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Sample records for evolutionary characters phenotypes

  1. Characterizing behavioural 'characters': an evolutionary framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya-Ajoy, Yimen G; Dingemanse, Niels J

    2014-02-07

    Biologists often study phenotypic evolution assuming that phenotypes consist of a set of quasi-independent units that have been shaped by selection to accomplish a particular function. In the evolutionary literature, such quasi-independent functional units are called 'evolutionary characters', and a framework based on evolutionary principles has been developed to characterize them. This framework mainly focuses on 'fixed' characters, i.e. those that vary exclusively between individuals. In this paper, we introduce multi-level variation and thereby expand the framework to labile characters, focusing on behaviour as a worked example. We first propose a concept of 'behavioural characters' based on the original evolutionary character concept. We then detail how integration of variation between individuals (cf. 'personality') and within individuals (cf. 'individual plasticity') into the framework gives rise to a whole suite of novel testable predictions about the evolutionary character concept. We further propose a corresponding statistical methodology to test whether observed behaviours should be considered expressions of a hypothesized evolutionary character. We illustrate the application of our framework by characterizing the behavioural character 'aggressiveness' in wild great tits, Parus major.

  2. Phenotypical Behavior and Evolutionary Slavery

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Andre C. R.

    2000-01-01

    A new evolutionary solution to Prisoner Dilemma situations is proposed in this paper. A specific genetic code may have different phenotypes, meaning different strategies for different individuals carrying that gene. This means that, under the right parameters, it is a good evolutionary solution to create two types of phenotypes with different strategies, here called as leaders and servants. In this solution, servants always cooperate with the leaders and leaders never do with the servants. In...

  3. Phenoscape: Identifying Candidate Genes for Evolutionary Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Richard C.; Su, Baofeng; Balhoff, James P.; Eames, B. Frank; Dahdul, Wasila M.; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G.; Vision, Todd J.; Dunham, Rex A.; Mabee, Paula M.; Westerfield, Monte

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypes resulting from mutations in genetic model organisms can help reveal candidate genes for evolutionarily important phenotypic changes in related taxa. Although testing candidate gene hypotheses experimentally in nonmodel organisms is typically difficult, ontology-driven information systems can help generate testable hypotheses about developmental processes in experimentally tractable organisms. Here, we tested candidate gene hypotheses suggested by expert use of the Phenoscape Knowledgebase, specifically looking for genes that are candidates responsible for evolutionarily interesting phenotypes in the ostariophysan fishes that bear resemblance to mutant phenotypes in zebrafish. For this, we searched ZFIN for genetic perturbations that result in either loss of basihyal element or loss of scales phenotypes, because these are the ancestral phenotypes observed in catfishes (Siluriformes). We tested the identified candidate genes by examining their endogenous expression patterns in the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. The experimental results were consistent with the hypotheses that these features evolved through disruption in developmental pathways at, or upstream of, brpf1 and eda/edar for the ancestral losses of basihyal element and scales, respectively. These results demonstrate that ontological annotations of the phenotypic effects of genetic alterations in model organisms, when aggregated within a knowledgebase, can be used effectively to generate testable, and useful, hypotheses about evolutionary changes in morphology. PMID:26500251

  4. Phenotypic characters of yeasts isolated from kpete-kpete, a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-07-08

    Jul 8, 2015 ... Based on their phenotypic characters and their assimilation profiles, 49 yeasts were isolated and found to belong to five ... marriage, birth, the handing over of a dowry, etc.) and constitute a source of ..... Table 3. Assimilation profiles of yeasts isolated from traditional starter kpete-kpete. Parameter a* b c d. E.

  5. Phenotypic characters of yeasts isolated from kpete-kpete , a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... on their phenotypic characters and their assimilation profiles, 49 yeasts were isolated and found to belong to five genera with seven species. Seventy one percent (71%) of the isolates were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Key words: Sorghum beer, tchoukoutou, kpete-kpete, yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  6. Evolutionary transformations of fetal membrane characters in Eutheria with special reference to Afrotheria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mess, Andrea; Carter, Anthony M.

    2006-01-01

    in traditional systematics. In the present study, we attempted a reconstruction of the evolution of characters associated with placentation, the fetal membranes and the female reproductive tract. The evolutionary history of 21 characters has been traced, based on a current hypothesis of eutherian relationships...

  7. Evolutionary change in physiological phenotypes along the human lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vining, Alexander Q; Nunn, Charles L

    2016-01-01

    Research in evolutionary medicine provides many examples of how evolution has shaped human susceptibility to disease. Traits undergoing rapid evolutionary change may result in associated costs or reduce the energy available to other traits. We hypothesize that humans have experienced more such changes than other primates as a result of major evolutionary change along the human lineage. We investigated 41 physiological traits across 50 primate species to identify traits that have undergone marked evolutionary change along the human lineage. We analysed the data using two Bayesian phylogenetic comparative methods. One approach models trait covariation in non-human primates and predicts human phenotypes to identify whether humans are evolutionary outliers. The other approach models adaptive shifts under an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model of evolution to assess whether inferred shifts are more common on the human branch than on other primate lineages. We identified four traits with strong evidence for an evolutionary increase on the human lineage (amylase, haematocrit, phosphorus and monocytes) and one trait with strong evidence for decrease (neutrophilic bands). Humans exhibited more cases of distinct evolutionary change than other primates. Human physiology has undergone increased evolutionary change compared to other primates. Long distance running may have contributed to increases in haematocrit and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, while dietary changes are likely related to increases in amylase. In accordance with the pathogen load hypothesis, human monocyte levels were increased, but many other immune-related measures were not. Determining the mechanisms underlying conspicuous evolutionary change in these traits may provide new insights into human disease. The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Foundation for Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health.

  8. Phenotypic diversity for symbio-agronomic characters in Ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A randomized complete block design with four replications and the difference technique, with a genetically non-nodulating chickpea genotype as a reference crop were employed to estimate the amount of symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Data analysis of 32 agronomic and symbiotic characters showed significant differences ...

  9. Integrating Evolutionary Game Theory into Mechanistic Genotype-Phenotype Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuli; Jiang, Libo; Ye, Meixia; Sun, Lidan; Gragnoli, Claudia; Wu, Rongling

    2016-05-01

    Natural selection has shaped the evolution of organisms toward optimizing their structural and functional design. However, how this universal principle can enhance genotype-phenotype mapping of quantitative traits has remained unexplored. Here we show that the integration of this principle and functional mapping through evolutionary game theory gains new insight into the genetic architecture of complex traits. By viewing phenotype formation as an evolutionary system, we formulate mathematical equations to model the ecological mechanisms that drive the interaction and coordination of its constituent components toward population dynamics and stability. Functional mapping provides a procedure for estimating the genetic parameters that specify the dynamic relationship of competition and cooperation and predicting how genes mediate the evolution of this relationship during trait formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Environment determines evolutionary trajectory in a constrained phenotypic space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraebel, David T; Mickalide, Harry; Schnitkey, Diane; Merritt, Jason; Kuhlman, Thomas E; Kuehn, Seppe

    2017-03-27

    Constraints on phenotypic variation limit the capacity of organisms to adapt to the multiple selection pressures encountered in natural environments. To better understand evolutionary dynamics in this context, we select Escherichia coli for faster migration through a porous environment, a process which depends on both motility and growth. We find that a trade-off between swimming speed and growth rate constrains the evolution of faster migration. Evolving faster migration in rich medium results in slow growth and fast swimming, while evolution in minimal medium results in fast growth and slow swimming. In each condition parallel genomic evolution drives adaptation through different mutations. We show that the trade-off is mediated by antagonistic pleiotropy through mutations that affect negative regulation. A model of the evolutionary process shows that the genetic capacity of an organism to vary traits can qualitatively depend on its environment, which in turn alters its evolutionary trajectory.

  11. Rates of phenotypic evolution of ecological characters and sexual traits during the Tanganyikan cichlid adaptive radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Voyer, A; Kolm, N

    2011-11-01

    Theory suggests that sexual traits evolve faster than ecological characters. However, characteristics of a species niche may also influence evolution of sexual traits. Hence, a pending question is whether ecological characters and sexual traits present similar tempo and mode of evolution during periods of rapid ecological divergence, such as adaptive radiation. Here, we use recently developed phylogenetic comparative methods to analyse the temporal dynamics of evolution for ecological and sexual traits in Tanganyikan cichlids. Our results indicate that whereas disparity in ecological characters was concentrated early in the radiation, disparity in sexual traits remained high throughout the radiation. Thus, closely related Tanganyikan cichlids presented higher disparity in sexual traits than ecological characters. Sexual traits were also under stronger selection than ecological characters. In sum, our results suggest that ecological characters and sexual traits present distinct evolutionary patterns, and that sexual traits can evolve faster than ecological characters, even during adaptive radiation. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  12. Proteomics in evolutionary ecology: linking the genotype with the phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diz, Angel P; Martínez-Fernández, Mónica; Rolán-Alvarez, Emilio

    2012-03-01

    The study of the proteome (proteomics), which includes the dynamics of protein expression, regulation, interactions and its function, has played a less prominent role in evolutionary and ecological investigations in comparison with the study of the genome and transcriptome. There are, however, a number of arguments suggesting that this situation should change. First, the proteome is closer to the phenotype than the genome or the transcriptome, and as such may be more directly responsive to natural selection, and thus closely linked to adaptation. Second, there is evidence of a low correlation between protein and transcript expression levels across genes in many different organisms. Finally, there have been some recent important technological improvements in proteomics methods that make them feasible, practical and useful to address a wide range of evolutionary questions even in nonmodel organisms. The different proteomic methods, their limitations and problems when interpreting empirical data are described and discussed. In addition, the proteomic literature pertaining to evolutionary ecology is reviewed with examples, and potential applications of proteomics in a variety of evolutionary contexts are outlined. New proteomic research trends such as the study of posttranslational modifications and protein-protein interactions, as well as the combined use of the different -omics approaches, are discussed in relation to the development of a more functional and integrated perspective, needed for achieving a more comprehensive knowledge of evolutionary change. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Phenotypic characters of yeasts isolated from kpete-kpete, a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-07-08

    Jul 8, 2015 ... Key words: Sorghum beer, tchoukoutou, kpete-kpete, yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. INTRODUCTION. Fermented .... Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of the traditional starter kpete-kpete. Samples origin. Yeasts ... Phenotypic characteristics of yeasts isolates. Results (Table 2) show ...

  14. Evolutionary transformations of fetal membrane characters in Eutheria with special reference to Afrotheria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mess, Andrea; Carter, Anthony M.

    2006-01-01

    in traditional systematics. In the present study, we attempted a reconstruction of the evolution of characters associated with placentation, the fetal membranes and the female reproductive tract. The evolutionary history of 21 characters has been traced, based on a current hypothesis of eutherian relationships......Analysis of molecular data sets has provided new insights into higher-level relationships of living Eutheria, including the recognition of Afrotheria as a novel taxon. This offers an opportunity to take a fresh look at the evolution of organ systems, including some that are little used...

  15. Emergence of phenotype switching through continuous and discontinuous evolutionary transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Pintu; Klumpp, Stefan

    2015-07-01

    Bacterial persistence (phenotypic tolerance to antibiotics) provides a prime example of bet-hedging, where normally growing cells generate slow-growing but antibiotic-tolerant persister cells to survive through periods of exposure to antibiotics. The population dynamics of persistence is explained by a phenotype switching mechanism that allows individual cells to switch between these different cellular states with different environmental sensitivities. Here, we perform a theoretical study based on an exact solution for the case of a periodic variation of the environment to address how phenotype switching emerges and under what conditions switching is or is not beneficial for long-time growth. Specifically we report a bifurcation through which a fitness maximum and minimum emerge above a threshold in the duration of exposure to the antibiotic. Only above this threshold, the optimal phenotype switching rates are adjusted to the time scales of the environment, as emphasized by previous theoretical studies, while below the threshold a non-switching population is fitter than a switching one. The bifurcation can be of different type, depending on how the phenotype switching rates are allowed to vary. If the switching rates for both directions of the switch are coupled, the transition is discontinuous and results in evolutionary hysteresis, which we confirm with a stochastic simulation. If the switching rates vary individually, a continuous transition is obtained and no hysteresis is found. We discuss how both scenarios can be linked to changes in the underlying molecular networks.

  16. The Phenotypic Gambit: Selective Pressures and ESS Methodology in Evolutionary Game Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubin, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    The ‘phenotypic gambit,’ the assumption that we can ignore genetics and look at the fitness of phenotypes to determine the expected evolutionary dynamics of a population, is often used in evolutionary game theory. However, as this paper will show, an overlooked genotype to phenotype map can

  17. Genotypic character relationship and phenotypic path coefficient analysis in chili pepper genotypes grown under tropical condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Magaji G; Rafii, Mohd Y; Martini, Mohammad Y; Oladosu, Yusuff; Kashiani, Pedram

    2017-03-01

    Studies on genotypic and phenotypic correlations among characters of crop plants are useful in planning, evaluating and setting selection criteria for the desired characters in a breeding program. The present study aimed to estimate the phenotypic correlation coefficients among yield and yield attributed characters and to work out the direct and indirect effects of yield-related characters on yield per plant using path coefficient analysis. Twenty-six genotypes of chili pepper were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Yield per plant showed positive and highly significant (P ≤ 0.01) correlations with most of the characters studied at both the phenotypic and genotypic levels. By contrast, disease incidence and days to flowering showed a significant negative association with yield. Fruit weight and number of fruits exerted positive direct effect on yield and also had a positive and significant (P ≤ 0.01) correlation with yield per plant. However, fruit length showed a low negative direct effect with a strong and positive indirect effect through fruit weight on yield and had a positive and significant association with yield. Longer fruits, heavy fruits and a high number of fruits are variables that are related to higher yields of chili pepper under tropical conditions and hence could be used as a reliable indicator in indirect selection for yield. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Optimizing Statistical Character Recognition Using Evolutionary Strategies to Recognize Aircraft Tail Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Berlanga

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The design of statistical classification systems for optical character recognition (OCR is a cumbersome task. This paper proposes a method using evolutionary strategies (ES to evolve and upgrade the set of parameters in an OCR system. This OCR is applied to identify the tail number of aircrafts moving on the airport. The proposed approach is discussed and some results are obtained using a benchmark data set. This research demonstrates the successful application of ES to a difficult, noisy, and real-world problem.

  19. Evolutionary history of human disease genes reveals phenotypic connections and comorbidity among genetic diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Solip; Yang, Jae-Seong; Kim, Jinho; Shin, Young-Eun; Hwang, Jihye; Park, Juyong; Jang, Sung Key; Kim, Sanguk

    2012-10-01

    The extent to which evolutionary changes have impacted the phenotypic relationships among human diseases remains unclear. In this work, we report that phenotypically similar diseases are connected by the evolutionary constraints on human disease genes. Human disease groups can be classified into slowly or rapidly evolving classes, where the diseases in the slowly evolving class are enriched with morphological phenotypes and those in the rapidly evolving class are enriched with physiological phenotypes. Our findings establish a clear evolutionary connection between disease classes and disease phenotypes for the first time. Furthermore, the high comorbidity found between diseases connected by similar evolutionary constraints enables us to improve the predictability of the relative risk of human diseases. We find the evolutionary constraints on disease genes are a new layer of molecular connection in the network-based exploration of human diseases.

  20. Social structure modulates the evolutionary consequences of social plasticity: A social network perspective on interacting phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiglio, Pierre-Olivier; McGlothlin, Joel W; Farine, Damien R

    2018-02-01

    Organisms express phenotypic plasticity during social interactions. Interacting phenotype theory has explored the consequences of social plasticity for evolution, but it is unclear how this theory applies to complex social structures. We adapt interacting phenotype models to general social structures to explore how the number of social connections between individuals and preference for phenotypically similar social partners affect phenotypic variation and evolution. We derive an analytical model that ignores phenotypic feedback and use simulations to test the predictions of this model. We find that adapting previous models to more general social structures does not alter their general conclusions but generates insights into the effect of social plasticity and social structure on the maintenance of phenotypic variation and evolution. Contribution of indirect genetic effects to phenotypic variance is highest when interactions occur at intermediate densities and decrease at higher densities, when individuals approach interacting with all group members, homogenizing the social environment across individuals. However, evolutionary response to selection tends to increase at greater network densities as the effects of an individual's genes are amplified through increasing effects on other group members. Preferential associations among similar individuals (homophily) increase both phenotypic variance within groups and evolutionary response to selection. Our results represent a first step in relating social network structure to the expression of social plasticity and evolutionary responses to selection.

  1. The evolutionary ecology of individual phenotypic plasticity in wild populations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    NUSSEY, D. H; WILSON, A. J; BROMMER, J. E

    2007-01-01

    The ability of individual organisms to alter morphological and life‐history traits in response to the conditions they experience is an example of phenotypic plasticity which is fundamental to any population's ability to deal with short...

  2. The evolutionary emergence of stochastic phenotype switching in bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rainey, P.B.; Beaumont, H.J.E.; Ferguson, G.C.; Gallie, J.; Kost, C.; Libby, E.; Zhang, X.X.

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic phenotype switching – or bet hedging – is a pervasive feature of living systems and common in bacteria that experience fluctuating (unpredictable) environmental conditions. Under such conditions, the capacity to generate variable offspring spreads the risk of being maladapted in the

  3. Urban driven phenotypic changes: empirical observations and theoretical implications for eco-evolutionary feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Marina; Marzluff, John; Hunt, Victoria M

    2017-01-19

    Emerging evidence that cities drive micro-evolution raises the question of whether rapid urbanization of Earth might impact ecosystems by causing systemic changes in functional traits that regulate urban ecosystems' productivity and stability. Intraspecific trait variation-variation in organisms' morphological, physiological or behavioural characteristics stemming from genetic variability and phenotypic plasticity-has significant implications for ecological functions such as nutrient cycling and primary productivity. While it is well established that changes in ecological conditions can drive evolutionary change in species' traits that, in turn, can alter ecosystem function, an understanding of the reciprocal and simultaneous processes associated with such interactions is only beginning to emerge. In urban settings, the potential for rapid trait change may be exacerbated by multiple selection pressures operating simultaneously. This paper reviews evidence on mechanisms linking urban development patterns to rapid phenotypic changes, and differentiates phenotypic changes for which there is evidence of micro-evolution versus phenotypic changes which may represent plasticity. Studying how humans mediate phenotypic trait changes through urbanization could shed light on fundamental concepts in ecological and evolutionary theory. It can also contribute to our understanding of eco-evolutionary feedback and provide insights for maintaining ecosystem function over the long term.This article is part of the themed issue 'Human influences on evolution, and the ecological and societal consequences'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. Phenotypic Characters and Molecular Epidemiology of Campylobacter Jejuni in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Dexin; Zhang, Xiaoping; Xue, Feng; Wang, Yanhong; Jiang, Luyan; Jiang, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the distribution, phenotypic and molecular typing characters of Campylobacter jejuni in domestic fowl, and livestock populations in East China, to provide some reference for researches on its molecular epidemiology. A total of 1250 samples were collected from different animal sources, and C. jejuni strains were then isolated and tested for antibiotic sensitivity. Antibiotics-resistance gene and pathogenic genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenic analysis on the C. jejuni strains was performed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method. The results showed that 108 out of the 1250 samples (mean 8.64%) were C. jejuni positive. These 108 C. jejuni strains were highly sensitive to antibiotics such as chloramphenicol, amoxicillin, amikacin, cefotaxime, and azithromycin, whereas they were highly resistant to antibiotics such as cefoperazone, cotrimoxazole, cefamandole, sulfamethoxazole, and cefradine. Pathogenicity related gene identification indicated that the mean carrying rate of adhesion related gene cadF and racR, flagellin gene flaA, toxin regulating gene cdtA, cdtB, cdtC, wlaN and virB11, heat shock proteins and transferring proteins related genes dnaJ and ceuE, CiaB and pldA were 92.45%, 38.69%, 73.58%, 71.70%, 52.83%, 96.23%, 12.26%, 1.89%, 0.94%, 65.09%, 39.62% and 9.43%, respectively. A total of 58.82% of these strains contained more than 6 pathogenicity-related genes. MLST typed 58 ST types from the 108 isolated C. jejuni strains, including 24 new types, and ST-21 was the major type, accounting for 39.3% of the total strains. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Evolutionary conservation and network structure characterize genes of phenotypic relevance for mitosis in human.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Ostaszewski

    Full Text Available The impact of gene silencing on cellular phenotypes is difficult to establish due to the complexity of interactions in the associated biological processes and pathways. A recent genome-wide RNA knock-down study both identified and phenotypically characterized a set of important genes for the cell cycle in HeLa cells. Here, we combine a molecular interaction network analysis, based on physical and functional protein interactions, in conjunction with evolutionary information, to elucidate the common biological and topological properties of these key genes. Our results show that these genes tend to be conserved with their corresponding protein interactions across several species and are key constituents of the evolutionary conserved molecular interaction network. Moreover, a group of bistable network motifs is found to be conserved within this network, which are likely to influence the network stability and therefore the robustness of cellular functioning. They form a cluster, which displays functional homogeneity and is significantly enriched in genes phenotypically relevant for mitosis. Additional results reveal a relationship between specific cellular processes and the phenotypic outcomes induced by gene silencing. This study introduces new ideas regarding the relationship between genotype and phenotype in the context of the cell cycle. We show that the analysis of molecular interaction networks can result in the identification of genes relevant to cellular processes, which is a promising avenue for future research.

  6. The genetics of phenotypic plasticity. XV. Genetic assimilation, the Baldwin effect, and evolutionary rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiner, Samuel M; Barfield, Michael; Holt, Robert D

    2017-11-01

    We used an individual-based simulation model to examine the role of phenotypic plasticity on persistence and adaptation to two patterns of environmental variation, a single, abrupt step change and continual, linear change. Our model tested the assumptions and predictions of the theory of genetic assimilation, explored the evolutionary dynamics of the Baldwin effect, and provided expectations for the evolutionary response to climate change. We found that genetic assimilation as originally postulated is not likely to occur because the replacement of plasticity by fixed genetic effects takes much longer than the environment is likely to remain stable. On the other hand, trait plasticity as an enhancement to continual evolutionary change may be an important evolutionary mechanism as long as plasticity has little or no costs. Whether or not plasticity helps or hinders evolutionary rescue following a step change in the environment depends on whether plasticity is costly. For linear environmental change, noncostly plasticity always decreases extinction rates, while costly plasticity can create a fitness drag and increase the chance of extinction. Thus, with changing climates plasticity can enhance adaptation and prevent extinction under some conditions, but not others.

  7. Most Colorful Example of Genetic Assimilation? Exploring the Evolutionary Destiny of Recurrent Phenotypic Accommodation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badyaev, Alexander V; Potticary, Ahva L; Morrison, Erin S

    2017-08-01

    Evolution of adaptation requires both generation of novel phenotypic variation and retention of a locally beneficial subset of this variation. Such retention can be facilitated by genetic assimilation, the accumulation of genetic and molecular mechanisms that stabilize induced phenotypes and assume progressively greater control over their reliable production. A particularly strong inference into genetic assimilation as an evolutionary process requires a system where it is possible to directly evaluate the extent to which an induced phenotype is progressively incorporated into preexisting developmental pathways. Evolution of diet-dependent pigmentation in birds-where external carotenoids are coopted into internal metabolism to a variable degree before being integrated with a feather's developmental processes-provides such an opportunity. Here we combine a metabolic network view of carotenoid evolution with detailed empirical study of feather modifications to show that the effect of physical properties of carotenoids on feather structure depends on their metabolic modification, their environmental recurrence, and biochemical redundancy, as predicted by the genetic assimilation hypothesis. Metabolized carotenoids caused less stochastic variation in feather structure and were more closely integrated with feather growth than were dietary carotenoids of the same molecular weight. These patterns were driven by the recurrence of organism-carotenoid associations: commonly used dietary carotenoids and biochemically redundant derived carotenoids caused less stochastic variation in feather structure than did rarely used or biochemically unique compounds. We discuss implications of genetic assimilation processes for the evolutionary diversification of diet-dependent animal coloration.

  8. Environmental Quality, Developmental Plasticity and the Thrifty Phenotype: A Review of Evolutionary Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan CK Wells

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the thrifty phenotype, first proposed by Hales and Barker, is now widely used in medical research, often in contrast to the thrifty genotype model, to interpret associations between early-life experience and adult health status. Several evolutionary models of the thrifty phenotype, which refers to developmental plasticity, have been presented. These include (A the weather forecast model of Bateson, (B the maternal fi tness model of Wells, (C the intergenerational phenotypic inertia model of Kuzawa, and (D the predictive adaptive response model of Gluckman and Hanson. These models are compared and contrasted, in order to assess their relative utility for understanding human ontogenetic development. The most broadly applicable model is model A, which proposes that developing organisms respond to cues of environmental quality, and that mismatches between this forecast and subsequent reality generate significant adverse effects in adult phenotype. The remaining models all address in greater detail what kind of information is provided by such a forecast. Whereas both models B and C emphasise the adaptive benefits of exploiting information about the past, encapsulated in maternal phenotype, model D assumes that the fetus uses cues about the present external environment to predict its probable adult environment. I argue that for humans, with a disproportionately long period between the closing of sensitive windows of plasticity and the attainment of reproductive maturity, backward-looking models B and C represent a better approach, and indicate that the developing offspring aligns itself with stable cues of maternal phenotype so as to match its energy demand with maternal capacity to supply. In contrast, the predictive adaptive response model D over-estimates the capacity of the offspring to predict the future, and also fails to address the long-term parent-offspring dynamics of human development. Differences between models have

  9. Characters with multiple usages- phenotypic variability analysis at Echinacea purpurea (L. Moench species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Radu POP

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Merging aesthetics with utility, some medicinal plants can benefit both of a high production and decoration potential. This calls for diversification of improvement directions of the species. Through this article we suggest one of these species, Echinacea purpurea (L. Moench. This is considered to be important at this time, acquisition of new biological forms - varieties in this species, which show multiple attributes utility based on key biological characteristics, agronomic, physiological, biochemical and agrochemical (medicinal, decorative, culinary etc.. To achieve this goal, studies were undertaken, given in this article, which is the starting point for selecting characters representative for our targets.The results presented in this study reveal a pronounced genetic polymorphism showing the selection operation can use the original material for a quantitative and qualitative differentiation of valuable genotypes that could be approved.

  10. Isolation and characterization of some previously unreported taxa from poultry with phenotypical characters related to Actinobacillus-an Pasteurella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisgaard, M

    1982-02-01

    Cultural, morphologic, and biochemical characteristics of previously unreported taxa isolated from poultry and tentatively assigned to genus Actinobacillus Brumpt 1910 were compared to those of Actinobacillus lignieresii, A equuli, A. seminis, A. suis, avian haemolytic Actinobacillus sp., A.salpingitidis, avian Pasteurella haemolytica-like strains, P haemolytica biovar T, P, ureae. P. multocida, P. pneumotropica, P. gallinarum and P. anatipestifer. Evidence as obtained to indicate that taxon 1--3 was closely related to genus Actinobacillus Brumpt 1910, but sufficiently different from established species within that genus to constitute new distinct species. Taxon 4 had the cultural and biochemical characters of strains previously described by Clark and Godfrey. Strains designated P haemolytica-like could not be separated from A. salpingitidis on the basis of phenotypical characters. The final taxonomical position of taxon 1-4 in addition to strains designated avian haemolytic Actinobacillus sp. and P. haemolytica-like, however, has to await further taxonomical investigations including determination of mol % G + C in DNA and DNA hybridization, for which reason species names have been omitted.

