installation under the GPL 3.0 license, allowing its use on common operating systems, at http://www.github.com/hzi-bifo/eden. Contact alice.mchardy@helmholtz-hzi.de Supplementary information Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:28637301

  8. Evolutionary adaptations to dietary changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, F; Perry, G H; Di Rienzo, A

    2010-08-21

    Through cultural innovation and changes in habitat and ecology, there have been a number of major dietary shifts in human evolution, including meat eating, cooking, and those associated with plant and animal domestication. The identification of signatures of adaptations to such dietary changes in the genome of extant primates (including humans) may shed light not only on the evolutionary history of our species, but also on the mechanisms that underlie common metabolic diseases in modern human populations. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the major dietary shifts that occurred during hominin evolution, and we discuss the methods and approaches used to identify signals of natural selection in patterns of sequence variation. We then review the results of studies aimed at detecting the genetic loci that played a major role in dietary adaptations and conclude by outlining the potential of future studies in this area.

  9. Steps towards an evolutionary physics

    CERN Document Server

    Tiezzi, E

    2006-01-01

    If thermodynamics is to physics as logic is to philosophy, recent theoretical advancements lend new coherence to the marvel and dynamism of life on Earth. Enzo Tiezzi's "Steps Towards an Evolutionary Physics" is a primer and guide, to those who would to stand on the shoulders of giants to attain this view: Heisenberg, Planck, Bateson, Varela, and Prigogine as well as notable contemporary scientists. The adventure of such a free and enquiring spirit thrives not so much on answers as on new questions. The book offers a new gestalt on the uncertainty principle and concept of probability. A wide range of examples, enigmas, and paradoxes lead one's imagination on an exquisite dance. Among the applications are: songs and shapes of nature, oscillatory reactions, orientors, goal functions and configurations of processes, and "dissipative structures and the city". Ecodynamics is a new science, which proposes a cross-fertilization between Charles Darwin and Ilya Prigogine. As an enigma in thermodynamics, Entropy forms ...

  10. Numerical and Evolutionary Optimization Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Trujillo, Leonardo; Legrand, Pierrick; Maldonado, Yazmin

    2017-01-01

    This volume comprises a selection of works presented at the Numerical and Evolutionary Optimization (NEO) workshop held in September 2015 in Tijuana, Mexico. The development of powerful search and optimization techniques is of great importance in today’s world that requires researchers and practitioners to tackle a growing number of challenging real-world problems. In particular, there are two well-established and widely known fields that are commonly applied in this area: (i) traditional numerical optimization techniques and (ii) comparatively recent bio-inspired heuristics. Both paradigms have their unique strengths and weaknesses, allowing them to solve some challenging problems while still failing in others. The goal of the NEO workshop series is to bring together people from these and related fields to discuss, compare and merge their complimentary perspectives in order to develop fast and reliable hybrid methods that maximize the strengths and minimize the weaknesses of the underlying paradigms. Throu...

  11. Markov Networks in Evolutionary Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Shakya, Siddhartha

    2012-01-01

    Markov networks and other probabilistic graphical modes have recently received an upsurge in attention from Evolutionary computation community, particularly in the area of Estimation of distribution algorithms (EDAs).  EDAs have arisen as one of the most successful experiences in the application of machine learning methods in optimization, mainly due to their efficiency to solve complex real-world optimization problems and their suitability for theoretical analysis. This book focuses on the different steps involved in the conception, implementation and application of EDAs that use Markov networks, and undirected models in general. It can serve as a general introduction to EDAs but covers also an important current void in the study of these algorithms by explaining the specificities and benefits of modeling optimization problems by means of undirected probabilistic models. All major developments to date in the progressive introduction of Markov networks based EDAs are reviewed in the book. Hot current researc...

  12. Generation of entangled coherent states for distant Bose-Einstein condensates via electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang, L.-M.; Chen Zengbing; Pan Jianwei

    2007-01-01

    We propose a method to generate entangled coherent states between two spatially separated atomic Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) via the technique of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). Two strong coupling laser beams and two entangled probe laser beams are used to cause two distant BECs to be in EIT states and to generate an atom-photon entangled state between probe lasers and distant BECs. The two BECs are initially in unentangled product coherent states while the probe lasers are initially in an entangled state. Entangled states of two distant BECs can be created through the performance of projective measurements upon the two outgoing probe lasers under certain conditions. Concretely, we propose two protocols to show how to generate entangled coherent states of the two distant BECs. One is a single-photon scheme in which an entangled single-photon state is used as the quantum channel to generate entangled distant BECs. The other is a multiphoton scheme where an entangled coherent state of the probe lasers is used as the quantum channel. Additionally, we also obtain some atom-photon entangled states of particular interest such as entangled states between a pair of optical Bell states (or quasi-Bell-states) and a pair of atomic entangled coherent states (or quasi-Bell-states)

  13. Strong electron bidirectional anisotropies in the distant tail: ISEE 3 observations of polar rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.N.; Bame, S.J.; Feldman, W.C.; Gosling, J.T.; Zwickl, R.D.; Slavin, J.A.; Smith, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    A detailed observational treatment of bidirectional electrons (--50 to 50 eV)in the distant magnetotail (rapprox. >100 R/sub E/) is presented. It is found that electrons in this energy range commonly exhibit strong, field-aligned anisotropies in the tail lobes. Because of large tail motions, the ISEE 3 data provide extensive sampling of both the north and south lobes in rapid succession. These data demonstrate directly the strong asymmetries that exist between the north and south lobes at any one time. The bidirectional fluxes are found to occur predominantly in the lobe directly connected to the sunward interplanetary magnetic field in the open magnetosphere model (north lobe for away sectors and south lobe for toward sectors). Electron anisotropy and magnetic field data are presented which show the transition from unidirectional (sheath) electron populations to bidirectional (lobe) populations. Thus we demonstrate the open nature of the distant magnetopause and show that the source of the higher-energy, bidirectional lobe electrons is the tailward directed electron heat flux population in the distant magnetosheath. Taken together, the present evidence suggests that the bidirectional electrons that we observe in the distant tail are closely related to the polar rain electrons observed previously at lower altitudes. Furthermore, these data provide strong evidence that the distant tail is composed largely of open magnetic field lines in contradistinction to some recently advanced models

  14. Evolutionary primacy of sodium bioenergetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Yuri I

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The F- and V-type ATPases are rotary molecular machines that couple translocation of protons or sodium ions across the membrane to the synthesis or hydrolysis of ATP. Both the F-type (found in most bacteria and eukaryotic mitochondria and chloroplasts and V-type (found in archaea, some bacteria, and eukaryotic vacuoles ATPases can translocate either protons or sodium ions. The prevalent proton-dependent ATPases are generally viewed as the primary form of the enzyme whereas the sodium-translocating ATPases of some prokaryotes are usually construed as an exotic adaptation to survival in extreme environments. Results We combine structural and phylogenetic analyses to clarify the evolutionary relation between the proton- and sodium-translocating ATPases. A comparison of the structures of the membrane-embedded oligomeric proteolipid rings of sodium-dependent F- and V-ATPases reveals nearly identical sets of amino acids involved in sodium binding. We show that the sodium-dependent ATPases are scattered among proton-dependent ATPases in both the F- and the V-branches of the phylogenetic tree. Conclusion Barring convergent emergence of the same set of ligands in several lineages, these findings indicate that the use of sodium gradient for ATP synthesis is the ancestral modality of membrane bioenergetics. Thus, a primitive, sodium-impermeable but proton-permeable cell membrane that harboured a set of sodium-transporting enzymes appears to have been the evolutionary predecessor of the more structurally demanding proton-tight membranes. The use of proton as the coupling ion appears to be a later innovation that emerged on several independent occasions. Reviewers This article was reviewed by J. Peter Gogarten, Martijn A. Huynen, and Igor B. Zhulin. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section.

  15. Evolutionary conservation of regulatory elements in vertebrate HOX gene clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, Simona; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Meyer, Axel

    2003-12-31

    Due to their high degree of conservation, comparisons of DNA sequences among evolutionarily distantly-related genomes permit to identify functional regions in noncoding DNA. Hox genes are optimal candidate sequences for comparative genome analyses, because they are extremely conserved in vertebrates and occur in clusters. We aligned (Pipmaker) the nucleotide sequences of HoxA clusters of tilapia, pufferfish, striped bass, zebrafish, horn shark, human and mouse (over 500 million years of evolutionary distance). We identified several highly conserved intergenic sequences, likely to be important in gene regulation. Only a few of these putative regulatory elements have been previously described as being involved in the regulation of Hox genes, while several others are new elements that might have regulatory functions. The majority of these newly identified putative regulatory elements contain short fragments that are almost completely conserved and are identical to known binding sites for regulatory proteins (Transfac). The conserved intergenic regions located between the most rostrally expressed genes in the developing embryo are longer and better retained through evolution. We document that presumed regulatory sequences are retained differentially in either A or A clusters resulting from a genome duplication in the fish lineage. This observation supports both the hypothesis that the conserved elements are involved in gene regulation and the Duplication-Deletion-Complementation model.

  16. "Wolves (Canis lupus) and dogs (Canis familiaris) differ in following human gaze into distant space but respond similar to their packmates' gaze": Correction to Werhahn et al. (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Reports an error in "Wolves ( Canis lupus ) and dogs ( Canis familiaris ) differ in following human gaze into distant space but respond similar to their packmates' gaze" by Geraldine Werhahn, Zsófia Virányi, Gabriela Barrera, Andrea Sommese and Friederike Range ( Journal of Comparative Psychology , 2016[Aug], Vol 130[3], 288-298). In the article, the affiliations for the second and fifth authors should be Wolf Science Center, Ernstbrunn, Austria, and Comparative Cognition, Messerli Research Institute, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna/ Medical University of Vienna/University of Vienna. The online version of this article has been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-26311-001.) Gaze following into distant space is defined as visual co-orientation with another individual's head direction allowing the gaze follower to gain information on its environment. Human and nonhuman animals share this basic gaze following behavior, suggested to rely on a simple reflexive mechanism and believed to be an important prerequisite for complex forms of social cognition. Pet dogs differ from other species in that they follow only communicative human gaze clearly addressed to them. However, in an earlier experiment we showed that wolves follow human gaze into distant space. Here we set out to investigate whether domestication has affected gaze following in dogs by comparing pack-living dogs and wolves raised and kept under the same conditions. In Study 1 we found that in contrast to the wolves, these dogs did not follow minimally communicative human gaze into distant space in the same test paradigm. In the observational Study 2 we found that pack-living dogs and wolves, similarly vigilant to environmental stimuli, follow the spontaneous gaze of their conspecifics similarly often. Our findings suggest that domestication did not affect the gaze following ability of dogs itself. The results raise hypotheses about which other dog skills

  17. Evolutionary relationships among pollinators and repeated pollinator sharing in sexually deceptive orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R D; Brown, G R; Dixon, K W; Hayes, C; Linde, C C; Peakall, R

    2017-09-01

    The mechanism of pollinator attraction is predicted to strongly influence both plant diversification and the extent of pollinator sharing between species. Sexually deceptive orchids rely on mimicry of species-specific sex pheromones to attract their insect pollinators. Given that sex pheromones tend to be conserved among related species, we predicted that in sexually deceptive orchids, (i) pollinator sharing is rare, (ii) closely related orchids use closely related pollinators and (iii) there is strong bias in the wasp lineages exploited by orchids. We focused on species that are pollinated by sexual deception of thynnine wasps in the distantly related genera Caladenia and Drakaea, including new field observations for 45 species of Caladenia. Specialization was extreme with most orchids using a single pollinator species. Unexpectedly, seven cases of pollinator sharing were found, including two between Caladenia and Drakaea, which exhibit strikingly different floral morphology. Phylogenetic analysis of pollinators using four nuclear sequence loci demonstrated that although orchids within major clades primarily use closely related pollinator species, up to 17% of orchids within these clades are pollinated by a member of a phylogenetically distant wasp genus. Further, compared to the total diversity of thynnine wasps within the study region, orchids show a strong bias towards exploiting certain genera. Although these patterns may arise through conservatism in the chemical classes used in sex pheromones, apparent switches between wasp clades suggest unexpected flexibility in floral semiochemical production. Alternatively, wasp sex pheromones within lineages may exhibit greater chemical diversity than currently appreciated. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  18. Evolutionary design assistants for architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Onur Sönmez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In its parallel pursuit of an increased competitivity for design offices and more pleasurable and easier workflows for designers, artificial design intelligence is a technical, intellectual, and political challenge. While human-machine cooperation has become commonplace through Computer Aided Design (CAD tools, a more improved collaboration and better support appear possible only through an endeavor into a kind of artificial design intelligence, which is more sensitive to the human perception of affairs. Considered as part of the broader Computational Design studies, the research program of this quest can be called Artificial / Autonomous / Automated Design (AD. The current available level of Artificial Intelligence (AI for design is limited and a viable aim for current AD would be to develop design assistants that are capable of producing drafts for various design tasks. Thus, the overall aim of this thesis is the development of approaches, techniques, and tools towards artificial design assistants that offer a capability for generating drafts for sub-tasks within design processes. The main technology explored for this aim is Evolutionary Computation (EC, and the target design domain is architecture. The two connected research questions of the study concern, first, the investigation of the ways to develop an architectural design assistant, and secondly, the utilization of EC for the development of such assistants. While developing approaches, techniques, and computational tools for such an assistant, the study also carries out a broad theoretical investigation into the main problems, challenges, and requirements towards such assistants on a rather overall level. Therefore, the research is shaped as a parallel investigation of three main threads interwoven along several levels, moving from a more general level to specific applications. The three research threads comprise, first, theoretical discussions and speculations with regard to both

  19. Handbook of differential equations evolutionary equations

    CERN Document Server

    Dafermos, CM

    2008-01-01

    The material collected in this volume discusses the present as well as expected future directions of development of the field with particular emphasis on applications. The seven survey articles present different topics in Evolutionary PDE's, written by leading experts.- Review of new results in the area- Continuation of previous volumes in the handbook series covering Evolutionary PDEs- Written by leading experts

  20. On economic applications of evolutionary game theory

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Friedman

    1998-01-01

    Evolutionary games have considerable unrealized potential for modeling substantive economic issues. They promise richer predictions than orthodox game models but often require more extensive specifications. This paper exposits the specification of evolutionary game models and classifies the possible asymptotic behavior for one and two dimensional models.

  1. Evolutionary principles and their practical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Andrew P; Kinnison, Michael T; Heino, Mikko; Day, Troy; Smith, Thomas B; Fitt, Gary; Bergstrom, Carl T; Oakeshott, John; Jørgensen, Peter S; Zalucki, Myron P; Gilchrist, George; Southerton, Simon; Sih, Andrew; Strauss, Sharon; Denison, Robert F; Carroll, Scott P

    2011-03-01

    Evolutionary principles are now routinely incorporated into medicine and agriculture. Examples include the design of treatments that slow the evolution of resistance by weeds, pests, and pathogens, and the design of breeding programs that maximize crop yield or quality. Evolutionary principles are also increasingly incorporated into conservation biology, natural resource management, and environmental science. Examples include the protection of small and isolated populations from inbreeding depression, the identification of key traits involved in adaptation to climate change, the design of harvesting regimes that minimize unwanted life-history evolution, and the setting of conservation priorities based on populations, species, or communities that harbor the greatest evolutionary diversity and potential. The adoption of evolutionary principles has proceeded somewhat independently in these different fields, even though the underlying fundamental concepts are the same. We explore these fundamental concepts under four main themes: variation, selection, connectivity, and eco-evolutionary dynamics. Within each theme, we present several key evolutionary principles and illustrate their use in addressing applied problems. We hope that the resulting primer of evolutionary concepts and their practical utility helps to advance a unified multidisciplinary field of applied evolutionary biology.

  2. Algorithmic Mechanism Design of Evolutionary Computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yan

    2015-01-01

    We consider algorithmic design, enhancement, and improvement of evolutionary computation as a mechanism design problem. All individuals or several groups of individuals can be considered as self-interested agents. The individuals in evolutionary computation can manipulate parameter settings and operations by satisfying their own preferences, which are defined by an evolutionary computation algorithm designer, rather than by following a fixed algorithm rule. Evolutionary computation algorithm designers or self-adaptive methods should construct proper rules and mechanisms for all agents (individuals) to conduct their evolution behaviour correctly in order to definitely achieve the desired and preset objective(s). As a case study, we propose a formal framework on parameter setting, strategy selection, and algorithmic design of evolutionary computation by considering the Nash strategy equilibrium of a mechanism design in the search process. The evaluation results present the efficiency of the framework. This primary principle can be implemented in any evolutionary computation algorithm that needs to consider strategy selection issues in its optimization process. The final objective of our work is to solve evolutionary computation design as an algorithmic mechanism design problem and establish its fundamental aspect by taking this perspective. This paper is the first step towards achieving this objective by implementing a strategy equilibrium solution (such as Nash equilibrium) in evolutionary computation algorithm.

  3. Democratizing evolutionary biology, lessons from insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunn, Robert Roberdeau; Beasley, DeAnna E.

    2016-01-01

    The engagement of the public in the scientific process is an old practice. Yet with recent advances in technology, the role of the citizen scientist in studying evolutionary processes has increased. Insects provide ideal models for understanding these evolutionary processes at large scales. This ...

  4. A Hybrid Chaotic Quantum Evolutionary Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Y.; Zhang, M.; Cai, H.

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid chaotic quantum evolutionary algorithm is proposed to reduce amount of computation, speed up convergence and restrain premature phenomena of quantum evolutionary algorithm. The proposed algorithm adopts the chaotic initialization method to generate initial population which will form a pe...... tests. The presented algorithm is applied to urban traffic signal timing optimization and the effect is satisfied....

  5. On the Evolutionary Stability of Bargaining Inefficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Anders

    This paper investigates whether 'tough' bargaining behavior, which gives rise to inefficiency, can be evolutionary stable. We show that in a two-stage Nash Demand Game tough behavior survives. Indeed, almost all the surplus may be wasted. We also study the Ultimatum Game. Here evolutionary select...

  6. Evolutionary multimodal optimization using the principle of locality

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Kachun; Wu, Chunho; Mok, Ricky; Peng, Chengbin; Zhang, Zhaolei

    2012-01-01

    The principle of locality is one of the most widely used concepts in designing computing systems. To explore the principle in evolutionary computation, crowding differential evolution is incorporated with locality for multimodal optimization. Instead of generating trial vectors randomly, the first method proposed takes advantage of spatial locality to generate trial vectors. Temporal locality is also adopted to help generate offspring in the second method proposed. Temporal and spatial locality are then applied together in the third method proposed. Numerical experiments are conducted to compare the proposed methods with the state-of-the-art methods on benchmark functions. Experimental analysis is undertaken to observe the effect of locality and the synergy between temporal locality and spatial locality. Further experiments are also conducted on two application problems. One is the varied-line-spacing holographic grating design problem, while the other is the protein structure prediction problem. The numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the methods proposed. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evolutionary multimodal optimization using the principle of locality

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Kachun

    2012-07-01

    The principle of locality is one of the most widely used concepts in designing computing systems. To explore the principle in evolutionary computation, crowding differential evolution is incorporated with locality for multimodal optimization. Instead of generating trial vectors randomly, the first method proposed takes advantage of spatial locality to generate trial vectors. Temporal locality is also adopted to help generate offspring in the second method proposed. Temporal and spatial locality are then applied together in the third method proposed. Numerical experiments are conducted to compare the proposed methods with the state-of-the-art methods on benchmark functions. Experimental analysis is undertaken to observe the effect of locality and the synergy between temporal locality and spatial locality. Further experiments are also conducted on two application problems. One is the varied-line-spacing holographic grating design problem, while the other is the protein structure prediction problem. The numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the methods proposed. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Calculating evolutionary dynamics in structured populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles G Nathanson

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Evolution is shaping the world around us. At the core of every evolutionary process is a population of reproducing individuals. The outcome of an evolutionary process depends on population structure. Here we provide a general formula for calculating evolutionary dynamics in a wide class of structured populations. This class includes the recently introduced "games in phenotype space" and "evolutionary set theory." There can be local interactions for determining the relative fitness of individuals, but we require global updating, which means all individuals compete uniformly for reproduction. We study the competition of two strategies in the context of an evolutionary game and determine which strategy is favored in the limit of weak selection. We derive an intuitive formula for the structure coefficient, sigma, and provide a method for efficient numerical calculation.

  9. Study of structures vulnerability with respect to near and distant earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, E.

    1998-06-01

    Today, according to the fundamental safety rules edited by the French institute of nuclear protection and safety (IPSN), para-seismic structures must be dimensioned in order to withstand the probable near and distant earthquakes. Classical dimensioning tools, like the linear analysis of the elastic response spectrum of an oscillator, show that nearby earthquakes are more damaging for structures. However, experience feedback seems to demonstrate the contrary. The aim of this study is to make a comparison between the damaging effects of nearby and distant earthquakes. Thus, other comparison criteria were defined in order to take into account new parameters and to fit with the experience feedback. In a first part, the difference between nearby and distant earthquakes is explained. Then, after a presentation of the limits of the existing dimensioning tools, the new calculation means are defined and presented with their results. These new methods take into account the inelastic property of the structures. (J.S.)

  10. A method of real-time detection for distant moving obstacles by monocular vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bao-zhi; Zhu, Ming

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we propose an approach for detection of distant moving obstacles like cars and bicycles by a monocular camera to cooperate with ultrasonic sensors in low-cost condition. We are aiming at detecting distant obstacles that move toward our autonomous navigation car in order to give alarm and keep away from them. Method of frame differencing is applied to find obstacles after compensation of camera's ego-motion. Meanwhile, each obstacle is separated from others in an independent area and given a confidence level to indicate whether it is coming closer. The results on an open dataset and our own autonomous navigation car have proved that the method is effective for detection of distant moving obstacles in real-time.

  11. Advances in temporal logic

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Michael; Gabbay, Dov; Gough, Graham

    2000-01-01

    Time is a fascinating subject that has captured mankind's imagination from ancient times to the present. It has been, and continues to be studied across a wide range of disciplines, from the natural sciences to philosophy and logic. More than two decades ago, Pnueli in a seminal work showed the value of temporal logic in the specification and verification of computer programs. Today, a strong, vibrant international research community exists in the broad community of computer science and AI. This volume presents a number of articles from leading researchers containing state-of-the-art results in such areas as pure temporal/modal logic, specification and verification, temporal databases, temporal aspects in AI, tense and aspect in natural language, and temporal theorem proving. Earlier versions of some of the articles were given at the most recent International Conference on Temporal Logic, University of Manchester, UK. Readership: Any student of the area - postgraduate, postdoctoral or even research professor ...

  12. Extending Justice: a rights-based account of our obligations to distant people

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald, John

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examines a prima facie tension between the narrow scope of social justice proposed by many liberal, rights-based accounts, and the intuition that we have a strong obligation to help distant people who are in great need. 'Distant people' in this instance are people who do not share our nationality, or those who will come to exist as members of future generations. Ways in which liberal, right-based theories of political philosophy can resolve this tension are examined, and the thesi...

  13. Model of training of computer science teachers by means of distant education technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т А Соловьева

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Training of future computer science teachers in conditions of informatization of education is analyzed. Distant educational technologies (DET and traditional process of training, their advantages and disadvantages are considered, active functions of DET as the basis of the model of training by means of DET is stressed. It is shown that mixed education combining both distant ant traditional technologies takes place on the basis of the created model. Practical use of the model is shown on the example of the course «Recursion» for future computer science teachers.

  14. Effect of radiation on fruit pollen germination and distant hybridization compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jing; Shang Xiaoli

    2006-01-01

    Pollens of Zhouxingshantao peach trees, apricot cultivar Katy and plum cultivar Friar were irradiated by different doses of 60 Co γ-rays and ultraviolet to study the radiation effect on the pollen germination and distant hybridization settings. The germination percentages of the pollen irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays and ultraviolet were lower than those of the controls. The pollens of the tested fruits have different sensitivities of 60 Co γ-rays and ultraviolet: the Friar pollen was the most sensitive to the radiation, and the Katy was the least. With the germinate percentages of the irradiated pollen dropping, the distant hybridization fruit setting percentage also lowered. (authors)

  15. Distant Metastases in Head-and-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao Min, E-mail: min.yao@uhhospitals.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH (United States); Lu Minggen [School of Public Health, University of Nevada at Reno, Reno, NV (United States); Savvides, Panayiotis S. [Department of Medicine, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH (United States); Rezaee, Rod; Zender, Chad A.; Lavertu, Pierre [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH (United States); Buatti, John M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Machtay, Mitchell [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To determine the pattern and risk factors for distant metastases in head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) after curative treatment with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective study of 284 HNSCC patients treated in a single institution with IMRT. Sites included were oropharynx (125), oral cavity (70), larynx (55), hypopharynx (17), and unknown primary (17). American Joint Committee on Cancer stage distribution includes I (3), II (19), III (42), and IV (203). There were 224 males and 60 females with a median age of 57. One hundred eighty-six patients were treated with definitive IMRT and 98 postoperative IMRT. One hundred forty-nine patients also received concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Results: The median follow-up for all patients was 22.8 months (range, 0.07-77.3 months) and 29.5 months (4.23-77.3 months) for living patients. The 3-year local recurrence-free survival, regional recurrence-free survival, locoregional recurrence-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, and overall survival were 94.6%, 96.4%, 92.5%, 84.1%, and 68.95%, respectively. There were 45 patients with distant metastasis. In multivariate analysis, distant metastasis was strongly associated with N stage (p = 0.046), T stage (p < 0.0001), and pretreatment maximum standardized uptake value of the lymph node (p = 0.006), but not associated with age, gender, disease sites, pretreatment standardized uptake value of the primary tumor, or locoregional control. The freedom from distant metastasis at 3 years was 98.1% for no factors, 88.6% for one factor, 68.3% for two factors, and 41.7% for three factors (p < 0.0001 by log-rank test). Conclusion: With advanced radiation techniques and concurrent chemotherapy, the failure pattern has changed with more patients failing distantly. The majority of patients with distant metastases had no local or regional failures, indicating that these patients might have microscopic distant

  16. Model of distant improvement of professional skill of the Ukrainian coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrova O.A.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In article the conceptual model of organization and introduction of distant improvement of professional skill of coaches is developed and analyzed. Advantages of its introduction to coaches training, teachers and higher educational institutions which carry out a professional training for physical training and sports sphere are defined. It is developed the budgetary program project of distant improvement of professional skill of coaches on an example of National university of physical education and sports of Ukraine that consists of three stages: daily organizationally-adjusting session, independent telecommuting and daily final session with attestation.

