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Sample records for evolutionary design principle

  1. Core principles of evolutionary medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunspan, Daniel Z; Nesse, Randolph M; Barnes, M Elizabeth; Brownell, Sara E

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background and objectives Evolutionary medicine is a rapidly growing field that uses the principles of evolutionary biology to better understand, prevent and treat disease, and that uses studies of disease to advance basic knowledge in evolutionary biology. Over-arching principles of evolutionary medicine have been described in publications, but our study is the first to systematically elicit core principles from a diverse panel of experts in evolutionary medicine. These principles should be useful to advance recent recommendations made by The Association of American Medical Colleges and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute to make evolutionary thinking a core competency for pre-medical education. Methodology The Delphi method was used to elicit and validate a list of core principles for evolutionary medicine. The study included four surveys administered in sequence to 56 expert panelists. The initial open-ended survey created a list of possible core principles; the three subsequent surveys winnowed the list and assessed the accuracy and importance of each principle. Results Fourteen core principles elicited at least 80% of the panelists to agree or strongly agree that they were important core principles for evolutionary medicine. These principles over-lapped with concepts discussed in other articles discussing key concepts in evolutionary medicine. Conclusions and implications This set of core principles will be helpful for researchers and instructors in evolutionary medicine. We recommend that evolutionary medicine instructors use the list of core principles to construct learning goals. Evolutionary medicine is a young field, so this list of core principles will likely change as the field develops further. PMID:29493660

  2. Evolutionary principles and their practical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Andrew P; Kinnison, Michael T; Heino, Mikko; Day, Troy; Smith, Thomas B; Fitt, Gary; Bergstrom, Carl T; Oakeshott, John; Jørgensen, Peter S; Zalucki, Myron P; Gilchrist, George; Southerton, Simon; Sih, Andrew; Strauss, Sharon; Denison, Robert F; Carroll, Scott P

    2011-03-01

    Evolutionary principles are now routinely incorporated into medicine and agriculture. Examples include the design of treatments that slow the evolution of resistance by weeds, pests, and pathogens, and the design of breeding programs that maximize crop yield or quality. Evolutionary principles are also increasingly incorporated into conservation biology, natural resource management, and environmental science. Examples include the protection of small and isolated populations from inbreeding depression, the identification of key traits involved in adaptation to climate change, the design of harvesting regimes that minimize unwanted life-history evolution, and the setting of conservation priorities based on populations, species, or communities that harbor the greatest evolutionary diversity and potential. The adoption of evolutionary principles has proceeded somewhat independently in these different fields, even though the underlying fundamental concepts are the same. We explore these fundamental concepts under four main themes: variation, selection, connectivity, and eco-evolutionary dynamics. Within each theme, we present several key evolutionary principles and illustrate their use in addressing applied problems. We hope that the resulting primer of evolutionary concepts and their practical utility helps to advance a unified multidisciplinary field of applied evolutionary biology.

  3. Evolutionary principles and their practical application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendry, A. P.; Kinnison, M. T.; Heino, M.

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary principles are now routinely incorporated into medicine and agriculture. Examples include the design of treatments that slow the evolution of resistance by weeds, pests, and pathogens, and the design of breeding programs that maximize crop yield or quality. Evolutionary principles...... are also increasingly incorporated into conservation biology, natural resource management, and environmental science. Examples include the protection of small and isolated populations from inbreeding depression, the identification of key traits involved in adaptation to climate change, the design...... of harvesting regimes that minimize unwanted life-history evolution, and the setting of conservation priorities based on populations, species, or communities that harbor the greatest evolutionary diversity and potential. The adoption of evolutionary principles has proceeded somewhat independently...

  4. Core principles of evolutionary medicine: A Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunspan, Daniel Z; Nesse, Randolph M; Barnes, M Elizabeth; Brownell, Sara E

    2018-01-01

    Evolutionary medicine is a rapidly growing field that uses the principles of evolutionary biology to better understand, prevent and treat disease, and that uses studies of disease to advance basic knowledge in evolutionary biology. Over-arching principles of evolutionary medicine have been described in publications, but our study is the first to systematically elicit core principles from a diverse panel of experts in evolutionary medicine. These principles should be useful to advance recent recommendations made by The Association of American Medical Colleges and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute to make evolutionary thinking a core competency for pre-medical education. The Delphi method was used to elicit and validate a list of core principles for evolutionary medicine. The study included four surveys administered in sequence to 56 expert panelists. The initial open-ended survey created a list of possible core principles; the three subsequent surveys winnowed the list and assessed the accuracy and importance of each principle. Fourteen core principles elicited at least 80% of the panelists to agree or strongly agree that they were important core principles for evolutionary medicine. These principles over-lapped with concepts discussed in other articles discussing key concepts in evolutionary medicine. This set of core principles will be helpful for researchers and instructors in evolutionary medicine. We recommend that evolutionary medicine instructors use the list of core principles to construct learning goals. Evolutionary medicine is a young field, so this list of core principles will likely change as the field develops further.

  5. Algorithmic Mechanism Design of Evolutionary Computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yan

    2015-01-01

    We consider algorithmic design, enhancement, and improvement of evolutionary computation as a mechanism design problem. All individuals or several groups of individuals can be considered as self-interested agents. The individuals in evolutionary computation can manipulate parameter settings and operations by satisfying their own preferences, which are defined by an evolutionary computation algorithm designer, rather than by following a fixed algorithm rule. Evolutionary computation algorithm designers or self-adaptive methods should construct proper rules and mechanisms for all agents (individuals) to conduct their evolution behaviour correctly in order to definitely achieve the desired and preset objective(s). As a case study, we propose a formal framework on parameter setting, strategy selection, and algorithmic design of evolutionary computation by considering the Nash strategy equilibrium of a mechanism design in the search process. The evaluation results present the efficiency of the framework. This primary principle can be implemented in any evolutionary computation algorithm that needs to consider strategy selection issues in its optimization process. The final objective of our work is to solve evolutionary computation design as an algorithmic mechanism design problem and establish its fundamental aspect by taking this perspective. This paper is the first step towards achieving this objective by implementing a strategy equilibrium solution (such as Nash equilibrium) in evolutionary computation algorithm.

  6. Achieving sustainable plant disease management through evolutionary principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jiasui; Thrall, Peter H; Burdon, Jeremy J

    2014-09-01

    Plants and their pathogens are engaged in continuous evolutionary battles and sustainable disease management requires novel systems to create environments conducive for short-term and long-term disease control. In this opinion article, we argue that knowledge of the fundamental factors that drive host-pathogen coevolution in wild systems can provide new insights into disease development in agriculture. Such evolutionary principles can be used to guide the formulation of sustainable disease management strategies which can minimize disease epidemics while simultaneously reducing pressure on pathogens to evolve increased infectivity and aggressiveness. To ensure agricultural sustainability, disease management programs that reflect the dynamism of pathogen population structure are essential and evolutionary biologists should play an increasing role in their design. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Incorporating evolutionary principles into environmental management and policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lankau, Richard; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Harris, David J.

    2011-01-01

    As policymakers and managers work to mitigate the effects of rapid anthropogenic environmental changes, they need to consider organisms’ responses. In light of recent evidence that evolution can be quite rapid, this now includes evolutionary responses. Evolutionary principles have a long history...... in conservation biology, and the necessary next step for the field is to consider ways in which conservation policy makers and managers can proactively manipulate evolutionary processes to achieve their goals. In this review, we aim to illustrate the potential conservation benefits of an increased understanding...... of evolutionary history and prescriptive manipulation of three basic evolutionary factors: selection, variation, and gene flow. For each, we review and propose ways that policy makers and managers can use evolutionary thinking to preserve threatened species, combat pest species, or reduce undesirable evolutionary...

  8. Can Evolutionary Principles Explain Patterns of Family Violence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, John

    2013-01-01

    The article's aim is to evaluate the application of the evolutionary principles of kin selection, reproductive value, and resource holding power to the understanding of family violence. The principles are described in relation to specific predictions and the mechanisms underlying these. Predictions are evaluated for physical violence perpetrated…

  9. RFID design principles

    CERN Document Server

    Lehpamer, Harvey

    2012-01-01

    This revised edition of the Artech House bestseller, RFID Design Principles, serves as an up-to-date and comprehensive introduction to the subject. The second edition features numerous updates and brand new and expanded material on emerging topics such as the medical applications of RFID and new ethical challenges in the field. This practical book offers you a detailed understanding of RFID design essentials, key applications, and important management issues. The book explores the role of RFID technology in supply chain management, intelligent building design, transportation systems, military

  10. Evolutionary design assistants for architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Onur Sönmez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In its parallel pursuit of an increased competitivity for design offices and more pleasurable and easier workflows for designers, artificial design intelligence is a technical, intellectual, and political challenge. While human-machine cooperation has become commonplace through Computer Aided Design (CAD tools, a more improved collaboration and better support appear possible only through an endeavor into a kind of artificial design intelligence, which is more sensitive to the human perception of affairs. Considered as part of the broader Computational Design studies, the research program of this quest can be called Artificial / Autonomous / Automated Design (AD. The current available level of Artificial Intelligence (AI for design is limited and a viable aim for current AD would be to develop design assistants that are capable of producing drafts for various design tasks. Thus, the overall aim of this thesis is the development of approaches, techniques, and tools towards artificial design assistants that offer a capability for generating drafts for sub-tasks within design processes. The main technology explored for this aim is Evolutionary Computation (EC, and the target design domain is architecture. The two connected research questions of the study concern, first, the investigation of the ways to develop an architectural design assistant, and secondly, the utilization of EC for the development of such assistants. While developing approaches, techniques, and computational tools for such an assistant, the study also carries out a broad theoretical investigation into the main problems, challenges, and requirements towards such assistants on a rather overall level. Therefore, the research is shaped as a parallel investigation of three main threads interwoven along several levels, moving from a more general level to specific applications. The three research threads comprise, first, theoretical discussions and speculations with regard to both

  11. Evolutionary multimodal optimization using the principle of locality

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Kachun; Wu, Chunho; Mok, Ricky; Peng, Chengbin; Zhang, Zhaolei

    2012-01-01

    The principle of locality is one of the most widely used concepts in designing computing systems. To explore the principle in evolutionary computation, crowding differential evolution is incorporated with locality for multimodal optimization. Instead of generating trial vectors randomly, the first method proposed takes advantage of spatial locality to generate trial vectors. Temporal locality is also adopted to help generate offspring in the second method proposed. Temporal and spatial locality are then applied together in the third method proposed. Numerical experiments are conducted to compare the proposed methods with the state-of-the-art methods on benchmark functions. Experimental analysis is undertaken to observe the effect of locality and the synergy between temporal locality and spatial locality. Further experiments are also conducted on two application problems. One is the varied-line-spacing holographic grating design problem, while the other is the protein structure prediction problem. The numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the methods proposed. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evolutionary multimodal optimization using the principle of locality

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Kachun

    2012-07-01

    The principle of locality is one of the most widely used concepts in designing computing systems. To explore the principle in evolutionary computation, crowding differential evolution is incorporated with locality for multimodal optimization. Instead of generating trial vectors randomly, the first method proposed takes advantage of spatial locality to generate trial vectors. Temporal locality is also adopted to help generate offspring in the second method proposed. Temporal and spatial locality are then applied together in the third method proposed. Numerical experiments are conducted to compare the proposed methods with the state-of-the-art methods on benchmark functions. Experimental analysis is undertaken to observe the effect of locality and the synergy between temporal locality and spatial locality. Further experiments are also conducted on two application problems. One is the varied-line-spacing holographic grating design problem, while the other is the protein structure prediction problem. The numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the methods proposed. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Biomimetic design processes in architecture: morphogenetic and evolutionary computational design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menges, Achim

    2012-01-01

    Design computation has profound impact on architectural design methods. This paper explains how computational design enables the development of biomimetic design processes specific to architecture, and how they need to be significantly different from established biomimetic processes in engineering disciplines. The paper first explains the fundamental difference between computer-aided and computational design in architecture, as the understanding of this distinction is of critical importance for the research presented. Thereafter, the conceptual relation and possible transfer of principles from natural morphogenesis to design computation are introduced and the related developments of generative, feature-based, constraint-based, process-based and feedback-based computational design methods are presented. This morphogenetic design research is then related to exploratory evolutionary computation, followed by the presentation of two case studies focusing on the exemplary development of spatial envelope morphologies and urban block morphologies. (paper)

  14. Principles of Protocol Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    This is a new and updated edition of a book first published in 1994. The book introduces the reader to the principles used in the construction of a large range of modern data communication protocols, as used in distributed computer systems of all kinds. The approach taken is rather a formal one...

  15. Principles and Criteria for Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beghin, D.; Cervetto, D.; Hansen, Peter Friis

    1997-01-01

    The mandate of ISSC Committee IV.1 on principles and Criteria for Design is to report on the following:The ongoing concern for quantification of general economic and safety criteria for marine structures and for the development of appropriate principles for rational life cycle design using...

  16. Update heat exchanger designing principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipets, A.U.; Yampol'skij, A.E.

    1985-01-01

    Update heat exchanger design principles are analysed. Different coolant pattern in a heat exchanger are considered. It is suggested to rationally organize flow rates irregularity in it. Applying on heat exchanger designing measures on using really existing temperature and flow rate irregularities will permit to improve heat exchanger efficiency. It is expedient in some cases to artificially produce irregularities. In this connection some heat exchanger design principles must be reviewed now

  17. Logical database design principles

    CERN Document Server

    Garmany, John; Clark, Terry

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO LOGICAL DATABASE DESIGNUnderstanding a Database Database Architectures Relational Databases Creating the Database System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)Systems Planning: Assessment and Feasibility System Analysis: RequirementsSystem Analysis: Requirements Checklist Models Tracking and Schedules Design Modeling Functional Decomposition DiagramData Flow Diagrams Data Dictionary Logical Structures and Decision Trees System Design: LogicalSYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION The ER ApproachEntities and Entity Types Attribute Domains AttributesSet-Valued AttributesWeak Entities Constraint

  18. An evolutionary reduction principle for mutation rates at multiple Loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenberg, Lee

    2011-06-01

    A model of mutation rate evolution for multiple loci under arbitrary selection is analyzed. Results are obtained using techniques from Karlin (Evolutionary Biology, vol. 14, pp. 61-204, 1982) that overcome the weak selection constraints needed for tractability in prior studies of multilocus event models.A multivariate form of the reduction principle is found: reduction results at individual loci combine topologically to produce a surface of mutation rate alterations that are neutral for a new modifier allele. New mutation rates survive if and only if they fall below this surface-a generalization of the hyperplane found by Zhivotovsky et al. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 1079-1083, 1994) for a multilocus recombination modifier. Increases in mutation rates at some loci may evolve if compensated for by decreases at other loci. The strength of selection on the modifier scales in proportion to the number of germline cell divisions, and increases with the number of loci affected. Loci that do not make a difference to marginal fitnesses at equilibrium are not subject to the reduction principle, and under fine tuning of mutation rates would be expected to have higher mutation rates than loci in mutation-selection balance.Other results include the nonexistence of 'viability analogous, Hardy-Weinberg' modifier polymorphisms under multiplicative mutation, and the sufficiency of average transmission rates to encapsulate the effect of modifier polymorphisms on the transmission of loci under selection. A conjecture is offered regarding situations, like recombination in the presence of mutation, that exhibit departures from the reduction principle. Constraints for tractability are: tight linkage of all loci, initial fixation at the modifier locus, and mutation distributions comprising transition probabilities of reversible Markov chains.

  19. Refactoring databases evolutionary database design

    CERN Document Server

    Ambler, Scott W

    2006-01-01

    Refactoring has proven its value in a wide range of development projects–helping software professionals improve system designs, maintainability, extensibility, and performance. Now, for the first time, leading agile methodologist Scott Ambler and renowned consultant Pramodkumar Sadalage introduce powerful refactoring techniques specifically designed for database systems. Ambler and Sadalage demonstrate how small changes to table structures, data, stored procedures, and triggers can significantly enhance virtually any database design–without changing semantics. You’ll learn how to evolve database schemas in step with source code–and become far more effective in projects relying on iterative, agile methodologies. This comprehensive guide and reference helps you overcome the practical obstacles to refactoring real-world databases by covering every fundamental concept underlying database refactoring. Using start-to-finish examples, the authors walk you through refactoring simple standalone databas...

  20. Design Principles for Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    For many years mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately. Naturally, the next step in this development is the development of ventilation concepts that utilize and combine the best features from each system to create a new type of ventilation system -Hybrid Ventilation. ....... The hybrid ventilation concepts, design challenges and - principles are discussed and illustrated by four building examples....

  1. Structuring Principles for the Designer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth; Pedersen, Per Erik Elgård

    1998-01-01

    This paper suggests a list of structuring principles that support the designer in making alternative concepts for product architectures. Different architectures may support different points of diversification in the product life-cycle. The aim is to balance reuse of resources and reduction...

  2. Fundamental Principles of Alarm Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Us, Tolga; Jensen, Niels; Lind, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally alarms are designed on the basis of empirical guidelines rather than on a sound scientific framework rooted in a theoretical foundation for process and control system design. This paper proposes scientific principles and a methodology for design of alarms based on a functional...... be applied to any engineering system which can be modeled by MFM. The methodology provides a set of alarms which can facilitate event interpretation and operator support for abnormal situation management. The proposed design methodology provides the information content of the alarms, but does not deal...

  3. Principles of modern digital design

    CERN Document Server

    Lala, Parag K

    2007-01-01

    A major objective of this book is to fill the gap between traditional logic design principles and logic design/optimization techniques used in practice. Over the last two decades several techniques for computer-aided design and optimization of logic circuits have been developed. However, underlying theories of these techniques are inadequately covered or not covered at all in undergraduate text books. This book covers not only the ""classical"" material found in current text books but also selected materials that modern logic designers need to be familiar with.

  4. Industrial instrumentation principles and design

    CERN Document Server

    Padmanabhan, Tattamangalam R

    2000-01-01

    Pneumatic, hydraulic and allied instrumentation schemes have given way to electronic schemes in recent years thanks to the rapid strides in electronics and allied areas. Principles, design and applications of such state-of-the-art instrumentation schemes form the subject matter of this book. Through representative examples, the basic building blocks of instrumentation schemes are identified and each of these building blocks discussed in terms of its design and interface characteristics. The common generic schemes synthesized with such building blocks are dealt with subsequently. This forms the scope of Part I. The focus in Part II is on application. Displacement and allied instrumentation, force and allied instrumentation and process instrumentation in terms of temperature, flow, pressure level and other common process variables are dealt with separately and exhaustively. Despite the diversity in the sensor principles and characteristics and the variety in the applications and their environments, it is possib...

  5. How evolutionary principles improve the understanding of human health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluckman, Peter D; Low, Felicia M; Buklijas, Tatjana; Hanson, Mark A; Beedle, Alan S

    2011-03-01

    An appreciation of the fundamental principles of evolutionary biology provides new insights into major diseases and enables an integrated understanding of human biology and medicine. However, there is a lack of awareness of their importance amongst physicians, medical researchers, and educators, all of whom tend to focus on the mechanistic (proximate) basis for disease, excluding consideration of evolutionary (ultimate) reasons. The key principles of evolutionary medicine are that selection acts on fitness, not health or longevity; that our evolutionary history does not cause disease, but rather impacts on our risk of disease in particular environments; and that we are now living in novel environments compared to those in which we evolved. We consider these evolutionary principles in conjunction with population genetics and describe several pathways by which evolutionary processes can affect disease risk. These perspectives provide a more cohesive framework for gaining insights into the determinants of health and disease. Coupled with complementary insights offered by advances in genomic, epigenetic, and developmental biology research, evolutionary perspectives offer an important addition to understanding disease. Further, there are a number of aspects of evolutionary medicine that can add considerably to studies in other domains of contemporary evolutionary studies.

  6. Communications receivers principles and design

    CERN Document Server

    Rohde, Ulrich L; Zahnd, Hans

    2017-01-01

    This thoroughly updated guide offers comprehensive explanations of the science behind today’s radio receivers along with practical guidance on designing, constructing, and maintaining real-world communications systems. You will explore system planning, antennas and antenna coupling, amplifiers and gain control, filters, mixers, demodulation, digital communication, and the latest software defined radio (SDR) technology. Written by a team of telecommunication experts, Communications Receivers: Principles and Design, Fourth Edition, features technical illustrations, schematic diagrams, and detailed examples. Coverage includes: • Basic radio considerations • Radio receiver characteristics • Receiver system planning • Receiver implementation considerations • RF and baseband techniques for Software-Defined Radios • Transceiver SDR considerations • Antennas and antenna coupling • Mixers • Frequency sources and control • Ancillary receiver circuits • Performance measurement

  7. Design principles for precision mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Soemers, Herman

    2011-01-01

    The successful design of mechanisms for products, tools and equipment relies on excellent concepts and properly designed details. Both are covered in this book. Many of the examples presented have been realised in practice and properly evaluated, giving the reader/designer a high level of confidence. Every example comes with the considerations underlying the application and the limitations of the particular idea. This book is based on the work started in the 1960s by W. van der Hoek at Philips in Eindhoven, the Netherlands, and subsequently continued by M.P. Koster, culminating in the Dutch-language book “Constructieprincipes” [Design principles for accurate movement and positioning]. The core of their design approach has been preserved, while theory and examples were updated and the English language was adopted to reach a broad audience within the Netherlands as well as abroad. Herman (H.M.J.R.) Soemers is associated with the University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands. He also works as a technolog...

  8. Visual Design Principles: An Empirical Study of Design Lore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Miles A.

    2013-01-01

    Many books, designers, and design educators talk about visual design principles such as balance, contrast, and alignment, but with little consistency. This study uses empirical methods to explore the lore surrounding design principles. The study took the form of two stages: a quantitative literature review to determine what design principles are…

  9. Design principles for riboswitch function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chase L Beisel

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Scientific and technological advances that enable the tuning of integrated regulatory components to match network and system requirements are critical to reliably control the function of biological systems. RNA provides a promising building block for the construction of tunable regulatory components based on its rich regulatory capacity and our current understanding of the sequence-function relationship. One prominent example of RNA-based regulatory components is riboswitches, genetic elements that mediate ligand control of gene expression through diverse regulatory mechanisms. While characterization of natural and synthetic riboswitches has revealed that riboswitch function can be modulated through sequence alteration, no quantitative frameworks exist to investigate or guide riboswitch tuning. Here, we combined mathematical modeling and experimental approaches to investigate the relationship between riboswitch function and performance. Model results demonstrated that the competition between reversible and irreversible rate constants dictates performance for different regulatory mechanisms. We also found that practical system restrictions, such as an upper limit on ligand concentration, can significantly alter the requirements for riboswitch performance, necessitating alternative tuning strategies. Previous experimental data for natural and synthetic riboswitches as well as experiments conducted in this work support model predictions. From our results, we developed a set of general design principles for synthetic riboswitches. Our results also provide a foundation from which to investigate how natural riboswitches are tuned to meet systems-level regulatory demands.

  10. Materials design principles of ancient fish armour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruet, Benjamin J. F.; Song, Juha; Boyce, Mary C.; Ortiz, Christine

    2008-09-01

    Knowledge of the structure-property-function relationships of dermal scales of armoured fish could enable pathways to improved bioinspired human body armour, and may provide clues to the evolutionary origins of mineralized tissues. Here, we present a multiscale experimental and computational approach that reveals the materials design principles present within individual ganoid scales from the `living fossil' Polypterus senegalus. This fish belongs to the ancient family Polypteridae, which first appeared 96 million years ago during the Cretaceous period and still retains many of their characteristics. The mechanistic origins of penetration resistance (approximating a biting attack) were investigated and found to include the juxtaposition of multiple distinct reinforcing composite layers that each undergo their own unique deformation mechanisms, a unique spatial functional form of mechanical properties with regions of differing levels of gradation within and between material layers, and layers with an undetectable gradation, load-dependent effective material properties, circumferential surface cracking, orthogonal microcracking in laminated sublayers and geometrically corrugated junctions between layers.

  11. Evolutionary optimization methods for accelerator design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poklonskiy, Alexey A.

    Many problems from the fields of accelerator physics and beam theory can be formulated as optimization problems and, as such, solved using optimization methods. Despite growing efficiency of the optimization methods, the adoption of modern optimization techniques in these fields is rather limited. Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs) form a relatively new and actively developed optimization methods family. They possess many attractive features such as: ease of the implementation, modest requirements on the objective function, a good tolerance to noise, robustness, and the ability to perform a global search efficiently. In this work we study the application of EAs to problems from accelerator physics and beam theory. We review the most commonly used methods of unconstrained optimization and describe the GATool, evolutionary algorithm and the software package, used in this work, in detail. Then we use a set of test problems to assess its performance in terms of computational resources, quality of the obtained result, and the tradeoff between them. We justify the choice of GATool as a heuristic method to generate cutoff values for the COSY-GO rigorous global optimization package for the COSY Infinity scientific computing package. We design the model of their mutual interaction and demonstrate that the quality of the result obtained by GATool increases as the information about the search domain is refined, which supports the usefulness of this model. We Giscuss GATool's performance on the problems suffering from static and dynamic noise and study useful strategies of GATool parameter tuning for these and other difficult problems. We review the challenges of constrained optimization with EAs and methods commonly used to overcome them. We describe REPA, a new constrained optimization method based on repairing, in exquisite detail, including the properties of its two repairing techniques: REFIND and REPROPT. We assess REPROPT's performance on the standard constrained

  12. Design Principles of Open Innovation Concept – Universal Design Viewpoint

    OpenAIRE

    Mustaquim, Moyen; Nyström, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    The concept of open innovation is becoming an increasingly popular topic of interest and seems to promise a lot in organizational development. However, to date there are no certain design principles that can be followed by organizations on how to use open innovation successfully. In this paper seven design principles of open innovation concept have been proposed. The derived principles are the outcome which is based on the principles of universal design. The open innovation design, based on t...

  13. Design Principles for Closed Loop Supply Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.R. Krikke (Harold); C.P. Pappis (Costas); G.T. Tsoulfas; J.M. Bloemhof-Ruwaard (Jacqueline)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we study design principles for closed loop supply chains. Closed loop supply chains aim at closing material flows thereby limiting emission and residual waste, but also providing customer service at low cost. We study 'traditional' and 'new' design principles known in the

  14. The application of evolutionary medicine principles for sustainable malaria control: a scoping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, Denise; Booth, Mark

    2016-07-22

    Current interventions against malaria have significantly reduced the number of people infected and the number of deaths. Concerns about emerging resistance of both mosquitoes and parasites to intervention have been raised, and questions remain about how best to generate wider knowledge of the underlying evolutionary processes. The pedagogical and research principles of evolutionary medicine may provide an answer to this problem. Eight programme managers and five academic researchers were interviewed by telephone or videoconference to elicit their first-hand views and experiences of malaria control given that evolution is a constant threat to sustainable control. Interviewees were asked about their views on the relationship between practit groups and academics and for their thoughts on whether or not evolutionary medicine may provide a solution to reported tensions. There was broad agreement that evolution of both parasites and vectors presents an obstacle to sustainable control. It was also widely agreed that through more efficient monitoring, evolution could be widely monitored. Interviewees also expressed the view that even well planned interventions may fail if the evolutionary biology of the disease is not considered, potentially making current tools redundant. This scoping study suggests that it is important to make research, including evolutionary principles, available and easily applicable for programme managers and key decision-makers, including donors and politicians. The main conclusion is that sharing knowledge through the educational and research processes embedded within evolutionary medicine has potential to relieve tensions and facilitate sustainable control of malaria and other parasitic infections.

  15. Theory of quasi-Chaplygin unstable media and evolutionary principle for selecting spontaneous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhdanov, S.K.; Trubnikov, B.A.; Institut Atomnoi Energii, Moscow, USSR)

    1986-01-01

    A one-dimensional ideal gas with negative compressibility described by quasi-Chaplygin equations is discussed. Its reduction to a Laplace equation is shown, and an evolutionary principle for selecting spontaneous solutions is summarized. Three extremely simple spontaneous solutions are obtained along with multidimensional self-similar solutions. The Buneman instability in a plasma is considered as an example. 17 references

  16. Principles for enabling deep secondary design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Hansen, Magnus Rotvit Perlt

    2017-01-01

    design by analyzing two cases where secondary designers fundamentally change functionality, content and technology complexity level. The first case redesigns a decision model for agile development in an insurance company; the second creates a contingency model for choosing project management tools...... and techniques in a hospital. Our analysis of the two cases leads to the identification of four principles of design implementation that primary designers can apply to enable secondary design and four corresponding design implementation principles that secondary designers themselves need to apply....

  17. Justifying Design Decisions with Theory-based Design Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Schermann, Michael;Gehlert, Andreas;Pohl, Klaus;Krcmar, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Although the role of theories in design research is recognized, we show that little attention has been paid on how to use theories when designing new artifacts. We introduce design principles as a new methodological approach to address this problem. Design principles extend the notion of design rationales that document how a design decision emerged. We extend the concept of design rationales by using theoretical hypotheses to support or object to design decisions. At the example of developing...

  18. Design principles for a large RFP experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillpott, J.; Rostagni, G.; Di Marco, J.

    1981-01-01

    An RFP experiment (RFX) has been designed by an International Design Team, by groups of collaborating physicists and engineers working in their home laboratories. This international collaborative project has been brought to an advanced stage of system and component design by the co-operation of three design teams under the co-ordination of a Design Manager, based at Culham Laboratory. The paper summaries the important design principles for an RFP device, based on the outcome of this collaborative design project

  19. Game Design Principles based on Human Error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Zaffari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper displays the result of the authors’ research regarding to the incorporation of Human Error, through design principles, to video game design. In a general way, designers must consider Human Error factors throughout video game interface development; however, when related to its core design, adaptations are in need, since challenge is an important factor for fun and under the perspective of Human Error, challenge can be considered as a flaw in the system. The research utilized Human Error classifications, data triangulation via predictive human error analysis, and the expanded flow theory to allow the design of a set of principles in order to match the design of playful challenges with the principles of Human Error. From the results, it was possible to conclude that the application of Human Error in game design has a positive effect on player experience, allowing it to interact only with errors associated with the intended aesthetics of the game.

  20. Design Principles for Synthesizable Processor Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleuniger, Pascal; McKee, Sally A.; Karlsson, Sven

    2012-01-01

    As FPGAs get more competitive, synthesizable processor cores become an attractive choice for embedded computing. Currently popular commercial processor cores do not fully exploit current FPGA architectures. In this paper, we propose general design principles to increase instruction throughput...

  1. MWH's water treatment: principles and design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crittenden, John C

    2012-01-01

    ... with additional worked problems and new treatment approaches. It covers both the principles and theory of water treatment as well as the practical considerations of plant design and distribution...

  2. Towards Automatic Controller Design using Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gerulf

    of evolutionary computation, a choice was made to use multi-objective algorithms for the purpose of aiding in automatic controller design. More specifically, the choice was made to use the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGAII), which is one of the most potent algorithms currently in use...... for automatic controller design. However, because the field of evolutionary computation is relatively unknown in the field of control engineering, this thesis also includes a comprehensive introduction to the basic field of evolutionary computation as well as a description of how the field has previously been......In order to design the controllers of tomorrow, a need has risen for tools that can aid in the design of these. A desire to use evolutionary computation as a tool to achieve that goal is what gave inspiration for the work contained in this thesis. After having studied the foundations...

  3. Symbiotic architecture: Redefinition of recycling design principles

    OpenAIRE

    Milan Šijaković; Ana Perić

    2018-01-01

    The study seeks to examine the possibility of implementing the biological concept of symbiosis into the field of architecture for redefining the design principles of architectural recycling. Through an in-depth analysis of the biological concept of symbiosis (i.e., a close and often long-term interaction between two or more different biological species and the criteria that govern the differentiation between symbiotic associations), three redefined design principles of recycling—commensalism,...

  4. Team learning center design principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daily, B.; Loveland, J.; Whatley, A. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    This is a preliminary report of a multi-year collaboration of the authors addressing the subject: Can a facility be designed for team learning and would it improve the efficiency and effectiveness of team interactions? Team learning in this context is a broad definition that covers all activities where small to large groups of people come together to work, to learn, and to share through team activities. Multimedia, networking, such as World Wide Web and other tools, are greatly enhancing the capability of individual learning. This paper addresses the application of technology and design to facilitate group or team learning. Many organizational meetings need tens of people to come together to do work as a large group and then divide into smaller subgroups of five to ten to work and then to return and report and interact with the larger group. Current facilities were not, in general, designed for this type of meeting. Problems with current facilities are defined and a preliminary design solution to many of the identified problems is presented.

  5. Teaching geometrical principles to design students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijs, L.M.G.; Bartneck, C.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new method of teaching the principles of geometry to design students. The students focus on a field of design in which geometry is the design: tessellation. We review different approaches to geometry and the field of tessellation before we discuss the setup of the course. Instead of

  6. General Principles for Brain Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Brian D.

    2006-06-01

    The task of understanding how the brain works has met with only limited success since important design concepts are not as yet incorporated in the analysis. Relevant concepts can be uncovered by studying the powerful methodologies that have evolved in the context of computer programming, raising the question of how the concepts involved there can be realised in neural hardware. Insights can be gained in regard to such issues through the study of the role played by models and representation. These insights lead on to an appreciation of the mechanisms underlying subtle capacities such as those concerned with the use of language. A precise, essentially mathematical account of such capacities is in prospect for the future.

  7. An Evolutionary Comparison of the Handicap Principle and Hybrid Equilibrium Theories of Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Patrick; Zollman, Kevin J. S.

    2015-01-01

    The handicap principle has come under significant challenge both from empirical studies and from theoretical work. As a result, a number of alternative explanations for honest signaling have been proposed. This paper compares the evolutionary plausibility of one such alternative, the “hybrid equilibrium,” to the handicap principle. We utilize computer simulations to compare these two theories as they are instantiated in Maynard Smith’s Sir Philip Sidney game. We conclude that, when both types of communication are possible, evolution is unlikely to lead to handicap signaling and is far more likely to result in the partially honest signaling predicted by hybrid equilibrium theory. PMID:26348617

  8. Design Principles for Augmented Reality Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunleavy, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Augmented reality is an emerging technology that utilizes mobile, context-aware devices (e.g., smartphones, tablets) that enable participants to interact with digital information embedded within the physical environment. This overview of design principles focuses on specific strategies that instructional designers can use to develop AR learning…

  9. Mechatronics design principles for biotechnology product development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik; Björkman, Mats

    2010-05-01

    Traditionally, biotechnology design has focused on the manufacture of chemicals and biologics. Still, a majority of biotechnology products that appear on the market today is the result of mechanical-electric (mechatronic) construction. For these, the biological components play decisive roles in the design solution; the biological entities are either integral parts of the design, or are transformed by the mechatronic system. This article explains how the development and production engineering design principles used for typical mechanical products can be adapted to the demands of biotechnology products, and how electronics, mechanics and biology can be integrated more successfully. We discuss three emerging areas of biotechnology in which mechatronic design principles can apply: stem cell manufacture, artificial organs, and bioreactors. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Designers' Cognitive Thinking Based on Evolutionary Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Shutao; Jianning Su; Chibing Hu; Peng Wang

    2013-01-01

    The research on cognitive thinking is important to construct the efficient intelligent design systems. But it is difficult to describe the model of cognitive thinking with reasonable mathematical theory. Based on the analysis of design strategy and innovative thinking, we investigated the design cognitive thinking model that included the external guide thinking of "width priority - depth priority" and the internal dominated thinking of "divergent thinking - convergent thinking", built a reaso...

  11. Evolutionary design of discrete controllers for hybrid mechatronic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupuis, Jean-Francois; Fan, Zhun; Goodman, Erik

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the issue of evolutionary design of controllers for hybrid mechatronic systems. Finite State Automaton (FSA) is selected as the representation for a discrete controller due to its interpretability, fast execution speed and natural extension to a statechart, which is very...... popular in industrial applications. A case study of a two-tank system is used to demonstrate that the proposed evolutionary approach can lead to a successful design of an FSA controller for the hybrid mechatronic system, represented by a hybrid bond graph. Generalisation of the evolved FSA controller...... of the evolutionary design of controllers for hybrid mechatronic systems. Finally, some important future research directions are pointed out, leading to the major work of the succeeding part of the research....

  12. Design Principles for Natural and Hybrid Ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Heiselberg, Per

    2000-01-01

    For many years mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately. Naturally, the next step in this development is the development of ventilation concepts that utilize and combine the best features from each system to create a new type of ventilation system- Hybrid Ventilation. The hybrid ventilation concepts, design challenges and principles are discussed and illustrated by four building examples.

  13. RFID Malware: Design Principles and Examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rieback, M.R.; Simpson, P.N.D.; Crispo, B.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of malware for Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems - including RFID exploits, RFID worms, and RFID viruses. We present RFID malware design principles together with concrete examples; the highlight is a fully illustrated example of a self-replicating RFID

  14. Devising Principles of Design for Numeracy Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Vince; Forgasz, Helen; Goos, Merrilyn; Bennison, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Numeracy is a fundamental component of the Australian National Curriculum as a General Capability identified in each F-10 subject. In this paper, we consider the principles of design necessary for the development of numeracy tasks specific to subjects other than mathematics--in this case, the subject of English. We explore the nature of potential…

  15. Teaching geometrical principles to design students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Bartneck

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new method of teaching the principles of geometry to design students. The students focus on a field of design in which geometry is the design: tessellation. We review different approaches to geometry and the field of tessellation before we discuss the setup of the course. Instead of employing 2D drawing tools, such as Adobe Illustrator, the students define their tessellation in mathematical formulas, using the Mathematica software. This procedure enables them to understand the mathematical principles on which graphical tools, such as Illustrator are built upon. But we do not stop at a digital representation of their tessellation design we continue to cut their tessellations in Perspex. It moves the abstract concepts of math into the real world, so that the students can experience them directly, which provides a tremendous reward to the students.

  16. Evolutionary experience design – the case of Otopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kenneth

    experiences with the case of “Otopia”. “Otopia” is a large scale, new media experiment, which combines the areas of computer games, sports and performance in to a spectator oriented concept; it was premiered in a dome tent at the Roskilde Festival in Denmark the summer 2005. This paper presents and discusses......The design of experiences is a complicated challenge. It might not even be possible to design such a “thing”, but only to design for it. If this is the case it could seem appropriate with an evolutionary approach. This paper introduces such an approach to the design of new public oriented...... used as a means of specifying the basic immaterial design form. This discussion leads to the suggestion of a rule-based evolutionary model for the design of situations as a practical option for designers of new spectator oriented experiences in the future The project of Otopia was supported...

  17. Regulatory RNA design through evolutionary computation and strand displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostain, William; Landrain, Thomas E; Rodrigo, Guillermo; Jaramillo, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The discovery and study of a vast number of regulatory RNAs in all kingdoms of life over the past decades has allowed the design of new synthetic RNAs that can regulate gene expression in vivo. Riboregulators, in particular, have been used to activate or repress gene expression. However, to accelerate and scale up the design process, synthetic biologists require computer-assisted design tools, without which riboregulator engineering will remain a case-by-case design process requiring expert attention. Recently, the design of RNA circuits by evolutionary computation and adapting strand displacement techniques from nanotechnology has proven to be suited to the automated generation of DNA sequences implementing regulatory RNA systems in bacteria. Herein, we present our method to carry out such evolutionary design and how to use it to create various types of riboregulators, allowing the systematic de novo design of genetic control systems in synthetic biology.

  18. Analog Circuit Design Optimization Based on Evolutionary Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Barari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates an evolutionary-based designing system for automated sizing of analog integrated circuits (ICs. Two evolutionary algorithms, genetic algorithm and PSO (Parswal particle swarm optimization algorithm, are proposed to design analog ICs with practical user-defined specifications. On the basis of the combination of HSPICE and MATLAB, the system links circuit performances, evaluated through specific electrical simulation, to the optimization system in the MATLAB environment, for the selected topology. The system has been tested by typical and hard-to-design cases, such as complex analog blocks with stringent design requirements. The results show that the design specifications are closely met. Comparisons with available methods like genetic algorithms show that the proposed algorithm offers important advantages in terms of optimization quality and robustness. Moreover, the algorithm is shown to be efficient.

  19. Antimicrobial peptides design by evolutionary multiobjective optimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Maccari

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are an abundant and wide class of molecules produced by many tissues and cell types in a variety of mammals, plant and animal species. Linear alpha-helical antimicrobial peptides are among the most widespread membrane-disruptive AMPs in nature, representing a particularly successful structural arrangement in innate defense. Recently, AMPs have received increasing attention as potential therapeutic agents, owing to their broad activity spectrum and their reduced tendency to induce resistance. The introduction of non-natural amino acids will be a key requisite in order to contrast host resistance and increase compound's life. In this work, the possibility to design novel AMP sequences with non-natural amino acids was achieved through a flexible computational approach, based on chemophysical profiles of peptide sequences. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR descriptors were employed to code each peptide and train two statistical models in order to account for structural and functional properties of alpha-helical amphipathic AMPs. These models were then used as fitness functions for a multi-objective evolutional algorithm, together with a set of constraints for the design of a series of candidate AMPs. Two ab-initio natural peptides were synthesized and experimentally validated for antimicrobial activity, together with a series of control peptides. Furthermore, a well-known Cecropin-Mellitin alpha helical antimicrobial hybrid (CM18 was optimized by shortening its amino acid sequence while maintaining its activity and a peptide with non-natural amino acids was designed and tested, demonstrating the higher activity achievable with artificial residues.

  20. Multi-objective evolutionary optimisation for product design and manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Presents state-of-the-art research in the area of multi-objective evolutionary optimisation for integrated product design and manufacturing Provides a comprehensive review of the literature Gives in-depth descriptions of recently developed innovative and novel methodologies, algorithms and systems in the area of modelling, simulation and optimisation

  1. Macro-environmental policy: Principles and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huppes, G.

    1993-01-01

    The central theme of this book is how macro-environmental policy can be developed, which does not prescribe or suggest specific technologies and products bu realizes the environmental quality desired by changing the general context. The publication is composed of four main parts. The framework for analysis and the normative principles for policy design and evaluation, the first two parts, form the analytic core. The framework for analysis gives a classification of instruments in terms of permutations of a limited number of defining elements. The normative principles guide choices in instrument design and, as the flexible response strategy, guide their application in specific policies. Detailing two main new instruments (the standard method for life cycle analysis and the substance deposit, and applying the instrument strategy as developed to the cases make up the next two parts

  2. Universal Instructional Design Principles for Moodle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Elias

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies a set of universal instructional design (UID principles appropriate to distance education (DE and tailored to the needs of instructional designers and instructors teaching online. These principles are then used to assess the accessibility level of a sample online course and the availability of options in its LMS platform (Moodle to increase course accessibility. Numerous accessibility-sensitive plug-in modules are found to be available to Moodle users, though relatively few features were included in the sample course analysed. This may be because they have not been made available to instructors at the institutional level. The paper offers a series of recommendations to improve the accessibility of online DE to learners with diverse abilities, disabilities, and needs.

  3. Controller Design of DFIG Based Wind Turbine by Using Evolutionary Soft Computational Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Bharti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript illustrates the controller design for a doubly fed induction generator based variable speed wind turbine by using a bioinspired scheme. This methodology is based on exploiting two proficient swarm intelligence based evolutionary soft computational procedures. The particle swarm optimization (PSO and bacterial foraging optimization (BFO techniques are employed to design the controller intended for small damping plant of the DFIG. Wind energy overview and DFIG operating principle along with the equivalent circuit model is adequately discussed in this paper. The controller design for DFIG based WECS using PSO and BFO are described comparatively in detail. The responses of the DFIG system regarding terminal voltage, current, active-reactive power, and DC-Link voltage have slightly improved with the evolutionary soft computational procedure. Lastly, the obtained output is equated with a standard technique for performance improvement of DFIG based wind energy conversion system.

  4. Implantable biomedical microsystems design principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bhunia, Swarup; Sawan, Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Research and innovation in areas such as circuits, microsystems, packaging, biocompatibility, miniaturization, power supplies, remote control, reliability, and lifespan are leading to a rapid increase in the range of devices and corresponding applications in the field of wearable and implantable biomedical microsystems, which are used for monitoring, diagnosing, and controlling the health conditions of the human body. This book provides comprehensive coverage of the fundamental design principles and validation for implantable microsystems, as well as several major application areas. Each co

  5. Design Principles for E-Government Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz, Alain

    The paper introduces a holistic approach for architecting systems which must sustain the entire e-government activity of a public authority. Four principles directly impact the architecture: Legality, Responsibility, Transparency, and Symmetry leading to coherent representations of the architecture for the client, the designer and the builder. The approach enables to deploy multipartite, distributed public services, including legal delegation of roles and outsourcing of non mandatory tasks through PPP.

  6. Cryostat design case studies, principles and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book enables the reader to learn the fundamental and applied aspects of practical cryostat design by examining previous design choices and resulting cryostat performance. Through a series of extended case studies the book presents an overview of existing cryostat design covering a wide range of cryostat types and applications, including the magnet cryostats that comprise the majority of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, space-borne cryostats containing sensors operating below 1 K, and large cryogenic liquid storage vessels. It starts with an introductory section on the principles of cryostat design including practical data and equations. This section is followed by a series of case studies on existing cryostats, describing the specific requirements of the cryostat, the challenges involved and the design choices made along with the resulting performance of the cryostat. The cryostat examples used in the studies are chosen to cover a broad range of cryostat applications and the authors of each case are ...

  7. Y-12 Sustainable Design Principles for Building Design and Construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, J. G.

    2008-11-01

    B&W Y-12 is committed to modernizing the Y-12 complex to meet future needs with a sustainable and responsive infrastructure and to integrating sustainability principles and practices into Y-12 work (Y72-001, B&W Y-12 Environmental, Safety and Health Policy). This commitment to sustainability and specifically sustainable design of buildings is also incorporated into Presidential Executive Orders (EO), DOE Orders (DOE O), and goals. Sustainable building design is an approach to design, construct, and operate facilities in an efficient and environmentally sound manner that will produce a healthful, resource-efficient and productive working environment that is inherently protective of the environment. The DOE has established the following 5 Guiding Principles for High Performance Sustainable Building (HPSB), and has issued directives that require Y-12 to incorporate the principles and a number of supporting specific practices and techniques into building design, construction and renovation projects: (1) Employ Integrated Design Principles; (2) Optimize Energy Performance; (3) Protect and Conserve Water; (4) Enhance Indoor Environmental Quality; and (5) Reduce Environmental Impact of Materials. The purpose of this document is to present the required sustainable building principles, practices and techniques, summarize the key drivers for incorporating them into Y-12 projects, and present additional recommendations and resources that can be used to support sustainable buildings to enhance the environmental and economic performance of the Y-12 Complex.

  8. Design Principles for Natural and Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    For many years mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately. Naturally, the next step in this development is the development of ventilation concepts that utilize and combine the best features from each system to create a new type of ventilation system- Hybrid Ventilation. ....... The hybrid ventilation concepts, design challenges and principles are discussed and illustrated by four building examples.......For many years mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately. Naturally, the next step in this development is the development of ventilation concepts that utilize and combine the best features from each system to create a new type of ventilation system- Hybrid Ventilation...

  9. Analog Group Delay Equalizers Design Based on Evolutionary Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Laipert

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a design method of the analog all-pass filter designated for equalization of the group delay frequency response of the analog filter. This method is based on usage of evolutionary algorithm, the Differential Evolution algorithm in particular. We are able to design such equalizers to be obtained equal-ripple group delay frequency response in the pass-band of the low-pass filter. The procedure works automatically without an input estimation. The method is presented on solving practical examples.

  10. Machine learning and evolutionary techniques in interplanetary trajectory design

    OpenAIRE

    Izzo, Dario; Sprague, Christopher; Tailor, Dharmesh

    2018-01-01

    After providing a brief historical overview on the synergies between artificial intelligence research, in the areas of evolutionary computations and machine learning, and the optimal design of interplanetary trajectories, we propose and study the use of deep artificial neural networks to represent, on-board, the optimal guidance profile of an interplanetary mission. The results, limited to the chosen test case of an Earth-Mars orbital transfer, extend the findings made previously for landing ...

  11. Construction principles and design rules in the case of circular design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romme, A.G.L.; Endenburg, G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes science-based organization design that uses construction principles and design rules to guide practitioner-academic projects. Organization science implies construction principles for creating and implementing designs. These principles serve to construct design rules that are

  12. Two Eyes, 3D: Stereoscopic Design Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Aaron; Subbarao, M.; Wyatt, R.

    2013-01-01

    Two Eyes, 3D is a NSF-funded research project about how people perceive highly spatial objects when shown with 2D or stereoscopic ("3D") representations. As part of the project, we produced a short film about SN 2011fe. The high definition film has been rendered in both 2D and stereoscopic formats. It was developed according to a set of stereoscopic design principles we derived from the literature and past experience producing and studying stereoscopic films. Study participants take a pre- and post-test that involves a spatial cognition assessment and scientific knowledge questions about Type-1a supernovae. For the evaluation, participants use iPads in order to record spatial manipulation of the device and look for elements of embodied cognition. We will present early results and also describe the stereoscopic design principles and the rationale behind them. All of our content and software is available under open source licenses. More information is at www.twoeyes3d.org.

  13. Design principles for robust oscillatory behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Hair, Sebastian M; Villota, Elizabeth R; Coronado, Alberto M

    2015-09-01

    Oscillatory responses are ubiquitous in regulatory networks of living organisms, a fact that has led to extensive efforts to study and replicate the circuits involved. However, to date, design principles that underlie the robustness of natural oscillators are not completely known. Here we study a three-component enzymatic network model in order to determine the topological requirements for robust oscillation. First, by simulating every possible topological arrangement and varying their parameter values, we demonstrate that robust oscillators can be obtained by augmenting the number of both negative feedback loops and positive autoregulations while maintaining an appropriate balance of positive and negative interactions. We then identify network motifs, whose presence in more complex topologies is a necessary condition for obtaining oscillatory responses. Finally, we pinpoint a series of simple architectural patterns that progressively render more robust oscillators. Together, these findings can help in the design of more reliable synthetic biomolecular networks and may also have implications in the understanding of other oscillatory systems.

  14. The new international certification and design principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijnen, W.H.P.M.; Heineman, H.

    1995-01-01

    ISO/TC 67 deals with standardization of Equipment for the Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries at a global level. The paper will provide the reader with insight in the Certification system as well as its link with Design. It will explain how the total process fits in the business structure of the Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry, with the focus on the emerging concepts such as partnering, turn key contracts, the developments in the EC and the need to reduce costs at a global basis. The paper will also address the topic of Design Principles based on the results of the study performed for ISO/TC 67. The paper will provide a framework that can be used by the industry in how to deal with issues such as, there shall the activity of the Operator be focused on when ordering equipment or services and how the manufacturer or service provider should prepare himself to become an equal partner with regard to the required equipment, service and its associated technology now and in the future. In the changing world with ever increasing focus on Health, Safety and Environment (HSE), the topic efficiency, technology, equipment performance and functionality should not be overlooked or been given less attention. The Certification and Design principles, implemented in standards, aim predominantly at Fitness for Purpose of equipment and/or services to regain the balance. A further aim is to limit consequential costs due to deficiencies in the broadest sense, allowing the Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry to produce oil and gas in a cost effective manner with the highest possible HSE targets

  15. Novel Natural Convection Heat Sink Design Concepts From First Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    CONVECTION HEAT SINK DESIGN CONCEPTS FROM FIRST PRINCIPLES by Derek E. Fletcher June 2016 Thesis Advisor: Garth Hobson Second Reader...COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NOVEL NATURAL CONVECTION HEAT SINK DESIGN CONCEPTS FROM FIRST PRINCIPLES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...CONVECTION HEAT SINK DESIGN CONCEPTS FROM FIRST PRINCIPLES Derek E. Fletcher Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy B.S., Southwestern

  16. Basic design principles of colorimetric vision systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumzhiu, Alex M.

    1998-10-01

    Color measurement is an important part of overall production quality control in textile, coating, plastics, food, paper and other industries. The color measurement instruments such as colorimeters and spectrophotometers, used for production quality control have many limitations. In many applications they cannot be used for a variety of reasons and have to be replaced with human operators. Machine vision has great potential for color measurement. The components for color machine vision systems, such as broadcast quality 3-CCD cameras, fast and inexpensive PCI frame grabbers, and sophisticated image processing software packages are available. However the machine vision industry has only started to approach the color domain. The few color machine vision systems on the market, produced by the largest machine vision manufacturers have very limited capabilities. A lack of understanding that a vision based color measurement system could fail if it ignores the basic principles of colorimetry is the main reason for the slow progress of color vision systems. the purpose of this paper is to clarify how color measurement principles have to be applied to vision systems and how the electro-optical design features of colorimeters have to be modified in order to implement them for vision systems. The subject of this presentation far exceeds the limitations of a journal paper so only the most important aspects will be discussed. An overview of the major areas of applications for colorimetric vision system will be discussed. Finally, the reasons why some customers are happy with their vision systems and some are not will be analyzed.