  11. Phenotypic engineering of sperm-production rate confirms evolutionary predictions of sperm competition theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekii, Kiyono; Vizoso, Dita B; Kuales, Georg; De Mulder, Katrien; Ladurner, Peter; Schärer, Lukas

    2013-04-22

    Sperm production is a key male reproductive trait and an important parameter in sperm competition theory. Under sperm competition, paternity success is predicted to depend strongly on male allocation to sperm production. Furthermore, because sperm production is inherently costly, individuals should economize in sperm expenditure, and conditional adjustment of the copulation frequency according to their sperm availability may be expected. However, experimental studies showing effects of sperm production on mating behaviour and paternity success have so far been scarce, mainly because sperm production is difficult to manipulate directly in animals. Here, we used phenotypic engineering to manipulate sperm-production rate, by employing dose-dependent RNA interference (RNAi) of a spermatogenesis-specific gene, macbol1, in the free-living flatworm Macrostomum lignano. We demonstrate (i) that our novel dose-dependent RNAi approach allows us to induce high variability in sperm-production rate; (ii) that a reduced sperm-production rate is associated with a decreased copulation frequency, suggesting conditional adjustment of mating behaviour; and (iii) that both sperm production and copulation frequency are important determinants of paternity success in a competitive situation, as predicted by sperm competition theory. Our study clearly documents the potential of phenotypic engineering via dose-dependent RNAi to test quantitative predictions of evolutionary theory.

  12. MicrO: an ontology of phenotypic and metabolic characters, assays, and culture media found in prokaryotic taxonomic descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Carrine E; Cui, Hong; Moore, Lisa R; Walls, Ramona L

    2016-01-01

    MicrO is an ontology of microbiological terms, including prokaryotic qualities and processes, material entities (such as cell components), chemical entities (such as microbiological culture media and medium ingredients), and assays. The ontology was built to support the ongoing development of a natural language processing algorithm, MicroPIE (or, Microbial Phenomics Information Extractor). During the MicroPIE design process, we realized there was a need for a prokaryotic ontology which would capture the evolutionary diversity of phenotypes and metabolic processes across the tree of life, capture the diversity of synonyms and information contained in the taxonomic literature, and relate microbiological entities and processes to terms in a large number of other ontologies, most particularly the Gene Ontology (GO), the Phenotypic Quality Ontology (PATO), and the Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI). We thus constructed MicrO to be rich in logical axioms and synonyms gathered from the taxonomic literature. MicrO currently has ~14550 classes (~2550 of which are new, the remainder being microbiologically-relevant classes imported from other ontologies), connected by ~24,130 logical axioms (5,446 of which are new), and is available at (http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/MicrO.owl) and on the project website at https://github.com/carrineblank/MicrO. MicrO has been integrated into the OBO Foundry Library (http://www.obofoundry.org/ontology/micro.html), so that other ontologies can borrow and re-use classes. Term requests and user feedback can be made using MicrO's Issue Tracker in GitHub. We designed MicrO such that it can support the ongoing and future development of algorithms that can leverage the controlled vocabulary and logical inference power provided by the ontology. By connecting microbial classes with large numbers of chemical entities, material entities, biological processes, molecular functions, and qualities using a dense array of logical axioms, we

  13. Genotype- or Phenotype-Targeting Anticancer Therapies? Lessons from Tumor Evolutionary Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escargueil, Alexandre E; Prado, Soizic; Dezaire, Ambre; Clairambault, Jean; Larsen, Annette K; Soares, Daniele G

    2016-01-01

    Despite the efficacy of most cancer therapies, drug resistance remains a major problem in the clinic. The eradication of the entire tumor and the cure of the patient by chemotherapy alone are rare, in particular for advanced disease. From an evolutionary perspective, the selective pressure exerted by chemotherapy leads to the emergence of resistant clones where resistance can be associated with many different functional mechanisms at the single cell level or can involve changes in the tumor micro-environment. In the last decade, tumor genomics has contributed to the improvement of our understanding of tumorigenesis and has led to the identification of numerous cellular targets for the development of novel therapies. However, since tumors are by nature extremely heterogeneous, the drug efficacy and economical sustainability of this approach is now debatable. Importantly, tumor cell heterogeneity depends not only on genetic modifications but also on non-genetic processes involving either stochastic events or epigenetic modifications making genetic biomarkers of uncertain utility. In this review, we wish to highlight how evolutionary biology can impact our understanding of carcinogenesis and resistance to therapies. We will discuss new approaches based on applied ecology and evolution dynamics that can be used to convert the cancer into a chronic disease where the drugs would control tumor growth. Finally, we will discuss the way metabolic dysfunction or phenotypic changes can help developing new delivery systems or phenotypetargeted drugs and how exploring new sources of active compounds can conduct to the development of drugs with original mechanisms of action. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Phenotypic Novelty in EvoDevo: The Distinction Between Continuous and Discontinuous Variation and Its Importance in Evolutionary Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Tim; Müller, Gerd B

    The introduction of novel phenotypic structures is one of the most significant aspects of organismal evolution. Yet the concept of evolutionary novelty is used with drastically different connotations in various fields of research, and debate exists about whether novelties represent features that are distinct from standard forms of phenotypic variation. This article contrasts four separate uses for novelty in genetics, population genetics, morphology, and behavioral science, before establishing how novelties are used in evolutionary developmental biology (EvoDevo). In particular, it is detailed how an EvoDevo-specific research approach to novelty produces insight distinct from other fields, gives the concept explanatory power with predictive capacities, and brings new consequences to evolutionary theory. This includes the outlining of research strategies that draw attention to productive areas of inquiry, such as threshold dynamics in development. It is argued that an EvoDevo-based approach to novelty is inherently mechanistic, treats the phenotype as an agent with generative potential, and prompts a distinction between continuous and discontinuous variation in evolutionary theory.

  15. Geographic and phenotypic variation in heartwood and essential-oil characters in natural populations of Santalum austrocaledonicum in Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Tony; Southwell, Ian; Russell, Mike; Tate, Hanington; Tungon, Joseph; Sam, Chanel; Dickinson, Geoff; Robson, Ken; Leakey, Roger R B

    2010-08-01

    Phenotypic variation in heartwood and essential-oil characters of Santalum austrocaledonicum was assessed across eleven populations on seven islands of Vanuatu. Trees differed significantly in their percentage heartwood cross-sectional area and this varied independently of stem diameter. The concentrations of the four major essential-oil constituents (alpha-santalol, beta-santalol, (Z)-beta-curcumen-12-ol, and cis-nuciferol) of alcohol-extracted heartwood exhibited at least tenfold and continuous tree-to-tree variation. Commercially important components alpha- and beta-santalol found in individual trees ranged from 0.8-47% and 0-24.1%, respectively, across all populations, and significant (Poil concentration. These results indicate that the heartwood colour is not a reliable predictive trait for oil quality. The results of this study highlight the knowledge gaps in fundamental understanding of heartwood biology in Santalum genus. The intraspecific variation in heartwood cross-sectional area, oil concentration, and oil quality traits is of considerable importance to the domestication of sandalwood and present opportunities for the development of highly superior S. austrocaledonicum cultivars that conform to the industry's International Standards used for S. album.

  16. Covariation and phenotypic integration in chemical communication displays: biosynthetic constraints and eco-evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, Robert R; Kuppler, Jonas; Amo, Luisa; Blande, James D; Borges, Renee M; van Dam, Nicole M; Dicke, Marcel; Dötterl, Stefan; Ehlers, Bodil K; Etl, Florian; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Glinwood, Robert; Gols, Rieta; Groot, Astrid T; Heil, Martin; Hoffmeister, Mathias; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Jarau, Stefan; John, Lena; Kessler, Andre; Knudsen, Jette T; Kost, Christian; Larue-Kontic, Anne-Amélie C; Leonhardt, Sara Diana; Lucas-Barbosa, Dani; Majetic, Cassie J; Menzel, Florian; Parachnowitsch, Amy L; Pasquet, Rémy S; Poelman, Erik H; Raguso, Robert A; Ruther, Joachim; Schiestl, Florian P; Schmitt, Thomas; Tholl, Dorothea; Unsicker, Sybille B; Verhulst, Niels; Visser, Marcel E; Weldegergis, Berhane T; Köllner, Tobias G

    2017-03-03

    Chemical communication is ubiquitous. The identification of conserved structural elements in visual and acoustic communication is well established, but comparable information on chemical communication displays (CCDs) is lacking. We assessed the phenotypic integration of CCDs in a meta-analysis to characterize patterns of covariation in CCDs and identified functional or biosynthetically constrained modules. Poorly integrated plant CCDs (i.e. low covariation between scent compounds) support the notion that plants often utilize one or few key compounds to repel antagonists or to attract pollinators and enemies of herbivores. Animal CCDs (mostly insect pheromones) were usually more integrated than those of plants (i.e. stronger covariation), suggesting that animals communicate via fixed proportions among compounds. Both plant and animal CCDs were composed of modules, which are groups of strongly covarying compounds. Biosynthetic similarity of compounds revealed biosynthetic constraints in the covariation patterns of plant CCDs. We provide a novel perspective on chemical communication and a basis for future investigations on structural properties of CCDs. This will facilitate identifying modules and biosynthetic constraints that may affect the outcome of selection and thus provide a predictive framework for evolutionary trajectories of CCDs in plants and animals. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Controlling for Phylogenetic Relatedness and Evolutionary Rates Improves the Discovery of Associations Between Species' Phenotypic and Genomic Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudent, Xavier; Parra, Genis; Schwede, Peter; Roscito, Juliana G; Hiller, Michael

    2016-08-01

    The growing number of sequenced genomes allows us now to address a key question in genetics and evolutionary biology: which genomic changes underlie particular phenotypic changes between species? Previously, we developed a computational framework called Forward Genomics that associates phenotypic to genomic differences by focusing on phenotypes that are independently lost in different lineages. However, our previous implementation had three main limitations. Here, we present two new Forward Genomics methods that overcome these limitations by (1) directly controlling for phylogenetic relatedness, (2) controlling for differences in evolutionary rates, and (3) computing a statistical significance. We demonstrate on large-scale simulated data and on real data that both new methods substantially improve the sensitivity to detect associations between phenotypic and genomic differences. We applied these new methods to detect genomic differences involved in the loss of vision in the blind mole rat and the cape golden mole, two independent subterranean mammals. Forward Genomics identified several genes that are enriched in functions related to eye development and the perception of light, as well as genes involved in the circadian rhythm. These new Forward Genomics methods represent a significant advance in our ability to discover the genomic basis underlying phenotypic differences between species. Source code: https://github.com/hillerlab/ForwardGenomics/. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  18. Contemporary and historical evolutionary processes interact to shape patterns of within-lake phenotypic divergences in polyphenic pumpkinseed sunfish, Lepomis gibbosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weese, Dylan J; Ferguson, Moira M; Robinson, Beren W

    2012-01-01

    Historical and contemporary evolutionary processes can both contribute to patterns of phenotypic variation among populations of a species. Recent studies are revealing how interactions between historical and contemporary processes better explain observed patterns of phenotypic divergence than either process alone. Here, we investigate the roles of evolutionary history and adaptation to current environmental conditions in structuring phenotypic variation among polyphenic populations of sunfish inhabiting 12 postglacial lakes in eastern North America. The pumpkinseed sunfish polyphenism includes sympatric ecomorphs specialized for littoral or pelagic lake habitats. First, we use population genetic methods to test the evolutionary independence of within-lake phenotypic divergences of ecomorphs and to describe patterns of genetic structure among lake populations that clustered into three geographical groupings. We then used multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) to partition body shape variation (quantified with geometric morphometrics) among the effects of evolutionary history (reflecting phenotypic variation among genetic clusters), the shared phenotypic response of all populations to alternate habitats within lakes (reflecting adaptation to contemporary conditions), and unique phenotypic responses to habitats within lakes nested within genetic clusters. All effects had a significant influence on body form, but the effects of history and the interaction between history and contemporary habitat were larger than contemporary processes in structuring phenotypic variation. This highlights how divergence can be better understood against a known backdrop of evolutionary history. PMID:22822436

  19. Can selection on a male mating character result in evolutionary change? A selection experiment on California wild radish, Raphanus sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Diane L; Evans, Ann S

    2016-03-01

    Whenever more pollen grains arrive on stigmas than necessary to fertilize ovules, sexual selection is possible. However, the role of sexual selection remains controversial, in part because of lack of evidence on genetic bases of traits and the response of relevant characters to selection. In an experiment with Raphanus sativus, we selected on tendency to sire seeds in the stylar or basal regions of fruits. This character is likely related to pollen tube growth rate, and seed position affects rates of abortion and seed predation. We measured differences among families in seed siring and related characters and evaluated responses to selection. All replicates showed strong effects of pollen donor family on proportion of seeds sired per fruit in mixed pollinations. Most also showed effects of pollen donor family on number of pollen grains per flower and pollen diameter. Two of four replicates showed a response to selection on position of seeds sired. In responding replicates, we found trade-offs in pollen grain size and number; plants with larger pollen grains sired more seeds in the basal region. Our data suggest a genetic basis for pollen donor ability to sire seeds in competition. The significant response to selection in two replicates shows that position of seeds sired can respond to selection. Thus, all components for sexual selection to occur and affect traits are present. Variation in results among replicates might be due to changes in greenhouse conditions. Environmental effects may contribute to the maintenance of variation in these fitness-related characters. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  20. The fossil record of phenotypic integration and modularity: A deep-time perspective on developmental and evolutionary dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Anjali; Binder, Wendy J; Meachen, Julie; O'Keefe, F Robin

    2015-04-21

    Variation is the raw material for natural selection, but the factors shaping variation are still poorly understood. Genetic and developmental interactions can direct variation, but there has been little synthesis of these effects with the extrinsic factors that can shape biodiversity over large scales. The study of phenotypic integration and modularity has the capacity to unify these aspects of evolutionary study by estimating genetic and developmental interactions through the quantitative analysis of morphology, allowing for combined assessment of intrinsic and extrinsic effects. Data from the fossil record in particular are central to our understanding of phenotypic integration and modularity because they provide the only information on deep-time developmental and evolutionary dynamics, including trends in trait relationships and their role in shaping organismal diversity. Here, we demonstrate the important perspective on phenotypic integration provided by the fossil record with a study of Smilodon fatalis (saber-toothed cats) and Canis dirus (dire wolves). We quantified temporal trends in size, variance, phenotypic integration, and direct developmental integration (fluctuating asymmetry) through 27,000 y of Late Pleistocene climate change. Both S. fatalis and C. dirus showed a gradual decrease in magnitude of phenotypic integration and an increase in variance and the correlation between fluctuating asymmetry and overall integration through time, suggesting that developmental integration mediated morphological response to environmental change in the later populations of these species. These results are consistent with experimental studies and represent, to our knowledge, the first deep-time validation of the importance of developmental integration in stabilizing morphological evolution through periods of environmental change.

  1. Seedling response to environmental variability: The relationship between phenotypic plasticity and evolutionary history in closely related Eucalyptus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Susan; Bonser, Stephen P; Wilson, Peter G; Rossetto, Maurizio

    2017-06-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is an important means through which organisms cope with environmental variability. We investigated seedling plasticity in the green ash eucalypts within a phylogenetic framework to examine the relationship between plasticity and evolutionary history. The green ashes are a diverse group, which include the tallest flowering plant in the world (Eucalyptus regnans) and a rare mallee less than 1 m tall (E. cunninghamii). Seedlings of 12 species were exposed to high and low nutrient and water availability in a factorial experiment. Leaf trait and total plant plasticity were evaluated using the phenotypic plasticity index. A phylogeny of the species was estimated using genome-wide scans. We found significant differences in functional traits across species, growth forms, and substrates in response to changes in resource availability. Many traits (e.g., leaf width) were highly plastic for most species. Interspecific differences in leaf-level plasticity was significant, however plasticity was not correlated with phylogeny. Species with broader environmental niches had higher leaf-level plasticity than species with narrower environmental ranges. Plastic responses to environmental variability can differ widely among closely related species, and plasticity is therefore likely to be associated with many factors, including habitat and range size, as well as evolutionary history. Our results provided insights for species delimitation in Eucalyptus, which have management implications. Because of the high number of rare species and that other species are commercially important, a more comprehensive understanding of plasticity is essential for predicting their response to changing climates. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  2. Effect of UV radiation on the killer phenotype in the wine yeast-saccharomycetes and spontaneous variation of this character

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skorikova, T.K.; Tyurina, L.V.

    1982-05-01

    Spontaneous and ultraviolet-induced changeabilities of wine yeasts from the killer state to sensitive one have been studied. Observed often spontaneous changes of killer and neutral phenotypes under laboratory store conditions as well as high mutation frequency of genetic elements responsible for the killer indication on ultraviolet irradiation testify that often encounterability in nature and in the production of sensitive yeasts is attributed to high frequency of mutation changes of the killer and neutral phenotypes to the sensitive state.

  3. Covariation and phenotypic integration in chemical communication displays: biosynthetic constraints and eco-evolutionary implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junker, Robert R.; Kuppler, Jonas; Amo de Paz, Luisa; Blande, James D.; Borges, Renee M.; van Dam, N.M.; Dicke, Marcel; Dötterl, Stefan; Ehlers, Bodil K.; Etl, Florian; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Glinwood, Robert; Gols, Rieta; Groot, Astrid T.; Heil, Martin; Hoffmeister, Mathias; Holopainen, Jarmo K.; Jarau, Stefan; John, Lena; Kessler, Andre; Knudsen, Jette T.; Kost, Christian; Larue-Kontic, Anne-Amélie C.; Leonhardt, Sara Diana; Lucas-Barbosa, Dani; Majetic, Cassie J.; Menzel, Florian; Parachnowitsch, Amy L.; Pasquet, Rémy S.; Poelman, Erik H.; Raguso, Robert A.; Ruther, Joachim; Schiestl, Florian P.; Schmitt, Thomas; Tholl, Dorothea; Unsicker, Sybille B.; Verhulst, Niels; Visser, M.E.; Weldegergis, Berhane T.; Köllner, Tobias G.

    2017-01-01

    •Chemical communication is ubiquitous. The identification of conserved structural elements in visual and acoustic communication is well established, but comparable information on chemical communication displays (CCDs) is lacking. •We assessed the phenotypic integration of CCDs in a meta-analysis to

  4. Genomic and phenotypic characterization of myxoma virus from Great Britain reveals multiple evolutionary pathways distinct from those in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Kerr

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The co-evolution of myxoma virus (MYXV and the European rabbit occurred independently in Australia and Europe from different progenitor viruses. Although this is the canonical study of the evolution of virulence, whether the genomic and phenotypic outcomes of MYXV evolution in Europe mirror those observed in Australia is unknown. We addressed this question using viruses isolated in the United Kingdom early in the MYXV epizootic (1954-1955 and between 2008-2013. The later UK viruses fell into three distinct lineages indicative of a long period of separation and independent evolution. Although rates of evolutionary change were almost identical to those previously described for MYXV in Australia and strongly clock-like, genome evolution in the UK and Australia showed little convergence. The phenotypes of eight UK viruses from three lineages were characterized in laboratory rabbits and compared to the progenitor (release Lausanne strain. Inferred virulence ranged from highly virulent (grade 1 to highly attenuated (grade 5. Two broad disease types were seen: cutaneous nodular myxomatosis characterized by multiple raised secondary cutaneous lesions, or an amyxomatous phenotype with few or no secondary lesions. A novel clinical outcome was acute death with pulmonary oedema and haemorrhage, often associated with bacteria in many tissues but an absence of inflammatory cells. Notably, reading frame disruptions in genes defined as essential for virulence in the progenitor Lausanne strain were compatible with the acquisition of high virulence. Combined, these data support a model of ongoing host-pathogen co-evolution in which multiple genetic pathways can produce successful outcomes in the field that involve both different virulence grades and disease phenotypes, with alterations in tissue tropism and disease mechanisms.

  5. Genomic and phenotypic characterization of myxoma virus from Great Britain reveals multiple evolutionary pathways distinct from those in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Peter J; Cattadori, Isabella M; Rogers, Matthew B; Fitch, Adam; Geber, Adam; Liu, June; Sim, Derek G; Boag, Brian; Eden, John-Sebastian; Ghedin, Elodie; Read, Andrew F; Holmes, Edward C

    2017-03-01

    The co-evolution of myxoma virus (MYXV) and the European rabbit occurred independently in Australia and Europe from different progenitor viruses. Although this is the canonical study of the evolution of virulence, whether the genomic and phenotypic outcomes of MYXV evolution in Europe mirror those observed in Australia is unknown. We addressed this question using viruses isolated in the United Kingdom early in the MYXV epizootic (1954-1955) and between 2008-2013. The later UK viruses fell into three distinct lineages indicative of a long period of separation and independent evolution. Although rates of evolutionary change were almost identical to those previously described for MYXV in Australia and strongly clock-like, genome evolution in the UK and Australia showed little convergence. The phenotypes of eight UK viruses from three lineages were characterized in laboratory rabbits and compared to the progenitor (release) Lausanne strain. Inferred virulence ranged from highly virulent (grade 1) to highly attenuated (grade 5). Two broad disease types were seen: cutaneous nodular myxomatosis characterized by multiple raised secondary cutaneous lesions, or an amyxomatous phenotype with few or no secondary lesions. A novel clinical outcome was acute death with pulmonary oedema and haemorrhage, often associated with bacteria in many tissues but an absence of inflammatory cells. Notably, reading frame disruptions in genes defined as essential for virulence in the progenitor Lausanne strain were compatible with the acquisition of high virulence. Combined, these data support a model of ongoing host-pathogen co-evolution in which multiple genetic pathways can produce successful outcomes in the field that involve both different virulence grades and disease phenotypes, with alterations in tissue tropism and disease mechanisms.

  6. Genomic and phenotypic characterization of myxoma virus from Great Britain reveals multiple evolutionary pathways distinct from those in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Peter J.; Cattadori, Isabella M.; Fitch, Adam; Geber, Adam; Liu, June; Sim, Derek G.; Boag, Brian; Ghedin, Elodie

    2017-01-01

    The co-evolution of myxoma virus (MYXV) and the European rabbit occurred independently in Australia and Europe from different progenitor viruses. Although this is the canonical study of the evolution of virulence, whether the genomic and phenotypic outcomes of MYXV evolution in Europe mirror those observed in Australia is unknown. We addressed this question using viruses isolated in the United Kingdom early in the MYXV epizootic (1954–1955) and between 2008–2013. The later UK viruses fell into three distinct lineages indicative of a long period of separation and independent evolution. Although rates of evolutionary change were almost identical to those previously described for MYXV in Australia and strongly clock-like, genome evolution in the UK and Australia showed little convergence. The phenotypes of eight UK viruses from three lineages were characterized in laboratory rabbits and compared to the progenitor (release) Lausanne strain. Inferred virulence ranged from highly virulent (grade 1) to highly attenuated (grade 5). Two broad disease types were seen: cutaneous nodular myxomatosis characterized by multiple raised secondary cutaneous lesions, or an amyxomatous phenotype with few or no secondary lesions. A novel clinical outcome was acute death with pulmonary oedema and haemorrhage, often associated with bacteria in many tissues but an absence of inflammatory cells. Notably, reading frame disruptions in genes defined as essential for virulence in the progenitor Lausanne strain were compatible with the acquisition of high virulence. Combined, these data support a model of ongoing host-pathogen co-evolution in which multiple genetic pathways can produce successful outcomes in the field that involve both different virulence grades and disease phenotypes, with alterations in tissue tropism and disease mechanisms. PMID:28253375

  7. Virulent clones of Klebsiella pneumoniae: identification and evolutionary scenario based on genomic and phenotypic characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Brisse

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae is found in the environment and as a harmless commensal, but is also a frequent nosocomial pathogen (causing urinary, respiratory and blood infections and the agent of specific human infections including Friedländer's pneumonia, rhinoscleroma and the emerging disease pyogenic liver abscess (PLA. The identification and precise definition of virulent clones, i.e. groups of strains with a single ancestor that are associated with particular infections, is critical to understand the evolution of pathogenicity from commensalism and for a better control of infections. We analyzed 235 K. pneumoniae isolates of diverse environmental and clinical origins by multilocus sequence typing, virulence gene content, biochemical and capsular profiling and virulence to mice. Phylogenetic analysis of housekeeping genes clearly defined clones that differ sharply by their clinical source and biological features. First, two clones comprising isolates of capsular type K1, clone CC23(K1 and clone CC82(K1, were strongly associated with PLA and respiratory infection, respectively. Second, only one of the two major disclosed K2 clones was highly virulent to mice. Third, strains associated with the human infections ozena and rhinoscleroma each corresponded to one monomorphic clone. Therefore, K. pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae and K. pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis should be regarded as virulent clones derived from K. pneumoniae. The lack of strict association of virulent capsular types with clones was explained by horizontal transfer of the cps operon, responsible for the synthesis of the capsular polysaccharide. Finally, the reduction of metabolic versatility observed in clones Rhinoscleromatis, Ozaenae and CC82(K1 indicates an evolutionary process of specialization to a pathogenic lifestyle. In contrast, clone CC23(K1 remains metabolically versatile, suggesting recent acquisition of invasive potential. In conclusion, our results reveal the existence of

  8. Evolution of Specialization and Ecological Character Displacement of Herbivores along a Gradient of Plant Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Egas, M.; Sabelis, M W; Dieckmann, U.

    2005-01-01

    We study the combined evolutionary dynamics of herbivore specialization and ecological character displacement, taking into account foraging behavior of the herbivores, and a quality gradient of plant types. Herbivores can adapt by changing two adaptive traits: their level of specialization in feeding efficiency and their point of maximum feeding efficiency along the plant gradient. The number of herbivore phenotypes, their levels of specialization, and the amount of character displacement amo...

  9. Evolution of specialization and ecological character displacement along a gradient of plant quality.

    OpenAIRE

    Egas, C.J.M.; Sabelis, M W; Dieckmann, U.

    2005-01-01

    We study the combined evolutionary dynamics of herbivore specialization and eco-logical character displacement, taking into account foraging behavior of the herbivores, and a quality gradient of plant types. Herbivores can adapt by changing two adaptive traits: their level of specialization in feeding efficiency and their point of maximum feeding efficiency along the plant gradient. The number of herbivore phenotypes, their levels of specialization, and the amount of character displacement am...