  17. Indeterministic Temporal Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trzęsicki Kazimierz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The questions od determinism, causality, and freedom have been the main philosophical problems debated since the beginning of temporal logic. The issue of the logical value of sentences about the future was stated by Aristotle in the famous tomorrow sea-battle passage. The question has inspired Łukasiewicz’s idea of many-valued logics and was a motive of A. N. Prior’s considerations about the logic of tenses. In the scheme of temporal logic there are different solutions to the problem. In the paper we consider indeterministic temporal logic based on the idea of temporal worlds and the relation of accessibility between them.

  18. Anthropology and the study of menopause: evolutionary, developmental, and comparative perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, Lynnette Leidy

    2014-10-01

    This work aims to consider how the discipline of anthropology contributes to the study of menopause through evolutionary, developmental, and comparative perspectives. This study was a review of skeletal and ethnographic evidence for menopause and postreproductive life in humans' distant past, hypotheses for the evolution of menopause and long postreproductive life, variation in age at menopause with focus on childhood environments, and the study of variation in symptom experience across populations. Longevity, rather than capacity for menopause, sets humans apart from other primates. Skeletal evidence demonstrates that some Neanderthals and archaic Homo sapiens lived to the age at menopause and that at least one third of women in traditional foraging populations live beyond menopause. The evolutionary reasons for why women experience a long postreproductive life continue to be debated. A developmental perspective suggests that early childhood may be a critical time for the environment to irreversibly influence the number of oocytes or rate of follicular atresia and, ultimately, age at menopause. A comparative perspective examines symptom experience at midlife through participant observation, qualitative interviews, and quantitative instruments to gain a holistic understanding of the meaning, experience, and sociocultural context of menopause. An evolutionary perspective suggests that menopause is not a recent phenomenon among humans. A developmental perspective focuses on the influence of early childhood on ovarian function. A comparative perspective expands clinical norms and provides knowledge about the range of human variations.

  19. Comparison of evolutionary computation algorithms for solving bi ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    failure probability. Multiobjective Evolutionary Computation algorithms (MOEAs) are well-suited for Multiobjective task scheduling on heterogeneous environment. The two Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms such as Multiobjective Genetic. Algorithm (MOGA) and Multiobjective Evolutionary Programming (MOEP) with.

  20. Phylogenetic inference with weighted codon evolutionary distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscuolo, Alexis; Michel, Christian J

    2009-04-01

    We develop a new approach to estimate a matrix of pairwise evolutionary distances from a codon-based alignment based on a codon evolutionary model. The method first computes a standard distance matrix for each of the three codon positions. Then these three distance matrices are weighted according to an estimate of the global evolutionary rate of each codon position and averaged into a unique distance matrix. Using a large set of both real and simulated codon-based alignments of nucleotide sequences, we show that this approach leads to distance matrices that have a significantly better treelikeness compared to those obtained by standard nucleotide evolutionary distances. We also propose an alternative weighting to eliminate the part of the noise often associated with some codon positions, particularly the third position, which is known to induce a fast evolutionary rate. Simulation results show that fast distance-based tree reconstruction algorithms on distance matrices based on this codon position weighting can lead to phylogenetic trees that are at least as accurate as, if not better, than those inferred by maximum likelihood. Finally, a well-known multigene dataset composed of eight yeast species and 106 codon-based alignments is reanalyzed and shows that our codon evolutionary distances allow building a phylogenetic tree which is similar to those obtained by non-distance-based methods (e.g., maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood) and also significantly improved compared to standard nucleotide evolutionary distance estimates.

  1. Evolutionary Fates and Dynamic Functionalization of Young Duplicate Genes in Arabidopsis Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Tao, Feng; Marowsky, Nicholas C; Fan, Chuanzhu

    2016-09-01

    Gene duplication is a primary means to generate genomic novelties, playing an essential role in speciation and adaptation. Particularly in plants, a high abundance of duplicate genes has been maintained for significantly long periods of evolutionary time. To address the manner in which young duplicate genes were derived primarily from small-scale gene duplication and preserved in plant genomes and to determine the underlying driving mechanisms, we generated transcriptomes to produce the expression profiles of five tissues in Arabidopsis thaliana and the closely related species Arabidopsis lyrata and Capsella rubella Based on the quantitative analysis metrics, we investigated the evolutionary processes of young duplicate genes in Arabidopsis. We determined that conservation, neofunctionalization, and specialization are three main evolutionary processes for Arabidopsis young duplicate genes. We explicitly demonstrated the dynamic functionalization of duplicate genes along the evolutionary time scale. Upon origination, duplicates tend to maintain their ancestral functions; but as they survive longer, they might be likely to develop distinct and novel functions. The temporal evolutionary processes and functionalization of plant duplicate genes are associated with their ancestral functions, dynamic DNA methylation levels, and histone modification abundances. Furthermore, duplicate genes tend to be initially expressed in pollen and then to gain more interaction partners over time. Altogether, our study provides novel insights into the dynamic retention processes of young duplicate genes in plant genomes. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  2. Evolutionary Fates and Dynamic Functionalization of Young Duplicate Genes in Arabidopsis Genomes1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Tao, Feng; Marowsky, Nicholas C.; Fan, Chuanzhu

    2016-01-01

    Gene duplication is a primary means to generate genomic novelties, playing an essential role in speciation and adaptation. Particularly in plants, a high abundance of duplicate genes has been maintained for significantly long periods of evolutionary time. To address the manner in which young duplicate genes were derived primarily from small-scale gene duplication and preserved in plant genomes and to determine the underlying driving mechanisms, we generated transcriptomes to produce the expression profiles of five tissues in Arabidopsis thaliana and the closely related species Arabidopsis lyrata and Capsella rubella. Based on the quantitative analysis metrics, we investigated the evolutionary processes of young duplicate genes in Arabidopsis. We determined that conservation, neofunctionalization, and specialization are three main evolutionary processes for Arabidopsis young duplicate genes. We explicitly demonstrated the dynamic functionalization of duplicate genes along the evolutionary time scale. Upon origination, duplicates tend to maintain their ancestral functions; but as they survive longer, they might be likely to develop distinct and novel functions. The temporal evolutionary processes and functionalization of plant duplicate genes are associated with their ancestral functions, dynamic DNA methylation levels, and histone modification abundances. Furthermore, duplicate genes tend to be initially expressed in pollen and then to gain more interaction partners over time. Altogether, our study provides novel insights into the dynamic retention processes of young duplicate genes in plant genomes. PMID:27485883

  3. Natural pedagogy as evolutionary adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csibra, Gergely; Gergely, György

    2011-04-12

    We propose that the cognitive mechanisms that enable the transmission of cultural knowledge by communication between individuals constitute a system of 'natural pedagogy' in humans, and represent an evolutionary adaptation along the hominin lineage. We discuss three kinds of arguments that support this hypothesis. First, natural pedagogy is likely to be human-specific: while social learning and communication are both widespread in non-human animals, we know of no example of social learning by communication in any other species apart from humans. Second, natural pedagogy is universal: despite the huge variability in child-rearing practices, all human cultures rely on communication to transmit to novices a variety of different types of cultural knowledge, including information about artefact kinds, conventional behaviours, arbitrary referential symbols, cognitively opaque skills and know-how embedded in means-end actions. Third, the data available on early hominin technological culture are more compatible with the assumption that natural pedagogy was an independently selected adaptive cognitive system than considering it as a by-product of some other human-specific adaptation, such as language. By providing a qualitatively new type of social learning mechanism, natural pedagogy is not only the product but also one of the sources of the rich cultural heritage of our species.

  4. The Evolutionary Origins of Hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistu, Henok; Huizinga, Joost; Mouret, Jean-Baptiste; Clune, Jeff

    2016-06-01

    Hierarchical organization-the recursive composition of sub-modules-is ubiquitous in biological networks, including neural, metabolic, ecological, and genetic regulatory networks, and in human-made systems, such as large organizations and the Internet. To date, most research on hierarchy in networks has been limited to quantifying this property. However, an open, important question in evolutionary biology is why hierarchical organization evolves in the first place. It has recently been shown that modularity evolves because of the presence of a cost for network connections. Here we investigate whether such connection costs also tend to cause a hierarchical organization of such modules. In computational simulations, we find that networks without a connection cost do not evolve to be hierarchical, even when the task has a hierarchical structure. However, with a connection cost, networks evolve to be both modular and hierarchical, and these networks exhibit higher overall performance and evolvability (i.e. faster adaptation to new environments). Additional analyses confirm that hierarchy independently improves adaptability after controlling for modularity. Overall, our results suggest that the same force-the cost of connections-promotes the evolution of both hierarchy and modularity, and that these properties are important drivers of network performance and adaptability. In addition to shedding light on the emergence of hierarchy across the many domains in which it appears, these findings will also accelerate future research into evolving more complex, intelligent computational brains in the fields of artificial intelligence and robotics.

  5. Evolutionary dynamics under interactive diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Qi; Li, Aming; Wang, Long

    2017-10-01

    As evidenced by many cases in human societies, individuals often make different behavior decisions in different interactions, and adaptively adjust their behavior in changeable interactive scenarios. However, up to now, how such diverse interactive behavior affects cooperation dynamics has still remained unknown. Here we develop a general framework of interactive diversity, which models individuals’ separated behavior against distinct opponents and their adaptive adjustment in response to opponents’ strategies, to explore the evolution of cooperation. We find that interactive diversity enables individuals to reciprocate every single opponent, and thus sustains large-scale reciprocal interactions. Our work witnesses an impressive boost of cooperation for a notably extensive range of parameters and for all pairwise games. These results are robust against well-mixed and various networked populations, and against degree-normalized and cumulative payoff patterns. From the perspective of network dynamics, distinguished from individuals competing for nodes in most previous work, in this paper, the system evolves in the form of behavior disseminating along edges. We propose a theoretical method based on evolution of edges, which predicts well both the frequency of cooperation and the compact cooperation clusters. Our thorough investigation clarifies the positive role of interactive diversity in resolving social dilemmas and highlights the significance of understanding evolutionary dynamics from the viewpoint of edge dynamics.

  6. The Evolutionary Origins of Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Joost; Clune, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Hierarchical organization—the recursive composition of sub-modules—is ubiquitous in biological networks, including neural, metabolic, ecological, and genetic regulatory networks, and in human-made systems, such as large organizations and the Internet. To date, most research on hierarchy in networks has been limited to quantifying this property. However, an open, important question in evolutionary biology is why hierarchical organization evolves in the first place. It has recently been shown that modularity evolves because of the presence of a cost for network connections. Here we investigate whether such connection costs also tend to cause a hierarchical organization of such modules. In computational simulations, we find that networks without a connection cost do not evolve to be hierarchical, even when the task has a hierarchical structure. However, with a connection cost, networks evolve to be both modular and hierarchical, and these networks exhibit higher overall performance and evolvability (i.e. faster adaptation to new environments). Additional analyses confirm that hierarchy independently improves adaptability after controlling for modularity. Overall, our results suggest that the same force–the cost of connections–promotes the evolution of both hierarchy and modularity, and that these properties are important drivers of network performance and adaptability. In addition to shedding light on the emergence of hierarchy across the many domains in which it appears, these findings will also accelerate future research into evolving more complex, intelligent computational brains in the fields of artificial intelligence and robotics. PMID:27280881

  7. The Evolutionary Origins of Hierarchy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henok Mengistu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical organization-the recursive composition of sub-modules-is ubiquitous in biological networks, including neural, metabolic, ecological, and genetic regulatory networks, and in human-made systems, such as large organizations and the Internet. To date, most research on hierarchy in networks has been limited to quantifying this property. However, an open, important question in evolutionary biology is why hierarchical organization evolves in the first place. It has recently been shown that modularity evolves because of the presence of a cost for network connections. Here we investigate whether such connection costs also tend to cause a hierarchical organization of such modules. In computational simulations, we find that networks without a connection cost do not evolve to be hierarchical, even when the task has a hierarchical structure. However, with a connection cost, networks evolve to be both modular and hierarchical, and these networks exhibit higher overall performance and evolvability (i.e. faster adaptation to new environments. Additional analyses confirm that hierarchy independently improves adaptability after controlling for modularity. Overall, our results suggest that the same force-the cost of connections-promotes the evolution of both hierarchy and modularity, and that these properties are important drivers of network performance and adaptability. In addition to shedding light on the emergence of hierarchy across the many domains in which it appears, these findings will also accelerate future research into evolving more complex, intelligent computational brains in the fields of artificial intelligence and robotics.

  8. Evolutionary games in the multiverse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Chaitanya S; Traulsen, Arne

    2010-03-23

    Evolutionary game dynamics of two players with two strategies has been studied in great detail. These games have been used to model many biologically relevant scenarios, ranging from social dilemmas in mammals to microbial diversity. Some of these games may, in fact, take place between a number of individuals and not just between two. Here we address one-shot games with multiple players. As long as we have only two strategies, many results from two-player games can be generalized to multiple players. For games with multiple players and more than two strategies, we show that statements derived for pairwise interactions no longer hold. For two-player games with any number of strategies there can be at most one isolated internal equilibrium. For any number of players with any number of strategies , there can be at most isolated internal equilibria. Multiplayer games show a great dynamical complexity that cannot be captured based on pairwise interactions. Our results hold for any game and can easily be applied to specific cases, such as public goods games or multiplayer stag hunts.

  9. Evolutionary advantages of adaptive rewarding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2012-01-01

    Our well-being depends on both our personal success and the success of our society. The realization of this fact makes cooperation an essential trait. Experiments have shown that rewards can elevate our readiness to cooperate, but since giving a reward inevitably entails paying a cost for it, the emergence and stability of such behavior remains elusive. Here we show that allowing for the act of rewarding to self-organize in dependence on the success of cooperation creates several evolutionary advantages that instill new ways through which collaborative efforts are promoted. Ranging from indirect territorial battle to the spontaneous emergence and destruction of coexistence, phase diagrams and the underlying spatial patterns reveal fascinatingly rich social dynamics that explain why this costly behavior has evolved and persevered. Comparisons with adaptive punishment, however, uncover an Achilles heel of adaptive rewarding, coming from over-aggression, which in turn hinders optimal utilization of network reciprocity. This may explain why, despite its success, rewarding is not as firmly embedded into our societal organization as punishment. (paper)

  10. Natural pedagogy as evolutionary adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csibra, Gergely; Gergely, György

    2011-01-01

    We propose that the cognitive mechanisms that enable the transmission of cultural knowledge by communication between individuals constitute a system of ‘natural pedagogy’ in humans, and represent an evolutionary adaptation along the hominin lineage. We discuss three kinds of arguments that support this hypothesis. First, natural pedagogy is likely to be human-specific: while social learning and communication are both widespread in non-human animals, we know of no example of social learning by communication in any other species apart from humans. Second, natural pedagogy is universal: despite the huge variability in child-rearing practices, all human cultures rely on communication to transmit to novices a variety of different types of cultural knowledge, including information about artefact kinds, conventional behaviours, arbitrary referential symbols, cognitively opaque skills and know-how embedded in means-end actions. Third, the data available on early hominin technological culture are more compatible with the assumption that natural pedagogy was an independently selected adaptive cognitive system than considering it as a by-product of some other human-specific adaptation, such as language. By providing a qualitatively new type of social learning mechanism, natural pedagogy is not only the product but also one of the sources of the rich cultural heritage of our species. PMID:21357237

  11. Flourishing: An Evolutionary Concept Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agenor, Christine; Conner, Norma; Aroian, Karen

    2017-11-01

    Mental health is an important measure of public health (WHO, 2004); however, nursing practice and research continues to prioritize mental illness, rather than well-being (Wand, 2011). Flourishing is a recent concept in the field of well-being. The term has been used sparingly in nursing practice and research, and conceptual clarification is needed to promote comprehensive understanding of the phenomenon. The purpose of this study is to critically analyze flourishing, assess the maturity of the concept, and provide recommendations for future research, education, and practice. The concept of flourishing was analyzed using the evolutionary approach to concept analysis (Rodgers, 2000). A search for articles on flourishing within the context of well-being was conducted through CINAHL, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO. A sample of 32 articles and 1 book was reviewed. Data were reviewed for concept attributes, antecedents, consequences, surrogate terms and related concepts. Four models of flourishing were identified with six overlapping attributes: meaning, positive relationships, engagement, competence, positive emotion, and self-esteem. Limited longitudinal and predictive studies have been conducted, but there is evidence for several antecedents and outcomes of flourishing. Research is ongoing primarily in psychology and sociology and is lacking in other disciplines. The concept of flourishing is immature; however, evidence is building for related concepts. A lack of consistent terminology regarding flourishing prevents knowledge development of flourishing as a distinct concept. Further multidisciplinary research is needed to establish standard operational and conceptual definitions and develop effective interventions.

  12. Urban Evolutionary Ecology and the Potential Benefits of Implementing Genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Christopher J

    2018-02-14

    Urban habitats are quickly becoming exceptional models to address adaptation under rapid environmental change, given the expansive temporal and spatial scales with which anthropogenic landscape conversion occurs. Urban ecologists in the last 10-15 years have done an extraordinary job of highlighting phenotypic patterns that correspond with urban living, as well as delineating urban population structure using traditional genetic markers. The underpinning genetic mechanisms that govern those phenotypic patterns, however, are less well established. Moreover, the power of traditional molecular studies is constrained by the number of markers being evaluated, which limits the potential to assess fine-scale population structure potentially common in urban areas. With the recent proliferation of low-cost, high-throughput sequencing methods, we can begin to address an emerging question in urban ecology: are species adapted to local optima within cities or are they expressing latent phenotypic plasticity? Here, I provide a comprehensive review of previous urban ecological studies, with special focus on the molecular ecology and phenotypic adjustments documented in urban terrestrial and amphibious fauna. I subsequently pinpoint areas in the literature that could benefit from a genomic investigation and briefly discuss the suitability of specific techniques in addressing eco-evolutionary questions within urban ecology. Though many challenges exist with implementing genomics into urban ecology, such studies provide an exceptional opportunity to advance our understanding of eco-evolutionary processes in metropolitan areas. © The American Genetic Association 2018. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Evolutionary theory and the naturalist fallacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2008-01-01

    that great work of art are also automatically fitness-enhancing in the present day environment, at that there are simple correllations between whether a work of art has a high aesthetic value and whether it is fitness-enhancing or not.  Keywords :  Evolutionary aesthetics, film theory, literary theory......The article is an invited response to a target article by Joseph Carroll entitled "An evolutionary paradigm for literary study". It argues that the target article  misuse the fact that works of art are based on adaptations that were fitness-enhancing in the era of evolutionary adaptations to claim...

  14. Chondroblastoma of temporal bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanohta, K.; Noda, M.; Katoh, H.; Okazaki, A.; Sugiyama, S.; Maehara, T.; Onishi, S.; Tanida, T.

    1986-07-01

    The case of a 55-year-old female with chondroblastoma arising from the left temporal bone is presented. Although 10 cases of temporal chondroblastoma have been reported, this is the first in which plain radiography, pluridirectional tomography, computed tomography (CT) and angiography were performed. We discuss the clinical and radiological aspects of this rare tumor.

  15. Chondroblastoma of temporal bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanohta, K.; Noda, M.; Katoh, H.; Okazaki, A.; Sugiyama, S.; Maehara, T.; Onishi, S.; Tanida, T.

    1986-01-01

    The case of a 55-year-old female with chondroblastoma arising from the left temporal bone is presented. Although 10 cases of temporal chondroblastoma have been reported, this is the first in which plain radiography, pluridirectional tomography, computed tomography (CT) and angiography were performed. We discuss the clinical and radiological aspects of this rare tumor. (orig.)

  16. The memory unsatisfied in Estrella distante of Roberto Bolaño

    OpenAIRE

    Susana Florinda Ramírez

    2015-01-01

    This article sets up to examine the fictional strategies appointed  to shape the complexity of the memory processes in there composition of a traumatic experience. Estrella distante (1996), discusses the identity of the subject and, consequently, questions the supposed transparency of testimonies. Critical memory opens the past to uninterrupted interpretations in order to prevent the crystallization of a solesense of facts.

  17. A simple model of the distant Jovian tail with magnetic flux loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grzedzielski, S.; Macek, W.; Oberc, P.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of a small rate of magnetic flux loss on a simple hydromagnetic model of the distant Jovian tail was estimated. The loss of flux leads to a 10-15% decrease of the tail radius at Saturn's distance. Possible encounter of the tail with Uranus in 1983 is also briefly discussed. (author)

  18. Diversity between and within: Approaches to Teaching about Distant Place in the Secondary School Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Liz

    2014-01-01

    This study outlines some challenges of teaching about distant place and demonstrates how different strategies can influence school students' framings of diversity. The analysis is based on an interpretive case study of 13-14?year-old students learning about Japan in a UK school. Their changing representations of Japan were tracked in detail over a…

  19. Two Women with Multiple Disabilities Communicate with Distant Partners via a Special Text Messaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Green, Vanessa A.; Oliva, Doretta; Alberti, Gloria; Carrella, Luigina

    2013-01-01

    This study extended the research on a special text messaging system, which allows persons with multiple disabilities to (a) write and send messages to distant partners and (b) have messages from those partners read out to them. The study involved two women with multiple disabilities (including blindness or minimal residual vision). The system…

  20. The consumption discount rate for the distant future (if we do not die out)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeylen, K.

    2013-01-01

    Gollier and Weitzman (2010) show that if future consumption discount rates are uncertain and persistent, the consumption discount rate should decline to its lowest possible value for events in the most distant future. In this paper, I argue that the lowest possible growth rate of consumption per

  1. The CfA-Rosat Survey of Distant Clusters of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Brian

    1998-01-01

    We (Vikhlinin, McNamara, Forman, Jones, Hornstrup, Quintana) have completed a new survey of distant clusters of galaxies, which we use to to study cluster evolution over cosmological timescales. The clusters were identified as extended X-ray sources in 650 ROSAT PSPC images of high Galactic latitude fields. Our catalog of approximately 230 extended X-ray sources covers 160 square degrees on the sky. Ours is the largest of the several ROSAT serendipitous cluster surveys in progress (e.g. SHARC, Rosati, WARPS etc.). Using V,R,I imagery obtained at several observatories, we find that greater than 90% of the X-ray sources are associated with distant clusters of galaxies. We have obtained spectroscopic redshifts for nearly 80 clusters in our catalog, and we have measured photometric redshifts for the remaining clusters. Our sample contains more than 20 clusters at z > 0.5. I will discuss the logN-logS relationship for our clusters. Because our large survey area, we are able to confirm the evolution of the most luminous distant clusters first seen in the Einstein Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey. In addition, I will discuss the relationships between optical richness, core radius, and X-ray luminosity for distant, X-ray-selected clusters.

  2. Standardization of Distant Intercessory Prayer for Research on Health and Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Kathleen Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, distant (remote) intercessory prayer has been put up against the scientific method of research. Studies are few, variable, and tend to be nongeneralizable. Lack of construct validity of the variable prayer is one of the weaknesses that opens up the research to valid critique and scrutiny. The belief that research in this field is…

  3. Computer-Mediated Communication with Distant Friends: Relations with Adjustment during Students' First Semester in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, John D.; Troop-Gordon, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Because of recent technological innovations, college freshmen can readily communicate with friends who they see infrequently (e.g., friends from home). The current study addressed whether computer-mediated communication with these distant friends can compensate for a lack of high-quality on-campus friendships during students' first semester of…

  4. The Distant Tail Behavior During High Speed Solar Wind Streams and Magnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C. M.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1996-01-01

    We have examined the ISEE-3 distant tail data during three intense (Dststorms and have identified the tail response to high speed solar wind streams, interplanetary magnetic clouds, and near-Earth storms. The three storms have a peak Dst ranging from -150 to -220 nT, and occur on Jan. 9, Feb. 4, and Aug. 8, 1993.

  5. The construction of distant total distributed measuring and controlling system based on RS-232 communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Chengying; Li Tiantuo; Zhu Wenkai; Zhang Quanhu

    1999-01-01

    The author discusses the construction of distant total distributed measuring and controlling system based on RS-232 communication. The merits of this system are simple construction, reliable performance, big communication distance, and wide covering range. The system fits in with application in radiation environment. The author also discusses the system's hardware equipment and communication protocol

  6. Distant Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Anne Marie; Lee, Joyce y. H.; Panteli, Niki

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the role of email in the ambiguous circumstances of an established international partnership that is developing into competition. Using the naturally occurring interaction of a longitudinal ethnographic study, we study the ensuing task and relationship conflicts through...... the communication medium. Results show that the conflict is facilitated by email, not as an unfortunate side-effect but as a strategic choice of distance, partly for passive protection but also for active control of the interaction. We use the results to chart the multiple situated identities of the communicators...

  7. Distant Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Art EntrepreneurshipIvo Zander Mikael Scherdin This project is funded and sponsored by the Knowledge Foundation, the Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation, and the Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University2008-2009This cutting edge project asks what art and artistic processes can...... recognition among creative individuals, similarities and differences between artists and entrepreneurs, the survival and failure of new art initiatives, the globalization of the art arena, and policies for maintaining a dynamic art arena. Publications: The collective findings from the project will appear...... in a book published by Edward Elgar. The preliminary chapters include: Introduction (Mikael Scherdin and Ivo Zander) The new and the challenge of the market or the non-instrumental function of creation (Maria Bonnafous-Boucher, Raphaël Cuir, and Marc Partouche) Today's novelty is yesterday's garbage...

  8. [Lymph node and distant metastases of thyroid gland cancer. Metastases in the thyroid glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, K W

    2015-11-01

    The different biological features of the various major entities of thyroid cancer, e.g. papillary, follicular, poorly differentiated, anaplastic and medullary, depend to a large extent on their different metastatic spread. Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has a propensity for cervical lymphatic spread that occurs in 20-50 % of patients whereas distant metastasis occurs in thyroid cancer (FTC) has a marked propensity for vascular but not lymphatic invasion and 10-20 % of FTC develop distant metastases. At the time of diagnosis approximately one third of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) cases show lymph node metastases, in 10-15 % distant metastases and 25 % develop metastases during the course of the disease. Poorly differentiated (PDTC) and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) spread via both lymphatic and vascular invasion. Thus distant metastases are relatively uncommon in DTC and when they occur, long-term stable disease is the typical clinical course. The major sites of distant metastases are the lungs and bone. Metastases to the brain, breasts, liver, kidneys, muscle and skin are relatively rare or even rare. The thyroid gland itself can be a site of metastases from a variety of other tumors. In autopsy series of patients with disseminated cancer disease, metastases to the thyroid gland were found in up to 10 % of cases. Metastases from other primary tumors to the thyroid gland have been reported in 1.4-3 % of patients who have surgery for suspected cancer of the thyroid gland. The most common primary cancers that metastasize to the thyroid gland are renal cell (48.1 %), colorectal (10.4 %), lung (8.3 %) and breast cancer (7.8 %) and surprisingly often sarcomas (4.0 %).