  17. Designing synthetic networks in silico: a generalised evolutionary algorithm approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert W; van Sluijs, Bob; Fleck, Christian

    2017-12-02

    Evolution has led to the development of biological networks that are shaped by environmental signals. Elucidating, understanding and then reconstructing important network motifs is one of the principal aims of Systems & Synthetic Biology. Consequently, previous research has focused on finding optimal network structures and reaction rates that respond to pulses or produce stable oscillations. In this work we present a generalised in silico evolutionary algorithm that simultaneously finds network structures and reaction rates (genotypes) that can satisfy multiple defined objectives (phenotypes). The key step to our approach is to translate a schema/binary-based description of biological networks into systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The ODEs can then be solved numerically to provide dynamic information about an evolved networks functionality. Initially we benchmark algorithm performance by finding optimal networks that can recapitulate concentration time-series data and perform parameter optimisation on oscillatory dynamics of the Repressilator. We go on to show the utility of our algorithm by finding new designs for robust synthetic oscillators, and by performing multi-objective optimisation to find a set of oscillators and feed-forward loops that are optimal at balancing different system properties. In sum, our results not only confirm and build on previous observations but we also provide new designs of synthetic oscillators for experimental construction. In this work we have presented and tested an evolutionary algorithm that can design a biological network to produce desired output. Given that previous designs of synthetic networks have been limited to subregions of network- and parameter-space, the use of our evolutionary optimisation algorithm will enable Synthetic Biologists to construct new systems with the potential to display a wider range of complex responses.

  18. Personnel Selection Using Fuzzy Axiomatic Design Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anant V. Khandekar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Overall competency of the working personnel is often observed to ultimately affect the productivity of an organization. The globalised competitive atmosphere coupled with technological improvements demands for efficient and specialized manpower for the industrial operations. A set of typical technological skills and attitudes is thus demanded for every job profile. Most often, these skills and attitudes are expressed imprecisely and hence, necessitating the support of fuzzy sets for their effective understanding and further processing. In this paper, a method based on fuzzy axiomatic design principles is applied for solving the personnel selection problems. Selecting a middle management staff of a service department for a large scale organization is demonstrated here as a real life example. Five shortlisted candidates are assessed with respect to a set of 18 evaluation criteria, and the selection committee with experts from the related fields also realizes the outcome of the adopted approach to be quite appropriate, befitting and in agreement with their expectations.

  19. Evolutionary design optimization of traffic signals applied to Quito city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Rolando; Aguirre, Hernán; Daolio, Fabio; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    This work applies evolutionary computation and machine learning methods to study the transportation system of Quito from a design optimization perspective. It couples an evolutionary algorithm with a microscopic transport simulator and uses the outcome of the optimization process to deepen our understanding of the problem and gain knowledge about the system. The work focuses on the optimization of a large number of traffic lights deployed on a wide area of the city and studies their impact on travel time, emissions and fuel consumption. An evolutionary algorithm with specialized mutation operators is proposed to search effectively in large decision spaces, evolving small populations for a short number of generations. The effects of the operators combined with a varying mutation schedule are studied, and an analysis of the parameters of the algorithm is also included. In addition, hierarchical clustering is performed on the best solutions found in several runs of the algorithm. An analysis of signal clusters and their geolocation, estimation of fuel consumption, spatial analysis of emissions, and an analysis of signal coordination provide an overall picture of the systemic effects of the optimization process.

  20. Substantially Evolutionary Theorizing in Designing Software-Intensive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Sosnin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Useful inheritances from scientific experience open perspective ways for increasing the degree of success in designing of systems with software. One such way is a search and build applied theory that takes into account the nature of design and the specificity of software engineering. This paper presents a substantially evolutionary approach to creating the project theories, the application of which leads to positive effects that are traditionally expected from theorizing. Any implementation of the approach is based on a reflection by designers of an operational space of designing onto a semantic memory of a question-answer type. One of the results of such reflection is a system of question-answer nets, the nodes of which register facts of interactions of designers with accessible experience. A set of such facts is used by designers for creating and using the theory that belongs to the new subclass of Grounded Theories. This sub-class is oriented on organizationally behavioral features of a project’s work based on design thinking, automated mental imagination, and thought experimenting that facilitate increasing the degree of controlled intellectualization in the design process and, correspondingly, increasing the degree of success in the development of software-intensive systems.

  1. Human Factors Principles in Information Dashboard Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Jacques V.; St. Germain, Shawn

    2016-06-01

    strategic modernization program at a nuclear power plant where legacy systems are upgraded to advanced digital technologies through a systematic process that links human factors principles to the systems engineering process. This approach will help to create an integrated control room architecture beyond what is possible for individual subsystem upgrades alone. In addition, several human factors design and evaluation methods were used to develop the end-state concept, including interactive sessions with operators in INL’s Human System Simulation Laboratory, three-dimensional modeling to visualize control board changes.

  2. Nonlinear Shaping Architecture Designed with Using Evolutionary Structural Optimization Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januszkiewicz, Krystyna; Banachowicz, Marta

    2017-10-01

    The paper explores the possibilities of using Structural Optimization Tools (ESO) digital tools in an integrated structural and architectural design in response to the current needs geared towards sustainability, combining ecological and economic efficiency. The first part of the paper defines the Evolutionary Structural Optimization tools, which were developed specifically for engineering purposes using finite element analysis as a framework. The development of ESO has led to several incarnations, which are all briefly discussed (Additive ESO, Bi-directional ESO, Extended ESO). The second part presents result of using these tools in structural and architectural design. Actual building projects which involve optimization as a part of the original design process will be presented (Crematorium in Kakamigahara Gifu, Japan, 2006 SANAA“s Learning Centre, EPFL in Lausanne, Switzerland 2008 among others). The conclusion emphasizes that the structural engineering and architectural design mean directing attention to the solutions which are used by Nature, designing works optimally shaped and forming their own environments. Architectural forms never constitute the optimum shape derived through a form-finding process driven only by structural optimization, but rather embody and integrate a multitude of parameters. It might be assumed that there is a similarity between these processes in nature and the presented design methods. Contemporary digital methods make the simulation of such processes possible, and thus enable us to refer back to the empirical methods of previous generations.

  3. From qualification design to training design using ECVET principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceclan, Mihail; Wastin, Franck

    2017-01-01

    The Joint Research Centre of European Commission was designated in 2009 as Operating agent of European Human Resources Observatory - in Nuclear (EHRO@N). EHRO@N identified the nuclear sector's major challenges: to fill@in the 30 % gap between HR demand and supply in decommissioning and to adapt nuclear E and T system to comply more to the labour market demands. The process of nuclear training system adaptation to the labour market needs is based on the design of the flexible qualifications (unit based qualifications) using European Credit system for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET) principles. The process of ECVET implementation in the nuclear energy sector is ongoing since 2011 and is based on the strategy and road map developed by EHRO-N. The current paper presents the latest developments on the designing of training programs based on exit outcomes.

  4. From qualification design to training design using ECVET principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceclan, Mihail; Wastin, Franck [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands). Directorate Nuclear Safety and Security

    2017-05-15

    The Joint Research Centre of European Commission was designated in 2009 as Operating agent of European Human Resources Observatory - in Nuclear (EHRO@N). EHRO@N identified the nuclear sector's major challenges: to fill@in the 30 % gap between HR demand and supply in decommissioning and to adapt nuclear E and T system to comply more to the labour market demands. The process of nuclear training system adaptation to the labour market needs is based on the design of the flexible qualifications (unit based qualifications) using European Credit system for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET) principles. The process of ECVET implementation in the nuclear energy sector is ongoing since 2011 and is based on the strategy and road map developed by EHRO-N. The current paper presents the latest developments on the designing of training programs based on exit outcomes.

  5. A Novel Evolutionary Algorithm for Designing Robust Analog Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaobo Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Designing robust circuits that withstand environmental perturbation and device degradation is critical for many applications. Traditional robust circuit design is mainly done by tuning parameters to improve system robustness. However, the topological structure of a system may set a limit on the robustness achievable through parameter tuning. This paper proposes a new evolutionary algorithm for robust design that exploits the open-ended topological search capability of genetic programming (GP coupled with bond graph modeling. We applied our GP-based robust design (GPRD algorithm to evolve robust lowpass and highpass analog filters. Compared with a traditional robust design approach based on a state-of-the-art real-parameter genetic algorithm (GA, our GPRD algorithm with a fitness criterion rewarding robustness, with respect to parameter perturbations, can evolve more robust filters than what was achieved through parameter tuning alone. We also find that inappropriate GA tuning may mislead the search process and that multiple-simulation and perturbed fitness evaluation methods for evolving robustness have complementary behaviors with no absolute advantage of one over the other.

  6. Evolutionary mechanics: new engineering principles for the emergence of flexibility in a dynamic and uncertain world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitacre, James M; Rohlfshagen, Philipp; Bender, Axel; Yao, Xin

    2012-09-01

    Engineered systems are designed to deftly operate under predetermined conditions yet are notoriously fragile when unexpected perturbations arise. In contrast, biological systems operate in a highly flexible manner; learn quickly adequate responses to novel conditions, and evolve new routines and traits to remain competitive under persistent environmental change. A recent theory on the origins of biological flexibility has proposed that degeneracy-the existence of multi-functional components with partially overlapping functions-is a primary determinant of the robustness and adaptability found in evolved systems. While degeneracy's contribution to biological flexibility is well documented, there has been little investigation of degeneracy design principles for achieving flexibility in systems engineering. Actually, the conditions that can lead to degeneracy are routinely eliminated in engineering design. With the planning of transportation vehicle fleets taken as a case study, this article reports evidence that degeneracy improves the robustness and adaptability of a simulated fleet towards unpredicted changes in task requirements without incurring costs to fleet efficiency. We find that degeneracy supports faster rates of design adaptation and ultimately leads to better fleet designs. In investigating the limitations of degeneracy as a design principle, we consider decision-making difficulties that arise from degeneracy's influence on fleet complexity. While global decision-making becomes more challenging, we also find degeneracy accommodates rapid distributed decision-making leading to (near-optimal) robust system performance. Given the range of conditions where favorable short-term and long-term performance outcomes are observed, we propose that degeneracy may fundamentally alter the propensity for adaptation and is useful within different engineering and planning contexts.

  7. How eco-evolutionary principles can guide tree breeding and tree biotechnology for enhanced productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Oskar; Palmroth, Sari; Näsholm, Torgny

    2014-11-01

    Tree breeding and biotechnology can enhance forest productivity and help alleviate the rising pressure on forests from climate change and human exploitation. While many physiological processes and genes are targeted in search of genetically improved tree productivity, an overarching principle to guide this search is missing. Here, we propose a method to identify the traits that can be modified to enhance productivity, based on the differences between trees shaped by natural selection and 'improved' trees with traits optimized for productivity. We developed a tractable model of plant growth and survival to explore such potential modifications under a range of environmental conditions, from non-water limited to severely drought-limited sites. We show how key traits are controlled by a trade-off between productivity and survival, and that productivity can be increased at the expense of long-term survival by reducing isohydric behavior (stomatal regulation of leaf water potential) and allocation to defense against pests compared with native trees. In contrast, at dry sites occupied by naturally drought-resistant trees, the model suggests a better strategy may be to select trees with slightly lower wood density than the native trees and to augment isohydric behavior and allocation to defense. Thus, which traits to modify, and in which direction, depend on the original tree species or genotype, the growth environment and wood-quality versus volume production preferences. In contrast to this need for customization of drought and pest resistances, consistent large gains in productivity for all genotypes can be obtained if root traits can be altered to reduce competition for water and nutrients. Our approach illustrates the potential of using eco-evolutionary theory and modeling to guide plant breeding and genetic technology in selecting target traits in the quest for higher forest productivity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved

  8. General design safety principles for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides the safety principles and the approach that have been used to implement the Code in the Safety Guides. These safety principles and the approach are tied closely to the safety analyses needed to assist the design process, and are used to verify the adequacy of nuclear power plant designs. This Guide also provides a framework for the use of other design Safety Guides. However, although it explains the principles on which the other Safety Guides are based, the requirements for specific applications of these principles are mostly found in the other Guides

  9. Human Systems Interface Design Methods Using Ecological Interface Design Principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Seung Kweon; Park, Jung Chul; Kim, Sun Su; Sim, Kwang Pyo; Yuk, Seung Yul; Choi, Jae Hyeon; Yoon, Seung Hyun

    2009-12-01

    The results of this study categorized into two parts. The first part is the guidelines for EID designs. The procedure to observe for EID design is composed of 6 steps; 1) to define a target system, 2) to make an abstraction hierarchy model, 3) to check the link structure among each components included in the layers of abstraction hierarchy model, 4) to transform information requirements to variables, 5) to make the graphs related to each variables, 6) to check the graphs by visual display design principles and heuristic rules. The second part is an EID design alternative for nuclear power plant. The EID for high level function represents the energy balance and energy flow in each loop of nuclear power plant. The EID for middle level function represents the performance indicators of each equipment involved in the all processes of changing from coolants to steam. The EID for low level function represents the values measured in each equipment such as temperature, pressure, water level and so on

  10. Safety principles and design management of Chashma Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Qirui; Cheng Pingdong

    1997-01-01

    The basic safety consideration and detailed design principles in the design of Chashma Nuclear Power Plant is elaborated. The management within the frame setting up by 'safety culture' and 'quality culture'

  11. EVALUATION OF STREET FURNITURE ACCORDING TO BASIC DESIGN PRINCIPLES

    OpenAIRE

    GHORAB, Peyman; YÜCEL CAYMAZ, Gökçen Firdevs

    2014-01-01

    In the urban context, it is important to create more comfortable and livable environments with proper planning, design and application. Because aesthetic considerations are of more importance today, designing urban furniture to give a more beautiful appearance to cities is of high priority; designers and those working in related disciplines must be careful to observe these principles throughout the design process. This paper describes research conducted to review the aesthetic principles invo...

  12. The Value of the Operational Principle in Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Andrew S.

    2009-01-01

    Formal design studies are increasing our insight into design processes, including those of instructional design. Lessons are being learned from other design fields, and new techniques and concepts can be imported as they are demonstrated effective. The purpose of this article is to introduce a design concept--the "operational principle"--for…

  13. Enhancing the Therapy Experience Using Principles of Video Game Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkins, John Wm; Brackenbury, Tim; Krause, Miriam; Haviland, Allison

    2016-02-01

    This article considers the potential benefits that applying design principles from contemporary video games may have on enhancing therapy experiences. Six principles of video game design are presented, and their relevance for enriching clinical experiences is discussed. The motivational and learning benefits of each design principle have been discussed in the education literature as having positive impacts on student motivation and learning and are related here to aspects of clinical practice. The essential experience principle suggests connecting all aspects of the experience around a central emotion or cognitive connection. The discovery principle promotes indirect learning in focused environments. The risk-taking principle addresses the uncertainties clients face when attempting newly learned skills in novel situations. The generalization principle encourages multiple opportunities for skill transfer. The reward system principle directly relates to the scaffolding of frequent and varied feedback in treatment. Last, the identity principle can assist clients in using their newly learned communication skills to redefine self-perceptions. These principles highlight areas for research and interventions that may be used to reinforce or advance current practice.

  14. SPICA/SAFARI Fourier transform spectrometer mechanism evolutionary design

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Dool, Teun C.; Kruizinga, Bob; Braam, Ben C.; Hamelinck, Roger F. M. M.; Loix, Nicolas; Van Loon, Dennis; Dams, Johan

    2012-09-01

    TNO, together with its partners, have designed a cryogenic scanning mechanism for use in the SAFARI1 Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) on board of the SPICA mission. SPICA is one of the M-class missions competing to be launched in ESA's Cosmic Vision Programme2 in 2022. JAXA3 leads the development of the SPICA satellite and SRON is the prime investigator of the Safari instrument. The FTS scanning mechanism (FTSM) has to meet a 35 mm stroke requirement with an Optical Path Difference resolution of less then 15 nm and must fit in a small volume. It consists of two back-to-back roof-top mirrors mounted on a small carriage, which is moved using a magnetic bearing linear guiding system in combination with a magnetic linear motor serving as the OPD actuator. The FTSM will be used at cryogenic temperatures of 4 Kelvin inducing challenging requirements on the thermal power dissipation and heat leak. The magnetic bearing enables movements over a scanning stroke of 35.5 mm in a small volume. It supports the optics in a free-floating way with no friction, or other non-linearities, with sub-nanometer accuracy. This solution is based on the design of the breadboard ODL (Optical Delay Line) developed for the ESA Darwin mission4 and the MABE mechanism developed by Micromega Dynamics. During the last couple of years the initial design of the SAFARI instrument, as described in an earlier SPIE 2010 paper5, was adapted by the SAFARI team in an evolutionary way to meet the changing requirements of the SPICA payload module. This presentation will focus on the evolution of the FTSM to meet these changing requirements. This work is supported by the Netherlands Space Office (NSO).

  15. Principle design and data of graphite components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Masahiro; Sumita, Junya; Shibata, Taiju; Iyoku, Tatsuo; Oku, Tatsuo

    2004-01-01

    The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) constructed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is a graphite-moderated and helium-gas-cooled reactor with prismatic fuel elements of hexagonal blocks. The reactor internal structures of the HTTR are mainly made up of graphite components. As well known, the graphite is a brittle material and there were no available design criteria for brittle materials. Therefore, JAERI had to develop the design criteria taking account of the brittle fracture behavior. In this paper, concept and key specification of the developed graphite design criteria is described, and also an outline of the quality control specified in the design criteria is mentioned

  16. Urban Environment Development based on Universal Design Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsritanto, Bangun Ir

    2018-02-01

    Universal Design is a design which facilitated full range of human diversity. By applying Universal design principles, urban environment can be more functional and more user-friendly for everyone. This study examined five urban streets of South Korea as a country experienced on developing various urban street designs based on universal design. This study aimed to examine and compare the South Korea cases using seven principles of universal design. The research methods of this study are literature study, case study, and site observation. The results of this study are: South Korea cases are good practices, urgency of implementing the direction into local regulations; and change of urban development paradigm.

  17. Toward Instructional Design Principles: Inducing Faraday's Law with Contrasting Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Eric; Wieman, Carl E.

    2016-01-01

    Although physics education research (PER) has improved instructional practices, there are not agreed upon principles for designing effective instructional materials. Here, we illustrate how close comparison of instructional materials could support the development of such principles. Specifically, in discussion sections of a large, introductory…

  18. Design Principles for Achieving Integrated Healthcare Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2013-01-01

    and Lyytinen, to examine the design principles that facilitated this smallscale project to expand and become widespread. As a result of my findings, I outline three lessons learned that emphasize: (i) principles of flexibility, (ii) expansion from the installed base through modular strategies and (iii...

  19. Publish Subscribe Systems Design and Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Tarkoma, Sasu

    2012-01-01

    This book offers an unified treatment of the problems solved by publish/subscribe, how to design and implement the solutions In this book, the author provides an insight into the publish/subscribe technology including the design, implementation, and evaluation of new systems based on the technology.  The book also addresses the basic design patterns and solutions, and discusses their application in practical application scenarios. Furthermore, the author examines current standards and industry best practices as well as recent research proposals in the area. Finally, necessary content ma

  20. MWH's water treatment: principles and design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crittenden, John C

    2012-01-01

    .... The contents have been updated to cover changes to regulatory requirements, testing methodology, and design approaches, as well as the emergent topics of pharmacological agents in the water supply...

  1. Design principles of electrical synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, John

    2017-09-08

    Essentially all animals with nervous systems utilize electrical synapses as a core element of communication. Electrical synapses, formed by gap junctions between neurons, provide rapid, bidirectional communication that accomplishes tasks distinct from and complementary to chemical synapses. These include coordination of neuron activity, suppression of voltage noise, establishment of electrical pathways that define circuits, and modulation of high order network behavior. In keeping with the omnipresent demand to alter neural network function in order to respond to environmental cues and perform tasks, electrical synapses exhibit extensive plasticity. In some networks, this plasticity can have dramatic effects that completely remodel circuits or remove the influence of certain cell types from networks. Electrical synaptic plasticity occurs on three distinct time scales, ranging from milliseconds to days, with different mechanisms accounting for each. This essay highlights principles that dictate the properties of electrical coupling within networks and the plasticity of the electrical synapses, drawing examples extensively from retinal networks. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Principles of waveform diversity and design

    CERN Document Server

    Wicks, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This is the first book to discuss current and future applications of waveform diversity and design in subjects such as radar and sonar, communications systems, passive sensing, and many other technologies. Waveform diversity allows researchers and system designers to optimize electromagnetic and acoustic systems for sensing, communications, electronic warfare or combinations thereof. This book enables solutions to problems, explaining how each system performs its own particular function, as well as how it is affected by other systems and how those other systems may likewise be affected. It is

  3. Design principles for radiological protection instrumentation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, F.H.; Powell, R.G.

    1981-02-01

    This Code of Practice takes the form of recommendations intended for designers and installers of Radiological Protection Instrumentation, and should also be of value to the newcomer to the R.P.I. field. Topics are discussed under the following headings: outline of R.P.I. requirements, specifying the requirement, satisfying the requirements, (overall design, availability and reliability, information display, human factors, power supplies, manufacture, quality assurance, testing, and cost analysis), supply, location and operation of the equipment, importance of documentation. (U.K.)

  4. Using the Principles of SoTL to Redesign an Advanced Evolutionary Biology Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael deBraga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A primary goal of university instruction is the students’ demonstration of improved, highly developed critical thinking (CT skills. However, how do faculty encourage CT and its potential concomitant increase in student workload without negatively impacting student perceptions of the course? In this investigation, an advanced biology course is evaluated after structural changes (implemented in 2010 met with a poor student evaluation of the course and the instructor. This analysis first examines the steps used to transform a course to encourage CT and then explains how it can be assessed. To accomplish these goals, the instructor collaborated with an educational developer to redesign the course using a philosophy informed by SoTL. This approach, as we see it, represents a set of principles that demand transparency in the development and application of strategies whose aim is to encourage student learning. However, the SoTL approach would be insufficient to simply promote a set of strategies without some mechanism for evaluating its efficacy. Therefore, we designed a “Graded Response” (GR multiple-choice test to measure CT development and hence to properly evaluate whether the strategies embedded in our SoTL-informed course redesign have adequately met our goals.

  5. Safety principles and design criteria for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazit, M.

    1982-01-01

    The criteria and safety principles for the design of nuclear power stations are presented from the viewpoint of a nuclear engineer. The design, construction and operation of nuclear power stations should be carried out according to these criteria and safety principles to ensure, to a reasonable degree, that the likelihood of release of radioactivity as a result of component failure or human error should be minimized. (author)

  6. Seven principles to design for embodied sensemaking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummels, C.C.M.; Dijk, van J.

    2015-01-01

    The TEI-community is based a various paradigms. We believe that the community matures by scrutinising these different paradigms and unravelling the consequences for designing for tangible, embedded and embodied interaction. In this paper we explore the consequences and possibilities of

  7. Wireless sensor networks principles, design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Shuang-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks presents the latest practical solutions to the design issues presented in wireless-sensor-network-based systems. Novel features of the text, distributed throughout, include workable solutions, demonstration systems and case studies of the design and application of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) based on the first-hand research and development experience of the author, and the chapters on real applications: building fire safety protection; smart home automation; and logistics resource management. Case studies and applications illustrate the practical perspectives of: ·         sensor node design; ·         embedded software design; ·         routing algorithms; ·         sink node positioning; ·         co-existence with other wireless systems; ·         data fusion; ·         security; ·         indoor location tracking; ·         integrating with radio-frequency identification; and ·         In...

  8. Design Principles for a Comprehensive Library System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluakar, Tamer; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes an online design featuring circulation control, catalog access, and serial holdings that uses an incremental approach to system development. Utilizing a dedicated computer, this second of three releases pays particular attention to present and predicted computing capabilities as well as trends in library automation. (Author/RAA)

  9. Design principles for global commons: Natural resources and emerging technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Stern

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ostrom’s design principles for managing common pool resources were developed largely by examining local commons involving natural resources. This paper enumerates several key characteristics that distinguish such commons from more complex commons involving global resources and the risks of emerging technologies. It considers the degree to which the design principles transfer to those commons and concludes that although they have considerable external validity, the list needs some modification and elaboration to apply to global resources and risk commons. A list of design principles is offered for global resource commons and the risks of emerging technologies. Applying Ostrom’s approach to global resources and emerging technologies can improve understanding and expand the solution set for these problems from international treaties, top-down national regulation, and interventions in market pricing systems to include non-governmental institutions that embody principles of self-governance.

  10. Wind turbine technology principles and design

    CERN Document Server

    Adaramola, Muyiwa

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionPart I: AerodynamicsWind Turbine Blade Design; Peter J. Schubel and Richard J. CrossleyA Shrouded Wind Turbine Generating High Output Power with Wind-Lens Technology; Yuji Ohya and Takashi KarasudaniEcomoulding of Composite Wind Turbine Blades Using Green Manufacturing RTM Process; Brahim AttafAerodynamic Shape Optimization of a Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Using Differential Evolution; Travis J. Carrigan, Brian H. Dennis, Zhen X. Han, and Bo P. WangPart II: Generators and Gear Systems

  11. Fuel cells principles, design, and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Revankar, Shripad T

    2014-01-01

    ""This book covers all essential themes of fuel cells ranging from fundamentals to applications. It includes key advanced topics important for understanding correctly the underlying multi-science phenomena of fuel cell processes. The book does not only cope with traditional fuel cells but also discusses the future concepts of fuel cells. The book is rich on examples and solutions important for applying the theory into practical use.""-Peter Lund, Aalto University, Helsinki""A good introduction to the range of disciplines needed to design, build and test fuel cells.""-Nigel Brandon, Imperial Co

  12. Design principles of metal-cutting machine tools

    CERN Document Server

    Koenigsberger, F

    1964-01-01

    Design Principles of Metal-Cutting Machine Tools discusses the fundamentals aspects of machine tool design. The book covers the design consideration of metal-cutting machine, such as static and dynamic stiffness, operational speeds, gearboxes, manual, and automatic control. The text first details the data calculation and the general requirements of the machine tool. Next, the book discusses the design principles, which include stiffness and rigidity of the separate constructional elements and their combined behavior under load, as well as electrical, mechanical, and hydraulic drives for the op

  13. Preserving SSC Design Function Using RCM Principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, K.

    2009-01-01

    Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) can be defined as an approach that employs preventive, predictive, proactive, and reactive maintenance practices and strategies in an integrated manner to increase the probability that a Structure, System, or Component (SSC) will function as designed over its life cycle with optimum maintenance. The goal of RCM is to preserve the SSC intended design function at the lowest cost by developing a maintenance strategy that is supported by sound technical and economic justification. RCM has been used extensively by the aircraft, space, defense, power generation, and manufacturing industries where functional failures of SSCs can have the potential to compromise worker or public safety, cause adverse environmental impact, cause loss of production, and/or result in excessive damage to critical SSCs. This paper provides a framework for performing an RCM analysis in support of DOE Order 430.1A (Life Cycle Asset Management) and DOE Order 420.1B (Facility Safety). The influence of RCM on the various aspects of the maintenance program including the work control process is also discussed

  14. Design measures in evolutionary water cooled reactors to optimize for economic viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, S.J.; Yu, S.K.W.; Appell, B.

    1999-01-01

    Since the mid 1980s, there have been various efforts to develop evolutionary water cooled reactors based on the current operating plant experience. To sustain and improve the economic viability, particular attention has been paid to the following aspects in developing evolutionary water cooled reactors: design simplification and increased operating margins, standardization in design as well as construction and operation, integration of operating plant insights, and consideration of safety, operability and constructability during the design stage. This paper reviews each item and discusses several examples from some of the evolutionary water cooled reactors being developed. (author)

  15. Geometry Design, Principles and Assembly of Micromotors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanpo Ning

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Discovery of bio-inspired, self-propelled and externally-powered nano-/micro-motors, rotors and engines (micromachines is considered a potentially revolutionary paradigm in nanoscience. Nature knows how to combine different elements together in a fluidic state for intelligent design of nano-/micro-machines, which operate by pumping, stirring, and diffusion of their internal components. Taking inspirations from nature, scientists endeavor to develop the best materials, geometries, and conditions for self-propelled motion, and to better understand their mechanisms of motion and interactions. Today, microfluidic technology offers considerable advantages for the next generation of biomimetic particles, droplets and capsules. This review summarizes recent achievements in the field of nano-/micromotors, and methods of their external control and collective behaviors, which may stimulate new ideas for a broad range of applications.

  16. Basic principles governing the design of magnetic switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birx, D.L.; Lauer, E.J.; Reginato, L.L.; Schmidt, J.; Smith, M.

    1980-01-01

    The idea of using saturable reactors as the basis of high power pulse generators is not a new concept, but there have been few recent applications of this technology. Here the principle of magnetic pulse generation is briefly described and some of the basic guidelines used to design these circuits are discussed. A demonstration of the principles by a small scale pulse amplifier is presented, and finally there is an extrapolation to a large scale system

  17. The Elements and Principles of Design: A Baseline Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Erin

    2013-01-01

    Critical to the discipline, both professionally and academically, are the fundamentals of interior design. These fundamentals include the elements and principles of interior design: the commonly accepted tools and vocabulary used to create and communicate successful interior environments. Research indicates a lack of consistency in both the…

  18. Non-Flutter Design Principle for long Span Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Jens; Andersen, Michael Styrk; Starch Øvre, Michele

    velocity for a thin airfoil shows an asymptotical behavior. In traditional bridge design the torsional-to-vertical frequency ratio is increased to obtain higher flutter wind velocities. In the present study, we investigate, what we will label the non-flutter design principle, in which the torsional...

  19. Principle design of an energy efficient transfemoral prosthesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltink, P.H.; Ünal, Ramazan; Eberle, W.; Hekman, Edsko E.G.; Carloni, Raffaella; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    In the pursuit of realizing an energy efficient transfemoral prosthetic, in this paper we present a preliminary study on a principle design. In particular, the design is based on the idea that the efficiency of the system can be realized by energetically coupling the knee and the ankle joints. In

  20. Design Principles of Next-Generation Digital Gaming for Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, Kurt; Jenkins, Henry; Holland, Walter; Miller, Heather; O'Driscoll, Alice; Tan, Katie Philip; Todd, Katie.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the rapid growth of digital games, describes research at MIT that is exploring the potential of digital games for supporting learning, and offers hypotheses about the design of next-generation educational video and computer games. Highlights include simulations and games; and design principles, including context and using information to…

  1. Designing User-Computer Dialogues: Basic Principles and Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Thomas H.

    This discussion of the design of computerized psychological assessment or testing instruments stresses the importance of the well-designed computer-user interface. The principles underlying the three main functional elements of computer-user dialogue--data entry, data display, and sequential control--are discussed, and basic guidelines derived…

  2. Engineering Design of an Adaptive Leg Prosthesis Using Biological Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Dentel, Andy; Invarsdottir, Thorunn

    2010-01-01

    The biomimetic design process is explored through a design case: An adaptive leg prosthesis. The aim is to investigate if the biomimetic design process can be carried out with a minimum of biological knowledge and without using advanced design methods. In the design case biomimetic design was suc...... was successfully carried out using library search resulting in 14 biological analogies for the design problem 'shape adaption'. It is proposed that search results are handled using special cards describing the biological phenomena and the functional principles....

  3. Robust design principles for reducing variation in functional performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Martin Ebro; Howard, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper identifies, describes and classifies a comprehensive collection of variation reduction principles (VRP) that can be used to increase the robustness of a product and reduce its variation in functional performance. Performance variation has a negative effect on the reliability and percei......This paper identifies, describes and classifies a comprehensive collection of variation reduction principles (VRP) that can be used to increase the robustness of a product and reduce its variation in functional performance. Performance variation has a negative effect on the reliability...... and perceived quality of a product and efforts should be made to minimise it. The design principles are identified by a systematic decomposition of the Taguchi Transfer Function in combination with the use of existing literature and the authors’ experience. The paper presents 15 principles and describes...... their advantages and disadvantages along with example cases. Subsequently, the principles are classified based on their applicability in the various development and production stages. The VRP are to be added to existing robust design methodologies, helping the designer to think beyond robust design tool and method...

  4. Intelligent computer systems in engineering design principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sunnersjo, Staffan

    2016-01-01

    This introductory book discusses how to plan and build useful, reliable, maintainable and cost efficient computer systems for automated engineering design. The book takes a user perspective and seeks to bridge the gap between texts on principles of computer science and the user manuals for commercial design automation software. The approach taken is top-down, following the path from definition of the design task and clarification of the relevant design knowledge to the development of an operational system well adapted for its purpose. This introductory text for the practicing engineer working in industry covers most vital aspects of planning such a system. Experiences from applications of automated design systems in practice are reviewed based on a large number of real, industrial cases. The principles behind the most popular methods in design automation are presented with sufficient rigour to give the user confidence in applying them on real industrial problems. This book is also suited for a half semester c...

  5. Patterns, principles, and practices of domain-driven design

    CERN Document Server

    Millett, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Methods for managing complex software construction following the practices, principles and patterns of Domain-Driven Design with code examples in C# This book presents the philosophy of Domain-Driven Design (DDD) in a down-to-earth and practical manner for experienced developers building applications for complex domains. A focus is placed on the principles and practices of decomposing a complex problem space as well as the implementation patterns and best practices for shaping a maintainable solution space. You will learn how to build effective domain models through the use of tactical pat

  6. Design criteria and principles for criticality detection and alarm systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delafield, H.J.; Clifton, J.J.

    1984-10-01

    The report gives design principles and criteria for criticality detection and alarm systems based on earlier work and revised in the light of more recent experience. In particular, account is taken of the developments which have taken place in the field of radiation detection and in the understanding of the different types of criticality excursion. General guidance is given on the principles to apply in deciding upon the need for a criticality system. The characteristics of a criticality incident are described in terms of the minimum incident of concern, and the radiation field. Criteria for the threshold of detection of a criticality incident are then derived and the methods of detection considered. The selection and siting of criticality detectors is discussed, and design principles are given for alarm systems. Finally, testing and post-alarm procedures are outlined, followed by a summary of the principal recommendations. The supporting Appendices include a discussion of reliability and a summary of radiation detector characteristics. (author)

  7. Design principles and developmental mechanisms underlying retinal mosaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Benjamin E; Keeley, Patrick W

    2015-08-01

    Most structures within the central nervous system (CNS) are composed of different types of neuron that vary in both number and morphology, but relatively little is known about the interplay between these two features, i.e. about the population dynamics of a given cell type. How such arrays of neurons are distributed within a structure, and how they differentiate their dendrites relative to each other, are issues that have recently drawn attention in the invertebrate nervous system, where the genetic and molecular underpinnings of these organizing principles are being revealed in exquisite detail. The retina is one of the few locations where these principles have been extensively studied in the vertebrate CNS, indeed, where the design principles of 'mosaic regularity' and 'uniformity of coverage' were first explicitly defined, quantified, and related to each other. Recent studies have revealed a number of genes that influence the formation of these histotypical features in the retina, including homologues of those invertebrate genes, although close inspection reveals that they do not always mediate comparable developmental processes nor elucidate fundamental design principles. The present review considers just how pervasive these features of 'mosaic regularity' and 'uniform dendritic coverage' are within the mammalian retina, discussing the means by which such features can be assessed in the mature and developing nervous system and examining the limitations associated with those assessments. We then address the extent to which these two design principles co-exist within different populations of neurons, and how they are achieved during development. Finally, we consider the neural phenotypes obtained in mutant nervous systems, to address whether a prospective gene of interest underlies those very design principles. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  8. A Novel Evolutionary Engineering Design Approach for Mixed-Domain Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Zhun; Hu, J.; Seo, K.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to engineering design of mixed-domain dynamic systems. The approach aims at system-level design and has two key features: first, it generates engineering designs that satisfy predefined specifications in an automatic manner; second, it can design systems belonging ...... often encountered in evolutionary computation, a HFC (Hierarchical Fair Competition) model is adopted in this work. Examples of an analog filter design and a MEM filter design illustrate the application of the approach....

  9. Elements and Principles of Design Posters. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996

    This book accompanies a poster series and allows the teacher to pre-plan a lesson or activity for students with the objectives shown for each element or principle of design to be presented. Along with a black-and-white reproduction of each poster, major concepts are discussed. Suggested student activities relating to a particular element or…

  10. Implementation of the non-flutter design principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael Styrk; Sahin, Emrah; Laustsen, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    The non-flutter design principle is introduced. Aerodynamically stable section model tests performed by three different research groups indicate, that flutter might be avoided if the torsional-to-vertical frequency ratio is kept below 1. A case study of a suspension bridge spanning 3:7 km...

  11. Design Principles for Cell Phone Learning in EFL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feihong

    2010-01-01

    Cell phone learning (C-learning), as an instructional approach, has been gaining more and more attention in the field of teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) in the last 10 years. While studies have proved C-learning an effective instructional approach in research settings, a review of literature indicates the lack of design principles to…

  12. Design principle and structure of the ANI data centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akopov, N.Z.; Arutyunyan, S.Kh.; Chilingaryan, A.A.; Galfayan, S.Kh.; Matevosyan, V.Kh.; Zazyan, M.Z.

    1985-01-01

    The design principles and structure of applied statistical programms used for processing the data from the ANI experiments are described. Nonparametric algorithms provide development of high-efficient method for simultaneous analysis of computerized and experimental data, from cosmic ray experiments. Relation data base for unified data storage, protection, renewing and erasuring as well as for fast and convenient information retrieval is considered

  13. Design Principles for Improving the Process of Publishing Open data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderwijk, A.M.G.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Choenni, R.; Meijer, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    · Purpose: Governments create large amounts of data. However, the publication of open data is often cumbersome and there are no standard procedures and processes for opening data. This blocks the easy publication of government data. The purpose of this paper is to derive design principles for

  14. Authentic tasks in higher education: Studying design principles for assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Keulen, H.; van den Berg, I.; Ramaekers, S.

    2006-01-01

    Students may benefit significantly from learning through authentic tasks. But how do we assess their learning outcomes, taking into account the specific characteristics of authentic tasks? In the second presentation of this symposium on design principles for authentic tasks we present and discuss

  15. Web Interface Design Principles for Adults' Self-Directed Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firat, Mehmet; Sakar, A. Nurhan; Kabakci Yurdakul, Isil

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important features which e-learning tools and environments must possess within the scope of lifelong learning is self-directed learning, which can be considered as a form of self-learning. The aim of this study was to determine, based on the views and recommendations of experts, interface design principles for the development of…

  16. Computers as components principles of embedded computing system design

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Computers as Components: Principles of Embedded Computing System Design, 3e, presents essential knowledge on embedded systems technology and techniques. Updated for today's embedded systems design methods, this edition features new examples including digital signal processing, multimedia, and cyber-physical systems. Author Marilyn Wolf covers the latest processors from Texas Instruments, ARM, and Microchip Technology plus software, operating systems, networks, consumer devices, and more. Like the previous editions, this textbook: Uses real processors to demonstrate both technology and tec

  17. Applying multimedia design principles enhances learning in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Nabil; Schuller, Mary; Santacaterina, Susan; Shapiro, Michael; Wang, Edward; Mayer, Richard E; DaRosa, Debra A

    2011-08-01

    The Association of American Medical Colleges' Institute for Improving Medical Education's report entitled 'Effective Use of Educational Technology' called on researchers to study the effectiveness of multimedia design principles. These principles were empirically shown to result in superior learning when used with college students in laboratory studies, but have not been studied with undergraduate medical students as participants. A pre-test/post-test control group design was used, in which the traditional-learning group received a lecture on shock using traditionally designed slides and the modified-design group received the same lecture using slides modified in accord with Mayer's principles of multimedia design. Participants included Year 3 medical students at a private, midwestern medical school progressing through their surgery clerkship during the academic year 2009-2010. The medical school divides students into four groups; each group attends the surgery clerkship during one of the four quarters of the academic year. Students in the second and third quarters served as the modified-design group (n=91) and students in the fourth-quarter clerkship served as the traditional-design group (n=39). Both student cohorts had similar levels of pre-lecture knowledge. Both groups showed significant improvements in retention (paffect transfer of learning. Further research on applying the principles of multimedia design to medical education is needed to verify the impact it has on the long-term learning of medical students, as well as its impact on other forms of multimedia instructional programmes used in the education of medical students. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  18. Experimental application of design principles in corrosion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyrl, W.H.; Pohlman, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental design criteria for corrosion investigations are based on established principles for systems that have uniform, or nearly uniform, corrosive attack. Scale-up or scale-down may be accomplished by proper use of dimensionless groups that measure the relative importance of interfacial kinetics, solution conductivity, and mass transfer. These principles have been applied to different fields of corrosion which include materials selection testing and protection; and to a specific corrosion problem involving attack of a substrate through holes in a protective overplate

  19. Applying principles of Design For Assembly to ITER maintenance operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heemskerk, Cock; de Baar, Marco; Elzendoorn, Ben; Koning, Jarich; Verhoeven, Toon; Vreede, Fred de

    2009-01-01

    In ITER, maintenance operations in the vessel and in the Hot Cell will be largely done by Remote Handling (RH). Remotely performed maintenance actions tend to be more time-costly than actions performed by direct human access. With a human operator in the control loop and adequate situational feedback, a two-armed master slave manipulator system can mimic direct access with dexterous manipulation, tactile feedback and vision. But even then, turnaround times are still very high. Adapting the design for simplified maintenance operations can yield significant time savings. One of the methods known to produce a simpler, more robust design, which is also better suited for handling with robots, is Design For Assembly (DFA). This paper discusses whether and how the principles of DFA can be applied to simplify maintenance operations for ITER. While DFA is normally used with series-production and ITER is a unique product, it is possible to apply the principles of DFA to ITER maintenance operations. Furthermore, DFA's principles can be applied at different abstraction levels. Combining principles of DFA with Virtual Reality leads to new insights and provides additional value.

  20. Design and evaluation of an integrated safeguards system: principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markin, J.T.; Coulter, C.A.; Gutmacher, R.G.; Whitty, W.J.

    1984-07-01

    An integrated safeguards system is defined as a collection of safeguards activities in which system components are coordinated to meet safeguards objectives efficiently within constraints imposed by safeguards resources, facility operations, potential adversaries, and regulatory requirements. This paper describes principles for designing and evaluating an integrated safeguards system that consists of four parts: (1) a problem definition phase that specifies resources and constraints composing the problem boundary values; (2) a system analysis/synthesis phase that describes how to select and integrate safeguards activities for efficient attainment of system objectives; (3) a system evaluation/optimization phase that defines measures of safeguards performance and develops methods for evaluating them; and (4) a decision-making phase that develops principles for selecting admissible designs and preference-ordering designs. 6 references, 4 figures, 5 tables

  1. Design and evaluation of an integrated safeguards system: principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markin, J.T.; Coulter, C.A.; Gutmacher, R.G.; Whitty, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    An integrated safeguards system is defined as a collection of safeguards activities in which system components are coordinated to meet safeguards objectives efficiently within constraints imposed by safeguards resources, facility operations, potential adversaries, and regulatory requirements. This paper describes principles for designing and evaluating an integrated safeguards system that consists of four parts: a problem definition phase that specifies resources and constraints composing the problem boundary values, a system analysis/synthesis phase that describes how to select and integrate safeguards activities for efficient attainment of system objectives, a system evaluation/optimization phase that defines measures of safeguards performance and develops methods for evaluating them, and a decision-making phase that develops principles for selecting admissible designs and preference-ordering designs

  2. Mechanical design of an electronic control unit using axiomatic principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cazacu Vlad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available If the engine of the car can be considered as the heart, then the E.C.U’s represents the brain of the car. Electronic control units (E.C.U’s are electronic devices which control the way different components of a car (engine, windows, airbags, etc. react in some situations (overheating, button pressed by a passenger, crash, etc.. Axiomatic design is a set of principles that theorizes the act of conceiving a new project. Based on two axiom this method comes into designers help, giving them the option to reach in a short period of time a fully functional and compliant product without supporting the design of the product on chance, past experiences or “try and fail” principle.

  3. Artificial neural networks and evolutionary algorithms in engineering design

    OpenAIRE

    T. Velsker; M. Eerme; J. Majak; M. Pohlak; K. Karjust

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Purpose of this paper is investigation of optimization strategies eligible for solving complex engineering design problems. An aim is to develop numerical algorithms for solving optimal design problems which may contain real and integer variables, a number of local extremes, linear- and non-linear constraints and multiple optimality criteria.Design/methodology/approach: The methodology proposed for solving optimal design problems is based on integrated use of meta-modeling techniques...

  4. Evolutionary Dynamics for Designing Multi-Period Auctions (extended abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klos, T.B.; Van Ahee, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Mechanism design (MD) has recently become a very popular approach in the design of distributed systems of autonomous agents. Also called ‘inverse game theory’ [4], MD is concerned with designing the games or systems in which agents interact, and to do this in such a way that rational agent behavior

  5. Design and construction of a basic principle simulator: an experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, O.; Galdoz, E.; Flury, C.; Fontanini, H.; Maciel, F.; Rovere, L.; Carpio, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes activities developed over design and building of a Basic Principle Simulator for nuclear power plants. This simulator has been developed in Process Control Division of Bariloche Atomic Center, Argentina. This project was sponsored jointly by CNEA and Atomic Energy International Organization, through the United Nations Program for Development. The paper specially emphasizes aspects like: architecture design methodology of real time simulators; graphic environment and interfaces design for users and instructor interaction, and for display information; test and validation of the used models; and human resources formation. Finally describes the actual implementation of the simulator to be used in Embalse Nuclear Power Plant. (author)

  6. Theory-generating practice. Proposing a principle for learning design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie

    2016-01-01

    This contribution proposes a principle for learning design – Theory-Generating Practice (TGP) – as an alternative to the way university courses are traditionally taught and structured, with a series of theoretical lectures isolated from practical experience and concluding with an exam or a project...... building, and takes tacit knowledge into account. The article introduces TGP, contextualizes it to a Danish tradition of didactics, and discusses it in relation to contemporary conceptual currents of didactic design and learning design. This is followed by a theoretical framing of TGP. Finally, three...

  7. Babinet principle applied to the design of metasurfaces and metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, F; Lopetegi, T; Laso, M A G; Baena, J D; Bonache, J; Beruete, M; Marqués, R; Martín, F; Sorolla, M

    2004-11-05

    The electromagnetic theory of diffraction and the Babinet principle are applied to the design of artificial metasurfaces and metamaterials. A new particle, the complementary split rings resonator, is proposed for the design of metasurfaces with high frequency selectivity and planar metamaterials with a negative dielectric permittivity. Applications in the fields of frequency selective surfaces and polarizers, as well as in microwave antennas and filter design, can be envisaged. The tunability of all these devices by an applied dc voltage is also achievable if these particles are etched on the appropriate substrate.

  8. Design principles of a web interface for monitoring tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiftimiei, C; Pra, S D; Fantinel, S; Andreozzi, S; Fattibene, E; Misurelli, G; Cuscela, G; Donvito, G; Dudhalkar, V; Maggi, G; Pierro, A

    2008-01-01

    A monitoring tool of a complex Grid system can gather a huge amount of information that have to be presented to the users in the most comprehensive way. Moreover different types of consumers could be interested in inspecting and analyzing different subsets of data. The main goal in designing a Web interface for the presentation of monitoring information is to organize the huge amount of data in a simple, user-friendly and usable structure. One more problem is to consider different approaches, skills and interests that all the possible categories of users have in looking for the desired information. Starting from the Information Architecture guidelines for the Web, it is possible to design Web interfaces towards a closer user experience and to deal with an advanced user interaction through the implementation of many Web standard technologies. In this paper, we will present a number of principles for the design of Web interface for monitoring tools that provide a wider, richer range of possibilities for what concerns the user interaction. These principles are based on an extensive review of the current literature in Web design and on the experience with the development of the GridICE monitoring tool. The described principles can drive the evolution of the Web interface of Grid monitoring tools

  9. Digital sonar design in underwater acoustics principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Qihu

    2012-01-01

    "Digital Sonar Design in Underwater Acoustics Principles and Applications" provides comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of research on sonar design, including the basic theory and techniques of digital signal processing, basic concept of information theory, ocean acoustics, underwater acoustic signal propagation theory, and underwater signal processing theory. This book discusses the general design procedure and approaches to implementation, the design method, system simulation theory and techniques, sonar tests in the laboratory, lake and sea, and practical validation criteria and methods for digital sonar design. It is intended for researchers in the fields of underwater signal processing and sonar design, and also for navy officers and ocean explorers. Qihu Li is a professor at the Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. Zero Energy Buildings – Design Principles and Built Examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Designing a zero energy building is a complicated task, and in order to achieve good results it is necessary to include knowledge from a range of sources. Therefore, cooperation is required between different professions and between generalists and specialists from the very beginning of the process...... knowledge must be acquired, depending on the project in question. Through a cross-disciplinary approach to architecture and building design, and based on an integrated design process, this publication will: • introduce a number of design strategies and technologies which are particularly important...... for the development of zero energy houses. These strategies and technologies are illustrated through simple design principles and built examples • identify technical and architectural potentials and challenges related to design strategies of crucial importance to the development of zero energy houses • identify...

  11. Aerospace structural design process improvement using systematic evolutionary structural modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert Michael

    2000-10-01

    A multidisciplinary team tasked with an aircraft design problem must understand the problem requirements and metrics to produce a successful design. This understanding entails not only knowledge of what these requirements and metrics are, but also how they interact, which are most important (to the customer as well as to aircraft performance), and who in the organization can provide pertinent knowledge for each. In recent years, product development researchers and organizations have developed and successfully applied a variety of tools such as Quality Function Deployment (QFD) to coordinate multidisciplinary team members. The effectiveness of these methods, however, depends on the quality and fidelity of the information that team members can input. In conceptual aircraft design, structural information is of lower quality compared to aerodynamics or performance because it is based on experience rather than theory. This dissertation shows how advanced structural design tools can be used in a multidisciplinary team setting to improve structural information generation and communication through a systematic evolution of structural detail. When applied to conceptual design, finite element-based structural design tools elevate structural information to the same level as other computationally supported disciplines. This improved ability to generate and communicate structural information enables a design team to better identify and meet structural design requirements, consider producibility issues earlier, and evaluate structural concepts. A design process experiment of a wing structural layout in collaboration with an industrial partner illustrates and validates the approach.

  12. Client Mobile Software Design Principles for Mobile Learning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Tan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In a client-server mobile learning system, client mobile software must run on the mobile phone to acquire, package, and send student’s interaction data via the mobile communications network to the connected mobile application server. The server will receive and process the client data in order to offer appropriate content and learning activities. To develop the mobile learning systems there are a number of very important issues that must be addressed. Mobile phones have scarce computing resources. They consist of heterogeneous devices and use various mobile operating systems, they have limitations with their user/device interaction capabilities, high data communications cost, and must provide for device mobility and portability. In this paper we propose five principles for designing Client mobile learning software. A location-based adaptive mobile learning system is presented as a proof of concept to demonstrate the applicability of these design principles.

  13. Design principles for achieving integrated healthcare information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2013-03-01

    Achieving integrated healthcare information systems has become a common goal for many countries in their pursuit of obtaining coordinated and comprehensive healthcare services. This article focuses on how a small local project termed 'Standardized pull of patient data' expanded and is now used on a large scale providing a majority of hospitals, general practitioners and citizens across Denmark with the possibility of accessing healthcare data from different electronic patient record systems and other systems. I build on design theory for information infrastructures, as presented by Hanseth and Lyytinen, to examine the design principles that facilitated this smallscale project to expand and become widespread. As a result of my findings, I outline three lessons learned that emphasize: (i) principles of flexibility, (ii) expansion from the installed base through modular strategies and (iii) identification of key healthcare actors to provide them with immediate benefits.