  10. The secondary loss of gyrencephaly as an example of evolutionary phenotypical reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva eKelava

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gyrencephaly (the folding of the surface of the neocortex is a mammalian-specific trait present in almost all mammalian orders. Despite the widespread appearance of the trait, little is known about the mechanism of its genesis or its adaptive significance. Still, most of the hypotheses proposed concentrated on the pattern of connectivity of mature neurons as main components of gyri formation. Recent work on embryonic neurogenesis in several species of mammals revealed different progenitor and stem cells and their neurogenic potential as having important roles in the process of gyrification. Studies in the field of comparative neurogenesis revealed that gyrencephaly is an evolutionarily labile trait, and that some species underwent a secondary loss of a convoluted brain surface and thus reverted to a more ancient form, a less folded brain surface (lissencephaly. This phenotypic reversion provides an excellent system for understanding the phenomenon of secondary loss. In this review, we will outline the theory behind secondary loss and, as specific examples, present species that have undergone this transition with respect to neocortical folding. We will also discuss different possible pathways for obtaining (or losing gyri. Finally, we will explore the potential adaptive consequence of gyrencephaly relative to lissencephaly and vice versa.

  11. Implementing an evolutionary framework for understanding genetic relationships of phenotypically defined insect biotypes in the invasive soybean aphid (Aphis glycines)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Jacob A; Michel, Andy P

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive evolution of pest insects in response to the introduction of resistant cultivars is well documented and commonly results in virulent (i.e., capable of feeding upon resistant cultivars) insect populations being labeled as distinct biotypes. Phenotypically defined, biotypes frequently remain evolutionarily indistinct, resulting in ineffective application of virulence control measures and shorter durability of resistant cultivars. Here, we utilize an evolutionary framework to discern the genetic relationship between biotypes of the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines, Matsumura). The soybean aphid is invasive in North America and is among the most destructive pests of commercial soybean on the continent. Attempts to breed host-plant-resistant soybean have been hampered by the emergence of virulent aphid biotypes that are unaffected by the plant's resistance mechanism(s). Comparative population genetic analysis of virulent and avirulent (i.e., unable to feed on resistant cultivars) biotypes found populations to be genetically indistinguishable across biotype and geographic distance, with high rates of interpopulation immigration and admixture. The lack of genetic distinction between biotypes coupled with elevated genotypic diversity within all populations suggested virulence has a nongenetic-based or includes a gene complex that is widely distributed throughout soybean aphid populations, which undergo regular dispersal and unimpeded sexual recombination. PMID:24187586

  12. Estimating genetic correlations based on phenotypic data: a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [Zintzaras E. 2011 Estimating genetic correlations based on phenotypic data: a simulation-based method. J. Genet. 90, 51–58]. Introduction. The evolutionary response to selection is a function of the genetic covariance between characters as well as environ- mental associations between them (Young and Weiler 1960;.

  13. Phenotypic plasticity of Daphnia life history traits in response to predator kairomones: genetic variability and evolutionary potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, A.; De Clerck, S.

    1997-01-01

    Cladoceran populations can respond to changing predation regimes by a phenotypical response as well as by shifts in genotype frequencies. In this study, we investigated the phenotypic plasticity exhibited by life history traits of D. galeata in response to the presence of predator kairomones, as

  14. Evolutionary Nephrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Robert L

    2017-05-01

    Progressive kidney disease follows nephron loss, hyperfiltration, and incomplete repair, a process described as "maladaptive." In the past 20 years, a new discipline has emerged that expands research horizons: evolutionary medicine. In contrast to physiologic (homeostatic) adaptation, evolutionary adaptation is the result of reproductive success that reflects natural selection. Evolutionary explanations for physiologically maladaptive responses can emerge from mismatch of the phenotype with environment or evolutionary tradeoffs. Evolutionary adaptation to a terrestrial environment resulted in a vulnerable energy-consuming renal tubule and a hypoxic, hyperosmolar microenvironment. Natural selection favors successful energy investment strategy: energy is allocated to maintenance of nephron integrity through reproductive years, but this declines with increasing senescence after ~40 years of age. Risk factors for chronic kidney disease include restricted fetal growth or preterm birth (life history tradeoff resulting in fewer nephrons), evolutionary selection for APOL1 mutations (that provide resistance to trypanosome infection, a tradeoff), and modern life experience (Western diet mismatch leading to diabetes and hypertension). Current advances in genomics, epigenetics, and developmental biology have revealed proximate causes of kidney disease, but attempts to slow kidney disease remain elusive. Evolutionary medicine provides a complementary approach by addressing ultimate causes of kidney disease. Marked variation in nephron number at birth, nephron heterogeneity, and changing susceptibility to kidney injury throughout life history are the result of evolutionary processes. Combined application of molecular genetics, evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo), developmental programming and life history theory may yield new strategies for prevention and treatment of chronic kidney disease.

  15. Phenex: ontological annotation of phenotypic diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Balhoff

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic differences among species have long been systematically itemized and described by biologists in the process of investigating phylogenetic relationships and trait evolution. Traditionally, these descriptions have been expressed in natural language within the context of individual journal publications or monographs. As such, this rich store of phenotype data has been largely unavailable for statistical and computational comparisons across studies or integration with other biological knowledge.Here we describe Phenex, a platform-independent desktop application designed to facilitate efficient and consistent annotation of phenotypic similarities and differences using Entity-Quality syntax, drawing on terms from community ontologies for anatomical entities, phenotypic qualities, and taxonomic names. Phenex can be configured to load only those ontologies pertinent to a taxonomic group of interest. The graphical user interface was optimized for evolutionary biologists accustomed to working with lists of taxa, characters, character states, and character-by-taxon matrices.Annotation of phenotypic data using ontologies and globally unique taxonomic identifiers will allow biologists to integrate phenotypic data from different organisms and studies, leveraging decades of work in systematics and comparative morphology.

  16. Phenotypic variation of F1 and F2 populations from three species of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... relationships and the extent of evolutionary changes with a view to improving the agronomic characters in the hybrids. ... ecological advantage over other hybrids. The incomplete ... Key words: Solanum, genome, phenotype, taxonomy, evolution, interspecific hybridization, pollen viability, hybrid fertility fruit ...

  17. GUESS-ing polygenic associations with multiple phenotypes using a GPU-based evolutionary stochastic search algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Bottolo

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS yielded significant advances in defining the genetic architecture of complex traits and disease. Still, a major hurdle of GWAS is narrowing down multiple genetic associations to a few causal variants for functional studies. This becomes critical in multi-phenotype GWAS where detection and interpretability of complex SNP(s-trait(s associations are complicated by complex Linkage Disequilibrium patterns between SNPs and correlation between traits. Here we propose a computationally efficient algorithm (GUESS to explore complex genetic-association models and maximize genetic variant detection. We integrated our algorithm with a new Bayesian strategy for multi-phenotype analysis to identify the specific contribution of each SNP to different trait combinations and study genetic regulation of lipid metabolism in the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS. Despite the relatively small size of GHS (n  =  3,175, when compared with the largest published meta-GWAS (n > 100,000, GUESS recovered most of the major associations and was better at refining multi-trait associations than alternative methods. Amongst the new findings provided by GUESS, we revealed a strong association of SORT1 with TG-APOB and LIPC with TG-HDL phenotypic groups, which were overlooked in the larger meta-GWAS and not revealed by competing approaches, associations that we replicated in two independent cohorts. Moreover, we demonstrated the increased power of GUESS over alternative multi-phenotype approaches, both Bayesian and non-Bayesian, in a simulation study that mimics real-case scenarios. We showed that our parallel implementation based on Graphics Processing Units outperforms alternative multi-phenotype methods. Beyond multivariate modelling of multi-phenotypes, our Bayesian model employs a flexible hierarchical prior structure for genetic effects that adapts to any correlation structure of the predictors and increases the power to identify

  18. Evolution of specialization and ecological character displacement of herbivores along a gradient of plant quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egas, Martijn; Sabelis, Maurice W; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2005-03-01

    We study the combined evolutionary dynamics of herbivore specialization and ecological character displacement, taking into account foraging behavior of the herbivores, and a quality gradient of plant types. Herbivores can adapt by changing two adaptive traits: their level of specialization in feeding efficiency and their point of maximum feeding efficiency along the plant gradient. The number of herbivore phenotypes, their levels of specialization, and the amount of character displacement among them are the result of the evolutionary dynamics, which is driven by the underlying population dynamics, which in turn is driven by the underlying foraging behavior. Our analysis demonstrates broad conditions for the diversification of a herbivore population into many specialized phenotypes, for basically any foraging behavior focusing use on highest gains while also including errors. Our model predicts two characteristic phases in the adaptation of herbivore phenotypes: a fast character-displacement phase and a slow coevolutionary niche-shift phase. This two-phase pattern is expected to be of wide relevance in various consumer-resource systems. Bringing together ecological character displacement and the evolution of specialization in a single model, our study suggests that the foraging behavior of herbivorous arthropods is a key factor promoting specialist radiation.

  19. New Comparative Analysis Based on the Secondary Structure of SSU-rRNA Gene Reveals the Evolutionary Trend and the Family-Genus Characters of Mobilida (Ciliophora, Peritrichia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Yuan-Jun; Wang, Qin; Tang, Fa-Hui

    2015-08-01

    In order to reveal the structural evolutionary trend of Mobilida ciliates, twenty-six SSU-rRNA sequences of mobilid species, including seven ones newly sequenced in the present work, were used for comparative phylogenic analysis based on the RNA secondary structure. The research results indicate that all the secondary structures except domains Helix 10, Helix 12, and Helix 37 could be regarded as the criterions in classification between the family Trichodinidae and Urceolariida, and four regions including Helix E10-1, Helix 29, Helix 43, and Helix 45-Helix 46 could be as criterions in classification between the genus Trichodinella and Trichodina in family Trichodinidae. After the analysis of common structural feature within the Mobilida, it was found that the secondary structure of V6 could prove the family Urceolariidae primitive status. This research has further suggested that the genus Trichodina could be divergent earlier than Trichodinella in the family Trichodinidae. In addition, the relationship between the secondary structure and topology of phylogenic tree that the branching order of most clades corresponds with the secondary structure of species within each clade of phylogenetic tree was first uncovered and discussed in the present study.

  20. Evolutionary Nephrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Chevalier

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Progressive kidney disease follows nephron loss, hyperfiltration, and incomplete repair, a process described as “maladaptive.” In the past 20 years, a new discipline has emerged that expands research horizons: evolutionary medicine. In contrast to physiologic (homeostatic adaptation, evolutionary adaptation is the result of reproductive success that reflects natural selection. Evolutionary explanations for physiologically maladaptive responses can emerge from mismatch of the phenotype with environment or from evolutionary tradeoffs. Evolutionary adaptation to a terrestrial environment resulted in a vulnerable energy-consuming renal tubule and a hypoxic, hyperosmolar microenvironment. Natural selection favors successful energy investment strategy: energy is allocated to maintenance of nephron integrity through reproductive years, but this declines with increasing senescence after ∼40 years of age. Risk factors for chronic kidney disease include restricted fetal growth or preterm birth (life history tradeoff resulting in fewer nephrons, evolutionary selection for APOL1 mutations (which provide resistance to trypanosome infection, a tradeoff, and modern life experience (Western diet mismatch leading to diabetes and hypertension. Current advances in genomics, epigenetics, and developmental biology have revealed proximate causes of kidney disease, but attempts to slow kidney disease remain elusive. Evolutionary medicine provides a complementary approach by addressing ultimate causes of kidney disease. Marked variation in nephron number at birth, nephron heterogeneity, and changing susceptibility to kidney injury throughout the life history are the result of evolutionary processes. Combined application of molecular genetics, evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo, developmental programming, and life history theory may yield new strategies for prevention and treatment of chronic kidney disease.

  1. Joint morphology in the insect leg: evolutionary history inferred from Notch loss-of-function phenotypes in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajiri, Reiko; Misaki, Kazuyo; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Hayashi, Shigeo

    2011-11-01

    Joints permit efficient locomotion, especially among animals with a rigid skeleton. Joint morphologies vary in the body of individual animals, and the shapes of homologous joints often differ across species. The diverse locomotive behaviors of animals are based, in part, on the developmental and evolutionary history of joint morphogenesis. We showed previously that strictly coordinated cell-differentiation and cell-movement events within the epidermis sculpt the interlocking ball-and-socket joints in the adult Drosophila tarsus (distal leg). Here, we show that the tarsal joints of various insect species can be classified into three types: ball-and-socket, side-by-side and uniform. The last two probably result from joint formation without the cell-differentiation step, the cell-movement step, or both. Similar morphological variations were observed in Drosophila legs when Notch function was temporarily blocked during joint formation, implying that the independent acquisition of cell differentiation and cell movement underlay the elaboration of tarsal joint morphologies during insect evolution. These results provide a framework for understanding how the seemingly complex morphology of the interlocking joint could have developed during evolution by the addition of simple developmental modules: cell differentiation and cell movement.

  2. Evolution of specialization and ecological character displacement: metabolic plasticity matters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egas, C.J.M.; Reydon, Th.A.C.; Hemerik, L.

    2005-01-01

    An important question in evolutionary biology, especially with respect to herbivorous arthropods, is the evolution of specialization. In a previous paper, the combined evolutionary dynamics of specialization and ecological character displacement was studied, focusing on the role of herbivore

  3. Evolution of environmental cues for phenotypic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevin, Luis-Miguel; Lande, Russell

    2015-10-01

    Phenotypically plastic characters may respond to multiple variables in their environment, but the evolutionary consequences of this phenomenon have rarely been addressed theoretically. We model the evolution of linear reaction norms in response to several correlated environmental variables, in a population undergoing stationary environmental fluctuations. At evolutionary equilibrium, the linear combination of environmental variables that acts as a developmental cue for the plastic trait is the multivariate best linear predictor of changes in the optimum. However, the reaction norm with respect to any single environmental variable may exhibit nonintuitive patterns. Apparently maladaptive, or hyperadaptive plasticity can evolve with respect to single environmental variables, and costs of plasticity may increase, rather than reduce, plasticity in response to some variables. We also find conditions for the evolution of an indirect environmental indicator that affects expression of a plastic phenotype, despite not influencing natural selection on it. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  4. Believable Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nasr, Magy Seif; Bishko, Leslie; Zammitto, Veronica; Nixon, Michael; Vasiliakos, Athanasios V.; Wei, Huaxin

    The interactive entertainment industry is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. In 1996, the U.S. entertainment software industry reported 2.6 billion in sales revenue, this figure has more than tripled in 2007 yielding 9.5 billion in revenues [1]. In addition, gamers, the target market for interactive entertainment products, are now reaching beyond the traditional 8-34 year old male to include women, Hispanics, and African Americans [2]. This trend has been observed in several markets, including Japan, China, Korea, and India, who has just published their first international AAA title (defined as high quality games with high budget), a 3D third person action game: Ghajini - The Game [3]. The topic of believable characters is becoming a central issue when designing and developing games for today's game industry. While narrative and character were considered secondary to game mechanics, games are currently evolving to integrate characters, narrative, and drama as part of their design. One can see this pattern through the emergence of games like Assassin's Creed (published by Ubisoft 2008), Hotel Dusk (published by Nintendo 2007), and Prince of Persia series (published by Ubisoft), which emphasized character and narrative as part of their design.

  5. Evolutionary re-wiring of p63 and the epigenomic regulatory landscape in keratinocytes and its potential implications on species-specific gene expression and phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Isha; Gluck, Christian; Zhou, Huiqing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Although epidermal keratinocyte development and differentiation proceeds in similar fashion between humans and mice, evolutionary pressures have also wrought significant species-specific physiological differences. These differences between species could arise in part, by the rewiring of regulatory network due to changes in the global targets of lineage-specific transcriptional master regulators such as p63. Here we have performed a systematic and comparative analysis of the p63 target gene network within the integrated framework of the transcriptomic and epigenomic landscape of mouse and human keratinocytes. We determined that there exists a core set of ∼1600 genomic regions distributed among enhancers and super-enhancers, which are conserved and occupied by p63 in keratinocytes from both species. Notably, these DNA segments are typified by consensus p63 binding motifs under purifying selection and are associated with genes involved in key keratinocyte and skin-centric biological processes. However, the majority of the p63-bound mouse target regions consist of either murine-specific DNA elements that are not alignable to the human genome or exhibit no p63 binding in the orthologous syntenic regions, typifying an occupancy lost subset. Our results suggest that these evolutionarily divergent regions have undergone significant turnover of p63 binding sites and are associated with an underlying inactive and inaccessible chromatin state, indicative of their selective functional activity in the transcriptional regulatory network in mouse but not human. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this selective targeting of genes by p63 correlates with subtle, but measurable transcriptional differences in mouse and human keratinocytes that converges on major metabolic processes, which often exhibit species-specific trends. Collectively our study offers possible molecular explanation for the observable phenotypic differences between the mouse and human skin and broadly

  6. The evolutionary fate of phenotypic plasticity and functional traits under domestication in manioc: changes in stem biomechanics and the appearance of stem brittleness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Ménard

    Full Text Available Domestication can influence many functional traits in plants, from overall life-history and growth form to wood density and cell wall ultrastructure. Such changes can increase fitness of the domesticate in agricultural environments but may negatively affect survival in the wild. We studied effects of domestication on stem biomechanics in manioc by comparing domesticated and ancestral wild taxa from two different regions of greater Amazonia. We compared mechanical properties, tissue organisation and wood characteristics including microfibril angles in both wild and domesticated plants, each growing in two different habitats (forest or savannah and varying in growth form (shrub or liana. Wild taxa grew as shrubs in open savannah but as lianas in overgrown and forested habitats. Growth form plasticity was retained in domesticated manioc. However, stems of the domesticate showed brittle failure. Wild plants differed in mechanical architecture between shrub and liana phenotypes, a difference that diminished between shrubs and lianas of the domesticate. Stems of wild plants were generally stiffer, failed at higher bending stresses and were less prone to brittle fracture compared with shrub and liana phenotypes of the domesticate. Biomechanical differences between stems of wild and domesticated plants were mainly due to changes in wood density and cellulose microfibril angle rather than changes in secondary growth or tissue geometry. Domestication did not significantly modify "large-scale" trait development or growth form plasticity, since both wild and domesticated manioc can develop as shrubs or lianas. However, "finer-scale" developmental traits crucial to mechanical stability and thus ecological success of the plant were significantly modified. This profoundly influenced the likelihood of brittle failure, particularly in long climbing stems, thereby also influencing the survival of the domesticate in natural situations vulnerable to mechanical

  7. Phenotypic and genotypic characters of isolates of Pasteurella multocida obtained from back-yard poultry and from two outbreaks of avian cholera in avifauna in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J P; Dietz, H H; Bisgaard, M

    1998-01-01

    Two outbreaks of fowl cholera in the avifauna in Denmark, affecting primarily eiders but also cormorants, gulls and oyster-catchers were shown to be caused by the same clone of Pasteurella multocida ssp. multocida by restriction enzyme analysis (REA) and ribotyping, using the enzymes HpaII and HhaI and phenotypic characterization. This observation indicated spread by migratory birds. It was shown that the outbreak clone was closely related to isolates of Pasteurella multocida ssp. multocida obtained from back-yard poultry in Denmark, including chickens, pheasants, turkeys and ducks. The only detectable difference between the outbreak clone and some of these strains concerned the size of one fragment. These results indicate a possible exchange of P. multocida ssp. multocida between populations of wild birds and back-yard poultry. Among the DNA fingerprinting methods used, restriction enzyme analysis offered the highest discrimination among thirty strains obtained from back-yard poultry. The restriction enzymes HpaII and HhaI generated almost the same number of profile types, 17 and 15 respectively, but only HpaII differentiated the outbreak clone from the group of closely related strains isolated from back-yard poultry. Ribotyping, using the same enzymes, resulted in 12 and 10 different profile types, respectively. The outbreak isolates did not harbour any plasmids, while six out of the 30 strains originating from back-yard poultry (20%) carried a cryptic plasmid of approximately 3.4 kb.

  8. A Unifying Mathematical Framework for Genetic Robustness, Environmental Robustness, Network Robustness and their Trade-off on Phenotype Robustness in Biological Networks Part I: Gene Regulatory Networks in Systems and Evolutionary Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bor-Sen; Lin, Ying-Po

    2013-01-01

    Robust stabilization and environmental disturbance attenuation are ubiquitous systematic properties observed in biological systems at different levels. The underlying principles for robust stabilization and environmental disturbance attenuation are universal to both complex biological systems and sophisticated engineering systems. In many biological networks, network robustness should be enough to confer intrinsic robustness in order to tolerate intrinsic parameter fluctuations, genetic robustness for buffering genetic variations, and environmental robustness for resisting environmental disturbances. With this, the phenotypic stability of biological network can be maintained, thus guaranteeing phenotype robustness. This paper presents a survey on biological systems and then develops a unifying mathematical framework for investigating the principles of both robust stabilization and environmental disturbance attenuation in systems and evolutionary biology. Further, from the unifying mathematical framework, it was discovered that the phenotype robustness criterion for biological networks at different levels relies upon intrinsic robustness + genetic robustness + environmental robustness ≦ network robustness. When this is true, the phenotype robustness can be maintained in spite of intrinsic parameter fluctuations, genetic variations, and environmental disturbances. Therefore, the trade-offs between intrinsic robustness, genetic robustness, environmental robustness, and network robustness in systems and evolutionary biology can also be investigated through their corresponding phenotype robustness criterion from the systematic point of view.

  9. Character evolution in Hydrozoa (phylum Cnidaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Paulyn; Nawrocki, Annalise M

    2010-09-01

    The diversity of hydrozoan life cycles, as manifested in the wide range of polyp, colony, and medusa morphologies, has been appreciated for centuries. Unraveling the complex history of characters involved in this diversity is critical for understanding the processes driving hydrozoan evolution. In this study, we use a phylogenetic approach to investigate the evolution of morphological characters in Hydrozoa. A molecular phylogeny is reconstructed using ribosomal DNA sequence data. Several characters involving polyp, colony, and medusa morphology are coded in the terminal taxa. These characters are mapped onto the phylogeny and then the ancestral character states are reconstructed. This study confirms the complex evolutionary history of hydrozoan morphological characters. Many of the characters involving polyp, colony, and medusa morphology appear as synapomorphies for major hydrozoan clades, yet homoplasy is commonplace. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved.

  10. Desempeño fisiológico, estacionalidad y plasticidad fenotípica en pequeños mamíferos: microevolución de la capacidad de cambio en rasgos termorregulatorios Physiological performance, seasonality and phenotypic plasticity in small mammals: microevolution of change capacity in thermoregulatory characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERTO F. NESPOLO

    2000-09-01

    discussed the pattern from several points of view in the last few decades. However, this premise always has been relegated to discussions and rarely was tested both theoreticaly and/or empiricaly, in spite of the fact that the tools needed to do it now are available from evolutionary biology and quantitative genetics theory. I think this historical disconnection is explained by a number of facts already mentioned by many authors, and discussed here briefly. This area has reached enough maturity to experience a change in paradigm in order to quantify and test adaptative hypoteses about acclimation ecophysiology. In this essay I expose the resources that at last, would permit the modelling of the evolution of key thermoregulatory traits of small endotherms inhabiting seasonal environments. That is, determining phenotypic plasticity associated to these variables and using the reaction norm as character itself, and by estimating additive genetic variances and covariances to build the variance-covariance additive genetic matrix. These elements, along with the estimation of the directional selection gradient as an index of natural selection pressure, would permit to complete the model that predicts the evolutionary response to selection in a population

  11. Characters with personality!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, K. van den; Brandenburgh, A.; Muller, T.J.; Heuvelink, A.

    2012-01-01

    Serious games offer an opportunity for learning communication skills by practicing conversations with one or more virtual characters, provided that the character(s) behave in accordance with their assigned properties and strate-gies. This paper presents an approach for developing virtual characters

  12. Character Recognition (Devanagari Script)

    OpenAIRE

    Ankita Karia; Sonali Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Character Recognition is has found major interest in field of research and practical application to analyze and study characters in different languages using image as their input. In this paper the user writes the Devanagari character using mouse as a plotter and then the corresponding character is saved in the form of image. This image is processed using Optical Character Recognition in which location, segmentation, pre-processing of image is done. Later Neural Networks is used t...

  13. Evolutionary rescue and local adaptation under different rates of temperature increase: a combined analysis of changes in phenotype expression and genotype frequency in Paramecium microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, Joshua; Gougat-Barbera, Claire; Krenek, Sascha; Kaltz, Oliver

    2017-04-01

    Evolutionary rescue (ER) occurs when populations, which have declined due to rapid environmental change, recover through genetic adaptation. The success of this process and the evolutionary trajectory of the population strongly depend on the rate of environmental change. Here we investigated how different rates of temperature increase (from 23 to 32 °C) affect population persistence and evolutionary change in experimental microcosms of the protozoan Paramecium caudatum. Consistent with theory on ER, we found that those populations experiencing the slowest rate of temperature increase were the least likely to become extinct and tended to be the best adapted to the new temperature environment. All high-temperature populations were more tolerant to severe heat stress (35, 37 °C), indicating a common mechanism of heat protection. High-temperature populations also had superior growth rates at optimum temperatures, leading to the absence of a pattern of local adaptation to control (23 °C) and high-temperature (32 °C) environments. However, high-temperature populations had reduced growth at low temperatures (5-9 °C), causing a shift in the temperature niche. In part, the observed evolutionary change can be explained by selection from standing variation. Using mitochondrial markers, we found complete divergence between control and high-temperature populations in the frequencies of six initial founder genotypes. Our results confirm basic predictions of ER and illustrate how adaptation to an extreme local environment can produce positive as well as negative correlated responses to selection over the entire range of the ecological niche. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Telomere length reflects phenotypic quality and costs of reproduction in a long-lived seabird : An evolutionary view on biological rhythms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauch, Christina; Becker, Peter H.; Verhulst, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Telomere length is associated with cellular senescence, lifestyle and ageing. Short telomeres indicate poor health in humans and reduced life expectancy in several bird species, but little is known about telomeres in relation to phenotypic quality in wild animals. We investigated telomere lengths in

  15. A Few Funny Characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingher, Gary

    2002-01-01

    Describes funny characters in children's books and films, including humorous children, adults, and animal characters. Considers younger children and middle grade and older children and suggests library media center activities for various age groups. (LRW)

  16. Defining block character

    OpenAIRE

    A E Stamps

    1999-01-01

    In this paper I propose a clear, efficient, and accurate method for determining if a block of contiguous buildings has an overall character. The work is needed because most contemporary design reviews presuppose the existence of visual character, but existing design principles are often too vague to make the required determination. Clarity is achieved by shifting from vague notions to a definite concept for block character: a design feature will be perceived as part of the overall character o...