  9. E-cadherin expression in primary carcinomas of the breast and its distant metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, Paul J; Rubin, Mark A; Kleer, Celina G

    2003-01-01

    Aberrant expression of E-cadherin has been associated with the development of metastases in patients with breast cancer. Even though the expression of E-cadherin has been studied in primary breast tumors, little is known about its expression at the distant metastatic sites. We investigate the relationship between E-cadherin expression in primary breast carcinoma and their distant, non-nodal metastases. Immunohistochemical analysis of E-cadherin was performed in tissues from 30 patients with primary invasive breast carcinoma and their distant metastases. E-cadherin expression was evaluated as normal or aberrant (decreased when compared with normal internal positive controls, or absent). Twenty-two (73%) invasive carcinomas were ductal, and eight (27%) were lobular. Of the primary invasive ductal carcinomas, 55% (12/22) had normal E-cadherin expression and 45% (10/22) had aberrant expression. All of the metastases expressed E-cadherin with the same intensity as (12 tumors) or with stronger intensity than (10 tumors) the corresponding primaries. Of the invasive lobular carcinomas, one of eight (12%) primary carcinomas and none of the metastases expressed E-cadherin in the cell membranes, but they accumulated the protein in the cytoplasm. Aberrant E-cadherin expression is frequent in invasive ductal carcinomas that progress to develop distant metastases. Distant metastases consistently express E-cadherin, often more strongly than the primary tumor. Invasive lobular carcinomas have a different pattern of E-cadherin expression, suggesting a different role for E-cadherin in this form of breast carcinoma

  10. [Evolutionary Concept Analysis of Spirituality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Il Sun; Choi, So Young; Kim, Jin Sook

    2017-04-01

    This study was done to clarify attributes, antecedents, and consequences of spirituality. Rodgers's evolutionary concept analysis was used to analyze fifty seven studies from the literature related to spirituality as it appears in systematic literature reviews of theology, medicine, counseling & psychology, social welfare, and nursing. Spirituality was found to consist of two dimensions and eight attributes: 1) vertical dimension: 'intimacy and connectedness with God' and 'holy life and belief', 2) horizontal dimension: 'self-transcendence', 'meaning and purpose in life', 'self-integration', and 'self-creativity' in relationship with self, 'connectedness' and 'trust' in relationship with others·neighbors·nature. Antecedents of spirituality were socio-demographic, religious, psychological, and health related characteristics. Consequences of spirituality were positive and negative. Being positive included 'life centered on God' in vertical dimension, and among horizontal dimension 'joy', 'hope', 'wellness', 'inner peace', and 'self-actualization' in relationship with self, 'doing in love' and 'extended life toward neighbors and the world' in relationship with others·neighbors·nature. Being negative was defined as having 'guilt', 'inner conflict', 'loneliness', and 'spiritual distress'. Facilitators of spirituality were stressful life events and experiences. Spirituality is a multidimensional concept. Unchangeable attributes of spirituality are 'connectedness with God', 'self-transcendence', 'meaning of life' and 'connectedness with others·nature'. Unchangeable consequences of spirituality are 'joy' and 'hope'. The findings suggest that the dimensional framework of spirituality can be used to assess the current spiritual state of patients. Based on these results, the development of a Korean version of the scale measuring spirituality is recommended. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science

  11. Evolutionary Transgenomics: prospects and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul eCorrea

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMany advances in our understanding of the genetic basis of species differences have arisen from transformation experiments, which allow us to study the effect of genes from one species (the donor when placed in the genetic background of another species (the recipient. Such interspecies transformation experiments are usually focused on candidate genes – genes that, based on work in model systems, are suspected to be responsible for certain phenotypic differences between the donor and recipient species. We suggest that the high efficiency of transformation in a few plant species, most notably Arabidopsis thaliana, combined with the small size of typical plant genes and their cis-regulatory regions allow implementation of a screening strategy that does not depend upon a priori candidate gene identification. This approach, transgenomics, entails moving many large genomic inserts of a donor species into the wild type background of a recipient species and then screening for dominant phenotypic effects. As a proof of concept, we recently conducted a transgenomic screen that analyzed more than 1100 random, large genomic inserts of the Alabama gladecress Leavenworthia alabamica for dominant phenotypic effects in the A. thaliana background. This screen identified one insert that shortens fruit and decreases A. thaliana fertility. In this paper we discuss the principles of transgenomic screens and suggest methods to help minimize the frequencies of false positive and false negative results. We argue that, because transgenomics avoids committing in advance to candidate genes it has the potential to help us identify truly novel genes or cryptic functions of known genes. Given the valuable knowledge that is likely to be gained, we believe the time is ripe for the plant evolutionary community to invest in transgenomic screens, at least in the mustard family Brassicaceae Burnett where many species are amenable to efficient transformation.

  12. Evolutionary relevance facilitates visual information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Russell E; Calvillo, Dusti P

    2013-11-03

    Visual search of the environment is a fundamental human behavior that perceptual load affects powerfully. Previously investigated means for overcoming the inhibitions of high perceptual load, however, generalize poorly to real-world human behavior. We hypothesized that humans would process evolutionarily relevant stimuli more efficiently than evolutionarily novel stimuli, and evolutionary relevance would mitigate the repercussions of high perceptual load during visual search. Animacy is a significant component to evolutionary relevance of visual stimuli because perceiving animate entities is time-sensitive in ways that pose significant evolutionary consequences. Participants completing a visual search task located evolutionarily relevant and animate objects fastest and with the least impact of high perceptual load. Evolutionarily novel and inanimate objects were located slowest and with the highest impact of perceptual load. Evolutionary relevance may importantly affect everyday visual information processing.

  13. Evolutionary Relevance Facilitates Visual Information Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell E. Jackson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Visual search of the environment is a fundamental human behavior that perceptual load affects powerfully. Previously investigated means for overcoming the inhibitions of high perceptual load, however, generalize poorly to real-world human behavior. We hypothesized that humans would process evolutionarily relevant stimuli more efficiently than evolutionarily novel stimuli, and evolutionary relevance would mitigate the repercussions of high perceptual load during visual search. Animacy is a significant component to evolutionary relevance of visual stimuli because perceiving animate entities is time-sensitive in ways that pose significant evolutionary consequences. Participants completing a visual search task located evolutionarily relevant and animate objects fastest and with the least impact of high perceptual load. Evolutionarily novel and inanimate objects were located slowest and with the highest impact of perceptual load. Evolutionary relevance may importantly affect everyday visual information processing.

  14. Evolutionary algorithms for mobile ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dorronsoro, Bernabé; Danoy, Grégoire; Pigné, Yoann; Bouvry, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Describes how evolutionary algorithms (EAs) can be used to identify, model, and minimize day-to-day problems that arise for researchers in optimization and mobile networking. Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), vehicular networks (VANETs), sensor networks (SNs), and hybrid networks—each of these require a designer’s keen sense and knowledge of evolutionary algorithms in order to help with the common issues that plague professionals involved in optimization and mobile networking. This book introduces readers to both mobile ad hoc networks and evolutionary algorithms, presenting basic concepts as well as detailed descriptions of each. It demonstrates how metaheuristics and evolutionary algorithms (EAs) can be used to help provide low-cost operations in the optimization process—allowing designers to put some “intelligence” or sophistication into the design. It also offers efficient and accurate information on dissemination algorithms topology management, and mobility models to address challenges in the ...

  15. Evolutionary medicine: its scope, interest and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Stephen C

    2012-11-07

    This review is aimed at readers seeking an introductory overview, teaching courses and interested in visionary ideas. It first describes the range of topics covered by evolutionary medicine, which include human genetic variation, mismatches to modernity, reproductive medicine, degenerative disease, host-pathogen interactions and insights from comparisons with other species. It then discusses priorities for translational research, basic research and health management. Its conclusions are that evolutionary thinking should not displace other approaches to medical science, such as molecular medicine and cell and developmental biology, but that evolutionary insights can combine with and complement established approaches to reduce suffering and save lives. Because we are on the cusp of so much new research and innovative insights, it is hard to estimate how much impact evolutionary thinking will have on medicine, but it is already clear that its potential is enormous.

  16. Exploitation of linkage learning in evolutionary algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ying-ping

    2010-01-01

    The exploitation of linkage learning is enhancing the performance of evolutionary algorithms. This monograph examines recent progress in linkage learning, with a series of focused technical chapters that cover developments and trends in the field.

  17. Evolutionary Robotics: What, Why, and Where to

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane eDoncieux

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary robotics applies the selection, variation, and heredity principles of natural evolution to the design of robots with embodied intelligence. It can be considered as a subfield of robotics that aims to create more robust and adaptive robots. A pivotal feature of the evolutionary approach is that it considers the whole robot at once, and enables the exploitation of robot features in a holistic manner. Evolutionary robotics can also be seen as an innovative approach to the study of evolution based on a new kind of experimentalism. The use of robots as a substrate can help address questions that are difficult, if not impossible, to investigate through computer simulations or biological studies. In this paper we consider the main achievements of evolutionary robotics, focusing particularly on its contributions to both engineering and biology. We briefly elaborate on methodological issues, review some of the most interesting findings, and discuss important open issues and promising avenues for future work.

  18. Mean-Potential Law in Evolutionary Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nałecz-Jawecki, Paweł; Miekisz, Jacek

    2018-01-01

    The Letter presents a novel way to connect random walks, stochastic differential equations, and evolutionary game theory. We introduce a new concept of a potential function for discrete-space stochastic systems. It is based on a correspondence between one-dimensional stochastic differential equations and random walks, which may be exact not only in the continuous limit but also in finite-state spaces. Our method is useful for computation of fixation probabilities in discrete stochastic dynamical systems with two absorbing states. We apply it to evolutionary games, formulating two simple and intuitive criteria for evolutionary stability of pure Nash equilibria in finite populations. In particular, we show that the 1 /3 law of evolutionary games, introduced by Nowak et al. [Nature, 2004], follows from a more general mean-potential law.

  19. Hybridizing Evolutionary Algorithms with Opportunistic Local Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gießen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    There is empirical evidence that memetic algorithms (MAs) can outperform plain evolutionary algorithms (EAs). Recently the first runtime analyses have been presented proving the aforementioned conjecture rigorously by investigating Variable-Depth Search, VDS for short (Sudholt, 2008). Sudholt...

  20. Genetic variations and evolutionary relationships among radishes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vera 1

    To determine the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships among red radishes, 37 accessions ... determined that plant height, fresh leaf weight, and root ... Flower-shaped. Red .... according to Levan's karyotype classification standards.

  1. Evolutionary genetics: 150 years of natural selection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This year marks a hundred and fifty years since the formal enunciation of the ... publication of R. A. Fisher's landmark paper reconciling the statistical results of the ... applications of evolutionary thinking that has emerged over the past fifteen.

  2. Evolutionary principles and their practical application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendry, A. P.; Kinnison, M. T.; Heino, M.

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary principles are now routinely incorporated into medicine and agriculture. Examples include the design of treatments that slow the evolution of resistance by weeds, pests, and pathogens, and the design of breeding programs that maximize crop yield or quality. Evolutionary principles...... are also increasingly incorporated into conservation biology, natural resource management, and environmental science. Examples include the protection of small and isolated populations from inbreeding depression, the identification of key traits involved in adaptation to climate change, the design...... of harvesting regimes that minimize unwanted life-history evolution, and the setting of conservation priorities based on populations, species, or communities that harbor the greatest evolutionary diversity and potential. The adoption of evolutionary principles has proceeded somewhat independently...

  3. Evolutionary Game Theory Analysis of Tumor Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Amy; Liao, David; Sturm, James; Austin, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Evolutionary game theory applied to two interacting cell populations can yield quantitative prediction of the future densities of the two cell populations based on the initial interaction terms. We will discuss how in a complex ecology that evolutionary game theory successfully predicts the future densities of strains of stromal and cancer cells (multiple myeloma), and discuss the possible clinical use of such analysis for predicting cancer progression. Supported by the National Science Foundation and the National Cancer Institute.

  4. Endogenous money: the evolutionary versus revolutionary views

    OpenAIRE

    Louis-Philippe Rochon; Sergio Rossi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the endogenous nature of money. Contrary to the established post-Keynesian, or evolutionary, view, this paper argues that money has always been endogenous, irrespective of the historical period. Instead of the evolutionary theory of money and banking that can be traced back to Chick (1986), this paper puts forward a revolutionary definition of endogenous money consistent with many aspects of post-Keynesian economics as well as with the monetary ci...

  5. Avoiding Local Optima with Interactive Evolutionary Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    the top of a flight of stairs selects for climbing ; suspending the robot and the target object above the ground and creating rungs between the two will...REPORT Avoiding Local Optimawith Interactive Evolutionary Robotics 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The main bottleneck in evolutionary... robotics has traditionally been the time required to evolve robot controllers. However with the continued acceleration in computational resources, the

  6. Applied evolutionary economics and economic geography

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Sunley

    2008-01-01

    Applied Evolutionary Economics and Economic Geography aims to further advance empirical methodologies in evolutionary economics, with a special emphasis on geography and firm location. It does so by bringing together a select group of leading scholars including economists, geographers and sociologists, all of whom share an interest in explaining the uneven distribution of economic activities in space and the historical processes that have produced these patterns.

  7. Temporal processing asymmetries between the cerebral hemispheres: evidence and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, M E

    1996-07-01

    This paper reviews a large body of research which has investigated the capacities of the cerebral hemispheres to process temporal information. This research includes clinical, non-clinical, and electrophysiological experimentation. On the whole, the research supports the notion of a left hemisphere advantage for temporal resolution. The existence of such an asymmetry demonstrates that cerebral lateralisation is not limited to the higher-order functions such as language. The capacity for the resolution of fine temporal events appears to play an important role in other left hemisphere functions which require a rapid sequential processor. The functions that are facilitated by such a processor include verbal, textual, and fine movement skills. The co-development of these functions with an efficient temporal processor can be accounted for with reference to a number of evolutionary scenarios. Physiological evidence favours a temporal processing mechanism located within the left temporal cortex. The function of this mechanism may be described in terms of intermittency or travelling moment models of temporal processing. The travelling moment model provides the most plausible account of the asymmetry.

  8. Evolutionary cell biology: two origins, one objective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael; Field, Mark C; Goodson, Holly V; Malik, Harmit S; Pereira-Leal, José B; Roos, David S; Turkewitz, Aaron P; Sazer, Shelley

    2014-12-02

    All aspects of biological diversification ultimately trace to evolutionary modifications at the cellular level. This central role of cells frames the basic questions as to how cells work and how cells come to be the way they are. Although these two lines of inquiry lie respectively within the traditional provenance of cell biology and evolutionary biology, a comprehensive synthesis of evolutionary and cell-biological thinking is lacking. We define evolutionary cell biology as the fusion of these two eponymous fields with the theoretical and quantitative branches of biochemistry, biophysics, and population genetics. The key goals are to develop a mechanistic understanding of general evolutionary processes, while specifically infusing cell biology with an evolutionary perspective. The full development of this interdisciplinary field has the potential to solve numerous problems in diverse areas of biology, including the degree to which selection, effectively neutral processes, historical contingencies, and/or constraints at the chemical and biophysical levels dictate patterns of variation for intracellular features. These problems can now be examined at both the within- and among-species levels, with single-cell methodologies even allowing quantification of variation within genotypes. Some results from this emerging field have already had a substantial impact on cell biology, and future findings will significantly influence applications in agriculture, medicine, environmental science, and synthetic biology.

  9. Evolutionary computation in zoology and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Randall B

    2017-12-01

    Evolutionary computational methods have adopted attributes of natural selection and evolution to solve problems in computer science, engineering, and other fields. The method is growing in use in zoology and ecology. Evolutionary principles may be merged with an agent-based modeling perspective to have individual animals or other agents compete. Four main categories are discussed: genetic algorithms, evolutionary programming, genetic programming, and evolutionary strategies. In evolutionary computation, a population is represented in a way that allows for an objective function to be assessed that is relevant to the problem of interest. The poorest performing members are removed from the population, and remaining members reproduce and may be mutated. The fitness of the members is again assessed, and the cycle continues until a stopping condition is met. Case studies include optimizing: egg shape given different clutch sizes, mate selection, migration of wildebeest, birds, and elk, vulture foraging behavior, algal bloom prediction, and species richness given energy constraints. Other case studies simulate the evolution of species and a means to project shifts in species ranges in response to a changing climate that includes competition and phenotypic plasticity. This introduction concludes by citing other uses of evolutionary computation and a review of the flexibility of the methods. For example, representing species' niche spaces subject to selective pressure allows studies on cladistics, the taxon cycle, neutral versus niche paradigms, fundamental versus realized niches, community structure and order of colonization, invasiveness, and responses to a changing climate.

  10. Otosclerosis: Temporal Bone Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnel, Alicia M; Ishai, Reuven; McKenna, Michael J

    2018-04-01

    Otosclerosis is pathologically characterized by abnormal bony remodeling, which includes bone resorption, new bone deposition, and vascular proliferation in the temporal bone. Sensorineural hearing loss in otosclerosis is associated with extension of otosclerosis to the cochlear endosteum and deposition of collagen throughout the spiral ligament. Persistent or recurrent conductive hearing loss after stapedectomy has been associated with incomplete footplate fenestration, poor incus-prosthesis connection, and incus resorption in temporal bone specimens. Human temporal bone pathology has helped to define the role of computed tomography imaging for otosclerosis, confirming that computed tomography is highly sensitive for diagnosis, yet limited in assessing cochlear endosteal involvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Age-differences in the temporal properties of proactive interference in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrani, George; Bäckman, Lars; Persson, Jonas

    2017-12-01

    The inability to suppress irrelevant information has been suggested as a primary cause of proactive interference (PI), and this deficit may be enhanced in aging. The current study examines age differences and temporal boundaries of PI, by manipulating lure distances in a verbal 2-back working memory task. Both younger and older adults showed effects of interference for proximal 3- and 4-back lures, and this effect was greater for older adults. Whereas younger adults showed less interference during 4-back compared to 3-back lures, in both reaction times and accuracy, older adults improved only in accuracy. For distant lures, when the time between the 1st presentation of an item to its reappearance as a lure item was longer (e.g., 5- to 10-back lures), younger adults were no longer affected by PI. However, older adults were affected by PI throughout all distant lures, up to the most distant lure (9-/10-back). The results suggest that older adults were less successful in resolving interference from both proximal and distant familiar lures. Further, younger adults were able to overcome the effects of PI completely after a specific lure distance. The age differences in temporal properties of PI may therefore highlight a unique component linked to impaired interference control and aging. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Nontraumatic temporal subcortical hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisberg, L.A.; Stazio, A.; Shamsnia, M.; Elliott, D.; Charity Hospital, New Orleans, LA

    1990-01-01

    Thirty patients with temporal hematomas were analyzed. Four with frontal extension survived. Of 6 with ganglionic extension, three had residual deficit. Of 8 with parietal extension, 4 had delayed deterioration and died, two patients recovered, and two with peritumoral hemorrhage due to glioblastoma multiforme died. Five patients with posterior temporal hematomas recovered. In 7 patients with basal-inferior temporal hematomas, angiography showed aneurysms in 3 cases, angiomas in 2 cases and no vascular lesion in 2 cases. Of 23 cases with negative angiography and no systemic cause for temporal hematoma, 12 patients were hypertensive and 11 were normotensive. Ten hypertensive patients without evidence of chronic vascular disease had the largest hematomas, extending into the parietal or ganglionic regions. Seven of these patients died; 3 had residual deficit. Eleven normotensive and two hypertensive patients with evidence of chronic vascular change had smaller hematomas. They survived with good functional recovery. (orig.)

  13. Temporal Lobe Seizure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... functions, including having odd feelings — such as euphoria, deja vu or fear. Temporal lobe seizures are sometimes called ... sudden sense of unprovoked fear or joy A deja vu experience — a feeling that what's happening has happened ...

  14. Genes from scratch--the evolutionary fate of de novo genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlötterer, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Although considered an extremely unlikely event, many genes emerge from previously noncoding genomic regions. This review covers the entire life cycle of such de novo genes. Two competing hypotheses about the process of de novo gene birth are discussed as well as the high death rate of de novo genes. Despite the high death rate, some de novo genes are retained and remain functional, even in distantly related species, through their integration into gene networks. Further studies combining gene expression with ribosome profiling in multiple populations across different species will be instrumental for an improved understanding of the evolutionary processes operating on de novo genes. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. SHEEP TEMPORAL BONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesavan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Human temporal bones are difficult to procure now a days due to various ethical issues. Sheep temporal bone is a good alternative due to morphological similarities, easy to procure and less cost. Many middle ear exercises can be done easily and handling of instruments is done in the procedures like myringoplasty, tympanoplasty, stapedotomy, facial nerve dissection and some middle ear implants. This is useful for resident training programme.

  16. Temporal windows in visual processing: "prestimulus brain state" and "poststimulus phase reset" segregate visual transients on different temporal scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutz, Andreas; Weisz, Nathan; Braun, Christoph; Melcher, David

    2014-01-22

    Dynamic vision requires both stability of the current perceptual representation and sensitivity to the accumulation of sensory evidence over time. Here we study the electrophysiological signatures of this intricate balance between temporal segregation and integration in vision. Within a forward masking paradigm with short and long stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA), we manipulated the temporal overlap of the visual persistence of two successive transients. Human observers enumerated the items presented in the second target display as a measure of the informational capacity read-out from this partly temporally integrated visual percept. We observed higher β-power immediately before mask display onset in incorrect trials, in which enumeration failed due to stronger integration of mask and target visual information. This effect was timescale specific, distinguishing between segregation and integration of visual transients that were distant in time (long SOA). Conversely, for short SOA trials, mask onset evoked a stronger visual response when mask and targets were correctly segregated in time. Examination of the target-related response profile revealed the importance of an evoked α-phase reset for the segregation of those rapid visual transients. Investigating this precise mapping of the temporal relationships of visual signals onto electrophysiological responses highlights how the stream of visual information is carved up into discrete temporal windows that mediate between segregated and integrated percepts. Fragmenting the stream of visual information provides a means to stabilize perceptual events within one instant in time.

  17. Investigations in the Spectral Properties of Operators with Distant Perturbations (survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Golovina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a chronological overview of researches on operators with distant perturbations. Let us explain what "distant perturbations" mean. An elementary example of the operator with distant perturbations is a differential operator of the second order with two finite potentials. Supports of these operators are at a great distance from each other, i.e. they are \\distant".The study of such operators has been performed since the middle of the last century, mostly by foreign researchers see eg. R. Ahlrichs, T. Aktosun, M. Klaus, P. Aventini, P. Exner, E.B. Davies, V. Graffi, E.V. Harrell II, H.J. Silverstone, M. Mebkhout, R. Hoegh-Krohn, W. Hun ziker, V. Kostrykin, R. Schrader, J.D. Morgan (III, Y. Pinchover, O.K. Reity, H. Tamura, X. Wang, Y. Wang, S. Kondej, B. Simon, I. Veselic, D.I. Borisov, A.M. Golovina. The main objects of their investigation were the asymptotic behaviors of eigenvalues and corresponding eigenfunctions of perturbed operators. In several papers the research was focused on resolvents and eigenvalues of perturbed operator arising from the edge of the essential spectrum. The main results of the past century are the first members of the asymptotics of perturbed eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenfunctions and the first members of the asymptotics of resolvents of the perturbed operators. The main results of the last fifteen years are full asymptotic expansions for the eigenvalues and their corresponding functions and an explicit formula for the resolvent of the perturbed operator.In this paper, we also note that up to 2004 only different kind of potentials were considered as perturbing operators, and Laplace and Dirac operators were considered as unperturbed operators. Only since 2004, nonpotential perturbing operators appeared in the literature. Since 2012, an arbitrary elliptic differential operator is considered as an unperturbed operator.We propose a classification of investigations on distant perturbations, based on the

  18. La Seducción del mal en estrella distante de Roberto Bolaño

    OpenAIRE

    Montes, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    En el presente artículo se trabajará en torno a la novela Estrella distante de Roberto Bolaño. La intención del análisis será demostrar cómo se expresa y opera la seducción del mal al interior de la representación y proponer cuáles son las formas en que el mal encarna en una figura representativa de la dictadura militar chilena. This article is based on the Roberto Bolaño novel Estrella Distante. The analysis aims to demonstrate the ways that the seduction of evil is expressed and operates...

  19. A NEW DISTANT MILKY WAY GLOBULAR CLUSTER IN THE PAN-STARRS1 3π SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laevens, Benjamin P. M.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Sesar, Branimir; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schlafly, Edward F.; Bernard, Edouard J.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Slater, Colin T.; Bell, Eric F.; Burgett, William S.; Chambers, Kenneth C.; Denneau, Larry; Kaiser, Nicholas; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Magnier, Eugene A.; Morgan, Jeffrey S.; Sweeney, William E.; Draper, Peter W.; Metcalfe, Nigel; Price, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new satellite in the outer halo of the Galaxy, the first Milky Way satellite found in the stacked photometric catalog of the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System 1 (Pan-STARRS1) Survey. From follow-up photometry obtained with WFI on the MPG/ESO 2.2 m telescope, we argue that the object, located at a heliocentric distance of 145 ± 17 kpc, is the most distant Milky Way globular cluster yet known. With a total magnitude of M V = –4.3 ± 0.2 and a half-light radius of 20 ± 2 pc, it shares the properties of extended globular clusters found in the outer halo of our Galaxy and the Andromeda galaxy. The discovery of this distant cluster shows that the full spatial extent of the Milky Way globular cluster system has not yet been fully explored

  20. Prognostic influence of clinical stage for distant failure in conservation treatment of early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janjan, N.A.; Murray, K.J.; Walker, A.P.; Derus, S.B.; Komaki, R.U.; Cox, J.D.; Wilson, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    One-hundred twelve patients with clinical stage I-II mammary carcinoma treated with radiation therapy following breast-conserving surgery from 1975 through 1985 were evaluated. Median follow-up was 21 months (range, 2-80 months). This study demonstrates the importance of evaluating patients on the basis of tumor and axillary node findings rather than by clinical stage alone. In the authors' series, all T1 patients with positive axillary lymph nodes achieved the same excellent local and distant control as node-negative T1 and T2 patients. Distant failure occurred in 70% of T2 N1 patients despite systemic chemotherapy given to the majority of patients. The significance of these data regarding future trials are discussed

  1. An opto-magneto-mechanical quantum interface between distant superconducting qubits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Keyu; Vanner, Michael R; Twamley, Jason

    2014-07-04

    A quantum internet, where widely separated quantum devices are coherently connected, is a fundamental vision for local and global quantum information networks and processing. Superconducting quantum devices can now perform sophisticated quantum engineering locally on chip and a detailed method to achieve coherent optical quantum interconnection between distant superconducting devices is a vital, but highly challenging, goal. We describe a concrete opto-magneto-mechanical system that can interconvert microwave-to-optical quantum information with high fidelity. In one such node we utilise the magnetic fields generated by the supercurrent of a flux qubit to coherently modulate a mechanical oscillator that is part of a high-Q optical cavity to achieve high fidelity microwave-to-optical quantum information exchange. We analyze the transfer between two spatially distant nodes connected by an optical fibre and using currently accessible parameters we predict that the fidelity of transfer could be as high as ~80%, even with significant loss.