  14. Using Mathematical Modeling and Set-Based Design Principles to Recommend an Existing CVL Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    MATHEMATICAL MODELING AND SET-BASED DESIGN PRINCIPLES TO RECOMMEND AN EXISTING CVL DESIGN by William H. Ehlies September 2017 Thesis Advisor...Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE...September 2017 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE USING MATHEMATICAL MODELING AND SET-BASED DESIGN PRINCIPLES

  15. Design for Natural Breast Augmentation: The ICE Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallucci, Patrick; Branford, Olivier Alexandre

    2016-06-01

    The authors' published studies have helped define breast beauty in outlining key parameters that contribute to breast attractiveness. The "ICE" principle puts design into practice. It is a simplified formula for inframammary fold incision planning as part of the process for determining implant selection and placement to reproduce the 45:55 ratio previously described as fundamental to natural breast appearance. The formula is as follows: implant dimensions (I) - capacity of the breast (C) = excess tissue required (E). The aim of this study was to test the accuracy of the ICE principle for producing consistent natural beautiful results in breast augmentation. A prospective analysis of 50 consecutive women undergoing primary breast augmentation by means of an inframammary fold incision with anatomical or round implants was performed. The ICE principle was applied to all cases to determine implant selection, placement, and incision position. Changes in parameters between preoperative and postoperative digital clinical photographs were analyzed. The mean upper pole-to-lower pole ratio changed from 52:48 preoperatively to 45:55 postoperatively (p principle for surgical planning in breast augmentation that attractive natural breasts may be achieved consistently and with precision. Therapeutic, IV.

  16. Power electronics basics operating principles, design, formulas, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rozanov, Yuriy; Chaplygin, Evgeny; Voronin, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Power Electronics Basics: Operating Principles, Design, Formulas, and Applications provides fundamental knowledge for the analysis and design of modern power electronic devices. This concise and user-friendly resource:Explains the basic concepts and most important terms of power electronicsDescribes the power assemblies, control, and passive components of semiconductor power switchesCovers the control of power electronic devices, from mathematical modeling to the analysis of the electrical processesAddresses pulse-width modulation, power quality control, and multilevel, modular, and multicell

  17. Industrial and process furnaces principles, design and operation

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Barrie

    2014-01-01

    Furnaces sit at the core of all branches of manufacture and industry, so it is vital that these are designed and operated safely and effi-ciently. This reference provides all of the furnace theory needed to ensure that this can be executed successfully on an industrial scale. Industrial and Process Furnaces: Principles, 2nd Edition provides comprehensive coverage of all aspects of furnace operation and design, including topics essential for process engineers and operators to better understand furnaces. This includes: the combustion process and its control, furnace fuels, efficiency,

  18. SPICA/SAFARI fourier transform spectrometer mechanism evolutionary design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dool, T.C. van den; Kruizinga, B.; Braam, B.C.; Hamelinck, R.F.M.M.; Loix, N.; Loon, D. van; Dams, J.

    2012-01-01

    TNO, together with its partners, have designed a cryogenic scanning mechanism for use in the SAFARI Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) on board of the SPICA mission. SPICA is one of the M-class missions competing to be launched in ESA's Cosmic Vision Programme in 2022. JAXA leads the development

  19. Optimal Design of a Centrifugal Compressor Impeller Using Evolutionary Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Yong Cho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimization study was conducted on a centrifugal compressor. Eight design variables were chosen from the control points for the Bezier curves which widely influenced the geometric variation; four design variables were selected to optimize the flow passage between the hub and the shroud, and other four design variables were used to improve the performance of the impeller blade. As an optimization algorithm, an artificial neural network (ANN was adopted. Initially, the design of experiments was applied to set up the initial data space of the ANN, which was improved during the optimization process using a genetic algorithm. If a result of the ANN reached a higher level, that result was re-calculated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD and was applied to develop a new ANN. The prediction difference between the ANN and CFD was consequently less than 1% after the 6th generation. Using this optimization technique, the computational time for the optimization was greatly reduced and the accuracy of the optimization algorithm was increased. The efficiency was improved by 1.4% without losing the pressure ratio, and Pareto-optimal solutions of the efficiency versus the pressure ratio were obtained through the 21st generation.

  20. AGROECOLOGY: PRINCIPLES AND STRATEGIES FOR THE DESIGN OF SUSTAINABLE AGROECOSYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Canuto

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The theme of this paper is the debate on principles and strategies for designing sustainable agricultural systems. The paper builds on a broad approach to principles, moving to the more specific approach to strategies and finalizing with a micro-scale perspective on the practice of drawings and the consequences of each possible option. The objective is first of all to put to the debate the dialectic between conceptual plurality and unity in Agroecology. The problem in focus is to situate more clearly what are sustainable agroecosystems and, as a consequence, how to connect principles and strategies to make them viable. Regarding the theoretical reference, we use the classic authors of Agroecology and some critical articles on the conceptual question. The methodology that gives foundation to the approach is based on the author's theoretical and practical experience, with a qualitative, subjective and intuitive character. The results are only the presentation of ideas in order to contribute to the conceptual debate now in vogue and also to glimpse, on a smaller scale, the practical issue of sustainable agroecosystems designs.

  1. The Algorithm for Algorithms: An Evolutionary Algorithm Based on Automatic Designing of Genetic Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dazhi Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available At present there is a wide range of evolutionary algorithms available to researchers and practitioners. Despite the great diversity of these algorithms, virtually all of the algorithms share one feature: they have been manually designed. A fundamental question is “are there any algorithms that can design evolutionary algorithms automatically?” A more complete definition of the question is “can computer construct an algorithm which will generate algorithms according to the requirement of a problem?” In this paper, a novel evolutionary algorithm based on automatic designing of genetic operators is presented to address these questions. The resulting algorithm not only explores solutions in the problem space like most traditional evolutionary algorithms do, but also automatically generates genetic operators in the operator space. In order to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm, comprehensive experiments on 23 well-known benchmark optimization problems are conducted. The results show that the proposed algorithm can outperform standard differential evolution algorithm in terms of convergence speed and solution accuracy which shows that the algorithm designed automatically by computers can compete with the algorithms designed by human beings.

  2. Theory-Generating Practice: Proposing a principle for learning design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Buhl

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution proposes a principle for learning design: Theory-Generating Practice (TGP as an alternative to the way university courses often are taught and structured with a series of theoretical lectures separate from practical experience and concluding with an exam or a project. The aim is to contribute to a development of theoretical frameworks for learning designs by suggesting TGP which may lead to new practices and turn the traditional dramaturgy for teaching upside down. TGP focuses on embodied experience prior to text reading and lectures to enhance theoretical knowledge building and takes tacit knowledge into account. The article introduces TGP and contextualizes it to a Danish tradition of didactics as well as discusses it in relation to contemporary conceptual currents of didactic design and learning design. This is followed by a theoretical framing of TGP, and is discussed through three empirical examples from bachelor and master programs involving technology, and showing three ways of practicing it.

  3. Theory-Generating Practice: Proposing a principle for learning design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Buhl

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This contribution proposes a principle for learning design: Theory-Generating Practice (TGP as an alternative to the way university courses often are taught and structured with a series of theoretical lectures separate from practical experience and concluding with an exam or a project. The aim is to contribute to a development of theoretical frameworks for learning designs by suggesting TGP which may lead to new practices and turn the traditional dramaturgy for teaching upside down. TGP focuses on embodied experience prior to text reading and lectures to enhance theoretical knowledge building and takes tacit knowledge into account. The article introduces TGP and contextualizes it to a Danish tradition of didactics as well as discusses it in relation to contemporary conceptual currents of didactic design and learning design. This is followed by a theoretical framing of TGP, and is discussed through three empirical examples from bachelor and master programs involving technology, and showing three ways of practicing it.

  4. Semiconductor-inspired design principles for superconducting quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Yun-Pil; Tahan, Charles

    2016-03-17

    Superconducting circuits offer tremendous design flexibility in the quantum regime culminating most recently in the demonstration of few qubit systems supposedly approaching the threshold for fault-tolerant quantum information processing. Competition in the solid-state comes from semiconductor qubits, where nature has bestowed some very useful properties which can be utilized for spin qubit-based quantum computing. Here we begin to explore how selective design principles deduced from spin-based systems could be used to advance superconducting qubit science. We take an initial step along this path proposing an encoded qubit approach realizable with state-of-the-art tunable Josephson junction qubits. Our results show that this design philosophy holds promise, enables microwave-free control, and offers a pathway to future qubit designs with new capabilities such as with higher fidelity or, perhaps, operation at higher temperature. The approach is also especially suited to qubits on the basis of variable super-semi junctions.

  5. Evolutionary engineering for industrial microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanee, Niti; Fisher, Adam B; Fong, Stephen S

    2012-01-01

    Superficially, evolutionary engineering is a paradoxical field that balances competing interests. In natural settings, evolution iteratively selects and enriches subpopulations that are best adapted to a particular ecological niche using random processes such as genetic mutation. In engineering desired approaches utilize rational prospective design to address targeted problems. When considering details of evolutionary and engineering processes, more commonality can be found. Engineering relies on detailed knowledge of the problem parameters and design properties in order to predict design outcomes that would be an optimized solution. When detailed knowledge of a system is lacking, engineers often employ algorithmic search strategies to identify empirical solutions. Evolution epitomizes this iterative optimization by continuously diversifying design options from a parental design, and then selecting the progeny designs that represent satisfactory solutions. In this chapter, the technique of applying the natural principles of evolution to engineer microbes for industrial applications is discussed to highlight the challenges and principles of evolutionary engineering.

  6. Design of synthetic biological logic circuits based on evolutionary algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chia-Hua; Lin, Chun-Liang; Chang, Yen-Chang; Jennawasin, Tanagorn; Chen, Po-Kuei

    2013-08-01

    The construction of an artificial biological logic circuit using systematic strategy is recognised as one of the most important topics for the development of synthetic biology. In this study, a real-structured genetic algorithm (RSGA), which combines general advantages of the traditional real genetic algorithm with those of the structured genetic algorithm, is proposed to deal with the biological logic circuit design problem. A general model with the cis-regulatory input function and appropriate promoter activity functions is proposed to synthesise a wide variety of fundamental logic gates such as NOT, Buffer, AND, OR, NAND, NOR and XOR. The results obtained can be extended to synthesise advanced combinational and sequential logic circuits by topologically distinct connections. The resulting optimal design of these logic gates and circuits are established via the RSGA. The in silico computer-based modelling technology has been verified showing its great advantages in the purpose.

  7. The remarkable cell: Intelligently designed or by evolutionary process?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Pretorius

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article was to deal with the challenging theme of the Origin of Life. Science has been arguing the when and how of the beginning of life for centuries. It is a subject which remains perplexing despite all the technological advances made in science. The first part of the article dealt with the idea of a universe and earth divinely created to sustain life. The second part dealt with the premise that the first life forms were the miraculous work of an intelligent designer, which is revealed by the sophisticated and intricate design of these first life forms. The article concluded with an explanation that these life forms are in stark contrast to the idea of a random Darwinian type evolution for life�s origin, frequently referred to as abiogenesis or spontaneous generation.

  8. Designing the Electronic Classroom: Applying Learning Theory and Ergonomic Design Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Mark; Wilkinson, Frances C.

    2001-01-01

    Applies learning theory and ergonomic principles to the design of effective learning environments for library instruction. Discusses features of electronic classroom ergonomics, including the ergonomics of physical space, environmental factors, and workstations; and includes classroom layouts. (Author/LRW)

  9. Design principles and operating principles: the yin and yang of optimal functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voit, Eberhard O

    2003-03-01

    Metabolic engineering has as a goal the improvement of yield of desired products from microorganisms and cell lines. This goal has traditionally been approached with experimental biotechnological methods, but it is becoming increasingly popular to precede the experimental phase by a mathematical modeling step that allows objective pre-screening of possible improvement strategies. The models are either linear and represent the stoichiometry and flux distribution in pathways or they are non-linear and account for the full kinetic behavior of the pathway, which is often significantly effected by regulatory signals. Linear flux analysis is simpler and requires less input information than a full kinetic analysis, and the question arises whether the consideration of non-linearities is really necessary for devising optimal strategies for yield improvements. The article analyzes this question with a generic, representative pathway. It shows that flux split ratios, which are the key criterion for linear flux analysis, are essentially sufficient for unregulated, but not for regulated branch points. The interrelationships between regulatory design on one hand and optimal patterns of operation on the other suggest the investigation of operating principles that complement design principles, like a user's manual complements the hardwiring of electronic equipment.

  10. A performance-oriented power transformer design methodology using multi-objective evolutionary optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adly, Amr A; Abd-El-Hafiz, Salwa K

    2015-05-01

    Transformers are regarded as crucial components in power systems. Due to market globalization, power transformer manufacturers are facing an increasingly competitive environment that mandates the adoption of design strategies yielding better performance at lower costs. In this paper, a power transformer design methodology using multi-objective evolutionary optimization is proposed. Using this methodology, which is tailored to be target performance design-oriented, quick rough estimation of transformer design specifics may be inferred. Testing of the suggested approach revealed significant qualitative and quantitative match with measured design and performance values. Details of the proposed methodology as well as sample design results are reported in the paper.

  11. Evolutionary optimization and game strategies for advanced multi-disciplinary design applications to aeronautics and UAV design

    CERN Document Server

    Periaux, Jacques; Lee, Dong Seop Chris

    2015-01-01

    Many complex aeronautical design problems can be formulated with efficient multi-objective evolutionary optimization methods and game strategies. This book describes the role of advanced innovative evolution tools in the solution, or the set of solutions of single or multi disciplinary optimization. These tools use the concept of multi-population, asynchronous parallelization and hierarchical topology which allows different models including precise, intermediate and approximate models with each node belonging to the different hierarchical layer handled by a different Evolutionary Algorithm. The efficiency of evolutionary algorithms for both single and multi-objective optimization problems are significantly improved by the coupling of EAs with games and in particular by a new dynamic methodology named “Hybridized Nash-Pareto games”. Multi objective Optimization techniques and robust design problems taking into account uncertainties are introduced and explained in detail. Several applications dealing with c...

  12. In search of design principles for developing digital learning & performance support for a student design task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollen, Lars; van der Meij, Hans; Leemkuil, Hendrik H.; McKenney, Susan

    2015-01-01

    A digital learning and performance support environment for university student design tasks was developed. This paper describes on the design rationale, process, and the usage results to arrive at a core set of design principles for the construction of such an environment. We present a collection of

  13. In search of design principles for developing digital learning & performance support for a student design task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollen, Lars; Van der Meij, Hans; Leemkuil, Henny; McKenney, Susan

    2016-01-01

    A digital learning and performance support environment for university student design tasks was developed. This paper describes on the design rationale, process, and the usage results to arrive at a core set of design principles for the construction of such an environment. We present a collection of

  14. Proof of principle for epitope-focused vaccine design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Bruno E.; Bates, John T.; Loomis, Rebecca J.; Baneyx, Gretchen; Carrico, Chris; Jardine, Joseph G.; Rupert, Peter; Correnti, Colin; Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr; Vittal, Vinayak; Connell, Mary J.; Stevens, Eric; Schroeter, Alexandria; Chen, Man; MacPherson, Skye; Serra, Andreia M.; Adachi, Yumiko; Holmes, Margaret A.; Li, Yuxing; Klevit, Rachel E.; Graham, Barney S.; Wyatt, Richard T.; Baker, David; Strong, Roland K.; Crowe, James E.; Johnson, Philip R.; Schief, William R.

    2014-03-01

    Vaccines prevent infectious disease largely by inducing protective neutralizing antibodies against vulnerable epitopes. Several major pathogens have resisted traditional vaccine development, although vulnerable epitopes targeted by neutralizing antibodies have been identified for several such cases. Hence, new vaccine design methods to induce epitope-specific neutralizing antibodies are needed. Here we show, with a neutralization epitope from respiratory syncytial virus, that computational protein design can generate small, thermally and conformationally stable protein scaffolds that accurately mimic the viral epitope structure and induce potent neutralizing antibodies. These scaffolds represent promising leads for the research and development of a human respiratory syncytial virus vaccine needed to protect infants, young children and the elderly. More generally, the results provide proof of principle for epitope-focused and scaffold-based vaccine design, and encourage the evaluation and further development of these strategies for a variety of other vaccine targets, including antigenically highly variable pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus and influenza.

  15. Zero Energy Buildings – Design Principles and Built Examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejder, Anne Kirkegaard; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    Designing a zero energy building is a complicated task, and in order to achieve good results it is necessary to include knowledge from a range of sources. Therefore, cooperation is required between different professions and between generalists and specialists from the very beginning of the process...... for the development of zero energy houses. These strategies and technologies are illustrated through simple design principles and built examples • identify technical and architectural potentials and challenges related to design strategies of crucial importance to the development of zero energy houses • identify...... technical and architectural potentials and challenges related to the application of new technologies • make visible engineering and architectural issues and create greater transparency, providing a point of departure for cross-disciplinary cooperation....

  16. Principles of human joint replacement design and clinical application

    CERN Document Server

    Buechel, Frederick F

    2015-01-01

    This book is written for the users and designers of joint replacements. In its second extended edition it conveys to the reader the knowledge accumulated by the authors during their forty year effort on the development of replacement devices for the lower limb for the purpose of aiding the reader in their design and evaluation of joint replacement devices. The early chapters describe the engineering, scientific and medical principles needed for replacement joint evaluation. One must understand the nature and performance of the materials involved and their characteristics in vivo, i.e. the response of the body to implant materials. It is also essential to understand the response of the implants to applied loading and motion, particularly in the hostile physiological environment. A chapter describes the design methodology now required for joint replacement in the USA and EU countries. The remaining chapters provide a history of joint replacement, an evaluation of earlier and current devices and sample case hist...

  17. Principles of Human Joint Replacement Design and Clinical Application

    CERN Document Server

    Buechel, Frederick F

    2012-01-01

    Drs. Buechel, an orthopaedic surgeon, and Pappas, a professor of Mechanical Engineering, are the designers of several successful joint replacement systems. The most well-known of these is the pioneering LCS knee replacement. They have written this book for the users and designers of joint replacements. It is an attempt to convey to the reader the knowledge accumulated by the authors during their thirty five year effort on the development of replacement devices for the lower limb for the purpose of aiding the reader in their design and evaluation of joint replacement devices. The early chapters describe the engineering, scientific and medical principles needed for replacement joint evaluation. One must understand the nature and performance of the materials involved and their characteristics in vivo, i.e. the response of the body to implant materials. It is also essential to understand the response of the implants to applied loading and motion, particularly in the hostile physiological environment. A chapter de...

  18. Autonomous Reactivity Control (ARC) — Principles, geometry and design process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qvist, Staffan A., E-mail: staffan.qvist@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California Berkeley (United States); Hellesen, Carl [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Thiele, Roman [Division of Reactor Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Dubberley, Allen E. [General Electric Advanced Reactor Systems Department (retired), Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Gradecka, Malwina; Greenspan, Ehud [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California Berkeley (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Here we define the principles of the operation and design of ARC systems. • ARC systems can provide inherent safety during and following unprotected transients. • A manufacturing and assembly method was developed and presented. - Abstract: The Autonomous Reactivity Control (ARC) system was developed to ensure inherent safety performance of Generation-IV reactors while having a minimal impact on reactor performance and economic viability. Here we present in detail the principles of how the ARC system operates, what materials should be used, what components make up the system and how they are interconnected. The relevant equations regarding how to design the system for a certain response are developed and defined, and the most important aspects determining the speed of actuation of the systems are analyzed. Thus, this study serves as the general reference material for all of the fundamental principles behind the ARC idea. Finally, we present a step-by-step guide to how a fast reactor fuel subassembly with an ARC system installed would be manufactured, using a full 3D-CAD model. For an ARC installation in a 1000 MWth sodium-cooled oxide-fueled fast reactor core, the system constitutes a relatively minor adjustment to a typical fuel assembly, increasing its total axial extent by ∼5–10% and the total primary coolant pressure drop by ∼1%. The main finding of this study is that it is possible to design, manufacture (using existing methods) and implement ARC systems in the fuel assemblies of fast reactor cores to provide inherent safety in all anticipated unprotected transients with only a modest increase in the length of the assembly and the pressure drop across the core.

  19. Reconfigurable manufacturing systems: Principles, design, and future trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Yoram; Gu, Xi; Guo, Weihong

    2018-06-01

    Reconfigurable manufacturing systems (RMSs), which possess the advantages of both dedicated serial lines and flexible manufacturing systems, were introduced in the mid-1990s to address the challenges initiated by globalization. The principal goal of an RMS is to enhance the responsiveness of manufacturing systems to unforeseen changes in product demand. RMSs are costeffective because they boost productivity, and increase the lifetime of the manufacturing system. Because of the many streams in which a product may be produced on an RMS, maintaining product precision in an RMS is a challenge. But the experience with RMS in the last 20 years indicates that product quality can be definitely maintained by inserting in-line inspection stations. In this paper, we formulate the design and operational principles for RMSs, and provide a state-of-the-art review of the design and operations methodologies of RMSs according to these principles. Finally, we propose future research directions, and deliberate on how recent intelligent manufacturing technologies may advance the design and operations of RMSs.

  20. Using Green Chemistry and Engineering Principles to Design ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concepts of green chemistry and engineering (GC&E) have been promoted as an effective qualitative framework for developing more sustainable chemical syntheses, processes, and material management techniques. This has been demonstrated by many theoretical and practical cases. In addition, there are several approaches and frameworks focused on demonstrating that improvements were achieved through GC&E technologies. However, the application of these principles is not always straightforward. We propose using systematic frameworks and tools that help practitioners when deciding which principles can be applied, the levels of implementation, prospective of obtaining simultaneous improvements in all sustainability aspects, and ways to deal with multiobjective problems. Therefore, this contribution aims to provide a systematic combination of three different and complementary design tools for assisting designers in evaluating, developing, and improving chemical manufacturing and material management systems under GC&E perspectives. The WAR Algorithm, GREENSCOPE, and SustainPro were employed for this synergistic approach of incorporating sustainability at early stages of process development. In this demonstration, simulated ammonia production is used as a case study to illustrate this advancement. Results show how to identify process design areas for improvements, key factors, multi-criteria decision-making solutions, and optimal tradeoffs. Finally, conclusions were pre

  1. SYSTEMATIC PRINCIPLES AND METHODS OF SYMBOLIC APPROACHES IN URBAN DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BULAKH I. V

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of the problem. The low level of expression and personalization of mass architecture of the second half of the twentieth century connected with the spread of industrial technology and even to a greater extent with mechanistic traditionally functional relation to the average person as, abstract consumer architecture. The condition out of the critical situation is focusing on matters aesthetic, artistic understanding and harmonious image creation environment. The problem of increasing architectural and artistic level of architectural and urban planning solutions to overcome the monotony of planning and development, creating aesthetically expressive urban environment does not lose relevance over the past decades. Understanding and acceptance of enigma and dynamic development of cities encourage architects to find new design techniques that are able to provide in the future a reasonable possibility of forming artistic and aesthetic image of the modern city. Purpose. Define and systematize the principles of symbolization architectural and planning images; propose methods symbolism in the architectural planning of image of the urban environment. Conclusion based on analysis of the enhanced concept symbolizing the image of Architecture and Planning, the place, role and symbolization trends at all levels of the urban environment - planning, three-dimensional and improvement of urban areas; first identified the main stages and levels of symbolization (analohyzatsyya, schematization and alehoryzatsiya, their features and characteristics, formulated the basic principles of symbolization architectural and planning of image, namely the principles of communication between figurative analogies, transformation of subsequent circuits, switching allegorical groupings and metamorfizm ultimate goal – symbol birth .

  2. Integrating rock mechanics issues with repository design through design process principles and methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieniawski, Z.T.

    1996-01-01

    A good designer needs not only knowledge for designing (technical know-how that is used to generate alternative design solutions) but also must have knowledge about designing (appropriate principles and systematic methodology to follow). Concepts such as open-quotes design for manufactureclose quotes or open-quotes concurrent engineeringclose quotes are widely used in the industry. In the field of rock engineering, only limited attention has been paid to the design process because design of structures in rock masses presents unique challenges to the designers as a result of the uncertainties inherent in characterization of geologic media. However, a stage has now been reached where we are be able to sufficiently characterize rock masses for engineering purposes and identify the rock mechanics issues involved but are still lacking engineering design principles and methodology to maximize our design performance. This paper discusses the principles and methodology of the engineering design process directed to integrating site characterization activities with design, construction and performance of an underground repository. Using the latest information from the Yucca Mountain Project on geology, rock mechanics and starter tunnel design, the current lack of integration is pointed out and it is shown how rock mechanics issues can be effectively interwoven with repository design through a systematic design process methodology leading to improved repository performance. In essence, the design process is seen as the use of design principles within an integrating design methodology, leading to innovative problem solving. In particular, a new concept of open-quotes Design for Constructibility and Performanceclose quotes is introduced. This is discussed with respect to ten rock mechanics issues identified for repository design and performance

  3. A case study analysis of the application of design for manufacture principles by industrial design students

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, R; Page, T

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a case study evaluation of a module that engages students on product and industrial design programmes with the principles of Design for Manufacturing (DFM). The primary element of the module is to expose students to the constraints of a full design to manufacture process. The module explores the design of a small polymer promotional item, together with the means of mass producing that item. This is done through the process of injection moulding and students design an inje...

  4. Design principles and algorithms for automated air traffic management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzberger, Heinz

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents design principles and algorithm for building a real time scheduler. The primary objective of the scheduler is to assign arrival aircraft to a favorable landing runway and schedule them to land at times that minimize delays. A further objective of the scheduler is to allocate delays between high altitude airspace far from the airport and low altitude airspace near the airport. A method of delay allocation is described that minimizes the average operating cost in the presence of errors in controlling aircraft to a specified landing time.

  5. Architectural design of heterogeneous metallic nanocrystals--principles and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yue; Zhang, Qingbo; Yao, Qiaofeng; Xie, Jianping; Lee, Jim Yang

    2014-12-16

    CONSPECTUS: Heterogeneous metal nanocrystals (HMNCs) are a natural extension of simple metal nanocrystals (NCs), but as a research topic, they have been much less explored until recently. HMNCs are formed by integrating metal NCs of different compositions into a common entity, similar to the way atoms are bonded to form molecules. HMNCs can be built to exhibit an unprecedented architectural diversity and complexity by programming the arrangement of the NC building blocks ("unit NCs"). The architectural engineering of HMNCs involves the design and fabrication of the architecture-determining elements (ADEs), i.e., unit NCs with precise control of shape and size, and their relative positions in the design. Similar to molecular engineering, where structural diversity is used to create more property variations for application explorations, the architectural engineering of HMNCs can similarly increase the utility of metal NCs by offering a suite of properties to support multifunctionality in applications. The architectural engineering of HMNCs calls for processes and operations that can execute the design. Some enabling technologies already exist in the form of classical micro- and macroscale fabrication techniques, such as masking and etching. These processes, when used singly or in combination, are fully capable of fabricating nanoscopic objects. What is needed is a detailed understanding of the engineering control of ADEs and the translation of these principles into actual processes. For simplicity of execution, these processes should be integrated into a common reaction system and yet retain independence of control. The key to architectural diversity is therefore the independent controllability of each ADE in the design blueprint. The right chemical tools must be applied under the right circumstances in order to achieve the desired outcome. In this Account, after a short illustration of the infinite possibility of combining different ADEs to create HMNC design

  6. Teaching the Principles of Effective Online Course Design: What Works?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Gormley

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available While much has been written about the pedagogy and challenges of online learning, there is comparatively little research that advises how online course design competencies can be achieved. Certainly a growing range of course design resources is being created and made openly available, but there is a need to evaluate their actual impact on practice. This predominantly qualitative study describes the impact of two learning interventions – open online tutorials and a design and development workshop – aimed at introducing the fundamentals of online course design. Four online course developers at an Irish university were interviewed about their experiences creating multimedia-based online courses. Two of the developers were given access to targeted learning interventions and were subsequently interviewed about their experiences using those interventions. The main findings were that novice online course developers can potentially learn and apply design principles through a dedicated introductory phase, techniques that promote discussion of effective pedagogy, and ongoing collaboration in course design. These strategies could be adapted to specific contexts elsewhere.

  7. Achieving integration in mixed methods designs-principles and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetters, Michael D; Curry, Leslie A; Creswell, John W

    2013-12-01

    Mixed methods research offers powerful tools for investigating complex processes and systems in health and health care. This article describes integration principles and practices at three levels in mixed methods research and provides illustrative examples. Integration at the study design level occurs through three basic mixed method designs-exploratory sequential, explanatory sequential, and convergent-and through four advanced frameworks-multistage, intervention, case study, and participatory. Integration at the methods level occurs through four approaches. In connecting, one database links to the other through sampling. With building, one database informs the data collection approach of the other. When merging, the two databases are brought together for analysis. With embedding, data collection and analysis link at multiple points. Integration at the interpretation and reporting level occurs through narrative, data transformation, and joint display. The fit of integration describes the extent the qualitative and quantitative findings cohere. Understanding these principles and practices of integration can help health services researchers leverage the strengths of mixed methods. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  8. Five Principles for MOOC Design: With a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Drake

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available New web technologies have enabled online education to take on a massive scale, prompting many universities to create massively open online courses (MOOCs that take advantage of these technologies in a seemingly effortless manner. Designing a MOOC, however, is anything but trivial. It involves developing content, learning activities, and assessments to accommodate both the massiveness and openness of the course. To design an effective MOOC, instructors need to integrate both pedagogical and information systems theory. In this paper, we present a case study of a MOOC grant and a series of decisions made in its development. These decisions, when paired with the theoretical framework, suggest five principles – meaningful, engaging, measurable, accessible, and scalable – may be applicable to future MOOC development projects.

  9. Seeing is believing: good graphic design principles for medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Susan P; Bancken, Fabrice; Crowe, Brenda; Soukup, Mat; Botsis, Taxiarchis; Forshee, Richard

    2015-09-30

    Have you noticed when you browse a book, journal, study report, or product label how your eye is drawn to figures more than to words and tables? Statistical graphs are powerful ways to transparently and succinctly communicate the key points of medical research. Furthermore, the graphic design itself adds to the clarity of the messages in the data. The goal of this paper is to provide a mechanism for selecting the appropriate graph to thoughtfully construct quality deliverables using good graphic design principles. Examples are motivated by the efforts of a Safety Graphics Working Group that consisted of scientists from the pharmaceutical industry, Food and Drug Administration, and academic institutions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. IFE Power Plant design principles. Drivers. Solid state laser drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, S.; Andre, M.; Krupke, W.F.; Mak, A.A.; Soures, J.M.; Yamanaka, M.

    1995-01-01

    The present status of solid state laser drivers for an inertial confinement thermonuclear fusion power plant is discussed. In particular, the feasibility of laser diode pumped solid state laser drivers from both the technical and economic points of view is briefly reviewed. Conceptual design studies showed that they can, in principle, satisfy the design requirements. However, development of new solid state materials with long fluorescence lifetimes and good thermal characteristics is a key issue for laser diode pumped solid state lasers. With the advent of laser diode pumping many materials which were abandoned in the past can presently be reconsidered as viable candidates. It is also concluded that it is important to examine the technical requirements for solid state lasers in relation to target performance criteria. The progress of laser diode pumped lasers in industrial applications should also be closely watched to provide additional information on the economic feasibility of this type of driver. 15 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs

  11. Synthetic RNAs for Gene Regulation: Design Principles and Computational Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laganà, Alessandro; Shasha, Dennis; Croce, Carlo Maria

    2014-01-01

    The use of synthetic non-coding RNAs for post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression has not only become a standard laboratory tool for gene functional studies but it has also opened up new perspectives in the design of new and potentially promising therapeutic strategies. Bioinformatics has provided researchers with a variety of tools for the design, the analysis, and the evaluation of RNAi agents such as small-interfering RNA (siRNA), short-hairpin RNA (shRNA), artificial microRNA (a-miR), and microRNA sponges. More recently, a new system for genome engineering based on the bacterial CRISPR-Cas9 system (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats), was shown to have the potential to also regulate gene expression at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional level in a more specific way. In this mini review, we present RNAi and CRISPRi design principles and discuss the advantages and limitations of the current design approaches.

  12. Synthetic RNAs for Gene Regulation: Design Principles and Computational Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laganà, Alessandro [Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology and Medical Genetics, Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Shasha, Dennis [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, NY (United States); Croce, Carlo Maria [Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology and Medical Genetics, Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-12-11

    The use of synthetic non-coding RNAs for post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression has not only become a standard laboratory tool for gene functional studies but it has also opened up new perspectives in the design of new and potentially promising therapeutic strategies. Bioinformatics has provided researchers with a variety of tools for the design, the analysis, and the evaluation of RNAi agents such as small-interfering RNA (siRNA), short-hairpin RNA (shRNA), artificial microRNA (a-miR), and microRNA sponges. More recently, a new system for genome engineering based on the bacterial CRISPR-Cas9 system (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats), was shown to have the potential to also regulate gene expression at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional level in a more specific way. In this mini review, we present RNAi and CRISPRi design principles and discuss the advantages and limitations of the current design approaches.

  13. Web Interface Design Principles for Adults’ Self-Directed Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet FIRAT

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important features which e-learning tools and environments must possess within the scope of lifelong learning is self-directed learning, which can be considered as a form of self-learning. The aim of this study was to determine, based on the views and recommendations of experts, interface design principles for the development of educational web interfaces that will support the self-directed learning of adults. This descriptive study was conducted with the contribution of 12 academicians specializing in interface design and self-directed learning. Within the scope of the study, new interfaces features were identified based on an evaluation of the literature on interface designs for self-directed learning, and the views of subject experts. Based on the study results, it was determined that interface designs supporting self-directed learning must possess five basic features, which include being user-directed, ensuring variety, being supported by learning analytics, being motivational, and being sharing-oriented.

  14. Sum-of-squares-based fuzzy controller design using quantum-inspired evolutionary algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Gwo-Ruey; Huang, Yu-Chia; Cheng, Chih-Yung

    2016-07-01

    In the field of fuzzy control, control gains are obtained by solving stabilisation conditions in linear-matrix-inequality-based Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy control method and sum-of-squares-based polynomial fuzzy control method. However, the optimal performance requirements are not considered under those stabilisation conditions. In order to handle specific performance problems, this paper proposes a novel design procedure with regard to polynomial fuzzy controllers using quantum-inspired evolutionary algorithms. The first contribution of this paper is a combination of polynomial fuzzy control and quantum-inspired evolutionary algorithms to undertake an optimal performance controller design. The second contribution is the proposed stability condition derived from the polynomial Lyapunov function. The proposed design approach is dissimilar to the traditional approach, in which control gains are obtained by solving the stabilisation conditions. The first step of the controller design uses the quantum-inspired evolutionary algorithms to determine the control gains with the best performance. Then, the stability of the closed-loop system is analysed under the proposed stability conditions. To illustrate effectiveness and validity, the problem of balancing and the up-swing of an inverted pendulum on a cart is used.

  15. Using the principles of circadian physiology enhances shift schedule design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, J.J.; Moore-Ede, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear power plants must operate 24 h, 7 days a week. For the most part, shift schedules currently in use at nuclear power plants have been designed to meet operational needs without considering the biological clocks of the human operators. The development of schedules that also take circadian principles into account is a positive step that can be taken to improve plant safety by optimizing operator alertness. These schedules reduce the probability of human errors especially during backshifts. In addition, training programs that teach round-the-clock workers how to deal with the problems of shiftwork can help to optimize performance and alertness. These programs teach shiftworkers the underlying causes of the sleep problems associated with shiftwork and also provide coping strategies for improving sleep and dealing with the transition between shifts. When these training programs are coupled with an improved schedule, the problems associated with working round-the-clock can be significantly reduced

  16. Usability principles to design mobile workplace learning content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Messuti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the design of a mobile workplace learning tool for trainers of the International Training Centre of the International Labour Organization. The motivation behind is to provide trainers with a practical tool that will enable them to recall information at the moment of need and continue to learn in context. On this purpose a set of visual augmented reality cards was created, taking into consideration the fundamental mobile learning and usability principles. The nature of the article is empirical as it reports an experiment carried out with trainers which aimed at testing cards usability and learnability. Results show that the integration of both online and offline strategies was perceived as an added value as trainers could choose to retrieve information as they mostly like; finally, it also resulted in high usability scores, an aspect that contributes to their effectiveness at the workplace.

  17. Synthetic Elucidation of Design Principles for Molecular Qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Michael James

    Quantum information processing (QIP) is an emerging computational paradigm with the potential to enable a vast increase in computational power, fundamentally transforming fields from structural biology to finance. QIP employs qubits, or quantum bits, as its fundamental units of information, which can exist in not just the classical states of 0 or 1, but in a superposition of the two. In order to successfully perform QIP, this superposition state must be sufficiently long-lived. One promising paradigm for the implementation of QIP involves employing unpaired electrons in coordination complexes as qubits. This architecture is highly tunable and scalable, however coordination complexes frequently suffer from short superposition lifetimes, or T2. In order to capitalize on the promise of molecular qubits, it is necessary to develop a set of design principles that allow the rational synthesis of complexes with sufficiently long values of T2. In this dissertation, I report efforts to use the synthesis of series of complexes to elucidate design principles for molecular qubits. Chapter 1 details previous work by our group and others in the field. Chapter 2 details the first efforts of our group to determine the impact of varying spin and spin-orbit coupling on T2. Chapter 3 examines the effect of removing nuclear spins on coherence time, and reports a series of vanadyl bis(dithiolene) complexes which exhibit extremely long coherence lifetimes, in excess of the 100 mus threshold for qubit viability. Chapters 4 and 5 form two complimentary halves of a study to determine the exact relationship between electronic spin-nuclear spin distance and the effect of the nuclear spins on T2. Finally, chapter 6 suggests next directions for the field as a whole, including the potential for work in this field to impact the development of other technologies as diverse as quantum sensors and magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents.

  18. Evolutionary Design of Both Topologies and Parameters of a Hybrid Dynamical System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupuis, Jean-Francois; Fan, Zhun; Goodman, Erik

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the issue of evolutionary design of open-ended plants for hybrid dynamical systems--i.e. both their topologies and parameters. Hybrid bond graphs are used to represent dynamical systems involving both continuous and discrete system dynamics. Genetic programming, with some...... of hybrid dynamical systems that fulfill predefined design specifications. A comprehensive investigation of a case study of DC-DC converter design demonstrates the feasibility and effectiveness of the HBGGP approach. Important characteristics of the approach are also discussed, with some future research...

  19. PRINCIPLE "EARLY MATCHING" AERODYNAMIC DESIGN AIRCRAFT WITH LANDING GEAR HOVERCRAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Morozov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The principle of "early matching" aircraft aerohydrodynamic layouts with air cushion landing gear is suggested. Application of this principle is considered as an example of adaptation to the ball screw base circuit of light transport aircraft. The principle, other than weight, aerodynamic, technological and operational requirements includes additional project activities related to the installation of ball screws.

  20. Three Principles of Perception for Instructional Interface Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Linda L.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses graphical user interfaces used for instructional purposes in educational environments, which promote learning goals, and in support environments, which promote performance goals. Explains three key principles of perception and gives guidelines for their use, including the figure/ground principle, the hierarchy principle, and the gestalt…

  1. Expert-guided evolutionary algorithm for layout design of complex space stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhiqin; Bi, Zhuming; Cao, Qun; Ju, Weiguo; Teng, Hongfei; Zheng, Yang; Zheng, Siyu

    2017-08-01

    The layout of a space station should be designed in such a way that different equipment and instruments are placed for the station as a whole to achieve the best overall performance. The station layout design is a typical nondeterministic polynomial problem. In particular, how to manage the design complexity to achieve an acceptable solution within a reasonable timeframe poses a great challenge. In this article, a new evolutionary algorithm has been proposed to meet such a challenge. It is called as the expert-guided evolutionary algorithm with a tree-like structure decomposition (EGEA-TSD). Two innovations in EGEA-TSD are (i) to deal with the design complexity, the entire design space is divided into subspaces with a tree-like structure; it reduces the computation and facilitates experts' involvement in the solving process. (ii) A human-intervention interface is developed to allow experts' involvement in avoiding local optimums and accelerating convergence. To validate the proposed algorithm, the layout design of one-space station is formulated as a multi-disciplinary design problem, the developed algorithm is programmed and executed, and the result is compared with those from other two algorithms; it has illustrated the superior performance of the proposed EGEA-TSD.

  2. Design principles for engaging and retaining virtual citizen scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Dara M; Longo, Justin; Dobell, A R

    2016-06-01

    Citizen science initiatives encourage volunteer participants to collect and interpret data and contribute to formal scientific projects. The growth of virtual citizen science (VCS), facilitated through websites and mobile applications since the mid-2000s, has been driven by a combination of software innovations and mobile technologies, growing scientific data flows without commensurate increases in resources to handle them, and the desire of internet-connected participants to contribute to collective outputs. However, the increasing availability of internet-based activities requires individual VCS projects to compete for the attention of volunteers and promote their long-term retention. We examined program and platform design principles that might allow VCS initiatives to compete more effectively for volunteers, increase productivity of project participants, and retain contributors over time. We surveyed key personnel engaged in managing a sample of VCS projects to identify the principles and practices they pursued for these purposes and led a team in a heuristic evaluation of volunteer engagement, website or application usability, and participant retention. We received 40 completed survey responses (33% response rate) and completed a heuristic evaluation of 20 VCS program sites. The majority of the VCS programs focused on scientific outcomes, whereas the educational and social benefits of program participation, variables that are consistently ranked as important for volunteer engagement and retention, were incidental. Evaluators indicated usability, across most of the VCS program sites, was higher and less variable than the ratings for participant engagement and retention. In the context of growing competition for the attention of internet volunteers, increased attention to the motivations of virtual citizen scientists may help VCS programs sustain the necessary engagement and retention of their volunteers. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Virus-inspired design principles of nanoparticle-based bioagents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Yuan

    Full Text Available The highly effectiveness and robustness of receptor-mediated viral invasion of living cells shed lights on the biomimetic design of nanoparticle(NP-based therapeutics. Through thermodynamic analysis, we elucidate that the mechanisms governing both the endocytic time of a single NP and the cellular uptake can be unified into a general energy-balance framework of NP-membrane adhesion and membrane deformation. Yet the NP-membrane adhesion strength is a globally variable quantity that effectively regulates the NP uptake rate. Our analysis shows that the uptake rate interrelatedly depends on the particle size and ligand density, in contrast to the widely reported size effect. Our model predicts that the optimal radius of NPs for maximal uptake rate falls in the range of 25-30 nm, and optimally several tens of ligands should be coated onto NPs. These findings are supported by both recent experiments and typical viral structures, and serve as fundamental principles for the rational design of NP-based nanomedicine.

  4. Silver Nanoclusters: From Design Principles to Practical Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Abdulhalim, Lina G.

    2015-12-08

    A strategy based on reticulating metal ions and organic ligands into atomically precise gold and silver nanoclusters (NCs) with high monodispersity has been advanced to a point that allows the design of NCs with strict stoichiometries, functionalities and valence. Of the Ag NCs discovered, Ag44 is the most studied, not only due to its high absorption that transcends the visible spectrum suitable for photovoltaics but also because of its long excited state lifetime, as revealed by nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. A major principle discovered in this dissertation is the ability to produce Ag44 in scalable amounts and with high stability in addition to modulation of the functional groups of the organic ligands via a fast and complete ligand exchange process. This new discovery has led to the development of synthetic designs in which new sizes were obtained by varying the reaction parameters (e.g., ligands functionality, reaction temperature and time), namely, Ag29 using dithiols and phosphines. The synthesized NCs possess tetravalent functionalities that facilitate their crystallization and characterization. Furthermore, Ag29 glows red and is therefore a possible candidate for sensing and imaging applications.

  5. Design principles for solid-state lithium superionic conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Richards, William Davidson; Ong, Shyue Ping; Miara, Lincoln J; Kim, Jae Chul; Mo, Yifei; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2015-10-01

    Lithium solid electrolytes can potentially address two key limitations of the organic electrolytes used in today's lithium-ion batteries, namely, their flammability and limited electrochemical stability. However, achieving a Li(+) conductivity in the solid state comparable to existing liquid electrolytes (>1 mS cm(-1)) is particularly challenging. In this work, we reveal a fundamental relationship between anion packing and ionic transport in fast Li-conducting materials and expose the desirable structural attributes of good Li-ion conductors. We find that an underlying body-centred cubic-like anion framework, which allows direct Li hops between adjacent tetrahedral sites, is most desirable for achieving high ionic conductivity, and that indeed this anion arrangement is present in several known fast Li-conducting materials and other fast ion conductors. These findings provide important insight towards the understanding of ionic transport in Li-ion conductors and serve as design principles for future discovery and design of improved electrolytes for Li-ion batteries.

  6. 75 FR 80571 - Core Principles and Other Requirements for Designated Contract Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... Part II Commodity Futures Trading Commission 17 CFR Parts 1, 16, and 38 Core Principles and Other... CFR Parts 1, 16, and 38 RIN 3038-AD09 Core Principles and Other Requirements for Designated Contract... Principles 1. Subpart B--Designation as Contract Market 2. Subpart C--Compliance With Rules i. Proposed Sec...

  7. 78 FR 32988 - Core Principles and Other Requirements for Designated Contract Markets; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 38 RIN 3038-AD09 Core Principles and Other... regarding Core Principles and Other Requirements for Designated Contract Markets by inserting a missing... regarding Core Principles and Other Requirements for Designated Contract Markets (77 FR 36612, June 19, 2012...

  8. Defining DSL design principles for enhancing the requirements elicitation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Arroyo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available La Elicitación de Requisitos propicia el entendimiento de las necesidades de los usuarios con respecto a un desarrollo de software. Los métodos que se emplean provienen de las ciencias sociales por lo que se carece de una retroalimentación ejecutable. Consecuentemente, la primera versión del software podría no cumplir con las expectativas. El uso de DSLs como herramientas para el descubrimiento de requisitos es una idea aceptada, desafortunadamente, muy pocos trabajos en la literatura se enfocan en la definición de principios de diseño de DSLs. En este trabajo planteamos principios de diseño de DSLs orientados a la elicitación de requisitos, enseguida, generamos casos de prueba en ANTLR, Ruby y Curry. También, enunciamos el perfil que debe tener el nuevo analista de software. Con ello, se incrementa la retroalimentación entre los involucrados en el desarrollo de software y se mejora el producto.Requirements elicitation is concerned with learning and understanding the needs of users w.r.t. a new software development. Frequently the methods employed for requirements elicitation are adapted from areas like social sciences that do not include executable (prototype based on feedback. As a consequence, it is relatively common to discover that the first release does not fit the requirements defined at the beginning of the project. Using domain-specific languages (DSLs as an auxiliary tool for requirements elicitation is a commonly well accepted idea. Unfortunately, there are few works in the literature devoted to the definition of design principles for DSLs to be experienced in the frameworks for DSL developing such as ANTLR, Ruby, and Curry. We propose design principles for the DSL development (regardless of paradigm which are sufficient to model the domain in a requirements phase. Further more we enunciate a new profile for the requirements analyst and a set of elicitation steps. The use of DSLs not only giveus an immediate feedback with

  9. Design Principles for the Information Architecture of a SMET Education Digital Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Andy; Agogino, Alice M.

    This implementation paper introduces principles for the information architecture of an educational digital library, principles that address the distinction between designing digital libraries for education and designing digital libraries for information retrieval in general. Design is a key element of any successful product. Good designers and…

  10. EMERGING ENGINEERING PRINCIPLES FOR YIELD IMPROVEMENT IN MICROBIAL CELL DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Comba

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic Engineering has undertaken a rapid transformation in the last ten years making real progress towards the production of a wide range of molecules and fine chemicals using a designed cellular host. However, the maximization of product yields through pathway optimization is a constant and central challenge of this field. Traditional methods used to improve the production of target compounds from engineered biosynthetic pathways in non-native hosts include: codon usage optimization, elimination of the accumulation of toxic intermediates or byproducts, enhanced production of rate-limiting enzymes, selection of appropriate promoter and ribosome binding sites, application of directed evolution of enzymes, and chassis re-circuit. Overall, these approaches tend to be specific for each engineering project rather than a systematic practice based on a more generalizable strategy. In this mini-review, we highlight some novel and extensive approaches and tools intended to address the improvement of a target product formation, founded in sophisticated principles such as dynamic control, pathway genes modularization, and flux modeling.

  11. Emerging engineering principles for yield improvement in microbial cell design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Comba

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic Engineering has undertaken a rapid transformation in the last ten years making real progress towards the production of a wide range of molecules and fine chemicals using a designed cellular host. However, the maximization of product yields through pathway optimization is a constant and central challenge of this field. Traditional methods used to improve the production of target compounds from engineered biosynthetic pathways in non-native hosts include: codon usage optimization, elimination of the accumulation of toxic intermediates or byproducts, enhanced production of rate-limiting enzymes, selection of appropriate promoter and ribosome binding sites, application of directed evolution of enzymes, and chassis re-circuit. Overall, these approaches tend to be specific for each engineering project rather than a systematic practice based on a more generalizable strategy. In this mini-review, we highlight some novel and extensive approaches and tools intended to address the improvement of a target product formation, founded in sophisticated principles such as dynamic control, pathway genes modularization, and flux modeling.

  12. Principles for designing and delivering psychosocial and mental healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard; Kemp, V

    2018-03-08

    The development of the UK's military policy includes the potential for military organisations to deploy in support of humanitarian aid operations. This paper offers an overview of the risks to people's mental health of their exposure to emergencies, major incidents, disasters, terrorism, displacement, postconflict environments in which humanitarian aid is delivered, and deployments to conflict zones. It summarises the psychosocial approach recommended by many contemporary researchers and practitioners. It differentiates the extremely common experience of distress from the mental disorders that people who are affected may develop and introduces the construct of psychosocial resilience. The authors recognise the importance of trajectories of response in separating people who are distressed and require psychosocial care from those who require mental healthcare. Finally, this paper summarises a strategic approach to designing, planning and providing psychosocial and mental healthcare, provides a model of care and outlines the principles for early psychosocial interventions that do not require training in mental healthcare to deliver them. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Design principles of a conditional futile cycle exploited for regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolla, Dean A; Kiley, Patricia J; Lomnitz, Jason G; Savageau, Michael A

    2015-07-01

    In this report, we characterize the design principles of futile cycling in providing rapid adaptation by regulatory proteins that act as environmental sensors. In contrast to the energetically wasteful futile cycles that are avoided in metabolic pathways, here we describe a conditional futile cycle exploited for a regulatory benefit. The FNR (fumarate and nitrate reduction) cycle in Escherichia coli operates under two regimes - a strictly futile cycle in the presence of O2 and as a pathway under anoxic conditions. The computational results presented here use FNR as a model system and provide evidence that cycling of this transcription factor and its labile sensory cofactor between active and inactive states affords rapid signaling and adaptation. We modify a previously developed mechanistic model to examine a family of FNR models each with different cycling speeds but mathematically constrained to be otherwise equivalent, and we identify a trade-off between energy expenditure and response time that can be tuned by evolution to optimize cycling rate of the FNR system for a particular ecological context. Simulations mimicking experiments with proposed double mutant strains offer suggestions for experimentally testing our predictions and identifying potential fitness effects. Our approach provides a computational framework for analyzing other conditional futile cycles, which when placed in their larger biological context may be found to confer advantages to the organism.

  14. Development of design principles for automated systems in transport control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfe, Nora; Wilson, John R; Sharples, Sarah; Clarke, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the results of a qualitative study investigating attitudes towards and opinions of an advanced automation system currently used in UK rail signalling. In-depth interviews were held with 10 users, key issues associated with automation were identified and the automation's impact on the signalling task investigated. The interview data highlighted the importance of the signallers' understanding of the automation and their (in)ability to predict its outputs. The interviews also covered the methods used by signallers to interact with and control the automation, and the perceived effects on their workload. The results indicate that despite a generally low level of understanding and ability to predict the actions of the automation system, signallers have developed largely successful coping mechanisms that enable them to use the technology effectively. These findings, along with parallel work identifying desirable attributes of automation from the literature in the area, were used to develop 12 principles of automation which can be used to help design new systems which better facilitate cooperative working. The work reported in this article was completed with the active involvement of operational rail staff who regularly use automated systems in rail signalling. The outcomes are currently being used to inform decisions on the extent and type of automation and user interfaces in future generations of rail control systems.