  17. Correlação fenotípica entre caracteres de híbridos diploides (AA de bananeira Phenotypic correlation between characters in banana (AA diploid hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Saraiva Lessa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo de correlação tem como propósito mensurar a alteração em um caráter quando se altera outro. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se estimar correlações fenotípicas entre o número de frutos por cacho e 22 caracteres avaliados em híbridos diploides (AA de bananeira. No experimento, conduzido na Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, foram avaliados 11 híbridos diploides (AA de bananeira. Os caracteres avaliados foram: altura de plantas, diâmetro do pseudocaule, número de filhos, número de folhas na floração, período do plantio ao florescimento, presença de pólen, peso do cacho e da ráquis, sigatoka-amarela no florescimento, número de folhas na colheita, Sigatoka-amarela na colheita do cacho, número de dias do florescimento à colheita, comprimento e diâmetro do engaço, peso da segunda penca, número de pencas e de frutos por cacho, fragilidade do pedicelo, comprimento e diâmetro do fruto e comprimento do pedicelo, além de presença de semente. Após a tabulação, procederam-se a estudos de correlação entre o número de frutos e os demais caracteres da planta. Essas correlações variaram entre os genótipos, sendo assim, observado que as associações entre o número de frutos e os caracteres vegetativos da planta foram, de forma geral, não significativas. Já as relações entre o número de frutos por cacho e os outros caracteres produtivos foram, predominantemente, significativas.The objective of the present study was to estimate the phenotypic correlations between the number of fruits per bunch and 22 characters evaluated in banana (AA diploid hybrids. The experiment was carried out at Embrapa Cassava and Fruits in randomized blocks with four repetitions and 11 (AA banana diploid hybrids were evaluated. The following characteristics were evaluated: plant height, pseudostem diameter, number of suckers, number of leaves during flowering, plant cycle until emission of the

  18. Testing evolutionary hypotheses about the phylotypic period of zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kai; Starck, J Matthias

    2011-07-15

    Vertebrate embryos pass through a period of morphological similarity, the phylotypic period. Since Haeckel's biogenetic law of recapitulation, proximate and ultimate evolutionary causes of such similarity of embryos were discussed. We test predictions about changes in phenotypic and genetic variances that were derived from three hypotheses about the evolutionary origin of the phylotypic stage, i.e. random, epigenetic effects, and stabilizing selection. The random hypothesis predicts increasing values for phenotypic variances and stable or increasing values for genetic variances; the epigenetic effects hypothesis predicts declining values for phenotypic variances but stable or increasing values of genetic variances, and the stabilizing selection predicts stable phenotypic variances but decreasing genetic variances. We studied zebrafish as a model species, because it can be bred in large numbers as necessary for a quantitative genetics breeding design. A half-sib breeding scheme provided estimates of additive genetic variances from 11 embryonic characters from 12 through to 24 hr after fertilization, i.e. before, during (15-19 hr), and after the phylotypic period. Because additive genetic variances are size dependent, we calculated narrow-sense heritabilities as a size independent gauge of genetic contributions to the phenotype. The results show declining phenotypic variances and stable heritabilities. In conclusion, we reject the random and the stabilizing selection hypotheses and favor ideas about epigenetic effects that constrain the early embryonic development. Additive genetic variance during the phylotypic stage makes it accessible for evolution, thus explaining in a simple and straightforward way why the phylotypic period differs among vertebrates in timing, duration, and morphologies. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. An evolutionary basis for pollination ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Willemstein, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    In the introduction and chapter 2 the incentives and way of reasoning are given for the description of an evolutionary basis of pollination ecology. Starting from the until recently rather anecdotical character of the study of pollination ecology as a whole, and in the absence of large-scale correlations of flowerecologically important character states with angiosperm and insect phylogeny (in the sense of Hennig, 1966), an attempt is made to derive directed evolutionary lines (transformation ...

  20. The role of interspecific interference competition in character displacement and the evolution of competitor recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grether, Gregory F; Losin, Neil; Anderson, Christopher N; Okamoto, Kenichi

    2009-11-01

    The extent to which interspecific interference competition has contributed to character evolution is one of the most neglected problems in evolutionary biology. When formerly allopatric species come into secondary contact, aggressive interactions between the species can cause selection on traits that affect interspecific encounter rates (e.g. habitat preferences, activity schedules), competitor recognition (e.g. colouration, song), and fighting ability (e.g. weaponry, body size). We define agonistic character displacement (ACD) as the process of phenotypic evolution in a population caused by interference competition with one or more sympatric species and which results in shifts in traits that affect the rate, intensity or outcome of interspecific aggression. After clarifying the relationships between ACD and other evolutionary processes that may occur when species come into secondary contact, we develop an individual-based, quantitative genetic model to examine how traits involved in competitor recognition would be expected to evolve under different secondary contact scenarios. Our simulation results show that both divergence and convergence are possible outcomes, depending on the intensity of interspecific exploitative competition, the costs associated with mutual versus unilateral recognition, and the extent of phenotypic differences prior to secondary contact. We then devise a set of eight criteria for evaluating putative examples of ACD and review the empirical literature to assess the strength of existing evidence and to identify promising avenues for future research. Our literature search revealed 33 putative examples of ACD across insects, fishes, bats, birds, lizards, and amphibians (15 divergence examples; 18 convergence examples). Only one example satisfies all eight criteria for demonstrating ACD, but most case studies satisfy four or more criteria. The current state of the evidence for ACD is similar to the state of the evidence for ecological character

  1. Character trees from transcriptome data: Origin and individuation of morphological characters and the so-called "species signal".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, Jacob M; Wagner, Günter P

    2015-11-01

    We elaborate a framework for investigating the evolutionary history of morphological characters. We argue that morphological character trees generated by phylogenetic analysis of transcriptomes provide a useful tool for identifying causal gene expression differences underlying the development and evolution of morphological characters. They also enable rigorous testing of different models of morphological character evolution and origination, including the hypothesis that characters originate via divergence of repeated ancestral characters. Finally, morphological character trees provide evidence that character transcriptomes undergo concerted evolution. We argue that concerted evolution of transcriptomes can explain the so-called "species signal" found in several recent comparative transcriptome studies. The species signal is the phenomenon that transcriptomes cluster by species rather than character type, even though the characters are older than the respective species. We suggest the species signal is a natural consequence of concerted gene expression evolution resulting from mutations that alter gene regulatory network interactions shared by the characters under comparison. Thus, character trees generated from transcriptomes allow us to investigate the variational independence, or individuation, of morphological characters at the level of genetic programs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. linking genetic to phenotypic variation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    phenotypic variation. SHAMPA GHOSH and N. SHARMILA BHARATHI. Evolutionary Biology Laboratory, Evolutionary and Organismal Biology Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for. Advanced Scientific Research, P.O. Box 6436, Jakkur, Bangalore 560 064, India. Immunity can be classified into two types, namely innate.

  3. Integrating evo-devo with ecology for a better understanding of phenotypic evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M Emília; Berger, Chloé S; Refki, Peter N; Khila, Abderrahman

    2015-11-01

    Evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) has provided invaluable contributions to our understanding of the mechanistic relationship between genotypic and phenotypic change. Similarly, evolutionary ecology has greatly advanced our understanding of the relationship between the phenotype and the environment. To fully understand the evolution of organismal diversity, a thorough integration of these two fields is required. This integration remains highly challenging because model systems offering a rich ecological and evolutionary background, together with the availability of developmental genetic tools and genomic resources, are scarce. In this review, we introduce the semi-aquatic bugs (Gerromorpha, Heteroptera) as original models well suited to study why and how organisms diversify. The Gerromorpha invaded water surfaces over 200 mya and diversified into a range of remarkable new forms within this new ecological habitat. We summarize the biology and evolutionary history of this group of insects and highlight a set of characters associated with the habitat change and the diversification that followed. We further discuss the morphological, behavioral, molecular and genomic tools available that together make semi-aquatic bugs a prime model for integration across disciplines. We present case studies showing how the implementation and combination of these approaches can advance our understanding of how the interaction between genotypes, phenotypes and the environment drives the evolution of distinct morphologies. Finally, we explain how the same set of experimental designs can be applied in other systems to address similar biological questions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Heterosis of Qualitative and Quantitative Characters in Sweet Gourd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The heterotic effects and genetic components of variation for qualitative and quantitative characters were estimated in sweet gourd. The phenotypic coefficients of variation were higher than genotypic coefficient of variation for all the characters indicating that environment played a considerable role on the expression of ...

  5. Social character of materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, A; Hunt, J M; Kernan, J B

    2000-06-01

    Scores for 170 undergraduates on Richins and Dawson's Materialism scale were correlated with scores on Kassarjian's Social Preference Scale, designed to measure individuals' character structure. A correlation of .26 between materialism and other-directed social character suggested that an externally oriented reference system guides materialists' perceptions, judgments, acquisitions, and possessions.

  6. Evolutionary dynamics in structured populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Martin A.; Tarnita, Corina E.; Antal, Tibor

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary dynamics shape the living world around us. At the centre of every evolutionary process is a population of reproducing individuals. The structure of that population affects evolutionary dynamics. The individuals can be molecules, cells, viruses, multicellular organisms or humans. Whenever the fitness of individuals depends on the relative abundance of phenotypes in the population, we are in the realm of evolutionary game theory. Evolutionary game theory is a general approach that can describe the competition of species in an ecosystem, the interaction between hosts and parasites, between viruses and cells, and also the spread of ideas and behaviours in the human population. In this perspective, we review the recent advances in evolutionary game dynamics with a particular emphasis on stochastic approaches in finite sized and structured populations. We give simple, fundamental laws that determine how natural selection chooses between competing strategies. We study the well-mixed population, evolutionary graph theory, games in phenotype space and evolutionary set theory. We apply these results to the evolution of cooperation. The mechanism that leads to the evolution of cooperation in these settings could be called ‘spatial selection’: cooperators prevail against defectors by clustering in physical or other spaces. PMID:20008382

  7. Proteomics in evolutionary ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, B; Millar, A H

    2016-03-01

    Evolutionary ecologists are traditionally gene-focused, as genes propagate phenotypic traits across generations and mutations and recombination in the DNA generate genetic diversity required for evolutionary processes. As a consequence, the inheritance of changed DNA provides a molecular explanation for the functional changes associated with natural selection. A direct focus on proteins on the other hand, the actual molecular agents responsible for the expression of a phenotypic trait, receives far less interest from ecologists and evolutionary biologists. This is partially due to the central dogma of molecular biology that appears to define proteins as the 'dead-end of molecular information flow' as well as technical limitations in identifying and studying proteins and their diversity in the field and in many of the more exotic genera often favored in ecological studies. Here we provide an overview of a newly forming field of research that we refer to as 'Evolutionary Proteomics'. We point out that the origins of cellular function are related to the properties of polypeptide and RNA and their interactions with the environment, rather than DNA descent, and that the critical role of horizontal gene transfer in evolution is more about coopting new proteins to impact cellular processes than it is about modifying gene function. Furthermore, post-transcriptional and post-translational processes generate a remarkable diversity of mature proteins from a single gene, and the properties of these mature proteins can also influence inheritance through genetic and perhaps epigenetic mechanisms. The influence of post-transcriptional diversification on evolutionary processes could provide a novel mechanistic underpinning for elements of rapid, directed evolutionary changes and adaptations as observed for a variety of evolutionary processes. Modern state-of the art technologies based on mass spectrometry are now available to identify and quantify peptides, proteins, protein

  8. The covariance between genetic and environmental influences across ecological gradients: reassessing the evolutionary significance of countergradient and cogradient variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, David O; Duffy, Tara A; Hice, Lyndie A

    2009-06-01

    Patterns of phenotypic change across environmental gradients (e.g., latitude, altitude) have long captivated the interest of evolutionary ecologists. The pattern and magnitude of phenotypic change is determined by the covariance between genetic and environmental influences across a gradient. Cogradient variation (CoGV) occurs when covariance is positive: that is, genetic and environmental influences on phenotypic expression are aligned and their joint influence accentuates the change in mean trait value across the gradient. Conversely, countergradient variation (CnGV) occurs when covariance is negative: that is, genetic and environmental influences on phenotypes oppose one another, thereby diminishing the change in mean trait expression across the gradient. CnGV has so far been found in at least 60 species, with most examples coming from fishes, amphibians, and insects across latitudinal or altitudinal gradients. Traits that display CnGV most often involve metabolic compensation, that is, the elevation of various physiological rates processes (development, growth, feeding, metabolism, activity) to counteract the dampening effect of reduced temperature, growing season length, or food supply. Far fewer examples of CoGV have been identified (11 species), and these most often involve morphological characters. Increased knowledge of spatial covariance patterns has furthered our understanding of Bergmann size clines, phenotypic plasticity, species range limits, tradeoffs in juvenile growth rate, and the design of conservation strategies for wild species. Moreover, temporal CnGV explains some cases of an apparent lack of phenotypic response to directional selection and provides a framework for predicting evolutionary responses to climate change.

  9. Expected Time for Random Genetic Drift of a Population between Stable Phenotypic States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, Russell

    1985-11-01

    Natural selection and random genetic drift are modeled by using diffusion equations for the mean phenotype of a quantitative (polygenic) character in a finite population with two available adaptive zones or ecological niches. When there is appreciable selection, the population is likely to spend a very long time drifting around the peak in its original adaptive zone. With the mean phenotype initially anywhere near the local optimum, the expected time until a shift between phenotypic adaptive peaks increases approximately exponentially with the effective population size. In comparison, the expected duration of intermediate forms in the actual transition between adaptive peaks is extremely short, generally below the level of resolution in the fossil record, and increases approximately logarithmically with the effective population size. The evolutionary dynamics of this model conform to the pattern of current paleontological concepts of morphological ``stasis'' and ``punctuated equilibria.''

  10. Madness in Shakespeare's Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Borja-Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper begins with an introduction where the aims are explained: a psychopathological analysis of a Shakespearean character - Othello – followed by the discussion of the English dramatist’s importance in helping us understand madness in the emergent world of Renaissance. The main characteristics of Othello’s personality, which allowed the development of his jealousy delusion, are described. Finally, the conclusions underline the overlap of the symptoms developed by the character with the DSM-IV classification.

  11. An end to endless forms: epistasis, phenotype distribution bias, and nonuniform evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borenstein, Elhanan; Krakauer, David C

    2008-10-01

    Studies of the evolution of development characterize the way in which gene regulatory dynamics during ontogeny constructs and channels phenotypic variation. These studies have identified a number of evolutionary regularities: (1) phenotypes occupy only a small subspace of possible phenotypes, (2) the influence of mutation is not uniform and is often canalized, and (3) a great deal of morphological variation evolved early in the history of multicellular life. An important implication of these studies is that diversity is largely the outcome of the evolution of gene regulation rather than the emergence of new, structural genes. Using a simple model that considers a generic property of developmental maps-the interaction between multiple genetic elements and the nonlinearity of gene interaction in shaping phenotypic traits-we are able to recover many of these empirical regularities. We show that visible phenotypes represent only a small fraction of possibilities. Epistasis ensures that phenotypes are highly clustered in morphospace and that the most frequent phenotypes are the most similar. We perform phylogenetic analyses on an evolving, developmental model and find that species become more alike through time, whereas higher-level grades have a tendency to diverge. Ancestral phenotypes, produced by early developmental programs with a low level of gene interaction, are found to span a significantly greater volume of the total phenotypic space than derived taxa. We suggest that early and late evolution have a different character that we classify into micro- and macroevolutionary configurations. These findings complement the view of development as a key component in the production of endless forms and highlight the crucial role of development in constraining biotic diversity and evolutionary trajectories.

  12. An end to endless forms: epistasis, phenotype distribution bias, and nonuniform evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhanan Borenstein

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the evolution of development characterize the way in which gene regulatory dynamics during ontogeny constructs and channels phenotypic variation. These studies have identified a number of evolutionary regularities: (1 phenotypes occupy only a small subspace of possible phenotypes, (2 the influence of mutation is not uniform and is often canalized, and (3 a great deal of morphological variation evolved early in the history of multicellular life. An important implication of these studies is that diversity is largely the outcome of the evolution of gene regulation rather than the emergence of new, structural genes. Using a simple model that considers a generic property of developmental maps-the interaction between multiple genetic elements and the nonlinearity of gene interaction in shaping phenotypic traits-we are able to recover many of these empirical regularities. We show that visible phenotypes represent only a small fraction of possibilities. Epistasis ensures that phenotypes are highly clustered in morphospace and that the most frequent phenotypes are the most similar. We perform phylogenetic analyses on an evolving, developmental model and find that species become more alike through time, whereas higher-level grades have a tendency to diverge. Ancestral phenotypes, produced by early developmental programs with a low level of gene interaction, are found to span a significantly greater volume of the total phenotypic space than derived taxa. We suggest that early and late evolution have a different character that we classify into micro- and macroevolutionary configurations. These findings complement the view of development as a key component in the production of endless forms and highlight the crucial role of development in constraining biotic diversity and evolutionary trajectories.

  13. Arabic character recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, May

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents a complete system for learning and recognizing Arabic characters. Arabic OCR faces technical problems not encountered in other languages such as cursiveness, overriding and overlapping of characters, multiple shapes per character and the presence of vowels above and below the characters. The proposed approach relies on the fact that the process of connecting Arabic characters to produce cursive writing tends to form a fictitious baseline. During preprocessing, contour analysis provides both component isolation and baseline location. In the feature extraction phase, the words are processed from right to left to generate a sequence of labels. Each label is one of a predetermined codebook that represents all possible bit distribution with respect to the baseline. At a certain position, which depends on the label context, a segmentation decision is taken. During training, a model is generated for each character. This model describes the probability of the occurrence of the labels at each vertical position. During recognition, the probability of the label observation sequence is computed and accumulated. The system has been tested on different typewritten, typeset fonts and diacriticized versions of both and the evaluation results are presented.

  14. Character expansion of matrix integrals

    OpenAIRE

    van de Leur, J. W.; Orlov, A. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    We consider character expansion of tau functions and multiple integrals in characters of orhtogonal and symplectic groups. In particular we consider character expansions of integrals over orthogonal and over symplectic matrices.

  15. Colour pattern homology and evolution in Vanessa butterflies (Nymphalidae: Nymphalini): eyespot characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, R; Marcus, J M

    2015-11-01

    Ocelli are serially repeated colour patterns on the wings of many butterflies. Eyespots are elaborate ocelli that function in predator avoidance and deterrence as well as in mate choice. A phylogenetic approach was used to study ocelli and eyespot evolution in Vanessa butterflies, a genus exhibiting diverse phenotypes among these serial homologs. Forty-four morphological characters based on eyespot number, arrangement, shape and the number of elements in each eyespot were defined and scored. Ocelli from eight wing cells on the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the forewing and hindwing were evaluated. The evolution of these characters was traced over a phylogeny of Vanessa based on 7750 DNA base pairs from 10 genes. Our reconstruction predicts that the ancestral Vanessa had 5 serially arranged ocelli on all four wing surfaces. The ancestral state on the dorsal forewing and ventral hindwing was ocelli arranged in two heterogeneous groups. On the dorsal hindwing, the ancestral state was either homogenous or ocelli arranged in two heterogeneous groups. On the ventral forewing, we determined that the ancestral state was organized into three heterogeneous groups. In Vanessa, almost all ocelli are individuated and capable of independent evolution relative to other colour patterns except for the ocelli in cells -1 and 0 on the dorsal and ventral forewings, which appear to be constrained to evolve in parallel. The genus Vanessa is a good model system for the study of serial homology and the interaction of selective forces with developmental architecture to produce diversity in butterfly colour patterns. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  16. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Emergent properties of gene evolution: Species as attractors in phenotypic space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuveni, Eli; Giuliani, Alessandro

    2012-02-01

    The question how the observed discrete character of the phenotype emerges from a continuous genetic distance metrics is the core argument of two contrasted evolutionary theories: punctuated equilibrium (stable evolution scattered with saltations in the phenotype) and phyletic gradualism (smooth and linear evolution of the phenotype). Identifying phenotypic saltation on the molecular levels is critical to support the first model of evolution. We have used DNA sequences of ∼1300 genes from 6 isolated populations of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We demonstrate that while the equivalent measure of the genetic distance show a continuum between lineage distance with no evidence of discrete states, the phenotypic space illustrates only two (discrete) possible states that can be associated with a saltation of the species phenotype. The fact that such saltation spans large fraction of the genome and follows by continuous genetic distance is a proof of the concept that the genotype-phenotype relation is not univocal and may have severe implication when looking for disease related genes and mutations. We used this finding with analogy to attractor-like dynamics and show that punctuated equilibrium could be explained in the framework of non-linear dynamics systems.

  18. Environmental change, phenotypic plasticity, and genetic compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grether, Gregory F

    2005-10-01

    When a species encounters novel environmental conditions, some phenotypic characters may develop differently than in the ancestral environment. Most environmental perturbations of development are likely to reduce fitness, and thus selection would usually be expected to favor genetic changes that restore the ancestral phenotype. I propose the term "genetic compensation" to refer to this form of adaptive evolution. Genetic compensation is a subset of genetic accommodation and the reverse of genetic assimilation. When genetic compensation has occurred along a spatial environmental gradient, the mean trait values of populations in different environments may be more similar in the field than when representatives of the same populations are raised in a common environment (i.e., countergradient variation). If compensation is complete, genetic divergence between populations may be cryptic, that is, not detectable in the field. Here I apply the concept of genetic compensation to three examples involving carotenoid-based sexual coloration and then use these and other examples to discuss the concept in a broader context. I show that genetic compensation may lead to a cryptic form of reproductive isolation between populations evolving in different environments, may explain some puzzling cases in which heritable traits exposed to strong directional selection fail to show the expected evolutionary response, and may complicate efforts to monitor populations for signs of environmental deterioration.

  19. Open Issues in Evolutionary Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fernando; Duarte, Miguel; Correia, Luís; Oliveira, Sancho Moura; Christensen, Anders Lyhne

    2016-01-01

    One of the long-term goals in evolutionary robotics is to be able to automatically synthesize controllers for real autonomous robots based only on a task specification. While a number of studies have shown the applicability of evolutionary robotics techniques for the synthesis of behavioral control, researchers have consistently been faced with a number of issues preventing the widespread adoption of evolutionary robotics for engineering purposes. In this article, we review and discuss the open issues in evolutionary robotics. First, we analyze the benefits and challenges of simulation-based evolution and subsequent deployment of controllers versus evolution on real robotic hardware. Second, we discuss specific evolutionary computation issues that have plagued evolutionary robotics: (1) the bootstrap problem, (2) deception, and (3) the role of genomic encoding and genotype-phenotype mapping in the evolution of controllers for complex tasks. Finally, we address the absence of standard research practices in the field. We also discuss promising avenues of research. Our underlying motivation is the reduction of the current gap between evolutionary robotics and mainstream robotics, and the establishment of evolutionary robotics as a canonical approach for the engineering of autonomous robots.

  20. Evolutionary developmental psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ashley C; Bjorklund, David F

    2010-02-01

    The field of evolutionary developmental psychology can potentially broaden the horizons of mainstream evolutionary psychology by combining the principles of Darwinian evolution by natural selection with the study of human development, focusing on the epigenetic effects that occur between humans and their environment in a way that attempts to explain how evolved psychological mechanisms become expressed in the phenotypes of adults. An evolutionary developmental perspective includes an appreciation of comparative research and we, among others, argue that contrasting the cognition of humans with that of nonhuman primates can provide a framework with which to understand how human cognitive abilities and intelligence evolved. Furthermore, we argue that several aspects of childhood (e.g., play and immature cognition) serve both as deferred adaptations as well as imparting immediate benefits. Intense selection pressure was surely exerted on childhood over human evolutionary history and, as a result, neglecting to consider the early developmental period of children when studying their later adulthood produces an incomplete picture of the evolved adaptations expressed through human behavior and cognition.

  1. Evolutionary dynamics of a sexual ornament in the house sparrow (Passer domesticus): the role of indirect selection within and between sexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Henrik; Steinsland, Ingelin; Ringsby, Thor Harald; Saether, Bernt-Erik

    2008-06-01

    The relative contribution of sexual and natural selection to evolution of sexual ornaments has rarely been quantified under natural conditions. In this study we used a long-term dataset of house sparrows in which parents and offspring were matched genetically to estimate the within- and across-sex genetic basis for variation and covariation among morphological traits. By applying two-sex multivariate "animal models" to estimate genetic parameters, we estimated evolutionary changes in a male sexual ornament, badge size, from the contribution of direct and indirect selection on correlated traits within males and females, after accounting for overlapping generations and age-structure. Indirect natural selection on genetically correlated traits in males and females was the major force causing evolutionary change in the male ornament. Thus, natural selection on female morphology may cause indirect evolutionary changes in male ornaments. We observed however no directional phenotypic change in the ornament size of one-year-old males during the study period. On the other hand, changes were recorded in other morphological characters of both sexes. Our analyses of evolutionary dynamics in sexual characters require application of appropriate two-sex models to account for how selection on correlated traits in both sexes affects the evolutionary outcome of sexual selection.

  2. The typeface character

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    Research from the fields of neuroscience and psychology, shows that typefaces can carry different semantic associations. However, to be able to read a text, the reader can no longer focus on the character of the typeface, as the human mind is incapable of simultaneously giving full attention...

  3. Integrating genomics into evolutionary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Juan Antonio; Marigorta, Urko M; Navarro, Arcadi

    2014-12-01

    The application of the principles of evolutionary biology into medicine was suggested long ago and is already providing insight into the ultimate causes of disease. However, a full systematic integration of medical genomics and evolutionary medicine is still missing. Here, we briefly review some cases where the combination of the two fields has proven profitable and highlight two of the main issues hindering the development of evolutionary genomic medicine as a mature field, namely the dissociation between fitness and health and the still considerable difficulties in predicting phenotypes from genotypes. We use publicly available data to illustrate both problems and conclude that new approaches are needed for evolutionary genomic medicine to overcome these obstacles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evolutionary genomics of Entamoeba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weedall, Gareth D.; Hall, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a human pathogen that causes amoebic dysentery and leads to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Understanding the genome and evolution of the parasite will help explain how, when and why it causes disease. Here we review current knowledge about the evolutionary genomics of Entamoeba: how differences between the genomes of different species may help explain different phenotypes, and how variation among E. histolytica parasites reveals patterns of population structure. The imminent expansion of the amount genome data will greatly improve our knowledge of the genus and of pathogenic species within it. PMID:21288488

  5. Tests for character displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, D F; Mosimann, J E; Meeter, D A

    1985-12-01

    Character displacement is an important concept in ecology which has been surrounded by controversy due largely to a lack of clearly stated hypotheses and statistical tests. Existing tests implicity assume random species sizes estimated without error--a random-effects model. We introduce the log-uniform distribution for species sizes and show that it has properties of direct relevance to character displacement. We present tests which assume uniform and log-normal species sizes and have the log-uniform distribution as an alternative. The tests have low power for sample sizes typically encountered in ecology. The effect of estimating species sizes is small. The results exemplify the shortcomings of the traditional random-effects model for species sizes.

  6. Cinematography and character depiction

    OpenAIRE

    William Francis Nicholson

    2011-01-01

    This essay investigates the ways in which cinematography can be used in depicting characters effectively in the motion picture medium. Since an aspiring filmmaker may be overwhelmed by the expansive field of cinematography, this essay aims to demystify and systematise this aspect of filmmaking. It combines information from written sources (mostly text books on filmmaking and cinematography) with observations made from viewing recent and older feature films. The knowledge is organised under th...