  2. Echinococcus granulosus: Evidence of a heterodimeric glutathione transferase built up by phylogenetically distant subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbildi, Paula; La-Rocca, Silvana; Lopez, Veronica; Da-Costa, Natalia; Fernandez, Veronica

    2017-01-01

    In the cestode parasite Echinococcus granulosus, three phylogenetically distant cytosolic glutathione transferases (GSTs) (EgGST1, 2 and 3) were identified. Interestingly, the C-terminal domains of EgGST3 and EgGST2 but not EgGST1, exhibit all amino acids involved in Sigma-class GST dimerization. Here, we provide evidence indicating that EgGST2 and EgGST3 naturally form a heterodimeric structure (EgGST2-3), and also we report the enzymatic activity of the recombinant heterodimer. EgGST2-3 might display novel properties able to influence the infection establishment. This is the first report of a stable heterodimeric GST built up by phylogenetically distant subunits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Two-step frequency conversion for connecting distant quantum memories by transmission through an optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Shuhei; Ikeda, Kohei; Okamura, Kotaro; Yoshii, Kazumichi; Hong, Feng-Lei; Horikiri, Tomoyuki; Kosaka, Hideo

    2018-06-01

    Long-distance quantum communication requires entanglement between distant quantum memories. For this purpose, photon transmission is necessary to connect the distant memories. Here, for the first time, we develop a two-step frequency conversion process (from a visible wavelength to a telecommunication wavelength and back) involving the use of independent two-frequency conversion media where the target quantum memories are nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamonds (with an emission/absorption wavelength of 637.2 nm), and experimentally characterize the performance of this process acting on light from an attenuated CW laser. A total conversion efficiency of approximately 7% is achieved. The noise generated in the frequency conversion processes is measured, and the signal-to-noise ratio is estimated for a single photon signal emitted by a nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center. The developed frequency conversion system has future applications via transmission through a long optical fiber channel at a telecommunication wavelength for a quantum repeater network.

  4. Very-high-energy gamma rays from a distant quasar: how transparent is the universe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, J; Aliu, E; Anderhub, H; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Backes, M; Baixeras, C; Barrio, J A; Bartko, H; Bastieri, D; Becker, J K; Bednarek, W; Berger, K; Bernardini, E; Bigongiari, C; Biland, A; Bock, R K; Bonnoli, G; Bordas, P; Bosch-Ramon, V; Bretz, T; Britvitch, I; Camara, M; Carmona, E; Chilingarian, A; Commichau, S; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Costado, M T; Covino, S; Curtef, V; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Cea Del Pozo, E; de Los Reyes, R; De Lotto, B; De Maria, M; De Sabata, F; Mendez, C Delgado; Dominguez, A; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Errando, M; Fagiolini, M; Ferenc, D; Fernández, E; Firpo, R; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Galante, N; López, R J García; Garczarczyk, M; Gaug, M; Goebel, F; Hayashida, M; Herrero, A; Höhne, D; Hose, J; Hsu, C C; Huber, S; Jogler, T; Kneiske, T M; Kranich, D; La Barbera, A; Laille, A; Leonardo, E; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Longo, F; López, M; Lorenz, E; Majumdar, P; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Meucci, M; Meyer, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Mizobuchi, S; Moles, M; Moralejo, A; Nieto, D; Nilsson, K; Ninkovic, J; Otte, N; Oya, I; Panniello, M; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Pasanen, M; Pascoli, D; Pauss, F; Pegna, R G; Perez-Torres, M A; Persic, M; Peruzzo, L; Piccioli, A; Prada, F; Prandini, E; Puchades, N; Raymers, A; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Rissi, M; Robert, A; Rügamer, S; Saggion, A; Saito, T Y; Salvati, M; Sanchez-Conde, M; Sartori, P; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schmitt, R; Schweizer, T; Shayduk, M; Shinozaki, K; Shore, S N; Sidro, N; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A; Sillanpää, A; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Stamerra, A; Stark, L S; Takalo, L; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Tluczykont, M; Torres, D F; Turini, N; Vankov, H; Venturini, A; Vitale, V; Wagner, R M; Wittek, W; Zabalza, V; Zandanel, F; Zanin, R; Zapatero, J

    2008-06-27

    The atmospheric Cherenkov gamma-ray telescope MAGIC, designed for a low-energy threshold, has detected very-high-energy gamma rays from a giant flare of the distant Quasi-Stellar Radio Source (in short: radio quasar) 3C 279, at a distance of more than 5 billion light-years (a redshift of 0.536). No quasar has been observed previously in very-high-energy gamma radiation, and this is also the most distant object detected emitting gamma rays above 50 gigaelectron volts. Because high-energy gamma rays may be stopped by interacting with the diffuse background light in the universe, the observations by MAGIC imply a low amount for such light, consistent with that known from galaxy counts.

  5. Depression, anxiety and quality of life in suicide survivors: a comparison of close and distant relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Ann M; Sakraida, Teresa J; Kim, Yookyung; Bullian, Leann; Chiappetta, Laurel

    2009-02-01

    The study's purpose was to describe and compare depression, anxiety, and quality of life, by degree of relationship, between closely related and distantly related survivors (persons close to the suicide victim, or "suicide survivors"; N = 60) during the acute phase of bereavement (within 1 month of the death). The close relationship category included spouses, parents, children, and siblings, whereas the distant relationship category included in-laws, aunts/uncles, and nieces/nephews. Analysis of covariance examined differences between the two groups on the symptom measures. Results indicate that, after controlling for age and gender effects, closely related survivors had significantly higher mean levels of depression and anxiety and had lower levels of mental health quality of life. There were no statistically significant differences on the physical health quality of life subscale.

  6. Relevance, distant effect, penalty for the radiation caused by a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    1) A suit or an appeal is not successful if a first partial operating license which has been enforced in the meantime, has not violated any protective rights or interests of the plaintiff. 2) This is especially true if the distant effects of the licensed facility, which have been explained by the plaintiff, don't reach the extent or duration of a violation or endangering of his own rights or legally protected rights. 3) The maximum permissible radiation exposure according to the dose limits occurs in case of distant effects according to paragraph 45 of the Radiological Protection Ordinance. 4) Here, it is the matter of a long-term problem with regard to the management and disposal of nuclear waste, provided that an individual interest is given. 5) The required causal connection cannot be proved in case of only statistically recorded emissions. The mere increase of risk, even if it is accurately founded by statistics, is not sufficient. (orig.) [de

  7. ChIP-seq Mapping of Distant-Acting Enhancers and Their In Vivo Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visel, Axel; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2011-06-01

    The genomic location and function of most distant-acting transcriptional enhancers in the human genome remains unknown We performed ChIP-seq for various transcriptional coactivator proteins (such as p300) directly from different embryonic mouse tissues, identifying thousands of binding sitesTransgenic mouse experiments show that p300 and other co-activator peaks are highly predictive of genomic location AND tissue-specific activity patterns of distant-acting enhancersMost enhancers are active only in one or very few tissues Genomic location of tissue-specific p300 peaks correlates with tissue-specific expression of nearby genes Most binding sites are conserved, but the global degree of conservation varies between tissues

  8. An Evolutionary Explanation for the Perturbation of the Dynamics of Metastatic Tumors Induced by Surgery and Acute Inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayonas, Alberto Carmona

    2011-01-01

    Surgery has contributed to unveil a tumor behavior that is difficult to reconcile with the models of tumorigenesis based on gradualism. The postsurgical patterns of progression include unexpected features such as distant interactions and variable rhythms. The underlying evidence can be summarized as follows: (1) the resection of the primary tumor is able to accelerate the evolution of micrometastasis in early stages, and (2) the outcome is transiently opposed in advanced tumors. The objective of this paper is to give some insight into tumorigenesis and surgery-related effects, by applying the concepts of the evolutionary theory in those tumor behaviors that gompertzian and tissular-centered models are unable to explain. According to this view, tumors are the consequence of natural selection operating at the somatic level, which is the basic mechanism of tumorigenesis, notwithstanding the complementary role of the intrinsic constrictions of complex networks. A tumor is a complicated phenomenon that entails growth, evolution and development simultaneously. So, an evo-devo perspective can explain how and why tumor subclones are able to translate competition from a metabolic level into neoangiogenesis and the immune response. The paper proposes that distant interactions are an extension of the ecological events at the local level. This notion explains the evolutionary basis for tumor dormancy, and warns against the teleological view of tumorigenesis as a process directed towards the maximization of a concrete trait such as aggressiveness

  9. An Evolutionary Explanation for the Perturbation of the Dynamics of Metastatic Tumors Induced by Surgery and Acute Inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayonas, Alberto Carmona [Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Hospital Morales Meseguer, Murcia (Spain)

    2011-03-02

    Surgery has contributed to unveil a tumor behavior that is difficult to reconcile with the models of tumorigenesis based on gradualism. The postsurgical patterns of progression include unexpected features such as distant interactions and variable rhythms. The underlying evidence can be summarized as follows: (1) the resection of the primary tumor is able to accelerate the evolution of micrometastasis in early stages, and (2) the outcome is transiently opposed in advanced tumors. The objective of this paper is to give some insight into tumorigenesis and surgery-related effects, by applying the concepts of the evolutionary theory in those tumor behaviors that gompertzian and tissular-centered models are unable to explain. According to this view, tumors are the consequence of natural selection operating at the somatic level, which is the basic mechanism of tumorigenesis, notwithstanding the complementary role of the intrinsic constrictions of complex networks. A tumor is a complicated phenomenon that entails growth, evolution and development simultaneously. So, an evo-devo perspective can explain how and why tumor subclones are able to translate competition from a metabolic level into neoangiogenesis and the immune response. The paper proposes that distant interactions are an extension of the ecological events at the local level. This notion explains the evolutionary basis for tumor dormancy, and warns against the teleological view of tumorigenesis as a process directed towards the maximization of a concrete trait such as aggressiveness.

  10. An Evolutionary Explanation for the Perturbation of the Dynamics of Metastatic Tumors Induced by Surgery and Acute Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Carmona Bayonas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Surgery has contributed to unveil a tumor behavior that is difficult to reconcile with the models of tumorigenesis based on gradualism. The postsurgical patterns of progression include unexpected features such as distant interactions and variable rhythms. The underlying evidence can be summarized as follows: (1 the resection of the primary tumor is able to accelerate the evolution of micrometastasis in early stages, and (2 the outcome is transiently opposed in advanced tumors. The objective of this paper is to give some insight into tumorigenesis and surgery-related effects, by applying the concepts of the evolutionary theory in those tumor behaviors that gompertzian and tissular-centered models are unable to explain. According to this view, tumors are the consequence of natural selection operating at the somatic level, which is the basic mechanism of tumorigenesis, notwithstanding the complementary role of the intrinsic constrictions of complex networks. A tumor is a complicated phenomenon that entails growth, evolution and development simultaneously. So, an evo-devo perspective can explain how and why tumor subclones are able to translate competition from a metabolic level into neoangiogenesis and the immune response. The paper proposes that distant interactions are an extension of the ecological events at the local level. This notion explains the evolutionary basis for tumor dormancy, and warns against the teleological view of tumorigenesis as a process directed towards the maximization of a concrete trait such as aggressiveness.

  11. EvoluCode: Evolutionary Barcodes as a Unifying Framework for Multilevel Evolutionary Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linard, Benjamin; Nguyen, Ngoc Hoan; Prosdocimi, Francisco; Poch, Olivier; Thompson, Julie D

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary systems biology aims to uncover the general trends and principles governing the evolution of biological networks. An essential part of this process is the reconstruction and analysis of the evolutionary histories of these complex, dynamic networks. Unfortunately, the methodologies for representing and exploiting such complex evolutionary histories in large scale studies are currently limited. Here, we propose a new formalism, called EvoluCode (Evolutionary barCode), which allows the integration of different evolutionary parameters (eg, sequence conservation, orthology, synteny …) in a unifying format and facilitates the multilevel analysis and visualization of complex evolutionary histories at the genome scale. The advantages of the approach are demonstrated by constructing barcodes representing the evolution of the complete human proteome. Two large-scale studies are then described: (i) the mapping and visualization of the barcodes on the human chromosomes and (ii) automatic clustering of the barcodes to highlight protein subsets sharing similar evolutionary histories and their functional analysis. The methodologies developed here open the way to the efficient application of other data mining and knowledge extraction techniques in evolutionary systems biology studies. A database containing all EvoluCode data is available at: http://lbgi.igbmc.fr/barcodes.

  12. Understanding the mind from an evolutionary perspective: an overview of evolutionary psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Todd K; Liddle, James R

    2014-05-01

    The theory of evolution by natural selection provides the only scientific explanation for the existence of complex adaptations. The design features of the brain, like any organ, are the result of selection pressures operating over deep time. Evolutionary psychology posits that the human brain comprises a multitude of evolved psychological mechanisms, adaptations to specific and recurrent problems of survival and reproduction faced over human evolutionary history. Although some mistakenly view evolutionary psychology as promoting genetic determinism, evolutionary psychologists appreciate and emphasize the interactions between genes and environments. This approach to psychology has led to a richer understanding of a variety of psychological phenomena, and has provided a powerful foundation for generating novel hypotheses. Critics argue that evolutionary psychologists resort to storytelling, but as with any branch of science, empirical testing is a vital component of the field, with hypotheses standing or falling with the weight of the evidence. Evolutionary psychology is uniquely suited to provide a unifying theoretical framework for the disparate subdisciplines of psychology. An evolutionary perspective has provided insights into several subdisciplines of psychology, while simultaneously demonstrating the arbitrary nature of dividing psychological science into such subdisciplines. Evolutionary psychologists have amassed a substantial empirical and theoretical literature, but as a relatively new approach to psychology, many questions remain, with several promising directions for future research. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. The memory unsatisfied in Estrella distante of Roberto Bolaño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Florinda Ramírez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article sets up to examine the fictional strategies appointed  to shape the complexity of the memory processes in there composition of a traumatic experience. Estrella distante (1996, discusses the identity of the subject and, consequently, questions the supposed transparency of testimonies. Critical memory opens the past to uninterrupted interpretations in order to prevent the crystallization of a solesense of facts.

  14. Surviving at a distant site: The organotropism of metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shi; Siegal, Gene P

    2018-03-01

    Many cancers demonstrate a non-random distribution of sites for distant relapse while others have the propensity to metastasize to multiple organ systems. One of the notable recent findings is that the breast cancer subtypes differ not only in their biological characteristics as primary tumors but also in their capacity for metastatic progression. This information could potentially be utilized in treatment decision making and surveillance strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Influence of Diabetes Mellitus and Metformin on Distant Metastases in Oropharyngeal Cancer: A Multicenter Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spratt, Daniel E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Beadle, Beth M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zumsteg, Zachary S., E-mail: zachary.zumsteg@cshs.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Rivera, Andrew [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Skinner, Heath D. [Bobby R. Alford Department of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (United States); Osborne, Joseph R. [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Garden, Adam S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Lee, Nancy Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: Local control in oropharyngeal cancer has improved to unprecedented rates with combined modality therapy; as a result, distant metastases are becoming a principal challenge. We aimed to determine the impact of diabetes mellitus and metformin use on clinical outcomes in a large population of oropharyngeal cancer patients treated in the modern era. Methods and Materials: We identified 1745 consecutive patients with oropharyngeal cancer treated at 2 large cancer centers with external beam radiation therapy from 1998 to 2011. A total of 184 patients had diabetes mellitus at the time of diagnosis, of whom 102 were taking metformin. The outcomes assessed included local failure-free survival (LFFS), regional failure-free survival (RFFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and overall survival (OS). Results: The median follow-up time was 4.3 years. The 5-year actuarial rates of DMFS were 89.6% for nondiabetic patients and 78.7% for diabetic nonmetformin users (P=.011) and of OS were 83.0% for nondiabetic patients and 70.7% for diabetic nonmetformin users (P=.048). Diabetic metformin users had 5-year DMFS (90.1%) and OS (89.6%) similar to those of nondiabetic patients. Multivariate analysis (diabetic nonmetformin users as reference) demonstrated improved DMFS for nondiabetic patients (adjusted hazard ratio 0.54; 95% confidence interval 0.32-0.93; P=.03) and a trend toward improved DMFS with metformin use (adjusted hazard ratio 0.46; 95% confidence interval 0.20-1.04; P=.06). LFFS and RFFS were high in all groups and were not significantly different by diabetic status or metformin use. Conclusions: Diabetic patients not using metformin independently have significantly higher rates of distant metastases than do nondiabetic patients, whereas metformin users have rates of distant metastases similar to those of nondiabetic patients. Further prospective investigation is warranted to validate the benefit of metformin in oropharyngeal cancer.

  16. Validation of the 18-gene classifier as a prognostic biomarker of distant metastasis in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skye Hung-Chun Cheng

    Full Text Available We validated an 18-gene classifier (GC initially developed to predict local/regional recurrence after mastectomy in estimating distant metastasis risk. The 18-gene scoring algorithm defines scores as: <21, low risk; ≥21, high risk. Six hundred eighty-three patients with primary operable breast cancer and fresh frozen tumor tissues available were included. The primary outcome was the 5-year probability of freedom from distant metastasis (DMFP. Two external datasets were used to test the predictive accuracy of 18-GC. The 5-year rates of DMFP for patients classified as low-risk (n = 146, 21.7% and high-risk (n = 537, 78.6% were 96.2% (95% CI, 91.1%-98.8% and 80.9% (74.6%-81.9%, respectively (median follow-up interval, 71.8 months. The 5-year rates of DMFP of the low-risk group in stage I (n = 62, 35.6%, stage II (n = 66, 20.1%, and stage III (n = 18, 10.3% were 100%, 94.2% (78.5%-98.5%, and 90.9% (50.8%-98.7%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that 18-GC is an independent prognostic factor of distant metastasis (adjusted hazard ratio, 5.1; 95% CI, 1.8-14.1; p = 0.0017 for scores of ≥21. External validation showed that the 5-year rate of DMFP in the low- and high-risk patients was 94.1% (82.9%-100% and 80.3% (70.7%-89.9%, p = 0.06 in a Singapore dataset, and 89.5% (81.9%-94.1% and 73.6% (67.2%-79.0%, p = 0.0039 in the GEO-GSE20685 dataset, respectively. In conclusion, 18-GC is a viable prognostic biomarker for breast cancer to estimate distant metastasis risk.

  17. Distant Migration of Multiple Siliconomas in Lower Extremities following Breast Implant Rupture: Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Joo Hyun; Song, Seung Yong; Lew, Dae Hyun; Lee, Dong Won

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Siliconoma from ruptured breast implants has been reported in multiple body sites, including but not limited to the breast parenchyma, axillary lymph nodes, upper arm, and even lower leg. In this regard, we report a rare case of distant silicone migration to the lower extremities after traumatic breast implant rupture. A 55-year-old Asian woman who received bilateral augmentation mammoplasty 20 years ago presented with ruptured breast implants from a car accident 2 years earlier. Mag...

  18. The Influence of Diabetes Mellitus and Metformin on Distant Metastases in Oropharyngeal Cancer: A Multicenter Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spratt, Daniel E.; Beadle, Beth M.; Zumsteg, Zachary S.; Rivera, Andrew; Skinner, Heath D.; Osborne, Joseph R.; Garden, Adam S.; Lee, Nancy Y.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Local control in oropharyngeal cancer has improved to unprecedented rates with combined modality therapy; as a result, distant metastases are becoming a principal challenge. We aimed to determine the impact of diabetes mellitus and metformin use on clinical outcomes in a large population of oropharyngeal cancer patients treated in the modern era. Methods and Materials: We identified 1745 consecutive patients with oropharyngeal cancer treated at 2 large cancer centers with external beam radiation therapy from 1998 to 2011. A total of 184 patients had diabetes mellitus at the time of diagnosis, of whom 102 were taking metformin. The outcomes assessed included local failure-free survival (LFFS), regional failure-free survival (RFFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and overall survival (OS). Results: The median follow-up time was 4.3 years. The 5-year actuarial rates of DMFS were 89.6% for nondiabetic patients and 78.7% for diabetic nonmetformin users (P=.011) and of OS were 83.0% for nondiabetic patients and 70.7% for diabetic nonmetformin users (P=.048). Diabetic metformin users had 5-year DMFS (90.1%) and OS (89.6%) similar to those of nondiabetic patients. Multivariate analysis (diabetic nonmetformin users as reference) demonstrated improved DMFS for nondiabetic patients (adjusted hazard ratio 0.54; 95% confidence interval 0.32-0.93; P=.03) and a trend toward improved DMFS with metformin use (adjusted hazard ratio 0.46; 95% confidence interval 0.20-1.04; P=.06). LFFS and RFFS were high in all groups and were not significantly different by diabetic status or metformin use. Conclusions: Diabetic patients not using metformin independently have significantly higher rates of distant metastases than do nondiabetic patients, whereas metformin users have rates of distant metastases similar to those of nondiabetic patients. Further prospective investigation is warranted to validate the benefit of metformin in oropharyngeal cancer.

  19. Evaluation of distant results after lamivudine discontinuation in children with chronic hepatitis B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Chyczewski

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate distant results after discontinuation of long term lamivudine treatment in children with chronic hepatitis B. Furthermore, the emergence of HBV polymerase gene variants in YMDD motif during therapy was examined. Additionally, the most commonly occurring type of mutation in the polymerase YMDD region were investigated. The study involved 27 HBeAg positive children with chronic hepatitis B. Children included to lamivudine therapy were previously treated without effects with interferon alpha.

  20. Multiple distant origins for green sea turtles aggregating off Gorgona Island in the Colombian eastern Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego F Amorocho

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA analyses have been useful for resolving maternal lineages and migratory behavior to foraging grounds (FG in sea turtles. However, little is known about source rookeries and haplotype composition of foraging green turtle aggregations in the southeastern Pacific. We used mitochondrial DNA control region sequences to identify the haplotype composition of 55 green turtles, Chelonia mydas, captured in foraging grounds of Gorgona National Park in the Colombian Pacific. Amplified fragments of the control region (457 bp revealed the presence of seven haplotypes, with haplotype (h and nucleotide (π diversities of h = 0.300±0.080 and π = 0.009±0.005 respectively. The most common haplotype was CMP4 observed in 83% of individuals, followed by CMP22 (5%. The genetic composition of the Gorgona foraging population primarily comprised haplotypes that have been found at eastern Pacific rookeries including Mexico and the Galapagos, as well as haplotypes of unknown stock origin that likely originated from more distant western Pacific rookeries. Mixed stock analysis suggests that the Gorgona FG population is comprised mostly of animals from the Galapagos rookery (80%. Lagrangian drifter data showed that movement of turtles along the eastern Pacific coast and eastward from distant western and central Pacific sites was possible through passive drift. Our results highlight the importance of this protected area for conservation management of green turtles recruited from distant sites along the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  1. Multiple distant origins for green sea turtles aggregating off Gorgona Island in the Colombian eastern Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorocho, Diego F; Abreu-Grobois, F Alberto; Dutton, Peter H; Reina, Richard D

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA analyses have been useful for resolving maternal lineages and migratory behavior to foraging grounds (FG) in sea turtles. However, little is known about source rookeries and haplotype composition of foraging green turtle aggregations in the southeastern Pacific. We used mitochondrial DNA control region sequences to identify the haplotype composition of 55 green turtles, Chelonia mydas, captured in foraging grounds of Gorgona National Park in the Colombian Pacific. Amplified fragments of the control region (457 bp) revealed the presence of seven haplotypes, with haplotype (h) and nucleotide (π) diversities of h = 0.300±0.080 and π = 0.009±0.005 respectively. The most common haplotype was CMP4 observed in 83% of individuals, followed by CMP22 (5%). The genetic composition of the Gorgona foraging population primarily comprised haplotypes that have been found at eastern Pacific rookeries including Mexico and the Galapagos, as well as haplotypes of unknown stock origin that likely originated from more distant western Pacific rookeries. Mixed stock analysis suggests that the Gorgona FG population is comprised mostly of animals from the Galapagos rookery (80%). Lagrangian drifter data showed that movement of turtles along the eastern Pacific coast and eastward from distant western and central Pacific sites was possible through passive drift. Our results highlight the importance of this protected area for conservation management of green turtles recruited from distant sites along the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  2. Bidirectional electron anisotropies in the distant tail: ISEE-3 observations of polar rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.N.; Bame, S.J.; Feldman, W.C.; Gosling, J.T.; Zwickl, R.D.; Slavin, J.A.; Smith, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed observational treatment of bidirectional electrons (50 approx.500 eV) in the distant magnetotail (r greater than or equal to 100 R/sub E/) is presented. It is found that electrons in this energy range commonly exhibit strong, field-aligned anisotropies in the tail lobes. Because of large tail motions, the ISEE-3 data provide extensive sampling of both the north and south lobes in rapid succession, demonstrating directly the strong asymmetries that exist between the north and south lobes at any one time. The bidirectional fluxes are found to occur predominantly in the lobe directly connected to the sunward IMF in the open magnetosphere model (north lobe for away sectors and south lobe for toward sectors). Electron anisotropy and magnetic field data are presented which show the transition from unidirectional (sheath) electron populations to bidirectional (lobe) populations. Taken together, the present evidence suggests that the bidirectional electrons that we observe in the distant tail are closely related to the polar rain electrons observed previously at lower altitudes. Furthermore, these data provide strong evidence that the distant tail is comprised largely of open magnetic field lines in contradistinction to some recently advanced models

  3. Uncovering the spatially distant feedback loops of global trade: A network and input-output approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prell, Christina; Sun, Laixiang; Feng, Kuishuang; He, Jiaying; Hubacek, Klaus

    2017-05-15

    Land-use change is increasingly driven by global trade. The term "telecoupling" has been gaining ground as a means to describe how human actions in one part of the world can have spatially distant impacts on land and land-use in another. These interactions can, over time, create both direct and spatially distant feedback loops, in which human activity and land use mutually impact one another over great expanses. In this paper, we develop an analytical framework to clarify spatially distant feedbacks in the case of land use and global trade. We use an innovative mix of multi-regional input-output (MRIO) analysis and stochastic actor-oriented models (SAOMs) for analyzing the co-evolution of changes in trade network patterns with those of land use, as embodied in trade. Our results indicate that the formation of trade ties and changes in embodied land use mutually impact one another, and further, that these changes are linked to disparities in countries' wealth. Through identifying this feedback loop, our results support ongoing discussions about the unequal trade patterns between rich and poor countries that result in uneven distributions of negative environmental impacts. Finally, evidence for this feedback loop is present even when controlling for a number of underlying mechanisms, such as countries' land endowments, their geographical distance from one another, and a number of endogenous network tendencies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification of distant drug off-targets by direct superposition of binding pocket surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Marcel; Armen, Roger S

    2013-01-01

    Correctly predicting off-targets for a given molecular structure, which would have the ability to bind a large range of ligands, is both particularly difficult and important if they share no significant sequence or fold similarity with the respective molecular target ("distant off-targets"). A novel approach for identification of off-targets by direct superposition of protein binding pocket surfaces is presented and applied to a set of well-studied and highly relevant drug targets, including representative kinases and nuclear hormone receptors. The entire Protein Data Bank is searched for similar binding pockets and convincing distant off-target candidates were identified that share no significant sequence or fold similarity with the respective target structure. These putative target off-target pairs are further supported by the existence of compounds that bind strongly to both with high topological similarity, and in some cases, literature examples of individual compounds that bind to both. Also, our results clearly show that it is possible for binding pockets to exhibit a striking surface similarity, while the respective off-target shares neither significant sequence nor significant fold similarity with the respective molecular target ("distant off-target").