  15. Principles underlying rational design of live attenuated influenza vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yo Han

    2012-01-01

    Despite recent innovative advances in molecular virology and the developments of vaccines, influenza virus remains a serious burden for human health. Vaccination has been considered a primary countermeasure for prevention of influenza infection. Live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) are particularly attracting attention as an effective strategy due to several advantages over inactivated vaccines. Cold-adaptation, as a classical means for attenuating viral virulence, has been successfully used for generating safe and effective donor strains of LAIVs against seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics. Recently, the advent of reverse genetics technique expedited a variety of rational strategies to broaden the pool of LAIVs. Considering the breadth of antigenic diversity of influenza virus, the pool of LAIVs is likely to equip us with better options for controlling influenza pandemics. With a brief reflection on classical attenuating strategies used at the initial stage of development of LAIVs, especially on the principles underlying the development of cold-adapted LAIVs, we further discuss and outline other attenuation strategies especially with respect to the rationales for attenuation, and their practicality for mass production. Finally, we propose important considerations for a rational vaccine design, which will provide us with practical guidelines for improving the safety and effectiveness of LAIVs. PMID:23596576

  16. Design Principles and Algorithms for Air Traffic Arrival Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzberger, Heinz; Itoh, Eri

    2014-01-01

    This report presents design principles and algorithms for building a real-time scheduler of arrival aircraft based on a first-come-first-served (FCFS) scheduling protocol. The algorithms provide the conceptual and computational foundation for the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) of the Center/terminal radar approach control facilities (TRACON) automation system, which comprises a set of decision support tools for managing arrival traffic at major airports in the United States. The primary objective of the scheduler is to assign arrival aircraft to a favorable landing runway and schedule them to land at times that minimize delays. A further objective of the scheduler is to allocate delays between high-altitude airspace far away from the airport and low-altitude airspace near the airport. A method of delay allocation is described that minimizes the average operating cost in the presence of errors in controlling aircraft to a specified landing time. This report is a revision of an earlier paper first presented as part of an Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD) lecture series in September 1995. The authors, during vigorous discussions over the details of this paper, felt it was important to the air-trafficmanagement (ATM) community to revise and extend the original 1995 paper, providing more detail and clarity and thereby allowing future researchers to understand this foundational work as the basis for the TMA's scheduling algorithms.

  17. Design Principles for Online Instruction: A New Kind of Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil TOPORSKI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 1900’s, distance education attempted to mimic the traditional classroom lecture via the transmission of live or “canned” broadcasts, regardless of the technologies used: satellite, television, film, or radio. These kinds of media predisposed DE to closely adhere to the lecture (sit and absorb model, where content was disseminated in about the same time constraints as a traditional class: taught at scheduled times throughout the week–almost anywhere but not always anytime. Moreover, the modes of presentation in classic DE seemed to hinder the kinds of human interactions normally experienced in the traditional classroom, fostering individualized and isolated learning experiences.Online learning is a hybrid between the traditional classroom and the DE experience. Like the traditional classroom, instruction is teacher-facilitated. The student is enrolled in a conventional course with topic (lecture presentations, reading and homework assignments, classroom discussions, and class projects. Unlike the traditional classroom, courses are web-based and distributed from a distance, using an assortment of synchronous and asynchronous computer technologies and offered anywhere and anytime. In this way, online learning is different from the classic DE model by encouraging decentralized and collaborative learning environments. So that in this presentation will be discuss design principles for online instruction as being a new kind of classroom.

  18. Design principles for simulation games for learning clinical reasoning: A design-based research approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, J-M; Haavisto, E; Niemi, H; Haho, P; Nylund, S; Multisilta, J

    2018-01-01

    Nurses sometimes lack the competence needed for recognising deterioration in patient conditions and this is often due to poor clinical reasoning. There is a need to develop new possibilities for learning this crucial competence area. In addition, educators need to be future oriented; they need to be able to design and adopt new pedagogical innovations. The purpose of the study is to describe the development process and to generate principles for the design of nursing simulation games. A design-based research methodology is applied in this study. Iterative cycles of analysis, design, development, testing and refinement were conducted via collaboration among researchers, educators, students, and game designers. The study facilitated the generation of reusable design principles for simulation games to guide future designers when designing and developing simulation games for learning clinical reasoning. This study makes a major contribution to research on simulation game development in the field of nursing education. The results of this study provide important insights into the significance of involving nurse educators in the design and development process of educational simulation games for the purpose of nursing education. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. How bioethics principles can aid design of electronic health records to accommodate patient granular control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meslin, Eric M; Schwartz, Peter H

    2015-01-01

    Ethics should guide the design of electronic health records (EHR), and recognized principles of bioethics can play an important role. This approach was recently adopted by a team of informaticists who are designing and testing a system where patients exert granular control over who views their personal health information. While this method of building ethics in from the start of the design process has significant benefits, questions remain about how useful the application of bioethics principles can be in this process, especially when principles conflict. For instance, while the ethical principle of respect for autonomy supports a robust system of granular control, the principles of beneficence and nonmaleficence counsel restraint due to the danger of patients being harmed by restrictions on provider access to data. Conflict between principles has long been recognized by ethicists and has even motivated attacks on approaches that state and apply principles. In this paper, we show how using ethical principles can help in the design of EHRs by first explaining how ethical principles can and should be used generally, and then by discussing how attention to details in specific cases can show that the tension between principles is not as bad as it initially appeared. We conclude by suggesting ways in which the application of these (and other) principles can add value to the ongoing discussion of patient involvement in their health care. This is a new approach to linking principles to informatics design that we expect will stimulate further interest.

  20. Transformer design principles with applications to core-form power transformers

    CERN Document Server

    Del Vecchio, Robert M; Feeney, Mary-Ellen F

    2001-01-01

    Transformer Design Principles presents the theory of transformer operation and the methods and techniques of designing them. It emphasizes the physical principles and mathematical tools for simulating transformer behavior, including modern computer techniques. The scope of the book includes types of construction, circuit analysis, mechanical aspects of design, high voltage insulation requirements, and cooling design. The authors also address test procedures and reliability methods to assure successful design and discuss the economic analysis of designs. Summarizing material currently scattered

  1. Temporal Evolution of Design Principles in Engineering Systems: Analogies with Human Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deb, Kalyanmoy; Bandaru, Sunith; Tutum, Cem Celal

    2012-01-01

    constructed later during optimization. Interestingly, there exists a simile between evolution of design principles with that of human evolution. Such information about the hierarchy of key design principles should enable designers to have a deeper understanding of their problems.......Optimization of an engineering system or component makes a series of changes in the initial random solution(s) iteratively to form the final optimal shape. When multiple conflicting objectives are considered, recent studies on innovization revealed the fact that the set of Pareto-optimal solutions...... portray certain common design principles. In this paper, we consider a 14-variable bi-objective design optimization of a MEMS device and identify a number of such common design principles through a recently proposed automated innovization procedure. Although these design principles are found to exist...

  2. Evolutionary Design of Convolutional Neural Networks for Human Activity Recognition in Sensor-Rich Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Human activity recognition is a challenging problem for context-aware systems and applications. It is gaining interest due to the ubiquity of different sensor sources, wearable smart objects, ambient sensors, etc. This task is usually approached as a supervised machine learning problem, where a label is to be predicted given some input data, such as the signals retrieved from different sensors. For tackling the human activity recognition problem in sensor network environments, in this paper we propose the use of deep learning (convolutional neural networks) to perform activity recognition using the publicly available OPPORTUNITY dataset. Instead of manually choosing a suitable topology, we will let an evolutionary algorithm design the optimal topology in order to maximize the classification F1 score. After that, we will also explore the performance of committees of the models resulting from the evolutionary process. Results analysis indicates that the proposed model was able to perform activity recognition within a heterogeneous sensor network environment, achieving very high accuracies when tested with new sensor data. Based on all conducted experiments, the proposed neuroevolutionary system has proved to be able to systematically find a classification model which is capable of outperforming previous results reported in the state-of-the-art, showing that this approach is useful and improves upon previously manually-designed architectures. PMID:29690587

  3. Evolutionary Design of Convolutional Neural Networks for Human Activity Recognition in Sensor-Rich Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Baldominos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Human activity recognition is a challenging problem for context-aware systems and applications. It is gaining interest due to the ubiquity of different sensor sources, wearable smart objects, ambient sensors, etc. This task is usually approached as a supervised machine learning problem, where a label is to be predicted given some input data, such as the signals retrieved from different sensors. For tackling the human activity recognition problem in sensor network environments, in this paper we propose the use of deep learning (convolutional neural networks to perform activity recognition using the publicly available OPPORTUNITY dataset. Instead of manually choosing a suitable topology, we will let an evolutionary algorithm design the optimal topology in order to maximize the classification F1 score. After that, we will also explore the performance of committees of the models resulting from the evolutionary process. Results analysis indicates that the proposed model was able to perform activity recognition within a heterogeneous sensor network environment, achieving very high accuracies when tested with new sensor data. Based on all conducted experiments, the proposed neuroevolutionary system has proved to be able to systematically find a classification model which is capable of outperforming previous results reported in the state-of-the-art, showing that this approach is useful and improves upon previously manually-designed architectures.

  4. Evolutionary Design of Convolutional Neural Networks for Human Activity Recognition in Sensor-Rich Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldominos, Alejandro; Saez, Yago; Isasi, Pedro

    2018-04-23

    Human activity recognition is a challenging problem for context-aware systems and applications. It is gaining interest due to the ubiquity of different sensor sources, wearable smart objects, ambient sensors, etc. This task is usually approached as a supervised machine learning problem, where a label is to be predicted given some input data, such as the signals retrieved from different sensors. For tackling the human activity recognition problem in sensor network environments, in this paper we propose the use of deep learning (convolutional neural networks) to perform activity recognition using the publicly available OPPORTUNITY dataset. Instead of manually choosing a suitable topology, we will let an evolutionary algorithm design the optimal topology in order to maximize the classification F1 score. After that, we will also explore the performance of committees of the models resulting from the evolutionary process. Results analysis indicates that the proposed model was able to perform activity recognition within a heterogeneous sensor network environment, achieving very high accuracies when tested with new sensor data. Based on all conducted experiments, the proposed neuroevolutionary system has proved to be able to systematically find a classification model which is capable of outperforming previous results reported in the state-of-the-art, showing that this approach is useful and improves upon previously manually-designed architectures.

  5. Theory and principled methods for the design of metaheuristics

    CERN Document Server

    Borenstein, Yossi

    2013-01-01

    Metaheuristics, and evolutionary algorithms in particular, are known to provide efficient, adaptable solutions for many real-world problems, but the often informal way in which they are defined and applied has led to misconceptions, and even successful applications are sometimes the outcome of trial and error. Ideally, theoretical studies should explain when and why metaheuristics work, but the challenge is huge: mathematical analysis requires significant effort even for simple scenarios and real-life problems are usually quite complex.  In this book the editors establish a bridge between theo

  6. The Design and Transformation of Biofundamentals: A Nonsurvey Introductory Evolutionary and Molecular Biology Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymkowsky, Michael W; Rentsch, Jeremy D; Begovic, Emina; Cooper, Melanie M

    2016-01-01

    Many introductory biology courses amount to superficial surveys of disconnected topics. Often, foundational observations and the concepts derived from them and students' ability to use these ideas appropriately are overlooked, leading to unrealistic expectations and unrecognized learning obstacles. The result can be a focus on memorization at the expense of the development of a meaningful framework within which to consider biological phenomena. About a decade ago, we began a reconsideration of what an introductory course should present to students and the skills they need to master. The original Web-based course's design presaged many of the recommendations of the Vision and Change report; in particular, a focus on social evolutionary mechanisms, stochastic (evolutionary and molecular) processes, and core ideas (cellular continuity, evolutionary homology, molecular interactions, coupled chemical reactions, and molecular machines). Inspired by insights from the Chemistry, Life, the Universe & Everything general chemistry project, we transformed the original Web version into a (freely available) book with a more unified narrative flow and a set of formative assessments delivered through the beSocratic system. We outline how student responses to course materials are guiding future course modifications, in particular a more concerted effort at helping students to construct logical, empirically based arguments, explanations, and models. © 2016 M. W. Klymkowsky et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  7. Evolutionary algorithms for multi-objective energetic and economic optimization in thermal system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toffolo, A.; Lazzaretto, A.

    2002-01-01

    Thermoeconomic analyses in thermal system design are always focused on the economic objective. However, knowledge of only the economic minimum may not be sufficient in the decision making process, since solutions with a higher thermodynamic efficiency, in spite of small increases in total costs, may result in much more interesting designs due to changes in energy market prices or in energy policies. This paper suggests how to perform a multi-objective optimization in order to find solutions that simultaneously satisfy exergetic and economic objectives. This corresponds to a search for the set of Pareto optimal solutions with respect to the two competing objectives. The optimization process is carried out by an evolutionary algorithm, that features a new diversity preserving mechanism using as a test case the well-known CGAM problem. (author)

  8. A surrogate assisted evolutionary optimization method with application to the transonic airfoil design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrokhi, Ava; Jahangirian, Alireza

    2010-06-01

    A multi-layer perceptron neural network (NN) method is used for efficient estimation of the expensive objective functions in the evolutionary optimization with the genetic algorithm (GA). The estimation capability of the NN is improved by dynamic retraining using the data from successive generations. In addition, the normal distribution of the training data variables is used to determine well-trained parts of the design space for the NN approximation. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated by two transonic airfoil design problems considering inviscid and viscous flow solvers. Results are compared with those of the simple GA and an alternative surrogate method. The total number of flow solver calls is reduced by about 40% using this fitness approximation technique, which in turn reduces the total computational time without influencing the convergence rate of the optimization algorithm. The accuracy of the NN estimation is considerably improved using the normal distribution approach compared with the alternative method.

  9. Assessment Of Co60 Industrial Irradiators According To Basic Design Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed Mohamed El Refaie

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring safe and easy operation providing relative uniform dose in the product and maximizing radiation utilization are the basic design principles for each Co60 industrial irradiator to maintain radiation safety. The study shows an assessment for four industrial irradiators to determine which active results were been maintained by using basic design principles. Different designs elements of the chosen irradiators have been illustrated and studied. The study shows that IRASM and ROBO industrial irradiators satisfy all basic design principles. IAEA-NR3772 irradiator maintains only two of the three basic design principles due to rotating door. Brevion irradiator satisfies only the principle of relative uniform radiation dose in product. Without affecting radiation safety this study proposes a new design of the irradiator to maximize energy utilization by adding a new track for low density products and also a static irradiation for cultural heritage beside the main track of high density products.

  10. Seismic design and performance of nuclear safety related RC structures based on new seismic design principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murugan, R.; Sivathanu Pillai, C.; Chattopadhyaya, S.; Sundaramurthy, C.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Seismic design of safety related Reinforced Concrete (RC) structures of Nuclear power plants (NPP) in India as per the present AERB codal procedures tries to ensure predominantly elastic behaviour under OBE so that the features of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) necessary for continued safe operation are designed to remain functional and prevent accident (collapse) of NPP under SSE for which certain Structures, Systems and Components (SSCs) those are necessary to ensure the capability to shut down the reactor safely, are designed to remain functional. While the seismic design principles of non safety related structures as per Indian code (IS 1893-2002) are ensuring elastic behaviour under DBE and inelastic behaviour under MCE by utilizing ductility and energy dissipation capacity of the structure effectively. The design principle of AERB code is ensuring elastic behaviour under OBE and is not enlightening much inference about the overall structural behaviour under SSE (only ensuring the capability of certain SSCs required for safe shutdown of reactor). Various buildings and structures of Indian Nuclear power plant are classified from the basis of associated safety functions in a descending order in according with their roles in preventions and mitigation of an accident or support functions for prevention. This paper covers a comprehensive seismic analysis and design methodology based on the AERB codal provisions followed for safety related RC structure taking Diesel Generator Building of PFBR as a case study and study and investigates its performance under OBE and SSE by carrying out Non-linear static Pushover analysis. Based on the analysis, observed variations, recommendations are given for getting the desired performance level so as to implement performance based design in the future NPP design

  11. Designing Next Generation Rechargeable Battery Materials from First-Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo

    Technology has advanced rapidly, especially in the twenty-first century, influencing our day-to-day life on unprecedented levels. Most such advances in technology are closely linked to, and often driven by, the discovery and design of new materials. It follows that the discovery of new materials can not only improve existing technologies but also lead to revolutionary ones. In particular, there is a growing need to develop new energy materials that are reliable, clean, and affordable for emerging applications such as portable electronics, electric vehicles, and power grid systems. Many researchers have been actively searching for more cost-effective and clean electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) during the last few decades. These new electrode materials are also required to achieve higher electrochemical performance, compared to the already commercialized electrodes. Unfortunately, discovering the next sustainable energy materials based on a traditional 'trial-and-error' method via experiment would be extremely slow and difficult. In the last two decades, computational compilations of battery material properties such as voltage, diffusivity, and phase stability against irreversible phase transformation(s) using first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations have helped researchers to understand the underlying mechanism in many oxide materials that are used as LIB electrodes. Here, we have examined the (001) and (111) surface structures of LiMn2O4 (LMO) spinel cathode materials using DFT calculations within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) + U approach. Our theoretical results explain the observation of a wide spectrum of polyhedral shapes between (001)- and (111)-dominated LMO particles in experiments, which can be described by the narrow range of surface energies and their sensitivity to synthesis conditions. We further show that single-layer graphene coatings help suppress manganese dissolution in LMO by chemically

  12. Designing MOOC: a shared view on didactical principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoyanov, Slavi; De Vries, Fred

    2018-01-01

    The innovative impact of the paper can be highlighted by the following statements: 1. Applying the Group Concept Mapping, a non-traditional and power research methodology for objectively identifying the shared vision of a group of experts on MOOC didactical principles. 2. Defining MOOC didactical

  13. Silver Nanoclusters: From Design Principles to Practical Applications

    KAUST Repository

    AbdulHalim, Lina G.

    2015-01-01

    transient absorption spectroscopy. A major principle discovered in this dissertation is the ability to produce Ag44 in scalable amounts and with high stability in addition to modulation of the functional groups of the organic ligands via a fast and complete

  14. Design Principles for the Development of the Balanced Scorecard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser Ozmantar, Zehra; Gedikoglu, Tokay

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the development and implementation process of the balanced scorecard (BSC) approach in an educational institution in the context of the Turkish educational system. It also aims, on the basis of the results of the applications in a particular school, to define principles through which the…

  15. Design of Learning Objects for Concept Learning: Effects of Multimedia Learning Principles and an Instructional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Thomas K. F.; Churchill, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Literature suggests using multimedia learning principles in the design of instructional material. However, these principles may not be sufficient for the design of learning objects for concept learning in mathematics. This paper reports on an experimental study that investigated the effects of an instructional approach, which includes two teaching…

  16. Representing Clarity: Using Universal Design Principles to Create Effective Hybrid Course Learning Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Cheri Lemieux

    2012-01-01

    This article describes how the author applied principles of universal design to hybrid course materials to increase student understanding and, ultimately, success. Pulling the three principles of universal design--consistency, color, and icon representation--into the author's Blackboard course allowed her to change the types of reading skills…

  17. 10 CFR 435.6 - Sustainable principles for siting, design and construction. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sustainable principles for siting, design and construction. [Reserved] 435.6 Section 435.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS...-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435.6 Sustainable principles for siting, design and construction...

  18. 10 CFR 433.6 - Sustainable principles for siting, design and construction. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sustainable principles for siting, design and construction. [Reserved] 433.6 Section 433.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS... BUILDINGS § 433.6 Sustainable principles for siting, design and construction. [Reserved] ...

  19. Integrating Quality Matters into Hybrid Course Design: A Principles of Marketing Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research supports the idea that the success of hybrid or online delivery modes is more a function of course design than delivery media. This article describes a case study of a hybrid Principles of Marketing course that implemented a comprehensive redesign based on design principles espoused by the Quality Matters Program, a center for…

  20. The principles of design of a shallow disposal site for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    This paper addresses the principles of design of a shallow disposal site for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. The objective of the author is to review the need for shallow land disposal facilities in the UK and to propose design principles which will protect the public and operatives from excessive risk. It is not the intent of the author to present a detailed design of facility which will meet the design standards proposed although such a design is feasible and within the scope of currently available technology. The principles and standards proposed in this paper are not necessarily those of PPC Consultant Services Ltd. or NEI Waste Technologies Ltd. (author)

  1. Design Principles for Serious Video Games in Mathematics Education: From Theory to Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinos Chorianopoulos; Michail Giannakos

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in the employment of serious video games in science education, but there are no clear design principles. After surveying previous work in serious video game design, we highlighted the following design principles: 1) engage the students with narrative (hero, story), 2) employ familiar gameplay mechanics from popular video games, 3) engage students into constructive trial and error game-play and 4) situate collaborative learning. As illustrated examples we designed two...

  2. Design principles for data- and change-oriented organisational analysis in workplace health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inauen, A; Jenny, G J; Bauer, G F

    2012-06-01

    This article focuses on organizational analysis in workplace health promotion (WHP) projects. It shows how this analysis can be designed such that it provides rational data relevant to the further context-specific and goal-oriented planning of WHP and equally supports individual and organizational change processes implied by WHP. Design principles for organizational analysis were developed on the basis of a narrative review of the guiding principles of WHP interventions and organizational change as well as the scientific principles of data collection. Further, the practical experience of WHP consultants who routinely conduct organizational analysis was considered. This resulted in a framework with data-oriented and change-oriented design principles, addressing the following elements of organizational analysis in WHP: planning the overall procedure, data content, data-collection methods and information processing. Overall, the data-oriented design principles aim to produce valid, reliable and representative data, whereas the change-oriented design principles aim to promote motivation, coherence and a capacity for self-analysis. We expect that the simultaneous consideration of data- and change-oriented design principles for organizational analysis will strongly support the WHP process. We finally illustrate the applicability of the design principles to health promotion within a WHP case study.

  3. Optimal design of a spherical parallel manipulator based on kinetostatic performance using evolutionary techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daneshmand, Morteza [University of Tartu, Tartu (Estonia); Saadatzi, Mohammad Hossein [Colorado School of Mines, Golden (United States); Kaloorazi, Mohammad Hadi [École de Technologie Supérieur, Montréal (Canada); Masouleh, Mehdi Tale [University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Anbarjafari, Gholamreza [Hasan Kalyoncu University, Gaziantep (Turkmenistan)

    2016-03-15

    This study aims to provide an optimal design for a Spherical parallel manipulator (SPM), namely, the Agile Eye. This aim is approached by investigating kinetostatic performance and workspace and searching for the most promising design. Previously recommended designs are examined to determine whether they provide acceptable kinetostatic performance and workspace. Optimal designs are provided according to different kinetostatic performance indices, especially kinematic sensitivity. The optimization process is launched based on the concept of the genetic algorithm. A single-objective process is implemented in accordance with the guidelines of an evolutionary algorithm called differential evolution. A multi-objective procedure is then provided following the reasoning of the nondominated sorting genetic algorithm-II. This process results in several sets of Pareto points for reconciliation between kinetostatic performance indices and workspace. The concept of numerous kinetostatic performance indices and the results of optimization algorithms are elaborated. The conclusions provide hints on the provided set of designs and their credibility to provide a well-conditioned workspace and acceptable kinetostatic performance for the SPM under study, which can be well extended to other types of SPMs.

  4. Some General Principles in Cryogenic Design, Implementation, and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipirro, Michael James

    2015-01-01

    Brief Course Description: In 2 hours only the most basic principles of cryogenics can be presented. I will concentrate on the differences between a room temperature thermal analysis and cryogenic thermal analysis, namely temperature dependent properties. I will talk about practical materials for thermal contact and isolation. I will finish by describing the verification process and instrumentation used that is unique to cryogenic (in general less than 100K) systems.

  5. Use and adaptation of precedents in architectural design. Toward an evolutionary design model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moraes Zarzar, K.

    2003-01-01

    For centuries, architects have re-used design precedents in the conception of new design solutions. Whether explicitly - as in the case of Le Corbusier, James Stirling and Jo Coenen - or implicitly - as with J.J.P. Oud, Aldo van Eyk, and Santiago Calatrava - this practice has led to very

  6. Fuzzy Controller Design Using Evolutionary Techniques for Twin Rotor MIMO System: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Hashim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study of fuzzy controller design for the twin rotor multi-input multioutput (MIMO system (TRMS considering most promising evolutionary techniques. These are gravitational search algorithm (GSA, particle swarm optimization (PSO, artificial bee colony (ABC, and differential evolution (DE. In this study, the gains of four fuzzy proportional derivative (PD controllers for TRMS have been optimized using the considered techniques. The optimization techniques are developed to identify the optimal control parameters for system stability enhancement, to cancel high nonlinearities in the model, to reduce the coupling effect, and to drive TRMS pitch and yaw angles into the desired tracking trajectory efficiently and accurately. The most effective technique in terms of system response due to different disturbances has been investigated. In this work, it is observed that GSA is the most effective technique in terms of solution quality and convergence speed.

  7. Picbreeder: a case study in collaborative evolutionary exploration of design space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secretan, Jimmy; Beato, Nicholas; D'Ambrosio, David B; Rodriguez, Adelein; Campbell, Adam; Folsom-Kovarik, Jeremiah T; Stanley, Kenneth O

    2011-01-01

    For domains in which fitness is subjective or difficult to express formally, interactive evolutionary computation (IEC) is a natural choice. It is possible that a collaborative process combining feedback from multiple users can improve the quality and quantity of generated artifacts. Picbreeder, a large-scale online experiment in collaborative interactive evolution (CIE), explores this potential. Picbreeder is an online community in which users can evolve and share images, and most importantly, continue evolving others' images. Through this process of branching from other images, and through continually increasing image complexity made possible by the underlying neuroevolution of augmenting topologies (NEAT) algorithm, evolved images proliferate unlike in any other current IEC system. This paper discusses not only the strengths of the Picbreeder approach, but its challenges and shortcomings as well, in the hope that lessons learned will inform the design of future CIE systems.

  8. Controller tuning with evolutionary multiobjective optimization a holistic multiobjective optimization design procedure

    CERN Document Server

    Reynoso Meza, Gilberto; Sanchis Saez, Javier; Herrero Durá, Juan Manuel

    2017-01-01

    This book is devoted to Multiobjective Optimization Design (MOOD) procedures for controller tuning applications, by means of Evolutionary Multiobjective Optimization (EMO). It presents developments in tools, procedures and guidelines to facilitate this process, covering the three fundamental steps in the procedure: problem definition, optimization and decision-making. The book is divided into four parts. The first part, Fundamentals, focuses on the necessary theoretical background and provides specific tools for practitioners. The second part, Basics, examines a range of basic examples regarding the MOOD procedure for controller tuning, while the third part, Benchmarking, demonstrates how the MOOD procedure can be employed in several control engineering problems. The fourth part, Applications, is dedicated to implementing the MOOD procedure for controller tuning in real processes.

  9. Can evolutionary design of social networks make it easier to be 'green'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Janis L; Crain, Rhiannon L; Reeve, H Kern; Schuldt, Jonathon P

    2013-09-01

    The social Web is swiftly becoming a living laboratory for understanding human cooperation on massive scales. It has changed how we organize, socialize, and tackle problems that benefit from the efforts of a large crowd. A new, applied, behavioral ecology has begun to build on theoretical and empirical studies of cooperation, integrating research in the fields of evolutionary biology, social psychology, social networking, and citizen science. Here, we review the ways in which these disciplines inform the design of Internet environments to support collective pro-environmental behavior, tapping into proximate prosocial mechanisms and models of social evolution, as well as generating opportunities for 'field studies' to discover how we can support massive collective action and shift environmental social norms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A possibilistic approach to rotorcraft design through a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Han Gil

    Most of the engineering design processes in use today in the field may be considered as a series of successive decision making steps. The decision maker uses information at hand, determines the direction of the procedure, and generates information for the next step and/or other decision makers. However, the information is often incomplete, especially in the early stages of the design process of a complex system. As the complexity of the system increases, uncertainties eventually become unmanageable using traditional tools. In such a case, the tools and analysis values need to be "softened" to account for the designer's intuition. One of the methods that deals with issues of intuition and incompleteness is possibility theory. Through the use of possibility theory coupled with fuzzy inference, the uncertainties estimated by the intuition of the designer are quantified for design problems. By involving quantified uncertainties in the tools, the solutions can represent a possible set, instead of a crisp spot, for predefined levels of certainty. From a different point of view, it is a well known fact that engineering design is a multi-objective problem or a set of such problems. The decision maker aims to find satisfactory solutions, sometimes compromising the objectives that conflict with each other. Once the candidates of possible solutions are generated, a satisfactory solution can be found by various decision-making techniques. A number of multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) have been developed, and can be found in the literature, which are capable of generating alternative solutions and evaluating multiple sets of solutions in one single execution of an algorithm. One of the MOEA techniques that has been proven to be very successful for this class of problems is the strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm (SPEA) which falls under the dominance-based category of methods. The Pareto dominance that is used in SPEA, however, is not enough to account for the

  11. Friction reduction using discrete surface textures: principle and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Stephen M; Jing, Yang; Hua, Diann; Zhang, Huan

    2014-01-01

    There have been many reports on the use of dimples, grooves, and other surface textures to control friction in sliding interfaces. The effectiveness of surface textures in friction reduction has been demonstrated in conformal contacts under high speed low load applications such as mechanical seals and automotive water pump seals, etc., resulting in reduced friction and longer durability. For sliding components with higher contact pressures or lower speeds, conflicting results were reported. Reasons for the inconsistency may be due to the differences in texture fabrication techniques, lack of dimple size and shape uniformity, and different tester used. This paper examines the basic principles on which surface textural patterns influence friction under the three principle lubrication regimes: hydrodynamic, elastohydrodynamic, and boundary lubrication regimes. Our findings suggest that each regime requires specific dimple size, shape, depth, and areal density to achieve friction reduction. Control experiments were also conducted to explore mechanisms of friction reduction. The dimple geometric shape and the dimple's orientation with respect to the sliding direction influence friction significantly. The underlying mechanisms for friction control via textures are discussed. (paper)

  12. Evolutionary molecular medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesse, Randolph M; Ganten, Detlev; Gregory, T Ryan; Omenn, Gilbert S

    2012-05-01

    Evolution has long provided a foundation for population genetics, but some major advances in evolutionary biology from the twentieth century that provide foundations for evolutionary medicine are only now being applied in molecular medicine. They include the need for both proximate and evolutionary explanations, kin selection, evolutionary models for cooperation, competition between alleles, co-evolution, and new strategies for tracing phylogenies and identifying signals of selection. Recent advances in genomics are transforming evolutionary biology in ways that create even more opportunities for progress at its interfaces with genetics, medicine, and public health. This article reviews 15 evolutionary principles and their applications in molecular medicine in hopes that readers will use them and related principles to speed the development of evolutionary molecular medicine.

  13. Design of a Blended Learning Environment Based on Merrill’s Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simarmata, Janner; Djohar, Asari; Purba, Janulis; Juanda, Enjang A.

    2018-01-01

    Designing blended learning courses requires a systematic approach, in instructional design decisions and implementations, instructional principles help educators not only to specify the elements of the course, but also to provide a solid base from which to build the technology. The blended learning course was designed based on Merrill’s First Principles of Instruction with five phases. This paper helps inform educators about how to develop appropriate learning styles and preferences according to students’ learning needs.

  14. Attribute Index and Uniform Design Based Multiobjective Association Rule Mining with Evolutionary Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In association rule mining, evaluating an association rule needs to repeatedly scan database to compare the whole database with the antecedent, consequent of a rule and the whole rule. In order to decrease the number of comparisons and time consuming, we present an attribute index strategy. It only needs to scan database once to create the attribute index of each attribute. Then all metrics values to evaluate an association rule do not need to scan database any further, but acquire data only by means of the attribute indices. The paper visualizes association rule mining as a multiobjective problem rather than a single objective one. In order to make the acquired solutions scatter uniformly toward the Pareto frontier in the objective space, elitism policy and uniform design are introduced. The paper presents the algorithm of attribute index and uniform design based multiobjective association rule mining with evolutionary algorithm, abbreviated as IUARMMEA. It does not require the user-specified minimum support and minimum confidence anymore, but uses a simple attribute index. It uses a well-designed real encoding so as to extend its application scope. Experiments performed on several databases demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has excellent performance, and it can significantly reduce the number of comparisons and time consumption.

  15. Attribute index and uniform design based multiobjective association rule mining with evolutionary algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Wang, Yuping; Feng, Junhong

    2013-01-01

    In association rule mining, evaluating an association rule needs to repeatedly scan database to compare the whole database with the antecedent, consequent of a rule and the whole rule. In order to decrease the number of comparisons and time consuming, we present an attribute index strategy. It only needs to scan database once to create the attribute index of each attribute. Then all metrics values to evaluate an association rule do not need to scan database any further, but acquire data only by means of the attribute indices. The paper visualizes association rule mining as a multiobjective problem rather than a single objective one. In order to make the acquired solutions scatter uniformly toward the Pareto frontier in the objective space, elitism policy and uniform design are introduced. The paper presents the algorithm of attribute index and uniform design based multiobjective association rule mining with evolutionary algorithm, abbreviated as IUARMMEA. It does not require the user-specified minimum support and minimum confidence anymore, but uses a simple attribute index. It uses a well-designed real encoding so as to extend its application scope. Experiments performed on several databases demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has excellent performance, and it can significantly reduce the number of comparisons and time consumption.

  16. Four Principles for User Interface Design of Computerised Clinical Decision Support Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Christiansen, Marion Berg; Nøhr, Christian

    2011-01-01

    emphasises a focus on how users interact with the system, a focus on how information is provided by the system, and four principles of interaction. The four principles for design of user interfaces for CDSS are summarised as four A’s: All in one, At a glance, At hand and Attention. It is recommended that all...... four interaction principles are integrated in the design of user interfaces for CDSS, i.e. the model is an integrated model which we suggest as a guide for interaction design when working with preventing medication errors....

  17. Resisting Technological Gravity: Using Guiding Principles for Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jason K.

    2010-01-01

    Instructional designers face tremendous pressure to abandon the essential characteristics of educational approaches, and settle instead for routine practices that do not preserve the level of quality those approaches originally expressed. Because this pressure can be strong enough to affect designers almost as gravity affects objects in the…

  18. Principles and Concepts for Information and Communication Technology Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ray; Langdon, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    This article presents a theory for evaluating information and communication technology design for individuals with disabilities. Simplex 1 evaluates designs in five zones: sensory and input zone; output zone; abstract working memory; long-term memory; and central executive functioning. Simplex 2 evaluates feedback, emotional responses, cognitive…

  19. Using principles of learning to inform language therapy design for children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Mary; Meyers, Christina; Ancharski, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Language treatment for children with specific language impairment (SLI) often takes months to achieve moderate results. Interventions often do not incorporate the principles that are known to affect learning in unimpaired learners. To outline some key findings about learning in typical populations and to suggest a model of how they might be applied to language treatment design as a catalyst for further research and discussion. Three main principles of implicit learning are reviewed: variability, complexity and sleep-dependent consolidation. After explaining these principles, evidence is provided as to how they influence learning tasks in unimpaired learners. Information is reviewed on principles of learning as they apply to impaired populations, current treatment designs are also reviewed that conform to the principles, and ways in which principles of learning might be incorporated into language treatment design are demonstrated. This paper provides an outline for how theoretical knowledge might be applied to clinical practice in an effort to promote discussion. Although the authors look forward to more specific details on how the principles of learning relate to impaired populations, there is ample evidence to suggest that these principles should be considered during treatment design. © 2012 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  20. Design Principles and Concepts for Enhancing Long-Term Cap Performance and Confidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steven J. Piet; Robert P. Breckenridge; Gregory J. White; Jacob J. Jacobson; Hilary I. Inyang

    2005-01-01

    The siting of new landfills is becoming increasing difficult as the public and stakeholders want more confidence of performance for longer times and landfill owners want to store more waste in the least area while knowing and limiting their long-term liabilities. These changes motivate re-examination of long-term performance mechanisms and their implications for cap and barrier designs. Accordingly, in this paper we first consider design principles from the standpoint of long-term performance and management, including the ability to monitor and repair barriers. We then consider some design concepts that may implement these principles, especially evapo-transpiration (ET) caps. We suggest five design principles based on experience in the cap and barrier field as well as other engineering disciplines. These principles are as follows: (1) Establish a clear and defendable design basis. (2) Design for ease of monitoring and repair. (3) Analyze the barrier as a dynamic system, not static. (4) Work with nature, not against. (5) Recognize that increased complexity can reduce, not enhance, net performance. ET caps are an excellent embodiment of these design principles. We apply the design principles to ET caps, as well as variants such as erosion armor, capillary breaks, bio-intrusion layers, and low permeability material layers

  1. Principles of VLSI RTL design a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Churiwala, Sanjay; Gianfagna, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This book examines the impact of register transfer level (RTL) design choices that may result in issues of testability, data synchronization across clock domains, synthesizability, power consumption and routability, that appear later in the product lifecycle.

  2. SOA and Web services interface design principles, techniques, and standards

    CERN Document Server

    Bean, James

    2009-01-01

    SOA offers solutions to the most intractable business problems faced by every enterprise, but getting the SOA service interface right requires the practical design knowledge this book uniquely delivers

  3. Constructal Law and the Unifying Principle of Design

    CERN Document Server

    Lorente, Sylvie; Bejan, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Design happens everywhere, whether in animate objects (e.g., dendritic lung structures, bacterial colonies, and corals), inanimate patterns (river basins, beach slope, and dendritic crystals), social dynamics (pedestrian traffic flows), or engineered systems (heat dissipation in electronic circuitry). This “design in nature” often takes on remarkably similar patterns, which can be explained under one unifying Constructal Law. This book explores the unifying power of the Constructal Law and its applications in all domains of design generation and evolution, ranging from biology and geophysics to globalization, energy, sustainability, and security.  The Constructal Law accounts for the universal tendency of flow systems to morph into evolving configurations that provide greater and easier access over time. The Constructal Law resolves the many and contradictory ad hoc statements of “optimality”, end design, and destiny in nature, such as minimum and maximum entropy production and minimum and maximum fl...

  4. A Learning and Interaction design framework, from a study on formulating principles for the design of engaging music learning games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitze, Charlotte Lærke; Ørngreen, Rikke

    2012-01-01

    Based on a preliminary action research study investigating the design of digital music games and years of experiences from interaction design processes of learning resources, this extended abstract presents a framework that mixes designs for learning principles and game design with a process view...... using a simple interaction design lifecycle. Though the first outset was to design engaging music games, the resulting framework has a more generic character....

  5. Designing high pressure containers for research- principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anandkumar, V.

    1997-01-01

    The high pressure scientist looks for a well engineered pressure apparatus for high pressure experiments for 1 kbar (0.1 GPa) and above. Often, a variety of difficulties including the choice of materials, design configuration, optimum utilisation of the strength of materials used in the design, are encountered. This article is intended to help the high pressure scientist to select the design approach for pressure retaining container. The limitations imposed by the strength of available materials and engineering standards in building high pressure containers are discussed. Engineering solutions to overcome these limitations with optimal utilisation of the strength of the materials are also discussed. Novel methods to boost up the pressure retaining capacity like multilayered design and autofrettaging are compared along with their relative advantages and disadvantages. Special methods by which it is possible to attain pressures which are several times the yield strength of the materials of construction are presented. In this aspects such as the basis of the codes and their relevance in the design of high pressure equipment will also be described. Discussions are centered around the methods to tackle situations where experimental constraints dictate requirements of pressures higher than those permitted by design codes. Safety features are also discussed. (author)

  6. Solving advanced multi-objective robust designs by means of multiple objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEA): A reliability application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar A, Daniel E. [Division de Computacion Evolutiva (CEANI), Instituto de Sistemas Inteligentes y Aplicaciones Numericas en Ingenieria (IUSIANI), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. Canary Islands (Spain)]. E-mail: danielsalazaraponte@gmail.com; Rocco S, Claudio M. [Universidad Central de Venezuela, Facultad de Ingenieria, Caracas (Venezuela)]. E-mail: crocco@reacciun.ve

    2007-06-15

    This paper extends the approach proposed by the second author in [Rocco et al. Robust design using a hybrid-cellular-evolutionary and interval-arithmetic approach: a reliability application. In: Tarantola S, Saltelli A, editors. SAMO 2001: Methodological advances and useful applications of sensitivity analysis. Reliab Eng Syst Saf 2003;79(2):149-59 [special issue

  7. Fundamental Design Principles for Transcription-Factor-Based Metabolite Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannan, Ahmad A; Liu, Di; Zhang, Fuzhong; Oyarzún, Diego A

    2017-10-20

    Metabolite biosensors are central to current efforts toward precision engineering of metabolism. Although most research has focused on building new biosensors, their tunability remains poorly understood and is fundamental for their broad applicability. Here we asked how genetic modifications shape the dose-response curve of biosensors based on metabolite-responsive transcription factors. Using the lac system in Escherichia coli as a model system, we built promoter libraries with variable operator sites that reveal interdependencies between biosensor dynamic range and response threshold. We developed a phenomenological theory to quantify such design constraints in biosensors with various architectures and tunable parameters. Our theory reveals a maximal achievable dynamic range and exposes tunable parameters for orthogonal control of dynamic range and response threshold. Our work sheds light on fundamental limits of synthetic biology designs and provides quantitative guidelines for biosensor design in applications such as dynamic pathway control, strain optimization, and real-time monitoring of metabolism.

  8. Design principles and realization of electro-optical circuit boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betschon, Felix; Lamprecht, Tobias; Halter, Markus; Beyer, Stefan; Peterson, Harry

    2013-02-01

    The manufacturing of electro-optical circuit boards (EOCB) is based to a large extent on established technologies. First products with embedded polymer waveguides are currently produced in series. The range of applications within the sensor and data communication markets is growing with the increasing maturity level. EOCBs require design flows, processes and techniques similar to existing printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing and appropriate for optical signal transmission. A key aspect is the precise and automated assembly of active and passive optical components to the optical waveguides which has to be supported by the technology. The design flow is described after a short introduction into the build-up of EOCBs and the motivation for the usage of this technology within the different application fields. Basis for the design of EOCBs are the required optical signal transmission properties. Thereafter, the devices for the electro-optical conversion are chosen and the optical coupling approach is defined. Then, the planar optical elements (waveguides, splitters, couplers) are designed and simulated. This phase already requires co-design of the optical and electrical domain using novel design flows. The actual integration of an optical system into a PCB is shown in the last part. The optical layer is thereby laminated to the purely electrical PCB using a conventional PCB-lamination process to form the EOCB. The precise alignment of the various electrical and optical layers is thereby essential. Electrical vias are then generated, penetrating also the optical layer, to connect the individual electrical layers. Finally, the board has to be tested electrically and optically.

  9. Computers as Components Principles of Embedded Computing System Design

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    This book was the first to bring essential knowledge on embedded systems technology and techniques under a single cover. This second edition has been updated to the state-of-the-art by reworking and expanding performance analysis with more examples and exercises, and coverage of electronic systems now focuses on the latest applications. Researchers, students, and savvy professionals schooled in hardware or software design, will value Wayne Wolf's integrated engineering design approach.The second edition gives a more comprehensive view of multiprocessors including VLIW and superscalar archite

  10. Design principles of a nuclear and industrial HVAC of IFMIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruneri, Giuseppe; Ibarra, A.; Heidinger, R.; Knaster, J.; Sugimoto, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Parameter of Derivate air Contamination (DAC) allows to associate the type of air ventilation. • The construction and operation of IFMIF will be subjected to the regulations of the country in which it will be sited. • Structures, systems and components are assigned a particular safety important components (SIC, 1–2 and Non-SIC) clarification that is based on the consequences of their failure. • Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Inspectability (RAMI) analysis has given a great contribution of the facility to optimize the configuration, particularly for the HVAC system. - Abstract: In 2013, the IFMIF, the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility, presently in its Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) phase, framed by the Broader Approach Agreement between Japan and EURATOM, accomplished in 2013 its mandate to provide the engineering design of the plant on schedule [1]. The IFMIF aims to qualify and characterize materials that are capable of withstanding the intense neutron flux originated in D-T reactions of future fusion reactors due to a neutron flux with a broad peak at 14 MeV, which is able to provide >20 dpa/fpy on small specimens in this EVEDA phase. The successful operation of such a challenging plant demands a careful assessment of the Conventional Facilities (CF), which have adequate redundancies to allow for the target plant availability [2]. The present paper addresses the design proposed in the IFMIF Intermediate Engineering Design Report regarding the CF, particularly the IFMIF's Nuclear and Industrial HVAC design. A preliminary feasibility study, including the initial configuration, calculations and reliability/availability analysis, were performed. The nuclear HVAC design was developed progressively; first, by establishing a conceptual design, starting from the system functional description, followed by the identification of the corresponding interfacing systems and their

  11. Design principles of a nuclear and industrial HVAC of IFMIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruneri, Giuseppe [IFMIF/EVEDA, Project Team, Rokkasho (Japan); Ibarra, A. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Heidinger, R. [F4E, Garching (Germany); Knaster, J. [IFMIF/EVEDA Project Team, Rokkasho (Japan); Sugimoto, M. [JAEA, Rokkasho (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Parameter of Derivate air Contamination (DAC) allows to associate the type of air ventilation. • The construction and operation of IFMIF will be subjected to the regulations of the country in which it will be sited. • Structures, systems and components are assigned a particular safety important components (SIC, 1–2 and Non-SIC) clarification that is based on the consequences of their failure. • Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Inspectability (RAMI) analysis has given a great contribution of the facility to optimize the configuration, particularly for the HVAC system. - Abstract: In 2013, the IFMIF, the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility, presently in its Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) phase, framed by the Broader Approach Agreement between Japan and EURATOM, accomplished in 2013 its mandate to provide the engineering design of the plant on schedule [1]. The IFMIF aims to qualify and characterize materials that are capable of withstanding the intense neutron flux originated in D-T reactions of future fusion reactors due to a neutron flux with a broad peak at 14 MeV, which is able to provide >20 dpa/fpy on small specimens in this EVEDA phase. The successful operation of such a challenging plant demands a careful assessment of the Conventional Facilities (CF), which have adequate redundancies to allow for the target plant availability [2]. The present paper addresses the design proposed in the IFMIF Intermediate Engineering Design Report regarding the CF, particularly the IFMIF's Nuclear and Industrial HVAC design. A preliminary feasibility study, including the initial configuration, calculations and reliability/availability analysis, were performed. The nuclear HVAC design was developed progressively; first, by establishing a conceptual design, starting from the system functional description, followed by the identification of the corresponding interfacing systems and their

  12. Execution Of Systems Integration Principles During Systems Engineering Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    application utilized a paper-based approach to systems design. The customer directed utilization of an SE Waterfall process model . These new...regarding requirements, stakeholders, testing, and system boundaries. Additionally, this thesis discusses use of systems architecture frameworks and models ...and the consistent use of model - based systems engineering throughout development. Lastly, it proposes formal methods language for improving models

  13. Design Principles for Digital Badges Used in Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimland, Emily; Raish, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Digital badges give libraries greater flexibility in delivering impactful instruction to students. They serve as flexible, stackable microcredentials that sequence an information literacy experience across the curriculum. Design considerations rooted in learning theory have a foundation through which to drive decisions. Information literacy badges…

  14. Designing sustainable energy landscapes : concepts, principles and procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stremke, S.

    2010-01-01

    The depletion of fossil fuels, in combination with climate change, necessitates a transition to sustainable energy systems. Such systems are characterized by a decreased energy demand and an increase in the use of renewables. The objective of this dissertation is to advance the planning and design

  15. PHASAR-based WDM-devices: principles, design and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.K.; Dam, van C.

    1996-01-01

    Wavelength multiplexers, demultiplexers and routers based on optical phased arrays play a key role in multiwavelength telecommunication links and networks. In this paper, a detailed description of phased-array operation and design is presented and an overview is given of the most important

  16. Mammalian designer cells: Engineering principles and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Mingqi; Fussenegger, Martin

    2015-07-01

    Biotechnology is a widely interdisciplinary field focusing on the use of living cells or organisms to solve established problems in medicine, food production and agriculture. Synthetic biology, the science of engineering complex biological systems that do not exist in nature, continues to provide the biotechnology industry with tools, technologies and intellectual property leading to improved cellular performance. One key aspect of synthetic biology is the engineering of deliberately reprogrammed designer cells whose behavior can be controlled over time and space. This review discusses the most commonly used techniques to engineer mammalian designer cells; while control elements acting on the transcriptional and translational levels of target gene expression determine the kinetic and dynamic profiles, coupling them to a variety of extracellular stimuli permits their remote control with user-defined trigger signals. Designer mammalian cells with novel or improved biological functions not only directly improve the production efficiency during biopharmaceutical manufacturing but also open the door for cell-based treatment strategies in molecular and translational medicine. In the future, the rational combination of multiple sets of designer cells could permit the construction and regulation of higher-order systems with increased complexity, thereby enabling the molecular reprogramming of tissues, organisms or even populations with highest precision. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Distributed learning process: principles of design and implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Boychenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At the present stage, broad information and communication technologies (ICT usage in educational practices is one of the leading trends of global education system development. This trend has led to the instructional interaction models transformation. Scientists have developed the theory of distributed cognition (Salomon, G., Hutchins, E., and distributed education and training (Fiore, S. M., Salas, E., Oblinger, D. G., Barone, C. A., Hawkins, B. L.. Educational process is based on two separated in time and space sub-processes of learning and teaching which are aimed at the organization of fl exible interactions between learners, teachers and educational content located in different non-centralized places.The purpose of this design research is to fi nd a solution for the problem of formalizing distributed learning process design and realization that is signifi cant in instructional design. The solution to this problem should take into account specifi cs of distributed interactions between team members, which becomes collective subject of distributed cognition in distributed learning process. This makes it necessary to design roles and functions of the individual team members performing distributed educational activities. Personal educational objectives should be determined by decomposition of team objectives into functional roles of its members with considering personal and learning needs and interests of students.Theoretical and empirical methods used in the study: theoretical analysis of philosophical, psychological, and pedagogical literature on the issue, analysis of international standards in the e-learning domain; exploration on practical usage of distributed learning in academic and corporate sectors; generalization, abstraction, cognitive modelling, ontology engineering methods.Result of the research is methodology for design and implementation of distributed learning process based on the competency approach. Methodology proposed by

  18. Serious game design principles: The impact of game design on learning outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael W.

    This dissertation examines the research question "How do video game design principles affect learning outcomes in serious games?" This research first develops a theoretical foundation concerning the meaning of the terms "game" and "serious game". This conceptual clarification is broken down into analytic propositions, which state that games have participants, rules, goals and challenges, and synthetic propositions, which state that the games should be intrinsically compelling, provide meaningful choices, and be self encapsulated. Based on these synthetic propositions, three hypotheses were developed. The hypotheses are that games with an enhanced aesthetic presentation, more meaningful choices, or provide player competition will elicit higher learning outcomes than identical games without these factors. These hypotheses were tested via a quantitative experiment involving 172 undergraduate students in the Old Dominion University Chemistry Department. The students were asked to play a chemistry-oriented serious game entitled Element Solitaire©, which was created by the research author. The students were randomly given different treatments of the Element Solitaire© game to play, and the difference between their learning outcomes were compared. The experimental results demonstrated that the aesthetic presentation of a game can have a significant impact upon the learning outcome. The experiment was not able to discern significant effects from the choice or competition conditions, but further examination of the experimental data did reveal some insight into these aspects of serious game design. Choices need to provide the player with options that have a sufficient value that they will be considered and the application of competition within games needs to be judiciously implemented to promote a positive affect for all players. The results of the theoretical foundations and empirical evidence were then combined with additional theoretical research to develop a set of

  19. Emergent features and perceptual objects: re-examining fundamental principles in analogical display design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Jerred; Bennett, Kevin B; Flach, John M

    2015-01-01

    Two sets of design principles for analogical visual displays, based on the concepts of emergent features and perceptual objects, are described. An interpretation of previous empirical findings for three displays (bar graph, polar graphic, alphanumeric) is provided from both perspectives. A fourth display (configural coordinate) was designed using principles of ecological interface design (i.e. direct perception). An experiment was conducted to evaluate performance (accuracy and latency of state identification) with these four displays. Numerous significant effects were obtained and a clear rank ordering of performance emerged (from best to worst): configural coordinate, bar graph, alphanumeric and polar graphic. These findings are consistent with principles of design based on emergent features; they are inconsistent with principles based on perceptual objects. Some limitations of the configural coordinate display are discussed and a redesign is provided. Practitioner Summary: Principles of ecological interface design, which emphasise the quality of very specific mappings between domain, display and observer constraints, are described; these principles are applicable to the design of all analogical graphical displays.