  7. Evolutionary Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Gorelik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we advance the concept of “evolutionary awareness,” a metacognitive framework that examines human thought and emotion from a naturalistic, evolutionary perspective. We begin by discussing the evolution and current functioning of the moral foundations on which our framework rests. Next, we discuss the possible applications of such an evolutionarily-informed ethical framework to several domains of human behavior, namely: sexual maturation, mate attraction, intrasexual competition, culture, and the separation between various academic disciplines. Finally, we discuss ways in which an evolutionary awareness can inform our cross-generational activities—which we refer to as “intergenerational extended phenotypes”—by helping us to construct a better future for ourselves, for other sentient beings, and for our environment.

  8. Evolutionary macroecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alexandre F. Diniz-Filho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Macroecology focuses on ecological questions at broad spatial and temporal scales, providing a statistical description of patterns in species abundance, distribution and diversity. More recently, historical components of these patterns have begun to be investigated more deeply. We tentatively refer to the practice of explicitly taking species history into account, both analytically and conceptually, as ‘evolutionary macroecology’. We discuss how the evolutionary dimension can be incorporated into macroecology through two orthogonal and complementary data types: fossils and phylogenies. Research traditions dealing with these data have developed more‐or‐less independently over the last 20–30 years, but merging them will help elucidate the historical components of diversity gradients and the evolutionary dynamics of species’ traits. Here we highlight conceptual and methodological advances in merging these two research traditions and review the viewpoints and toolboxes that can, in combination, help address patterns and unveil processes at temporal and spatial macro‐scales.

  9. Evolutionary Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, Ulrik William

    2014-01-01

    cognitive bounds will perceive business opportunities identically. In addition, because cues provide information about latent causal structures of the environment, changes in causality must be accompanied by changes in cognitive representations if adaptation is to be maintained. The concept of evolutionary......, they are correlated among people who share environments because these individuals satisfice within their cognitive bounds by using cues in order of validity, as opposed to using cues arbitrarily. Any difference in expectations thereby arise from differences in cognitive ability, because two individuals with identical......The concept of evolutionary expectations descends from cue learning psychology, synthesizing ideas on rational expectations with ideas on bounded rationality, to provide support for these ideas simultaneously. Evolutionary expectations are rational, but within cognitive bounds. Moreover...

  10. [Evolutionary medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wjst, M

    2013-12-01

    Evolutionary medicine allows new insights into long standing medical problems. Are we "really stoneagers on the fast lane"? This insight might have enormous consequences and will allow new answers that could never been provided by traditional anthropology. Only now this is made possible using data from molecular medicine and systems biology. Thereby evolutionary medicine takes a leap from a merely theoretical discipline to practical fields - reproductive, nutritional and preventive medicine, as well as microbiology, immunology and psychiatry. Evolutionary medicine is not another "just so story" but a serious candidate for the medical curriculum providing a universal understanding of health and disease based on our biological origin. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Character displacement and the evolution of niche complementarity in a model biofilm community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Crystal N; Traverse, Charles C; Mayo-Smith, Leslie; Buskirk, Sean W; Cooper, Vaughn S

    2015-01-01

    Colonization of vacant environments may catalyze adaptive diversification and be followed by competition within the nascent community. How these interactions ultimately stabilize and affect productivity are central problems in evolutionary ecology. Diversity can emerge by character displacement, in which selection favors phenotypes that exploit an alternative resource and reduce competition, or by facilitation, in which organisms change the environment and enable different genotypes or species to become established. We previously developed a model of long-term experimental evolution in which bacteria attach to a plastic bead, form a biofilm, and disperse to a new bead. Here, we focus on the evolution of coexisting mutants within a population of Burkholderia cenocepacia and how their interactions affected productivity. Adaptive mutants initially competed for space, but later competition declined, consistent with character displacement and the predicted effects of the evolved mutations. The community reached a stable equilibrium as each ecotype evolved to inhabit distinct, complementary regions of the biofilm. Interactions among ecotypes ultimately became facilitative and enhanced mixed productivity. Observing the succession of genotypes within niches illuminated changing selective forces within the community, including a fundamental role for genotypes producing small colony variants that underpin chronic infections caused by B. cenocepacia. PMID:25494960

  12. Phenotypic and seed protein analysis in 31 Lima bean ( Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenotypic and seed protein analyses were performed on 31 accessions of Lima bean assembled in Ghana. Data on 16 phenotypic characters consisting of eight quantitative and eight qualitative were analysed. There were significant differences among the accessions based on the eight quantitative characters. Seed ...

  13. Evolution of the placenta and associated reproductive characters in bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony M; Mess, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular phylogenetics indicate that the order Chiroptera is monophyletic and that one of four lineages of microbats (Rhinolophoidea) shares a common origin with megabats. Against this background we undertook a comprehensive analysis of placental evolution in bats. We defined...... a range of characters and character states associated with female reproduction, early development, placentation and the neonate. These were then mapped on a pre-existing hypothesis of bat relationships that represents the current view from molecular studies. Our purpose was threefold. First......, on the assumption of bat monophyly, we wished to establish the stem species pattern of extant chiropterans. Secondly, we asked whether there are derived character conditions in support of a common origin for Rhinolophoidea and the megabats. Thirdly, we looked for evolutionary character transformations...

  14. Evolutionary Dynamics of Biological Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Martin A.; Sigmund, Karl

    2004-02-01

    Darwinian dynamics based on mutation and selection form the core of mathematical models for adaptation and coevolution of biological populations. The evolutionary outcome is often not a fitness-maximizing equilibrium but can include oscillations and chaos. For studying frequency-dependent selection, game-theoretic arguments are more appropriate than optimization algorithms. Replicator and adaptive dynamics describe short- and long-term evolution in phenotype space and have found applications ranging from animal behavior and ecology to speciation, macroevolution, and human language. Evolutionary game theory is an essential component of a mathematical and computational approach to biology.

  15. Periods of Hecke characters

    CERN Document Server

    Schappacher, Norbert

    1988-01-01

    The starting point of this Lecture Notes volume is Deligne's theorem about absolute Hodge cycles on abelian varieties. Its applications to the theory of motives with complex multiplication are systematically reviewed. In particular, algebraic relations between values of the gamma function, the so-called formula of Chowla and Selberg and its generalization and Shimura's monomial relations among periods of CM abelian varieties are all presented in a unified way, namely as the analytic reflections of arithmetic identities beetween Hecke characters, with gamma values corresponding to Jacobi sums. The last chapter contains a special case in which Deligne's theorem does not apply.

  16. Character Education: A Critical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonson, Stacey; Tatman, Robert; Slate, John R.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we examined the history behind character education because we believe that character education an integral component of the educational enterprise. Major contributors to the importance of character education in the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries were discussed. Then we focused on the highlights of the last five decades of the 20th…

  17. Bring Character Education into Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agboola, Alex; Tsai, Kaun Chen

    2012-01-01

    Character education is a growing discipline with the deliberate attempt to optimize students' ethical behavior. The outcome of character education has always been encouraging, solidly, and continually preparing the leaders of tomorrow. The promotion of character education should not just a leap service but has an action plan for practice. In order…

  18. An evolutionary basis for pollination ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemstein, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    In the introduction and chapter 2 the incentives and way of reasoning are given for the description of an evolutionary basis of pollination ecology. Starting from the until recently rather anecdotical character of the study of pollination ecology as a whole, and in the absence of large-scale

  19. Rate heterogeneity, ancestral character state reconstruction, and the evolution of limb morphology in Lerista (Scincidae, Squamata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Adam

    2010-12-01

    Rates of phenotypic evolution derive from numerous interrelated processes acting at varying spatial and temporal scales and frequently differ substantially among lineages. Although current models employed in reconstructing ancestral character states permit independent rates for distinct types of transition (forward and reverse transitions and transitions between different states), these rates are typically assumed to be identical for all branches in a phylogeny. In this paper, I present a general model of character evolution enabling rate heterogeneity among branches. This model is employed in assessing the extent to which the assumption of uniform transition rates affects reconstructions of ancestral limb morphology in the scincid lizard clade Lerista and, accordingly, the potential for rate variability to mislead inferences of evolutionary patterns. Permitting rate variation among branches significantly improves model fit for both the manus and the pes. A constrained model in which the rate of digit acquisition is assumed to be effectively zero is strongly supported in each case; when compared with a model assuming unconstrained transition rates, this model provides a substantially better fit for the manus and a nearly identical fit for the pes. Ancestral states reconstructed assuming the constrained model imply patterns of limb evolution differing significantly from those implied by reconstructions for uniform-rate models, particularly for the pes; whereas ancestral states for the uniform-rate models consistently entail the reacquisition of pedal digits, those for the model incorporating among-lineage rate heterogeneity imply repeated, unreversed digit loss. These results indicate that the assumption of identical transition rates for all branches in a phylogeny may be inappropriate in modeling the evolution of phenotypic traits and emphasize the need for careful evaluation of phylogenetic tests of Dollo's law.

  20. Phenotype and genotype differentiation between flathead grey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to study the phenotype and genotype differentiation and to compare the amount of differences in phenotype based on morphometric character indices and meristic counts with the amount of differences in genotype based on random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting between two Mugilidae, ...

  1. Phenotypic plasticity changes correlations of traits following experimental introductions of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelsman, Corey A; Ruell, Emily W; Torres-Dowdall, Julián; Ghalambor, Cameron K

    2014-11-01

    Colonization of novel environments can alter selective pressures and act as a catalyst for rapid evolution in nature. Theory and empirical studies suggest that the ability of a population to exhibit an adaptive evolutionary response to novel selection pressures should reflect the presence of sufficient additive genetic variance and covariance for individual and correlated traits. As correlated traits should not respond to selection independently, the structure of correlations of traits can bias or constrain adaptive evolution. Models of how multiple correlated traits respond to selection often assume spatial and temporal stability of trait-correlations within populations. Yet, trait-correlations can also be plastic in response to environmental variation. Phenotypic plasticity, the ability of a single genotype to produce different phenotypes across environments, is of particular interest because it can induce population-wide changes in the combination of traits exposed to selection and change the trajectory of evolutionary divergence. We tested the ability of phenotypic plasticity to modify trait-correlations by comparing phenotypic variance and covariance in the body-shapes of four experimental populations of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to their ancestral population. We found that phenotypic plasticity produced both adaptive and novel aspects of body-shape, which was repeated in all four experimental populations. Further, phenotypic plasticity changed patterns of covariance among morphological characters. These findings suggest our ability to make inferences about patterns of divergence based on correlations of traits in extant populations may be limited if novel environments not only induce plasticity in multiple traits, but also change the correlations among the traits. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Evolutionary institutionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstenberg, Dr Kai

    Institutions are hard to define and hard to study. Long prominent in political science have been two theories: Rational Choice Institutionalism (RCI) and Historical Institutionalism (HI). Arising from the life sciences is now a third: Evolutionary Institutionalism (EI). Comparative strengths and weaknesses of these three theories warrant review, and the value-to-be-added by expanding the third beyond Darwinian evolutionary theory deserves consideration. Should evolutionary institutionalism expand to accommodate new understanding in ecology, such as might apply to the emergence of stability, and in genetics, such as might apply to political behavior? Core arguments are reviewed for each theory with more detailed exposition of the third, EI. Particular attention is paid to EI's gene-institution analogy; to variation, selection, and retention of institutional traits; to endogeneity and exogeneity; to agency and structure; and to ecosystem effects, institutional stability, and empirical limitations in behavioral genetics. RCI, HI, and EI are distinct but complementary. Institutional change, while amenable to rational-choice analysis and, retrospectively, to criticaljuncture and path-dependency analysis, is also, and importantly, ecological. Stability, like change, is an emergent property of institutions, which tend to stabilize after change in a manner analogous to allopatric speciation. EI is more than metaphorically biological in that institutional behaviors are driven by human behaviors whose evolution long preceded the appearance of institutions themselves.

  3. Genetic and phenotypic differentiation between the critically endangered Balearic shearwater and neighboring colonies of its sibling species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovart, Meritxell; Juste, Javier; Contreras-Díaz, Hermans; Oro, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the demographic and evolutionary processes within and between populations is essential for developing effective management strategies. Thus, for establishing good conservation policies both genetic and phenotypic studies are crucial. We carried out an integrated analysis of genetic and phenotypic characters of the critically endangered Balearic shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus (182 individuals) and compared them with those of 2 nearby colonies of Yelkouan shearwater P. yelkouan (40 individuals), a species for which hybridization has been hypothesized. The results of the microsatellite analyses were compared with previous mitochondrial DNA analyses. Genetic variability was low in the Balearic shearwater and high levels of inbreeding were revealed at local scale. Most dispersal in Balearic shearwaters was to neighboring sites, even though low levels of population structure were found. The admixture between the 2 species was much higher at nuclear than at mitochondrial level, but phenotypic characters would seem to indicate that a lower level of admixture exists. Individual nuclear DNA, mtDNA, and phenotype did not match at individual level, showing that migration alone cannot explain this phenomenon. We suggest that these 2 young shearwater species could have been involved in processes of divergence and admixing. However, due to the longer coalescence times in nuclear markers, incomplete lineage sorting cannot be ruled out.

  4. Toward an integration of evolutionary biology and ecosystem science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Blake; Narwani, Anita; Hausch, Stephen; Nonaka, Etsuko; Peter, Hannes; Yamamichi, Masato; Sullam, Karen E; Bird, Kali C; Thomas, Mridul K; Hanley, Torrance C; Turner, Caroline B

    2011-07-01

    At present, the disciplines of evolutionary biology and ecosystem science are weakly integrated. As a result, we have a poor understanding of how the ecological and evolutionary processes that create, maintain, and change biological diversity affect the flux of energy and materials in global biogeochemical cycles. The goal of this article was to review several research fields at the interfaces between ecosystem science, community ecology and evolutionary biology, and suggest new ways to integrate evolutionary biology and ecosystem science. In particular, we focus on how phenotypic evolution by natural selection can influence ecosystem functions by affecting processes at the environmental, population and community scale of ecosystem organization. We develop an eco-evolutionary model to illustrate linkages between evolutionary change (e.g. phenotypic evolution of producer), ecological interactions (e.g. consumer grazing) and ecosystem processes (e.g. nutrient cycling). We conclude by proposing experiments to test the ecosystem consequences of evolutionary changes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  5. Morphological evolution of coexisting amphipod species pairs from sulfidic caves suggests competitive interactions and character displacement, but no environmental filtering and convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fišer, Cene; Luštrik, Roman; Sarbu, Serban; Flot, Jean-François; Trontelj, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypically similar species coexisting in extreme environments like sulfidic water are subject to two opposing eco-evolutionary processes: those favoring similarity of environment-specific traits, and those promoting differences of traits related to resource use. The former group of processes includes ecological filtering and convergent or parallel evolution, the latter competitive exclusion, character displacement and divergent evolution. We used a unique eco-evolutionary study system composed of two independent pairs of coexisting amphipod species (genus Niphargus) from the sulfidic caves Movile in Romania and Frasassi in Italy to study the relative contribution and interaction of both processes. We looked at the shape of the multifunctional ventral channel as a trait ostensibly related to oxygenation and sulfide detoxification, and at body size as a resource-related trait. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the sulfidic caves were colonized separately by ancestors of each species. Species within pairs were more dissimilar in their morphology than expected according to a null model based on regional species pool. This might indicate competitive interactions shaping the morphology of these amphipod species. Moreover, our results suggest that the shape of the ventral channel is not subject to long-term convergent selection or to the process of environmental filtering, and as such probably does not play a role in sulfide tolerance. Nevertheless, the ancestral conditions reconstructed using the comparative method tended to be more similar than null-model expectations. This shift in patterns may reflect a temporal hierarchy of eco-evolutionary processes, in which initial environmental filtering became later on superseded by character displacement or other competition-driven divergent evolutionary processes.

  6. Maya Studio Projects Photorealistic Characters

    CERN Document Server

    Palamar, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Create realistic characters with Maya tools and this project-based book Maya character generation tools are extremely sophisticated, and there's no better way to learn all their capabilities than by working through the projects in this hands-on book. This official guide focuses on understanding and implementing Maya's powerful tools for creating realistic characters for film, games, and TV. Use a variety of tools to create characters from skeleton to clothing, including hairstyles and facial hair, and learn how to use Performance Capture. A DVD includes supplementary videos, project support fi

  7. Repetibilidade e correlações fenotípicas de caracteres do fruto de bacuri no Estado do Maranhão = Repeatability and phenotypic correlations of characters of the bacuri fruit in the State of Maranhão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Gonçalves Silva

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar parâmetros de repetibilidade e correlações fenotípicas em caracteres do fruto do bacuri (Platonia insignis Mart.. Foram avaliadas seis matrizes (genótiposlocalizadas em seis municípios do Estado do Maranhão. Oito frutos foram colhidospor matriz, sendo mensurados diâmetro, comprimento, cavidade interna, peso e número de sementes por fruto, espessura da casca, peso de casca mais semente, rendimento de polpa,número de segmentos partenocárpico, Brix e acidez total titulável. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância. Os genótipos apresentaram variabilidade genética significativa para todos os caracteres, em nível de 1% de probabilidade pelo teste F. Apenas para cavidade interna do fruto,acidez total titulável e Brix, a variância genética foi superior à variância ambiental, resultando em repetibilidade superior a 0,5, sendo que acidez total titulável e Brix apresentaram coeficientes de repetibilidade acima de 0,94. Com exceção da espessura da casca, peso de casca mais sementes e número de sementes por fruto, os coeficientes de determinação superaram 80%. Para a maioria dos caracteres, até 27 frutos por genótipo são necessários para obter 95% de determinação. O peso do fruto apresentou associações positivas com diâmetro do fruto, comprimento do fruto, peso de casca mais semente e cavidade interna do fruto.The objective this work was to estimate parameters of repeatability and phenotypic correlations in characters of the bacuri fruit(Platonia insignis Mart.. We evaluated six matrices (genotypes located in six municipalities in the state of Maranhão. Eight fruits were harvested by matrix, measuring the diameter,length, internal cavity, weight and number of seeds per fruit, thickness of the shell, weight of shell plus seed, pulp yield, number of parthenocarpic segments, Brix and total titratable acidity. The data was submitted to an analysis of variance. The genotypes

  8. Evolutionary genomics of environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Chemical toxins have been a persistent source of evolutionary challenges throughout the history of life, and deep within the genomic storehouse of evolutionary history lay ancient adaptations to diverse chemical poisons. However, the rate of change of contemporary environments mediated by human-introduced pollutants is rapidly screening this storehouse and severely testing the adaptive potential of many species. In this chapter, we briefly review the deep history of evolutionary adaptation to environmental toxins, and then proceed to describe the attributes of stressors and populations that may facilitate contemporary adaptation to pollutants introduced by humans. We highlight that phenotypes derived to enable persistence in polluted habitats may be multi-dimensional, requiring global genome-scale tools and approaches to uncover their mechanistic basis, and include examples of recent progress in the field. The modern tools of genomics offer promise for discovering how pollutants interact with genomes on physiological timescales, and also for discovering what genomic attributes of populations may enable resistance to pollutants over evolutionary timescales. Through integration of these sophisticated genomics tools and approaches with an understanding of the deep historical forces that shaped current populations, a more mature understanding of the mechanistic basis of contemporary ecological-evolutionary dynamics should emerge.

  9. Evolution of molecular phenotypes under stabilizing selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourmohammad, Armita; Schiffels, Stephan; Lässig, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Molecular phenotypes are important links between genomic information and organismic functions, fitness, and evolution. Complex phenotypes, which are also called quantitative traits, often depend on multiple genomic loci. Their evolution builds on genome evolution in a complicated way, which involves selection, genetic drift, mutations and recombination. Here we develop a coarse-grained evolutionary statistics for phenotypes, which decouples from details of the underlying genotypes. We derive approximate evolution equations for the distribution of phenotype values within and across populations. This dynamics covers evolutionary processes at high and low recombination rates, that is, it applies to sexual and asexual populations. In a fitness landscape with a single optimal phenotype value, the phenotypic diversity within populations and the divergence between populations reach evolutionary equilibria, which describe stabilizing selection. We compute the equilibrium distributions of both quantities analytically and we show that the ratio of mean divergence and diversity depends on the strength of selection in a universal way: it is largely independent of the phenotype’s genomic encoding and of the recombination rate. This establishes a new method for the inference of selection on molecular phenotypes beyond the genome level. We discuss the implications of our findings for the predictability of evolutionary processes.

  10. THE NEED FOR CHARACTER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Pala

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Character education is a national movement creatingschools that foster ethical,responsible and caring young people by modelling and teaching good characterthrough emphasis on universal values that we all share. It is the intentional,proactive effort by schools, districts and states to instil in their students importantcore ethical values such as caring, honesty, fairness, responsibility and respect forself and others.Good character is not formed automatically; it is developed over time through asustained process of teaching, example, learning and practice. It is developedthrough character education. The intentional teaching of good character isparticularly important in today’s society since ouryouth face many opportunitiesand dangers unknown to earlier generations. They are bombarded with many morenegative influences through the media and other external sources prevalent intoday’s culture. Since children spend about 900 hours a year in school, it isessential that schools resume a proactive role in assisting families andcommunities by developing caring, respectful environments where students learncore, ethical values. When a comprehensive approachto character education isused, a positive moral culture is created in the school—a total school environmentthat supports the values taught in the classroom (Character Education Partnership,2010.The aim of this study is to provide guidelines forthe elements need for effectiveand comprehensive character education. And to emphasize the need of charactereducation to help students develop good character, which includes knowing,caring about and acting upon core ethical values such as respect, responsibility,honesty, fairness and compassion.

  11. The theoretical underpinnings of affective temperaments: implications for evolutionary foundations of bipolar disorder and human nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiskal, Kareen K; Akiskal, Hagop S

    2005-03-01

    We sketch out putative evolutionary roles for affective temperaments within the theoretical framework of mood disorders conceptualized as extremes in an oligogenic model of inheritance, whereby the constituent traits in their dilute phenotypes confer adaptive advantages to individuals and/or their social group. Depressive traits, among other functions, would subserve sensitivity to the suffering of other members of the species, overlapping with those of the generalized anxious temperament, thereby enhancing the survival of not only kin but also other conspecifics. The pursuit of romantic opportunities in cyclothymia suggests that it may have evolved as a mechanism in reproductive success; cyclothymics' creative bent in poetry, music, painting, cooking or fashion design (among men, in particular) also appears useful for sexual seduction. Hyperthymic traits would lend distinct advantages in leadership, exploration, territoriality and mating. These are just some of the possibilities of the rich and complex temperamental traits subserving bipolarity within an evolutionary framework. We test selected aspects of these hypotheses with the use of correlations between the constituent traits of the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego (TEMPS) and correlations between the TEMPS and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Such data support the counterbalancing protective influence of harm avoidance on the risk-taking behavior of cyclothymic individuals, in both men and women. Finally, we outline a hypothesis on the evolutionary function of anxious-depressive traits for women.

  12. The size of the character state space affects the occurrence and detection of homoplasy: modelling the probability of incompatibility for unordered phylogenetic characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyal Cuthill, Jennifer

    2015-02-07

    This study models the probability of incompatibility versus compatibility for binary or unordered multistate phylogenetic characters, by treating the allocation of taxa to character states as a classical occupancy problem in probability. It is shown that, under this model, the number of character states has a non-linear effect on the probability of character incompatibility, which is also affected by the number of taxa. Effects on homoplasy from the number of character states are further explored using evolutionary computer simulations. The results indicate that the character state space affects both the known levels of homoplasy (recorded during simulated evolution) and those inferred from parsimony analysis of the resulting character data, with particular relevance for morphological phylogenetic analyses which generally use the parsimony method. When the evolvable state space is large (more potential states per character) there is a reduction in the known occurrence of homoplasy (as reported previously). However, this is not always reflected in the levels of homoplasy detected in a parsimony analysis, because higher numbers of states per character can lead to an increase in the probability of character incompatibility (as well as the maximum homoplasy measurable with some indices). As a result, inferred trends in homoplasy can differ markedly from the underlying trend (that recorded during evolutionary simulation). In such cases, inferred homoplasy can be entirely misleading with regard to tree quality (with higher levels of homoplasy inferred for better quality trees). When rates of evolution are low, commonly used indices such as the number of extra steps (H) and the consistency index (CI) provide relatively good measures of homoplasy. However, at higher rates, estimates may be improved by using the retention index (RI), and particularly by accounting for homoplasy measured among randomised character data using the homoplasy excess ratio (HER). Copyright

  13. Evolutionary developmental psychology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, Ashley C; Bjorklund, David F

    2010-01-01

    The field of evolutionary developmental psychology can potentially broaden the horizons of mainstream evolutionary psychology by combining the principles of Darwinian evolution by natural selection...

  14. Recognizing characters of ancient manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, Markus; Sablatnig, Robert

    2010-02-01

    Considering printed Latin text, the main issues of Optical Character Recognition (OCR) systems are solved. However, for degraded handwritten document images, basic preprocessing steps such as binarization, gain poor results with state-of-the-art methods. In this paper ancient Slavonic manuscripts from the 11th century are investigated. In order to minimize the consequences of false character segmentation, a binarization-free approach based on local descriptors is proposed. Additionally local information allows the recognition of partially visible or washed out characters. The proposed algorithm consists of two steps: character classification and character localization. Initially Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) features are extracted which are subsequently classified using Support Vector Machines (SVM). Afterwards, the interest points are clustered according to their spatial information. Thereby, characters are localized and finally recognized based on a weighted voting scheme of pre-classified local descriptors. Preliminary results show that the proposed system can handle highly degraded manuscript images with background clutter (e.g. stains, tears) and faded out characters.

  15. Analyzing the impact of conflictive dental characters on the phylogeny of octodontoid rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana M. Candela

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Systematics of fossil octodontoids (Rodentia, Caviomorpha is in great part based on insights into the knowledge of teeth, making the step of dental characterization certainly relevant for the evolutionary reconstruction of these rodents. Different homology hypotheses were proposed for the same tooth structures, a fact that indicates the importance of knowing on which criteria the dental characters supporting the classifications were based. In this line, I evaluate the step of characterization of certain conflictive molar characters previously used, and their impact on phylogeny of octodontoids. I explore which the criteria followed to propose the hypotheses of correspondences for these characters are in light of the anatomical evidence. Based on the outcome of phylogenetic trees obtained previously, I analyze if the evolutionary transformations are compatible with character states observed in the terminals. New cladistic analyses based on recoded molar characters indicate that, unlike results recently obtained, the unorthodox position of Sallamys, Protadelphomys, and Willidewu as basal ctenomyines is not recovered. The position of Caviocricetus, Acarechimys–Neophanomysas as Octodontinae is not maintained. These results indicate that reanalyses of conflictive dental characters, scrutinizing data matrices, are particularly necessary to evaluate the current controversy on the phylogeny of octodontoids. Lower molar character definition and character states delimitation in octodontoids, being relevant to phylogenetic reconstruction, should be founded on anatomical examination, following explicit criteria of homology. Alternative hypotheses of “primary homology” proposed for the same molar traits in octodontoids indicate that each main group of caviomorphs requires its own anatomical study.

  16. Breaking evolutionary constraint with a tradeoff ratchet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, De Marjon G.J.; Dawid, Alexandre; Sunderlikova, Vanda; Tans, Sander J.