  5. Studies on increasing fertility of distant hybrid by irradiation of androgametes of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yichun; Sun Guangzu; Zhang Yuexue

    1994-01-01

    Distant hybridization was carried out by using hexaploid triticale, Heizha 266, as female parent and 2 varieties of spring wheat, Longfumai 3 and Longfumai 5, as male parent which were irradiated by slow irradiation of living bodies with 60 Co gamma rays from 600 to 2400 rad before distant hybridization. Through the observation of pollen mother cells of first generation of distant hybrilization (M 1 ), it was found that the amount of bivalents at meiosis metaphase was 13.65 on average, and was 14.55 on maximum, which were close to theoretical value, but the corresponding amount of bivalents at the same stage produced by unirradiated pollen mother cells were 12.80, which were lower than theorectical value. Chromosome pairing was improved by irradiation. Average setting ratio of M 1 generation affected by irradiation was 52.85%, but the corresponding figure for F 1 generation affected by un-irradiation was 6.49%. It is obvious that irradiation treatment increases setting rate of M 1 hybrid generation. The optimum doses for irradiating androgametes are 1600 and 2400 rad, respectively. However, there are significant differences of irradiation sensibility between different varieties of wheat

  6. A search for X-ray bright distant clusters of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol, R. C.; Ulmer, M. P.; Kron, R. G.; Wirth, G. D.; Koo, D. C.

    1994-01-01

    We present the results of a search for X-ray luminous distant clusters of galaxies. We found extended X-ray emission characteristic of a cluster toward two of our candidate clusters of galaxies. They both have a luminosity in the ROSAT bandpass of approximately equals 10(exp 44) ergs/s and a redshift greater than 0.5; thus making them two of the most distant X-ray clusters ever observed. Furthermore, we show that both clusters are optically rich and have a known radio source associated with them. We compare our result with other recent searches for distant X-ray luminous clusters and present a lower limit of 1.2 x 10(exp -7)/cu Mpc for the number density of such high-redshift clusters. This limit is consistent with the expected abundance of such clusters in a standard (b = 2) cold dark matter universe. Finally, our clusters provide important high-redshift targets for further study into the origin and evolution of massive clusters of galaxies.

  7. Cost of wind energy: comparing distant wind resources to local resources in the midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppock, David C; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia

    2010-11-15

    The best wind sites in the United States are often located far from electricity demand centers and lack transmission access. Local sites that have lower quality wind resources but do not require as much power transmission capacity are an alternative to distant wind resources. In this paper, we explore the trade-offs between developing new wind generation at local sites and installing wind farms at remote sites. We first examine the general relationship between the high capital costs required for local wind development and the relatively lower capital costs required to install a wind farm capable of generating the same electrical output at a remote site,with the results representing the maximum amount an investor should be willing to pay for transmission access. We suggest that this analysis can be used as a first step in comparing potential wind resources to meet a state renewable portfolio standard (RPS). To illustrate, we compare the cost of local wind (∼50 km from the load) to the cost of distant wind requiring new transmission (∼550-750 km from the load) to meet the Illinois RPS. We find that local, lower capacity factor wind sites are the lowest cost option for meeting the Illinois RPS if new long distance transmission is required to access distant, higher capacity factor wind resources. If higher capacity wind sites can be connected to the existing grid at minimal cost, in many cases they will have lower costs.

  8. A Minimal Model to Explore the Influence of Distant Modes on Mode-Coupling Instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Sebastian; Hoffmann, Norbert

    2010-09-01

    The phenomenon of mode-coupling instability is one of the most frequently explored mechanisms to explain self-excited oscillation in sliding systems with friction. A mode coupling instability is usually due to the coupling of two modes. However, further modes can have an important influence on the coupling of two modes. This work extends a well-known minimal model to describe mode-coupling instabilities in order to explore the influence of a distant mode on the classical mode-coupling pattern. This work suggests a new minimal model. The model is explored and it is shown that a third mode can have significant influence on the classical mode-coupling instabilities where two modes are coupling. Different phenomena are analysed and it is pointed out that distant modes can only be ignored in very special cases and that the onset friction-induced oscillations can even be very sensitive to minimal variation of a distant mode. Due to the chosen academic minimal-model and the abandonment of a complex Finite-Element model the insight stays rather phenomenological but a better understanding of the mode-coupling mechnanism can be gained.

  9. Evolution of bayesian-related research over time: a temporal text mining task

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    de Waal, A

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ronald Reagan’s Radio Addresses? Bayesian Analysis 2006, Volume 1, Number 2, pp. 189-383. 2. Mei Q and Zhai C, 2005. Discovering Evolutionary Theme Patterns from Text – An Exploration of Temporal Text Mining. KDD’05, August 21-24, 2005. Chicago...

  10. Evolutionary public health: introducing the concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jonathan C K; Nesse, Randolph M; Sear, Rebecca; Johnstone, Rufus A; Stearns, Stephen C

    2017-07-29

    The emerging discipline of evolutionary medicine is breaking new ground in understanding why people become ill. However, the value of evolutionary analyses of human physiology and behaviour is only beginning to be recognised in the field of public health. Core principles come from life history theory, which analyses the allocation of finite amounts of energy between four competing functions-maintenance, growth, reproduction, and defence. A central tenet of evolutionary theory is that organisms are selected to allocate energy and time to maximise reproductive success, rather than health or longevity. Ecological interactions that influence mortality risk, nutrient availability, and pathogen burden shape energy allocation strategies throughout the life course, thereby affecting diverse health outcomes. Public health interventions could improve their own effectiveness by incorporating an evolutionary perspective. In particular, evolutionary approaches offer new opportunities to address the complex challenges of global health, in which populations are differentially exposed to the metabolic consequences of poverty, high fertility, infectious diseases, and rapid changes in nutrition and lifestyle. The effect of specific interventions is predicted to depend on broader factors shaping life expectancy. Among the important tools in this approach are mathematical models, which can explore probable benefits and limitations of interventions in silico, before their implementation in human populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A teleofunctional account of evolutionary mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofnas, Nathan

    When the environment in which an organism lives deviates in some essential way from that to which it is adapted, this is described as "evolutionary mismatch," or "evolutionary novelty." The notion of mismatch plays an important role, explicitly or implicitly, in evolution-informed cognitive psychology, clinical psychology, and medicine. The evolutionary novelty of our contemporary environment is thought to have significant implications for our health and well-being. However, scientists have generally been working without a clear definition of mismatch. This paper defines mismatch as deviations in the environment that render biological traits unable, or impaired in their ability, to produce their selected effects (i.e., to perform their proper functions in Neander's sense). The machinery developed by Millikan in connection with her account of proper function, and with her related teleosemantic account of representation, is used to identify four major types, and several subtypes, of evolutionary mismatch. While the taxonomy offered here does not in itself resolve any scientific debates, the hope is that it can be used to better formulate empirical hypotheses concerning the effects of mismatch. To illustrate, it is used to show that the controversial hypothesis that general intelligence evolved as an adaptation to handle evolutionary novelty can, contra some critics, be formulated in a conceptually coherent way.

  12. Multiobjective Multifactorial Optimization in Evolutionary Multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Abhishek; Ong, Yew-Soon; Feng, Liang; Tan, Kay Chen

    2016-05-03

    In recent decades, the field of multiobjective optimization has attracted considerable interest among evolutionary computation researchers. One of the main features that makes evolutionary methods particularly appealing for multiobjective problems is the implicit parallelism offered by a population, which enables simultaneous convergence toward the entire Pareto front. While a plethora of related algorithms have been proposed till date, a common attribute among them is that they focus on efficiently solving only a single optimization problem at a time. Despite the known power of implicit parallelism, seldom has an attempt been made to multitask, i.e., to solve multiple optimization problems simultaneously. It is contended that the notion of evolutionary multitasking leads to the possibility of automated transfer of information across different optimization exercises that may share underlying similarities, thereby facilitating improved convergence characteristics. In particular, the potential for automated transfer is deemed invaluable from the standpoint of engineering design exercises where manual knowledge adaptation and reuse are routine. Accordingly, in this paper, we present a realization of the evolutionary multitasking paradigm within the domain of multiobjective optimization. The efficacy of the associated evolutionary algorithm is demonstrated on some benchmark test functions as well as on a real-world manufacturing process design problem from the composites industry.

  13. The evolutionary ecology of molecular replicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nee, Sean

    2016-08-01

    By reasonable criteria, life on the Earth consists mainly of molecular replicators. These include viruses, transposons, transpovirons, coviruses and many more, with continuous new discoveries like Sputnik Virophage. Their study is inherently multidisciplinary, spanning microbiology, genetics, immunology and evolutionary theory, and the current view is that taking a unified approach has great power and promise. We support this with a new, unified, model of their evolutionary ecology, using contemporary evolutionary theory coupling the Price equation with game theory, studying the consequences of the molecular replicators' promiscuous use of each others' gene products for their natural history and evolutionary ecology. Even at this simple expository level, we can make a firm prediction of a new class of replicators exploiting viruses such as lentiviruses like SIVs, a family which includes HIV: these have been explicitly stated in the primary literature to be non-existent. Closely connected to this departure is the view that multicellular organism immunology is more about the management of chronic infections rather than the elimination of acute ones and new understandings emerging are changing our view of the kind of theatre we ourselves provide for the evolutionary play of molecular replicators. This study adds molecular replicators to bacteria in the emerging field of sociomicrobiology.

  14. An Evolutionary Psychology Approach to Consumer Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZURINA BT MOHAIDIN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Human behaviour can be explained not only through experience and environments but also by incorporating evolutionary explanation. Consumer behaviour could not be understood accurately without infusing Darwinian evolutionary theory which has contributed in the knowledge of human nature. Evolutionary psychology revolves around the human’s evolved mental and the impact on human’s traits and behaviour where the influence of the environment to our genes would determine our individual behaviour and traits, resulting in variation among us. Foraging which is a part of behavioural ecology involves many sequences or repetitions of animals’ activities and decision making which is useful to relate these patterns of activities to the decisions made in human consumption. The aim of this research is to investigate the similarities of human consumption and ecological behaviour by employing interpretative and comparative approach. It is hoped that by applying the evolutionary theory in explaining consumer choice, this study is able to contribute to the development of behavioural ecology in human consumption. The analysis of the data is done aggregately for 200 consumers and individually for 20 consumers, who have purchased four product categories over a year. This study concludes that the theories of evolutionary psychology can fit to the consumers’ buying behaviour implicating its usefulness in explaining the consumers’ choice.

  15. Evolutionary heritage influences Amazon tree ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho de Souza, Fernanda; Dexter, Kyle G.; Phillips, Oliver L.; Brienen, Roel J. W.; Chave, Jerome; Galbraith, David R.; Lopez Gonzalez, Gabriela; Monteagudo Mendoza, Abel; Pennington, R. Toby; Poorter, Lourens; Alexiades, Miguel; Álvarez-Dávila, Esteban; Andrade, Ana; Aragão, Luis E. O. C.; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro; Arets, Eric J. M. M.; Aymard C, Gerardo A.; Baraloto, Christopher; Barroso, Jorcely G.; Bonal, Damien; Boot, Rene G. A.; Camargo, José L. C.; Comiskey, James A.; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo; de Camargo, Plínio B.; Di Fiore, Anthony; Erwin, Terry L.; Feldpausch, Ted R.; Ferreira, Leandro; Fyllas, Nikolaos M.; Gloor, Emanuel; Herault, Bruno; Herrera, Rafael; Higuchi, Niro; Honorio Coronado, Eurídice N.; Killeen, Timothy J.; Laurance, William F.; Laurance, Susan; Lloyd, Jon; Lovejoy, Thomas E.; Malhi, Yadvinder; Maracahipes, Leandro; Marimon, Beatriz S.; Marimon-Junior, Ben H.; Mendoza, Casimiro; Morandi, Paulo; Neill, David A.; Vargas, Percy Núñez; Oliveira, Edmar A.; Lenza, Eddie; Palacios, Walter A.; Peñuela-Mora, Maria C.; Pipoly, John J.; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; Prieto, Adriana; Quesada, Carlos A.; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma; Rudas, Agustin; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Salomão, Rafael P.; Silveira, Marcos; ter Steege, Hans; Thomas-Caesar, Raquel; van der Hout, Peter; van der Heijden, Geertje M. F.; van der Meer, Peter J.; Vasquez, Rodolfo V.; Vieira, Simone A.; Vilanova, Emilio; Vos, Vincent A.; Wang, Ophelia; Young, Kenneth R.; Zagt, Roderick J.; Baker, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    Lineages tend to retain ecological characteristics of their ancestors through time. However, for some traits, selection during evolutionary history may have also played a role in determining trait values. To address the relative importance of these processes requires large-scale quantification of traits and evolutionary relationships among species. The Amazonian tree flora comprises a high diversity of angiosperm lineages and species with widely differing life-history characteristics, providing an excellent system to investigate the combined influences of evolutionary heritage and selection in determining trait variation. We used trait data related to the major axes of life-history variation among tropical trees (e.g. growth and mortality rates) from 577 inventory plots in closed-canopy forest, mapped onto a phylogenetic hypothesis spanning more than 300 genera including all major angiosperm clades to test for evolutionary constraints on traits. We found significant phylogenetic signal (PS) for all traits, consistent with evolutionarily related genera having more similar characteristics than expected by chance. Although there is also evidence for repeated evolution of pioneer and shade tolerant life-history strategies within independent lineages, the existence of significant PS allows clearer predictions of the links between evolutionary diversity, ecosystem function and the response of tropical forests to global change. PMID:27974517

  16. Evolutionary heritage influences Amazon tree ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho de Souza, Fernanda; Dexter, Kyle G; Phillips, Oliver L; Brienen, Roel J W; Chave, Jerome; Galbraith, David R; Lopez Gonzalez, Gabriela; Monteagudo Mendoza, Abel; Pennington, R Toby; Poorter, Lourens; Alexiades, Miguel; Álvarez-Dávila, Esteban; Andrade, Ana; Aragão, Luis E O C; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro; Arets, Eric J M M; Aymard C, Gerardo A; Baraloto, Christopher; Barroso, Jorcely G; Bonal, Damien; Boot, Rene G A; Camargo, José L C; Comiskey, James A; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo; de Camargo, Plínio B; Di Fiore, Anthony; Elias, Fernando; Erwin, Terry L; Feldpausch, Ted R; Ferreira, Leandro; Fyllas, Nikolaos M; Gloor, Emanuel; Herault, Bruno; Herrera, Rafael; Higuchi, Niro; Honorio Coronado, Eurídice N; Killeen, Timothy J; Laurance, William F; Laurance, Susan; Lloyd, Jon; Lovejoy, Thomas E; Malhi, Yadvinder; Maracahipes, Leandro; Marimon, Beatriz S; Marimon-Junior, Ben H; Mendoza, Casimiro; Morandi, Paulo; Neill, David A; Vargas, Percy Núñez; Oliveira, Edmar A; Lenza, Eddie; Palacios, Walter A; Peñuela-Mora, Maria C; Pipoly, John J; Pitman, Nigel C A; Prieto, Adriana; Quesada, Carlos A; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma; Rudas, Agustin; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Salomão, Rafael P; Silveira, Marcos; Stropp, Juliana; Ter Steege, Hans; Thomas-Caesar, Raquel; van der Hout, Peter; van der Heijden, Geertje M F; van der Meer, Peter J; Vasquez, Rodolfo V; Vieira, Simone A; Vilanova, Emilio; Vos, Vincent A; Wang, Ophelia; Young, Kenneth R; Zagt, Roderick J; Baker, Timothy R

    2016-12-14

    Lineages tend to retain ecological characteristics of their ancestors through time. However, for some traits, selection during evolutionary history may have also played a role in determining trait values. To address the relative importance of these processes requires large-scale quantification of traits and evolutionary relationships among species. The Amazonian tree flora comprises a high diversity of angiosperm lineages and species with widely differing life-history characteristics, providing an excellent system to investigate the combined influences of evolutionary heritage and selection in determining trait variation. We used trait data related to the major axes of life-history variation among tropical trees (e.g. growth and mortality rates) from 577 inventory plots in closed-canopy forest, mapped onto a phylogenetic hypothesis spanning more than 300 genera including all major angiosperm clades to test for evolutionary constraints on traits. We found significant phylogenetic signal (PS) for all traits, consistent with evolutionarily related genera having more similar characteristics than expected by chance. Although there is also evidence for repeated evolution of pioneer and shade tolerant life-history strategies within independent lineages, the existence of significant PS allows clearer predictions of the links between evolutionary diversity, ecosystem function and the response of tropical forests to global change. © 2016 The Authors.

  17. Evolutionary accounts of human behavioural diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gillian R.; Dickins, Thomas E.; Sear, Rebecca; Laland, Kevin N.

    2011-01-01

    Human beings persist in an extraordinary range of ecological settings, in the process exhibiting enormous behavioural diversity, both within and between populations. People vary in their social, mating and parental behaviour and have diverse and elaborate beliefs, traditions, norms and institutions. The aim of this theme issue is to ask whether, and how, evolutionary theory can help us to understand this diversity. In this introductory article, we provide a background to the debate surrounding how best to understand behavioural diversity using evolutionary models of human behaviour. In particular, we examine how diversity has been viewed by the main subdisciplines within the human evolutionary behavioural sciences, focusing in particular on the human behavioural ecology, evolutionary psychology and cultural evolution approaches. In addition to differences in focus and methodology, these subdisciplines have traditionally varied in the emphasis placed on human universals, ecological factors and socially learned behaviour, and on how they have addressed the issue of genetic variation. We reaffirm that evolutionary theory provides an essential framework for understanding behavioural diversity within and between human populations, but argue that greater integration between the subfields is critical to developing a satisfactory understanding of diversity. PMID:21199836

  18. Distinguishing synchronous from metachronous manifestation of distant metastases: a prognostic feature in differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabet, Amir [University Duisburg-Essen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany); Saarland University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Homburg (Germany); Binse, Ina; Koch, Andrea; Rosenbaum-Krumme, Sandra J. [University Duisburg-Essen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany); Dogan, Semih; Biersack, Hans-Juergen [University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bonn (Germany); Biermann, Kim [University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bonn (Germany); Confessional Hospital ' ' Barmherzige Brueder' ' , Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Trier (Germany); Ezziddin, Samer [Saarland University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Homburg (Germany); University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bonn (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Distant metastasis has a negative impact on survival in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). The timing of this manifestation, however, is of unknown prognostic relevance. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the potential significance of discriminating synchronous versus metachronous distant metastases (SDM vs. MDM) for the outcome of patients with DTC. We retrospectively analyzed a consecutive cohort of n = 89 patients with distant metastases of DTC (43 with follicular, 46 with papillary DTC histology; mean age 52.6 ± 17.7 years) undergoing radioiodine treatment at our institution. All patients were treated with the same protocol consisting of ablative radioiodine therapy (RIT, 3.7 GBq) and one post-ablation treatment after 3 months (3.7-11.1 GBq). Further cycles of RIT were administered for recurrent, progressive or newly developed metastatic disease. We distinguished 2 types of distant metastases according to the time of manifestation: SDM (within ≤12 months after DTC diagnosis) and MDM (occurring >12 months after diagnosis). Tumor-related survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Uni- and multivariate analyses including the Cox proportional hazards model were performed with a significance level of p < 0.05. The mean follow-up period was 13.8 ± 1.2 years. SDM were present in 49 (55.1 %), MDM in 40 (44.9 %) patients. MDM were associated with shorter tumor-related survival (p = 0.002). 5-year and 10-year survival rates were 68.5 % and 34.8 % for MDM, and 84.3 % and 66.9 % for SDM, respectively. Within both age subgroups of <45 and ≥45 years, SDM were also linked with longer survival. No effect on tumor-related survival was found for the co-variables sex, lymph node metastases and histologic type. Distinguishing synchronous from metachronous manifestation of distant metastases may add an important prognostic feature to risk stratification in DTC, as proven metachronous appearance is associated with impaired survival. (orig.)

  19. Evolutionary stability concepts in a stochastic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiu-Deng; Li, Cong; Lessard, Sabin; Tao, Yi

    2017-09-01

    Over the past 30 years, evolutionary game theory and the concept of an evolutionarily stable strategy have been not only extensively developed and successfully applied to explain the evolution of animal behaviors, but also widely used in economics and social sciences. Nonetheless, the stochastic dynamical properties of evolutionary games in randomly fluctuating environments are still unclear. In this study, we investigate conditions for stochastic local stability of fixation states and constant interior equilibria in a two-phenotype model with random payoffs following pairwise interactions. Based on this model, we develop the concepts of stochastic evolutionary stability (SES) and stochastic convergence stability (SCS). We show that the condition for a pure strategy to be SES and SCS is more stringent than in a constant environment, while the condition for a constant mixed strategy to be SES is less stringent than the condition to be SCS, which is less stringent than the condition in a constant environment.

  20. The evolutionary implications of epigenetic inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonka, Eva

    2017-10-06

    The Modern Evolutionary Synthesis (MS) forged in the mid-twentieth century was built on a notion of heredity that excluded soft inheritance, the inheritance of the effects of developmental modifications. However, the discovery of molecular mechanisms that generate random and developmentally induced epigenetic variations is leading to a broadening of the notion of biological heredity that has consequences for ideas about evolution. After presenting some old challenges to the MS that were raised, among others, by Karl Popper, I discuss recent research on epigenetic inheritance, which provides experimental and theoretical support for these challenges. There is now good evidence that epigenetic inheritance is ubiquitous and is involved in adaptive evolution and macroevolution. I argue that the many evolutionary consequences of epigenetic inheritance open up new research areas and require the extension of the evolutionary synthesis beyond the current neo-Darwinian model.

  1. Human compulsivity: A perspective from evolutionary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J; Hermesh, Haggai; Eilam, David; Segalas, Cosi; Zohar, Joseph; Menchon, Jose; Nesse, Randolph M

    2016-05-01

    Biological explanations address not only proximal mechanisms (for example, the underlying neurobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder), but also distal mechanisms (that is, a consideration of how particular neurobiological mechanisms evolved). Evolutionary medicine has emphasized a series of explanations for vulnerability to disease, including constraints, mismatch, and tradeoffs. The current paper will consider compulsive symptoms in obsessive-compulsive and related disorders and behavioral addictions from this evolutionary perspective. It will argue that while obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is typically best conceptualized as a dysfunction, it is theoretically and clinically valuable to understand some symptoms of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders in terms of useful defenses. The symptoms of behavioral addictions can also be conceptualized in evolutionary terms (for example, mismatch), which in turn provides a sound foundation for approaching assessment and intervention. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Evolutionary Sound Synthesis Controlled by Gestural Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Fornari

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the interdisciplinary research involving Computer Music and Generative Visual Art. We describe the implementation of two interactive artistic systems based on principles of Gestural Data (WILSON, 2002 retrieval and self-organization (MORONI, 2003, to control an Evolutionary Sound Synthesis method (ESSynth. The first implementation uses, as gestural data, image mapping of handmade drawings. The second one uses gestural data from dynamic body movements of dance. The resulting computer output is generated by an interactive system implemented in Pure Data (PD. This system uses principles of Evolutionary Computation (EC, which yields the generation of a synthetic adaptive population of sound objects. Considering that music could be seen as “organized sound” the contribution of our study is to develop a system that aims to generate "self-organized sound" – a method that uses evolutionary computation to bridge between gesture, sound and music.

  3. Evolutionary genomics and HIV restriction factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyndiah, Nitisha; Telenti, Amalio; Rausell, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    To provide updated insights into innate antiviral immunity and highlight prototypical evolutionary features of well characterized HIV restriction factors. Recently, a new HIV restriction factor, Myxovirus resistance 2, has been discovered and the region/residue responsible for its activity identified using an evolutionary approach. Furthermore, IFI16, an innate immunity protein known to sense several viruses, has been shown to contribute to the defense to HIV-1 by causing cell death upon sensing HIV-1 DNA. Restriction factors against HIV show characteristic signatures of positive selection. Different patterns of accelerated sequence evolution can distinguish antiviral strategies--offense or defence--as well as the level of specificity of the antiviral properties. Sequence analysis of primate orthologs of restriction factors serves to localize functional domains and sites responsible for antiviral action. We use recent discoveries to illustrate how evolutionary genomic analyses help identify new antiviral genes and their mechanisms of action.