  20. A New Strategy to Control and Eradicate "Undruggable" Oncogenic K-RAS-Driven Pancreatic Cancer: Molecular Insights and Core Principles Learned from Developmental and Evolutionary Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Sciver, Robert E; Lee, Michael P; Lee, Caroline Dasom; Lafever, Alex C; Svyatova, Elizaveta; Kanda, Kevin; Colliver, Amber L; Siewertsz van Reesema, Lauren L; Tang-Tan, Angela M; Zheleva, Vasilena; Bwayi, Monicah N; Bian, Minglei; Schmidt, Rebecca L; Matrisian, Lynn M; Petersen, Gloria M; Tang, Amy H

    2018-05-14

    Oncogenic K-RAS mutations are found in virtually all pancreatic cancers, making K-RAS one of the most targeted oncoproteins for drug development in cancer therapies. Despite intense research efforts over the past three decades, oncogenic K-RAS has remained largely "undruggable". Rather than targeting an upstream component of the RAS signaling pathway (i.e., EGFR/HER2) and/or the midstream effector kinases (i.e., RAF/MEK/ERK/PI3K/mTOR), we propose an alternative strategy to control oncogenic K-RAS signal by targeting its most downstream signaling module, Seven-In-Absentia Homolog (SIAH). SIAH E3 ligase controls the signal output of oncogenic K-RAS hyperactivation that drives unchecked cell proliferation, uncontrolled tumor growth, and rapid cancer cell dissemination in human pancreatic cancer. Therefore, SIAH is an ideal therapeutic target as it is an extraordinarily conserved downstream signaling gatekeeper indispensable for proper RAS signaling. Guided by molecular insights and core principles obtained from developmental and evolutionary biology, we propose an anti-SIAH-centered anti-K-RAS strategy as a logical and alternative anticancer strategy to dampen uncontrolled K-RAS hyperactivation and halt tumor growth and metastasis in pancreatic cancer. The clinical utility of developing SIAH as both a tumor-specific and therapy-responsive biomarker, as well as a viable anti-K-RAS drug target, is logically simple and conceptually innovative. SIAH clearly constitutes a major tumor vulnerability and K-RAS signaling bottleneck in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Given the high degree of evolutionary conservation in the K-RAS/SIAH signaling pathway, an anti-SIAH-based anti-PDAC therapy will synergize with covalent K-RAS inhibitors and direct K-RAS targeted initiatives to control and eradicate pancreatic cancer in the future.

  1. Network-driven design principles for neuromorphic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Partzsch, Johannes; Sch?ffny, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic connectivity is typically the most resource-demanding part of neuromorphic systems. Commonly, the architecture of these systems is chosen mainly on technical considerations. As a consequence, the potential for optimization arising from the inherent constraints of connectivity models is left unused. In this article, we develop an alternative, network-driven approach to neuromorphic architecture design. We describe methods to analyse performance of existing neuromorphic architectures i...

  2. Designing sensory-substitution devices: Principles, pitfalls and potential1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjánsson, Árni; Moldoveanu, Alin; Jóhannesson, Ómar I; Balan, Oana; Spagnol, Simone; Valgeirsdóttir, Vigdís Vala; Unnthorsson, Rúnar

    2016-09-21

    An exciting possibility for compensating for loss of sensory function is to augment deficient senses by conveying missing information through an intact sense. Here we present an overview of techniques that have been developed for sensory substitution (SS) for the blind, through both touch and audition, with special emphasis on the importance of training for the use of such devices, while highlighting potential pitfalls in their design. One example of a pitfall is how conveying extra information about the environment risks sensory overload. Related to this, the limits of attentional capacity make it important to focus on key information and avoid redundancies. Also, differences in processing characteristics and bandwidth between sensory systems severely constrain the information that can be conveyed. Furthermore, perception is a continuous process and does not involve a snapshot of the environment. Design of sensory substitution devices therefore requires assessment of the nature of spatiotemporal continuity for the different senses. Basic psychophysical and neuroscientific research into representations of the environment and the most effective ways of conveying information should lead to better design of sensory substitution systems. Sensory substitution devices should emphasize usability, and should not interfere with other inter- or intramodal perceptual function. Devices should be task-focused since in many cases it may be impractical to convey too many aspects of the environment. Evidence for multisensory integration in the representation of the environment suggests that researchers should not limit themselves to a single modality in their design. Finally, we recommend active training on devices, especially since it allows for externalization, where proximal sensory stimulation is attributed to a distinct exterior object.

  3. Network-driven design principles for neuromorphic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes ePartzsch

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic connectivity is typically the most resource-demanding part of neuromorphic systems. Commonly, the architecture of these systems is chosen mainly on technical considerations. As a consequence, the potential for optimization arising from the inherent constraints of connectivity models is left unused. In this article, we develop an alternative, network-driven approach to neuromorphic architecture design. We describe methods to analyse performance of existing neuromorphic architectures in emulating certain connectivity models. Furthermore, we show step-by-step how to derive a neuromorphic architecture from a given connectivity model. For this, we introduce a generalized description for architectures with a synapse matrix, which takes into account shared use of circuit components for reducing total silicon area. Architectures designed with this approach are fitted to a connectivity model, essentially adapting to its connection density. They are guaranteeing faithful reproduction of the model on chip, while requiring less total silicon area. In total, our methods allow designers to implement more area-efficient neuromorphic systems and verify usability of the connectivity resources in these systems.

  4. Network-driven design principles for neuromorphic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partzsch, Johannes; Schüffny, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic connectivity is typically the most resource-demanding part of neuromorphic systems. Commonly, the architecture of these systems is chosen mainly on technical considerations. As a consequence, the potential for optimization arising from the inherent constraints of connectivity models is left unused. In this article, we develop an alternative, network-driven approach to neuromorphic architecture design. We describe methods to analyse performance of existing neuromorphic architectures in emulating certain connectivity models. Furthermore, we show step-by-step how to derive a neuromorphic architecture from a given connectivity model. For this, we introduce a generalized description for architectures with a synapse matrix, which takes into account shared use of circuit components for reducing total silicon area. Architectures designed with this approach are fitted to a connectivity model, essentially adapting to its connection density. They are guaranteeing faithful reproduction of the model on chip, while requiring less total silicon area. In total, our methods allow designers to implement more area-efficient neuromorphic systems and verify usability of the connectivity resources in these systems.

  5. Combining Interactive Infrastructure Modeling and Evolutionary Algorithm Optimization for Sustainable Water Resources Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Zagona, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Population growth and climate change, combined with difficulties in building new infrastructure, motivate portfolio-based solutions to ensuring sufficient water supply. Powerful simulation models with graphical user interfaces (GUI) are often used to evaluate infrastructure portfolios; these GUI based models require manual modification of the system parameters, such as reservoir operation rules, water transfer schemes, or system capacities. Multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) based optimization can be employed to balance multiple objectives and automatically suggest designs for infrastructure systems, but MOEA based decision support typically uses a fixed problem formulation (i.e., a single set of objectives, decisions, and constraints). This presentation suggests a dynamic framework for linking GUI-based infrastructure models with MOEA search. The framework begins with an initial formulation which is solved using a MOEA. Then, stakeholders can interact with candidate solutions, viewing their properties in the GUI model. This is followed by changes in the formulation which represent users' evolving understanding of exigent system properties. Our case study is built using RiverWare, an object-oriented, data-centered model that facilitates the representation of a diverse array of water resources systems. Results suggest that assumptions within the initial MOEA search are violated after investigating tradeoffs and reveal how formulations should be modified to better capture stakeholders' preferences.

  6. Principles of alloy design in high nitrogen 12% chromium steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goecmen, A.; Ernst, P.; Holmes, P.

    1999-01-01

    12% chromium steels are hardened by a martensitic transformation and by precipitation reactions of the martensite during a subsequent tempering treatment. The original alloy design of these steels is based on the intensifying effect of C on the martensitic transformation hardening as well as on the effects of V and Mo on intensity and stability of carbide precipitation hardening reactions. Advanced alloy design of high carbon 12% chromium steels makes use of f.c.c.-MX type carbonitrides to improve grain refinement and tempering resistance, whereas alloying with about 0.05 wt.-% nitrogen already plays a decisive role. In this paper, new alloy design opportunities provided by high nitrogen are reviewed, which promise to achieve a best possible compromise between grain size limitation, particle hardening and particle stability of 12% chromium steels. The crucial effects of the solubility product of MX-type phases on grain coarsening resistance, precipitation hardening and particle stability are reviewed. The advantages of high nitrogen steels to improve these properties are rationalized to result from the lower solubility of nitrides compared with carbides. As an advantageous opportunity of the achievable higher grain coarsening resistance, the normalizing temperature in high nitrogen steels can be increased in order to increase the amount of the less soluble and thereby slow coarsening f.c.c.-nitrides. In addition, as a consequence of a higher normalizing temperature, the solubility gap of nitrides in the austenite is expanded, which in turn enables an effective precipitation hardening due to low soluble nitrides in the metastable austenite before the martensitic transformation

  7. Real-time embedded systems design principles and engineering practices

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Xiaocong

    2015-01-01

    This book integrates new ideas and topics from real time systems, embedded systems, and software engineering to give a complete picture of the whole process of developing software for real-time embedded applications. You will not only gain a thorough understanding of concepts related to microprocessors, interrupts, and system boot process, appreciating the importance of real-time modeling and scheduling, but you will also learn software engineering practices such as model documentation, model analysis, design patterns, and standard conformance. This book is split into four parts to help you

  8. Designing Embedded Systems with PIC Microcontrollers Principles and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wilmshurst, Tim

    2009-01-01

    PIC microcontrollers are used worldwide in commercial and industrial devices. The 8-bit PIC which this book focuses on is a versatile work horse that completes many designs. An engineer working with applications that include a microcontroller will no doubt come across the PIC sooner rather than later. It is a must to have a working knowledge of this 8-bit technology. This book takes the novice from introduction of embedded systems through to advanced development techniques for utilizing and optimizing the PIC family of microcontrollers in your device. To truly understand the PIC, assembly and

  9. Evolutionary Agent-based Models to design distributed water management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.; Reed, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    There is growing awareness in the scientific community that the traditional centralized approach to water resources management, as described in much of the water resources literature, provides an ideal optimal solution, which is certainly useful to quantify the best physically achievable performance, but is generally inapplicable. Most real world water resources management problems are indeed characterized by the presence of multiple, distributed and institutionally-independent decision-makers. Multi-Agent Systems provide a potentially more realistic alternative framework to model multiple and self-interested decision-makers in a credible context. Each decision-maker can be represented by an agent who, being self-interested, acts according to local objective functions and produces negative externalities on system level objectives. Different levels of coordination can potentially be included in the framework by designing coordination mechanisms to drive the current decision-making structure toward the global system efficiency. Yet, the identification of effective coordination strategies can be particularly complex in modern institutional contexts and current practice is dependent on largely ad-hoc coordination strategies. In this work we propose a novel Evolutionary Agent-based Modeling (EAM) framework that enables a mapping of fully uncoordinated and centrally coordinated solutions into their relative "many-objective" tradeoffs using multiobjective evolutionary algorithms. Then, by analysing the conflicts between local individual agent and global system level objectives it is possible to more fully understand the causes, consequences, and potential solution strategies for coordination failures. Game-theoretic criteria have value for identifying the most interesting alternatives from a policy making point of view as well as the coordination mechanisms that can be applied to obtain these interesting solutions. The proposed approach is numerically tested on a

  10. Primate Anatomy, Kinematics, and Principles for Humanoid Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Robert O.; Ambrose, Catherine G.

    2004-01-01

    The primate order of animals is investigated for clues in the design of Humanoid Robots. The pursuit is directed with a theory that kinematics, musculature, perception, and cognition can be optimized for specific tasks by varying the proportions of limbs, and in particular, the points of branching in kinematic trees such as the primate skeleton. Called the Bifurcated Chain Hypothesis, the theory is that the branching proportions found in humans may be superior to other animals and primates for the tasks of dexterous manipulation and other human specialties. The primate taxa are defined, contemporary primate evolution hypotheses are critiqued, and variations within the order are noted. The kinematic branching points of the torso, limbs and fingers are studied for differences in proportions across the order, and associated with family and genus capabilities and behaviors. The human configuration of a long waist, long neck, and short arms is graded using a kinematic workspace analysis and a set of design axioms for mobile manipulation robots. It scores well. The re emergence of the human waist, seen in early Prosimians and Monkeys for arboreal balance, but lost in the terrestrial Pongidae, is postulated as benefiting human dexterity. The human combination of an articulated waist and neck will be shown to enable the use of smaller arms, achieving greater regions of workspace dexterity than the larger limbs of Gorillas and other Hominoidea.

  11. Design principles of the yeast G1/S switch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Yang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A hallmark of the G1/S transition in budding yeast cell cycle is the proteolytic degradation of the B-type cyclin-Cdk stoichiometric inhibitor Sic1. Deleting SIC1 or altering Sic1 degradation dynamics increases genomic instability. Certain key facts about the parts of the G1/S circuitry are established: phosphorylation of Sic1 on multiple sites is necessary for its destruction, and both the upstream kinase Cln1/2-Cdk1 and the downstream kinase Clb5/6-Cdk1 can phosphorylate Sic1 in vitro with varied specificity, cooperativity, and processivity. However, how the system works as a whole is still controversial due to discrepancies between in vitro, in vivo, and theoretical studies. Here, by monitoring Sic1 destruction in real time in individual cells under various perturbations to the system, we provide a clear picture of how the circuitry functions as a switch in vivo. We show that Cln1/2-Cdk1 sets the proper timing of Sic1 destruction, but does not contribute to its destruction speed; thus, it acts only as a trigger. Sic1's inhibition target Clb5/6-Cdk1 controls the speed of Sic1 destruction through a double-negative feedback loop, ensuring a robust all-or-none transition for Clb5/6-Cdk1 activity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the degradation of a single-phosphosite mutant of Sic1 is rapid and switch-like, just as the wild-type form. Our mathematical model confirms our understanding of the circuit and demonstrates that the substrate sharing between the two kinases is not a redundancy but a part of the design to overcome the trade-off between the timing and sharpness of Sic1 degradation. Our study provides direct mechanistic insight into the design features underlying the yeast G1/S switch.

  12. Designing Crop Simulation Web Service with Service Oriented Architecture Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnachodteeranun, R.; Hung, N. D.; Honda, K.

    2015-12-01

    Crop simulation models are efficient tools for simulating crop growth processes and yield. Running crop models requires data from various sources as well as time-consuming data processing, such as data quality checking and data formatting, before those data can be inputted to the model. It makes the use of crop modeling limited only to crop modelers. We aim to make running crop models convenient for various users so that the utilization of crop models will be expanded, which will directly improve agricultural applications. As the first step, we had developed a prototype that runs DSSAT on Web called as Tomorrow's Rice (v. 1). It predicts rice yields based on a planting date, rice's variety and soil characteristics using DSSAT crop model. A user only needs to select a planting location on the Web GUI then the system queried historical weather data from available sources and expected yield is returned. Currently, we are working on weather data connection via Sensor Observation Service (SOS) interface defined by Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). Weather data can be automatically connected to a weather generator for generating weather scenarios for running the crop model. In order to expand these services further, we are designing a web service framework consisting of layers of web services to support compositions and executions for running crop simulations. This framework allows a third party application to call and cascade each service as it needs for data preparation and running DSSAT model using a dynamic web service mechanism. The framework has a module to manage data format conversion, which means users do not need to spend their time curating the data inputs. Dynamic linking of data sources and services are implemented using the Service Component Architecture (SCA). This agriculture web service platform demonstrates interoperability of weather data using SOS interface, convenient connections between weather data sources and weather generator, and connecting

  13. Turning challenges into design principles: Telemonitoring systems for patients with multiple chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Mehwish; Kuluski, Kerry; McIsaac, Warren J; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Seto, Emily

    2018-01-01

    People with multiple chronic conditions often struggle with managing their health. The purpose of this research was to identify specific challenges of patients with multiple chronic conditions and to use the findings to form design principles for a telemonitoring system tailored for these patients. Semi-structured interviews with 15 patients with multiple chronic conditions and 10 clinicians were conducted to gain an understanding of their needs and preferences for a smartphone-based telemonitoring system. The interviews were analyzed using a conventional content analysis technique, resulting in six themes. Design principles developed from the themes included that the system must be modular to accommodate various combinations of conditions, reinforce a routine, consolidate record keeping, as well as provide actionable feedback to the patients. Designing an application for multiple chronic conditions is complex due to variability in patient conditions, and therefore, design principles developed in this study can help with future innovations aimed to help manage this population.

  14. Developing design principles for a Virtual Hospice: improving access to care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrea; French, Tara; Raman, Sneha

    2018-03-01

    Providing access to hospice services will become increasingly difficult due to the pressures of an ageing population and limited resources. To help address this challenge, a small number of services called Virtual Hospice have been established. This paper presents early-stage design work on a Virtual Hospice to improve access to services provided by a hospice (Highland Hospice) serving a largely remote and rural population in Scotland, UK. The study was structured as a series of Experience Labs with Highland Hospice staff, healthcare professionals and patients. Experience Labs employ a participatory design approach where participants are placed at the centre of the design process, helping to ensure that the resultant service meets their needs. Data from the Experience Labs were analysed using qualitative thematic analysis and design analysis. A number of themes and barriers to accessing Highland Hospice services were identified. In response, an initial set of seven design principles was developed. Design principles are high-level guidelines that are used to improve prioritisation and decision making during the design process by ensuring alignment with research insights. The design principles were piloted with a group of stakeholders and gained positive feedback. The design principles are intended to guide the ongoing development of the Highland Hospice Virtual Hospice. However, the challenges faced by Highland Hospice in delivering services in a largely remote and rural setting are not unique. The design principles, encompassing digital and non-digital guidelines, or the design approach could be applied by other hospices in the UK or overseas. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Design of a computation tool for neutron spectrometry and dosimetry through evolutionary neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz R, J. M.; Vega C, H. R.; Martinez B, M. R.; Gallego, E.

    2009-10-01

    The neutron dosimetry is one of the most complicated tasks of radiation protection, due to it is a complex technique and highly dependent of neutron energy. One of the first devices used to perform neutron spectrometry is the system known as spectrometric system of Bonner spheres, that continuous being one of spectrometers most commonly used. This system has disadvantages such as: the components weight, the low resolution of spectrum, long and drawn out procedure for the spectra reconstruction, which require an expert user in system management, the need of use a reconstruction code as BUNKIE, SAND, etc., which are based on an iterative reconstruction algorithm and whose greatest inconvenience is that for the spectrum reconstruction, are needed to provide to system and initial spectrum as close as possible to the desired spectrum get. Consequently, researchers have mentioned the need to developed alternative measurement techniques to improve existing monitoring systems for workers. Among these alternative techniques have been reported several reconstruction procedures based on artificial intelligence techniques such as genetic algorithms, artificial neural networks and hybrid systems of evolutionary artificial neural networks using genetic algorithms. However, the use of these techniques in the nuclear science area is not free of problems, so it has been suggested that more research is conducted in such a way as to solve these disadvantages. Because they are emerging technologies, there are no tools for the results analysis, so in this paper we present first the design of a computation tool that allow to analyze the neutron spectra and equivalent doses, obtained through the hybrid technology of neural networks and genetic algorithms. This tool provides an user graphical environment, friendly, intuitive and easy of operate. The speed of program operation is high, executing the analysis in a few seconds, so it may storage and or print the obtained information for

  16. Applications of Evolutionary Algorithms to Electromagnetic Materials Characterization and Design Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasch, Jonathan Lemoine

    Determining the electrical permittivity and magnetic permeability of materials is an important task in electromagnetics research. The method using reflection and transmission scattering parameters to determine these constants has been widely employed for many years, ever since the work of Nicolson, Ross, and Weir in the 1970's. For general materials that are homogeneous, linear, and isotropic, the method they developed (the NRW method) works very well and provides an analytical solution. For materials which possess a metal backing or are applied as a coating to a metal surface, it can be difficult or even impossible to obtain a transmission measurement, especially when the coating is thin. In such a circumstance, it is common to resort to a method which uses two reflection type measurements. There are several such methods for free-space measurements, using multiple angles or polarizations for example. For waveguide measurements, obtaining two independent sources of information from which to extract two complex parameters can be a challenge. This dissertation covers three different topics. Two of these involve different techniques to characterize conductor-backed materials, and the third proposes a method for designing synthetic validation standards for use with standard NRW measurements. All three of these topics utilize modal expansions of electric and magnetic fields to analyze propagation in stepped rectangular waveguides. Two of the projects utilize evolutionary algorithms (EA) to design waveguide structures. These algorithms were developed specifically for these projects and utilize fairly recent innovations within the optimization community. The first characterization technique uses two different versions of a single vertical step in the waveguide. Samples to be tested lie inside the steps with the conductor reflection plane behind them. If the two reflection measurements are truly independent it should be possible to recover the values of two complex

  17. Evolutionary and Comparative Genomics to Drive Rational Drug Design, with Particular Focus on Neuropeptide Seven-Transmembrane Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Michael; Seong, Jae Young

    2017-01-01

    Seven transmembrane receptors (7TMRs), also known as G protein-coupled receptors, are popular targets of drug development, particularly 7TMR systems that are activated by peptide ligands. Although many pharmaceutical drugs have been discovered via conventional bulk analysis techniques the increasing availability of structural and evolutionary data are facilitating change to rational, targeted drug design. This article discusses the appeal of neuropeptide-7TMR systems as drug targets and provides an overview of concepts in the evolution of vertebrate genomes and gene families. Subsequently, methods that use evolutionary concepts and comparative analysis techniques to aid in gene discovery, gene function identification, and novel drug design are provided along with case study examples.

  18. Using Persuasive Design Principles in Motivational Feeling towards Children Dental Anxiety (CDA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Sobihatun Nur-Abdul; Yahaya, Wan Ahmad Jaafar-Wan; Ali, Azillah-Mohd

    This paper is focusing the potential use of persuasive design principles in motivating children's dental anxiety. The main intention of the paper is to emphasize an attempt of how persuasive design principle can be designed into educational material using CD ROM based multimedia learning environment to overcome the CDA. Firstly, we describe a problem domain which discuss about the universal feeling of CDA and secondly the current practices in handling those negative feelings. Thirdly, the conceptual background of PMLE and how the principle has been applied in designing the information interfaces and presentation of a persuasive multimedia learning environment (PMLE) are described. Fourthly, an experimental design was used to validate the effects of prototype which assessed children dental anxiety level before and after the demonstration and utilization of a PMLE. Primary school children age between seven and nine years old are selected as respondents. Fifthly, the result of the study has revealed the feedback from children regarding baseline test and children dental anxiety test. It shows how by using persuasive design principles as an overall strategy in designing PMLE was able to motivate children feelings towards dental anxiety and could let the children behave in a good manner for dental visit in the future.

  19. Novel Principles and Techniques to Create a Natural Design in Female Hairline Correction Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hyun

    2015-12-01

    Female hairline correction surgery is becoming increasingly popular. However, no guidelines or methods of female hairline design have been introduced to date. The purpose of this study was to create an initial framework based on the novel principles of female hairline design and then use artistic ability and experience to fine tune this framework. An understanding of the concept of 5 areas (frontal area, frontotemporal recess area, temporal peak, infratemple area, and sideburns) and 5 points (C, A, B, T, and S) is required for female hairline correction surgery (the 5A5P principle). The general concepts of female hairline correction surgery and natural design methods are, herein, explained with a focus on the correlations between these 5 areas and 5 points. A natural and aesthetic female hairline can be created with application of the above-mentioned concepts. The 5A5P principle of forming the female hairline is very useful in female hairline correction surgery.

  20. Pacific Canada's Rockfish Conservation Areas: using Ostrom's design principles to assess management effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darienne Lancaster

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available International declines in marine biodiversity have lead to the creation of marine protected areas and fishery reserve systems. In Canada, 164 Rockfish Conservation Areas (RCAs were implemented between 2003 and 2007 and now cover 4847.2 km² of ocean. These reserves were created in response to widespread concern from fishers and nongovernmental organizations about inshore rockfish (genus Sebastes population declines. We used the design principles for effective common-pool resource management systems, originally developed by Elinor Ostrom, to assess the social and ecological effectiveness of these conservation areas more than 10 years after their initial implementation. We assessed the relative presence or absence of each design principle within current RCA management. We found that 2 of the 11 design principles were moderately present in the recreational fishery. All other design principles were lacking for the recreational sector. We found that 2 design principles were fully present and 5 were moderately present in the commercial sector. Four design principles were lacking in the commercial sector. Based on this analysis, we highlight 4 main areas for management improvement: (1 create an education and outreach campaign to explain RCA rules, regulations, boundaries, and the need for marine conservation; (2 increase monitoring of users and resources to discourage noncompliance and gather the necessary data to create social buy-in for marine conservation; (3 encourage informal nested governance through stakeholder organizations for education and self-regulation (e.g. fisher to fisher; and (4 most importantly, create a formal, decadal RCA review process to gather stakeholder input and make amendments to regulations and RCA boundaries. This information can be used to inform spatial management systems both in Canada and internationally. This analysis also contributes to a growing literature on effectively scaling up small-scale management techniques

  1. Review: Janice M. Morse & Linda Niehaus (2009). Mixed method design: principles and procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Öhlen, Joakim

    2010-01-01

    Mixed-Method-Designs, in denen quantitative und qualitative Methoden Verwendung finden, erfreuen sich zunehmender Beliebtheit für die Untersuchung komplexer Phänomene. Die vorliegende Besprechung beschäftigt sich in diesem Zusammenhang mit dem Buch "Mixed Method Design: Principles and Procedures" von Janice M. MORSE und Linda NIEHAUS, die für solche Designs Kern- und Ergänzungskomponenten zu identifizieren versuchen. Hierzu differenzieren sie zwischen Projekten, die einer eher deduktiven oder...

  2. Review: Janice M. Morse & Linda Niehaus (2009). Mixed Method Design: Principles and Procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Öhlen, Joakim

    2010-01-01

    Mixed method design related to the use of a combination of methods, usually quantitative and qualitative, is increasingly used for the investigation of complex phenomena. This review discusses the book, "Mixed Method Design: Principles and Procedures," by Janice M. MORSE and Linda NIEHAUS. A distinctive feature of their approach is the consideration of mixed methods design out of a core and a supplemental component. In order to define these components they emphasize the overall conceptual dir...

  3. The roles and uses of design principles for developing the trialogical approach on learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Kosonen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the development and use of a specific set of pedagogical design principles in a large research and development project are analysed. The project (the Knowledge Practices Laboratory developed technology and a pedagogical approach to support certain kinds of collaborative knowledge creation practices related to the ‘trialogical' approach on learning. The design principles for trialogical learning are examined from three main developmental perspectives that were emphasised in the project: theory, pedagogy, and technology. As expected, the design principles had many different roles but not as straightforward or overarching as was planned. In their outer form they were more resistant to big changes than was expected but they were elaborated and specified during the process. How theories change in design-based research is discussed on the basis of the analysis. Design principles are usually seen as providing a bridge between theory and practice, but the present case showed that also complementary, more concrete frameworks are needed for bridging theory to practical pedagogical or technical design solutions.

  4. A study of usability principles and interface design for mobile e-books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao-Ming; Huang, Ching-Hua

    2015-01-01

    This study examined usability principles and interface designs in order to understand the relationship between the intentions of mobile e-book interface designs and users' perceptions. First, this study summarised 4 usability principles and 16 interface attributes, in order to conduct usability testing and questionnaire survey by referring to Nielsen (1993), Norman (2002), and Yeh (2010), who proposed the usability principles. Second, this study used the interviews to explore the perceptions and behaviours of user operations through senior users of multi-touch prototype devices. The results of this study are as follows: (1) users' behaviour of operating an interactive interface is related to user prior experience; (2) users' rating of the visibility principle is related to users' subjective perception but not related to user prior experience; however, users' ratings of the ease, efficiency, and enjoyment principles are related to user prior experience; (3) the interview survey reveals that the key attributes affecting users' behaviour of operating an interface include aesthetics, achievement, and friendliness. This study conducts experiments to explore the effects of users’ prior multi-touch experience on users’ behaviour of operating a mobile e-book interface and users’ rating of usability principles. Both qualitative and quantitative data analyses were performed. By applying protocol analysis, key attributes affecting users’ behaviour of operation were determined.

  5. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Evolutionary plant designs, Chapter 1, Project No. 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of a safety evaluation report (SER), ''NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Evolutionary Plant Designs,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's ''Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER gives the results of the staff's review of Volume II of the Requirements Document for evolutionary plant designs, which consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant (approximately 1300 megawatts-electric)

  6. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Evolutionary plant designs, Chapters 2--13, Project No. 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of a safety evaluation report (SER), ''NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Evolutionary Plant Designs,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's ''Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER gives the results of the staff's review of Volume II of the Requirements Document for evolutionary plant designs, which consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant (approximately 1300 megawatts-electric)

  7. Evolutionary Robotics: What, Why, and Where to

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane eDoncieux

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary robotics applies the selection, variation, and heredity principles of natural evolution to the design of robots with embodied intelligence. It can be considered as a subfield of robotics that aims to create more robust and adaptive robots. A pivotal feature of the evolutionary approach is that it considers the whole robot at once, and enables the exploitation of robot features in a holistic manner. Evolutionary robotics can also be seen as an innovative approach to the study of evolution based on a new kind of experimentalism. The use of robots as a substrate can help address questions that are difficult, if not impossible, to investigate through computer simulations or biological studies. In this paper we consider the main achievements of evolutionary robotics, focusing particularly on its contributions to both engineering and biology. We briefly elaborate on methodological issues, review some of the most interesting findings, and discuss important open issues and promising avenues for future work.

  8. Design Principles for Serious Video Games in Mathematics Education: From Theory to Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Chorianopoulos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in the employment of serious video games in science education, but there are no clear design principles. After surveying previous work in serious video game design, we highlighted the following design principles: 1 engage the students with narrative (hero, story, 2 employ familiar gameplay mechanics from popular video games, 3 engage students into constructive trial and error game-play and 4 situate collaborative learning. As illustrated examples we designed two math video games targeted to primary education students. The gameplay of the math video games embeds addition operations in a seamless way, which has been inspired by that of classic platform games. In this way, the students are adding numbers as part of popular gameplay mechanics and as a means to reach the video game objective, rather than as an end in itself. The employment of well-defined principles in the design of math video games should facilitate the evaluation of learning effectiveness by researchers. Moreover, educators can deploy alternative versions of the games in order to engage students with diverse learning styles. For example, some students might be motived and benefited by narrative, while others by collaboration, because it is unlikely that one type of serious video game might fit all learning styles. The proposed principles are not meant to be an exhaustive list, but a starting point for extending the list and applying them in other cases of serious video games beyond mathematics and learning.

  9. Urban Principle of Water Sensitive Design in Kampung Kamboja at Pontianak City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasriyanti, N.; Ryanti, E.

    2017-07-01

    This study will define the design principles of settlement area banks of the Kapuas Pontianak to approach the concept of water sensitive urban design (WSUD) in densely populated residential areas. Using a case study of a region densely located on the banks of the river with engineering literature to formulate the aspects taken into consideration and the components are arranged in the design, analysis descriptive paradigm rationalistic to identify the characteristics of residential areas riverbank with consideration of elements WSUD and formulate design principles residential area that is sensitive to water. This research is important to do because of problems related to the water management system in the settlement bank of the river in the city of Pontianak do not maximize. So that the primacy of this study contains several objectives to be achieved is to identify the characteristics of the settlement area riverbanks under consideration aspects areas design that is sensitive to water and principle areas design that will formulate the structure of the existing problems related to the needs of the community infrastructure facilities infrastructure neighborhoods and formulate and create guidelines for appropriate technology for integrated water management systems in the residential area of the riverbank and engineering design for the settlements are sensitive to water (WSUD). The final aim of the study is expected to achieve water management systems in residential areas by utilizing the abundant rainwater availability by using LID (Low Impact Development) through the concept of urban design that sensitive water

  10. Design principles of water sensitive in settlement area on the river banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryanti, E.; Hasriyanti, N.; Utami, W. D.

    2018-03-01

    This research will formulate the principle of designing settlement area of Kapuas River Pontianak with the approach of water sensitive concept of urban design (WSUD) the densely populated settlement area. By using a case study the approach that is a dense settlement area located on the banks of the river with literature study techniques to formulate the aspects considered and components that are set in the design, descriptive analysis with the rationalistic paradigm for identification characteristics of the settlement in the river banks areas with consideration of WSUD elements and formulate the principles of designing water-sensitive settlement areas. This research is important to do because the problems related to the water management system in the existing riverside settlement in Pontianak has not been maximal to do. So the primary of this research contains several objectives that will be achieved that is identifying the characteristics of riverside settlement area based on consideration of design aspects of the area that are sensitive to water and the principle of designing the area so that the existing problem structure will be formulated in relation to the community’s need for infrastructure in settlement environment and formulate and develop appropriate technology guidelines for integrated water management systems in riverside settlement areas and design techniques for water-sensitive settlements (WSUD).

  11. EVOLUTIONARY FOUNDATIONS FOR MOLECULAR MEDICINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesse, Randolph M.; Ganten, Detlev; Gregory, T. Ryan; Omenn, Gilbert S.

    2015-01-01

    Evolution has long provided a foundation for population genetics, but many major advances in evolutionary biology from the 20th century are only now being applied in molecular medicine. They include the distinction between proximate and evolutionary explanations, kin selection, evolutionary models for cooperation, and new strategies for tracing phylogenies and identifying signals of selection. Recent advances in genomics are further transforming evolutionary biology and creating yet more opportunities for progress at the interface of evolution with genetics, medicine, and public health. This article reviews 15 evolutionary principles and their applications in molecular medicine in hopes that readers will use them and others to speed the development of evolutionary molecular medicine. PMID:22544168

  12. Overview of in-vessel retention concept involving level of passivity: with application to evolutionary pressurized water reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghyym, Seong H.

    1998-01-01

    In this work, one strategy of severe accident management, the applicability of the in-vessel retention (IVR) concept, which has been incorporated in passive type reactor designs, to evolutionary type reactor designs, is examined with emphasis on the method of external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) to realize the IVR concept in view of two aspects: for the regulatory aspect, it is addressed in the context of the resolution of the issue of corium coolability; for the technical one, the reliance on and the effectiveness of the IVR concept are mentioned. Additionally, for the ERVC method to be better applied to designs of the evolutionary type reactor, the conditions to be met are pointed out in view of the technical aspect. Concerning the issue of corium coolability/quenchability, based on results of the review, plausible alternative strategies are proposed. According to the decision maker's risk behavior, these would help materialize the conceptual design for evolutionary type reactors, especially Korea Next Generation Reactors (KNGRs), which have been developing at the Korea Electric Power Research Institute (KEPRI): (A1) Strategy 1A: strategy based on the global approach using the reliance on the wet cavity method; (A2) Strategy 1B: strategy based on the combined approach using both the reliance on the wet cavity method and the counter-measures for preserving containment integrity; (A3) Strategy 2A: strategy based on the global approach to the reliance on the ERVC method; (A4) Strategy 2B: strategy based on the balanced approach using both the reliance on the ERVC method and the countermeasures for preserving containment integrity. Finally, in application to an advanced pressurized water reactor (PWR) design, several recommendations are made in focusing on both monitoring the status of approaches and preparing countermeasures in regard to the regulatory and the technical aspects

  13. To Design and Evaluate a 12th Grade Course in the Principles of Economics; Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Suzanne E.; Sperling, John G.

    Reported is the design, development, and evaluation of a one-semester course on the principles of economics for twelfth grade students. The course is intended to develop students' capacity for economic reasoning through economic theory and empirical research. To do this, teaching materials and innovative techniques for teacher training were…

  14. The pit ventilation features and the design principle of ventilation system in trackless mining uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Wenhui; Zhou Xinghuo; Li Xianjie

    2001-01-01

    According to the pit arrangement features of trackless mining uranium mine, based on the fundamental of radon permeation and control, and analysis of radon pollution characteristics and radon education, the design principle of ventilation system in trackless mining uranium mine has been raised

  15. Opportunity recognition in entrepreneurship education, design principles on fostering competent entrepreneurs in the science domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nab, J.; Beugels, J.; van Keulen, H.; Oost, H.; Pilot, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is part of a research project focusing on educational design principles that should help students with a background in Science to become competent with respect to opportunity recognition in business. The recognition of business opportunities is one of the basic competencies of

  16. The Roles and Uses of Design Principles for Developing the Trialogical Approach on Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavola, Sami; Lakkala, Minna; Muukkonen, Hanni; Kosonen, Kari; Karlgren, Klas

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper, the development and use of a specific set of pedagogical design principles in a large research and development project are analysed. The project (the Knowledge Practices Laboratory) developed technology and a pedagogical approach to support certain kinds of collaborative knowledge creation practices related to the…

  17. PBMR phase 1 study: Seismic and structural design consideration - An overview of principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wium, D.J.W.

    1997-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the principles involved in the planning and design of the proposed facility to cater for seismic and structural loads. The conceptual layout is discussed, as well as the different load characteristics and scenarios. An outline is given of model used to estimate the seismic loads, whereafter the different analytical models are discussed. (author)

  18. Sign Redesign: Applying Design Principles to Improve Signage in an Academic Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Kasperek

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available When the Mansfield University library’s Special Events and Customer Service Committee created a communications plan for the library, the opportunity presented itself to overhaul the library signs. Applying basic design principles of contrast, alignment, and repetition along with standards from the Americans with Disabilities Act, the library improved the visual communications within the library. Patrons can now read signs from a distance and understand their purpose. Using common design elements, the library began presenting official library information more cohesively. Extending beyond signs, these design principles are now part of the library’s print publications and promotional items. With this consistency, the library brand is more easily recognizable both within the library and across campus. This article describes some basic elements of design and the process of redesigning the signs.

  19. First principles design of a core bioenergetic transmembrane electron-transfer protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goparaju, Geetha; Fry, Bryan A.; Chobot, Sarah E.; Wiedman, Gregory; Moser, Christopher C.; Leslie Dutton, P.; Discher, Bohdana M.

    2016-05-01

    Here we describe the design, Escherichia coli expression and characterization of a simplified, adaptable and functionally transparent single chain 4-α-helix transmembrane protein frame that binds multiple heme and light activatable porphyrins. Such man-made cofactor-binding oxidoreductases, designed from first principles with minimal reference to natural protein sequences, are known as maquettes. This design is an adaptable frame aiming to uncover core engineering principles governing bioenergetic transmembrane electron-transfer function and recapitulate protein archetypes proposed to represent the origins of photosynthesis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biodesign for Bioenergetics — the design and engineering of electronic transfer cofactors, proteins and protein networks, edited by Ronald L. Koder and J.L. Ross Anderson.

  20. The concept and principles of sustainable architectural design for national parks in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Predrag

    2004-01-01

    The paper elaborates the concept of sustainable architectural design that has come to the forefront in the last 20 years, and in the light of the National Park. This concept recognizes that human civilization is an integral part of the natural world and that nature must be preserved and perpetuated if the human community itself is to survive. Sustainable design articulates this idea through developments that exemplify the principles of conservation and encourage the application of those princ...

  1. Designing a parallel evolutionary algorithm for inferring gene networks on the cloud computing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wei-Po; Hsiao, Yu-Ting; Hwang, Wei-Che

    2014-01-16

    To improve the tedious task of reconstructing gene networks through testing experimentally the possible interactions between genes, it becomes a trend to adopt the automated reverse engineering procedure instead. Some evolutionary algorithms have been suggested for deriving network parameters. However, to infer large networks by the evolutionary algorithm, it is necessary to address two important issues: premature convergence and high computational cost. To tackle the former problem and to enhance the performance of traditional evolutionary algorithms, it is advisable to use parallel model evolutionary algorithms. To overcome the latter and to speed up the computation, it is advocated to adopt the mechanism of cloud computing as a promising solution: most popular is the method of MapReduce programming model, a fault-tolerant framework to implement parallel algorithms for inferring large gene networks. This work presents a practical framework to infer large gene networks, by developing and parallelizing a hybrid GA-PSO optimization method. Our parallel method is extended to work with the Hadoop MapReduce programming model and is executed in different cloud computing environments. To evaluate the proposed approach, we use a well-known open-source software GeneNetWeaver to create several yeast S. cerevisiae sub-networks and use them to produce gene profiles. Experiments have been conducted and the results have been analyzed. They show that our parallel approach can be successfully used to infer networks with desired behaviors and the computation time can be largely reduced. Parallel population-based algorithms can effectively determine network parameters and they perform better than the widely-used sequential algorithms in gene network inference. These parallel algorithms can be distributed to the cloud computing environment to speed up the computation. By coupling the parallel model population-based optimization method and the parallel computational framework, high

  2. Optimal Input Design for Aircraft Parameter Estimation using Dynamic Programming Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Eugene A.; Klein, Vladislav

    1990-01-01

    A new technique was developed for designing optimal flight test inputs for aircraft parameter estimation experiments. The principles of dynamic programming were used for the design in the time domain. This approach made it possible to include realistic practical constraints on the input and output variables. A description of the new approach is presented, followed by an example for a multiple input linear model describing the lateral dynamics of a fighter aircraft. The optimal input designs produced by the new technique demonstrated improved quality and expanded capability relative to the conventional multiple input design method.

  3. High-throughput spectrometer designs in a compact form-factor: principles and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, S. M.

    2013-05-01

    Many compact, portable Raman spectrometers have entered the market in the past few years with applications in narcotics and hazardous material identification, as well as verification applications in pharmaceuticals and security screening. Often, the required compact form-factor has forced designers to sacrifice throughput and sensitivity for portability and low-cost. We will show that a volume phase holographic (VPH)-based spectrometer design can achieve superior throughput and thus sensitivity over conventional Czerny-Turner reflective designs. We will look in depth at the factors influencing throughput and sensitivity and illustrate specific VPH-based spectrometer examples that highlight these design principles.

  4. Designing Social Interfaces Principles, Patterns, and Practices for Improving the User Experience

    CERN Document Server

    Crumlish, Christian

    2009-01-01

    From the creators of Yahoo!'s Design Pattern Library, Designing Social Interfaces provides you with more than 100 patterns, principles, and best practices, along with salient advice for many of the common challenges you'll face when starting a social website. Designing sites that foster user interaction and community-building is a valuable skill for web developers and designers today, but it's not that easy to understand the nuances of the social web. Now you have help. Christian Crumlish and Erin Malone share hard-won insights into what works, what doesn't, and why. You'll learn how to bala

  5. Software Engineering Design Principles Applied to Instructional Design: What Can We Learn from Our Sister Discipline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Nor Hafizah; Ritzhaupt, Albert D.

    2018-01-01

    The failure of many instructional design initiatives is often attributed to poor instructional design. Current instructional design models do not provide much insight into design processes for creating e-learning instructional solutions. Given the similarities between the fields of instructional design and software engineering, instructional…

  6. Outline of principle of design construction of demolished concrete from electric power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Tomohiko; Sakagami, Takeharu; Inagaki, Hirokazu; Morozumi, Hironori; Muranaka, Kenji

    2005-01-01

    'The principle of design construction of recycled demolished concrete from electric power plant' (a plan) is going to be published by TSCE Concrete Committee in 2005. The abstract of the above principle is described. A large amount of demolished concrete is generated by decommissioning of atomic power plant. About 450,000 to 500,000t of concrete with small radiation level per an atomic power plant will be generated. This report included decommissioning of Tokai power plant, characteristics of subject of demolished concrete, the recycled demolished concrete, fresh conditions of the recycled demolished concrete, the strength, deformation properties, durability, alkali silica reactivity of them and control measurement. (S.Y.)

  7. Operationalising the Lean principles in maternity service design using 3P methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Iain

    2016-01-01

    The last half century has seen significant changes to Maternity services in England. Though rates of maternal and infant mortality have fallen to very low levels, this has been achieved largely through hospital admission. It has been argued that maternity services may have become over-medicalised and service users have expressed a preference for more personalised care. NHS England's national strategy sets out a vision for a modern maternity service that continues to deliver safe care whilst also adopting the principles of personalisation. Therefore, there is a need to develop maternity services that balance safety with personal choice. To address this challenge, a maternity unit in North East England considered improving their service through refurbishment or building new facilities. Using a design process known as the production preparation process (or 3P), the Lean principles of understanding user value, mapping value-streams, creating flow, developing pull processes and continuous improvement were applied to the design of a new maternity department. Multiple stakeholders were engaged in the design through participation in a time-out (3P) workshop in which an innovative pathway and facility for maternity services were co-designed. The team created a hybrid model that they described as "wrap around care" in which the Lean concept of pull was applied to create a service and facility design in which expectant mothers were put at the centre of care with clinicians, skills, equipment and supplies drawn towards them in line with acuity changes as needed. Applying the Lean principles using the 3P method helped stakeholders to create an innovative design in line with the aspirations and objectives of the National Maternity Review. The case provides a practical example of stakeholders applying the Lean principles to maternity services and demonstrates the potential applicability of the Lean 3P approach to design healthcare services in line with policy requirements.

  8. Mapping of Affordance and Activity as the Biophilic Design Principle of Blue Lagoon Tourism Area Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptorini Hastuti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bathing and playing in the river is not a new phenomenon for some people. But this experience creates a recreational spirit on the Tepusriver which is now better known as the Blue Lagoon. This area is a term for the settlement that is split a piece of the river in the dusun Ndalem Ngemplak Sleman. Its tributaries are clear and blue, surrounded by some springs with natural bamboo groves and old trees that invite local and around communities for recreation. The local community has anticipated it by responding to the communities’ demands as well as the recreation area. Appear sporadically “warungs” and recreational activities follow-up though not yet grown in conceptual. This paper aims to study the map of affordance and activity of previous research findings and could be used to the biophilic design to afford the health, productivity, and wellbeing in the tourism area. The method is by synthesizing the previous research findings in 2016, some relevant urban design theories, and biophilic design principle. The conclusion is paid attention to two main principles. The first principle is maximizing the utilization of existing natural properties and the existing cultural skills into its development to nourish visitors both physically and psychologically. The second principle is the Government, and Non-Government Organizations (i.e., expertise, academics, universities, investors support, both policy and financially, in many sectors: tourism, environment, and infrastructure.

  9. Seismic design principles for the German fast breeder reactor SNR2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangette, A.M.; Peters, K.A.

    1988-01-01

    The leading aim of a seismic design is, besides protection against seismic impacts, not to enhance the overall risk in the absence of seismic vibrations and, secondly, to avoid competition between operational needs and a seismic structural design. This approach is supported by avoiding overconservatism in the assumption of seismic loads and in the calculation of the structural response. Accordingly the seismic principles are stated as follows: restriction to German or equivalent low seismicity sites with intensities (SSE) lower VIII at frequency lower than 10 -4 /year; best estimate of seismic input-data without further conservatism; no consideration of OBE. The structural design principles are: 1. The secondary character of the seismic excitation is explicitly accounted for; 2. Energy absorption is allowed for by ductility of materials and construction. Accordingly strain criteria are used for failure predictions instead of stress criteria. (author). 1 fig

  10. Zebrafish housing systems: a review of basic operating principles and considerations for design and functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Christian; Mason, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    The strategies for housing zebrafish used in biomedical research have evolved considerably over the past three decades. To keep pace with the rapid expansion and development of the zebrafish model system, the field has generally moved from keeping fish at the level of aquarium hobbyist to that of industrialized, recirculating aquaculture. Numerous commercial system vendors now offer increasingly sophisticated housing systems based on design principles that maximize the number of animals that can be housed in a given space footprint, and they are thus able to support large and diverse research programs. This review is designed to provide managers, lab animal veterinarians, investigators, and other parties responsible for care and use of these animals with a comprehensive overview of the basic operating and design principles of zebrafish housing systems. This information can be used to help plan the construction of new facilities and/or the upgrade and maintenance of existing operations.

  11. Blockchain to Rule the Waves - Nascent Design Principles for Reducing Risk and Uncertainty in Decentralized Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nærland, Kristoffer; Müller-Bloch, Christoph; Beck, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Many decentralized, inter-organizational environments such as supply chains are characterized by high transactional uncertainty and risk. At the same time, blockchain technology promises to mitigate these issues by introducing certainty into economic transactions. This paper discusses the findings...... of a Design Science Research project involving the construction and evaluation of an information technology artifact in collaboration with Maersk, a leading international shipping company, where central documents in shipping, such as the Bill of Lading, are turned into a smart contract on blockchain. Based...... on our insights from the project, we provide first evidence for preliminary design principles for applications that aim to mitigate the transactional risk and uncertainty in decentralized environments using blockchain. Both the artifact and the first evidence for emerging design principles are novel...

  12. High throughput exploration of Zr{sub x}Si{sub 1−x}O{sub 2} dielectrics by evolutionary first-principles approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jin [Science and Technology on Thermostructural Composite Materials Laboratory, and International Center for Materials Discovery, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Department of Geosciences, Center for Materials by Design, and Institute for Advanced Computational Science, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794-2100 (United States); Zeng, Qingfeng, E-mail: qfzeng@nwpu.edu.cn [Science and Technology on Thermostructural Composite Materials Laboratory, and International Center for Materials Discovery, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Oganov, Artem R. [Science and Technology on Thermostructural Composite Materials Laboratory, and International Center for Materials Discovery, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Department of Geosciences, Center for Materials by Design, and Institute for Advanced Computational Science, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794-2100 (United States); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region 141700 (Russian Federation); Dong, Dong; Liu, Yunfang [Science and Technology on Thermostructural Composite Materials Laboratory, and International Center for Materials Discovery, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710072 (China)

    2014-11-07

    The high throughput approaches aim to discover, screen and optimize materials in a cost-effective way and to shorten their time-to-market. However, computational approaches typically involve a combinatorial explosion problem, to deal with which, we adopted hybrid evolutionary algorithms together with first-principle calculations to explore possible stable and metastable crystal structures of ZrO{sub 2}–SiO{sub 2} dielectrics. The calculation reproduced two already known structures (I4{sub 1}/amd-ZrSiO{sub 4} and I4{sub 1}/a-ZrSiO{sub 4}) and predicted two new thermodynamically metastable structures Zr{sub 3}SiO{sub 8} (P4{sup ¯}3m) and ZrSi{sub 2}O{sub 6} (P3{sup ¯}1m). At ambient pressure, the only thermodynamically stable zirconium silicate is I4{sub 1}/amd-ZrSiO{sub 4} (zircon). Dynamical stability of the new phases has been verified by phonon calculations, and their static dielectric constants are higher than that of the known phases of ZrSiO{sub 4}. Band structure, density of state, electron localization function and Bader charges are presented and discussed. The new metastable structures are insulators with the DFT band gaps of 3.65 and 3.52 eV, respectively. Calculations show that P4{sup ¯}3m-Zr{sub 3}SiO{sub 8} has high dielectric constant (∼20.7), high refractive index (∼2.4) and strong dispersion of light. Global optimization of the dielectric fitness (electric energy density) shows that among crystalline phases of ZrO{sub 2}–SiO{sub 2}, maximum occurs for I4{sub 1}/a-ZrSiO{sub 4}. - Highlights: • Two new thermodynamically metastable ZrO{sub 2}–SiO{sub 2} compounds are predicted. • The predicated P-43m or P4{sup ¯}3m-Zr{sub 3}SiO{sub 8} has the highest dielectric constant and refractive index. • I4{sub 1}/a-ZrSiO{sub 4} shows the highest electric energy density among ZrO{sub 2}–SiO{sub 2} dielectrics.

  13. A hybrid finite element analysis and evolutionary computation method for the design of lightweight lattice components with optimized strut diameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salonitis, Konstantinos; Chantzis, Dimitrios; Kappatos, Vasileios

    2017-01-01

    approaches or with the use of topology optimization methodologies. An optimization approach utilizing multipurpose optimization algorithms has not been proposed yet. This paper presents a novel user-friendly method for the design optimization of lattice components towards weight minimization, which combines...... finite element analysis and evolutionary computation. The proposed method utilizes the cell homogenization technique in order to reduce the computational cost of the finite element analysis and a genetic algorithm in order to search for the most lightweight lattice configuration. A bracket consisting...

  14. Formulation of engineering design principles for the treatment of irradiated fuel and associated radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banford, A.W.; Hanson, B.C.; Scully, P.J.; Taylor, R.