    2015-01-01

    Epistatic interactions can frustrate and shape evolutionary change. Indeed, phenotypes may fail to evolve when essential mutations are only accessible through positive selection if they are fixed simultaneously. How environmental variability affects such constraints is poorly understood. Here, we

  17. Evo-Devo: evolutionary developmental mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Brian K

    2003-01-01

    Evolutionary developmental biology (Evo-Devo) as a discipline is concerned, among other things, with discovering and understanding the role of changes in developmental mechanisms in the evolutionary origin of aspects of the phenotype. In a very real sense, Evo-Devo opens the black box between genotype and phenotype, or more properly, phenotypes as multiple life history stages arise in many organisms from a single genotype. Changes in the timing or positioning of an aspect of development in a descendant relative to an ancestor (heterochrony and heterotopy) were two evolutionary developmental mechanisms identified by Ernst Haeckel in the 1870s. Many more have since been identified, in large part because of our enhanced understanding of development and because new mechanisms emerge as development proceeds: the transfer from maternal to zygotic genomic control; cell-to-cell interactions; cell differentiation and cell migration; embryonic inductions; functional interactions at the tissue and organ levels; growth. Within these emergent processes, gene networks and gene cascades (genetic modules) link the genotype with morphogenetic units (cellular modules, namely germ layers, embryonic fields or cellular condensations), while epigenetic processes such as embryonic inductions, tissue interactions and functional integration, link morphogenetic units to the phenotype. Evolutionary developmental mechanisms also include interactions between individuals of the same species, individuals of different species, and species and their biotic and/or abiotic environment. Such interactions link ecological communities. Importantly, there is little to distinguish the causality that underlies these interactions from that which underlies inductive interactions within embryos.

  18. Interagency Wildeness Character Monitoring Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This database houses wilderness measures and measure values to support long-term monitoring of wilderness character on federal lands. It was created through a...

  19. Information theory, evolutionary innovations and evolvability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Andreas

    2017-12-05

    How difficult is it to 'discover' an evolutionary adaptation or innovation? I here suggest that information theory, in combination with high-throughput DNA sequencing, can help answer this question by quantifying a new phenotype's information content. I apply this framework to compute the phenotypic information associated with novel gene regulation and with the ability to use novel carbon sources. The framework can also help quantify how DNA duplications affect evolvability, estimate the complexity of phenotypes and clarify the meaning of 'progress' in Darwinian evolution.This article is part of the themed issue 'Process and pattern in innovations from cells to societies'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Skin Detection of Animation Characters

    OpenAIRE

    Kazi Tanvir Ahmed Siddiqui; Abu Wasif

    2015-01-01

    The increasing popularity of animes makes it vulnerable to unwanted usages like copyright violations and pornography. That’s why, we need to develop a method to detect and recognize animation characters. Skin detection is one of the most important steps in this way. Though there are some methods to detect human skin color, but those methods do not work properly for anime characters. Anime skin varies greatly from human skin in color, texture, tone and in different kinds of lightin...

  1. Character profiles and life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hwanjin; Suh, Byung Seong; Kim, Won Sool; Lee, Hye-Kyung; Park, Seon-Cheol; Lee, Kounseok

    2015-04-01

    There is a surge of interest in subjective well-being (SWB), which concerns how individuals feel about their happiness. Life satisfaction tends to be influenced by individual psychological traits and external social factors. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between individual character and SWB. Data from 3522 university students were analyzed in this study. Character profiles were evaluated using the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised Short version (TCI-RS). Life satisfaction was assessed using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). All statistical tests regarding the correlations between each character profile and life satisfaction were conducted using ANOVAs, t-tests, multiple linear regression models and correlation analyses. The creative (SCT) profile was associated with the highest levels of life satisfaction, whereas the depressive (sct) profile was associated with the lowest levels of life satisfaction. Additionally, high self-directedness, self-transcendence and cooperation were associated with high life satisfaction. The results of gender-adjusted multiple regression analysis showed that the effects of self-directedness were the strongest in the assessment of one's quality of life, followed by self-transcendence and cooperativeness, in that order. All of the three-character profiles were significantly correlated with one's quality of life, and the character profiles of TCI-RS explained 27.6% of life satisfaction in total. Among the three-character profiles, the self-directedness profile was most associated with life satisfaction. Our study was cross-sectional, and self-reported data from students at a single university were analyzed. The results of this study showed that, among the character profiles, the effects of self-directedness were the strongest for predicting life satisfaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evolution of a cellular immune response in Drosophila : A phenotypic and genomic comparative analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salazar-Jaramillo, Laura; Paspati, Angeliki; van de Zande, Louis; Vermeulen, Cornelis Joseph; Schwander, Tanja; Wertheim, Bregje

    Understanding the genomic basis of evolutionary adaptation requires insight into the molecular basis underlying phenotypic variation. However, even changes in molecular pathways associated with extreme variation, gains and losses of specific phenotypes, remain largely uncharacterized. Here, we

  3. Multivariate analysis of some economic characters in flax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, A A; Shareif, A E; Abo-Zaied, T A; Moussa, A G T

    2012-01-15

    Twenty one parent flax genotypes and twenty F1 hybrids using principal components analysis based on 16 quantitative charismas were used to study the genetic relationship. Analysis of variance exposed high significant differences for all studied charismas among genotypes. High Genotypic Coefficient of Variation (GCV) values were observed with high Phenotypic Coefficient of Variation (PCV) for seed yield/plant, number of capsules/plant, fruiting zone length, main stem diameter and seed index which designated that variation for these characters substantively donates to the total variability moderate to low PCV and GCV were perceived for fiber characters, earliness and growth characters, respectively. Most characters, showed high heritability estimated in broad sense (> 70%) indicated that selection based on these characters would be effective as they are likely to be controlled by additive genes. The first five principal components were significant and accounted 78.2% of a total variance of all characters. The maximal amount of difference is shown in the first PC axis were 25.3%. Stem diameter, seed yield/plant, number of capsules/plant, straw yield/plant, fruiting zone length, number of apical branches and number of seed/capsules were a primary source of variation of the first PC axes and give high coefficients, respectively. While, the biggest coefficient in PC2 were earliness characters, plant height and fiber length. The other rest PC axes deals with seed index, fiber fineness and oil contented. The flax genotypes were plotted according to the first two PC axis. The most earlier parents Gowhar and L6 were separated according to PC2 since this axis deals with earliness characters.

  4. Evolutionary Information Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Burgin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary information theory is a constructive approach that studies information in the context of evolutionary processes, which are ubiquitous in nature and society. In this paper, we develop foundations of evolutionary information theory, building several measures of evolutionary information and obtaining their properties. These measures are based on mathematical models of evolutionary computations, machines and automata. To measure evolutionary information in an invariant form, we construct and study universal evolutionary machines and automata, which form the base for evolutionary information theory. The first class of measures introduced and studied in this paper is evolutionary information size of symbolic objects relative to classes of automata or machines. In particular, it is proved that there is an invariant and optimal evolutionary information size relative to different classes of evolutionary machines. As a rule, different classes of algorithms or automata determine different information size for the same object. The more powerful classes of algorithms or automata decrease the information size of an object in comparison with the information size of an object relative to weaker4 classes of algorithms or machines. The second class of measures for evolutionary information in symbolic objects is studied by introduction of the quantity of evolutionary information about symbolic objects relative to a class of automata or machines. To give an example of applications, we briefly describe a possibility of modeling physical evolution with evolutionary machines to demonstrate applicability of evolutionary information theory to all material processes. At the end of the paper, directions for future research are suggested.

  5. Evolutionary triangulation: informing genetic association studies with evolutionary evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Minjun; Graham, Britney E; Zhang, Ge; Harder, Reed; Kodaman, Nuri; Moore, Jason H; Muglia, Louis; Williams, Scott M

    2016-01-01

    Genetic studies of human diseases have identified many variants associated with pathogenesis and severity. However, most studies have used only statistical association to assess putative relationships to disease, and ignored other factors for evaluation. For example, evolution is a factor that has shaped disease risk, changing allele frequencies as human populations migrated into and inhabited new environments. Since many common variants differ among populations in frequency, as does disease prevalence, we hypothesized that patterns of disease and population structure, taken together, will inform association studies. Thus, the population distributions of allelic risk variants should reflect the distributions of their associated diseases. Evolutionary Triangulation (ET) exploits this evolutionary differentiation by comparing population structure among three populations with variable patterns of disease prevalence. By selecting populations based on patterns where two have similar rates of disease that differ substantially from a third, we performed a proof of principle analysis for this method. We examined three disease phenotypes, lactase persistence, melanoma, and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. We show that for lactase persistence, a phenotype with a simple genetic architecture, ET identifies the key gene, lactase. For melanoma, ET identifies several genes associated with this disease and/or phenotypes related to it, such as skin color genes. ET was less obviously successful for Type 2 diabetes mellitus, perhaps because of the small effect sizes in known risk loci and recent environmental changes that have altered disease risk. Alternatively, ET may have revealed new genes involved in conferring disease risk for diabetes that did not meet nominal GWAS significance thresholds. We also compared ET to another method used to filter for phenotype associated genes, population branch statistic (PBS), and show that ET performs better in identifying genes known to associate with

  6. NEW SYMMETRIC ENCRYPTION SYSTEM BASED ON EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHM

    OpenAIRE

    A. Mouloudi

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present a new symmetric encryption system which is a combination of our ciphering evolutionary system SEC [1] and a new ciphering method called “fragmentation”. This latter allows the alteration of the appearance frequencies of characters from a given text. Our system has at its disposed two keys, the first one is generated by the evolutionary algorithm, the second one is generated after “fragmentation” part. Both of them are symmetric, session keys and strengt...

  7. Genetic assessment of some phenotypic variants of rice (Oryza spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analysis of variances revealed the significant differences among the 24 genotypes against all the characters except panicle weight, grain length, grain breadth and grain L/B ratio. The magnitude of phenotypic coefficients of variation (PCV) was higher than genotypic coefficients of variation (GCV) for all the characters ...

  8. Phenotypic flexibility and the evolution of organismal design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, T; Drent, J

    Evolutionary biologists often use phenotypic differences between species and between individuals to gain an understanding of organismal design. The focus of much recent attention has been on developmental plasticity - the environmentally induced variability during development within a single

  9. Mouse Models as Predictors of Human Responses: Evolutionary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhl, Elizabeth W; Warner, Natalie J

    Mice offer a number of advantages and are extensively used to model human diseases and drug responses. Selective breeding and genetic manipulation of mice have made many different genotypes and phenotypes available for research. However, in many cases, mouse models have failed to be predictive. Important sources of the prediction problem have been the failure to consider the evolutionary basis for species differences, especially in drug metabolism, and disease definitions that do not reflect the complexity of gene expression underlying disease phenotypes. Incorporating evolutionary insights into mouse models allow for unique opportunities to characterize the effects of diet, different gene expression profiles, and microbiomics underlying human drug responses and disease phenotypes.

  10. Stay-green character and its contribution in Brazilian wheats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique de Souza Luche

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The stay-green character has been related to greater stress tolerance and yield through longer activity of the photosynthetic apparatus. Association of this character with grain yield may be linked to a network of features other than the grain mass. This study aimed to shed light on the actual contribution of stay-green character in Brazilian wheats and the associations between grain yield components in different environmental conditions. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with three replications in the years 2003, 2004 and 2005. Sibling lines with and without the stay-green character were evaluated analyzing the phenotypic correlation and path analysis separately by year and maturity group. Under favorable growing conditions, the contribution of stay-green character in wheat is obtained by the increased ear fertility and number of grains. In a more restrictive scenario, it favors an increase in grain mass by longer filling time at the end of the cycle.

  11. CHARACTER RECOGNITION OF VIDEO SUBTITLES\\

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish S Hiremath

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An important task in content based video indexing is to extract text information from videos. The challenges involved in text extraction and recognition are variation of illumination on each video frame with text, the text present on the complex background and different font size of the text. Using various image processing algorithms like morphological operations, blob detection and histogram of oriented gradients the character recognition of video subtitles is implemented. Segmentation, feature extraction and classification are the major steps of character recognition. Several experimental results are shown to demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm

  12. Introducing Character Animation with Blender

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Introducing Character Animation with Blender, 2nd Edition is written in a friendly but professional tone, with clear descriptions and numerous illustrative screenshots. Throughout the book, tutorials focus on how to accomplish actual animation goals, while illustrating the necessary technical methods along the way. These are reinforced by clear descriptions of how each specific aspect of Blender works and fits together with the rest of the package. By following all the tutorials, the reader will gain all the skills necessary to build and animate a well-modeled, fully-rigged character of their

  13. Mouse phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Adler, Thure; Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan Antonio; Becker, Lore; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Da Silva-Buttkus, Patricia; Neff, Frauke; Götz, Alexander; Hans, Wolfgang; Hölter, Sabine M; Horsch, Marion; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Kemter, Elisabeth; Lengger, Christoph; Maier, Holger; Matloka, Mikolaj; Möller, Gabriele; Naton, Beatrix; Prehn, Cornelia; Puk, Oliver; Rácz, Ildikó; Rathkolb, Birgit; Römisch-Margl, Werner; Rozman, Jan; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Schrewe, Anja; Stöger, Claudia; Tost, Monica; Adamski, Jerzy; Aigner, Bernhard; Beckers, Johannes; Behrendt, Heidrun; Busch, Dirk H; Esposito, Irene; Graw, Jochen; Illig, Thomas; Ivandic, Boris; Klingenspor, Martin; Klopstock, Thomas; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Mempel, Martin; Neschen, Susanne; Ollert, Markus; Schulz, Holger; Suhre, Karsten; Wolf, Eckhard; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Andreas; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin

    2011-02-01

    Model organisms like the mouse are important tools to learn more about gene function in man. Within the last 20 years many mutant mouse lines have been generated by different methods such as ENU mutagenesis, constitutive and conditional knock-out approaches, knock-down, introduction of human genes, and knock-in techniques, thus creating models which mimic human conditions. Due to pleiotropic effects, one gene may have different functions in different organ systems or time points during development. Therefore mutant mouse lines have to be phenotyped comprehensively in a highly standardized manner to enable the detection of phenotypes which might otherwise remain hidden. The German Mouse Clinic (GMC) has been established at the Helmholtz Zentrum München as a phenotyping platform with open access to the scientific community (www.mousclinic.de; [1]). The GMC is a member of the EUMODIC consortium which created the European standard workflow EMPReSSslim for the systemic phenotyping of mouse models (http://www.eumodic.org/[2]). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evolutionary genomics of animal personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oers, Kees; Mueller, Jakob C

    2010-12-27

    Research on animal personality can be approached from both a phenotypic and a genetic perspective. While using a phenotypic approach one can measure present selection on personality traits and their combinations. However, this approach cannot reconstruct the historical trajectory that was taken by evolution. Therefore, it is essential for our understanding of the causes and consequences of personality diversity to link phenotypic variation in personality traits with polymorphisms in genomic regions that code for this trait variation. Identifying genes or genome regions that underlie personality traits will open exciting possibilities to study natural selection at the molecular level, gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, pleiotropic effects and how gene expression shapes personality phenotypes. In this paper, we will discuss how genome information revealed by already established approaches and some more recent techniques such as high-throughput sequencing of genomic regions in a large number of individuals can be used to infer micro-evolutionary processes, historical selection and finally the maintenance of personality trait variation. We will do this by reviewing recent advances in molecular genetics of animal personality, but will also use advanced human personality studies as case studies of how molecular information may be used in animal personality research in the near future.

  15. EVOLUTIONARY RESPONSE OF PREDATORS TO DANGEROUS PREY: PREADAPTATION AND THE EVOLUTION OF TETRODOTOXIN RESISTANCE IN GARTER SNAKES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motychak, Jeffrey E; Brodie, Edmund D; Iii, Edmund D Brodie

    1999-10-01

    Coevolutionary interactions typically involve only a few specialized taxa. The factors that cause some taxa and not others to respond evolutionarily to selection by another species are poorly understood. Preadaptation may render some species predisposed for evolutionary response to new pressures, whereas a lack of genetic variation may limit the evolutionary potential of other taxa. We evaluate these factors in the predator-prey interaction between toxic newts (Taricha granulosa) and their resistant garter snake predators (Thamnophis sirtalis). Using a bioassay of resistance to tetrodotoxin (TTX), the primary toxin in the prey, we examined phenotypic evolution in the genus Thamnophis. Reconstruction of ancestral character states suggests that the entire genus Thamnophis, and possibly natricine snakes in general, has slightly elevated TTX resistance compared to other lineages of snakes. While this suggests that T. sirtalis is indeed predisposed to evolving TTX resistance, it also indicates that the potential exists in sympatric congeners not expressing elevated levels of TTX resistance. We also detected significant family level variation for TTX resistance in a species of Thamnophis that does not exhibit elaborated levels of the trait. This finding suggests that evolutionary response in other taxa is not limited by genetic variability. In this predator-prey system, species and population differences in resistance appear to be largely determined by variation in the selective environment rather than preadaptation or constraint. © 1999 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. Building Character through Literacy with Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almerico, Gina M.

    2014-01-01

    Character education is described as curriculum specifically developed to teach children about the quality and traits of good character. One means in which children can learn about good character is through the pages of high quality children's literature. In this study, the author defines the characteristics of an effective character development…

  17. Building Character through Shadow Puppetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Susannah

    2004-01-01

    Puppetry captures the imagination and interest of young students. Stories are told and retold to children through pictures, puppets, stuffed animals, toys, dolls, gestures, dramatic voices, and theatrical effects. Many of the stories involve some moral decision or event, such as fairy tales in which the characters "live happily ever after" after…

  18. Recognition of isolated handprinted characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo

    1996-01-01

    Handprinted characters are of unequal complexity and a common description of all alphabet symbols seems therefore unobtainable. However, letters which confuse human beings and man-made OCR systems usually have approximately the same appearance and may therefore be modeled jointly. We part the set...

  19. Advertising and Defamation of Character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Daniel Morgan

    Defamation of character, as applied to libel and slander legal decisions, is the subject of this paper. After briefly describing the basis of liability, the author discusses "libels per quod." He then cites numerous court decisions in commenting on mitigating circumstances in action for libel or slander, including absolute privilege,…

  20. Identification Of Minangkabau Landscape Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrina, M.; Gunawan, A.; Aris, Munandar

    2017-10-01

    Minangkabau is one of cultures in indonesia which occupies landscape intact. Landscape of Minangkabau have a very close relationship with the culture of the people. Uniqueness of Minangkabau culture and landscape forming an inseparable characterunity. The landscape is necessarily identified to know the inherent landscape characters. The objective of this study was to identify the character of the Minangkabau landscape characterizes its uniqueness. The study was conducted by using descriptive method comprised literature review and field observasion. Observed the landscape characters comprised two main features, they were major and minor features. Indetification of the features was conducted in two original areas (darek) of the Minangkabau traditional society. The research results showed that major features or natural features of the landscape were predominantly landform, landcover, and hidrology. All luhak (districts) of Minangkabau showed similar main features such as hill, canyon, lake, valley, and forest. The existence of natural features such as hills, canyon and valleys characterizes the nature of minangkabau landscape. Minor features formed by Minangkabau cultural society were agricultural land and settlement. Rumah gadang (big house) is one of famous minor features characterizes the Minangkabau culture. In addition, several historical artefacts of building and others structure may strengthen uniqueness of the Minangkabau landscape character, such as The royal palace, inscription, and tunnels.

  1. Shakespeare Live! and Character Counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshire, Cathy A.

    This paper discusses a live production of Shakespeare's "Macbeth" (in full costume but with no sets) for all public middle school and high school students in Harrisonburg and Rockingham, Virginia. The paper states that the "Character Counts" issues that are covered in the play are: decision making, responsibility and…

  2. A note on generalized characters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Mathematics, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar 388 120, India. E-mail: subhashbhaib@yahoo.co.in; hvdedania@yahoo.com. MS received 23 November 2004; revised 9 July 2005. Abstract. For a compactly generated LCA group G, it is shown that the set H (G) of all generalized characters on G ...

  3. Understanding Agency and Educating Character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Klas

    2011-01-01

    How can we understand human agency, and what does it mean to educate character? In this essay Klas Roth develops a Kantian notion, one that suggests we render ourselves efficacious and autonomous in education and elsewhere. This requires, among other things, that we are successful in bringing about the intended result through our actions and the…

  4. A note on generalized characters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For a compactly generated LCA group , it is shown that the set H ( G ) of all generalized characters on equipped with the compact-open topology is a LCA group and H ( G ) = G ^ (the dual group of ) if and only if is compact. Both results fail for arbitrary LCA groups. Further, if is second countable, then the Gel'fand ...

  5. Evolution of specialization and ecological character displacement along a gradient of plant quality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egas, C.J.M.; Sabelis, M.W.; Dieckmann, U.

    2005-01-01

    We study the combined evolutionary dynamics of herbivore specialization and eco-logical character displacement, taking into account foraging behavior of the herbivores, and a quality gradient of plant types. Herbivores can adapt by changing two adaptive traits: their level of specialization in

  6. Braille Character Recognition Using Artificial Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Subur, Joko; Sardjono, Tri Arief; Mardiyanto, Ronny

    2015-01-01

    Braille letter is characters designed for the blind, consist of six embossed points, arranged in a standard braille character. Braille letters is touched and read using fingers, therefore the sensitivity of the fingers is important. Those characters need to be memorized, so it is very difficult to be learned. The aim of this research is to create a braille characters recognition system and translate it to alpha-numeric text. Webcam camera is used to capture braille image from braille characte...

  7. Social traits, social networks and evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, D N; McAdam, A G

    2017-12-01

    The social environment is both an important agent of selection for most organisms, and an emergent property of their interactions. As an aggregation of interactions among members of a population, the social environment is a product of many sets of relationships and so can be represented as a network or matrix. Social network analysis in animals has focused on why these networks possess the structure they do, and whether individuals' network traits, representing some aspect of their social phenotype, relate to their fitness. Meanwhile, quantitative geneticists have demonstrated that traits expressed in a social context can depend on the phenotypes and genotypes of interacting partners, leading to influences of the social environment on the traits and fitness of individuals and the evolutionary trajectories of populations. Therefore, both fields are investigating similar topics, yet have arrived at these points relatively independently. We review how these approaches are diverged, and yet how they retain clear parallelism and so strong potential for complementarity. This demonstrates that, despite separate bodies of theory, advances in one might inform the other. Techniques in network analysis for quantifying social phenotypes, and for identifying community structure, should be useful for those studying the relationship between individual behaviour and group-level phenotypes. Entering social association matrices into quantitative genetic models may also reduce bias in heritability estimates, and allow the estimation of the influence of social connectedness on trait expression. Current methods for measuring natural selection in a social context explicitly account for the fact that a trait is not necessarily the property of a single individual, something the network approaches have not yet considered when relating network metrics to individual fitness. Harnessing evolutionary models that consider traits affected by genes in other individuals (i.e. indirect genetic

  8. Evolutionary genomics of dog domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, Robert K; vonHoldt, Bridgett M

    2012-02-01

    We review the underlying principles and tools used in genomic studies of domestic dogs aimed at understanding the genetic changes that have occurred during domestication. We show that there are two principle modes of evolution within dogs. One primary mode that accounts for much of the remarkable diversity of dog breeds is the fixation of discrete mutations of large effect in individual lineages that are then crossed to various breed groupings. This transfer of mutations across the dog evolutionary tree leads to the appearance of high phenotypic diversity that in actuality reflects a small number of major genes. A second mechanism causing diversification involves the selective breeding of dogs within distinct phenotypic or functional groups, which enhances specific group attributes such as heading or tracking. Such progressive selection leads to a distinct genetic structure in evolutionary trees such that functional and phenotypic groups cluster genetically. We trace the origin of the nuclear genome in dogs based on haplotype-sharing analyses between dogs and gray wolves and show that contrary to previous mtDNA analyses, the nuclear genome of dogs derives primarily from Middle Eastern or European wolves, a result more consistent with the archeological record. Sequencing analysis of the IGF1 gene, which has been the target of size selection in small breeds, further supports this conclusion. Finally, we discuss how a black coat color mutation that evolved in dogs has transformed North American gray wolf populations, providing a first example of a mutation that appeared under domestication and selectively swept through a wild relative.

  9. On characters of finite groups

    CERN Document Server

    Broué, Michel

    2017-01-01

    This book explores the classical and beautiful character theory of finite groups. It does it by using some rudiments of the language of categories. Originally emerging from two courses offered at Peking University (PKU), primarily for third-year students, it is now better suited for graduate courses, and provides broader coverage than books that focus almost exclusively on groups. The book presents the basic tools, notions and theorems of character theory (including a new treatment of the control of fusion and isometries), and introduces readers to the categorical language at several levels. It includes and proves the major results on characteristic zero representations without any assumptions about the base field. The book includes a dedicated chapter on graded representations and applications of polynomial invariants of finite groups, and its closing chapter addresses the more recent notion of the Drinfeld double of a finite group and the corresponding representation of GL_2(Z).

  10. Loss of lipid synthesis as an evolutionary consequence of a parasitic lifestyle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, B.; Le Lann, C.; den Blanken, F.J.; Harvey, J.A.; van Alphen, J.J.M.; Ellers, J.

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary loss of traits can result from negative selection on a specific phenotype, or if the trait is selectively neutral, because the phenotype associated with the trait has become redundant. Even essential traits may be lost, however, if the resulting phenotypic deficiencies can be

  11. Mitochondria and the evolutionary roots of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Alfonso F.; Zamorano, Pedro

    2013-04-01

    Cancer disease is inherent to, and widespread among, metazoans. Yet, some of the hallmarks of cancer such as uncontrolled cell proliferation, lack of apoptosis, hypoxia, fermentative metabolism and free cell motility (metastasis) are akin to a prokaryotic lifestyle, suggesting a link between cancer disease and evolution. In this hypothesis paper, we propose that cancer cells represent a phenotypic reversion to the earliest stage of eukaryotic evolution. This reversion is triggered by the dysregulation of the mitochondria due to cumulative oxidative damage to mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. As a result, the phenotype of normal, differentiated cells gradually reverts to the phenotype of a facultative anaerobic, heterotrophic cell optimized for survival and proliferation in hypoxic environments. This phenotype matches the phenotype of the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA) that resulted from the endosymbiosis between an α-proteobacteria (which later became the mitochondria) and an archaebacteria. As such, the evolution of cancer within one individual can be viewed as a recapitulation of the evolution of the eukaryotic cell from fully differentiated cells to LECA. This evolutionary model of cancer is compatible with the current understanding of the disease, and explains the evolutionary basis for most of the hallmarks of cancer, as well as the link between the disease and aging. It could also open new avenues for treatment directed at reestablishing the synergy between the mitochondria and the cancerous cell.

  12. Evolutionary molecular medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesse, Randolph M; Ganten, Detlev; Gregory, T Ryan; Omenn, Gilbert S

    2012-05-01

    Evolution has long provided a foundation for population genetics, but some major advances in evolutionary biology from the twentieth century that provide foundations for evolutionary medicine are only now being applied in molecular medicine. They include the need for both proximate and evolutionary explanations, kin selection, evolutionary models for cooperation, competition between alleles, co-evolution, and new strategies for tracing phylogenies and identifying signals of selection. Recent advances in genomics are transforming evolutionary biology in ways that create even more opportunities for progress at its interfaces with genetics, medicine, and public health. This article reviews 15 evolutionary principles and their applications in molecular medicine in hopes that readers will use them and related principles to speed the development of evolutionary molecular medicine.