  4. Do we need an extended evolutionary synthesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigliucci, Massimo

    2007-12-01

    The Modern Synthesis (MS) is the current paradigm in evolutionary biology. It was actually built by expanding on the conceptual foundations laid out by its predecessors, Darwinism and neo-Darwinism. For sometime now there has been talk of a new Extended Evolutionary Synthesis (EES), and this article begins to outline why we may need such an extension, and how it may come about. As philosopher Karl Popper has noticed, the current evolutionary theory is a theory of genes, and we still lack a theory of forms. The field began, in fact, as a theory of forms in Darwin's days, and the major goal that an EES will aim for is a unification of our theories of genes and of forms. This may be achieved through an organic grafting of novel concepts onto the foundational structure of the MS, particularly evolvability, phenotypic plasticity, epigenetic inheritance, complexity theory, and the theory of evolution in highly dimensional adaptive landscapes.

  5. Infrastructure system restoration planning using evolutionary algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corns, Steven; Long, Suzanna K.; Shoberg, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an evolutionary algorithm to address restoration issues for supply chain interdependent critical infrastructure. Rapid restoration of infrastructure after a large-scale disaster is necessary to sustaining a nation's economy and security, but such long-term restoration has not been investigated as thoroughly as initial rescue and recovery efforts. A model of the Greater Saint Louis Missouri area was created and a disaster scenario simulated. An evolutionary algorithm is used to determine the order in which the bridges should be repaired based on indirect costs. Solutions were evaluated based on the reduction of indirect costs and the restoration of transportation capacity. When compared to a greedy algorithm, the evolutionary algorithm solution reduced indirect costs by approximately 12.4% by restoring automotive travel routes for workers and re-establishing the flow of commodities across the three rivers in the Saint Louis area.

  6. Cultural and climatic changes shape the evolutionary history of the Uralic languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkola, T; Vesakoski, O; Korhonen, K; Lehtinen, J; Syrjänen, K; Wahlberg, N

    2013-06-01

    Quantitative phylogenetic methods have been used to study the evolutionary relationships and divergence times of biological species, and recently, these have also been applied to linguistic data to elucidate the evolutionary history of language families. In biology, the factors driving macroevolutionary processes are assumed to be either mainly biotic (the Red Queen model) or mainly abiotic (the Court Jester model) or a combination of both. The applicability of these models is assumed to depend on the temporal and spatial scale observed as biotic factors act on species divergence faster and in smaller spatial scale than the abiotic factors. Here, we used the Uralic language family to investigate whether both 'biotic' interactions (i.e. cultural interactions) and abiotic changes (i.e. climatic fluctuations) are also connected to language diversification. We estimated the times of divergence using Bayesian phylogenetics with a relaxed-clock method and related our results to climatic, historical and archaeological information. Our timing results paralleled the previous linguistic studies but suggested a later divergence of Finno-Ugric, Finnic and Saami languages. Some of the divergences co-occurred with climatic fluctuation and some with cultural interaction and migrations of populations. Thus, we suggest that both 'biotic' and abiotic factors contribute either directly or indirectly to the diversification of languages and that both models can be applied when studying language evolution. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  7. Environmental fluctuations restrict eco-evolutionary dynamics in predator-prey system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltunen, Teppo; Ayan, Gökçe B; Becks, Lutz

    2015-06-07

    Environmental fluctuations, species interactions and rapid evolution are all predicted to affect community structure and their temporal dynamics. Although the effects of the abiotic environment and prey evolution on ecological community dynamics have been studied separately, these factors can also have interactive effects. Here we used bacteria-ciliate microcosm experiments to test for eco-evolutionary dynamics in fluctuating environments. Specifically, we followed population dynamics and a prey defence trait over time when populations were exposed to regular changes of bottom-up or top-down stressors, or combinations of these. We found that the rate of evolution of a defence trait was significantly lower in fluctuating compared with stable environments, and that the defence trait evolved to lower levels when two environmental stressors changed recurrently. The latter suggests that top-down and bottom-up changes can have additive effects constraining evolutionary response within populations. The differences in evolutionary trajectories are explained by fluctuations in population sizes of the prey and the predator, which continuously alter the supply of mutations in the prey and strength of selection through predation. Thus, it may be necessary to adopt an eco-evolutionary perspective on studies concerning the evolution of traits mediating species interactions. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. On Reciprocal Causation in the Evolutionary Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Erik I

    2018-01-01

    Recent calls for a revision of standard evolutionary theory (SET) are based partly on arguments about the reciprocal causation. Reciprocal causation means that cause-effect relationships are bi-directional, as a cause could later become an effect and vice versa. Such dynamic cause-effect relationships raise questions about the distinction between proximate and ultimate causes, as originally formulated by Ernst Mayr. They have also motivated some biologists and philosophers to argue for an Extended Evolutionary Synthesis (EES). The EES will supposedly expand the scope of the Modern Synthesis (MS) and SET, which has been characterized as gene-centred, relying primarily on natural selection and largely neglecting reciprocal causation. Here, I critically examine these claims, with a special focus on the last conjecture. I conclude that reciprocal causation has long been recognized as important by naturalists, ecologists and evolutionary biologists working in the in the MS tradition, although it it could be explored even further. Numerous empirical examples of reciprocal causation in the form of positive and negative feedback are now well known from both natural and laboratory systems. Reciprocal causation have also been explicitly incorporated in mathematical models of coevolutionary arms races, frequency-dependent selection, eco-evolutionary dynamics and sexual selection. Such dynamic feedback were already recognized by Richard Levins and Richard Lewontin in their bok The Dialectical Biologist . Reciprocal causation and dynamic feedback might also be one of the few contributions of dialectical thinking and Marxist philosophy in evolutionary theory. I discuss some promising empirical and analytical tools to study reciprocal causation and the implications for the EES. Finally, I briefly discuss how quantitative genetics can be adapated to studies of reciprocal causation, constructive inheritance and phenotypic plasticity and suggest that the flexibility of this approach

  9. Temporal network epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Holme, Petter

    2017-01-01

    This book covers recent developments in epidemic process models and related data on temporally varying networks. It is widely recognized that contact networks are indispensable for describing, understanding, and intervening to stop the spread of infectious diseases in human and animal populations; “network epidemiology” is an umbrella term to describe this research field. More recently, contact networks have been recognized as being highly dynamic. This observation, also supported by an increasing amount of new data, has led to research on temporal networks, a rapidly growing area. Changes in network structure are often informed by epidemic (or other) dynamics, in which case they are referred to as adaptive networks. This volume gathers contributions by prominent authors working in temporal and adaptive network epidemiology, a field essential to understanding infectious diseases in real society.

  10. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valencia, Frank Dan

    Concurrent constraint programming (ccp) is a formalism for concurrency in which agents interact with one another by telling (adding) and asking (reading) information in a shared medium. Temporal ccp extends ccp by allowing agents to be constrained by time conditions. This dissertation studies...... temporal ccp by developing a process calculus called ntcc. The ntcc calculus generalizes the tcc model, the latter being a temporal ccp model for deterministic and synchronouss timed reactive systems. The calculus is built upon few basic ideas but it captures several aspects of timed systems. As tcc, ntcc...... structures, robotic devises, multi-agent systems and music applications. The calculus is provided with a denotational semantics that captures the reactive computations of processes in the presence of arbitrary environments. The denotation is proven to be fully-abstract for a substantial fragment...

  11. Evolutionary cost management in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, C.G.; Mazzini, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The reader is urged to consider the material in ''The Evolutionary Theory of Cost Management'' carefully before proceeding with the material in this paper. The recommendations in this paper flow from the revised line of thinking generated by the evolutionary approach. The suggestions will be difficult to accept in the absence of an understanding of the underlying theory. Although the authors briefly discuss some of the theory, it is nevertheless recommended that the reader develop a fuller understanding of the concepts by studying the prior paper

  12. Evolutionary dynamics of complex communications networks

    CERN Document Server

    Karyotis, Vasileios; Papavassiliou, Symeon

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, most network design techniques employed a bottom-up approach with lower protocol layer mechanisms affecting the development of higher ones. This approach, however, has not yielded fascinating results in the case of wireless distributed networks. Addressing the emerging aspects of modern network analysis and design, Evolutionary Dynamics of Complex Communications Networks introduces and develops a top-bottom approach where elements of the higher layer can be exploited in modifying the lowest physical topology-closing the network design loop in an evolutionary fashion similar to

  13. Evolutionary optimization of production materials workflow processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert, Luke Thomas; Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Jacobsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We present an evolutionary optimisation technique for stochastic production processes, which is able to find improved production materials workflow processes with respect to arbitrary combinations of numerical quantities associated with the production process. Working from a core fragment...... of the BPMN language, we employ an evolutionary algorithm where stochastic model checking is used as a fitness function to determine the degree of improvement of candidate processes derived from the original process through mutation and cross-over operations. We illustrate this technique using a case study...

  14. Evolutionary Algorithms Application Analysis in Biometric Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Goranin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wide usage of biometric information for person identity verification purposes, terrorist acts prevention measures and authenticationprocess simplification in computer systems has raised significant attention to reliability and efficiency of biometricsystems. Modern biometric systems still face many reliability and efficiency related issues such as reference databasesearch speed, errors while recognizing of biometric information or automating biometric feature extraction. Current scientificinvestigations show that application of evolutionary algorithms may significantly improve biometric systems. In thisarticle we provide a comprehensive review of main scientific research done in sphere of evolutionary algorithm applicationfor biometric system parameter improvement.

  15. Langley's CSI evolutionary model: Phase O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belvin, W. Keith; Elliott, Kenny B.; Horta, Lucas G.; Bailey, Jim P.; Bruner, Anne M.; Sulla, Jeffrey L.; Won, John; Ugoletti, Roberto M.

    1991-01-01

    A testbed for the development of Controls Structures Interaction (CSI) technology to improve space science platform pointing is described. The evolutionary nature of the testbed will permit the study of global line-of-sight pointing in phases 0 and 1, whereas, multipayload pointing systems will be studied beginning with phase 2. The design, capabilities, and typical dynamic behavior of the phase 0 version of the CSI evolutionary model (CEM) is documented for investigator both internal and external to NASA. The model description includes line-of-sight pointing measurement, testbed structure, actuators, sensors, and real time computers, as well as finite element and state space models of major components.

  16. Evolutionary Graphs with Frequency Dependent Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Pu-Yan; Zhang, Pei-Ai

    Evolutionary graph theory was recently proposed by Lieberman et al. in 2005. In the previous papers about evolutionary graphs (EGs), the fitness of the residents in the EGs is in general assumed to be unity, and the fitness of a mutant is assumed to be a constant r. We aim to extend EG to general cases in this paper, namely, the fitness of a mutant is heavily dependent upon frequency. The corresponding properties for these new EGs are analyzed, and the fixation probability is obtained for large population.

  17. Genomes, Phylogeny, and Evolutionary Systems Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Monica

    2005-03-25

    With the completion of the human genome and the growing number of diverse genomes being sequenced, a new age of evolutionary research is currently taking shape. The myriad of technological breakthroughs in biology that are leading to the unification of broad scientific fields such as molecular biology, biochemistry, physics, mathematics and computer science are now known as systems biology. Here I present an overview, with an emphasis on eukaryotes, of how the postgenomics era is adopting comparative approaches that go beyond comparisons among model organisms to shape the nascent field of evolutionary systems biology.

  18. Empresas de trabajo temporal

    OpenAIRE

    Chico Abad, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Las empresas de trabajo temporal han ido tomando mayor relevancia debido a la estructura de la sociedad y de la economía. La entrada en vigor de la ley 14/1994 por la que se regulan las empresas de trabajo temporal suposo la incorporación al ordenamiento jurífico español de un tipo de empresas cuya actuación se habia extendido en otros países del entorno europeo. La idea general gira en torno a la flexibilidad de un nuevo marco económico y organizativo y exige a las empresas una capa...

  19. Medial temporal lobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, A.J.; Cross, D.T.; Friedman, D.P.; Bello, J.A.; Hilal, S.K.

    1989-01-01

    To better define the MR appearance of hippocampal sclerosis, the authors have reviewed over 500 MR coronal images of the temporal lobes. Many cysts were noted that analysis showed were of choroid-fissure (arachnoid) origin. Their association with seizures was low. A few nontumorous, static, medial temporal lesions, noted on T2-weighted coronal images, were poorly visualized on T1-weighted images and did not enhance with gadolinium. The margins were irregular, involved the hippocampus, and were often associated with focal atrophy. The lesions usually were associated with seizure disorders and specific electroencephalographic changes, and the authors believe they represented hippocampal sclerosis

  20. rbcL gene sequences provide evidence for the evolutionary lineages of leptosporangiate ferns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasebe, M; Omori, T; Nakazawa, M; Sano, T; Kato, M; Iwatsuki, K

    1994-06-07

    Pteriodophytes have a longer evolutionary history than any other vascular land plant and, therefore, have endured greater loss of phylogenetically informative information. This factor has resulted in substantial disagreements in evaluating characters and, thus, controversy in establishing a stable classification. To compare competing classifications, we obtained DNA sequences of a chloroplast gene. The sequence of 1206 nt of the large subunit of the ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase gene (rbcL) was determined from 58 species, representing almost all families of leptosporangiate ferns. Phlogenetic trees were inferred by the neighbor-joining and the parsimony methods. The two methods produced almost identical phylogenetic trees that provided insights concerning major general evolutionary trends in the leptosporangiate ferns. Interesting findings were as follows: (i) two morphologically distinct heterosporous water ferns, Marsilea and Salvinia, are sister genera; (ii) the tree ferns (Cyatheaceae, Dicksoniaceae, and Metaxyaceae) are monophyletic; and (iii) polypodioids are distantly related to the gleichenioids in spite of the similarity of their exindusiate soral morphology and are close to the higher indusiate ferns. In addition, the affinities of several "problematic genera" were assessed.

  1. Lessons from applied ecology: cancer control using an evolutionary double bind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatenby, Robert A; Brown, Joel; Vincent, Thomas

    2009-10-01

    Because the metastatic cascade is largely governed by the ability of malignant cells to adapt and proliferate at the distant tissue site, we propose that disseminated cancers are analogous in many important ways to the evolutionary and ecological dynamics of exotic species. Although pests can be decimated through the application of chemical toxins, this strategy virtually never achieves robust control as evolution of resistant phenotypes typically permits population recovery to pretreatment levels. In general, biological strategies that introduce predators, parasitoids, or pathogens have achieved more durable control of pest populations even after emergence of resistant phenotypes. From this we propose that long term outcome from any treatment strategy for invasive pests, including cancer, is not limited by evolution of resistance, but rather by the phenotypic cost of that resistance. If a cancerous cell's adaptation to therapy is achieved by upregulating xenobiotic metabolism or a redundant signaling pathway, the required investment in resources is small, and the original malignant phenotype remains essentially intact. As a result, the cancer cells' initial high level of fitness is little changed and unconstrained proliferation will resume once resistance evolves. Robust population control is possible if resistance to therapy requires a substantial and costly phenotypic adaptation that also significantly reduces the organism's fitness in its original niche: an evolutionary double bind.

  2. The deep subterranean environment as a potential model system in ecological, biogeographical and evolutionary research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sánchez-Fernández

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges in ecology, biogeography and evolution is to understand and predict how species may respond to environmental changes. Here we focus on the deep subterranean environment, a system that minimizes most of the typical uncertainties of studies on epigean (surface environments. Caves are relatively homogeneous habitats with nearly constant environmental conditions and simplified biological communities, allowing to control for biotic interactions. Thus, this particular system could be considered a natural habitat whose environmental conditions are similar to what can be reproduced in a laboratory, being an ideal model system for ecological, biogeographical and evolutionary studies. Subterranean species may potentially be used to assess the capability to persist in situ in a global change scenario, as they cannot accommodate to drastic changing conditions by behavioural plasticity, microhabitat use or by migrating to distant, more suitable areas, something frequent in epigean environments. In order to provide accurate predictions of the response of the subterranean biodiversity to climate change, we encourage evolutionary biologist, biogeographers and conservation biologist to work in this interesting ecosystem.

  3. Skeletal remodelling suggests the turtle's shell is not an evolutionary straitjacket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Gerardo Antonio; Quinteros, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    Recent efforts to decipher the enigma of the turtle's shell revealed that distantly related turtle species deploy diverse processes during shell development. Even so, extant species share in common a shoulder blade (scapula) that is encapsulated within the shell. Thus, evolutionary change in the correlated development of the shell and scapula probably underpins the evolution of highly derived shell morphologies. To address this expectation, we conducted one of the most phylogenetically comprehensive surveys of turtle development, focusing on scapula growth and differentiation in embryos, hatchlings and adults of 13 species. We report, to our knowledge, the first description of secondary differentiation owing to skeletal remodelling of the tetrapod scapula in turtles with the most structurally derived shell phenotypes. Remodelling and secondary differentiation late in embryogenesis of box turtles (Emys and Terrapene) yielded a novel skeletal segment (i.e. the suprascapula) of high functional value to their complex shell-closing system. Remarkably, our analyses suggest that, in soft-shelled turtles (Trionychidae) with extremely flattened shells, a similar transformation is linked to truncated scapula growth. Skeletal remodelling, as a form of developmental plasticity, might enable the seemingly constrained turtle body plan to diversify, suggesting the shell is not an evolutionary straitjacket. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Evolutionary thinking: "A conversation with Carter Phipps about the role of evolutionary thinking in modern culture".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Tam

    2014-12-01

    Evolution as an idea has a lengthy history, even though the idea of evolution is generally associated with Darwin today. Rebecca Stott provides an engaging and thoughtful overview of this history of evolutionary thinking in her 2013 book, Darwin's Ghosts: The Secret History of Evolution. Since Darwin, the debate over evolution-both how it takes place and, in a long war of words with religiously-oriented thinkers, whether it takes place-has been sustained and heated. A growing share of this debate is now devoted to examining how evolutionary thinking affects areas outside of biology. How do our lives change when we recognize that all is in flux? What can we learn about life more generally if we study change instead of stasis? Carter Phipps' book, Evolutionaries: Unlocking the Spiritual and Cultural Potential of Science's Greatest Idea, delves deep into this relatively new development. Phipps generally takes as a given the validity of the Modern Synthesis of evolutionary biology. His story takes us into, as the subtitle suggests, the spiritual and cultural implications of evolutionary thinking. Can religion and evolution be reconciled? Can evolutionary thinking lead to a new type of spirituality? Is our culture already being changed in ways that we don't realize by evolutionary thinking? These are all important questions and Phipps book is a great introduction to this discussion. Phipps is an author, journalist, and contributor to the emerging "integral" or "evolutionary" cultural movement that combines the insights of Integral Philosophy, evolutionary science, developmental psychology, and the social sciences. He has served as the Executive Editor of EnlightenNext magazine (no longer published) and more recently is the co-founder of the Institute for Cultural Evolution, a public policy think tank addressing the cultural roots of America's political challenges. What follows is an email interview with Phipps.

  5. Amnesia, rehearsal, and temporal distinctiveness models of recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gordon D A; Della Sala, Sergio; Foster, Jonathan K; Vousden, Janet I

    2007-04-01

    Classical amnesia involves selective memory impairment for temporally distant items in free recall (impaired primacy) together with relative preservation of memory for recency items. This abnormal serial position curve is traditionally taken as evidence for a distinction between different memory processes, with amnesia being associated with selectively impaired long-term memory. However recent accounts of normal serial position curves have emphasized the importance of rehearsal processes in giving rise to primacy effects and have suggested that a single temporal distinctiveness mechanism can account for both primacy and recency effects when rehearsal is considered. Here we explore the pattern of strategic rehearsal in a patient with very severe amnesia. When the patient's rehearsal pattern is taken into account, a temporal distinctiveness model can account for the serial position curve in both amnesic and control free recall. The results are taken as consistent with temporal distinctiveness models of free recall, and they motivate an emphasis on rehearsal patterns in understanding amnesic deficits in free recall.

  6. Optimizing Temporal Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toman, David; Bowman, Ivan Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Recent research in the area of temporal databases has proposed a number of query languages that vary in their expressive power and the semantics they provide to users. These query languages represent a spectrum of solutions to the tension between clean semantics and efficient evaluation. Often, t...

  7. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia, Frank Dan

    2002-01-01

    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied...

  8. Temporal Photon Differentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Erleben, Kenny

    2010-01-01

    The finite frame rate also used in computer animated films is cause of adverse temporal aliasing effects. Most noticeable of these is a stroboscopic effect that is seen as intermittent movement of fast moving illumination. This effect can be mitigated using non-zero shutter times, effectively...

  9. Temporal compressive sensing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Bryan W.

    2017-12-12

    Methods and systems for temporal compressive sensing are disclosed, where within each of one or more sensor array data acquisition periods, one or more sensor array measurement datasets comprising distinct linear combinations of time slice data are acquired, and where mathematical reconstruction allows for calculation of accurate representations of the individual time slice datasets.

  10. Information and Temporality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Flender

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Being able to give reasons for what the world is and how it works is one of the defining characteristics of modernity. Mathematical reason and empirical observation brought science and engineering to unprecedented success. However, modernity has reached a post-state where an instrumental view of technology needs revision with reasonable arguments and evidence, i.e. without falling back to superstition and mysticism. Instrumentally, technology bears the potential to ease and to harm. Easing and harming can't be controlled like the initial development of technology is a controlled exercise for a specific, mostly easing purpose. Therefore, a revised understanding of information technology is proposed based upon mathematical concepts and intuitions as developed in quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics offers unequaled opportunities because it raises foundational questions in a precise form. Beyond instrumentalism it enables to raise the question of essences as that what remains through time what it is. The essence of information technology is acausality. The time of acausality is temporality. Temporality is not a concept or a category. It is not epistemological. As an existential and thus more comprehensive and fundamental than a concept or a category temporality is ontological; it does not simply have ontic properties. Rather it exhibits general essences. Datability, significance, spannedness and openness are general essences of equiprimordial time (temporality.

  11. Temporal logic motion planning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seotsanyana, M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a critical review on temporal logic motion planning is presented. The review paper aims to address the following problems: (a) In a realistic situation, the motion planning problem is carried out in real-time, in a dynamic, uncertain...

  12. Experimental temporal quantum steering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartkiewicz, K.; Černoch, Antonín; Lemr, K.; Miranowicz, A.; Nori, F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, Nov (2016), 1-8, č. článku 38076. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : temporal quantum steering * EPR steering Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  13. Development links psychological causes to evolutionary explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedyk, Mark; Kushnir, Tamar

    2014-04-01

    Our conscious abilities are learned in environments that have evolved to support them. This insight provides an alternative way of framing Huang & Bargh's (H&B's) provocative hypothesis. To understand the conflict between unconscious goals and consciousness, we can study the emergence of conscious thought and control in childhood. These developmental processes are also central to the best available current evolutionary theories.

  14. Evolutionary Algorithms for Boolean Queries Optimization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Húsek, Dušan; Snášel, Václav; Neruda, Roman; Owais, S.S.J.; Krömer, P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2006), s. 15-20 ISSN 1790-0832 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300414 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : evolutionary algorithms * genetic algorithms * information retrieval * Boolean query Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  15. Function Follows Performance in Evolutionary Computational Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasold, Anke; Foged, Isak Worre

    2011-01-01

    As the title ‘Function Follows Performance in Evolutionary Computational Processing’ suggests, this paper explores the potentials of employing multiple design and evaluation criteria within one processing model in order to account for a number of performative parameters desired within varied...

  16. Evolutionary convergence and biologically embodied cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, Franciscus

    2017-01-01

    The study of evolutionary patterns of cognitive convergence would be greatly helped by a clear demarcation of cognition. Cognition is often used as an equivalent of mind, making it difficult to pin down empirically or to apply it confidently beyond the human condition. Recent developments in

  17. Indoor Thermal Comfort, an Evolutionary Biology Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoops, John L.

    2006-04-15

    As is becoming increasingly clear, the human species evolvedin the East African savannah. Details of the precise evolutionary chainremain unresolved however it appears that the process lasted severalmillion years, culminating with the emergence of modern Homo sapiensroughly 200,000 years ago. Following that final evolutionary developmentmodern Homo sapiens relatively quickly populated the entire world.Clearly modern Homo sapiens is a successful, resourceful and adaptablespecies. In the developed societies, modern humans live an existence farremoved from our evolutionary ancestors. As we have learned over the lastcentury, this "new" lifestyle can often result in unintendedconsequences. Clearly, our modern access to food, shelter, transportationand healthcare has resulted in greatly expanded expected lifespan butthis new lifestyle can also result in the emergence of different kinds ofdiseases and health problems. The environment in modern buildings haslittle resemblance to the environment of the savannah. We strive tocreate environments with little temperature, air movement and lightvariation. Building occupants often express great dissatisfaction withthese modern created environments and a significant fraction even developsomething akin to allergies to specific buildings (sick buildingsyndrome). Are the indoor environments we are creating fundamentallyunhealthy -- when examined from an evolutionary perspective?

  18. On evolutionary ray-projection dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, Reinoud A.M.G.; Roorda, Berend

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the ray-projection dynamics in evolutionary game theory by employing a ray projection of the relative fitness (vector) function, i.e., a projection unto the unit simplex along a ray through the origin. Ray-projection dynamics are weakly compatible in the terminology of Friedman

  19. Evolutionary Biology: Its Value to Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Hampton L.

    1972-01-01

    Cites examples of the contribution of basic research in evolutionary biology to the solution of problems facing society (1) by dispelling myths about human origins, the nature of the individual, and the nature of race (2) by providing basic data concerning the effects of overpopulation, the production of improved sources of food, resistance of…

  20. 2004 Structural, Function and Evolutionary Genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas L. Brutlag Nancy Ryan Gray

    2005-03-23

    This Gordon conference will cover the areas of structural, functional and evolutionary genomics. It will take a systematic approach to genomics, examining the evolution of proteins, protein functional sites, protein-protein interactions, regulatory networks, and metabolic networks. Emphasis will be placed on what we can learn from comparative genomics and entire genomes and proteomes.

  1. Extracting the evolutionary signal from genomes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutilh, B.E.

    2007-01-01

    Several methods to analyze aspects of evolution are developed, that depend on the availability of complete genomes. While I consistently find a phylogenetic signal using many approaches, a question that is winning concern is how these evolutionary relationships should be interpreted. Since Darwin’s

  2. Static and evolutionary quantum public goods games

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao Zeyang; Qin Gan; Hu Lingzhi; Li Songjian; Xu Nanyang [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Du Jiangfeng [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany)], E-mail: djf@ustc.edu.cn

    2008-05-12

    We apply the continuous-variable quantization scheme to quantize public goods game and find that new pure strategy Nash equilibria emerge in the static case. Furthermore, in the evolutionary public goods game, entanglement can also contribute to the persistence of cooperation under various population structures without altruism, voluntary participation, and punishment.