    2007-01-01

    The industrial scale treatment of irradiated fuel in the UK has resulted in BNFL developing extensive experience of the process design, build, commissioning, and operation necessary for successful nuclear processing plant. Much of the design experience now resides in Nexia Solutions (formally BNFL Research and Development Division) who have always defined and undertaken the extensive development programmes necessary to underpin the design at all stages of the project life-cycle. Since the 1990's, Nexia Solutions has built up a large portfolio of plant designs for a range of spent fuel applications, from fuel conditioning to partitioning and transmutation. In addition, by investigation of a large and diverse portfolio of technologies Nexia Solutions has developed innovative concepts for plant design that could present significant economic savings on conventional approaches. Using this experience and the lessons learned, we have developed and refined our own engineering design principles necessary for the successful design of commercial spent fuel and waste treatment plant. Our approach is to advocate an integral concept, with both science and engineering designs working in parallel during development. 4 foundation principles for success have been identified: -) understand the strategic objective, -) adopt a risk driven programme, -) engage in engineering activities early, and -) timely application of appropriate engineering methodologies. 2 Case studies presented in this paper: first, the BNFL segregated effluent treatment plant and secondly, the selection of a pyrochemical process for recycle of fast reactor, demonstrate how this approach has been adopted and the benefits that have been gained

  15. Novel Designs for the Audio Mixing Interface Based on Data Visualisation First Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Dewey, Christopher; Wakefield, Jonathan P.

    2016-01-01

    Given the shortcomings of current audio mixing interfaces (AMIs) this study focuses on the development of alternative AMIs based on data visualisation first principles. The elementary perceptual tasks defined by Cleveland informed the design process. Two design ideas were considered for pan: using the elementary perceptual tasks ‘scale’ to display pan on either a single or multiple horizontal lines. Four design ideas were considered for level:\\ud using ‘length’, ‘area’, ‘saturation’ or ‘scala...

  16. The concept and principles of sustainable architectural design for national parks in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Predrag

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper elaborates the concept of sustainable architectural design that has come to the forefront in the last 20 years, and in the light of the National Park. This concept recognizes that human civilization is an integral part of the natural world and that nature must be preserved and perpetuated if the human community itself is to survive. Sustainable design articulates this idea through developments that exemplify the principles of conservation and encourage the application of those principles in our daily lives. A corollary concept, and one that supports sustainable design, is that of bio-regionalism - the idea that all life is established and maintained on a functional community basis and that all of these distinctive communities (bio-regions have mutually supporting life systems that are generally self-sustaining. The concept of sustainable design holds that future technologies must function primarily within bioregional patterns and scales. They must maintain biological diversity and environmental integrity contribute to the health of air, water, and soils, incorporate design and construction that reflect bio-regional conditions, and reduce the impacts of human use. Sustainable design, sustainable development, design with nature environmentally sensitive design, holistic resource management - regardless of what it's called, "sustainability," the capability of natural and cultural systems being continued over time, is the key. Sustainable design must use an alternative approach to traditional design and the new design approach must recognize the impacts of every design choice on the natural and cultural resources of the local, regional, and global environments. Sustainable park and recreation development will succeed to the degree that it anticipates and manages human experiences. Interpretation provides the best single tool for shaping experiences and sharing values. By providing an awareness of the environment, values are taught that are

  17. Computer-based teaching module design: principles derived from learning theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, K H Vincent

    2014-03-01

    The computer-based teaching module (CBTM), which has recently gained prominence in medical education, is a teaching format in which a multimedia program serves as a single source for knowledge acquisition rather than playing an adjunctive role as it does in computer-assisted learning (CAL). Despite empirical validation in the past decade, there is limited research into the optimisation of CBTM design. This review aims to summarise research in classic and modern multimedia-specific learning theories applied to computer learning, and to collapse the findings into a set of design principles to guide the development of CBTMs. Scopus was searched for: (i) studies of classic cognitivism, constructivism and behaviourism theories (search terms: 'cognitive theory' OR 'constructivism theory' OR 'behaviourism theory' AND 'e-learning' OR 'web-based learning') and their sub-theories applied to computer learning, and (ii) recent studies of modern learning theories applied to computer learning (search terms: 'learning theory' AND 'e-learning' OR 'web-based learning') for articles published between 1990 and 2012. The first search identified 29 studies, dominated in topic by the cognitive load, elaboration and scaffolding theories. The second search identified 139 studies, with diverse topics in connectivism, discovery and technical scaffolding. Based on their relative representation in the literature, the applications of these theories were collapsed into a list of CBTM design principles. Ten principles were identified and categorised into three levels of design: the global level (managing objectives, framing, minimising technical load); the rhetoric level (optimising modality, making modality explicit, scaffolding, elaboration, spaced repeating), and the detail level (managing text, managing devices). This review examined the literature in the application of learning theories to CAL to develop a set of principles that guide CBTM design. Further research will enable educators to

  18. Basic principles of test-negative design in evaluating influenza vaccine effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Wakaba; Hirota, Yoshio

    2017-08-24

    Based on the unique characteristics of influenza, the concept of "monitoring" influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) across the seasons using the same observational study design has been developed. In recent years, there has been a growing number of influenza VE reports using the test-negative design, which can minimize both misclassification of diseases and confounding by health care-seeking behavior. Although the test-negative designs offer considerable advantages, there are some concerns that widespread use of the test-negative design without knowledge of the basic principles of epidemiology could produce invalid findings. In this article, we briefly review the basic concepts of the test-negative design with respect to classic study design such as cohort studies or case-control studies. We also mention selection bias, which may be of concern in some countries where rapid diagnostic testing is frequently used in routine clinical practices, as in Japan. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Workspace Design: A case study applying participatory design principles of healthy workplaces in an industrial setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    2010-01-01

    The Danish Workspace Design (WSD) research program is aimed to develop and trial a potential new concept for ergonomists and other workplace consultants who are to engage in socio-technical design processes. The objective of this paper is to report on the trial of the workspace design concept...... in a case involving the design and implementation of a new mixing technology in an industrial plant. The case showed how the WSD concept can contribute to an engineering design process. The WSD team took the role as workspace designer and by the participatory workshops achieved an impact on the technology...... project. In the role as workspace designer it was important for the WSD team to make sure that the achievements in the workshops were “transmitted” to and sustained in the ordinary engineering design process. In this case, it turned out that the artefacts such as a layout game board and documents...

  20. IN QUEST OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES IN ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN SERVICES: EVIDENCE FROM TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut Durmus

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Proposal: Architectural design companies increasingly recognize that time spent on management is not at the expense of their production and there are always better ways to organize business. Although architects have long placed a traditional emphasis on quality, quality management is still a new concept for the majority of architectural design companies, which have to organize relatively more complicated operations nowadays to meet their clients’ expectations. This study aims to understand how architectural design companies define quality and explores the extent to which Total Quality Management (TQM principles like continual improvement, employee involvement, customer satisfaction and others can be pertinent in these companies. Adopting a qualitative research strategy, the authors interviewed with the owner-managers of 10 widely-recognized architectural design companies of different size in Istanbul. The results from the content analysis of semi-structured interview data suggest that i TQM principles cannot be directly applied in architectural design companies without an appropriate translation; ii special characteristics of design services are important to explain quality-related perceptions of owner-managers; iii the owner-managers feel the pressure from the changing internal and external environmental conditions, however few of them adopt a systematic and documented approach to quality management. Architectural design offices which aim to establish a quality management system can benefit from this study to understand potential problem areas on their road.

  1. Grounding IS Design Education in the First Principles of a Designerly Way of Knowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waguepack, Leslie J.; Babb, Jeffry S.

    2017-01-01

    "The Golden Age of Design may finally be upon us!" or so reported the New York Times in September of 2014. On the one hand everyday personal information appliances emphasized beauty and function. Apple™ took a lead by marketing the "feeling" of the iPod's design. The business world took notice and the cachet of designers soared…

  2. A review of human factors principles for the design and implementation of medication safety alerts in clinical information systems

    OpenAIRE

    Phansalkar, Shobha; Edworthy, Judy; Hellier, Elizabeth; Seger, Diane L; Schedlbauer, Angela; Avery, Anthony J; Bates, David W

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this review is to describe the implementation of human factors principles for the design of alerts in clinical information systems. First, we conduct a review of alarm systems to identify human factors principles that are employed in the design and implementation of alerts. Second, we review the medical informatics literature to provide examples of the implementation of human factors principles in current clinical information systems using alerts to provide medication decisio...

  3. Using engineering control principles to inform the design of adaptive interventions: a conceptual introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Daniel E; Pew, Michael D; Collins, Linda M

    2007-05-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe the role that control engineering principles can play in developing and improving the efficacy of adaptive, time-varying interventions. It is demonstrated that adaptive interventions constitute a form of feedback control system in the context of behavioral health. Consequently, drawing from ideas in control engineering has the potential to significantly inform the analysis, design, and implementation of adaptive interventions, leading to improved adherence, better management of limited resources, a reduction of negative effects, and overall more effective interventions. This article illustrates how to express an adaptive intervention in control engineering terms, and how to use this framework in a computer simulation to investigate the anticipated impact of intervention design choices on efficacy. The potential benefits of operationalizing decision rules based on control engineering principles are particularly significant for adaptive interventions that involve multiple components or address co-morbidities, situations that pose significant challenges to conventional clinical practice.

  4. Design Principles for the Atomic and Electronic Structure of Halide Perovskite Photovoltaic Materials: Insights from Computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Robert F

    2018-02-09

    In the current decade, perovskite solar cell research has emerged as a remarkably active, promising, and rapidly developing field. Alongside breakthroughs in synthesis and device engineering, halide perovskite photovoltaic materials have been the subject of predictive and explanatory computational work. In this Minireview, we focus on a subset of this computation: density functional theory (DFT)-based work highlighting the ways in which the electronic structure and band gap of this class of materials can be tuned via changes in atomic structure. We distill this body of computational literature into a set of underlying design principles for the band gap engineering of these materials, and rationalize these principles from the viewpoint of band-edge orbital character. We hope that this perspective provides guidance and insight toward the rational design and continued improvement of perovskite photovoltaics. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Parallel power electronics filters in three-phase four-wire systems principle, control and design

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Man-Chung; Lam, Chi-Seng

    2016-01-01

    This book describes parallel power electronic filters for 3-phase 4-wire systems, focusing on the control, design and system operation. It presents the basics of power-electronics techniques applied in power systems as well as the advanced techniques in controlling, implementing and designing parallel power electronics converters. The power-quality compensation has been achieved using active filters and hybrid filters, and circuit models, control principles and operational practice problems have been verified by principle study, simulation and experimental results. The state-of-the-art research findings were mainly developed by a team at the University of Macau. Offering background information and related novel techniques, this book is a valuable resource for electrical engineers and researchers wanting to work on energy saving using power-quality compensators or renewable energy power electronics systems. .

  6. Basic Principles of Industrial Electric Power Network Computer Aided Design and Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Fursanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A conceptual model for a computer aided design and engineering system has been developed in the paper. The paper presents basic automation process principles including a graphical representation   network and calculation results, convenient user interface, automatic mode calculation, selection of transformer rated power and cross-section area of wires. The developed algorithm and program make it possible to save time and improve quality of project implementation.

  7. Application of Instructional Design Principles in Developing an Online Information Literacy Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Misa

    2016-01-01

    An online information literacy curriculum was developed as an intervention to engage students in independent study and self-assessment of their learning needs and learning outcomes, develop proficiency in information skills, and foster lifelong learning. This column demonstrates how instructional design principles were applied to create the learning experiences integrated into various courses of the medical curriculum to promote active learning of information skills and maximize self-directed learning outcomes for lifelong learning.

  8. The Effect of Content Representation Design Principles on Users' Intuitive Beliefs and Use of E-Learning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Samarraie, Hosam; Selim, Hassan; Zaqout, Fahed

    2016-01-01

    A model is proposed to assess the effect of different content representation design principles on learners' intuitive beliefs about using e-learning. We hypothesized that the impact of the representation of course contents is mediated by the design principles of alignment, quantity, clarity, simplicity, and affordance, which influence the…

  9. Designing nanomaterials to maximize performance and minimize undesirable implications guided by the Principles of Green Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Leanne M; Zimmerman, Julie B; Plata, Desiree L; Hutchison, James E; Anastas, Paul T

    2015-08-21

    The Twelve Principles of Green Chemistry were first published in 1998 and provide a framework that has been adopted not only by chemists, but also by design practitioners and decision-makers (e.g., materials scientists and regulators). The development of the Principles was initially motivated by the need to address decades of unintended environmental pollution and human health impacts from the production and use of hazardous chemicals. Yet, for over a decade now, the Principles have been applied to the synthesis and production of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and the products they enable. While the combined efforts of the global scientific community have led to promising advances in the field of nanotechnology, there remain significant research gaps and the opportunity to leverage the potential global economic, societal and environmental benefits of ENMs safely and sustainably. As such, this tutorial review benchmarks the successes to date and identifies critical research gaps to be considered as future opportunities for the community to address. A sustainable material design framework is proposed that emphasizes the importance of establishing structure-property-function (SPF) and structure-property-hazard (SPH) relationships to guide the rational design of ENMs. The goal is to achieve or exceed the functional performance of current materials and the technologies they enable, while minimizing inherent hazard to avoid risk to human health and the environment at all stages of the life cycle.

  10. Development of safety principles for the design of future nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The main purpose of this TECDOC is to propose updates to existing safety principles which could be used as a basis for developing safety principles for the design of future NPPs. Accordingly, this document is intended to be useful to reactor designers, owners, operators, researchers and regulators. It is also expected that this document can contribute to international harmonization of safety approaches, and that it will help ensure that future reactors will be designed worldwide to a high standard of safety. As such, these proposed updates are intended to provide general guidance which, if carefully and properly implemented, will result in reactor designs with enhanced safety characteristics beyond those currently in operation. This enhancement results from the fact that the proposals are derived from the lessons learned from more recent operational experience, R and D, design, testing, and analysis developed over the past decade or so, as well as from attempts to reflect the current trends in reactor design, such as the introduction of new technologies. 8 refs, 3 figs.

  11. Towards automating the discovery of certain innovative design principles through a clustering-based optimization technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandaru, Sunith; Deb, Kalyanmoy

    2011-09-01

    In this article, a methodology is proposed for automatically extracting innovative design principles which make a system or process (subject to conflicting objectives) optimal using its Pareto-optimal dataset. Such 'higher knowledge' would not only help designers to execute the system better, but also enable them to predict how changes in one variable would affect other variables if the system has to retain its optimal behaviour. This in turn would help solve other similar systems with different parameter settings easily without the need to perform a fresh optimization task. The proposed methodology uses a clustering-based optimization technique and is capable of discovering hidden functional relationships between the variables, objective and constraint functions and any other function that the designer wishes to include as a 'basis function'. A number of engineering design problems are considered for which the mathematical structure of these explicit relationships exists and has been revealed by a previous study. A comparison with the multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) approach reveals the practicality of the proposed approach due to its ability to find meaningful design principles. The success of this procedure for automated innovization is highly encouraging and indicates its suitability for further development in tackling more complex design scenarios.

  12. Applying design principles to fusion reactor configurations for propulsion in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, S.A.; Deveny, M.E.; Schulze, N.R.

    1993-01-01

    The application of fusion power to space propulsion requires rethinking the engineering-design solution to controlled-fusion energy. Whereas the unit cost of electricity (COE) drives the engineering-design solution for utility-based fusion reactor configurations; initial mass to low earth orbit (IMLEO), specific jet power (kW(thrust)/kg(engine)), and reusability drive the engineering-design solution for successful application of fusion power to space propulsion. Three design principles (DP's) were applied to adapt and optimize three candidate-terrestrial-fusion-reactor configurations for propulsion in space. The three design principles are: provide maximum direct access to space for waste radiation, operate components as passive radiators to minimize cooling-system mass, and optimize the plasma fuel, fuel mix, and temperature for best specific jet power. The three candidate terrestrial fusion reactor configurations are: the thermal barrier tandem mirror (TBTM), field reversed mirror (FRM), and levitated dipole field (LDF). The resulting three candidate space fusion propulsion systems have their IMLEO minimized and their specific jet power and reusability maximized. A preliminary rating of these configurations was performed, and it was concluded that the leading engineering-design solution to space fusion propulsion is a modified TBTM that we call the Mirror Fusion Propulsion System (MFPS)

  13. Development of safety principles for the design of future nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    The main purpose of this TECDOC is to propose updates to existing safety principles which could be used as a basis for developing safety principles for the design of future NPPs. Accordingly, this document is intended to be useful to reactor designers, owners, operators, researchers and regulators. It is also expected that this document can contribute to international harmonization of safety approaches, and that it will help ensure that future reactors will be designed worldwide to a high standard of safety. As such, these proposed updates are intended to provide general guidance which, if carefully and properly implemented, will result in reactor designs with enhanced safety characteristics beyond those currently in operation. This enhancement results from the fact that the proposals are derived from the lessons learned from more recent operational experience, R and D, design, testing, and analysis developed over the past decade or so, as well as from attempts to reflect the current trends in reactor design, such as the introduction of new technologies. 8 refs, 3 figs

  14. Principles for designing proteins with cavities formed by curved β sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcos, Enrique; Basanta, Benjamin; Chidyausiku, Tamuka M.; Tang, Yuefeng; Oberdorfer, Gustav; Liu, Gaohua; Swapna, G. V. T.; Guan, Rongjin; Silva, Daniel-Adriano; Dou, Jiayi; Pereira, Jose Henrique; Xiao, Rong; Sankaran, Banumathi; Zwart, Peter H.; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Baker, David

    2017-01-12

    Active sites and ligand-binding cavities in native proteins are often formed by curved β sheets, and the ability to control β-sheet curvature would allow design of binding proteins with cavities customized to specific ligands. Toward this end, we investigated the mechanisms controlling β-sheet curvature by studying the geometry of β sheets in naturally occurring protein structures and folding simulations. The principles emerging from this analysis were used to design, de novo, a series of proteins with curved β sheets topped with α helices. Nuclear magnetic resonance and crystal structures of the designs closely match the computational models, showing that β-sheet curvature can be controlled with atomic-level accuracy. Our approach enables the design of proteins with cavities and provides a route to custom design ligand-binding and catalytic sites.

  15. Roots of Performance - Aided Design in Utzon´s design principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario

    2014-01-01

    on paper, to an evolving paradigm where the increasing integration of parametric tools, performative analysis and computational methods is changing the way we learn and design. Its constitutive factors are: 1) embedded tectonics, 2) performance simulation 3) computational methods.......This paper discuss an emerging paradigm here identified as PAD, acronym of Performance-Aided Design, that aims at embracing complexity in the design process, and tackling it with digital tools. Computer Aided Design tools are gradually shifting from the mere translation of the work once carried...

  16. Automatic feature design for optical character recognition using an evolutionary search procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stentiford, F W

    1985-03-01

    An automatic evolutionary search is applied to the problem of feature extraction in an OCR application. A performance measure based on feature independence is used to generate features which do not appear to suffer from peaking effects [17]. Features are extracted from a training set of 30 600 machine printed 34 class alphanumeric characters derived from British mail. Classification results on the training set and a test set of 10 200 characters are reported for an increasing number of features. A 1.01 percent forced decision error rate is obtained on the test data using 316 features. The hardware implementation should be cheap and fast to operate. The performance compares favorably with current low cost OCR page readers.

  17. Design and selection of load control strategies using a multiple objective model and evolutionary algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Alvaro; Antunes, Carlos Henggeler; Martins, Antonio Gomes

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting a multiple objective model to evaluate the attractiveness of the use of demand resources (through load management control actions) by different stakeholders and in diverse structure scenarios in electricity systems. For the sake of model flexibility, the multiple (and conflicting) objective functions of technical, economical and quality of service nature are able to capture distinct market scenarios and operating entities that may be interested in promoting load management activities. The computation of compromise solutions is made by resorting to evolutionary algorithms, which are well suited to tackle multiobjective problems of combinatorial nature herein involving the identification and selection of control actions to be applied to groups of loads. (Author)

  18. Control room philosophy: Principles of control room design and control room work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skriver, Jan; Ramberg, Jasmine; Allwin, Pernilla

    2006-01-01

    In order to provide insights for improvement of work in control rooms several factors have to be considered. Knowledge of principles including control room philosophies will guide the recommended improvements. In addition to knowledge about specific principles an advantage for an organization can be an understanding of similarities and policies used in other high risk industry. The report has been developed on the basis of a document analysis of international standards and other guiding documents. (NUREG 0711, ISO 11064, ISO 6385, IEC 60964). In addition to the document analysis which has strived to compare the documents to see similarities in important principals, experience from working with control room design, modifications and evaluations in other high risk industries has pervaded the report. Important principles have been identified which are recommended to be included in a control room philosophy. Many of these are similar to the principles identified in the international standards. An additional principal which is regarded as important is the utilization of Key Performance Indicators (KPI) which can be used as a measure to target preventative means. Further more it is critical that the control room philosophy is easy to access and comprehend for all users. One of the challenges that remain after having developed a control room philosophy is how to utilize it in the daily work situation. It is vital that the document remains as a living document, guiding the continual improvement of the control room in the various life cycle stages

  19. Designation and Implementation of Microcomputer Principle and Interface Technology Virtual Experimental Platform Website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, JinYue; Tang, Yin

    This paper explicitly discusses the designation and implementation thought and method of Microcomputer Principle and Interface Technology virtual experimental platform website construction. The instructional design of this platform mainly follows with the students-oriented constructivism learning theory, and the overall structure is subject to the features of teaching aims, teaching contents and interactive methods. Virtual experiment platform production and development should fully take the characteristics of network operation into consideration and adopt relevant technologies to improve the effect and speed of network software application in internet.

  20. Code of practice and design principles for portable and transportable radiological protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, F.H.; Powell, R.G.

    1980-10-01

    The Code of Practice and design principles for portable and transportable radiological protection systems are presented in three parts. Part 1 specifies the requirement for Radiological Protection Instrumentation (RPI) including operational characteristics and the effects of both a radiation and non-radiation environment. Part 2 satisfies the requirement for RPI equipment as regards the overall design, the availability, the reliability, the information display, the human factors, the power supplies, the manufacture and quality assurance, the testing and the cost. Part 3 deals with the supply, location and operation of the RPI equipment. (U.K.)

  1. Safety philosophy and design principles for systems and components of nuclear power plant: external event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, J.P.G.

    1986-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, some systems and components are designed to withstand external impacts. Such systems and components are those which have to perform their functions even during and after the occurrences of an earthquake, for example, fulfilling the safety objectives and avoiding the release of radioactive material to the environment. The aim of this report is to introduce the safety philosophy and design principles for systems/components to perform their functions during and after the occurrence of an earthquake, as applied by NUCLEN for Angra 2 and 3. (Author) [pt

  2. Human Factors Principles in Design of Computer-Mediated Visualization for Robot Missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David I Gertman; David J Bruemmer

    2008-12-01

    With increased use of robots as a resource in missions supporting countermine, improvised explosive devices (IEDs), and chemical, biological, radiological nuclear and conventional explosives (CBRNE), fully understanding the best means by which to complement the human operator’s underlying perceptual and cognitive processes could not be more important. Consistent with control and display integration practices in many other high technology computer-supported applications, current robotic design practices rely highly upon static guidelines and design heuristics that reflect the expertise and experience of the individual designer. In order to use what we know about human factors (HF) to drive human robot interaction (HRI) design, this paper reviews underlying human perception and cognition principles and shows how they were applied to a threat detection domain.

  3. Hybrid Evolutionary Metaheuristics for Concurrent Multi-Objective Design of Urban Road and Public Transit Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miandoabchi, Elnaz; Farahani, Reza Zanjirani; Dullaert, Wout; Szeto, W. Y.

    This paper addresses a bi-modal multi-objective discrete urban road network design problem with automobile and bus flow interaction. The problem considers the concurrent urban road and bus network design in which the authorities play a major role in designing bus network topology. The road network

  4. How nature designs light-harvesting antenna systems: design principles and functional realization in chlorophototrophic prokaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Donald A.; Canniffe, Daniel P.

    2018-02-01

    Chlorophyll-based phototrophs, or chlorophototrophs, convert light energy into stored chemical potential energy using two types of photochemical reaction center (RC), denoted type-1 and type-2. After excitation with light, a so-called special pair of chlorophylls in the RC is oxidized, and an acceptor is reduced. To ensure that RCs function at maximal rates in diffuse and variable light conditions, chlorophototrophs have independently evolved diverse light-harvesting antenna systems to rapidly and efficiently transfer that energy to the RCs. Energy transfer between weakly coupled chromophores is generally believed to proceed by resonance energy transfer, a dipole-induced-dipole process that was initially described theoretically by Förster. Nature principally optimizes three parameters in antenna systems: the distance separating the donor and acceptor chromophores, the relative orientations of those chromophores, and the spectral overlap between the donor and the acceptor chromophores. However, there are other important biological parameters that nature has optimized, and some common themes emerge from comparisons of different antenna systems. This tutorial considers structural and functional characteristics of three fundamentally different light-harvesting antenna systems of chlorophotrophic bacteria: phycobilisomes of cyanobacteria, the light-harvesting complexes (LH1 and LH2) of purple bacteria, and chlorosomes of green bacteria. Phycobilisomes are generally considered to represent an antenna system in which the chromophores are weakly coupled, while the strongly coupled bacteriochlorophyll molecules in LH1 and LH2 are strongly coupled and are better described by exciton theory. Chlorosomes can contain up to 250 000 bacteriochlorophyll molecules, which are very strongly coupled and form supramolecular, nanotubular arrays. The general and specific principles that have been optimized by natural selection during the evolution of these diverse light

  5. Plant cell walls throughout evolution: towards a molecular understanding of their design principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Purbasha; Bosneaga, Elena; Auer, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    Throughout their life, plants typically remain in one location utilizing sunlight for the synthesis of carbohydrates, which serve as their sole source of energy as well as building blocks of a protective extracellular matrix, called the cell wall. During the course of evolution, plants have repeatedly adapted to their respective niche, which is reflected in the changes of their body plan and the specific design of cell walls. Cell walls not only changed throughout evolution but also are constantly remodelled and reconstructed during the development of an individual plant, and in response to environmental stress or pathogen attacks. Carbohydrate-rich cell walls display complex designs, which together with the presence of phenolic polymers constitutes a barrier for microbes, fungi, and animals. Throughout evolution microbes have co-evolved strategies for efficient breakdown of cell walls. Our current understanding of cell walls and their evolutionary changes are limited as our knowledge is mainly derived from biochemical and genetic studies, complemented by a few targeted yet very informative imaging studies. Comprehensive plant cell wall models will aid in the re-design of plant cell walls for the purpose of commercially viable lignocellulosic biofuel production as well as for the timber, textile, and paper industries. Such knowledge will also be of great interest in the context of agriculture and to plant biologists in general. It is expected that detailed plant cell wall models will require integrated correlative multimodal, multiscale imaging and modelling approaches, which are currently underway.

  6. Plant cell walls throughout evolution: towards a molecular understanding of their design principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Purbasha; Bosneaga, Elena; Auer, Manfred

    2009-02-16

    Throughout their life, plants typically remain in one location utilizing sunlight for the synthesis of carbohydrates, which serve as their sole source of energy as well as building blocks of a protective extracellular matrix, called the cell wall. During the course of evolution, plants have repeatedly adapted to their respective niche,which is reflected in the changes of their body plan and the specific design of cell walls. Cell walls not only changed throughout evolution but also are constantly remodelled and reconstructed during the development of an individual plant, and in response to environmental stress or pathogen attacks. Carbohydrate-rich cell walls display complex designs, which together with the presence of phenolic polymers constitutes a barrier for microbes, fungi, and animals. Throughout evolution microbes have co-evolved strategies for efficient breakdown of cell walls. Our current understanding of cell walls and their evolutionary changes are limited as our knowledge is mainly derived from biochemical and genetic studies, complemented by a few targeted yet very informative imaging studies. Comprehensive plant cell wall models will aid in the re-design of plant cell walls for the purpose of commercially viable lignocellulosic biofuel production as well as for the timber, textile, and paper industries. Such knowledge will also be of great interest in the context of agriculture and to plant biologists in general. It is expected that detailed plant cell wall models will require integrated correlative multimodal, multiscale imaging and modelling approaches, which are currently underway.

  7. Design Principles for Rapid Prototyping Forces Sensors using 3D Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesner, Samuel B; Howe, Robert D

    2011-07-21

    Force sensors provide critical information for robot manipulators, manufacturing processes, and haptic interfaces. Commercial force sensors, however, are generally not adapted to specific system requirements, resulting in sensors with excess size, cost, and fragility. To overcome these issues, 3D printers can be used to create components for the quick and inexpensive development of force sensors. Limitations of this rapid prototyping technology, however, require specialized design principles. In this paper, we discuss techniques for rapidly developing simple force sensors, including selecting and attaching metal flexures, using inexpensive and simple displacement transducers, and 3D printing features to aid in assembly. These design methods are illustrated through the design and fabrication of a miniature force sensor for the tip of a robotic catheter system. The resulting force sensor prototype can measure forces with an accuracy of as low as 2% of the 10 N measurement range.

  8. A review of human factors principles for the design and implementation of medication safety alerts in clinical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phansalkar, Shobha; Edworthy, Judy; Hellier, Elizabeth; Seger, Diane L; Schedlbauer, Angela; Avery, Anthony J; Bates, David W

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this review is to describe the implementation of human factors principles for the design of alerts in clinical information systems. First, we conduct a review of alarm systems to identify human factors principles that are employed in the design and implementation of alerts. Second, we review the medical informatics literature to provide examples of the implementation of human factors principles in current clinical information systems using alerts to provide medication decision support. Last, we suggest actionable recommendations for delivering effective clinical decision support using alerts. A review of studies from the medical informatics literature suggests that many basic human factors principles are not followed, possibly contributing to the lack of acceptance of alerts in clinical information systems. We evaluate the limitations of current alerting philosophies and provide recommendations for improving acceptance of alerts by incorporating human factors principles in their design.

  9. Principles relating to the digital instrumentation and control design approach 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The design of the instrumentation and control of nuclear facilities uses digital systems that offer increasing computation and interconnection capabilities. They enable advanced functions to be carried out, such as calculation of the critical heat flux ratio, help to detect hardware failures in real time and provide operators with rich, flexible interfaces. However, these evolved functions may be affected by faults that make their logic systematically inadequate in certain cases, which introduces sources of failure other than random hardware failures and raises questions about the informal concept of the increased 'complexity' of instrumentation and control. Appropriate design principles shall therefore be applied so that this logic is as fault-free as possible and can be assessed by an independent body such as IRSN. This document presents the main problems associated with the design of the digital instrumentation and control of a complex facility, as well as the general principles to follow to demonstrate that a satisfactory safety level has been achieved. The doctrine elements presented in this document are the result of the experience acquired during assessments carried out for the French nuclear power plants, enhanced by exchanges with experts from the nuclear sector, and reflect French practice; they apply in other sectors in which a high level of confidence can be attributed to instrumentation and control. The normative texts cited in this document provide detailed requirements that are open to considerable interpretation, as the nature of the problem posed does not enable relevant and measurable criteria to be defined in all cases. This document aims to explain the principles underlying these detailed requirements and to give the means for interpreting them in each situation. (authors)

  10. Design and evaluation of potentiometric principles for bladder volume monitoring: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Ching; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsun; Fan, Wen-Jia; Lai, Chien-Hung; Chen, Chun-Lung; Wei, Wei-Feng; Peng, Chih-Wei

    2015-06-01

    Recent advances in microelectronics and wireless transmission technology have led to the development of various implantable sensors for real-time monitoring of bladder conditions. Although various sensing approaches for monitoring bladder conditions were reported, most such sensors have remained at the laboratory stage due to the existence of vital drawbacks. In the present study, we explored a new concept for monitoring the bladder capacity on the basis of potentiometric principles. A prototype of a potentiometer module was designed and fabricated and integrated with a commercial wireless transmission module and power unit. A series of in vitro pig bladder experiments was conducted to determine the best design parameters for implementing the prototype potentiometric device and to prove its feasibility. We successfully implemented the potentiometric module in a pig bladder model in vitro, and the error of the accuracy of bladder volume detection was design principles and animal experience gathered from this research can serve as a basis for developing new implantable bladder sensors in the future.

  11. Towards Synergistic Electrode-Electrolyte Design Principles for Nonaqueous Li-O[Formula: see text] batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khetan, Abhishek; Krishnamurthy, Dilip; Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian

    2018-03-20

    One route toward sustainable land and aerial transportation is based on electrified vehicles. To enable electrification in transportation, there is a need for high-energy-density batteries, and this has led to an enormous interest in lithium-oxygen batteries. Several critical challenges remain with respect to realizing a practical lithium-oxygen battery. In this article, we present a detailed overview of theoretical efforts to formulate design principles for identifying stable electrolytes and electrodes with the desired functionality and stability. We discuss design principles relating to electrolytes and the additional stability challenges that arise at the cathode-electrolyte interface. Based on a thermodynamic analysis, we discuss two important requirements for the cathode: the ability to nucleate the desired discharge product, Li[Formula: see text]O[Formula: see text], and the ability to selectively activate only this discharge product while suppressing lithium oxide, the undesired secondary discharge product. We propose preliminary guidelines for determining the chemical stability of the electrode and illustrate the challenge associated with electrode selection using the examples of carbon cathodes and transition metals. We believe that a synergistic design framework for identifying electrolyte-electrode formulations is needed to realize a practical Li-O[Formula: see text] battery.

  12. Design principles and issues of rights expression languages for digital rights management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin

    2005-07-01

    Digital rights management (DRM) provides a unified approach to specifying, interpreting, enforcing and managing digital rights throughout the entire life cycle of digital assets. Using a declarative rights expression language (REL) for specifying rights and conditions in the form of licenses, as opposite to some other approaches (such as data structures and imperative languages), has been considered and adopted as a superior technology for implementing effective, interoperable and scalable DRM systems. This paper discusses some principles and issues for designing RELs, based on the experiences of developing a family of REL"s (DPRL, XrML 1.x, XrML 2.0 and MPEG REL). It starts with an overview of a family tree of the past and current REL"s, and their development history, followed by an analysis of their data models and a comparison with access-control oriented models. It then presents a number of primary design principles such as syntactic and semantic un-ambiguity, system interoperability, expressiveness in supporting business models and future extensibility, and discusses a number of key design issues such as maintaining stateful information, multi-tier issuance of rights, meta rights, identification of individual and aggregate objects, late-binding of to-beidentified entities, as well as some advanced ones on revocation and delegation of rights. The paper concludes with some remarks on REL profiling and extension for specific application domains.

  13. A game plan: Gamification design principles in mHealth applications for chronic disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aaron S; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Seto, Emily

    2016-06-01

    Effective chronic disease management is essential to improve positive health outcomes, and incentive strategies are useful in promoting self-care with longevity. Gamification, applied with mHealth (mobile health) applications, has the potential to better facilitate patient self-management. This review article addresses a knowledge gap around the effective use of gamification design principles, or mechanics, in developing mHealth applications. Badges, leaderboards, points and levels, challenges and quests, social engagement loops, and onboarding are mechanics that comprise gamification. These mechanics are defined and explained from a design and development perspective. Health and fitness applications with gamification mechanics include: bant which uses points, levels, and social engagement, mySugr which uses challenges and quests, RunKeeper which uses leaderboards as well as social engagement loops and onboarding, Fitocracy which uses badges, and Mango Health, which uses points and levels. Specific design considerations are explored, an example of the efficacy of a gamified mHealth implementation in facilitating improved self-management is provided, limitations to this work are discussed, a link between the principles of gaming and gamification in health and wellness technologies is provided, and suggestions for future work are made. We conclude that gamification could be leveraged in developing applications with the potential to better facilitate self-management in persons with chronic conditions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. PRINCIPLES OF DESIGNING THE CENTER FOR ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES IN DNIPROPETROVS’K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PODOLYNNY S. I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem. Nowadays providing administrative services of good quality is considered to be one of the most important conditions for establishing firm and democratic relations between local authorities and population The work for creating municipal institutions using the principle of a "single window" is being fulfilled in Dnipropetrovs’k. Two pilot projects have been done at the Department of Architectural Engineering and Design (Prydniprovs’ka State Academy of Construction and Architecture. Objective. To demonstrate peculiarities of two project proposals for CAS comparing them with the recommendations of State Administration and basic principles formed while designing similar objects in foreign practice. Main part. Basic principles for creating the Center for Administrative Services (CAS were formulated regarding foreign experience and recommendations of State Administration. These principles are organized as three conceptual blocks: city-planning relevancy, functional arrangement, form making and artistic image peculiarities. CAS on the left bank of the river is situated on the territory that is being reconstructed at the moment. It is a functional and compositional landmark of social and administrative subcentre of the left bank. The Centre is designed in a 16-storey building with a build-in and build-on 2-floor block of the front-office. The front-office is designed for 121 working places and the back-office – for 440 ones. The general area of the front-office is 605 sq. m., the area of the back-office is 2130 sq. m. Artistic characteristics are designed according to traditional office planning schemes. CAS of the right bank is planned on a vacant site on Zaporiz’ke highway. Spacious parking lots are also provided on the territory. The building is positioned sideways on to the highway with its long axis. It can serve as a peculiar sign at the entrance to the city. The front-office is situated in a two-floor stylobate of the Center

  15. The hybrid K-edge/K-XRF densitometer: Principles - design - performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottmar, H.; Eberle, H.

    1991-02-01

    The Euratom Safeguards Directorate (ESD) has recently installed a hybrid K-edge/K-XRF densitometer in a commerical reprocessing plant for the safeguarding of nuclear materials. This instrument, developed at KfK Karlsruhe, offers for the first time analytical measurement capabilities for timely on-site input accountancy verification. Lectures providing informations on measurement principles, instrument design features and performance data have been given to inspectors of ESD to make them familiar with the new instrument. This report summarizes the essential materials presented during these courses. (orig.) [de

  16. From First Principles Design to Realization of Bimetallic Catalysts for Enhanced Selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, Raul F.; Crooks, Richard M.; Mavrikakis, Manos

    2014-04-08

    “Catalysis by design” has been a dream for decades. To specify the composition and structure of matter to effect a desired catalytic transformation with desired and predicted rate and selectivity remains a monumental challenge, especially in heterogeneous catalysis. Our research thrusts have been chosen not only for their practical and scientific relevance, e.g. for more efficient and sustainable chemicals and fuels production, but also because they provide a foundation for developing and exploring broadly applicable principles and strategies for catalyst design.

  17. Designing a 'neotissue' using the principles of biology, chemistry and engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannaparaju, Madhusudhan; Oragui, Emeka; Khan, Wasim S

    2012-01-01

    The traditional methods of treating musculoskeletal injuries and disorders are not completely effective and have several limitations. Tissue engineering involves using the principles of biology, chemistry and engineering to design a 'neotissue' that augments a malfunctioning in vivo tissue. The main requirements for functional engineered tissue include reparative cellular components that proliferate on a scaffold grown within a bioreactor that provides specific biochemical and physical signals to regulate cell differentiation and tissue assembly. In this review we provide an overview of the biology of common musculoskeletal tissue and discuss their common pathologies. We also describe the commonly used stem cells, scaffolds and bioreactors and evaluate their role in issue engineering.

  18. MULTIOBJECTIVE EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHMS APPLIED TO MICROSTRIP ANTENNAS DESIGN ALGORITMOS EVOLUTIVOS MULTIOBJETIVO APLICADOS A LOS PROYECTOS DE ANTENAS MICROSTRIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Rodrigues Brianeze

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents three of the main evolutionary algorithms: Genetic Algorithm, Evolution Strategy and Evolutionary Programming, applied to microstrip antennas design. Efficiency tests were performed, considering the analysis of key physical and geometrical parameters, evolution type, numerical random generators effects, evolution operators and selection criteria. These algorithms were validated through design of microstrip antennas based on the Resonant Cavity Method, and allow multiobjective optimizations, considering bandwidth, standing wave ratio and relative material permittivity. The optimal results obtained with these optimization processes, were confirmed by CST Microwave Studio commercial package.Este trabajo presenta tres de los principales algoritmos evolutivos: Algoritmo Genético, Estrategia Evolutiva y Programación Evolutiva, aplicados al diseño de antenas de microlíneas (microstrip. Se realizaron pruebas de eficiencia de los algoritmos, considerando el análisis de los parámetros físicos y geométricos, tipo de evolución, efecto de generación de números aleatorios, operadores evolutivos y los criterios de selección. Estos algoritmos fueron validados a través del diseño de antenas de microlíneas basado en el Método de Cavidades Resonantes y permiten optimizaciones multiobjetivo, considerando ancho de banda, razón de onda estacionaria y permitividad relativa del dieléctrico. Los resultados óptimos obtenidos fueron confirmados a través del software comercial CST Microwave Studio.

  19. 41 CFR 102-76.55 - What sustainable development principles must Federal agencies apply to the siting, design, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and Construction Sustainable Development § 102-76.55 What sustainable development principles must... Acquisition,” Federal agencies must apply sustainable development principles to the siting, design, and... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What sustainable...

  20. Safety aspects of designs for future light water reactors (evolutionary reactors)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    The main purpose of this document is to describe the major innovations of proposed designs of future light water reactors, to describe specific safety characteristics and safety analysis methodologies, and to give a general overview of the most important safety aspects related to future reactors. The reactors considered in this report are limited to those intended for fixed station electrical power production, excluding most revolutionary concepts. More in depth discussion is devoted to those designs that are in a more advanced state of completion and have been more extensively described and analysed in the open literature. Other designs will be briefly described, as evidence of the large spectrum of new proposals. Some designs are similar; others implement unique features and require specific discussion (not all aspects of designs with unique features are fully discussed in this document). 131 refs, 22 figs

  1. Rapid Preliminary Design of Interplanetary Trajectories Using the Evolutionary Mission Trajectory Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englander, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Preliminary design of interplanetary missions is a highly complex process. The mission designer must choose discrete parameters such as the number of flybys, the bodies at which those flybys are performed, and in some cases the final destination. In addition, a time-history of control variables must be chosen that defines the trajectory. There are often many thousands, if not millions, of possible trajectories to be evaluated. This can be a very expensive process in terms of the number of human analyst hours required. An automated approach is therefore very desirable. This work presents such an approach by posing the mission design problem as a hybrid optimal control problem. The method is demonstrated on notional high-thrust chemical and low-thrust electric propulsion missions. In the low-thrust case, the hybrid optimal control problem is augmented to include systems design optimization.

  2. Constructing first-principles phase diagrams of amorphous LixSi using machine-learning-assisted sampling with an evolutionary algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artrith, Nongnuch; Urban, Alexander; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2018-06-01

    The atomistic modeling of amorphous materials requires structure sizes and sampling statistics that are challenging to achieve with first-principles methods. Here, we propose a methodology to speed up the sampling of amorphous and disordered materials using a combination of a genetic algorithm and a specialized machine-learning potential based on artificial neural networks (ANNs). We show for the example of the amorphous LiSi alloy that around 1000 first-principles calculations are sufficient for the ANN-potential assisted sampling of low-energy atomic configurations in the entire amorphous LixSi phase space. The obtained phase diagram is validated by comparison with the results from an extensive sampling of LixSi configurations using molecular dynamics simulations and a general ANN potential trained to ˜45 000 first-principles calculations. This demonstrates the utility of the approach for the first-principles modeling of amorphous materials.

  3. Towards Rational Design of Functional Fluoride and Oxyfluoride Materials from First Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Nenian

    Complex transition metal compounds (TMCs) research has produced functional materials with a range of properties, including ferroelectricity, colossal magnetoresistance, nonlinear optical activity and high-temperature superconductivity. Conventional routes to tune properties in transition metal oxides, for example, have relied primarily on cation chemical substitution and interfacial effects in thin film heterostructures. In heteroanionic TMCs, exhibiting two chemically distinct anions coordinating the same or different cations, engineering of the anion sub-lattice for property control is a promising alternative approach. The presence of multiple anions provides additional design variables, such as anion order, that are absent in homoanionic counterparts. The more complex structural and chemical phase space of heteroanionic materials provides a unique opportunity to realize enhanced or unanticipated electronic, optical, and magnetic responses. Although there is growing interest in heteroanionic materials, and synthetic and characterization advances are occurring for these materials, the crystal-chemistry principles for realizing structural and property control are only slowing emerging. This dissertation employs anion engineering to investigate phenomena in transition metal fluorides and oxyfluorides compounds using first principles density functional theory calculations. Oxyfluorides are particularly intriguing owing their tendency to stabilize highly ordered anion sublattices as well as the potential to combine the advantageous properties of transition metal oxides and fluorides. This work 1) addresses the challenges of studying fluorides and oxyfluorides using first principles calculations; 2) evaluates the feasibility of using external stimuli, such as epitaxial strain and hydrostatic pressure, to control properties of fluorides and oxyfluorides; and 3) formulates a computational workflow based on multiple levels of theory and computation to elucidate structure

  4. Chemical Frustration. A Design Principle for the Discovery of New Complex Alloy and Intermetallic Phases, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredrickson, Daniel C [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-06-23

    Final technical report for "Chemical Frustration: A Design Principle for the Discovery of New Complex Alloy and Intermetallic Phases" funded by the Office of Science through the Materials Chemistry Program of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  5. Studies on design principles and criteria of fuels and graphites for experimental multi-purpose very high temperature reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Taketoshi; Sato, Sadao; Tani, Yutaro

    1977-12-01

    Design principles and criteria of fuels and graphites have been studied to determine the main design parameters of a reference core MARK-III of the Experimental Multi-purpose Very High Temperature Reactor. The present status of research and development for HTGR fuels and graphites is reviewed from a standpoint of their integrity and safety aspects, and is compared to the specific design requirements for the VHTR fuels and graphites. Consequently, reasonable materials specifications, safety criteria and design analysis methods are presented for coated fuel particle, fuel compact, graphite sleeve, core support graphite and neutron absorber material. These design principles and criteria will be refined by further experimental investigations. (auth.)

  6. Investigations into the design principles in the chemotactic behavior of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hwan; Jung, Sung Hoon; Cho, Kwang-Hyun

    2008-01-01

    Inspired by the recent studies on the analysis of biased random walk behavior of Escherichia coli[Passino, K.M., 2002. Biomimicry of bacterial foraging for distributed optimization and control. IEEE Control Syst. Mag. 22 (3), 52-67; Passino, K.M., 2005. Biomimicry for Optimization, Control and Automation. Springer-Verlag, pp. 768-798; Liu, Y., Passino, K.M., 2002. Biomimicry of social foraging bacteria for distributed optimization: models, principles, and emergent behaviors. J. Optim. Theory Appl. 115 (3), 603-628], we have developed a model describing the motile behavior of E. coli by specifying some simple rules on the chemotaxis. Based on this model, we have analyzed the role of some key parameters involved in the chemotactic behavior to unravel the underlying design principles. By investigating the target tracking capability of E. coli in a maze through computer simulations, we found that E. coli clusters can be controlled as target trackers in a complex micro-scale-environment. In addition, we have explored the dynamical characteristics of this target tracking mechanism through perturbation of parameters under noisy environments. It turns out that the E. coli chemotaxis mechanism might be designed such that it is sensitive enough to efficiently track the target and also robust enough to overcome environmental noises.

  7. Design Principle of A Small Angle Neutron Scattering Spectrometer. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashry, A [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The design principle of a small angle neutron scattering (SANS) spectrometer is based on producing monochromatic neutron bursts using two phased rotors. The rotors have a number of slots to achieve the highly available intensity of monoenergetic neutrons at the required resolution. The design principle was applied to improve the performance of the pulsed monochromatic double rotor system at ET-RR-1 to operate as SANS spectrometer. It is shown that for rotors having 19 slots each with radius of curvature 96.8 cm, the intensity gain factor is 13. The proposed SANS spectrometer could cover the neutron wavelength range from 2 A{sup {omicron}} up to 6 A{sup {omicron}} through small angles of scattering from 5 x 10{sup -3} rad. to 0.1 rad. i.e, the scattering wavevector transfer between 0.6 A{sup {omicron}-1} and 0.01 A{sup {omicron}-1}. The maximum neutron flux density on the specimen is 5 x 10{sup 5} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. 8 figs.

  8. Design principle for absorption enhancement with nanoparticles in thin-film silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yuanpei; Xuan, Yimin

    2015-01-01

    The use of nanoparticles in solar cells has created many controversies. In this paper, different mechanisms of nanoparticles with different materials with diameters varying from 50 to 200 nm, surface coverage at 5, 20, and 60 %, and different locations are analyzed systematically for efficient light trapping in a thin-film c-Si solar cell. Mie theory and the finite difference time domain method are used for analysis to give a design principle with nanoparticles for the solar cell application. Metals exhibit plasmonic resonances and angular scattering, while dielectrics show anti-reflection and scattering in the incident direction. A table is given to summarize the advantages and disadvantages in different conditions. The silicon absorption enhancement with nanoparticles on top is mainly in the shorter wavelengths below 700 nm, and both Al and SiO 2 nanoparticles with diameter around 100 nm show the most significant enhancement. The silicon absorption enhancement with embedded nanoparticles takes place in the longer wavelengths over 700 nm, and Ag and SiO 2 nanoparticles with larger diameter around 200 nm perform better. However, the light absorbed by Ag nanoparticles will be converted to heat and will lead to decrease in cell efficiency; hence, the choice of metallic nanoparticles in applications to solar cells should be carefully considered. The design principle proposed in this work gives a guideline by choosing reasonable parameters for the different requirements in the application of thin-film solar cells

  9. Principle of maximum entropy for reliability analysis in the design of machine components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yimin

    2018-03-01

    We studied the reliability of machine components with parameters that follow an arbitrary statistical distribution using the principle of maximum entropy (PME). We used PME to select the statistical distribution that best fits the available information. We also established a probability density function (PDF) and a failure probability model for the parameters of mechanical components using the concept of entropy and the PME. We obtained the first four moments of the state function for reliability analysis and design. Furthermore, we attained an estimate of the PDF with the fewest human bias factors using the PME. This function was used to calculate the reliability of the machine components, including a connecting rod, a vehicle half-shaft, a front axle, a rear axle housing, and a leaf spring, which have parameters that typically follow a non-normal distribution. Simulations were conducted for comparison. This study provides a design methodology for the reliability of mechanical components for practical engineering projects.

  10. Design principles for CANDU control centres in response to evolving utility business needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, E.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear generation operators are facing a challenging business environment at the beginning of the new millennium. Evolving changes in business context, competitive commercial pressures, and changes in technology have dictated recurring evaluation of operational practices and the adequacy of supporting tools, and the pursuit of opportunities for operational improvement. A key area of utility operations that has been impacted by these changes is the nuclear plant control centre. Changes to workspace layout, equipment provisions, staffing, and work organization are examples of some of the adjustments being introduced to improve operational and safety effectiveness. This paper discusses some of the key factors influencing these changes and identifies additional design principles for CANDU control centres that will enable new control centre designs and retrofits of existing control centres to remain relevant and responsive to utility needs. (author)

  11. Seismic design principles for the German fast breeder reactor SNR 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, K.A.; Peters, K.A.; Rosenhauer, W.

    1987-01-01

    The safety issue of an adequate and optimized external event protection is of course that unnecessary hardware precautions might promote internal disturbances or hamper their control. It has up to now not satisfactorily been realized that the only serious context for seismic impacts on a fast reactor is their attributed potential of overriding core disruptive accident prevention, see e.g. GRS 1982. General and exaggerated antiseismic design features not focussed upon this point may as well turn out to be non-negligible initators in the absence of seismic vibrations. Unexpected snubber difficulties requiring additional reactor scrams and decay heat removal phases may be named as a simple example. The presented seismic design principles reflect the progress made in the concerned fields of analysis and do serve on the other hand as guidelines for research and development efforts under work. (orig./GL)

  12. Principle of human system interface (HSI) design for new reactor console of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zareen Khan Abdul Jalil Khan; Ridzuan Abdul Mutalib; Mohd Idris Taib; Mohd Khairulezwan Abdul Manan; Nurfarhana Ayuni Joha; Mohd Sabri Minhat; Izhar Abu Hussin

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: This paper will describe the principle of human system interface design for new reactor console in control room at TRIGA reactor facility. In order to support these human system interface challenges in digital reactor console. Software-based instrumentation and control (I and C) system for new reactor console could lead to new human machine integration. The proposed of Human System Interface (HSI) which included the large display panels which shows reactor status, compact and computer-based workstations for monitoring, control and protection function. The proposed Human System Interface (HIS) has been evaluated using various human factor engineering. It can be concluded that the Human System Interface (HIS) is designed as to address the safety related computer controlled system. (author)

  13. Global Optimization of Damping Ring Designs Using a Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Emery, Louis

    2005-01-01

    Several damping ring designs for the International Linear Collider have been proposed recently. Some of the specifications, such as circumference and bunch train, are not fixed yet. Designers must make a choice anyway, select a geometry type (dog-bone or circular), an arc cell type (TME or FODO), and optimize linear and nonlinear part of the optics. The design process include straightforward steps (usually the linear optics), and some steps not so straightforward (when nonlinear optics optimization is affected by the linear optics). A first attempt at automating this process for the linear optics is reported. We first recognize that the optics is defined by just a few primary parameters (e.g., phase advance per cell) that determine the rest (e.g., quadrupole strength). In addition to the exact specification of circumference, equilibrium emittance and damping time there are some other quantities which could be optimized that may conflict with each other. A multiobjective genetic optimizer solves this problem b...