  13. Diradical character of some fluoranthenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SVETLANA MARKOVIĆ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that some Kekuléan fluoranthenes are diradicals and that their ground state is a triplet. In the energetically less favorable singlet state, these hydrocarbons also exhibit pronounced diradical character. The diradical character y of the compounds under investigation was estimated using the unrestricted symmetry-broken (yPUHF and complete active space (yNOON methods. It was found that the yPUHF values better reproduce the diradical character of the investigated hydrocarbons. It was shown that singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO and SOMO-1 of a diradical structure occupy different parts of space with a small shared region, resulting in a spin density distribution over the entire molecule. The spatial diradical distribution in the singlet diradical structures was examined by inspecting the HOMOs and LUMOs for a and b spin electrons. It was shown that the a-HOMO and the b-LUMO (as well as the b-HOMO and the a-LUMO occupy practically the same part of space. In this way, there are no unpaired electrons in a singlet diradical structure, yet two of them occupy different parts of space, thus allowing the p-electrons to delocalize.

  14. Detecting Character Dependencies in Stochastic Models of Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Deeparnab; Kannan, Sampath; Tian, Kevin

    2016-03-01

    Stochastic models of biological evolution generally assume that different characters (runs of the stochastic process) are independent and identically distributed. In this article we determine the asymptotic complexity of detecting dependence for some fairly general models of evolution, but simple models of dependence. A key difference from much of the previous work is that our algorithms work without knowledge of the tree topology. Specifically, we consider various stochastic models of evolution ranging from the common ones used by biologists (such as Cavender-Farris-Neyman and Jukes-Cantor models) to very general ones where evolution of different characters can be governed by different transition matrices on each edge of the evolutionary tree (phylogeny). We also consider several models of dependence between two characters. In the most specific model, on each edge of the phylogeny the joint distribution of the dependent characters undergoes a perturbation of a fixed magnitude, in a fixed direction from what it would be if the characters were evolving independently. More general dependence models don't require such a strong "signal." Instead they only require that on each edge, the perturbation of the joint distribution has a significant component in a specific direction. Our main results are nearly tight bounds on the induced or operator norm of the transition matrices that would allow us to detect dependence efficiently for most models of evolution and dependence that we consider. We make essential use of a new concentration result for multistate random variables of a Markov random field on arbitrary trivalent trees: We show that the random variable counting the number of leaves in any particular state has variance that is subquadratic in the number of leaves.

  15. Learning monotonic genotype-phenotype maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerenwinkel, Niko; Knupfer, Patrick; Tresch, Achim

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary escape of pathogens from the selective pressure of immune responses and from medical interventions is driven by the accumulation of mutations. We introduce a statistical model for jointly estimating the dynamics and dependencies among genetic alterations and the associated phenotypic changes. The model integrates conjunctive Bayesian networks, which define a partial order on the occurrences of genetic events, with isotonic regression. The resulting genotype-phenotype map is non-decreasing in the lattice of genotypes. It describes evolutionary escape as a directed process following a phenotypic gradient, such as a monotonic fitness landscape. We present efficient algorithms for parameter estimation and model selection. The model is validated using simulated data and applied to HIV drug resistance data. We find that the effect of many resistance mutations is non-linear and depends on the genetic background in which they occur.

  16. Population regulation and character displacement in a seasonal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Emma E; Lande, Russell; Price, Trevor D

    2012-06-01

    Competition has negative effects on population size and also drives ecological character displacement, that is, evolutionary divergence to utilize different portions of the resource spectrum. Many species undergo an annual cycle composed of a lean season of intense competition for resources and a breeding season. We use a quantitative genetic model to study the effects of differential reproductive output in the summer or breeding season on character displacement in the winter or nonbreeding season. The model is developed with reference to the avian family of Old World leaf warblers (Phylloscopidae), which breed in the temperate regions of Eurasia and winter in tropical and subtropical regions. Empirical evidence implicates strong winter density-dependent regulation driven by food shortage, but paradoxically, the relative abundance of each species appears to be determined by conditions in the summer. We show how population regulation in the two seasons becomes linked, with higher reproductive output by one species in the summer resulting in its evolution to occupy a larger portion of niche space in the winter. We find short-term ecological processes and longer-term evolutionary processes to have comparable effects on a species population size. This modeling approach can also be applied to other differential effects of productivity across seasons.

  17. Evolutionary stability concepts in a stochastic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiu-Deng; Li, Cong; Lessard, Sabin; Tao, Yi

    2017-09-01

    Over the past 30 years, evolutionary game theory and the concept of an evolutionarily stable strategy have been not only extensively developed and successfully applied to explain the evolution of animal behaviors, but also widely used in economics and social sciences. Nonetheless, the stochastic dynamical properties of evolutionary games in randomly fluctuating environments are still unclear. In this study, we investigate conditions for stochastic local stability of fixation states and constant interior equilibria in a two-phenotype model with random payoffs following pairwise interactions. Based on this model, we develop the concepts of stochastic evolutionary stability (SES) and stochastic convergence stability (SCS). We show that the condition for a pure strategy to be SES and SCS is more stringent than in a constant environment, while the condition for a constant mixed strategy to be SES is less stringent than the condition to be SCS, which is less stringent than the condition in a constant environment.

  18. Seafloor character--Offshore of Bolinas, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Bolinas, California (raster data file is included in "SeafloorCharacter_OffshoreBolinas.zip,"...

  19. Character Education and Students Social Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Syamsu A. Kamaruddin

    2012-01-01

    In an educational environment, in the form of character education program has been done both formally and informally. It's intended as one of the supporting ideas for follow-up in the form of design activities. Character education should basically refers to the vision and mission of the institution concerned. It shows the orientation of the two things in the character of the students are: aspects of human character and individual learners hallmark institution. In this paper, these tw...

  20. Public domain optical character recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garris, Michael D.; Blue, James L.; Candela, Gerald T.; Dimmick, Darrin L.; Geist, Jon C.; Grother, Patrick J.; Janet, Stanley A.; Wilson, Charles L.

    1995-03-01

    A public domain document processing system has been developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The system is a standard reference form-based handprint recognition system for evaluating optical character recognition (OCR), and it is intended to provide a baseline of performance on an open application. The system's source code, training data, performance assessment tools, and type of forms processed are all publicly available. The system recognizes the handprint entered on handwriting sample forms like the ones distributed with NIST Special Database 1. From these forms, the system reads hand-printed numeric fields, upper and lowercase alphabetic fields, and unconstrained text paragraphs comprised of words from a limited-size dictionary. The modular design of the system makes it useful for component evaluation and comparison, training and testing set validation, and multiple system voting schemes. The system contains a number of significant contributions to OCR technology, including an optimized probabilistic neural network (PNN) classifier that operates a factor of 20 times faster than traditional software implementations of the algorithm. The source code for the recognition system is written in C and is organized into 11 libraries. In all, there are approximately 19,000 lines of code supporting more than 550 subroutines. Source code is provided for form registration, form removal, field isolation, field segmentation, character normalization, feature extraction, character classification, and dictionary-based postprocessing. The recognition system has been successfully compiled and tested on a host of UNIX workstations. This paper gives an overview of the recognition system's software architecture, including descriptions of the various system components along with timing and accuracy statistics.

  1. Structural properties of genotype-phenotype maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnert, S E

    2017-07-01

    The map between genotype and phenotype is fundamental to biology. Biological information is stored and passed on in the form of genotypes, and expressed in the form of phenotypes. A growing body of literature has examined a wide range of genotype-phenotype (GP) maps and has established a number of properties that appear to be shared by many GP maps. These properties are 'structural' in the sense that they are properties of the distribution of phenotypes across the point-mutation network of genotypes. They include: a redundancy of genotypes, meaning that many genotypes map to the same phenotypes, a highly non-uniform distribution of the number of genotypes per phenotype, a high robustness of phenotypes and the ability to reach a large number of new phenotypes within a small number of mutational steps. A further important property is that the robustness and evolvability of phenotypes are positively correlated. In this review, I give an overview of the study of GP maps with particular emphasis on these structural properties, and discuss a model that attempts to explain why these properties arise, as well as some of the fundamental ways in which the structure of GP maps can affect evolutionary outcomes. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. Phylogeography and evolutionary genetics of the weasel : (Mustela Nivalis)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Mónica Andreia Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Biologia (Biologia Evolutiva), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2015 Understanding how the biogeography and evolutionary history of species affect their current distribution, genetic variation, phenotypic diversity and adaptation to different environmental conditions, is a major challenge in evolutionary biology. In this thesis, the least weasel (Mustela nivalis) was used as a model to study the impacts of the Pleistocene climatic oscillations on the con...

  3. Character Balance in MOBA Games

    OpenAIRE

    Teodor, Norén; Emanuel, Palm

    2015-01-01

    As live streaming of video games has become easier, electronic sports have grown quickly and they are still increasing as tournaments grow in viewers and prizes. The purpose of this paper is to examine the theory Metagame Bounds by applying it to League of Legends and Dota 2, to see if it is a valid way of looking at character balance in the Multiplayer Online Battle Arena game genre. The main mode of both games consist of matches played on a map where a team of five players is up against ano...

  4. A Review of Virtual Character's Emotion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen

    2008-11-01

    Emotional virtual characters are essential to digital entertainment, an emotion is related to virtual environment and a virtual character's inner variables, emotion model of virtual character is a hot topic in many fields, domain knowledge is very important for modeling emotion, and the current research of emotion expression in the world was also summarized, and some new research directions of emotion model are presented.

  5. Promoting Character Development through Coach Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, F. Clark; Seroczynski, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    Can youth sports build character? Research suggests that the answer to this question leads to 2 further questions: (1) can youth sport coaches be effectively prepared to become character educators, and (2) can character education take place in today's competitive youth sport environment? (Bredemeier & Shields, 2006; Power, 2015; Power &…

  6. Hannibal Lecter: Case study of a fictional character

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Repišti Selman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to review the case of the imaginary character, Dr. Hannibal Lecter, based on content analysis of four books ('Hannibal', 'Hannibal Rising', 'Silence of the Lambs' and 'Red Dragon', four films with the same title and two seasons of 13 episodes of the serial 'Hannibal'. In the first part, the analysis refers to the consideration of the aforementioned case, taking into account the following diagnostic classifications: DSM-IV, DSM-5 and ICD-10. Then, we offered a description of Dr. Lecter's personality through modern models of personality structure: Big Five Model, HEXACO Model, The Big Seven Model, Two-factor Model and One-factor Model. In particular, we address the interpretation of behavioral patterns of this fictional character from the perspective of classical psychodynamic theory, and through the prism of a theoretical point of Jacques Lacan. In addition, his behavior is explained by applying the postulates of cognitive-behavioral paradigm as well as evolutionary psychology. At the end of the paper are listed conclusions, created as a synthesis of previous interpretations, or an eclectic approach used in these analyses. In addition, there are featured disadvantages of this type of analysis, in the form of methodological limitations of qualitative research in one subject (case studies and problems of differential diagnosis in the case of a controversial character such as Dr. Hannibal Lecter.

  7. Remembering the evolutionary Freud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Allan

    2006-03-01

    Throughout his career as a writer, Sigmund Freud maintained an interest in the evolutionary origins of the human mind and its neurotic and psychotic disorders. In common with many writers then and now, he believed that the evolutionary past is conserved in the mind and the brain. Today the "evolutionary Freud" is nearly forgotten. Even among Freudians, he is regarded to be a red herring, relevant only to the extent that he diverts attention from the enduring achievements of the authentic Freud. There are three ways to explain these attitudes. First, the evolutionary Freud's key work is the "Overview of the Transference Neurosis" (1915). But it was published at an inopportune moment, forty years after the author's death, during the so-called "Freud wars." Second, Freud eventually lost interest in the "Overview" and the prospect of a comprehensive evolutionary theory of psychopathology. The publication of The Ego and the Id (1923), introducing Freud's structural theory of the psyche, marked the point of no return. Finally, Freud's evolutionary theory is simply not credible. It is based on just-so stories and a thoroughly discredited evolutionary mechanism, Lamarckian use-inheritance. Explanations one and two are probably correct but also uninteresting. Explanation number three assumes that there is a fundamental difference between Freud's evolutionary narratives (not credible) and the evolutionary accounts of psychopathology that currently circulate in psychiatry and mainstream journals (credible). The assumption is mistaken but worth investigating.

  8. CHARACTER EDUCATION THROUGH ENGLISH MODALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subur Wardoyo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The spread of English in Indonesia carries an inherent philosophy with it. This essay will focus on how the view that ‘there is no absolute truth’ is ingrained in the linguistic modality of English. Furthermore it will show how this philosophy of modality may inevitably shape a student’s character since it allows people to create the shared truths they need or to downgrade the truths of others, with all the potential positive or negative consequences. Finally this essay will also show how a visual picture, descriptive text, and dialogue could serve as teaching aids to shape a student’s character through classroom drills in such modality signifiers as modal auxiliaries, frequency adverbs, reporting frames, tenses etc. On the whole this essay relies heavily on Halliday’s Functional Grammar, von Wright’s Deontic Logic, and Hodge and Kress’s Semiotics while the topic of the picture, text and dialogue heavily centers on the mysterious Alhambra Citadel of Granada.   Keywords    :    Modality, degrees of modality, subjective and objective modality, kinds of truth, deontic logic.

  9. Body Language Advanced 3D Character Rigging

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Eric; Fong, Jared; Sidwell, Adam G

    2011-01-01

    Whether you're a professional Character TD or just like to create 3D characters, this detailed guide reveals the techniques you need to create sophisticated 3D character rigs that range from basic to breathtaking. Packed with step-by-step instructions and full-color illustrations, Body Language walks you through rigging techniques for all the body parts to help you create realistic and believable movements in every character you design. You'll learn advanced rigging concepts that involve MEL scripting and advanced deformation techniques and even how to set up a character pipeline.

  10. Handwritten Sindhi Character Recognition Using Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafique Ahmed Awan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available OCR (OpticalCharacter Recognition is a technology in which text image is used to understand and write text by machines. The work on languages containing isolated characters such as German, English, French and others is at its peak. The OCR and ICR (Intelligent Character Recognition research in Sindhi script is currently at in starting stages and not sufficient work have been cited in this area even though Sindhi language is rich in culture and history. This paper presents one of the initial steps in recognizing Sindhi handwritten characters. The isolated characters of Sindhi script written by thesubjects have been recognized. The various subjects were asked to write Sindhi characters in unconstrained form and then the written samples were collected and scanned through a flatbed scanner. The scanned documents were preprocessedwith the help of binary conversion, removing noise by pepper noise and the lines were segmented with the help of horizontal profile technique. The segmented lines were used to extract characters from scanned pages.This character segmentation was done by vertical projection. The extracted characters have been used to extract features so that the characters can be classified easily. Zoning was used for the feature extraction technique. For the classification, neural network has been used. The recognized characters converted into editable text with an average accuracy of 85%.

  11. Marvel and DC Characters Inspired by Arachnids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elidiomar Ribeiro Da-Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article compares arachnid-based Marvel and DC comics characters. The composition of a comic book character often has interesting ‘real-life’ influences. Given the strong connection between arachnids (especially spiders, scorpions and mites, all belonging to the zoological class 'Arachnida' and human beings it is not surprising that they have inspired many fictional characters. We recorded 84 Marvel Comics characters and 40 DC Comics characters, detailed in the dataset that accompanies the article (Da-Silva 2014. Most characters have been created recently, since the 1990s. Marvel has significantly more arachnid characters than DC. As for taxonomic classification, the characters were based mostly on spiders (zoological order 'Araneae'. Of the total characters, the majority are human beings, but an overwhelming number have at least some typical arachnid features. Villains (60.91% of total are significantly more numerous, considering the sum of the two publishers. Arachnids have bad reputation for being dangerous (Thorp and Woodson 1976; Ruppert and Barnes 1996. Since the public usually considers spiders, scorpions and mites “harmful” in general, we expected a larger contingent of villains. However, there was no statistical difference between the amount of villains and heroes in Marvel characters. It did not happen probably due to the success of one character: the Amazing Spider-Man.

  12. Character animation fundamentals developing skills for 2D and 3D character animation

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Expand your animation toolkit and remain competitive in the industry with this leading resource for 2D and 3D character animation techniques. Apply the industry's best practices to your own workflows and develop 2D, 3D and hybrid characters with ease. With side by side comparisons of 2D and 3D character design, improve your character animation and master traditional principles and processes including weight and balance, timing and walks. Develop characters inspired by humans, birds, fish, snakes and four legged animals. Breathe life into your character and develop a characters personality w

  13. The topology of evolutionary novelty and innovation in macroevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Douglas H

    2017-12-05

    Sewall Wright's fitness landscape introduced the concept of evolutionary spaces in 1932. George Gaylord Simpson modified this to an adaptive, phenotypic landscape in 1944 and since then evolutionary spaces have played an important role in evolutionary theory through fitness and adaptive landscapes, phenotypic and functional trait spaces, morphospaces and related concepts. Although the topology of such spaces is highly variable, from locally Euclidean to pre-topological, evolutionary change has often been interpreted as a search through a pre-existing space of possibilities, with novelty arising by accessing previously inaccessible or difficult to reach regions of a space. Here I discuss the nature of evolutionary novelty and innovation within the context of evolutionary spaces, and argue that the primacy of search as a conceptual metaphor ignores the generation of new spaces as well as other changes that have played important evolutionary roles.This article is part of the themed issue 'Process and pattern in innovations from cells to societies'. © 2017 The Authors.

  14. Phylogenetic signal in phenotypic traits related to carbon source assimilation and chemical sensitivity in Acinetobacter species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Assche, Ado; Álvarez-Pérez, Sergio; de Breij, Anna; De Brabanter, Joseph; Willems, Kris A; Dijkshoorn, Lenie; Lievens, Bart

    2017-01-01

    A common belief is that the phylogeny of bacteria may reflect molecular functions and phenotypic characteristics, pointing towards phylogenetic conservatism of traits. Here, we tested this hypothesis for a large set of Acinetobacter strains. Members of the genus Acinetobacter are widespread in nature, demonstrate a high metabolic diversity and are resistant to several environmental stressors. Notably, some species are known to cause opportunistic human infections. A total of 133 strains belonging to 33 species with validly published names, two genomic species and species of an as-yet unknown taxonomic status were analyzed using the GENIII technology of Biolog, which allows high-throughput phenotyping. We estimated the strength and significance of the phylogenetic signal of each trait across phylogenetic reconstructions based on partial RNA polymerase subunit B (rpoB) and core genome sequences. Secondly, we tested whether phylogenetic distance was a good predictor of trait differentiation by Mantel test analysis. And finally, evolutionary model fitting was used to determine if the data for each phenotypic character was consistent with a phylogenetic or an essentially random model of trait distribution. Our data revealed that some key phenotypic traits related to substrate assimilation and chemical sensitivity are linked to the phylogenetic placement of Acinetobacter species. The strongest phylogenetic signals found were for utilization of different carbon sources such as some organic acids, amino acids and sugars, thus suggesting that in the diversification of Acinetobacter carbon source assimilation has had a relevant role. Future work should be aimed to clarify how such traits have shaped the remarkable ability of this bacterial group to dominate in a wide variety of habitats.

  15. Mining skeletal phenotype descriptions from scientific literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Groza

    Full Text Available Phenotype descriptions are important for our understanding of genetics, as they enable the computation and analysis of a varied range of issues related to the genetic and developmental bases of correlated characters. The literature contains a wealth of such phenotype descriptions, usually reported as free-text entries, similar to typical clinical summaries. In this paper, we focus on creating and making available an annotated corpus of skeletal phenotype descriptions. In addition, we present and evaluate a hybrid Machine Learning approach for mining phenotype descriptions from free text. Our hybrid approach uses an ensemble of four classifiers and experiments with several aggregation techniques. The best scoring technique achieves an F-1 score of 71.52%, which is close to the state-of-the-art in other domains, where training data exists in abundance. Finally, we discuss the influence of the features chosen for the model on the overall performance of the method.

  16. Evolutionary Biology Today

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 11. Evolutionary Biology Today - The Domain of Evolutionary Biology. Amitabh Joshi. Series Article Volume 7 Issue 11 November 2002 pp 8-17. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  17. Part E: Evolutionary Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    evolutionary algorithms, such as memetic algorithms, which have emerged as a very promising tool for solving many real-world problems in a multitude of areas of science and technology. Moreover, parallel evolutionary combinatorial optimization has been presented. Search operators, which are crucial in all...

  18. Evolutionary Biology Today

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amitabh Joshi studies and teaches evolutionary ' genetics and population ecology at the Jawaharlal. Nehru Centre for Advanced. Scientific Research,. Bangalore. His current research interests are in life- history, evolution, the evolutionary genetics of biological clocks, the evolution of ecological specialization dynamics. He.

  19. Evolutionary humanoid robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Eaton, Malachy

    2015-01-01

    This book examines how two distinct strands of research on autonomous robots, evolutionary robotics and humanoid robot research, are converging. The book will be valuable for researchers and postgraduate students working in the areas of evolutionary robotics and bio-inspired computing.

  20. Evolutionary Biology Today

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 2. Evolutionary Biology Today - What do Evolutionary Biologists do? Amitabh Joshi. Series Article Volume 8 Issue 2 February 2003 pp 6-18. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  1. Applying evolutionary anthropology

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, Mhairi A; Lawson, David W

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary anthropology provides a powerful theoretical framework for understanding how both current environments and legacies of past selection shape human behavioral diversity. This integrative and pluralistic field, combining ethnographic, demographic, and sociological methods, has provided new insights into the ultimate forces and proximate pathways that guide human adaptation and variation. Here, we present the argument that evolutionary anthropological studies of human behavior also h...

  2. The Contingent Character of Necessity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Guzmán

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most frequent criticisms raised against Hegel has to do with the totalizing aspect of his system, which determines what is as absolutely necessary. The Science of Logic, being the conceptual edifice upon which his whole system is built, is the appropriate place to determine the specific meaning of the Hegelian concepts. The following paper offers a detailed analysis on the chapter on Actuality (Wirklichkeit in the Science of Logic, in order to show how the concept of absolute necessity not only includes within it, but also contains as a structural element, the concept of contingency. In this manner a deflationary interpretation is generated in which the absolutely necessary character of actuality should not be understood as grounded on a pre-established end that inexorably determines actuality, but rather as an interpretive movement, in recollection, of its process.

  3. Synthetic biology character and impact

    CERN Document Server

    Pade, Christian; Wigger, Henning; Gleich, Arnim

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic Biology is already an object of intensive debate. However, to a great extent the discussion to date has been concerned with fundamental ethical, religious and philosophical questions. By contrast, based on an investigation of the field’s scientific and technological character, this book focuses on new functionalities provided by synthetic biology and explores the associated opportunities and risks. Following an introduction to the subject and a discussion of the most central paradigms and methodologies, the book provides an overview of the structure of this field of science and technology. It informs the reader about the current stage of development, as well as topical problems and potential opportunities in important fields of application. But not only the science itself is in focus. In order to investigate its broader impact, ecological as well as ethical implications will be considered, paving the way for a discussion of responsibilities in the context of a field at a transitional crossroads be...

  4. Character design for soccer commmentary

    CERN Document Server

    Binsted, K

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we present early work on an animated talking head commentary system called {\\bf Byrne}\\footnote{David Byrne is the lead singer of the Talking Heads.}. The goal of this project is to develop a system which can take the output from the RoboCup soccer simulator, and generate appropriate affective speech and facial expressions, based on the character's personality, emotional state, and the state of play. Here we describe a system which takes pre-analysed simulator output as input, and which generates text marked-up for use by a speech generator and a face animation system. We make heavy use of inter-system standards, so that future versions of Byrne will be able to take advantage of advances in the technologies that it incorporates.

  5. An Angiotensin II type 1 receptor activation switch patch revealed through Evolutionary Trace analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Marie Mi; Yao, Rong; Ma, Jian-Nong

    2010-01-01

    ) displayed phenotypes associated with changed activation state, such as increased agonist affinity or basal activity, promiscuous activation, or constitutive internalization highlighting the importance of testing different signaling pathways. We conclude that this evolutionary important patch mediates...

  6. An angiotensin II type 1 receptor activation switch patch revealed through evolutionary trace analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Marie Mi; Yao, Rong; Ma, Jian-Nong

    2010-01-01

    ) displayed phenotypes associated with changed activation state, such as increased agonist affinity or basal activity, promiscuous activation, or constitutive internalization highlighting the importance of testing different signaling pathways. We conclude that this evolutionary important patch mediates...

  7. Evolutionary biology today and the call for an extended synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futuyma, Douglas J

    2017-10-06

    Evolutionary theory has been extended almost continually since the evolutionary synthesis (ES), but except for the much greater importance afforded genetic drift, the principal tenets of the ES have been strongly supported. Adaptations are attributable to the sorting of genetic variation by natural selection, which remains the only known cause of increase in fitness. Mutations are not adaptively directed, but as principal authors of the ES recognized, the material (structural) bases of biochemistry and development affect the variety of phenotypic variations that arise by mutation and recombination. Against this historical background, I analyse major propositions in the movement for an 'extended evolutionary synthesis'. 'Niche construction' is a new label for a wide variety of well-known phenomena, many of which have been extensively studied, but (as with every topic in evolutionary biology) some aspects may have been understudied. There is no reason to consider it a neglected 'process' of evolution. The proposition that phenotypic plasticity may engender new adaptive phenotypes that are later genetically assimilated or accommodated is theoretically plausible; it may be most likely when the new phenotype is not truly novel, but is instead a slight extension of a reaction norm already shaped by natural selection in similar environments. However, evolution in new environments often compensates for maladaptive plastic phenotypic responses. The union of population genetic theory with mechanistic understanding of developmental processes enables more complete understanding by joining ultimate and proximate causation; but the latter does not replace or invalidate the former. Newly discovered molecular phenomena have been easily accommodated in the past by elaborating orthodox evolutionary theory, and it appears that the same holds today for phenomena such as epigenetic inheritance. In several of these areas, empirical evidence is needed to evaluate enthusiastic speculation

  8. Relationship among phenotypic plasticity, phenotypic fluctuations, robustness, and evolvability; Waddington's legacy revisited under the spirit of Einstein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2009-10-01

    Questions on possible relationship between phenotypic plasticity and evolvability, and that between robustness and evolution have been addressed over decades in the field of evolution-development. Based on laboratory evolution experiments and numerical simulations of gene expression dynamics model with an evolving transcription network, we propose quantitative relationships on plasticity, phenotypic fluctuations, and evolvability. By introducing an evolutionary stability assumption on the distribution of phenotype and genotype, the proportionality among phenotypic plasticity against environmental change, variances of phenotype fluctuations of genetic and developmental origins, and evolution speed is obtained. The correlation between developmental robustness to noise and evolutionary robustness to mutation is analysed by simulations of the gene network model. These results provide quantitative formulation on canalization and genetic assimilation, in terms of fluctuations of gene expression levels.