  3. Special issue on evolutionary theories of religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKay, Ryan

    Redaktionen af et temanummer i Journal for the Cognitive Science of Religion 4 (1) 2016: 1-90 med en række bidrag som respons til en targetartikel skrevet af Jonathan H. Turner med titlen "Using Neurosociology and Evolutionary Sociology to Explain the Origin and Evolution of Religions". Der er ko...

  4. On the Evolutionary Bases of Consumer Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Michael; Xiao, Sarah Hong

    2010-01-01

    This article locates consumer behavior analysis within the modern neo-Darwinian synthesis, seeking to establish an interface between the ultimate-level theorizing of human evolutionary psychology and the proximate level of inquiry typically favored by operant learning theorists. Following an initial overview of the central tenets of neo-Darwinism,…

  5. The essence of Schumpeter's evolutionary economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    Schumpeter’s unique type of evolutionary analysis can hardly be understood unless we recognise that he developed it in relation to a study of the strength and weaknesses of the Walrasian form of neoclassical economics. The paper demonstrates that Schumpeter’s major steps were already performed in...

  6. Food processing optimization using evolutionary algorithms | Enitan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evolutionary algorithms are widely used in single and multi-objective optimization. They are easy to use and provide solution(s) in one simulation run. They are used in food processing industries for decision making. Food processing presents constrained and unconstrained optimization problems. This paper reviews the ...

  7. BEAST: Bayesian evolutionary analysis by sampling trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drummond Alexei J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolutionary analysis of molecular sequence variation is a statistical enterprise. This is reflected in the increased use of probabilistic models for phylogenetic inference, multiple sequence alignment, and molecular population genetics. Here we present BEAST: a fast, flexible software architecture for Bayesian analysis of molecular sequences related by an evolutionary tree. A large number of popular stochastic models of sequence evolution are provided and tree-based models suitable for both within- and between-species sequence data are implemented. Results BEAST version 1.4.6 consists of 81000 lines of Java source code, 779 classes and 81 packages. It provides models for DNA and protein sequence evolution, highly parametric coalescent analysis, relaxed clock phylogenetics, non-contemporaneous sequence data, statistical alignment and a wide range of options for prior distributions. BEAST source code is object-oriented, modular in design and freely available at http://beast-mcmc.googlecode.com/ under the GNU LGPL license. Conclusion BEAST is a powerful and flexible evolutionary analysis package for molecular sequence variation. It also provides a resource for the further development of new models and statistical methods of evolutionary analysis.

  8. The Microfoundations of Macroeconomics: An Evolutionary Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergh, van den Jeroen C.J.M.; Gowdy, John M.

    2000-01-01

    We consider the microfoundations controversy from the perspective ofeconomic evolution and show that the debate can benefit from lessons learned in evolutionary biology. Although the analogy between biology and economics has been noted before, it has rarely focused on clarifying the micro-macro

  9. Structured synthesis of MEMS using evolutionary approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Zhun; Wang, Jiachuan; Achiche, Sofiane

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the hierarchy that is involved in a typical MEMS design and how evolutionary approaches can be used to automate the hierarchical synthesis process for MEMS. The paper first introduces the flow of a structured MEMS design process and emphasizes that system-level lumped...

  10. Face Alignment Using Boosting and Evolutionary Search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Hua; Liu, Duanduan; Poel, Mannes; Nijholt, Antinus; Zha, H.; Taniguchi, R.-I.; Maybank, S.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a face alignment approach using granular features, boosting, and an evolutionary search algorithm. Active Appearance Models (AAM) integrate a shape-texture-combined morphable face model into an efficient fitting strategy, then Boosting Appearance Models (BAM) consider the

  11. Genetic variations and evolutionary relationships among radishes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships among red radishes, 37 accessions with different flesh colors were analyzed in terms of the red pigment content, karyotypes, and simple sequence repeat markers. Red pigment content of red radish was 3.4 to 28.8% with an average of 15.62%. The karyotype ...

  12. The emerging empirics of evolutionary economic geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, R.A.; Frenken, K.

    2011-01-01

    Following last decade’s programmatic papers on Evolutionary Economic Geography, we report on recent empirical advances and how this empirical work can be positioned vis-a`-vis other strands of research in economic geography. First, we review studies on the path dependent nature of clustering, and

  13. The emerging empirics of evolutionary economic geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, R.A.; Frenken, K.

    2010-01-01

    Following last decade’s programmatic papers on Evolutionary Economic Geography, we report on recent empirical advances and how this empirical work can be positioned vis-à-vis other strands of research in economic geography. First, we review studies on the path dependent nature of clustering, and how

  14. The emerging empirics of evolutionary economic geography.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, R.A.; Frenken, K.

    2011-01-01

    Following last decade’s programmatic papers on Evolutionary Economic Geography, we report on recent empirical advances and how this empirical work can be positioned vis-a`-vis other strands of research in economic geography. First, we review studies on the path dependent nature of clustering, and

  15. An Evolutionary Perspective on War Heroism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusch, Hannes; Störmer, C.

    2015-01-01

    Humans are one of the most cooperative and altruistic species on the planet. At the same time, humans have a long history of violent and deadly intergroup conflicts or wars. Recently, contemporary evolutionary theorists have revived Charles Darwin’s idea that human in-group altruism and out-group

  16. Evolutionary heritage influences amazon tree ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, De Fernanda Coelho; Dexter, Kyle G.; Phillips, Oliver L.; Brienen, Roel J.W.; Chave, Jerome; Galbraith, David R.; Gonzalez, Gabriela Lopez; Mendoza, Abel Monteagudo; Toby Pennington, R.; Poorter, Lourens; Arets, E.J.M.M.; Boot, Rene G.A.; Meer, van der Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Lineages tend to retain ecological characteristics of their ancestors through time. However, for some traits, selection during evolutionary history may have also played a role in determining trait values. To address the relative importance of these processes requires large-scale quantification of

  17. A Clustal Alignment Improver Using Evolutionary Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rene; Fogel, Gary B.; Krink, Thimo

    2002-01-01

    Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is a crucial task in bioinformatics. In this paper we extended previous work with evolutionary algorithms (EA) by using MSA solutions obtained from the wellknown Clustal V algorithm as a candidate solution seed of the initial EA population. Our results clearly show...

  18. An evolutionary basis for pollination ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemstein, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    In the introduction and chapter 2 the incentives and way of reasoning are given for the description of an evolutionary basis of pollination ecology. Starting from the until recently rather anecdotical character of the study of pollination ecology as a whole, and in the absence of large-scale

  19. Communication, Technology, Temporality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Martinez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a media studies that foregrounds technological objects as communicative and historical agents. Specifically, I take the digital computer as a powerful catalyst of crises in communication theories and certain key features of modernity. Finally, the computer is the motor of “New Media” which is at once a set of technologies, a historical epoch, and a field of knowledge. As such the computer shapes “the new” and “the future” as History pushes its origins further in the past and its convergent quality pushes its future as a predominate medium. As treatment of information and interface suggest, communication theories observe computers, and technologies generally, for the mediated languages they either afford or foreclose to us. My project describes the figures information and interface for the different ways they can be thought of as aspects of communication. I treat information not as semantic meaning, formal or discursive language, but rather as a physical organism. Similarly an interface is not a relationship between a screen and a human visual intelligence, but is instead a reciprocal, affective and physical process of contact. I illustrate that historically there have been conceptions of information and interface complimentary to mine, fleeting as they have been in the face of a dominant temporality of mediation. I begin with a theoretically informed approach to media history, and extend it to a new theory of communication. In doing so I discuss a model of time common to popular, scientific, and critical conceptions of media technologies especially in theories of computer technology. This is a predominate model with particular rules of temporal change and causality for thinking about mediation, and limits the conditions of possibility for knowledge production about communication. I suggest a new model of time as integral to any event of observation and analysis, and that human mediation does not exhaust the

  20. Beclin 1 Expression is Closely Linked to Colorectal Carcinogenesis and Distant Metastasis of Colorectal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Ying Zhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Beclin 1 participates in development, autophagy, differentiation, anti- apoptosis, neurodegeneration, tumorigenesis and cancer progression. The roles of Beclin 1 in colorectal carcinogenesis and its subsequent progression are still unclear. Here, the mRNA and protein expression of Beclin 1 were determined in colorectal carcinoma and matched mucosa by Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization (ISH were performed on tissue microarryer with colorectal carcinoma, adenoma and mucosa. The expression of Beclin 1 mRNA and protein was found to be higher in colorectal carcinoma than matched mucosa by real-time PCR and Western blot (p < 0.05. According to the ISH data, Beclin 1 expression was lower in colorectal non-neoplastic mucosa (NNM than adenoma and carcinoma (p < 0.05. Immunohistochemically, primary carcinoma showed stronger Beclin 1 expression than NNM and metastatic carcinoma in the liver (p < 0.05. Beclin 1 protein expression was negatively related to liver and distant metastasis (p < 0.05, but not correlated with age, sex, depth of invasion, lymphatic or venous invasion, lymph node metastasis, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM staging, differentiation or serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA concentration (p > 0.05. Survival analysis indicated that Beclin 1 expression was not linked to favorable prognosis of the patients with colorectal carcinoma (p > 0.05. Cox’s model indicated that depth of invasion and distant metastasis were independent prognostic factors for colorectal carcinomas (p < 0.05. It was suggested that Beclin 1 expression is closely linked to colorectal carcinogenesis and distant metastasis of colorectal carcinoma.

  1. Influence of road network and population demand assumptions in evacuation modeling for distant tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Kevin; Wood, Nathan J.; Frazier, Tim G.

    2017-01-01

    Tsunami evacuation planning in coastal communities is typically focused on local events where at-risk individuals must move on foot in a matter of minutes to safety. Less attention has been placed on distant tsunamis, where evacuations unfold over several hours, are often dominated by vehicle use and are managed by public safety officials. Traditional traffic simulation models focus on estimating clearance times but often overlook the influence of varying population demand, alternative modes, background traffic, shadow evacuation, and traffic management alternatives. These factors are especially important for island communities with limited egress options to safety. We use the coastal community of Balboa Island, California (USA), as a case study to explore the range of potential clearance times prior to wave arrival for a distant tsunami scenario. We use a first-in–first-out queuing simulation environment to estimate variations in clearance times, given varying assumptions of the evacuating population (demand) and the road network over which they evacuate (supply). Results suggest clearance times are less than wave arrival times for a distant tsunami, except when we assume maximum vehicle usage for residents, employees, and tourists for a weekend scenario. A two-lane bridge to the mainland was the primary traffic bottleneck, thereby minimizing the effect of departure times, shadow evacuations, background traffic, boat-based evacuations, and traffic light timing on overall community clearance time. Reducing vehicular demand generally reduced clearance time, whereas improvements to road capacity had mixed results. Finally, failure to recognize non-residential employee and tourist populations in the vehicle demand substantially underestimated clearance time.

  2. Literature mining of protein-residue associations with graph rules learned through distant supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikumar KE

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We propose a method for automatic extraction of protein-specific residue mentions from the biomedical literature. The method searches text for mentions of amino acids at specific sequence positions and attempts to correctly associate each mention with a protein also named in the text. The methods presented in this work will enable improved protein functional site extraction from articles, ultimately supporting protein function prediction. Our method made use of linguistic patterns for identifying the amino acid residue mentions in text. Further, we applied an automated graph-based method to learn syntactic patterns corresponding to protein-residue pairs mentioned in the text. We finally present an approach to automated construction of relevant training and test data using the distant supervision model. Results The performance of the method was assessed by extracting protein-residue relations from a new automatically generated test set of sentences containing high confidence examples found using distant supervision. It achieved a F-measure of 0.84 on automatically created silver corpus and 0.79 on a manually annotated gold data set for this task, outperforming previous methods. Conclusions The primary contributions of this work are to (1 demonstrate the effectiveness of distant supervision for automatic creation of training data for protein-residue relation extraction, substantially reducing the effort and time involved in manual annotation of a data set and (2 show that the graph-based relation extraction approach we used generalizes well to the problem of protein-residue association extraction. This work paves the way towards effective extraction of protein functional residues from the literature.

  3. Literature mining of protein-residue associations with graph rules learned through distant supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, Ke; Liu, Haibin; Cohn, Judith D; Wall, Michael E; Verspoor, Karin

    2012-10-05

    We propose a method for automatic extraction of protein-specific residue mentions from the biomedical literature. The method searches text for mentions of amino acids at specific sequence positions and attempts to correctly associate each mention with a protein also named in the text. The methods presented in this work will enable improved protein functional site extraction from articles, ultimately supporting protein function prediction. Our method made use of linguistic patterns for identifying the amino acid residue mentions in text. Further, we applied an automated graph-based method to learn syntactic patterns corresponding to protein-residue pairs mentioned in the text. We finally present an approach to automated construction of relevant training and test data using the distant supervision model. The performance of the method was assessed by extracting protein-residue relations from a new automatically generated test set of sentences containing high confidence examples found using distant supervision. It achieved a F-measure of 0.84 on automatically created silver corpus and 0.79 on a manually annotated gold data set for this task, outperforming previous methods. The primary contributions of this work are to (1) demonstrate the effectiveness of distant supervision for automatic creation of training data for protein-residue relation extraction, substantially reducing the effort and time involved in manual annotation of a data set and (2) show that the graph-based relation extraction approach we used generalizes well to the problem of protein-residue association extraction. This work paves the way towards effective extraction of protein functional residues from the literature.

  4. Temporal focus, temporal distance, and mind-wandering valence: Results from an experience sampling and an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spronken, Maitta; Holland, Rob W; Figner, Bernd; Dijksterhuis, Ap

    2016-04-01

    When mind-wandering, people may think about events that happened in the past, or events that may happen in the future. Using experience sampling, we first aimed to replicate the finding that future-oriented thoughts show a greater positivity bias than past-oriented thoughts. Furthermore, we investigated whether there is a relation between the temporal distance of past- and future-oriented thoughts and the frequency of positive thoughts, a factor that has received little attention in previous work. Second, we experimentally investigated the relation between temporal focus, temporal distance, and thought valence. Both studies showed that future-oriented thoughts were more positive compared to past-oriented thoughts. Regarding temporal distance, thoughts about the distant past and future were more positive than thoughts about the near past and future in the experiment. However, the experience sampling study did not provide clear insight into this relation. Potential theoretical and methodological explanations for these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The four cornerstones of Evolutionary Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickham, John W

    2011-05-01

    Evolutionary Toxicology is the study of the effects of chemical pollutants on the genetics of natural populations. Research in Evolutionary Toxicology uses experimental designs familiar to the ecotoxicologist with matched reference and contaminated sites and the selection of sentinel species. It uses the methods of molecular genetics and population genetics, and is based on the theories and concepts of evolutionary biology and conservation genetics. Although it is a relatively young field, interest is rapidly growing among ecotoxicologists and more and more field studies and even controlled laboratory experiments are appearing in the literature. A number of population genetic impacts have been observed in organisms exposed to pollutants which I refer to here as the four cornerstones of Evolutionary Toxicology. These include (1) genome-wide changes in genetic diversity, (2) changes in allelic or genotypic frequencies caused by contaminant-induced selection acting at survivorship loci, (3) changes in dispersal patterns or gene flow which alter the genetic relationships among populations, and (4) changes in allelic or genotypic frequencies caused by increased mutation rates. It is concluded that population genetic impacts of pollution exposure are emergent effects that are not necessarily predictable from the mode of toxicity of the pollutant. Thus, to attribute an effect to a particular contaminant requires a careful experimental design which includes selection of appropriate reference sites, detailed chemistry analyses of environmental samples and tissues, and the use of appropriate biomarkers to establish exposure and effect. This paper describes the field of Evolutionary Toxicology and discusses relevant field studies and their findings. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

  6. Shaping communicative colour signals over evolutionary time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyola Morales, José R.; Vital-García, Cuauhcihuatl; Hews, Diana K.; Martins, Emília P.

    2016-01-01

    Many evolutionary forces can shape the evolution of communicative signals, and the long-term impact of each force may depend on relative timing and magnitude. We use a phylogenetic analysis to infer the history of blue belly patches of Sceloporus lizards, and a detailed spectrophotometric analysis of four species to explore the specific forces shaping evolutionary change. We find that the ancestor of Sceloporus had blue patches. We then focus on four species; the first evolutionary shift (captured by comparison of S. merriami and S. siniferus) represents an ancient loss of the belly patch by S. siniferus, and the second evolutionary shift, bounded by S. undulatus and S. virgatus, represents a more recent loss of blue belly patch by S. virgatus. Conspicuousness measurements suggest that the species with the recent loss (S. virgatus) is the least conspicuous. Results for two other species (S. siniferus and S. merriami) suggest that over longer periods of evolutionary time, new signal colours have arisen which minimize absolute contrast with the habitat while maximizing conspicuousness to a lizard receiver. Specifically, males of the species representing an ancient loss of blue patch (S. siniferus) are more conspicuous than are females in the UV, whereas S. merriami males have evolved a green element that makes their belly patches highly sexually dimorphic but no more conspicuous than the white bellies of S. merriami females. Thus, our results suggest that natural selection may act more immediately to reduce conspicuousness, whereas sexual selection may have a more complex impact on communicative signals through the introduction of new colours. PMID:28018661

  7. Evolutionary morphology in shape and size of haptoral anchors in 14 Ligophorus spp. (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-González, Abril; Sarabeev, Volodimir; Balbuena, Juan Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The search for phylogenetic signal in morphological traits using geometric morphometrics represents a powerful approach to estimate the relative weights of convergence and shared evolutionary history in shaping organismal form. We assessed phylogenetic signal in the form of ventral and dorsal haptoral anchors of 14 species of Ligophorus occurring on grey mullets (Osteichthyes: Mugilidae) from the Mediterranean, the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The phylogenetic relationships among these species were mapped onto the morphospaces of shape and size of dorsal and ventral anchors and two different tests were applied to establish whether the spatial positions in the morphospace were dictated by chance. Overall significant phylogenetic signal was found in the data. Allometric effects on anchor shape were moderate or non-significant in the case of evolutionary allometry. Relatively phylogenetically distant species occurring on the same host differed markedly in anchor morphology indicating little influence of host species on anchor form. Our results suggest that common descent and shared evolutionary history play a major role in determining the shape and, to a lesser degree in the size of haptoral anchors in Ligophorus spp. The present approach allowed tracing paths of morphological evolution in anchor shape. Species with narrow anchors and long shafts were associated predominately with Liza saliens. This morphology was considered to be ancestral relative to anchors of species occurring on Liza haematocheila and M. cephalus possessing shorter shafts and longer roots. Evidence for phylogenetic signal was more compelling for the ventral anchors, than for the dorsal ones, which could reflect different functional roles in attachment to the gills. Although phylogeny and homoplasy may act differently in other monogeneans, the present study delivers a common framework to address effectively the relationships among morphology, phylogeny and other traits, such as host specificity

  8. Evolutionary morphology in shape and size of haptoral anchors in 14 Ligophorus spp. (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abril Rodríguez-González

    Full Text Available The search for phylogenetic signal in morphological traits using geometric morphometrics represents a powerful approach to estimate the relative weights of convergence and shared evolutionary history in shaping organismal form. We assessed phylogenetic signal in the form of ventral and dorsal haptoral anchors of 14 species of Ligophorus occurring on grey mullets (Osteichthyes: Mugilidae from the Mediterranean, the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The phylogenetic relationships among these species were mapped onto the morphospaces of shape and size of dorsal and ventral anchors and two different tests were applied to establish whether the spatial positions in the morphospace were dictated by chance. Overall significant phylogenetic signal was found in the data. Allometric effects on anchor shape were moderate or non-significant in the case of evolutionary allometry. Relatively phylogenetically distant species occurring on the same host differed markedly in anchor morphology indicating little influence of host species on anchor form. Our results suggest that common descent and shared evolutionary history play a major role in determining the shape and, to a lesser degree in the size of haptoral anchors in Ligophorus spp. The present approach allowed tracing paths of morphological evolution in anchor shape. Species with narrow anchors and long shafts were associated predominately with Liza saliens. This morphology was considered to be ancestral relative to anchors of species occurring on Liza haematocheila and M. cephalus possessing shorter shafts and longer roots. Evidence for phylogenetic signal was more compelling for the ventral anchors, than for the dorsal ones, which could reflect different functional roles in attachment to the gills. Although phylogeny and homoplasy may act differently in other monogeneans, the present study delivers a common framework to address effectively the relationships among morphology, phylogeny and other traits, such

  9. Comparative Genomic Analyses Provide New Insights into the Evolutionary Dynamics of Heterochromatin in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caizzi, Ruggiero; Moschetti, Roberta; Piacentini, Lucia; Fanti, Laura; Marsano, Renè Massimiliano; Dimitri, Patrizio

    2016-08-01

    The term heterochromatin has been long considered synonymous with gene silencing, but it is now clear that the presence of transcribed genes embedded in pericentromeric heterochromatin is a conserved feature in the evolution of eukaryotic genomes. Several studies have addressed the epigenetic changes that enable the expression of genes in pericentric heterochromatin, yet little is known about the evolutionary processes through which this has occurred. By combining genome annotation analysis and high-resolution cytology, we have identified and mapped 53 orthologs of D. melanogaster heterochromatic genes in the genomes of two evolutionarily distant species, D. pseudoobscura and D. virilis. Our results show that the orthologs of the D. melanogaster heterochromatic genes are clustered at three main genomic regions in D. virilis and D. pseudoobscura. In D. virilis, the clusters lie in the middle of euchromatin, while those in D. pseudoobscura are located in the proximal portion of the chromosome arms. Some orthologs map to the corresponding Muller C element in D. pseudoobscura and D. virilis, while others localize on the Muller B element, suggesting that chromosomal rearrangements that have been instrumental in the fusion of two separate elements involved the progenitors of genes currently located in D. melanogaster heterochromatin. These results demonstrate an evolutionary repositioning of gene clusters from ancestral locations in euchromatin to the pericentromeric heterochromatin of descendent D. melanogaster chromosomes. Remarkably, in both D. virilis and D. pseudoobscura the gene clusters show a conserved association with the HP1a protein, one of the most highly evolutionarily conserved epigenetic marks. In light of these results, we suggest a new scenario whereby ancestral HP1-like proteins (and possibly other epigenetic marks) may have contributed to the evolutionary repositioning of gene clusters into heterochromatin.

  10. Photo-acoustic and video-acoustic methods for sensing distant sound sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Dan; Kozacik, Stephen; Kelmelis, Eric

    2017-05-01

    Long range telescopic video imagery of distant terrestrial scenes, aircraft, rockets and other aerospace vehicles can be a powerful observational tool. But what about the associated acoustic activity? A new technology, Remote Acoustic Sensing (RAS), may provide a method to remotely listen to the acoustic activity near these distant objects. Local acoustic activity sometimes weakly modulates the ambient illumination in a way that can be remotely sensed. RAS is a new type of microphone that separates an acoustic transducer into two spatially separated components: 1) a naturally formed in situ acousto-optic modulator (AOM) located within the distant scene and 2) a remote sensing readout device that recovers the distant audio. These two elements are passively coupled over long distances at the speed of light by naturally occurring ambient light energy or other electromagnetic fields. Stereophonic, multichannel and acoustic beam forming are all possible using RAS techniques and when combined with high-definition video imagery it can help to provide a more cinema like immersive viewing experience. A practical implementation of a remote acousto-optic readout device can be a challenging engineering problem. The acoustic influence on the optical signal is generally weak and often with a strong bias term. The optical signal is further degraded by atmospheric seeing turbulence. In this paper, we consider two fundamentally different optical readout approaches: 1) a low pixel count photodiode based RAS photoreceiver and 2) audio extraction directly from a video stream. Most of our RAS experiments to date have used the first method for reasons of performance and simplicity. But there are potential advantages to extracting audio directly from a video stream. These advantages include the straight forward ability to work with multiple AOMs (useful for acoustic beam forming), simpler optical configurations, and a potential ability to use certain preexisting video recordings. However

  11. La seducción del mal en Estrella Distante de Roberto Bolaño

    OpenAIRE

    Montes, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    En el presente artículo se trabajará en torno a la novela Estrella distante de Roberto Bolaño. La intención del análisis será demostrar cómo se expresa y opera la seducción del mal al interior de la representación y proponer cuáles son las formas en que el mal encarna en una figura representativa de la dictadura militar chilena.

  12. Polycomb-dependent regulatory contacts between distant Hox loci in Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bantignies, Frédéric; Roure, Virginie; Comet, Itys

    2011-01-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, Hox genes are organized in an anterior and a posterior cluster, called Antennapedia complex and bithorax complex, located on the same chromosome arm and separated by 10 Mb of DNA. Both clusters are repressed by Polycomb group (PcG) proteins. Here, we show that genes...... of the two Hox complexes can interact within nuclear PcG bodies in tissues where they are corepressed. This colocalization increases during development and depends on PcG proteins. Hox gene contacts are conserved in the distantly related Drosophila virilis species and they are part of a large gene...

  13. Social representations of climate change in Swedish lay focus groups: local or distant, gradual or catastrophic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibeck, Victoria

    2014-02-01

    This paper explores social representations of climate change, investigating how climate change is discussed by Swedish laypeople interacting in focus group interviews. The analysis focuses on prototypical examples and metaphors, which were key devices for objectifying climate change representations. The paper analyzes how the interaction of focus group participants with other speakers, ideas, arguments, and broader social representations shaped their representations of climate change. Climate change was understood as a global but distant issue with severe consequences. There was a dynamic tension between representations of climate change as a gradual vs. unpredictable process. Implications for climate change communication are discussed.

  14. Four new species of the genus Mongoliana Distant (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae) from southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Rui; Wang, Yinglun; Qin, Daozheng

    2016-01-05

    Four new species in the planthopper genus Mongoliana Distant from southern China (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae) are reported. Three of them, M. bistriata sp. nov., M. latistriata sp. nov. and M. albimaculata sp. nov., are described and illustrated; the fourth new one, M. arcuata sp. nov., is briefly described for M. triangularis Chen, Zhang & Chang which was a misidentification of M. triangularis Che, Wang & Chou. M. recurrens (Butler, 1875) is re-described and remarks for its current status is given. A key to all known species of Mongoliana is provided. The distribution and morphological peculiarities of the genus are briefly discussed.

  15. Feminism and Society: Solidarity Amongst Pakistani Women Still a Distant Dream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Farhat Jabeen

    2013-06-01

    Patriarchal structure of society, socio-customary practices and discrimination against women are very serious concerns/issues which need to be understood as multidimensional problem. This paper examines the role of feminism on gender development in south Asian perspective especially in Pakistan. Pakistani women seem to have been circumscribed in bounds of religious, cultural and national ideologies as envisioned by the patriarchy of Pakistan. Due to certain cultural, male domination state of affairs the solidarity amongst Pakistani women still distant dream. Current research paper would draw attention to issue mentioned above.