  14. Active vibration absorber for CSI evolutionary model: Design and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Anne M.; Belvin, W. Keith; Horta, Lucas G.; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1991-01-01

    The development of control of large flexible structures technology must include practical demonstration to aid in the understanding and characterization of controlled structures in space. To support this effort, a testbed facility was developed to study practical implementation of new control technologies under realistic conditions. The design is discussed of a second order, acceleration feedback controller which acts as an active vibration absorber. This controller provides guaranteed stability margins for collocated sensor/actuator pairs in the absence of sensor/actuator dynamics and computational time delay. The primary performance objective considered is damping augmentation of the first nine structural modes. Comparison of experimental and predicted closed loop damping is presented, including test and simulation time histories for open and closed loop cases. Although the simulation and test results are not in full agreement, robustness of this design under model uncertainty is demonstrated. The basic advantage of this second order controller design is that the stability of the controller is model independent.

  15. Feedback of operation and maintenance experience into evolutionary plant design (HWRs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedges, K.R.; Sanatkumar, A.; Kwon, Oh-Cheol

    1999-01-01

    The process of feeding back operation and maintenance information into the CANDU plant design process has been in constant evolution since the beginning of the CANDU program. The commissioning and operation experience from the first commercial reactors at Pickering A and Bruce A was used extensively in the design of the first generation CANDU 6 Plants. These units have been in operation for 15 years, producing electricity at an average lifetime capacity factor of about 85%. In further advancing the CANDU 6 and 9 design, greater emphasis is placed on enhancements that can reduce operational costs and further improve plant performance by reducing the planned outage time. The plant design has been improved to facilitate maintenance scheduling, equipment isolation, maintenance and post maintenance testing. Individual tasks have been analyzed as well as the interaction between tasks during outages to reduce the down time required and simplify the execution of the work. This results in shorter outages, reduced radioactive dose and reduced costs. The Utilities have continued to play an important role in CANDU 6 Evolution. Specifically; the Korea Utility KEPCO has one of the original four CANDU 6 Plants and three of the most modem. Their feedback to the designers has been very helpful. One of the most important feedback processes is through the CANDU Owners Group, which provides information exchange between members. In India eight PHWRs of 220 MWe capacity are in operation. Four reactors, also of 220 MWe capacity are in advanced stages of construction. Site construction work of two units of 500 MWe PHWRs at Tarapur will be taken up shortly. Over the years, during construction and operation of these power stations, a large amount of experience has been accumulated. Operation and maintenance experience is shared with operating stations by intensive participation of design engineers in Station Operation Review meetings, trouble shooting and root cause analysis of problems

  16. Active vibration absorber for the CSI evolutionary model - Design and experimental results. [Controls Structures Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Anne M.; Belvin, W. Keith; Horta, Lucas G.; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1991-01-01

    The development of control of large flexible structures technology must include practical demonstrations to aid in the understanding and characterization of controlled structures in space. To support this effort, a testbed facility has been developed to study practical implementation of new control technologies under realistic conditions. The paper discusses the design of a second order, acceleration feedback controller which acts as an active vibration absorber. This controller provides guaranteed stability margins for collocated sensor/actuator pairs in the absence of sensor/actuator dynamics and computational time delay. Experimental results in the presence of these factors are presented and discussed. The robustness of this design under model uncertainty is demonstrated.

  17. Design principles and fundamental trade-offs in biomimetic light harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarovar, Mohan; Birgitta Whaley, K

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in synthetic and supramolecular chemistry have created opportunities to design organic systems with tailored nanoscale structure for various technological applications. A key application area is the capture of light energy and its conversion into electrochemical or chemical forms for photovoltaic or sensing applications. In this work we consider cylindrical assemblies of chromophores that model structures produced by several supramolecular techniques. Our study is especially guided by the versatile structures produced by virus-templated assembly. We use a multi-objective optimization framework to determine design principles and limitations in light harvesting performance for such assemblies, both in the presence and absence of disorder. We identify a fundamental trade-off in cylindrical assemblies that is encountered when attempting to maximize both efficiency of energy transfer and absorption bandwidth. We also rationalize the optimal design strategies and provide explanations for why various structures provide optimal performance. Most importantly, we find that the optimal design strategies depend on the amount of energetic and structural disorder in the system. The aim of these studies is to develop a program of quantum-informed rational design for construction of organic assemblies that have the same degree of tailored nanoscale structure as biological photosynthetic light harvesting complexes, and consequently have the potential to reproduce their remarkable light harvesting performance. (paper)

  18. Evolutionary, Unconscious Design Support for the Architectural, Engineering and Construction Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Ruitenbeek, H.K.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry is a complex system in which carpenters, structural designers, architects, modellers, cost estimators, planners, politicians and many others act apart together in project-specific virtual enterprises. There is a large amount of actors, an

  19. 'Living' Architecture Overviews - Supporting the Design of Evolutionary Complex Systems (CD ROM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borches Juzgado, P.D.; Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten; van Houten, F.J.A.M.; Miedema, J.; Lutters, D.

    2008-01-01

    When dealing with complex systems, it is essential that designers and system architects have a clear understanding of the system as a whole. The main ‘tool’ for this is the so-called ‘system architecture description’ or ‘reference architecture’. Although the concept of system architecture

  20. Design improvements related to chemistry for the Evolutionary Power reactor (EPR) unit at Flamanville 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, Christophe; Alves-Vieira, Maria; Jutel, Laurent

    2012-09-01

    A significant number of improvements, including for chemistry, have been made for the design of the EPR turbine hall as a result of the considerable wealth of experience and feedback drawn from the EDF fleet. To reduce issues associated with flow accelerated corrosion, as well as Steam Generator (SG) fouling or clogging, appropriate materials for the piping and the exchangers, and an adequate chemical conditioning, were chosen to ensure a 60 year lifespan of the main components of the circuit. The condenser technology was also improved to mitigate the risks of raw water ingress. A dedicated local sampling line was added at feedwater (FW) to monitor the iron concentration. EPR includes a polishing system at start-up to ensure the purification of feedwater in a short time (less than 16 hours) along with reduced discharged effluents. Comprehensive studies were carried out, taking into account costs (investment, operation, and maintenance), consumption and discharge of chemical reagents, or risks of pollutions during the process. This lead to the choice of system dedicated to start-up only, similar to the mobile system used in some French Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs), instead of a condensate polishing plant. Emphasis was also placed on providing a flexible and secure injection system for the chemical reagents (SIR). Indeed, it will be possible to inject two amines and hydrazine, and to perform tailored injection in many parts of the circuit. Furthermore, the room was design to facilitate future design changes, such as if dispersant injection is required as a preventative solution for SG fouling. In addition to that, close attention was applied to mitigate chemical hazards, especially regarding the hydrazine CMR effect or explosive atmosphere. This paper describes the technical and the economical choices that lead to these improvements related to chemistry in the turbine hall design, along with a comprehensive overview of the chosen designs. (authors)

  1. Feedback of operation and maintenance experience into evolutionary LWR designs in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machiels, A.J.; Rumble, E.T.; Mulford, T.J.

    1999-01-01

    US utilities, with extensive support and participation from several international companies, have led an industry-wide effort in close cooperation of the US Department of Energy (DOE), to establish a technical foundation for designing the next generation of light water reactors, referred to as Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs). The cornerstone of this effort is the ALWR Utility Requirements Document (URD). ALWR requirements are driven by utilities, but with broad industry participation, including US nuclear steam supply vendors, as well as engineering service, consulting, architect-engineer, and construction companies. Thus, there is essentially a consensus of the industry as to those features to be sought in the next generation of plants, based on the information and lessons learned from over 35 years of operating over 100 LWRs in the US, and many more internationally. The URD addresses the entire plant, including nuclear steam supply system and balance of plant. The requirements are intended to provide improved, standardized versions of ALWRs, which eliminate most of the issues and inefficiencies associated with some of the existing designs; assure a simpler, more forgiving plant design that is excellent in all respects, including safety, performance, constructability, and economics. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is directly involved with the URD and has published a Safety Evaluation Report on the requirements for each type of ALWR. Through the NRC review, the URD supports improved stability in the regulatory basis for ALWRs by including agreements on the outstanding licensing and severe accident issues. Looking forward, the URD provides a set of utility technical requirements, which can be used in an ALWR investor bid package for the detailed design, licensing and construction. The resulting bid package will provide a basis for investor confidence in implementing an ALWR. (author)

  2. Introducing E-Learning in a Norwegian Service Company with Participatory Design and Evolutionary Prototyping Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Mørch , Anders I.; Engen , Bård Ketil; Hansen Åsand , Hege-René; Brynhildsen , Camilla; Tødenes , Ida

    2004-01-01

    Over a 2-year period, we have participated in the introduction of e-learning in a Norwegian service company, a gas station division of an oil company. This company has an advanced computer network infrastructure for communication and information sharing, but the primary task of the employees is serving customers. We identify some challenges to introducing e-learning in this kind of environment. A primary emphasis has been on using participatory design techniques during the planning stages and...

  3. Evolutionary, Unconscious Design Support for the Architectural, Engineering and Construction Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Van de Ruitenbeek, H.K.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry is a complex system in which carpenters, structural designers, architects, modellers, cost estimators, planners, politicians and many others act apart together in project-specific virtual enterprises. There is a large amount of actors, an overwhelming number of ongoing processes, distributed, decentralised organisations and a variety of projects. This complicates efficient communication and supply chain integration which, according...

  4. Principles of Emergency Department facility design for optimal management of mass-casualty incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Pinchas; Goldberg, Scott A; Keng, Jimmy G; Koenig, Kristi L

    2012-04-01

    The Emergency Department (ED) is the triage, stabilization and disposition unit of the hospital during a mass-casualty incident (MCI). With most EDs already functioning at or over capacity, efficient management of an MCI requires optimization of all ED components. While the operational aspects of MCI management have been well described, the architectural/structural principles have not. Further, there are limited reports of the testing of ED design components in actual MCI events. The objective of this study is to outline the important infrastructural design components for optimization of ED response to an MCI, as developed, implemented, and repeatedly tested in one urban medical center. In the authors' experience, the most important aspects of ED design for MCI have included external infrastructure and promoting rapid lockdown of the facility for security purposes; an ambulance bay permitting efficient vehicle flow and casualty discharge; strategic placement of the triage location; patient tracking techniques; planning adequate surge capacity for both patients and staff; sufficient command, control, communications, computers, and information; well-positioned and functional decontamination facilities; adequate, well-located and easily distributed medical supplies; and appropriately built and functioning essential services. Designing the ED to cope well with a large casualty surge during a disaster is not easy, and it may not be feasible for all EDs to implement all the necessary components. However, many of the components of an appropriate infrastructural design add minimal cost to the normal expenditures of building an ED. This study highlights the role of design and infrastructure in MCI preparedness in order to assist planners in improving their ED capabilities. Structural optimization calls for a paradigm shift in the concept of structural and operational ED design, but may be necessary in order to maximize surge capacity, department resilience, and patient and

  5. Designing an Interactive OER Course Development at Athabasca University Based on ODL Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxin Yan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Failure rates in first year calculus courses are high in most post-secondary institutions across North America and other parts of the world. This Inukshuk-funded open education project involved the development of five stand-alone pre-calculus learning modules. The design and revision phases of this project occurred between the fall of 2007 and late spring of 2009. These modules were designed to support learners enrolled in first year calculus by providing just-in-time instruction in five areas: algebraic operations, factorization, polynomials and rational expressions, radical expressions, linear and quadratic equations. One of the major challenges of the project was developing dynamic activities that could support the display of a variety of mathematical formulas. To this end an open source Flash-based authoring tool was developed called the Athabasca University Tutor Authoring Tool (AUTAT. This paper explores the design and development of the AUTAT based on the needs assessment and design principles discussed.

  6. Evolutionary design of a satellite thermal control system: Real experiments for a CubeSat mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar, Emanuel; Diaz, Marcos; Zagal, Juan Cristóbal

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • GAs applied to automate design of CubeSat passive thermal control system (coating). • Simulation adapted with real physical data (mockup experiment in vacuum chamber). • Obtained coating patterns consistently outperform engineered solutions (by 5 K). • Evolved coating patterns are far superior (by 8 K) than unpainted aluminum. - Abstract: This paper studies the use of artificial evolution to automate the design of a satellite passive thermal control system. This type of adaptation often requires the use of computer simulations to evaluate fitness of a large number of candidate solutions. Simulations are required to be expedient and accurate so that solutions can be successfully transferred to reality. We explore a design process that involves three steps. On a first step candidate solutions (implemented as surface paint tiling patterns) are tested using a FEM model and ranked according to their quality to meet mission temperature requirements. On a second step the best individual is implemented as a real physical satellite mockup and tested inside a vacuum chamber, having light sources imitating the effect of solar light. On a third step the simulation model is adapted with data obtained during the real evaluation. These updated models can be further employed for continuing genetic search. Current differences between our simulation and our real physical setup are in the order of 1.45 K mean squared error for faces pointing toward the light source and 2.4 K mean squared errors for shadowed faces. We found that evolved tiling patterns can be 5 K below engineered patterns and 8 K below using unpainted aluminum satellite surfaces.

  7. Explaining success and failure in the commons: the configural nature of Ostrom's institutional design principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo Alessandro Baggio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Governing common pool resources (CPR in the face of disturbances such as globalization and climate change is challenging. The outcome of any CPR governance regime is the influenced by local combinations of social, institutional, and biophysical factors, as well as cross-scale interdependencies. In this study, we take a step towards understanding multiple-causation of CPR outcomes by analyzing 1 the co-occurrence of Destign Principles (DP by activity (irrigation, fishery and forestry, and 2 the combination(s of DPs leading to social and ecological success. We analyzed 69 cases pertaining to three different activities: irrigation, fishery, and forestry. We find that the importance of the design principles is dependent upon the natural and hard human made infrastructure (i.e. canals, equipment, vessels etc.. For example, clearly defined social bounduaries are important when the natural infrastructure is highly mobile (i.e. tuna fish, while monitoring is more important when the natural infrastructure is more static (i.e. forests or water contained within an irrigation system. However, we also find that congruence between local conditions and rules and proportionality between investment and extraction are key for CPR success independent from the natural and human hard made infrastructure. We further provide new visualization techniques for co-occurrence patterns and add to qualitative comparative analysis by introducing a reliability metric to deal with a large meta-analysis dataset on secondary data where information is missing or uncertain.

  8. Optimum design of pultrusion process via evolutionary multi-objective optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tutum, Cem Celal; Baran, Ismet; Deb, Kalyanmoy

    2014-01-01

    Pultrusion is one of the most cost-effective manufacturing techniques for producing fiber-reinforced composites with constant cross-sectional profiles. This obviously makes it more attractive for both researchers and practitioners to investigate the optimum process parameters, i.e., pulling speed......, power, and dimensions of the heating platens, length and width of the heating die, design of the resin injection chamber, etc., to provide better understanding of the process, consequently to improve the efficiency of the process as well as the product quality. Using validated computer simulations...... this type of problems without any biased treatment of objectives such as weighting constants serving as pre-assumed user preferences. In this paper, first, a thermochemical simulation of the pultrusion process has been presented considering the steady-state conditions. Following that, it is integrated...

  9. Ab initio identified design principles of solid-solution strengthening in Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Duancheng; Friák, Martin; Pezold, Johann von; Raabe, Dierk; Neugebauer, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Solid-solution strengthening in six Al–X binary systems is investigated using first-principle methods. The volumetric mismatch parameter and the solubility enthalpy per solute were calculated. We derive three rules for designing solid-solution strengthened alloys: (i) the solubility enthalpy per solute is related to the volumetric mismatch by a power law; (ii) for each annealing temperature, there exists an optimal solute–volume mismatch to achieve maximum strength; and (iii) the strengthening potential of high volumetric mismatch solutes is severely limited by their low solubility. Our results thus show that the thermodynamic properties of the system (here Al–X alloys) set clear upper bounds to the achievable strengthening effects owing to the reduced solubility with increasing volume mismatch. (paper)

  10. Novel Geometrical Concept of a High Performance Brain PET Scanner Principle, Design and Performance Estimates

    CERN Document Server

    Séguinot, Jacques; Chesi, Enrico Guido; Joram, C; Mathot, S; Weilhammer, P; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Correia, J G; Ribeiro da Silva, M; Garibaldi, F; De Leo, R; Nappi, E; Corsi, F; Dragone, A; Schoenahl, F; Zaidi, H

    2006-01-01

    We present the principle, a possible implementation and performance estimates of a novel geometrical concept for a high resolution positron emission tomograph. The concept, which can for example be implemented in a brain PET device, promisses to lead to an essentially parallax free 3D image reconstruction with excellent spatial resolution and constrast, uniform over the complete field of view. The key components are matrices of long axially oriented scintillator crystals which are read out at both extremities by segmented Hybrid Photon Detectors. We discuss the relevant design considerations for a 3D axial PET camera module, motivate parameter and material choices, and estimate its performance in terms of spatial and energy resolution. We support these estimates by Monte Carlo simulations and in some cases by first experimental results. From the performance of a camera module, we extrapolate to the reconstruction resolution of a 3D axial PET scanner in a semi-analytical way and compare it to an existing state...

  11. Design of a digital PAD based on I/Q demodulation principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Zheqiao; Cui Yanyan; Hou Mi; Pei Guoxi

    2005-01-01

    Conventional analog I/Q demodulator suffers from phase and amplitude imbalance and DC offset, which cause big error into the measurement. A digital PAD is designed. Based on I/Q demodulation principle, using digital algorithms, such as digital filter and Hilbert transform, the conventional measurement error can basically be removed. Measuremental results show that the digital PAD has a maximum phase error of ±0.5 degree and a resolution of 0.2 degree. Its temperature coefficient is -0.1 degree/degree C. Its dynamic ranges for phase-measurement and amplitude-measurement are -1825 dBm and -2020 dBm, respectively. The digital PAD can meet the need of the BEPC II phasing system. (authors)

  12. Design principle of TVO's final repository and preliminary adaptation to site specific conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salo, J-P.; Reikkola, R.

    1995-01-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) is responsible for the management of spent fuel produced by the Olkiluoto power plant. TVO's current programme of spent fuel management is based on the guidelines and time schedule set by the Finnish Government. TVO has studied a final disposal concept in which the spent fuel bundles are encapsulated in copper canisters and emplaced in Finnish bedrock. According to the plan the final repository for spent fuel will be in operation by 2020. TVO's updated technical plans for the disposal of spent fuel together with a performance analysis (TVO-92) were submitted to the authorities in 1992. The paper describes the design principle of TVO's final repository and preliminary adaptation of the repository to site specific conditions. (author). 10 refs., 5 figs

  13. Evolutionary Nephrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Robert L

    2017-05-01

    Progressive kidney disease follows nephron loss, hyperfiltration, and incomplete repair, a process described as "maladaptive." In the past 20 years, a new discipline has emerged that expands research horizons: evolutionary medicine. In contrast to physiologic (homeostatic) adaptation, evolutionary adaptation is the result of reproductive success that reflects natural selection. Evolutionary explanations for physiologically maladaptive responses can emerge from mismatch of the phenotype with environment or evolutionary tradeoffs. Evolutionary adaptation to a terrestrial environment resulted in a vulnerable energy-consuming renal tubule and a hypoxic, hyperosmolar microenvironment. Natural selection favors successful energy investment strategy: energy is allocated to maintenance of nephron integrity through reproductive years, but this declines with increasing senescence after ~40 years of age. Risk factors for chronic kidney disease include restricted fetal growth or preterm birth (life history tradeoff resulting in fewer nephrons), evolutionary selection for APOL1 mutations (that provide resistance to trypanosome infection, a tradeoff), and modern life experience (Western diet mismatch leading to diabetes and hypertension). Current advances in genomics, epigenetics, and developmental biology have revealed proximate causes of kidney disease, but attempts to slow kidney disease remain elusive. Evolutionary medicine provides a complementary approach by addressing ultimate causes of kidney disease. Marked variation in nephron number at birth, nephron heterogeneity, and changing susceptibility to kidney injury throughout life history are the result of evolutionary processes. Combined application of molecular genetics, evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo), developmental programming and life history theory may yield new strategies for prevention and treatment of chronic kidney disease.

  14. Evolutionary Science as a Method to Facilitate Higher Level Thinking and Reasoning in Medical Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Joseph L; Reiber, Chris; Thanukos, Anna; Hurtado, Magdalena; Wolpaw, Terry

    2016-10-15

    Evolutionary science is indispensable for understanding biological processes. Effective medical treatment must be anchored in sound biology. However, currently the insights available from evolutionary science are not adequately incorporated in either pre-medical or medical school curricula. To illuminate how evolution may be helpful in these areas, examples in which the insights of evolutionary science are already improving medical treatment and ways in which evolutionary reasoning can be practiced in the context of medicine are provided. In order to facilitate the learning of evolutionary principles, concepts derived from evolutionary science that medical students and professionals should understand are outlined. These concepts are designed to be authoritative and at the same time easily accessible for anyone with the general biological knowledge of a first-year medical student. Thus we conclude that medical practice informed by evolutionary principles will be more effective and lead to better patient outcomes.Furthermore, it is argued that evolutionary medicine complements general medical training because it provides an additional means by which medical students can practice the critical thinking skills that will be important in their future practice. We argue that core concepts from evolutionary science have the potential to improve critical thinking and facilitate more effective learning in medical training. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Foundation for Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health.

  15. Applications of Context-Aware Computing in Hospital Work - Examples and Design Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jacob Eyvind

    2004-01-01

    Context-awareness is a key concept in ubiquitous computing, which sometimes seems to be a technology looking for a purpose. In this paper we report on the application of context-aware computing for medical work in hospitals, which has appeared to be a strong case for applying context-aware comput...... of designing, developing, and evaluating context-aware clinical applications, the paper outlines some key design principles for a context-awareness framework, supporting the development and deployment of context-aware clinical computer applications.......Context-awareness is a key concept in ubiquitous computing, which sometimes seems to be a technology looking for a purpose. In this paper we report on the application of context-aware computing for medical work in hospitals, which has appeared to be a strong case for applying context......-aware computing. We present the design of a context-aware pill container and a context-aware hospital bed, both of which reacts and adapts according to what is happening in their context. The applications have been evaluated in a number of workshop with clinicians and patients. Based on this empirical work...

  16. Extending the generality of leaf economic design principles in the cycads, an ancient lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Jiang; Cao, Kun-Fang; Sack, Lawren; Li, Nan; Wei, Xue-Mei; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2015-04-01

    Cycads are the most ancient lineage of living seed plants, but the design of their leaves has received little study. We tested whether cycad leaves are governed by the same fundamental design principles previously established for ferns, conifers and angiosperms, and characterized the uniqueness of this relict lineage in foliar trait relationships. Leaf structure, photosynthesis, hydraulics and nutrient composition were studied in 33 cycad species from nine genera and three families growing in two botanical gardens. Cycads varied greatly in leaf structure and physiology. Similarly to other lineages, light-saturated photosynthetic rate per mass (Am ) was related negatively to leaf mass per area and positively to foliar concentrations of chlorophyll, nitrogen (N), phosphorus and iron, but unlike angiosperms, leaf photosynthetic rate was not associated with leaf hydraulic conductance. Cycads had lower photosynthetic N use efficiency and higher photosynthetic performance relative to hydraulic capacity compared with other lineages. These findings extend the relationships shown for foliar traits in angiosperms to the cycads. This functional convergence supports the modern synthetic understanding of leaf design, with common constraints operating across lineages, even as they highlight exceptional aspects of the biology of this key relict lineage. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. [Principles and methodology for ecological rehabilitation and security pattern design in key project construction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Ding; Lu, Yi-He; Tian, Hui-Ying; Shi, Qian

    2007-03-01

    Global ecological security becomes increasingly important with the intensive human activities. The function of ecological security is influenced by human activities, and in return, the efficiency of human activities will also be affected by the patterns of regional ecological security. Since the 1990s, China has initiated the construction of key projects "Yangtze Three Gorges Dam", "Qinghai-Tibet Railway", "West-to-East Gas Pipeline", "West-to-East Electricity Transmission" and "South-to-North Water Transfer" , etc. The interaction between these projects and regional ecological security has particularly attracted the attention of Chinese government. It is not only important for the regional environmental protection, but also of significance for the smoothly implementation of various projects aimed to develop an ecological rehabilitation system and to design a regional ecological security pattern. This paper made a systematic analysis on the types and characteristics of key project construction and their effects on the environment, and on the basis of this, brought forward the basic principles and methodology for ecological rehabilitation and security pattern design in this construction. It was considered that the following issues should be addressed in the implementation of a key project: 1) analysis and evaluation of current regional ecological environment, 2) evaluation of anthropogenic disturbances and their ecological risk, 3) regional ecological rehabilitation and security pattern design, 4) scenario analysis of environmental benefits of regional ecological security pattern, 5) re-optimization of regional ecological system framework, and 6) establishment of regional ecosystem management plan.

  18. HIGH QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL PRINCIPLES APPLIED TO THE ARCHITECTONIC DESIGN SELECTION PROCEDURE: THE NUTRE LAB CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Barroso Krause

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The need to produce more sustainable buildings has been influencing the design decisions all over the world. That’s why it is imperative, in Brazil, the development of strategies and method to aid the decision making during the design process, focused on high quality environmental. This paper presents a decision support tool based on the principles of sustainable construction developed by the Project, Architecture and Sustainability Research Group (GPAS of Federal University of Rio de Janeiro – Brazil. The methodology has been developed for the selection of a preliminary design of a laboratory to be built at Rio Technology Park at the University campus. The support provided by GPAS occurred in three stages: the elaboration of the Reference Guide for the competitors, the development of a methodology to evaluate the proposed solutions (based on environmental performance criteria and the assistance of the members of jury in the trial phase. The theoretical framework was based upon the concepts of the bioclimatic architecture, the procedures specified by the certification HQE® (Haute Qualité Environnementale and the method suggested by the ADDENDA® architecture office. The success of this experience points out the possibility to future application in similar cases.

  19. Design principles of nuclear receptor signaling: how complex networking improves signal transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodkin, Alexey N; Bruggeman, Frank J; Plant, Nick; Moné, Martijn J; Bakker, Barbara M; Campbell, Moray J; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M; Carlberg, Carsten; Snoep, Jacky L; Westerhoff, Hans V

    2010-01-01

    The topology of nuclear receptor (NR) signaling is captured in a systems biological graphical notation. This enables us to identify a number of ‘design' aspects of the topology of these networks that might appear unnecessarily complex or even functionally paradoxical. In realistic kinetic models of increasing complexity, calculations show how these features correspond to potentially important design principles, e.g.: (i) cytosolic ‘nuclear' receptor may shuttle signal molecules to the nucleus, (ii) the active export of NRs may ensure that there is sufficient receptor protein to capture ligand at the cytoplasmic membrane, (iii) a three conveyor belts design dissipating GTP-free energy, greatly aids response, (iv) the active export of importins may prevent sequestration of NRs by importins in the nucleus and (v) the unspecific nature of the nuclear pore may ensure signal-flux robustness. In addition, the models developed are suitable for implementation in specific cases of NR-mediated signaling, to predict individual receptor functions and differential sensitivity toward physiological and pharmacological ligands. PMID:21179018

  20. Beam dynamics pre-design with KONUS principle for the DTL of SPPC p-Linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Li, Haipeng; Lu, Yuanrong; Su, Jiancang; Liu, Xiaolong; Fu, Qi

    2018-04-01

    As the Higgs bosons were observed on the LHC in 2012, a two-stage particle collider program named CEPC-SPPC is proposed for precise measurement of Higgs properties and exploring the new physics models. In order to deliver a 2.1-TeV proton beam into the Super Proton-Proton Collider (SPPC), the injector chain will use a 1.2-GeV proton linac (p-Linac) and three synchrotrons of p-RCS, MSS and SS. This paper focuses on the preliminary conceptual design of the DTL within the p-Linac and mainly concerns about the beam dynamics studies. Taking advantages of the KONUS principle and LORASR code, a 325 MHz, 50.65 MeV DTL design which is composed of three tanks in 15.6 m will be presented. The whole DTL contains 129 gaps for beam acceleration, one quadruple doublet which is behind the buncher and eight quadruple triplets of which three are located after each tank, respectively. The aims of this pre-study are to optimize the acceleration electric field distribution together with the focusing magnetic field parameters, enhance the beam transmission quality of beam envelopes, particle distribution and energy spread, then improve the DTL performance in terms of transmission efficiency and so on. The results of the analyses show that the DTL pre-design achieves 16.8 times high energy gain and meets all the p-Linac requirements well.

  1. Design principles of natural light-harvesting as revealed by single molecule spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krüger, T.P.J., E-mail: tjaart.kruger@up.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Private bag X20, Hatfield 0028 (South Africa); Grondelle, R. van [Department of Physics and Astronomy, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1081, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-01-01

    Biology offers a boundless source of adaptation, innovation, and inspiration. A wide range of photosynthetic organisms exist that are capable of harvesting solar light in an exceptionally efficient way, using abundant and low-cost materials. These natural light-harvesting complexes consist of proteins that strongly bind a high density of chromophores to capture solar photons and rapidly transfer the excitation energy to the photochemical reaction centre. The amount of harvested light is also delicately tuned to the level of solar radiation to maintain a constant energy throughput at the reaction centre and avoid the accumulation of the products of charge separation. In this Review, recent developments in the understanding of light-harvesting by plants will be discussed, based on results obtained from single molecule spectroscopy studies. Three design principles of the main light-harvesting antenna of plants will be highlighted: (a) fine, photoactive control over the intrinsic protein disorder to efficiently use intrinsically available thermal energy dissipation mechanisms; (b) the design of the protein microenvironment of a low-energy chromophore dimer to control the amount of shade absorption; (c) the design of the exciton manifold to ensure efficient funneling of the harvested light to the terminal emitter cluster.

  2. Urban Space Innovation - “10+” Principles through Designing the New Image of the Existing Shopping Mall in Csepel, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyergyak, Janos

    2017-10-01

    The first part of the paper is about to introduce the principles of “placemaking” as an innovation and important tool of the cities in the 21st century. The process helps designers to transform the spaces of “nobody” to a community-based space for supporting the connection among humans. The second part of the paper shows the process of the used principles by the author for designing the new image of the existing shopping mall in Csepel, Hungary. This work was selected as one of the best design ideas for renewing the existing underutilized space.

  3. Many-objective Groundwater Monitoring Network Design Using Bias-Aware Ensemble Kalman Filtering and Evolutionary Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollat, J. B.; Reed, P. M.

    2009-12-01

    This study contributes the ASSIST (Adaptive Strategies for Sampling in Space and Time) framework for improving long-term groundwater monitoring decisions across space and time while accounting for the influences of systematic model errors (or predictive bias). The ASSIST framework combines contaminant flow-and-transport modeling, bias-aware ensemble Kalman filtering (EnKF) and many-objective evolutionary optimization. Our goal in this work is to provide decision makers with a fuller understanding of the information tradeoffs they must confront when performing long-term groundwater monitoring network design. Our many-objective analysis considers up to 6 design objectives simultaneously and consequently synthesizes prior monitoring network design methodologies into a single, flexible framework. This study demonstrates the ASSIST framework using a tracer study conducted within a physical aquifer transport experimental tank located at the University of Vermont. The tank tracer experiment was extensively sampled to provide high resolution estimates of tracer plume behavior. The simulation component of the ASSIST framework consists of stochastic ensemble flow-and-transport predictions using ParFlow coupled with the Lagrangian SLIM transport model. The ParFlow and SLIM ensemble predictions are conditioned with tracer observations using a bias-aware EnKF. The EnKF allows decision makers to enhance plume transport predictions in space and time in the presence of uncertain and biased model predictions by conditioning them on uncertain measurement data. In this initial demonstration, the position and frequency of sampling were optimized to: (i) minimize monitoring cost, (ii) maximize information provided to the EnKF, (iii) minimize failure to detect the tracer, (iv) maximize the detection of tracer flux, (v) minimize error in quantifying tracer mass, and (vi) minimize error in quantifying the moment of the tracer plume. The results demonstrate that the many-objective problem

  4. Climate-responsive design: A framework for an energy concept design-decision support tool for architects using principles of climate-responsive design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remco Looman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In climate-responsive design the building becomes an intermediary in its own energy housekeeping, forming a link between the harvest of climate resources and low energy provision of comfort. Essential here is the employment of climate-responsive building elements, defined as structural and architectural elements in which the energy infrastructure is far-reaching integrated. This thesis presents the results of research conducted on what knowledge is needed in the early stages of the design process and how to transfer and transform that knowledge to the field of the architect in order for them to successfully implement the principles of climate-responsive design. The derived content, form and functional requirements provide the framework for a design decision support tool. These requirements were incorporated into a concept tool that has been presented to architects in the field, in order to gain their feedback. Climate-responsive design makes the complex task of designing even more complex. Architects are helped when sufficient information on the basics of climate-responsive design and its implications are provided as informative support during decision making in the early design stages of analysis and energy concept development. This informative support on climate-responsive design should address to different design styles in order to be useful to any type of architects. What is defined as comfortable has far-reaching implications for the way buildings are designed and how they operate. This in turn gives an indication of the energy used for maintaining a comfortable indoor environment. Comfort is not a strict situation, but subjective. Diversity is appreciated and comfort is improved when users have the ability to exert influence on their environment. Historically, the provision of comfort has led to the adoption of mechanical climate control systems that operate in many cases indifferent from the building space and mass and its environment

  5. Water, Resilience and the Law: From General Concepts and Governance Design Principles to Actionable Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill Clarvis, M.; Allan, A.; Hannah, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    least data infrastructure. The article aims to contribute to both theory and practice, enabling policy makers to translate resilience based terminology and adaptive governance principles into clear instructions for incorporating uncertainty into legislation and policy design.

  6. A mechanical design principle for tissue structure and function in the airway tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPrad, Adam S; Lutchen, Kenneth R; Suki, Béla

    2013-01-01

    With every breath, the dynamically changing mechanical pressures must work in unison with the cells and soft tissue structures of the lung to permit air to efficiently traverse the airway tree and undergo gas exchange in the alveoli. The influence of mechanics on cell and tissue function is becoming apparent, raising the question: how does the airway tree co-exist within its mechanical environment to maintain normal cell function throughout its branching structure of diminishing dimensions? We introduce a new mechanical design principle for the conducting airway tree in which mechanotransduction at the level of cells is driven to orchestrate airway wall structural changes that can best maintain a preferred mechanical microenvironment. To support this principle, we report in vitro radius-transmural pressure relations for a range of airway radii obtained from healthy bovine lungs and model the data using a strain energy function together with a thick-walled cylinder description. From this framework, we estimate circumferential stresses and incremental Young's moduli throughout the airway tree. Our results indicate that the conducting airways consistently operate within a preferred mechanical homeostatic state, termed mechanical homeostasis, that is characterized by a narrow range of circumferential stresses and Young's moduli. This mechanical homeostatic state is maintained for all airways throughout the tree via airway wall dimensional and mechanical relationships. As a consequence, cells within the airway walls throughout the airway tree experience similar oscillatory strains during breathing that are much smaller than previously thought. Finally, we discuss the potential implications of how the maintenance of mechanical homeostasis, while facilitating healthy tissue-level alterations necessary for maturation, may lead to airway wall structural changes capable of chronic asthma.

  7. A mechanical design principle for tissue structure and function in the airway tree.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam S LaPrad

    Full Text Available With every breath, the dynamically changing mechanical pressures must work in unison with the cells and soft tissue structures of the lung to permit air to efficiently traverse the airway tree and undergo gas exchange in the alveoli. The influence of mechanics on cell and tissue function is becoming apparent, raising the question: how does the airway tree co-exist within its mechanical environment to maintain normal cell function throughout its branching structure of diminishing dimensions? We introduce a new mechanical design principle for the conducting airway tree in which mechanotransduction at the level of cells is driven to orchestrate airway wall structural changes that can best maintain a preferred mechanical microenvironment. To support this principle, we report in vitro radius-transmural pressure relations for a range of airway radii obtained from healthy bovine lungs and model the data using a strain energy function together with a thick-walled cylinder description. From this framework, we estimate circumferential stresses and incremental Young's moduli throughout the airway tree. Our results indicate that the conducting airways consistently operate within a preferred mechanical homeostatic state, termed mechanical homeostasis, that is characterized by a narrow range of circumferential stresses and Young's moduli. This mechanical homeostatic state is maintained for all airways throughout the tree via airway wall dimensional and mechanical relationships. As a consequence, cells within the airway walls throughout the airway tree experience similar oscillatory strains during breathing that are much smaller than previously thought. Finally, we discuss the potential implications of how the maintenance of mechanical homeostasis, while facilitating healthy tissue-level alterations necessary for maturation, may lead to airway wall structural changes capable of chronic asthma.

  8. The Principle of the Micro-Electronic Neural Bridge and a Prototype System Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zong-Hao; Wang, Zhi-Gong; Lu, Xiao-Ying; Li, Wen-Yuan; Zhou, Yu-Xuan; Shen, Xiao-Yan; Zhao, Xin-Tai

    2016-01-01

    The micro-electronic neural bridge (MENB) aims to rebuild lost motor function of paralyzed humans by routing movement-related signals from the brain, around the damage part in the spinal cord, to the external effectors. This study focused on the prototype system design of the MENB, including the principle of the MENB, the neural signal detecting circuit and the functional electrical stimulation (FES) circuit design, and the spike detecting and sorting algorithm. In this study, we developed a novel improved amplitude threshold spike detecting method based on variable forward difference threshold for both training and bridging phase. The discrete wavelet transform (DWT), a new level feature coefficient selection method based on Lilliefors test, and the k-means clustering method based on Mahalanobis distance were used for spike sorting. A real-time online spike detecting and sorting algorithm based on DWT and Euclidean distance was also implemented for the bridging phase. Tested by the data sets available at Caltech, in the training phase, the average sensitivity, specificity, and clustering accuracies are 99.43%, 97.83%, and 95.45%, respectively. Validated by the three-fold cross-validation method, the average sensitivity, specificity, and classification accuracy are 99.43%, 97.70%, and 96.46%, respectively.

  9. [Hygienic principles of the design of the space and architectural environment of kindergartens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, M I; Kuchma, V R

    In the article there are considered current requirements for the design of the architectural environment of preschool institutions. These requirements provide conditions ofpreservation and promotion of health ofpreschool children. Among them are: the association of rooms according to a functional purpose; division of children collectives according to the age; rational placement of main rooms for the prevention ofpenetration of noise and pollution; ensuring convenientfunctional connections between different premises and group rooms and the parcel ofpreschool institutions; optimal solution of the light mode; rational air and thermal mode. There are made proposals for the expansion of the list of hygienic principles of the design of buildings of kindergartens: provision of conditions for realization of physical activity of children, the safe use of electronic educational equipment, and the creation of the barrier-free environment. There was established the insufficiency of areas of group rooms for the realization of voluntary motor activity of children in modern kindergartens and the need of the revision of the standard of the area of the group room per one child.

  10. Designing the Health-related Internet of Things: Ethical Principles and Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent Mittelstadt

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The conjunction of wireless computing, ubiquitous Internet access, and the miniaturisation of sensors have opened the door for technological applications that can monitor health and well-being outside of formal healthcare systems. The health-related Internet of Things (H-IoT increasingly plays a key role in health management by providing real-time tele-monitoring of patients, testing of treatments, actuation of medical devices, and fitness and well-being monitoring. Given its numerous applications and proposed benefits, adoption by medical and social care institutions and consumers may be rapid. However, a host of ethical concerns are also raised that must be addressed. The inherent sensitivity of health-related data being generated and latent risks of Internet-enabled devices pose serious challenges. Users, already in a vulnerable position as patients, face a seemingly impossible task to retain control over their data due to the scale, scope and complexity of systems that create, aggregate, and analyse personal health data. In response, the H-IoT must be designed to be technologically robust and scientifically reliable, while also remaining ethically responsible, trustworthy, and respectful of user rights and interests. To assist developers of the H-IoT, this paper describes nine principles and nine guidelines for ethical design of H-IoT devices and data protocols.

  11. Ultra-high resolution flat-panel volume CT: fundamental principles, design architecture, and system characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Rajiv; Brady, Tom; Grasruck, Michael; Suess, Christoph; Schmidt, Bernhard; Stierstorfer, Karl; Popescu, Stefan; Flohr, Thomas; Bartling, Soenke H.

    2006-01-01

    Digital flat-panel-based volume CT (VCT) represents a unique design capable of ultra-high spatial resolution, direct volumetric imaging, and dynamic CT scanning. This innovation, when fully developed, has the promise of opening a unique window on human anatomy and physiology. For example, the volumetric coverage offered by this technology enables us to observe the perfusion of an entire organ, such as the brain, liver, or kidney, tomographically (e.g., after a transplant or ischemic event). By virtue of its higher resolution, one can directly visualize the trabecular structure of bone. This paper describes the basic design architecture of VCT. Three key technical challenges, viz., scatter correction, dynamic range extension, and temporal resolution improvement, must be addressed for successful implementation of a VCT scanner. How these issues are solved in a VCT prototype and the modifications necessary to enable ultra-high resolution volumetric scanning are described. The fundamental principles of scatter correction and dose reduction are illustrated with the help of an actual prototype. The image quality metrics of this prototype are characterized and compared with a multi-detector CT (MDCT). (orig.)

  12. Design principles and field performance of a solar spectral irradiance meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsiankou, V.; Hinzer, K.; Haysom, J.; Schriemer, H.; Emery, K.; Beal, R.

    2016-08-01

    A solar spectral irradiance meter (SSIM), designed for measuring the direct normal irradiance (DNI) in six wavelength bands, has been combined with models to determine key atmospheric transmittances and the resulting spectral irradiance distribution of DNI under all sky conditions. The design principles of the SSIM, implementation of a parameterized transmittance model, and field performance comparisons of modeled solar spectra with reference radiometer measurements are presented. Two SSIMs were tested and calibrated at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) against four spectroradiometers and an absolute cavity radiometer. The SSIMs' DNI was on average within 1% of the DNI values reported by one of NREL's primary absolute cavity radiometers. An additional SSIM was installed at the SUNLAB Outdoor Test Facility in September 2014, with ongoing collection of environmental and spectral data. The SSIM's performance in Ottawa was compared against a commercial pyrheliometer and a spectroradiometer over an eight month study. The difference in integrated daily spectral irradiance between the SSIM and the ASD spectroradiometer was found to be less than 1%. The cumulative energy density collected by the SSIM over this duration agreed with that measured by an Eppley model NIP pyrheliometer to within 0.5%. No degradation was observed.

  13. Ultra-high resolution flat-panel volume CT: fundamental principles, design architecture, and system characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Rajiv; Brady, Tom [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Founders House, FND-2-216, Boston, MA (United States); Grasruck, Michael; Suess, Christoph; Schmidt, Bernhard; Stierstorfer, Karl; Popescu, Stefan; Flohr, Thomas [Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim (Germany); Bartling, Soenke H. [Hannover Medical School, Department of Neuroradiology, Hannover (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    Digital flat-panel-based volume CT (VCT) represents a unique design capable of ultra-high spatial resolution, direct volumetric imaging, and dynamic CT scanning. This innovation, when fully developed, has the promise of opening a unique window on human anatomy and physiology. For example, the volumetric coverage offered by this technology enables us to observe the perfusion of an entire organ, such as the brain, liver, or kidney, tomographically (e.g., after a transplant or ischemic event). By virtue of its higher resolution, one can directly visualize the trabecular structure of bone. This paper describes the basic design architecture of VCT. Three key technical challenges, viz., scatter correction, dynamic range extension, and temporal resolution improvement, must be addressed for successful implementation of a VCT scanner. How these issues are solved in a VCT prototype and the modifications necessary to enable ultra-high resolution volumetric scanning are described. The fundamental principles of scatter correction and dose reduction are illustrated with the help of an actual prototype. The image quality metrics of this prototype are characterized and compared with a multi-detector CT (MDCT). (orig.)

  14. The great opportunity: Evolutionary applications to medicine and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesse, Randolph M; Stearns, Stephen C

    2008-02-01

    Evolutionary biology is an essential basic science for medicine, but few doctors and medical researchers are familiar with its most relevant principles. Most medical schools have geneticists who understand evolution, but few have even one evolutionary biologist to suggest other possible applications. The canyon between evolutionary biology and medicine is wide. The question is whether they offer each other enough to make bridge building worthwhile. What benefits could be expected if evolution were brought fully to bear on the problems of medicine? How would studying medical problems advance evolutionary research? Do doctors need to learn evolution, or is it valuable mainly for researchers? What practical steps will promote the application of evolutionary biology in the areas of medicine where it offers the most? To address these questions, we review current and potential applications of evolutionary biology to medicine and public health. Some evolutionary technologies, such as population genetics, serial transfer production of live vaccines, and phylogenetic analysis, have been widely applied. Other areas, such as infectious disease and aging research, illustrate the dramatic recent progress made possible by evolutionary insights. In still other areas, such as epidemiology, psychiatry, and understanding the regulation of bodily defenses, applying evolutionary principles remains an open opportunity. In addition to the utility of specific applications, an evolutionary perspective fundamentally challenges the prevalent but fundamentally incorrect metaphor of the body as a machine designed by an engineer. Bodies are vulnerable to disease - and remarkably resilient - precisely because they are not machines built from a plan. They are, instead, bundles of compromises shaped by natural selection in small increments to maximize reproduction, not health. Understanding the body as a product of natural selection, not design, offers new research questions and a framework for

  15. First-principles study of MoS2 and MoSe2 nanoclusters in the framework of evolutionary algorithm and density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Zohreh; Rafiezadeh, Shohreh; Hafizi, Roohollah; Hashemifar, S. Javad; Akbarzadeh, Hadi

    2018-04-01

    Evolutionary algorithm is combined with full-potential ab initio calculations to investigate conformational space of (MoS2)n and (MoSe2)n (n = 1-10) nanoclusters and to identify the lowest energy structural isomers of these systems. It is argued that within both BLYP and PBE functionals, these nanoclusters favor sandwiched planar configurations, similar to their ideal planar sheets. The second order difference in total energy (Δ2 E) of the lowest energy isomers is computed to estimate the abundance of the clusters at different sizes and to determine the magic sizes of (MoS2)n and (MoSe2)n nanoclusters. In order to investigate the electronic properties of nanoclusters, their energy gap is calculated by several methods, including hybrid functionals (B3LYP and PBE0), GW approach, and Δ scf method. At the end, the vibrational modes of the lowest lying isomers are calculated by using the force constants method and the IR active modes of the systems are identified. The vibrational spectra are used to calculate the Helmholtz free energy of the systems and then to investigate abundance of the nanoclusters at finite temperatures.

  16. USING THE PRINCIPLES OF TRANSFORMATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW DESIGN CLOTHES-MAKING FOR WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IROVAN Marcela

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The transformable garments represent an actual group in the assortment of contemporary clothing, providing wide possibilities of obtaining multifunctional shapes. The work presents the results of theoretical and applied research in the design of garments with flexible structure for women. The scope of study consists in the analysis of possibilities to develop modern assortments of garments for women by using morphological transformation techniques. The transformable products include an ensemble of garments designed with diverse techniques and methods, both traditional and non-traditional. The morphological transformation techniques are based on the principles of reconstruction and transformation, facilitating the transformation of one product shape into another and transformation of elements in the interior of the same shape. The study has defined several development directions for transformable products in the actual wardrobe: products made with two different texture, color and structure faces; products with attachable or detachable elements; products with a separate structure that by location, wrapping or connection of elements allow to obtain diverse shapes; products with changing shapes with the aid of various types of accessories; multifunctional product elements. The experimental studies were aimed at the elaboration of assortments of garments for women by applying the morphological transformation procedures with elaboration and manufacturing of models of transformable skirts for women. The transformable models demonstrate the universality of products, their functional possibilities, capacity to change the external appearance and aesthetic properties. When designing women’s skirts one may use all types of transformation, several types of transformation may be used in one product simultaneously thus achieving several functional scopes.

  17. Design and exploration of semiconductors from first principles: A review of recent advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Fumiyasu; Kumagai, Yu

    2018-06-01

    Recent first-principles approaches to semiconductors are reviewed, with an emphasis on theoretical insight into emerging materials and in silico exploration of as-yet-unreported materials. As relevant theory and methodologies have developed, along with computer performance, it is now feasible to predict a variety of material properties ab initio at the practical level of accuracy required for detailed understanding and elaborate design of semiconductors; these material properties include (i) fundamental bulk properties such as band gaps, effective masses, dielectric constants, and optical absorption coefficients; (ii) the properties of point defects, including native defects, residual impurities, and dopants, such as donor, acceptor, and deep-trap levels, and formation energies, which determine the carrier type and density; and (iii) absolute and relative band positions, including ionization potentials and electron affinities at semiconductor surfaces, band offsets at heterointerfaces between dissimilar semiconductors, and Schottky barrier heights at metal–semiconductor interfaces, which are often discussed systematically using band alignment or lineup diagrams. These predictions from first principles have made it possible to elucidate the characteristics of semiconductors used in industry, including group III–V compounds such as GaN, GaP, and GaAs and their alloys with related Al and In compounds; amorphous oxides, represented by In–Ga–Zn–O transparent conductive oxides (TCOs), represented by In2O3, SnO2, and ZnO; and photovoltaic absorber and buffer layer materials such as CdTe and CdS among group II–VI compounds and chalcopyrite CuInSe2, CuGaSe2, and CuIn1‑ x Ga x Se2 (CIGS) alloys, in addition to the prototypical elemental semiconductors Si and Ge. Semiconductors attracting renewed or emerging interest have also been investigated, for instance, divalent tin compounds, including SnO and SnS; wurtzite-derived ternary compounds such as ZnSnN2 and Cu

  18. Evolutionary Nephrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Chevalier

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Progressive kidney disease follows nephron loss, hyperfiltration, and incomplete repair, a process described as “maladaptive.” In the past 20 years, a new discipline has emerged that expands research horizons: evolutionary medicine. In contrast to physiologic (homeostatic adaptation, evolutionary adaptation is the result of reproductive success that reflects natural selection. Evolutionary explanations for physiologically maladaptive responses can emerge from mismatch of the phenotype with environment or from evolutionary tradeoffs. Evolutionary adaptation to a terrestrial environment resulted in a vulnerable energy-consuming renal tubule and a hypoxic, hyperosmolar microenvironment. Natural selection favors successful energy investment strategy: energy is allocated to maintenance of nephron integrity through reproductive years, but this declines with increasing senescence after ∼40 years of age. Risk factors for chronic kidney disease include restricted fetal growth or preterm birth (life history tradeoff resulting in fewer nephrons, evolutionary selection for APOL1 mutations (which provide resistance to trypanosome infection, a tradeoff, and modern life experience (Western diet mismatch leading to diabetes and hypertension. Current advances in genomics, epigenetics, and developmental biology have revealed proximate causes of kidney disease, but attempts to slow kidney disease remain elusive. Evolutionary medicine provides a complementary approach by addressing ultimate causes of kidney disease. Marked variation in nephron number at birth, nephron heterogeneity, and changing susceptibility to kidney injury throughout the life history are the result of evolutionary processes. Combined application of molecular genetics, evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo, developmental programming, and life history theory may yield new strategies for prevention and treatment of chronic kidney disease.

  19. Canadian nuclear power principles for beyond design basis events - supporting rationale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, M.; Newman, G.; Bhaloo, A.

    2014-01-01

    The development of the following principles and their rationale began during a special Chief Nuclear Engineers forum held on March 25th, 2013 in Toronto. These principles are intended to provide guidance to the Canadian Nuclear Power Industry in developing responses to the lessons learned from the Fukushima event of March 2011. These principles were accepted and signed off by the Chief Nuclear Officers of each of the three utilities in August 2013 and were presented to the CNSC at a public hearing on August 21, 2013. This document provides the underlying rationale for the principles. (author)

  20. Canadian nuclear power principles for beyond design basis events - supporting rationale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, M. [OPG Nuclear, Ontario (Canada); Newman, G. [Bruce Power, Ontario (Canada); Bhaloo, A. [New Brunswick Power, New Brunswick (Canada)

    2014-09-15

    The development of the following principles and their rationale began during a special Chief Nuclear Engineers forum held on March 25th, 2013 in Toronto. These principles are intended to provide guidance to the Canadian Nuclear Power Industry in developing responses to the lessons learned from the Fukushima event of March 2011. These principles were accepted and signed off by the Chief Nuclear Officers of each of the three utilities in August 2013 and were presented to the CNSC at a public hearing on August 21, 2013. This document provides the underlying rationale for the principles. (author)

  1. Canadian nuclear power principles for beyond design basis events - supporting rationale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, M. [Ontario Power Generation Nuclear, Pickering, ON (Canada); Newman, G. [Bruce Power, Tiverton, ON (Canada); Bhaloo, A. [New Brunswick Power, Fredericton, NB (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The development of the following principles and their rationale began during a special Chief Nuclear Engineers forum held on March 25th, 2013 in Toronto. These principles are intended to provide guidance to the Canadian Nuclear Power Industry in developing responses to the lessons learned from the Fukushima event of March 2011. These principles were accepted and signed off by the Chief Nuclear Officers of each of the three utilities in August 2013 and were presented to the CNSC at a public hearing on August 21, 2013. This document provides the underlying rationale for the principles. (author)

  2. Novel geometrical concept of a high-performance brain PET scanner. Principle, design and performance estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seguinot, J.; Braem, A.; Chesi, E.

    2006-01-01

    We present the principle, a possible implementation and performance estimates of a novel geometrical concept for a high-resolution positron emission tomograph. The concept, which can be for example implemented in a brain PET device, promises to lead to an essentially parallax-free 3D image reconstruction with excellent spatial resolution and contrast, uniform over the complete field of view. The key components are matrices of long axially oriented scintillator crystals which are read out at both extremities by segmented Hybrid Photon Detectors. We discuss the relevant design considerations for a 3D axial PET camera module, motivate parameter and material choices, and estimate its performance in terms of spatial and energy resolution. We support these estimates by Monte Carlo simulations and in some cases by first experimental results. From the performance of a camera module, we extrapolate to the reconstruction resolution of a 3D axial PET scanner in a semi-analytical way and compare it to an existing state-of-the art brain PET device. We finally describe a dedicated data acquisition system, capable to fully exploit the advantages of the proposed concept

  3. Structural design principles of complex bird songs: a network-based approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutoshi Sasahara

    Full Text Available Bird songs are acoustic communication signals primarily used in male-male aggression and in male-female attraction. These are often monotonous patterns composed of a few phrases, yet some birds have extremely complex songs with a large phrase repertoire, organized in non-random fashion with discernible patterns. Since structure is typically associated with function, the structures of complex bird songs provide important clues to the evolution of animal communication systems. Here we propose an efficient network-based approach to explore structural design principles of complex bird songs, in which the song networks--transition relationships among different phrases and the related structural measures--are employed. We demonstrate how this approach works with an example using California Thrasher songs, which are sequences of highly varied phrases delivered in succession over several minutes. These songs display two distinct features: a large phrase repertoire with a 'small-world' architecture, in which subsets of phrases are highly grouped and linked with a short average path length; and a balanced transition diversity amongst phrases, in which deterministic and non-deterministic transition patterns are moderately mixed. We explore the robustness of this approach with variations in sample size and the amount of noise. Our approach enables a more quantitative study of global and local structural properties of complex bird songs than has been possible to date.

  4. Design Principles of A Sigma-delta Flux-gate Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnes, W.; Valavanoglou, A.; Pierce, D.; Frank, A.; Schwingenschuh, K.

    A state-of-the-art flux-gate magnetometer is characterised by magnetic field resolution of several pT in a wide frequency range, low power consumption, low weight and high robustness. Therefore, flux-gate magnetometers are frequently used for ground-based Earth's field observation as well as for measurements aboard scientific space missions. But both traditional analogue and recently developed digital flux-gate magnetometers need low power and high-resolution analogue-to-digital converters for signal quan- tization. The disadvantage of such converters is the low radiation hardness. This fact has led to the idea of combining a traditional analogue flux-gate regulation circuit with that of a discretely realized sigma-delta converter in order to get a radiation hard and further miniaturized magnetometer. The name sigma-delta converter is derived from putting an integrator in front of a 1-bit delta modulator which forms the sigma-delta loop. It is followed by a digital decimation filter realized in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The flux-gate regulation and the sigma-delta loop are quite similar in the way of realizing the integrator and feedback circuit, which makes it easy to com- bine these two systems. The presented talk deals with the design principles and the results of a first bread board model.

  5. Principles underlying the design of "The Number Race", an adaptive computer game for remediation of dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Laurent

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adaptive game software has been successful in remediation of dyslexia. Here we describe the cognitive and algorithmic principles underlying the development of similar software for dyscalculia. Our software is based on current understanding of the cerebral representation of number and the hypotheses that dyscalculia is due to a "core deficit" in number sense or in the link between number sense and symbolic number representations. Methods "The Number Race" software trains children on an entertaining numerical comparison task, by presenting problems adapted to the performance level of the individual child. We report full mathematical specifications of the algorithm used, which relies on an internal model of the child's knowledge in a multidimensional "learning space" consisting of three difficulty dimensions: numerical distance, response deadline, and conceptual complexity (from non-symbolic numerosity processing to increasingly complex symbolic operations. Results The performance of the software was evaluated both by mathematical simulations and by five weeks of use by nine children with mathematical learning difficulties. The results indicate that the software adapts well to varying levels of initial knowledge and learning speeds. Feedback from children, parents and teachers was positive. A companion article 1 describes the evolution of number sense and arithmetic scores before and after training. Conclusion The software, open-source and freely available online, is designed for learning disabled children aged 5–8, and may also be useful for general instruction of normal preschool children. The learning algorithm reported is highly general, and may be applied in other domains.

  6. Principles of design and software development models of ontological-driven computer systems

    OpenAIRE

    Palagin, A. V.; Petrenko, N. G.; Velychko, V. Yu.; Malakhov, K. S.; Karun, O. V.

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes the design principles of methodology of knowledge-oriented information systems based on ontological approach. Such systems implement technology subject-oriented extraction of knowledge from the set of natural language texts and their formal and logical presentation and application processing В работе описаны основы методологии проектирования знание-ориентированных информационных систем на основе онтологического подхода. Такие системы реализуют технологию извлечения пре...

  7. Design of a speed meter interferometer proof-of-principle experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gräf, C; Barr, B W; Bell, A S; Campbell, F; Cumming, A V; Gordon, N A; Hammond, G D; Hennig, J; Houston, E A; Huttner, S H; Jones, R A; Leavey, S S; Macarthur, J; Marwick, M; Rigby, S; Sorazu, B; Spencer, A; Danilishin, S L; Lück, H; Schilling, R

    2014-01-01

    The second generation of large scale interferometric gravitational wave (GW) detectors will be limited by quantum noise over a wide frequency range in their detection band. Further sensitivity improvements for future upgrades or new detectors beyond the second generation motivate the development of measurement schemes to mitigate the impact of quantum noise in these instruments. Two strands of development are being pursued to reach this goal, focusing both on modifications of the well-established Michelson detector configuration and development of different detector topologies. In this paper, we present the design of the world's first Sagnac speed meter (SSM) interferometer, which is currently being constructed at the University of Glasgow. With this proof-of-principle experiment we aim to demonstrate the theoretically predicted lower quantum noise in a Sagnac interferometer compared to an equivalent Michelson interferometer, to qualify SSM for further research towards an implementation in a future generation large scale GW detector, such as the planned Einstein telescope observatory. (paper)

  8. ICT FOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS’ RESEARCHES: DESIGN PRINCIPLES, TRENDS AND EXPERIENCE OF USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Yu. Burov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the principles of ICT design and technology for research in high school, including two subsystems - assessment of intellectual abilities and the selection of students for the intellectual professions, as well as the modeling of cognitive and perceptual activity in the conditions of influence of various factors (internal and external. The description of the psychological tests used in the proposed ICT has been given. It is described an example of student research projects in the field of natural and mathematical sciences on the basis of experimental studies using the developed ICT: identifying the effect of solar activity and geomagnetic field on a physiological state and cognitive performance, communication chronotype and success of high school students learning, appearance of bifurcation in the performance of cognitive tasks rate. These results demonstrated the students' ability to perform using this ICT not only the research training projects, but also the field research to yield new knowledge in mathematics, physics, psychology, medicine and physiology.

  9. On the importance of agile communication skills in BPM education: Design principles for international seminars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan vom Brocke

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Business Process Management (BPM has evolved as an integrated management discipline that aims to enable organizations to continuously innovate and improve their operations. BPM experts are exposed to communication processes involving people from various backgrounds (e.g., various business areas, fields of expertise, and cultures. Research in applied linguistics has shown that it is difficult to plan for constellations of such communication processes; thus, agile communication skills are vital for successful business communication. Teaching programs for BPM, however, do not account for these skills. Rather, they mainly address methods for the analysis, implementation, and management of business processes. As a result, graduates—though they may be technically and methodologically apt—face unexpected challenges due to communication deficiencies in BPM projects. BPM research has shown that deficiencies in communication are in fact among the most frequent reasons for project failure. In this paper, we present a course setting to teach agile communication skills in BPM education. The approach is informed by literature on BPM education as well as theories from virtual collaboration education. We have evaluated it in an international virtual seminar involving seven European universities. We argue for the importance of agile communication skills in BPM education. In addition, we present design principles for courses to teach agile communication skills that can be applied by fellow academics.

  10. Design principles for high–pressure force fields: Aqueous TMAO solutions from ambient to kilobar pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hölzl, Christoph; Horinek, Dominik, E-mail: dominik.horinek@ur.de [Institut für Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Universität Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg (Germany); Kibies, Patrick; Frach, Roland; Kast, Stefan M., E-mail: stefan.kast@tu-dortmund.de [Physikalische Chemie III, Technische Universität Dortmund, 44227 Dortmund (Germany); Imoto, Sho, E-mail: sho.imoto@theochem.rub.de; Marx, Dominik [Lehrstuhl für Theoretische Chemie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Suladze, Saba; Winter, Roland [Physikalische Chemie I, Technische Universität Dortmund, 44227 Dortmund (Germany)

    2016-04-14

    Accurate force fields are one of the major pillars on which successful molecular dynamics simulations of complex biomolecular processes rest. They have been optimized for ambient conditions, whereas high-pressure simulations become increasingly important in pressure perturbation studies, using pressure as an independent thermodynamic variable. Here, we explore the design of non-polarizable force fields tailored to work well in the realm of kilobar pressures – while avoiding complete reparameterization. Our key is to first compute the pressure-induced electronic and structural response of a solute by combining an integral equation approach to include pressure effects on solvent structure with a quantum-chemical treatment of the solute within the embedded cluster reference interaction site model (EC-RISM) framework. Next, the solute’s response to compression is taken into account by introducing pressure-dependence into selected parameters of a well-established force field. In our proof-of-principle study, the full machinery is applied to N,N,N-trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in water being a potent osmolyte that counteracts pressure denaturation. EC-RISM theory is shown to describe well the charge redistribution upon compression of TMAO(aq) to 10 kbar, which is then embodied in force field molecular dynamics by pressure-dependent partial charges. The performance of the high pressure force field is assessed by comparing to experimental and ab initio molecular dynamics data. Beyond its broad usefulness for designing non-polarizable force fields for extreme thermodynamic conditions, a good description of the pressure-response of solutions is highly recommended when constructing and validating polarizable force fields.

  11. Design principles for high-pressure force fields: Aqueous TMAO solutions from ambient to kilobar pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzl, Christoph; Kibies, Patrick; Imoto, Sho; Frach, Roland; Suladze, Saba; Winter, Roland; Marx, Dominik; Horinek, Dominik; Kast, Stefan M

    2016-04-14

    Accurate force fields are one of the major pillars on which successful molecular dynamics simulations of complex biomolecular processes rest. They have been optimized for ambient conditions, whereas high-pressure simulations become increasingly important in pressure perturbation studies, using pressure as an independent thermodynamic variable. Here, we explore the design of non-polarizable force fields tailored to work well in the realm of kilobar pressures--while avoiding complete reparameterization. Our key is to first compute the pressure-induced electronic and structural response of a solute by combining an integral equation approach to include pressure effects on solvent structure with a quantum-chemical treatment of the solute within the embedded cluster reference interaction site model (EC-RISM) framework. Next, the solute's response to compression is taken into account by introducing pressure-dependence into selected parameters of a well-established force field. In our proof-of-principle study, the full machinery is applied to N,N,N-trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in water being a potent osmolyte that counteracts pressure denaturation. EC-RISM theory is shown to describe well the charge redistribution upon compression of TMAO(aq) to 10 kbar, which is then embodied in force field molecular dynamics by pressure-dependent partial charges. The performance of the high pressure force field is assessed by comparing to experimental and ab initio molecular dynamics data. Beyond its broad usefulness for designing non-polarizable force fields for extreme thermodynamic conditions, a good description of the pressure-response of solutions is highly recommended when constructing and validating polarizable force fields.

  12. Design principles for high–pressure force fields: Aqueous TMAO solutions from ambient to kilobar pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hölzl, Christoph; Horinek, Dominik; Kibies, Patrick; Frach, Roland; Kast, Stefan M.; Imoto, Sho; Marx, Dominik; Suladze, Saba; Winter, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Accurate force fields are one of the major pillars on which successful molecular dynamics simulations of complex biomolecular processes rest. They have been optimized for ambient conditions, whereas high-pressure simulations become increasingly important in pressure perturbation studies, using pressure as an independent thermodynamic variable. Here, we explore the design of non-polarizable force fields tailored to work well in the realm of kilobar pressures – while avoiding complete reparameterization. Our key is to first compute the pressure-induced electronic and structural response of a solute by combining an integral equation approach to include pressure effects on solvent structure with a quantum-chemical treatment of the solute within the embedded cluster reference interaction site model (EC-RISM) framework. Next, the solute’s response to compression is taken into account by introducing pressure-dependence into selected parameters of a well-established force field. In our proof-of-principle study, the full machinery is applied to N,N,N-trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in water being a potent osmolyte that counteracts pressure denaturation. EC-RISM theory is shown to describe well the charge redistribution upon compression of TMAO(aq) to 10 kbar, which is then embodied in force field molecular dynamics by pressure-dependent partial charges. The performance of the high pressure force field is assessed by comparing to experimental and ab initio molecular dynamics data. Beyond its broad usefulness for designing non-polarizable force fields for extreme thermodynamic conditions, a good description of the pressure-response of solutions is highly recommended when constructing and validating polarizable force fields.

  13. MiTEP's Collaborative Field Course Design Process Based on Earth Science Literacy Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, C. A.; Rose, W. I.; Huntoon, J. E.; Klawiter, M. F.; Hungwe, K.

    2010-12-01

    Michigan Technological University has developed a collaborative process for designing summer field courses for teachers as part of their National Science Foundation funded Math Science Partnership program, called the Michigan Teacher Excellence Program (MiTEP). This design process was implemented and then piloted during two two-week courses: Earth Science Institute I (ESI I) and Earth Science Institute II (ESI II). Participants consisted of a small group of Michigan urban science teachers who are members of the MiTEP program. The Earth Science Literacy Principles (ESLP) served as the framework for course design in conjunction with input from participating MiTEP teachers as well as research done on common teacher and student misconceptions in Earth Science. Research on the Earth Science misconception component, aligned to the ESLP, is more fully addressed in GSA Abstracts with Programs Vol. 42, No. 5. “Recognizing Earth Science Misconceptions and Reconstructing Knowledge through Conceptual-Change-Teaching”. The ESLP were released to the public in January 2009 by the Earth Science Literacy Organizing Committee and can be found at http://www.earthscienceliteracy.org/index.html. Each day of the first nine days of both Institutes was focused on one of the nine ESLP Big Ideas; the tenth day emphasized integration of concepts across all of the ESLP Big Ideas. Throughout each day, Michigan Tech graduate student facilitators and professors from Michigan Tech and Grand Valley State University consistantly focused teaching and learning on the day's Big Idea. Many Earth Science experts from Michigan Tech and Grand Valley State University joined the MiTEP teachers in the field or on campus, giving presentations on the latest research in their area that was related to that Big Idea. Field sites were chosen for their unique geological features as well as for the “sense of place” each site provided. Preliminary research findings indicate that this collaborative design

  14. Evolutionary thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Tam

    2014-01-01

    Evolution as an idea has a lengthy history, even though the idea of evolution is generally associated with Darwin today. Rebecca Stott provides an engaging and thoughtful overview of this history of evolutionary thinking in her 2013 book, Darwin's Ghosts: The Secret History of Evolution. Since Darwin, the debate over evolution—both how it takes place and, in a long war of words with religiously-oriented thinkers, whether it takes place—has been sustained and heated. A growing share of this debate is now devoted to examining how evolutionary thinking affects areas outside of biology. How do our lives change when we recognize that all is in flux? What can we learn about life more generally if we study change instead of stasis? Carter Phipps’ book, Evolutionaries: Unlocking the Spiritual and Cultural Potential of Science's Greatest Idea, delves deep into this relatively new development. Phipps generally takes as a given the validity of the Modern Synthesis of evolutionary biology. His story takes us into, as the subtitle suggests, the spiritual and cultural implications of evolutionary thinking. Can religion and evolution be reconciled? Can evolutionary thinking lead to a new type of spirituality? Is our culture already being changed in ways that we don't realize by evolutionary thinking? These are all important questions and Phipps book is a great introduction to this discussion. Phipps is an author, journalist, and contributor to the emerging “integral” or “evolutionary” cultural movement that combines the insights of Integral Philosophy, evolutionary science, developmental psychology, and the social sciences. He has served as the Executive Editor of EnlightenNext magazine (no longer published) and more recently is the co-founder of the Institute for Cultural Evolution, a public policy think tank addressing the cultural roots of America's political challenges. What follows is an email interview with Phipps. PMID:26478766

  15. Evolutionary Demography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levitis, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    of biological and cultural evolution. Demographic variation within and among human populations is influenced by our biology, and therefore by natural selection and our evolutionary background. Demographic methods are necessary for studying populations of other species, and for quantifying evolutionary fitness......Demography is the quantitative study of population processes, while evolution is a population process that influences all aspects of biological organisms, including their demography. Demographic traits common to all human populations are the products of biological evolution or the interaction...

  16. Freud: the first evolutionary psychologist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCroy, D

    2000-04-01

    An evolutionary perspective on attachment theory and psychoanalytic theory brings these two fields together in interesting ways. Application of the evolutionary principle of parent-offspring conflict to attachment theory suggests that attachment styles represent context-sensitive, evolved (adaptive) behaviors. In addition, an emphasis on offspring counter-strategies to adult reproductive strategies leads to consideration of attachment styles as overt manifestations of psychodynamic mediating processes, including the defense mechanisms of repression and reaction formation.

  17. Multi-stage thermal-economical optimization of compact heat exchangers: A new evolutionary-based design approach for real-world problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousefi, Moslem; Darus, Amer Nordin; Yousefi, Milad; Hooshyar, Danial

    2015-01-01

    The complicated task of design optimization of compact heat exchangers (CHEs) have been effectively performed by using evolutionary algorithms (EAs) in the recent years. However, mainly due to difficulties of handling extra variables, the design approach has been based on constant rates of heat duty in the available literature. In this paper, a new design strategy is presented where variable operating conditions, which better represent real-world problems, are considered. The proposed strategy is illustrated using a case study for design of a plate-fin heat exchanger though it can be employed for all types of heat exchangers without much change. Learning automata based particle swarm optimization (LAPSO), is employed for handling nine design variables while satisfying various equality and inequality constraints. For handling the constraints, a novel feasibility based ranking strategy (FBRS) is introduced. The numerical results indicate that the design based on variable heat duties yields in more cost savings and superior thermodynamics efficiency comparing to a conventional design approach. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm has shown a superior performance in finding the near-optimum solution for this task when it is compared to the most popular evolutionary algorithms in engineering applications, i.e. genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). - Highlights: • Multi-stage design of heat exchangers is presented. • Feasibility based ranking strategy is employed for constraint handling. • Learning abilities added to particle swarm optimization

  18. Optimality principles in the regulation of metabolic networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, J.; Bruggeman, F.J.; Teusink, B.

    2012-01-01

    One of the challenging tasks in systems biology is to understand how molecular networks give rise to emergent functionality and whether universal design principles apply to molecular networks. To achieve this, the biophysical, evolutionary and physiological constraints that act on those networks

  19. Regulatory principles, criteria and guidelines for site selection, design, construction and operation of uranium tailings retention systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coady, J.R.; Henry, L.C.

    1978-01-01

    Principles, criteria and guidelines developed by the Atomic Energy Control Board for the management of uranium mill tailings are discussed. The application of these concepts is considered in relation to site selection, design and construction, operation and decommissioning of tailings retention facilities

  20. Improving the Quality of Online Discussion: The Effects of Strategies Designed Based on Cognitive Load Theory Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Aubteen; Jin, Li

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on heavy cognitive load as the reason for the lack of quality associated with conventional online discussion. Using the principles of cognitive load theory, four online discussion strategies were designed specifically aiming at reducing the discussants' cognitive load and thus enhancing the quality of their online discussion.…

  1. Designing for Discovery Learning of Complexity Principles of Congestion by Driving Together in the TrafficJams Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Sharona T.; Peleg, Ran; Ofeck, Eyal; Tabor, Naamit; Dubovi, Ilana; Bluestein, Shiri; Ben-Zur, Hadar

    2018-01-01

    We propose and evaluate a framework supporting collaborative discovery learning of complex systems. The framework blends five design principles: (1) individual action: amidst (2) social interactions; challenged with (3) multiple tasks; set in (4) a constrained interactive learning environment that draws attention to (5) highlighted target…

  2. Principles of transistor circuits introduction to the design of amplifiers, receivers and digital circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Amos, S W

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Transistor Circuits: Sixth Edition discusses the principles, concepts, and practices involved integrated circuits. The current edition includes up-to-date circuits, the section on thyristors has been revised to give more information on modern types, and dated information has been eliminated. The book covers related topics such as semiconductors and junction diodes; the principles behind transistors; and common amplifiers. The book also covers bias and DC stabilization; large-signal and small-signal AF amplifiers; DC and pulse amplifiers; sinusoidal oscillators; pulse and sawtooth

  3. Cell surface receptors for signal transduction and ligand transport: a design principles study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Shankaran

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Receptors constitute the interface of cells to their external environment. These molecules bind specific ligands involved in multiple processes, such as signal transduction and nutrient transport. Although a variety of cell surface receptors undergo endocytosis, the systems-level design principles that govern the evolution of receptor trafficking dynamics are far from fully understood. We have constructed a generalized mathematical model of receptor-ligand binding and internalization to understand how receptor internalization dynamics encodes receptor function and regulation. A given signaling or transport receptor system represents a particular implementation of this module with a specific set of kinetic parameters. Parametric analysis of the response of receptor systems to ligand inputs reveals that receptor systems can be characterized as being: i avidity-controlled where the response control depends primarily on the extracellular ligand capture efficiency, ii consumption-controlled where the ability to internalize surface-bound ligand is the primary control parameter, and iii dual-sensitivity where both the avidity and consumption parameters are important. We show that the transferrin and low-density lipoprotein receptors are avidity-controlled, the vitellogenin receptor is consumption-controlled, and the epidermal growth factor receptor is a dual-sensitivity receptor. Significantly, we show that ligand-induced endocytosis is a mechanism to enhance the accuracy of signaling receptors rather than merely serving to attenuate signaling. Our analysis reveals that the location of a receptor system in the avidity-consumption parameter space can be used to understand both its function and its regulation.

  4. Limitations of implementing sustainable construction principles in the conventional South African design approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sebake, TN

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available professionals, particularly by architects, in the implementation of sustainability principles in the development of building projects. The aim of the paper is to highlight the limitations of introducing sustainability aspects into the existing South African...

  5. Guided-mode resonant filters and reflectors: Principles, design, and fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niraula, Manoj

    In this dissertation, we overview the operational principles of these resonant periodic structures, discuss the methods of their design and fabrication, and propose and demonstrate novel functionalities for spatial and spectral filtering, and unpolarized wideband reflection. Fashioned with materially sparse gratings, these optical devices are easy to fabricate and integration friendly compared to their traditional multi-layer counterparts making their research and development critical for practical applications. We study, theoretically, modal properties and parametric dependence of resonant periodic bandpass filters operating in the mid- and near-infrared spectral domains. We investigate three different device architectures consisting of single, double, and triple layers based on all-transparent dielectric and semiconductor thin films. We present three modal coupling configurations forming complex mixtures of two or three distinct leaky modes coupling at different evanescent diffraction orders. Our modal analysis demonstrates key attributes of subwavelength periodic thin-film structures in multiple-modal blending to achieve desired transmission spectra. We provide the first experimental demonstration of high-efficiency and narrow-linewidth resonant bandpass filter applying a single patterned silicon layer on a quartz substrate. Its performance corresponds to bandpass filters requiring 15 traditional Si/SiO2 thin-film layers. The feasibility of sparse narrowband, high-efficiency bandpass filters with extremely wide, flat, and low sidebands is thereby demonstrated. The proposed technology is integration-friendly and opens doors for further development in various disciplines and spectral regions where thin-film solutions are traditionally applied. We demonstrate concurrent spatial and spectral filtering as a new outstanding attribute of resonant periodic devices. This functionality is enabled by a unique, near-complete, reflection state that is discrete in both

  6. Graphical symbols -- Safety colours and safety signs -- Part 1: Design principles for safety signs in workplaces and public areas

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2002-01-01

    This International Standard establishes the safety identification colours and design principles for safety signs to be used in workplaces and in public areas for the purpose of accident prevention, fire protection, health hazard information and emergency evacuation. It also establishes the basic principles to be applied when developing standards containing safety signs. This part of ISO 3864 is applicable to workplaces and all locations and all sectors where safety-related questions may be posed. However, it is not applicable to the signalling used for guiding rail, road, river, maritime and air traffic and, generally speaking, to those sectors subject to a regulation which may differ.

  7. Classical maple syrup urine disease and brain development: principles of management and formula design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Kevin A; Wardley, Bridget; Robinson, Donna; Hendrickson, Christine; Rider, Nicholas L; Puffenberger, Erik G; Shellmer, Diana; Shelmer, Diana; Moser, Ann B; Morton, D Holmes

    2010-04-01

    managed with MSUD hyperalimentation solution; 86% were precipitated by common infections, especially vomiting and gastroenteritis. The large majority of catabolic illnesses were managed successfully at home using 'sick-day' formula and frequent amino acid monitoring. We conclude that the study formula is safe and effective for the treatment of classical MSUD. In principle, dietary enrichment protects the brain against deficiency of amino acids used for protein accretion, neurotransmitter synthesis, and methyl group transfer. Although the pathophysiology of MSUD can be addressed through rational formula design, this does not replace the need for vigilant clinical monitoring, frequent measurement of the complete amino acid profile, and ongoing dietary adjustments that match nutritional intake to the metabolic demands of growth and illness. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evolutionary Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, Ulrik William

    2014-01-01

    , they are correlated among people who share environments because these individuals satisfice within their cognitive bounds by using cues in order of validity, as opposed to using cues arbitrarily. Any difference in expectations thereby arise from differences in cognitive ability, because two individuals with identical...... cognitive bounds will perceive business opportunities identically. In addition, because cues provide information about latent causal structures of the environment, changes in causality must be accompanied by changes in cognitive representations if adaptation is to be maintained. The concept of evolutionary......The concept of evolutionary expectations descends from cue learning psychology, synthesizing ideas on rational expectations with ideas on bounded rationality, to provide support for these ideas simultaneously. Evolutionary expectations are rational, but within cognitive bounds. Moreover...

  9. [Evolutionary medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wjst, M

    2013-12-01

    Evolutionary medicine allows new insights into long standing medical problems. Are we "really stoneagers on the fast lane"? This insight might have enormous consequences and will allow new answers that could never been provided by traditional anthropology. Only now this is made possible using data from molecular medicine and systems biology. Thereby evolutionary medicine takes a leap from a merely theoretical discipline to practical fields - reproductive, nutritional and preventive medicine, as well as microbiology, immunology and psychiatry. Evolutionary medicine is not another "just so story" but a serious candidate for the medical curriculum providing a universal understanding of health and disease based on our biological origin. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Evolutionary Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Gorelik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we advance the concept of “evolutionary awareness,” a metacognitive framework that examines human thought and emotion from a naturalistic, evolutionary perspective. We begin by discussing the evolution and current functioning of the moral foundations on which our framework rests. Next, we discuss the possible applications of such an evolutionarily-informed ethical framework to several domains of human behavior, namely: sexual maturation, mate attraction, intrasexual competition, culture, and the separation between various academic disciplines. Finally, we discuss ways in which an evolutionary awareness can inform our cross-generational activities—which we refer to as “intergenerational extended phenotypes”—by helping us to construct a better future for ourselves, for other sentient beings, and for our environment.

  11. Design Principles for Covalent Organic Frameworks as Efficient Electrocatalysts in Clean Energy Conversion and Green Oxidizer Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Yu; Zhang, Lipeng; Zhao, Zhenghang; Xia, Zhenhai

    2017-05-01

    Covalent organic frameworks (COFs), an emerging class of framework materials linked by covalent bonds, hold potential for various applications such as efficient electrocatalysts, photovoltaics, and sensors. To rationally design COF-based electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions in fuel cells and metal-air batteries, activity descriptors, derived from orbital energy and bonding structures, are identified with the first-principle calculations for the COFs, which correlate COF structures with their catalytic activities. The calculations also predict that alkaline-earth metal-porphyrin COFs could catalyze the direct production of H 2 O 2 , a green oxidizer and an energy carrier. These predictions are supported by experimental data, and the design principles derived from the descriptors provide an approach for rational design of new electrocatalysts for both clean energy conversion and green oxidizer production. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Recommendations for sex/gender neuroimaging research: Key principles and implications for research design, analysis and interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina eRippon

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available For over a decade, neuroimaging (NI technologies have had an increasing impact in the study of complex cognitive and social processes. In this emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience, a central goal should be to increase the understanding of the interaction between the neurobiology of the individual and the environment in which s/he develops and functions. The study of the relationship between sex and gender could offer a valuable example of such research. We identify here four main principles that should inform NI research. First, the principle of overlap, arising from evidence of significant overlap of female/male distributions on measures of many gendered behaviours. Second, the principle of mosaicism, arising from evidence that for both behaviour and brain, each individual manifests a complex and idiosyncratic combination of feminine and masculine characteristics. Third, the principle of contingency, arising from evidence that female/male behavioural differences are contingent on time, place, social group and context. Fourth, the principle of entanglement, arising from an awareness that the neural phenotypes that NI techniques measure are a function of the interactive and reciprocal influence of biology and environment. These important principles have emerged and become well-established over the past few decades, but their implications are often not reflected in the design and interpretation of NI sex/gender research. We therefore offer a set of guidelines for researchers to ensure that NI sex/gender research is appropriately designed and interpreted. We hope this ‘toolkit’ will also be of use to editorial boards and journal reviewers, as well as those who view, communicate and interpret such research.

  13. Principles of expert fuzzy controller design: AI mobile wall climbing robots for decontamination of nuclear power-station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradetsky, V.G.; Ul'yanov, S.; Slesarev, Y.V.; Pospelov, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The arrangement principles for a complex control framework of artificial intelligence control systems are introduced. The notions of intelligence levels with the top boundary (intelligence in large) and the bottom boundary (intelligence in small) are defined. A special methodology for the design of an artificial intelligence control system design for the decontamination of a nuclear power plant using a wall climbing robot with different intelligence levels is presented. The application of WARP (Weight Associative Rule Processor) to the design of an automatic fuzzy controller for the fuzzy correction of the motion of the manipulator and WCR is examined

  14. Elmo Bumpy Torus proof of principle, Phase II: Title 1 report. Volume V. Vacuum-pumping system. Preliminary design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report summarizes Title I Preliminary Design of the EBT-P Vacuum Pumping System. The Vacuum Pumping System has been designed by the McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Co. - St. Louis (MDAC). It includes the necessary vacuum pumps and vacuum valves to evacuate the torus, the Mirror Coil Dewars (MC Dewars), and the Gyrotron Magnet Dewars. The pumping ducts, manifolds, and microwave protection system are also included. A summary of the function of each subsystem and a description of its principle components is provided below. The analyses performed during the system design are also identified

  15. PEDAGOGICAL PRINCIPLES OF THE DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF EXPERT TRAINING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleh Shevchuk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The articles defines the system of pedagogical principles (centering on an individual, the priority of the pedagogical approach, educational appropriateness of the use of new information technologies; the freedom of choice of the cognitive trajectory; diversity; openness and development; professional orientation; "precedent", the emotional fulfillment of the environment; the distribution of educational material which has to lie on the basis of designingeducational techniques which are based on expert training systems. The gnosiological grounds for the mentioned system of principles are provided.

  16. Principles of transistor circuits introduction to the design of amplifiers, receivers and digital circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Amos, S W

    1990-01-01

    Principles of Transistor Circuits, Seventh Edition discusses the fundamental concepts of transistor circuits. The book is comprised of 16 chapters that cover amplifiers, oscillators, and generators. Chapter 1 discusses semiconductors and junction nodes, while Chapter 2 covers the basic principles of transistors. The subsequent chapters focus on amplifiers, where one of the chapters discusses bias and D.C. The book also talks about sinusoidal oscillators and covers modulators, demodulators, mixers, and receivers. Chapters 13 and 14 discuss pulse generators and sawtooth generators, respectively.

  17. Evaluation of Urban Spaces from the Perspective of Universal Design Principles: The Case of Konya/Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Filiz Alkan Meshur

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available During the process of accessing services provided within urban interior and outer spaces the elderly and disabled individuals encounter with a myriad of problems due to the limitations posed by structured environments. This limitation hinders elderly and disabled individuals from mobility without assistance, which in turn negatively affects their full participation to urban and social life. Rearrangement of urban spaces to meet the needs of elderly and disabled individuals would correspondingly bolster life quality of the entire range of users. Within the scope of present research, as mandated by universal design principles to stick to plans and designs approaches inclusive for all users, it is aimed to conduct evaluations on the use of urban outer spaces situated within Konya city center. In the hypothetical and theoretical part of this paper, the perception of disability throughout historical process has been examined from a sociological perspective. In addition, concept of universal design, its principles and gravity have also been elaborated. In the part dealing with the case study, outer spaces within Konya city center have been analyzed with respect to universal design principles and a range of suggestions have been developed.

  18. Evolutionary robotics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In evolutionary robotics, a suitable robot control system is developed automatically through evolution due to the interactions between the robot and its environment. It is a complicated task, as the robot and the environment constitute a highly dynamical system. Several methods have been tried by various investigators to ...

  19. Applications of electromagnetic principles in the design and development of proximity wireless sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Nazmul

    Sensors and sensing system are playing dominant roles in monitoring the health of infrastructure, such as bridges, power lines, gas pipelines, rail roads etc. Sensing modalities employing Surface Acoustic Waves (SAW), Electromagnetic (EM) and optical have been investigated and reported. Sensors that utilize the perturbation of EM fields as function of the change in the physical structural or material phenomenon are of particular interest because of their inherent synergy with electronic system and diagnostic techniques, e.g. Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR), Joint-Time-Frequency-Domain-Reflectometry (JTFDR). The focus of this work is to study and develop new sensing and monitoring concepts that are based on EM principles. First, the analyses, design and development of a static electric field type sensor are presented for application in embedded concrete moisture content measurement. The analytical formulation and results based on conformal mapping method for an interdigitated sensor clearly show the dependency of the field penetration depth and the inter-electrode capacitance on the electrode sizes and their spacings. It is observed that larger electrode size and small separation are needed in order to achieve substantially higher capacitance or large field penetration depth. A meander and a circular sensor are fabricated and tested to demonstrate concrete moisture content measurements that show that moisture content is a linear function of sensor interelectrode capacitance. Second, sub-wavelength dimension non-intrusive wave launchers are designed and tested that can launch TDR or JTFDR type broadband surface wave waveforms in the VHF-UHF bands in order to detect cable faults. Greater than 3:1 transmission bandwidth (100-300 MHz) is obtained with a cylindrical launcher on square orthogonal ground plane while with a CSW launcher more than an octave (100-240 MHz) bandwidth is achieved. Open circuit faults are detected using surface waves and TDR on two XLPE cables

  20. Mass Customization of Teaching and Training in Organizations: Design Principles and Prototype Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nistor, Nicolae; Dehne, Anina; Drews, Frank Thomas

    2010-01-01

    In search of methods that improve the efficiency of teaching and training in organizations, several authors point out that mass customization (MC) is a principle that covers individual needs of knowledge and skills and, at the same time limits the development costs of customized training to those of mass training. MC is proven and established in…

  1. Applying Cognitive Psychology Based Instructional Design Principles in Mathematics Teaching and Learning: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, W.; Star, J.

    2017-01-01

    This special issue comprises contributions that address the breadth of current lines of recent research from cognitive psychology that appear promising for positively impacting students' learning of mathematics. More specifically, we included contributions (a) that refer to cognitive psychology based principles and techniques, such as explanatory…

  2. Community Water Governance on Mount Kenya: An Assessment Based on Ostrom’s Design Principles of Natural Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jampel Dell’Angelo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Kenyan river basin governance underwent a pioneering reform in the Water Act of 2002, which established new community water-management institutions. This article focuses on community water projects in the Likii Water Resource Users Association in the Upper Ewaso Ng’iro River basin on Mount Kenya, and the extent to which their features are consistent with Ostrom’s design principles of natural resource management. Although the projects have developed solid institutional structures, pressures such as hydroclimatic change, population growth, and water inequality challenge their ability to manage their water resources. Institutional homogeneity across the different water projects and congruence with the design principles is not necessarily a positive factor. Strong differences in household water flows within and among the projects point to the disconnection between apparently successful institutions and their objectives, such as fair and equitable water allocation.

  3. Perceptions of Pre-Service Teachers on the Design of a Learning Environment Based on the Seven Principles of Good Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Furaih, Suad Abdul Aziz

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of 88 pre-service teachers on the design of a learning environment using the Seven Principles of Good Practice and its effect on participants' abilities to create their Cloud Learning Environment (CLE). In designing the learning environment, a conceptual model under the name 7 Principles and Integrated Learning…

  4. The effect of implementing cognitive load theory-based design principles in virtual reality simulation training of surgical skills: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts; Mikkelsen, Peter Trier; Konge, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive overload can inhibit learning, and cognitive load theory-based instructional design principles can be used to optimize learning situations. This study aims to investigate the effect of implementing cognitive load theory-based design principles in virtual reality simulation training...

  5. Evolutionary Statistical Procedures

    CERN Document Server

    Baragona, Roberto; Poli, Irene

    2011-01-01

    This proposed text appears to be a good introduction to evolutionary computation for use in applied statistics research. The authors draw from a vast base of knowledge about the current literature in both the design of evolutionary algorithms and statistical techniques. Modern statistical research is on the threshold of solving increasingly complex problems in high dimensions, and the generalization of its methodology to parameters whose estimators do not follow mathematically simple distributions is underway. Many of these challenges involve optimizing functions for which analytic solutions a

  6. Integrating Evolutionary Game Theory into Mechanistic Genotype-Phenotype Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuli; Jiang, Libo; Ye, Meixia; Sun, Lidan; Gragnoli, Claudia; Wu, Rongling

    2016-05-01

    Natural selection has shaped the evolution of organisms toward optimizing their structural and functional design. However, how this universal principle can enhance genotype-phenotype mapping of quantitative traits has remained unexplored. Here we show that the integration of this principle and functional mapping through evolutionary game theory gains new insight into the genetic architecture of complex traits. By viewing phenotype formation as an evolutionary system, we formulate mathematical equations to model the ecological mechanisms that drive the interaction and coordination of its constituent components toward population dynamics and stability. Functional mapping provides a procedure for estimating the genetic parameters that specify the dynamic relationship of competition and cooperation and predicting how genes mediate the evolution of this relationship during trait formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fluid dynamics of packed columns principles of the fluid dynamic design of columns for gas/liquid and liquid/liquid systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mackowiak, Jerzy

    2010-01-01

    This book describes the basic design principles of columns equipped with modern lattice packings and structured packed beds, as generally used in industry. It provides support to engineers as well as graduate students in their daily design work.

  8. Part E: Evolutionary Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    of Computational Intelligence. First, comprehensive surveys of genetic algorithms, genetic programming, evolution strategies, parallel evolutionary algorithms are presented, which are readable and constructive so that a large audience might find them useful and – to some extent – ready to use. Some more general...... kinds of evolutionary algorithms, have been prudently analyzed. This analysis was followed by a thorough analysis of various issues involved in stochastic local search algorithms. An interesting survey of various technological and industrial applications in mechanical engineering and design has been...... topics like the estimation of distribution algorithms, indicator-based selection, etc., are also discussed. An important problem, from a theoretical and practical point of view, of learning classifier systems is presented in depth. Multiobjective evolutionary algorithms, which constitute one of the most...

  9. Integrating genomics into evolutionary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Juan Antonio; Marigorta, Urko M; Navarro, Arcadi

    2014-12-01

    The application of the principles of evolutionary biology into medicine was suggested long ago and is already providing insight into the ultimate causes of disease. However, a full systematic integration of medical genomics and evolutionary medicine is still missing. Here, we briefly review some cases where the combination of the two fields has proven profitable and highlight two of the main issues hindering the development of evolutionary genomic medicine as a mature field, namely the dissociation between fitness and health and the still considerable difficulties in predicting phenotypes from genotypes. We use publicly available data to illustrate both problems and conclude that new approaches are needed for evolutionary genomic medicine to overcome these obstacles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Applying evolutionary anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Mhairi A; Lawson, David W

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary anthropology provides a powerful theoretical framework for understanding how both current environments and legacies of past selection shape human behavioral diversity. This integrative and pluralistic field, combining ethnographic, demographic, and sociological methods, has provided new insights into the ultimate forces and proximate pathways that guide human adaptation and variation. Here, we present the argument that evolutionary anthropological studies of human behavior also hold great, largely untapped, potential to guide the design, implementation, and evaluation of social and public health policy. Focusing on the key anthropological themes of reproduction, production, and distribution we highlight classic and recent research demonstrating the value of an evolutionary perspective to improving human well-being. The challenge now comes in transforming relevance into action and, for that, evolutionary behavioral anthropologists will need to forge deeper connections with other applied social scientists and policy-makers. We are hopeful that these developments are underway and that, with the current tide of enthusiasm for evidence-based approaches to policy, evolutionary anthropology is well positioned to make a strong contribution. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Applying Evolutionary Anthropology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Mhairi A; Lawson, David W

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary anthropology provides a powerful theoretical framework for understanding how both current environments and legacies of past selection shape human behavioral diversity. This integrative and pluralistic field, combining ethnographic, demographic, and sociological methods, has provided new insights into the ultimate forces and proximate pathways that guide human adaptation and variation. Here, we present the argument that evolutionary anthropological studies of human behavior also hold great, largely untapped, potential to guide the design, implementation, and evaluation of social and public health policy. Focusing on the key anthropological themes of reproduction, production, and distribution we highlight classic and recent research demonstrating the value of an evolutionary perspective to improving human well-being. The challenge now comes in transforming relevance into action and, for that, evolutionary behavioral anthropologists will need to forge deeper connections with other applied social scientists and policy-makers. We are hopeful that these developments are underway and that, with the current tide of enthusiasm for evidence-based approaches to policy, evolutionary anthropology is well positioned to make a strong contribution. PMID:25684561

  12. On the application of motivation theory to human factors/ergonomics: motivational design principles for human-technology interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalma, James L

    2014-12-01

    Motivation is a driving force in human-technology interaction. This paper represents an effort to (a) describe a theoretical model of motivation in human technology interaction, (b) provide design principles and guidelines based on this theory, and (c) describe a sequence of steps for the. evaluation of motivational factors in human-technology interaction. Motivation theory has been relatively neglected in human factors/ergonomics (HF/E). In both research and practice, the (implicit) assumption has been that the operator is already motivated or that motivation is an organizational concern and beyond the purview of HF/E. However, technology can induce task-related boredom (e.g., automation) that can be stressful and also increase system vulnerability to performance failures. A theoretical model of motivation in human-technology interaction is proposed, based on extension of the self-determination theory of motivation to HF/E. This model provides the basis for both future research and for development of practical recommendations for design. General principles and guidelines for motivational design are described as well as a sequence of steps for the design process. Human motivation is an important concern for HF/E research and practice. Procedures in the design of both simple and complex technologies can, and should, include the evaluation of motivational characteristics of the task, interface, or system. In addition, researchers should investigate these factors in specific human-technology domains. The theory, principles, and guidelines described here can be incorporated into existing techniques for task analysis and for interface and system design.

  13. Control room philosophy: Principles of control room design and control room work; Kontrollrumsfilosofi: Principer foer kontrollrumsutformning och kontrollrumsarbete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skriver, Jan; Ramberg, Jasmine; Allwin, Pernilla [Scandpower Risk Management AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2006-01-15

    In order to provide insights for improvement of work in control rooms several factors have to be considered. Knowledge of principles including control room philosophies will guide the recommended improvements. In addition to knowledge about specific principles an advantage for an organization can be an understanding of similarities and policies used in other high risk industry. The report has been developed on the basis of a document analysis of international standards and other guiding documents. (NUREG 0711, ISO 11064, ISO 6385, IEC 60964). In addition to the document analysis which has strived to compare the documents to see similarities in important principals, experience from working with control room design, modifications and evaluations in other high risk industries has pervaded the report. Important principles have been identified which are recommended to be included in a control room philosophy. Many of these are similar to the principles identified in the international standards. An additional principal which is regarded as important is the utilization of Key Performance Indicators (KPI) which can be used as a measure to target preventative means. Further more it is critical that the control room philosophy is easy to access and comprehend for all users. One of the challenges that remain after having developed a control room philosophy is how to utilize it in the daily work situation. It is vital that the document remains as a living document, guiding the continual improvement of the control room in the various life cycle stages.

  14. Audio interfaces should be designed based on data visualisation first principles

    OpenAIRE

    Dewey, Christopher; Wakefield, Jonathan P.

    2016-01-01

    Audio mixing interfaces (AMIs) commonly conform to a small number of paradigms. These paradigms have\\ud significant shortcomings. Data visualisation first principles should be employed to consider alternatives. Existing AMI\\ud paradigms are discussed and concepts of image theory and elementary perceptual elements outlined. AMIs should be evaluated by usability experiments however performing these properly is time-consuming. There are many data visualisation options and combinations. Collabora...

  15. Principles of designing cyber-physical system of producing mechanical assembly components at Industry 4.0 enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurjanov, A. V.; Zakoldaev, D. A.; Shukalov, A. V.; Zharinov, I. O.

    2018-03-01

    The task of developing principles of cyber-physical system constitution at the Industry 4.0 company of the item designing components of mechanical assembly production is being studied. The task has been solved by analyzing the components and technologies, which have some practical application in the digital production organization. The list of components has been defined and the authors proposed the scheme of the components and technologies interconnection in the Industry 4.0 of mechanical assembly production to make an uninterrupted manufacturing route of the item designing components with application of some cyber-physical systems.

  16. Evolutionary institutionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstenberg, Dr Kai

    Institutions are hard to define and hard to study. Long prominent in political science have been two theories: Rational Choice Institutionalism (RCI) and Historical Institutionalism (HI). Arising from the life sciences is now a third: Evolutionary Institutionalism (EI). Comparative strengths and weaknesses of these three theories warrant review, and the value-to-be-added by expanding the third beyond Darwinian evolutionary theory deserves consideration. Should evolutionary institutionalism expand to accommodate new understanding in ecology, such as might apply to the emergence of stability, and in genetics, such as might apply to political behavior? Core arguments are reviewed for each theory with more detailed exposition of the third, EI. Particular attention is paid to EI's gene-institution analogy; to variation, selection, and retention of institutional traits; to endogeneity and exogeneity; to agency and structure; and to ecosystem effects, institutional stability, and empirical limitations in behavioral genetics. RCI, HI, and EI are distinct but complementary. Institutional change, while amenable to rational-choice analysis and, retrospectively, to criticaljuncture and path-dependency analysis, is also, and importantly, ecological. Stability, like change, is an emergent property of institutions, which tend to stabilize after change in a manner analogous to allopatric speciation. EI is more than metaphorically biological in that institutional behaviors are driven by human behaviors whose evolution long preceded the appearance of institutions themselves.

  17. Null testing of nonrotational symmetry transmission optical freeform: design, modeling, and inspection on the basis of Fermat principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Gufeng; Cui, Xudong

    2015-11-01

    We present a general design method for a type of transmission freeforms without rotational symmetry and achieve the null testing by putting a well-designed Fermat reflector on the transmitting optical path. The design principle of the reflector is given, and an eccentric spherical surface with 1-mm deviation is used as an example of testing freeform. We fabricated the reflector and the freeform with the single-point diamond turning machine. Both conventional interference inspection and our approach give consistent results. The design error is less than 106 mm, and the measurement accuracy is nearly completely determined by the fabrication precision. This approach can also be applied to the inspections of reflecting freeforms with low costs.

  18. Recommendations for sex/gender neuroimaging research: key principles and implications for research design, analysis, and interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippon, Gina; Jordan-Young, Rebecca; Kaiser, Anelis; Fine, Cordelia

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging (NI) technologies are having increasing impact in the study of complex cognitive and social processes. In this emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience, a central goal should be to increase the understanding of the interaction between the neurobiology of the individual and the environment in which humans develop and function. The study of sex/gender is often a focus for NI research, and may be motivated by a desire to better understand general developmental principles, mental health problems that show female-male disparities, and gendered differences in society. In order to ensure the maximum possible contribution of NI research to these goals, we draw attention to four key principles—overlap, mosaicism, contingency and entanglement—that have emerged from sex/gender research and that should inform NI research design, analysis and interpretation. We discuss the implications of these principles in the form of constructive guidelines and suggestions for researchers, editors, reviewers and science communicators. PMID:25221493

  19. Design Principles as a Guide for Constraint Based and Dynamic Modeling: Towards an Integrative Workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehr, Christiana; Kremling, Andreas; Marin-Sanguino, Alberto

    2015-10-16

    During the last 10 years, systems biology has matured from a fuzzy concept combining omics, mathematical modeling and computers into a scientific field on its own right. In spite of its incredible potential, the multilevel complexity of its objects of study makes it very difficult to establish a reliable connection between data and models. The great number of degrees of freedom often results in situations, where many different models can explain/fit all available datasets. This has resulted in a shift of paradigm from the initially dominant, maybe naive, idea of inferring the system out of a number of datasets to the application of different techniques that reduce the degrees of freedom before any data set is analyzed. There is a wide variety of techniques available, each of them can contribute a piece of the puzzle and include different kinds of experimental information. But the challenge that remains is their meaningful integration. Here we show some theoretical results that enable some of the main modeling approaches to be applied sequentially in a complementary manner, and how this workflow can benefit from evolutionary reasoning to keep the complexity of the problem in check. As a proof of concept, we show how the synergies between these modeling techniques can provide insight into some well studied problems: Ammonia assimilation in bacteria and an unbranched linear pathway with end-product inhibition.

  20. Design Principles as a Guide for Constraint Based and Dynamic Modeling: Towards an Integrative Workflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiana Sehr

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available During the last 10 years, systems biology has matured from a fuzzy concept combining omics, mathematical modeling and computers into a scientific field on its own right. In spite of its incredible potential, the multilevel complexity of its objects of study makes it very difficult to establish a reliable connection between data and models. The great number of degrees of freedom often results in situations, where many different models can explain/fit all available datasets. This has resulted in a shift of paradigm from the initially dominant, maybe naive, idea of inferring the system out of a number of datasets to the application of different techniques that reduce the degrees of freedom before any data set is analyzed. There is a wide variety of techniques available, each of them can contribute a piece of the puzzle and include different kinds of experimental information. But the challenge that remains is their meaningful integration. Here we show some theoretical results that enable some of the main modeling approaches to be applied sequentially in a complementary manner, and how this workflow can benefit from evolutionary reasoning to keep the complexity of the problem in check. As a proof of concept, we show how the synergies between these modeling techniques can provide insight into some well studied problems: Ammonia assimilation in bacteria and an unbranched linear pathway with end-product inhibition.