  16. Detection and genetic characterization of a novel parvovirus distantly related to human bufavirus in domestic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, Renáta; Pankovics, Péter; Kertész, Attila Mihály; Bíró, Hunor; Boros, Ákos; Phan, Tung Gia; Delwart, Eric; Reuter, Gábor

    2016-04-01

    In this study, a novel parvovirus (strain swine/Zsana3/2013/HUN, KT965075) was detected in domestic pigs and genetically characterized by viral metagenomics and PCR methods. The novel parvovirus was distantly related to the human bufaviruses and was detected in 19 (90.5 %) of the 21 and five (33.3 %) of the 15 faecal samples collected from animals with and without cases of posterior paraplegia of unknown etiology from five affected farms and one control farm in Hungary, respectively. Swine/Zsana3/2013/HUN is highly prevalent in domestic pigs and potentially represents a novel parvovirus species in the subfamily Parvovirinae.

  17. The horror of madness in Estrella distante and Nocturno de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Rocco

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the thematic dimension of madness present in the novels Estrella distante and Nocturno de Chile by Roberto Bolaño in order to determine the various ways by which the narrator subjectivity develops a critical consciousness of madness from the traumatic experience of the Chilean dictatorship. Also, this dimension evidences the articulation of a language of madness as literary aesthetics of artistic experience of limits: the horror. Accordingly, a preliminary analysis of contemporary history as a meeting place between violent media versus artistic media that account for the chiaroscuro of Latin American modernity is offered.

  18. The relationship between tumour size, nodal status and distant metastases: on the origins of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopik, Victoria; Narod, Steven A

    2018-04-24

    In patients with breast cancer, increasing tumour size at diagnosis is associated with an increased likelihood of axillary lymph node involvement and increased breast cancer-specific mortality. However, this relation is based on studies which combine all tumours smaller than 1.0 cm in a single category and all tumours larger than 5.0 cm in another category. This coarse classification may obscure a nuanced description of the effects of tumour size across the full range of possible sizes. We examined the relationship between primary tumour size, lymph node status and distant metastases in a cohort of 819,647 women diagnosed with first primary invasive breast cancer from 1990 to 2014 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registries database. All patients in the cohort had a known primary tumour size between 1 and 150 mm in greatest dimension. Primary tumour size was examined as a continuous (1-150 mm) and categorical variable (15 size groups; 10-mm intervals). For each 1- or 10-mm size group, we determined the proportion of patients with positive lymph nodes at diagnosis, the proportion of patients with distant metastases at diagnosis and the actuarial cumulative risk of breast cancer-specific mortality at 15 years from diagnosis. Among 819,647 patients with invasive breast tumours between 1 and 150 mm in size, there was a non-linear correlation between increasing tumour size and the prevalence of lymph node metastases at diagnosis (% node-positive), the prevalence of distant metastases at diagnosis (% stage IV) and the 15-year rate of breast cancer-specific mortality across the entire size spectrum. For very small tumours (under 10 mm) and for very large tumours (larger than 60-90 mm) there was little correlation between tumour size and metastasis risk. The relationship between tumour size, lymph node status and distant metastases in patients with invasive breast cancer is not linear. This calls into question the conventional model that the

  19. Characteristics of the distant effect of γ-irradiation of seeds for diploid and poliploid plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olimpienko, G.S.; Pavlova, N.A.; Lebedeva, O.N.; Nikolaevskaya, T.S.; Tikhonov, P.V.

    1995-01-01

    In comparative radiobiological and cytogenetic study of three species of grasses (Festuca pratensis Huds., 2x=14, Dactylis glomerata L., 2x=28. Festuca rubra L., 2x=42) it was found that the distant cytogenetic effects of γ-irradiation of seeds were different in diploids and polyploids. The rate of abberant cells was higher in poliploids. The latter is connected with delay of cell division that is unequally expressed for diploids and polyploids. We suggest that cytogenetic effects dependency on division delay and interphase death of cells is spreaded to more than one generation. 7 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  20. Incidence and kinetics of distant metastases in patients with operable breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryj, M.; Maciejewski, B.; Withers, H.R.; Taylor, J.M.G.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the incidence and kinetics of distant metastases in operable breast cancer and to relate these estimates to various tumor and patient characteristics. The records of 309 consecutive patients with operable breast cancer in stage T 1-4 N 0-1 M 0 were reviewed, and the incidence of distant metastases (DM) and death due to DM were evaluated. 195 patients had positive axillary nodes with following distribution of the number of nodes: 45% had 1-2 node, 16% had 3-4 nodes, 14% and 25% had 5-7 and more nodes, respectively. All patients were treated with radical mastectomy with axillary nodes dissection (the only treatment in 39% of cases). In 198 cases radical mastectomy was combined with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy given pre- or postoperatively. Hormonal treatment was given in 27% of cases. Minimum follow-up was 10 years. Distant metastases were found in 150 cases (49%) and in 78 cases (25%) they develop early, during the first 18 months follow-up. Average rate of DM in N 0 cases was 25%. Number of involved nodes and extra-capsular invasion were found significant and independent prognostic factors. High risk (%)%) of DM and death due to DM correlate with age T 3 , more than 2 axillary nodes and or extra-capsular invasion. The linearity of the curves for freedom from DM and for freedom from death due to the DM suggest uniform distribution of progression rates with a median value for halving time for freedom from early DM of about 8 months, and of about 40 months for freedom from the DM occurring later than 18 months, being for whole group and average of 20 months. High incidence of DM is a significant cause of poor long-term survival. Early appearance (<18 month follow-up) of about half of the DM suggests that they are already present as subclinical micrometastases at the time of initial loco-regional treatment. The time of appearance of distant metastases is consistent with a wide range of metastatic cell burdens among patients

  1. Cavity Mediated Manipulation of Distant Spin Currents Using a Cavity-Magnon-Polariton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lihui; Harder, Michael; Hyde, Paul; Zhang, Zhaohui; Hu, Can-Ming; Chen, Y P; Xiao, John Q

    2017-05-26

    Using electrical detection of a strongly coupled spin-photon system comprised of a microwave cavity mode and two magnetic samples, we demonstrate the long distance manipulation of spin currents. This distant control is not limited by the spin diffusion length, instead depending on the interplay between the local and global properties of the coupled system, enabling systematic spin current control over large distance scales (several centimeters in this work). This flexibility opens the door to improved spin current generation and manipulation for cavity spintronic devices.

  2. Conditional generation of the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state of four distant atoms via cavity decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, XuBo; Pahlke, K.; Mathis, W.

    2003-01-01

    We propose a scheme to generate a four-particle Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state of distant atoms that are trapped separately in leaky cavities. This scheme uses cavity decay to inject photons into a setup of optical devices that consist of a symmetric series of beam splitters and photon detectors. Photon detection on the output modes of the beam splitters projects the atom-cavity-system state onto the GHZ state. It is briefly pointed out that this scheme can be extended to generate GHZ states of 4m atoms

  3. Why is economic geography not an evolutionary science? ; towards an evolutionary economic geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, R.A.; Frenken, K.

    2006-01-01

    The paper explains the commonalities and differences between neoclassical, institutional and evolutionary approaches that have been influential in economic geography during the last couple of decades. By separating the three approaches in terms of theoretical content and research methodology, wecan

  4. Evolutionary conservatism and convergence both lead to striking similarity in ecology, morphology and performance across continents in frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Daniel S; Irschick, Duncan J; Wiens, John J

    2013-12-22

    Many clades contain ecologically and phenotypically similar species across continents, yet the processes generating this similarity are largely unstudied, leaving fundamental questions unanswered. Is similarity in morphology and performance across assemblages caused by evolutionary convergence or by biogeographic dispersal of evolutionarily conserved ecotypes? Does convergence to new ecological conditions erase evidence of past adaptation? Here, we analyse ecology, morphology and performance in frog assemblages from three continents (Asia, Australia and South America), assessing the importance of dispersal and convergent evolution in explaining similarity across regions. We find three striking results. First, species using the same microhabitat type are highly similar in morphology and performance across both clades and continents. Second, some species on different continents owe their similarity to dispersal and evolutionary conservatism (rather than evolutionary convergence), even over vast temporal and spatial scales. Third, in one case, an ecologically specialized ancestor radiated into diverse ecotypes that have converged with those on other continents, largely erasing traces of past adaptation to their ancestral ecology. Overall, our study highlights the roles of both evolutionary conservatism and convergence in explaining similarity in species traits over large spatial and temporal scales and demonstrates a statistical framework for addressing these questions in other systems.

  5. Historically aggressive types of follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer often have radioactive avid distant metastases: a study of 314 patients with distant metastases at a single institution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tala, H.P.; Rondeau, G.; Fagin, J.A.; Tuttle, R.M. [Endocrinology Division, Department of Medicine, Nuclear Medicine Division, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New-York (United States); Ghossein, R.A. [Pathology Department, Nuclear Medecine Division, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New-York (United States); Grewal, R.K.; Larson, S.M. [Radiology Department, Nuclear Medicine Division, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New-York (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Radioactive iodine (RAI) remains one of the primary treatment options for metastatic, follicular cell derived thyroid cancers. The aim of this study was to determine the likelihood that metastatic lesions arising from one of the aggressive thyroid cancer histologies [tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (TCV-PTC), poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) and Hurthle cell carcinoma (HCC)] would demonstrate sufficient RAI avidity for visualization on RAI scanning and therefore could potentially benefit from RAI therapy. The study shows that in patients selected for RAI scanning or therapy at our center, RAI avid lesions can be identified in more than two thirds of the patients with distant metastases arising in the setting of C-PTC, WD-FTC, FV-PTC, TCV-PTC, or PDTC primary tumors. While RAI avidity on a post-therapy scan does not always correlate with clinically significant tumor killing activity, it is likely that some of these patients with RAI avid metastatic disease did obtain a clinical benefit

  6. Effects of temperature and food on the development of Dysdercus maurus Distant (Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae); Efeitos da temperatura e do alimento no desenvolvimento de Dysdercus maurus Distant (Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Fabio Souto [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Ambientais], e-mail: fbio_almeida@yahoo.com.br; Goncalves, Lenicio [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal. Area de Biologia], e-mail: lencygon@globo.com

    2007-10-15

    Dysdercus maurus Distant, 1901 (Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae) is an important pest on Gossypium spp. (cotton tree), Citrus sinensis Osbeck (Rutaceae) and Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae) crops. This insect also feeds on seeds of Chorisia speciosa St. Hil. (Bombacaceae). This work aimed to evaluate the effects of temperature and food on the development of D. maurus. Eight treatments were carried out, in six of them bugs were fed with seeds of C. speciosa and kept at 15, 18, 20, 25 and 30 {+-} 1 deg C, 80 {+-} 3% RH and 12h photo phase or in laboratory conditions (23.5 {+-} 2.6 deg C, 73.3 {+-} 9.9 % RH), and in the other two treatments bugs were fed with seeds of cotton variety IAC-22 and kept at 25 or 30 deg C. In all treatments five immature stages were observed. The increase of temperature caused reduction in the developmental time. The temperature of 15 deg C disabled nymphal eclosion and was also lethal to those nymphs ecloded at other temperatures. The lower mortality of nymphs occurred in the temperature of 25 deg C with cotton as food (24.07%). The lower threshold temperature (Tb) occurred for the first instar (11.54 deg C) and the higher for the second instar (15.33 deg C). The females of D. maurus required more degree-days (329.93 degree-days) than males (300.49 degree-days) until adult emergence. (author)

  7. Modeling Temporal Variation in Social Network: An Evolutionary Web Graph Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Susanta; Bagchi, Aditya

    A social network is a social structure between actors (individuals, organization or other social entities) and indicates the ways in which they are connected through various social relationships like friendships, kinships, professional, academic etc. Usually, a social network represents a social community, like a club and its members or a city and its citizens etc. or a research group communicating over Internet. In seventies Leinhardt [1] first proposed the idea of representing a social community by a digraph. Later, this idea became popular among other research workers like, network designers, web-service application developers and e-learning modelers. It gave rise to a rapid proliferation of research work in the area of social network analysis. Some of the notable structural properties of a social network are connectedness between actors, reachability between a source and a target actor, reciprocity or pair-wise connection between actors with bi-directional links, centrality of actors or the important actors having high degree or more connections and finally the division of actors into sub-structures or cliques or strongly-connected components. The cycles present in a social network may even be nested [2, 3]. The formal definition of these structural properties will be provided in Sect. 8.2.1. The division of actors into cliques or sub-groups can be a very important factor for understanding a social structure, particularly the degree of cohesiveness in a community. The number, size, and connections among the sub-groups in a network are useful in understanding how the network, as a whole, is likely to behave.

  8. The Emergence of New Industries in Space: An evolutionary understanding of industry emergence from a geographical perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, Anne Nygaard

    of industrial organisational economics (Porter 1980) and in evolutionary economics (Dosi 1984, Nelson, Winter 1982). Second, the paper discusses the particularity that characterizes the temporal scope of industry emergence and it is claimed that the literature often lack attention to periods that precede......, which has characterized the field of economic geography. In particular, the framework builds on a critique of the predominant role previous theories have ascribed to chance events....

  9. Evolutionary and Ecological Consequences of Interspecific Hybridization in Cladocerans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwenk, K.; Spaak, P.

    1995-01-01

    The evolutionary process of interspecific hybridization in cladocerans is reviewed based on ecological and population genetic data. The evolutionary consequences of hybridization, biogeographic patterns and fitness comparisons are analyzed within the conceptual framework of theories on

  10. Evolutionary epistemology, rationality, and the sociology of knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Bartley, W W

    1993-01-01

    This collection of essays in support of the theory of evolutionary epistemology includes articles by Karl Popper, Peter Munz and Gerhard Vollmer. This volume attempts to show how an evolutionary and non-justificational approach affects the sociology of knowledge.

  11. The relative importance of regional, local, and evolutionary factors structuring cryptobenthic coral-reef assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadia, Gabby N.; Tornabene, Luke; Smith, David J.; Pezold, Frank L.

    2018-03-01

    Factors shaping coral-reef fish species assemblages can operate over a wide range of spatial scales (local versus regional) and across both proximate and evolutionary time. Niche theory and neutral theory provide frameworks for testing assumptions and generating insights about the importance of local versus regional processes. Niche theory postulates that species assemblages are an outcome of evolutionary processes at regional scales followed by local-scale interactions, whereas neutral theory presumes that species assemblages are formed by largely random processes drawing from regional species pools. Indo-Pacific cryptobenthic coral-reef fishes are highly evolved, ecologically diverse, temporally responsive, and situated on a natural longitudinal diversity gradient, making them an ideal group for testing predictions from niche and neutral theories and effects of regional and local processes on species assemblages. Using a combination of ecological metrics (fish density, diversity, assemblage composition) and evolutionary analyses (testing for phylogenetic niche conservatism), we demonstrate that the structure of cryptobenthic fish assemblages can be explained by a mixture of regional factors, such as the size of regional species pools and broad-scale barriers to gene flow/drivers of speciation, coupled with local-scale factors, such as the relative abundance of specific microhabitat types. Furthermore, species of cryptobenthic fishes have distinct microhabitat associations that drive significant differences in assemblage community structure between microhabitat types, and these distinct microhabitat associations are phylogenetically conserved over evolutionary timescales. The implied differential fitness of cryptobenthic fishes across varied microhabitats and the conserved nature of their ecology are consistent with predictions from niche theory. Neutral theory predictions may still hold true for early life-history stages, where stochastic factors may be more

  12. APEX Snaps First Close-up of Star Factories in Distant Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    For the first time, astronomers have made direct measurements of the size and brightness of regions of star-birth in a very distant galaxy, thanks to a chance discovery with the APEX telescope. The galaxy is so distant, and its light has taken so long to reach us, that we see it as it was 10 billion years ago. A cosmic "gravitational lens" is magnifying the galaxy, giving us a close-up view that would otherwise be impossible. This lucky break reveals a hectic and vigorous star-forming life for galaxies in the early Universe, with stellar nurseries forming one hundred times faster than in more recent galaxies. The research is published online today in the journal Nature. Astronomers were observing a massive galaxy cluster [1] with the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) telescope, using submillimetre wavelengths of light, when they found a new and uniquely bright galaxy, more distant than the cluster and the brightest very distant galaxy ever seen at submillimetre wavelengths. It is so bright because the cosmic dust grains in the galaxy are glowing after being heated by starlight. The new galaxy has been given the name SMM J2135-0102. "We were stunned to find a surprisingly bright object that wasn't at the expected position. We soon realised it was a previously unknown and more distant galaxy being magnified by the closer galaxy cluster," says Carlos De Breuck from ESO, a member of the team. De Breuck was making the observations at the APEX telescope on the plateau of Chajnantor at an altitude of 5000 m in the Chilean Andes. The new galaxy SMM J2135-0102 is so bright because of the massive galaxy cluster that lies in the foreground. The vast mass of this cluster bends the light of the more distant galaxy, acting as a gravitational lens [2]. As with a telescope, it magnifies and brightens our view of the distant galaxy. Thanks to a fortuitous alignment between the cluster and the distant galaxy, the latter is strongly magnified by a factor of 32. "The magnification

  13. Form of an evolutionary tradeoff affects eco-evolutionary dynamics in a predator-prey system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasada, Minoru; Yamamichi, Masato; Yoshida, Takehito

    2014-11-11

    Evolution on a time scale similar to ecological dynamics has been increasingly recognized for the last three decades. Selection mediated by ecological interactions can change heritable phenotypic variation (i.e., evolution), and evolution of traits, in turn, can affect ecological interactions. Hence, ecological and evolutionary dynamics can be tightly linked and important to predict future dynamics, but our understanding of eco-evolutionary dynamics is still in its infancy and there is a significant gap between theoretical predictions and empirical tests. Empirical studies have demonstrated that the presence of genetic variation can dramatically change ecological dynamics, whereas theoretical studies predict that eco-evolutionary dynamics depend on the details of the genetic variation, such as the form of a tradeoff among genotypes, which can be more important than the presence or absence of the genetic variation. Using a predator-prey (rotifer-algal) experimental system in laboratory microcosms, we studied how different forms of a tradeoff between prey defense and growth affect eco-evolutionary dynamics. Our experimental results show for the first time to our knowledge that different forms of the tradeoff produce remarkably divergent eco-evolutionary dynamics, including near fixation, near extinction, and coexistence of algal genotypes, with quantitatively different population dynamics. A mathematical model, parameterized from completely independent experiments, explains the observed dynamics. The results suggest that knowing the details of heritable trait variation and covariation within a population is essential for understanding how evolution and ecology will interact and what form of eco-evolutionary dynamics will result.

  14. What Is Sexual Orientation All About? Explaining an Evolutionary Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Brad Bowins

    2015-01-01

    Numerous psychological, biological, and evolutionary theories have been proposed to explain sexual orientation. For a theory to be valid it must account for the evolutionary or Darwinian paradox of how homosexual behavior seemingly blocking evolutionary fitness could have evolved. Typically it is only evolutionary based theories that attempt to address this issue. All theories proposed to date have limitations, a major one being that they tend to be specific for male or female sexual orientat...

  15. Using distant supervised learning to identify protein subcellular localizations from full-text scientific articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wu; Blake, Catherine

    2015-10-01

    Databases of curated biomedical knowledge, such as the protein-locations reflected in the UniProtKB database, provide an accurate and useful resource to researchers and decision makers. Our goal is to augment the manual efforts currently used to curate knowledge bases with automated approaches that leverage the increased availability of full-text scientific articles. This paper describes experiments that use distant supervised learning to identify protein subcellular localizations, which are important to understand protein function and to identify candidate drug targets. Experiments consider Swiss-Prot, the manually annotated subset of the UniProtKB protein knowledge base, and 43,000 full-text articles from the Journal of Biological Chemistry that contain just under 11.5 million sentences. The system achieves 0.81 precision and 0.49 recall at sentence level and an accuracy of 57% on held-out instances in a test set. Moreover, the approach identifies 8210 instances that are not in the UniProtKB knowledge base. Manual inspection of the 50 most likely relations showed that 41 (82%) were valid. These results have immediate benefit to researchers interested in protein function, and suggest that distant supervision should be explored to complement other manual data curation efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Generation of the Distant Kuiper Belt by Planet Nine from an Initially Broad Perihelion Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khain, Tali; Batygin, Konstantin; Brown, Michael E.

    2018-04-01

    The observation that the orbits of long-period Kuiper Belt objects are anomalously clustered in physical space has recently prompted the Planet Nine hypothesis - the proposed existence of a distant and eccentric planetary member of our Solar System. Within the framework of this model, a Neptune-like perturber sculpts the orbital distribution of distant Kuiper Belt objects through a complex interplay of resonant and secular effects, such that the surviving orbits get organized into apsidally aligned and anti-aligned configurations with respect to Planet Nine's orbit. We present results on the role of Kuiper Belt initial conditions on the evolution of the outer Solar System using numerical simulations. Intriguingly, we find that the final perihelion distance distribution depends strongly on the primordial state of the system, and demonstrate that a bimodal structure corresponding to the existence of both aligned and anti-aligned clusters is only reproduced if the initial perihelion distribution is assumed to extend well beyond 36 AU. The bimodality in the final perihelion distance distribution is due to the permanently stable objects, with the lower perihelion peak corresponding to the anti-aligned orbits and the higher perihelion peak corresponding to the aligned orbits. We identify the mechanisms that enable the persistent stability of these objects and locate the regions of phase space in which they reside. The obtained results contextualize the Planet Nine hypothesis within the broader narrative of solar system formation, and offer further insight into the observational search for Planet Nine.

  17. Bacteria may contribute to distant species recognition in ant-aphid mutualistic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Christophe Y; Detrain, Claire; Thonart, Philippe; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric; Verheggen, François J; Lognay, Georges C

    2017-04-01

    Mutualistic interactions between ant and aphid species have been the subject of considerable historical and contemporary investigations, the primary benefits being cleaning and protection for the aphids and carbohydrate-rich honeydew for the ants. Questions remained, however, as to the volatile semiochemical factor influencing this relationship. A recent study highlighted the role of bacterial honeydew volatile compounds in ant attraction. Here, ant's ability to distantly discriminate 2 aphid species was investigated based on bacterial honeydew semiochemicals emissions using a two-way olfactometer. Both the mutualistic aphid Aphis fabae L. and the nonmyrmecophilous aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris were found to be attractive for the ant Lasius niger L. The level of attraction was similar in both assays (control vs. one of the aphid species). However, when given a choice between these 2 aphid species, ants showed a significant preference for Aphis fabae. Honeydew volatiles, mostly from bacterial origins, are known to be a key element in ant attraction. Using the same olfactometry protocol, the relative attractiveness of volatiles emitted by honeydews collected from each aphid species and by bacteria isolated from each honeydew was investigated. Again, ants significantly preferred volatiles released by Aphis fabae honeydew and bacteria. This information suggests that microbial honeydew volatiles enable ants to distantly discriminate aphid species. These results strengthen the interest of studying the occurrence and potential impact of microorganisms in insect symbioses. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  18. Plasma and magnetic field variations in the distant magnetotail associated with near-earth substorm effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D. N.; Bame, S. J.; Mccomas, D. J.; Zwickl, R. D.; Slavin, J. A.; Smith, E. J.

    1987-01-01

    Examination of many individual event periods in the ISEE 3 deep-tail data set has suggested that magnetospheric substorms produce a characteristic pattern of effects in the distant magnetotail. During the growth, or tail-energy-storage phase of substorms, the magnetotail appears to grow diametrically in size, often by many earth radii. Subsequently, after the substorm expansive phase onset at earth, the distant tail undergoes a sequence of plasma, field, and energetic-particle variations as large-scale plasmoids move rapidly down the tail following their disconnection from the near-earth plasma sheet. ISEE 3 data are appropriate for the study of these effects since the spacecraft remained fixed within the nominal tail location for long periods. Using newly available auroral electrojet indices (AE and AL) and Geo particle data to time substorm onsets at earth, superposed epoch analyses of ISEE 3 and near-earth data prior to, and following, substorm expansive phase onsets have been performed. These analyses quantify and extend substantially the understanding of the deep-tail pattern of response to global substorm-induced dynamical effects.

  19. Exploring the Structure of the Distant Universe with MUSE Data Cubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Mason; Christensen, Lise

    2018-01-01

    The mass distribution in intergalactic and circumgalactic space is not well known since it is difficult to characterize objects in the distant universe. An ideal tool for studying such distant structure is the Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) of the Very Large Telescope array, which employs a wide field-of-view and a large spectral range to produce high spatial resolution datasets. Here we exploit the 2 spatial dimensions and 1 spectral dimension of a particular MUSE “data cube” to identify and characterize emission line sources near the line-of-sight to quasar PKS1937-101, which lies at a redshift of z=3.787. In particular, we search for galaxy companions to a z=3.572 Lyman-limit system measured in the quasar spectrum and find an associated Lyman-alpha emitter at z=3.556 with a projected distance of 30.2 kpc from the quasar line-of-sight. Through a combination of automated source extraction and manual investigation, we also identify 25 emission line galaxies and 1 other Lyman-alpha emitter in our field. The proximity of several of these objects to the quasar line-of-sight allows us to reliably identify absorption lines in the quasar spectrum that can be associated with observed emission lines with resolved fluxes. This will help characterize the metallicities and kinematics of galaxy halos and circumgalactic media in the early universe.

  20. Extracting microRNA-gene relations from biomedical literature using distant supervision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Lamurias

    Full Text Available Many biomedical relation extraction approaches are based on supervised machine learning, requiring an annotated corpus. Distant supervision aims at training a classifier by combining a knowledge base with a corpus, reducing the amount of manual effort necessary. This is particularly useful for biomedicine because many databases and ontologies have been made available for many biological processes, while the availability of annotated corpora is still limited. We studied the extraction of microRNA-gene relations from text. MicroRNA regulation is an important biological process due to its close association with human diseases. The proposed method, IBRel, is based on distantly supervised multi-instance learning. We evaluated IBRel on three datasets, and the results were compared with a co-occurrence approach as well as a supervised machine learning algorithm. While supervised learning outperformed on two of those datasets, IBRel obtained an F-score 28.3 percentage points higher on the dataset for which there was no training set developed specifically. To demonstrate the applicability of IBRel, we used it to extract 27 miRNA-gene relations from recently published papers about cystic fibrosis. Our results demonstrate that our method can be successfully used to extract relations from literature about a biological process without an annotated corpus. The source code and data used in this study are available at https://github.com/AndreLamurias/IBRel.