  9. Relationship among phenotypic plasticity, phenotypic fluctuations ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    These results provide quantitative formulation on canalization and genetic assimilation, in terms of fluctuations of gene expression levels. [Kaneko K 2009 Relationship among phenotypic plasticity, phenotypic fluctuations, robustness, and evolvability; Waddington's legacy revisited under the spirit of Einstein; J. Biosci.

  10. Temperament and character correlates of neuropsychological performance

    OpenAIRE

    Cassimjee, Nafisa; Murphy, Raegan

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the association between temperament and character dimensions, on the one hand,and computerised neuropsychological test performance, on the other hand. Temperament and character dimensions were operationalised as scores on the subscales of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), a 240-item measure that is based on the psychobiological theory of personality. Neuropsychological outcomes were measured on six computerised tests of executive functioning and abstract reasoning ...

  11. The evolutionary ecology of C4 plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christin, Pascal-Antoine; Osborne, Colin P

    2014-12-01

    C4 photosynthesis is a physiological syndrome resulting from multiple anatomical and biochemical components, which function together to increase the CO2 concentration around Rubisco and reduce photorespiration. It evolved independently multiple times and C4 plants now dominate many biomes, especially in the tropics and subtropics. The C4 syndrome comes in many flavours, with numerous phenotypic realizations of C4 physiology and diverse ecological strategies. In this work, we analyse the events that happened in a C3 context and enabled C4 physiology in the descendants, those that generated the C4 physiology, and those that happened in a C4 background and opened novel ecological niches. Throughout the manuscript, we evaluate the biochemical and physiological evidence in a phylogenetic context, which demonstrates the importance of contingency in evolutionary trajectories and shows how these constrained the realized phenotype. We then discuss the physiological innovations that allowed C4 plants to escape these constraints for two important dimensions of the ecological niche--growth rates and distribution along climatic gradients. This review shows that a comprehensive understanding of C4 plant ecology can be achieved by accounting for evolutionary processes spread over millions of years, including the ancestral condition, functional convergence via independent evolutionary trajectories, and physiological diversification. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Use of genome-scale metabolic models in evolutionary systems biology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papp, B.; Szappanos, B.; Notebaart, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    One of the major aims of the nascent field of evolutionary systems biology is to test evolutionary hypotheses that are not only realistic from a population genetic point of view but also detailed in terms of molecular biology mechanisms. By providing a mapping between genotype and phenotype for

  13. Evolutionary learning of adaptation to varying environments through a transgenerational feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Bingkan; Leibler, Stanislas

    Organisms can adapt to a randomly varying environment by creating phenotypic diversity in their population, a phenomenon often referred to as evolutionary bet-hedging\\x9D. The favorable level of phenotypic diversity depends on the statistics of local environmental variations. Often, the timescale of environmental variations can be much longer than the lifespan of individual organisms. How could organisms collect such long-term environmental information to adjust their phenotypic diversity? We propose here a general mechanism of evolutionary learning based on a transgenerational feedback: the frequency of the parent phenotype is progressively reinforced in the distribution of phenotypes among the offspring. This mechanism can in principle be realized through known molecular processes of epigenetic inheritance, observed in some model organisms. Thus, our theory may provide a perspective for understanding the evolutionary significance of such processes. BKX is funded by the Schmidt Membership in Biology at IAS.

  14. Evolutionary problems in centrosome and centriole biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, L; Normark, B B

    2015-05-01

    Centrosomes have been an enigma to evolutionary biologists. Either they have been the subject of ill-founded speculation or they have been ignored. Here, we highlight evolutionary paradoxes and problems of centrosome and centriole evolution and seek to understand them in the light of recent advances in centrosome biology. Most evolutionary accounts of centrosome evolution have been based on the hypothesis that centrosomes are replicators, independent of the nucleus and cytoplasm. It is now clear, however, that this hypothesis is not tenable. Instead, centrosomes are formed de novo each cell division, with the presence of an old centrosome regulating, but not essential for, the assembly of a new one. Centrosomes are the microtubule-organizing centres of cells. They can potentially affect sensory and motor characters (as the basal body of cilia), as well as the movements of chromosomes during cell division. This latter role does not seem essential, however, except in male meiosis, and the reasons for this remain unclear. Although the centrosome is absent in some taxa, when it is present, its structure is extraordinarily conserved: in most taxa across eukaryotes, it does not appear to evolve at all. And yet a few insect groups display spectacular hypertrophy of the centrioles. We discuss how this might relate to the unusual reproductive system found in these insects. Finally, we discuss why the fate of centrosomes in sperm and early embryos might differ between different groups of animals. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Society for Evolutionary Biology.

  15. Abusive families and character formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, J B

    1990-06-01

    Family research studies confirm that abusive parents tend to be undifferentiated partners who compete with each other and with their children for attention and nurturance. More or less healthy parents make demands on children to counteract their own injured narcissism, but they do so largely without devaluation and the sadistic use of projective identification. Under sufficient stress abusive parents attack the child who fails to gratify their needs, thereby giving vent to longstanding frustrations and feelings of being threatened by the child's individuation and competency. The emotional atmosphere in such families facilitates ego deficits like those of the borderline personality as it molds the child's efforts to avoid anxiety. Devaluation, loss, and defenses against mourning partially account for depression and paranoid traits in abused youngsters. Early neglect and abuse exposes them to influential models who act out rage and primitive defenses. Some abused individuals project their rage and later become paranoid or antisocial, whereas others fragment or retain infantile defenses. The destructiveness of severe psychological abuse lies in the constriction of the experiencing self and healthy character development, together with the conditioning to repeat abusive relationships and to avoid intimacy. Achieving individuation under these circumstances entails overcoming the internalized abusive relationships and relinquishing the unconscious wish to be transformed from the abused into the abuser.

  16. Character traits of malodor patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Toshiko; Kameyama, Atsushi; Yamakura, Daiki; Morinaga, Kazuki; Tsunoda, Masatake

    2011-01-01

    Many patients visit oral malodor clinics because of malodors which are brought to their attention by friends and family, or because they note the behavior of people around them, they suspect a problem and develop a fear of having an oral malodor. However, only around 30% of such patients actually have levels of malodor high enough to bother other people. Many patients exhibit halitophobia symptoms, which present as self-perception of malodor, and thus have a strong obsession about their smell which results in distress. Here, we carried out a study on 300 outpatients who visited the Tokyo Dental College Chiba Hospital Odor Clinic. We used the Tokyo University Egogram (TEG) to elucidate character traits of affected outpatients and compared the occurrence of TEG types in these patients with those of normal individuals. We discovered that 10.4% of patients were A-dominant type, which was 10.6% lower than the 21.0% of normal individuals. On the other hand, 18.4% of patients were N-type (NP high, FC low), which was 9.9% higher than the 8.5% of normal individuals. Results revealed that very few of the malodor outpatients exhibited the trait that shows intelligence, calm judgment, and self-affirmation, and as a result enjoy their life. Instead, many of these patients tended to show high levels of kindness and appeared to be holding themselves back and exercising patience.

  17. On the character of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto eAnnila

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is a particularly demanding system to infer its nature from observations. Thus, there is on one hand plenty of room for theorizing and on the other hand a pressing need for a rigorous theory. We apply statistical mechanics of open systems to describe the brain as a hierarchical system in consuming free energy in least time. This holistic tenet accounts for cellular metabolism, neuronal signaling, cognitive processes all together or any other process by a formal equation of motion that extends down to the ultimate precision of one quantum of action. According to this general thermodynamic theory cognitive processes are no different by their operational and organizational principle from other natural processes. Cognition too will emerge and evolve along path-dependent and non-determinate trajectories by consuming free energy in least time to attain thermodynamic balance within the nervous system itself and with its surrounding systems. Specifically, consciousness can be ascribed to a natural process that integrates various neural networks for coherent consumption of free energy, i.e., for meaningful deeds. The whole hierarchy of integrated systems can be formally summed up to thermodynamic entropy. The holistic tenet provides insight to the character of consciousness also by acknowledging awareness in other systems at other levels of nature’s hierarchy.

  18. Eco-evolutionary feedbacks, adaptive dynamics and evolutionary rescue theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriere, Regis; Legendre, Stéphane

    2013-01-19

    Adaptive dynamics theory has been devised to account for feedbacks between ecological and evolutionary processes. Doing so opens new dimensions to and raises new challenges about evolutionary rescue. Adaptive dynamics theory predicts that successive trait substitutions driven by eco-evolutionary feedbacks can gradually erode population size or growth rate, thus potentially raising the extinction risk. Even a single trait substitution can suffice to degrade population viability drastically at once and cause 'evolutionary suicide'. In a changing environment, a population may track a viable evolutionary attractor that leads to evolutionary suicide, a phenomenon called 'evolutionary trapping'. Evolutionary trapping and suicide are commonly observed in adaptive dynamics models in which the smooth variation of traits causes catastrophic changes in ecological state. In the face of trapping and suicide, evolutionary rescue requires that the population overcome evolutionary threats generated by the adaptive process itself. Evolutionary repellors play an important role in determining how variation in environmental conditions correlates with the occurrence of evolutionary trapping and suicide, and what evolutionary pathways rescue may follow. In contrast with standard predictions of evolutionary rescue theory, low genetic variation may attenuate the threat of evolutionary suicide and small population sizes may facilitate escape from evolutionary traps.

  19. Strategic analysis in evolutionary genetics and the theory of games

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    This paper is written in memory of John Maynard Smith. In a brief survey it discusses essential aspects of how game theory in biology relates to its counterpart in eco- nomics, the major transition in game theory initiated by. Maynard Smith, the discrepancies between genetic and phenotypic models in evolutionary biology, ...

  20. Contemporary climate change and terrestrial invertebrates : Evolutionary versus plastic changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilthuizen, Menno; Kellermann, Vanessa

    To forecast the responses of species to future climate change, an understanding of the ability of species to adapt to long-term shifts in temperature is crucial. We present a review on evolutionary adaptation and phenotypic plasticity of temperature-related traits in terrestrial invertebrates. The

  1. Evolutionary Mechanisms for Loneliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacioppo, John T.; Cacioppo, Stephanie; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2013-01-01

    Robert Weiss (1973) conceptualized loneliness as perceived social isolation, which he described as a gnawing, chronic disease without redeeming features. On the scale of everyday life, it is understandable how something as personally aversive as loneliness could be regarded as a blight on human existence. However, evolutionary time and evolutionary forces operate at such a different scale of organization than we experience in everyday life that personal experience is not sufficient to understand the role of loneliness in human existence. Research over the past decade suggests a very different view of loneliness than suggested by personal experience, one in which loneliness serves a variety of adaptive functions in specific habitats. We review evidence on the heritability of loneliness and outline an evolutionary theory of loneliness, with an emphasis on its potential adaptive value in an evolutionary timescale. PMID:24067110

  2. Evolutionary behavioral genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietsch, Brendan P; de Candia, Teresa R; Keller, Matthew C

    2015-04-01

    We describe the scientific enterprise at the intersection of evolutionary psychology and behavioral genetics-a field that could be termed Evolutionary Behavioral Genetics-and how modern genetic data is revolutionizing our ability to test questions in this field. We first explain how genetically informative data and designs can be used to investigate questions about the evolution of human behavior, and describe some of the findings arising from these approaches. Second, we explain how evolutionary theory can be applied to the investigation of behavioral genetic variation. We give examples of how new data and methods provide insight into the genetic architecture of behavioral variation and what this tells us about the evolutionary processes that acted on the underlying causal genetic variants.

  3. Marine mammals: evolutionary biology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berta, Annalisa; Sumich, James L; Kovacs, Kit M

    2015-01-01

    The third edition of Marine Mammals: Evolutionary Biology provides a comprehensive and current assessment of the diversity, evolution, and biology of marine mammals, while highlighting the latest tools and techniques for their study...

  4. Early constraints in sexual dimorphism: survival benefits of feminized phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rull, I; Vergara, P; Martínez-Padilla, J; Fargallo, J A

    2016-02-01

    Sexual dimorphism (SD) has evolved in response to selection pressures that differ between sexes. Since such pressures change across an individual's life, SD may vary within age classes. Yet, little is known about how selection on early phenotypes may drive the final SD observed in adults. In many dimorphic species, juveniles resemble adult females rather than adult males, meaning that out of the selective pressures established by sexual selection feminized phenotypes may be adaptive. If true, fitness benefits of early female-like phenotypes may constrain the expression of male phenotypes in adulthood. Using the common kestrel Falco tinnunculus as a study model, we evaluated the fitness advantages of expressing more feminized phenotypes at youth. Although more similar to adult females than to adult males, common kestrel fledglings are still sexually dimorphic in size and coloration. Integrating morphological and chromatic variables, we analysed the phenotypic divergence between sexes as a measure of how much each individual looks like the sex to which it belongs (phenotypic sexual resemblance, PSR). We then tested the fitness benefits associated with PSR by means of the probability of recruitment in the population. We found a significant interaction between PSR and sex, showing that in both sexes more feminized phenotypes recruited more into the population than less feminized phenotypes. Moreover, males showed lower PSR than females and a higher proportion of incorrect sex classifications. These findings suggest that the mechanisms in males devoted to resembling female phenotypes in youth, due to a trend to increase fitness through more feminized phenotypes, may provide a mechanism to constrain the SD in adulthood. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  5. Plant phenotype - Arabidopsis Phenome Database | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available of organs, tissues, development stages. The vocabulary is defined in Plant Ontology(PO). Qualities: Characte...ristics, attributes of entities. The vocabulary is defined in Phenotype Ontology(PATO). Data file File name:

  6. Integrating restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) with morphological cladistic analysis clarifies evolutionary relationships among major species groups of bee orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Richard M; Sramkó, Gábor; Paun, Ovidiu

    2018-01-25

    Bee orchids (Ophrys) have become the most popular model system for studying reproduction via insect-mediated pseudo-copulation and for exploring the consequent, putatively adaptive, evolutionary radiations. However, despite intensive past research, both the phylogenetic structure and species diversity within the genus remain highly contentious. Here, we integrate next-generation sequencing and morphological cladistic techniques to clarify the phylogeny of the genus. At least two accessions of each of the ten species groups previously circumscribed from large-scale cloned nuclear ribosomal internal transcibed spacer (nrITS) sequencing were subjected to restriction site-associated sequencing (RAD-seq). The resulting matrix of 4159 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for 34 accessions was used to construct an unrooted network and a rooted maximum likelihood phylogeny. A parallel morphological cladistic matrix of 43 characters generated both polymorphic and non-polymorphic sets of parsimony trees before being mapped across the RAD-seq topology. RAD-seq data strongly support the monophyly of nine out of ten groups previously circumscribed using nrITS and resolve three major clades; in contrast, supposed microspecies are barely distinguishable. Strong incongruence separated the RAD-seq trees from both the morphological trees and traditional classifications; mapping of the morphological characters across the RAD-seq topology rendered them far more homoplastic. The comparatively high level of morphological homoplasy reflects extensive convergence, whereas the derived placement of the fusca group is attributed to paedomorphic simplification. The phenotype of the most recent common ancestor of the extant lineages is inferred, but it post-dates the majority of the character-state changes that typify the genus. RAD-seq may represent the high-water mark of the contribution of molecular phylogenetics to understanding evolution within Ophrys; further progress will require

  7. The discipline of building character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badaracco, J L

    1998-01-01

    What is the difference between an ethical decision and what the author calls a defining moment? An ethical decision typically involves choosing between two options: one we know to be right and another we know to be wrong. A defining moment challenges us in a deeper way by asking us to choose between two or more ideals in which we deeply believe. Such decisions rarely have one "correct" response. Taken cumulatively over many years, they form the basis of an individual's character. Defining moments ask executives to dig below the busy surface of their lives and refocus on their core values and principles. Once uncovered, those values and principles renew their sense of purpose at the workplace and act as a springboard for shrewd, pragmatic, politically astute action. Three types of defining moments are particularly common in today's workplace. The first type is largely an issue of personal identity. It raises the question, Who am I? The second type concerns groups as well as individuals. It raises the question, Who are we? The third kind involves defining a company's role within society. It raises the question, Who is the company? By learning to identify each of those three situations, managers can learn to navigate right-versus-right decisions successfully. The author asks a series of practical questions that will help managers take time out to examine their values and then transform their beliefs into action. By engaging in this process of self-inquiry, managers will be gaining the tools to tackle their most elusive, challenging, and essential business dilemmas.

  8. Developing Individual and Team Character in Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Stacey A.

    2012-01-01

    The idea that participation in sport builds character is a long-standing one. Advocates of sport participation believe that sport provides an appropriate context for the learning of social skills such as cooperation and the development of prosocial behavior (Weiss, Smith, & Stuntz, 2008). Research in sport regarding character development has…

  9. Landscape Character of Pongkor Mining Ecotourism Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumoarto, A.; Gunawan, A.; Machfud; Hikmat, A.

    2017-10-01

    Pongkor Mining Ecotourism Area has a diverse landscape character as a potential landscape resources for the development of ecotourism destination. This area is part of the Mount of Botol Resort, Halimun Salak National Park (HSNP). This area also has a fairly high biodiversity. This study aims to identify and analysis the category of landscape character in the Pongkor Mining Ecotourism Area for the development of ecotourism destination. This study used a descriptive approach through field surveys and interviews, was carried out through two steps : 1) identify the landscape character, and 2) analysis of the landscape character. The results showed that in areas set aside for ecotourism destination in Pongkor Mining, landscape character category scattered forests, tailing ponds, river, plain, and the built environment. The Category of landscape character most dominant scattered in the area is forest, here is the river, plain, tailing ponds, the built environment, and plain. The landscape character in a natural environment most preferred for ecotourism activities. The landscape character that spread in the natural environment and the built environment is a potential that must be protected and modified such as elimination of incongruous element, accentuation of natural form, alteration of the natural form, intensification and enhanced visual quality intensively to be developed as a ecotourism destination area.

  10. Creating a Character as a Writing Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latta, Alan D.

    2001-01-01

    Suggests an approach to teaching German as a second language in which students jointly create a character and her family and then write a series of stories during he year about the character in various everyday situations. Benefits include use of basic language, cultural issues, and stimulation of student creativity and interest. (Author/VWL)

  11. 3D Character Modeling in Virtual Reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, S.; Williams, A.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a virtual reality modeling system based on interactive web technologies. The system's goal is to provide a user-friendly virtual environment for the development of 3D characters with an articulated structure. The interface allows the modeling of both the character's joint

  12. Character order processing in Chinese reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Junjuan; Li, Xingshan; Liversedge, Simon P

    2015-02-01

    We explored how character order information is encoded in isolated word processing or Chinese sentence reading in 2 experiments using a masked priming paradigm and a gaze-contingent display-change paradigm. The results showed that response latencies in the lexical decision task and reading times on the target word region were longer in the unrelated condition (the prime or the preview was unrelated with the target word) than the transposed-character condition (the prime or the preview was a transposition of the 2 characters of the target word), which were respectively longer than in the identity condition (the prime or preview was identical to the target word). These results show that character order is encoded at an early stage of processing in Chinese reading, but character position encoding was not strict. We also found that character order encoding was similar for single-morpheme and multiple-morpheme words, suggesting that morphemic status does not affect character order encoding. The current results represent an early contribution to our understanding of character order encoding during Chinese reading.

  13. Character Education, New Media, and Political Spectacle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Ontario's new Character Development Initiative is analyzed to determine whether it can be characterized as political spectacle. Examination of official policy texts, media reports, speeches, web pages, webcasts, and events at the Character Development Symposium suggests that the Initiative contains many elements of political spectacle; however,…

  14. WORD LEXICON REDUCTION BY CHARACTER SPOTTING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guilevic, D.; Nishiwaki, D.; Yamada, K.

    2004-01-01

    We describe a system, currently under development, to dynamically reduce a lexicon of city names, making use exclusively of the information found in a word image. Isolated characters are `spotted\\\\\\' within the word. The recognition results on those isolated characters are then used to initialize a

  15. A database application for wilderness character monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley Adams; Peter Landres; Simon Kingston

    2012-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) Wilderness Stewardship Division, in collaboration with the Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute and the NPS Inventory and Monitoring Program, developed a database application to facilitate tracking and trend reporting in wilderness character. The Wilderness Character Monitoring Database allows consistent, scientifically based...

  16. Injury Assessment for Physics-Based Characters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geijtenbeek, T.; Vasilescu, D.; Egges, A.

    2011-01-01

    Determining injury levels for virtual characters is an important aspect of many games. For characters that are animated using simulated physics, it is possible assess injury levels based on physical properties, such as accelerations and forces. We have constructed a model for injury assessment that

  17. Character Development Practices in Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley, Vernon L.

    2010-01-01

    Character Development continues to be the all too unintentional elephant in the room of Higher Education. This project looked at what character development practices are being accomplished and who in higher education is making it happen. No longer satisfied with leaving the task to elementary and secondary education, higher education has begun to…

  18. Purpose and Character Development in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Heather; Liauw, Indrawati; Damon, William

    2017-06-01

    Character development in adolescence is of growing interest among psychology researchers and educators, yet there is little consensus about how character should be defined and studied among developmental scientists. In particular, there is no fully developed framework for investigating the developmental relationships among different character strengths. This study examines the developmental relations between purpose and three other key character strengths that emerge during early adolescence: gratitude, compassion, and grit. We analyzed survey (n = 1005, 50.1% female, 24.1% Caucasian, 43.6% African American, 18.9% Hispanic, 11.9% Asian American) and interview (n = 98) data from a longitudinal study of character development among middle school students from the United States. Data were collected over the course of 2 years, with surveys conducted four times at 6-month intervals and interviews conducted twice at 12-month intervals. Data analyses showed small but significant correlations between purpose and each of the other three character strengths under investigation. Interview data revealed patterns in ways that adolescents acted on their purposeful aspirations; and interview analyses identified qualitative differences in expressions of gratitude and compassion between adolescents who were fully purposeful and those who were not. The findings suggest that character development can be better understood by investigating the multidirectional developmental relationships among different character strengths.

  19. A structural query system for Han characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skala, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The IDSgrep structural query system for Han character dictionaries is presented. This dictionary search system represents the spatial structure of Han characters using Extended Ideographic Description Sequences (EIDSes), a data model and syntax based on the Unicode IDS concept. It includes a query...... filters to support faster query operations. Experimental results are presented, evaluating the effect of the indexing on query performance....

  20. Improving Social Competence through Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chau-kiu; Lee, Tak-yan

    2010-01-01

    Character education is supposed to meet early adolescents' need (i.e., eighth and ninth graders) for strengthening social competence. Moreover, adolescents' engagement in character education is integral to their learning from the education. The engagement and deficit in social competence are therefore plausible conditions for the effectiveness of…

  1. First Course in Japanese: Character Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Tamako

    This character workbook is an introduction to Japanese writing designed to be used in conjunction with Parts One and Two of this introductory course in Japanese. All the "hiragana", several "katakana", and 88 Japanese characters are introduced in this text. The workbook, consisting of 30 lessons, is divided into three parts.…

  2. On character amenability of semigroup algebras | Maepa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We study the character amenability of semigroup algebras. We work on general semigroups and certain semigroups such as inverse semigroups with a nite number of idempotents, inverse semigroups with uniformly locally nite idempotent set, Brandt and Rees semigroup and study the character amenability of the ...

  3. Aristotelian versus Virtue Ethical Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curren, Randall

    2016-01-01

    This article examines some central aspects of Kristján Kristjánsson's book, "Aristotelian Character Education," beginning with the claim that contemporary virtue ethics provides methodological, ontological, epistemological, and moral foundations for Aristotelian character education. It considers three different formulations of what…

  4. Influence of character type and narrative setting on character desing for fictional television

    OpenAIRE

    Igartua, J.J. (Juan José); Marcos-Ramos, M.(María)

    2015-01-01

    The importance of characters in fictional audiovisual productions has received much emphasis in research on media entertainment. However, despite the centrality of characters, analysis of the factors that influence their design is a topic that has scarcely been approached. The objective of this research study was to analyze the process of designing fictional audiovisual characters. Participants (N = 303) were audiovisual communication students whose task was to create a fictional character wh...

  5. Evolutionary impact assessment: accounting for evolutionary consequences of fishing in an ecosystem approach to fisheries management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugen, Ane T; Engelhard, Georg H; Whitlock, Rebecca; Arlinghaus, Robert; Dankel, Dorothy J; Dunlop, Erin S; Eikeset, Anne M; Enberg, Katja; Jørgensen, Christian; Matsumura, Shuichi; Nusslé, Sébastien; Urbach, Davnah; Baulier, Loїc; Boukal, David S; Ernande, Bruno; Johnston, Fiona D; Mollet, Fabian; Pardoe, Heidi; Therkildsen, Nina O; Uusi-Heikkilä, Silva; Vainikka, Anssi; Heino, Mikko; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Managing fisheries resources to maintain healthy ecosystems is one of the main goals of the ecosystem approach to fisheries (EAF). While a number of international treaties call for the implementation of EAF, there are still gaps in the underlying methodology. One aspect that has received substantial scientific attention recently is fisheries-induced evolution (FIE). Increasing evidence indicates that intensive fishing has the potential to exert strong directional selection on life-history traits, behaviour, physiology, and morphology of exploited fish. Of particular concern is that reversing evolutionary responses to fishing can be much more difficult than reversing demographic or phenotypically plastic responses. Furthermore, like climate change, multiple agents cause FIE, with effects accumulating over time. Consequently, FIE may alter the utility derived from fish stocks, which in turn can modify the monetary value living aquatic resources provide to society. Quantifying and predicting the evolutionary effects of fishing is therefore important for both ecological and economic reasons. An important reason this is not happening is the lack of an appropriate assessment framework. We therefore describe the evolutionary impact assessment (EvoIA) as a structured approach for assessing the evolutionary consequences of fishing and evaluating the predicted evolutionary outcomes of alternative management options. EvoIA can contribute to EAF by clarifying how evolution may alter stock properties and ecological relations, support the precautionary approach to fisheries management by addressing a previously overlooked source of uncertainty and risk, and thus contribute to sustainable fisheries. PMID:26430388

  6. Evolutionary advances in the higher fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R T

    1997-10-01

    In this report the phrase 'evolutionary advances' is used in three ways: 1. to describe monophyletic changes perceived within a lineage; 2. to describe evolutionary sequences that appear to have become parallel/convergent; 3. to describe major transitions inferred between primary taxa. In monophyletic evolution the changes occur within a specific lineage that arises from a common ancestor, e.g., modern Man, horses, rusts. In parallel/convergent evolution different lineages respond similarly over time to environmental challenges and opportunities and come to acquire a great deal of comparability (e.g., Webster, 1987). Such lineages may be designated as separate taxa, e.g., similarities in marsupial and placental carnivores, or, if the polyphyleticism is cryptic, as a collective taxon, e.g., Aves, the class of birds, the obsolete Amentiferae for catkin bearing plants, the Gasteromycetes, and lichens. In major transitions there are significant paradigm shifts in which evolutionary changes from one predominant life style pattern to another are accompanied by increases in complexity (see Smith & Szatháry, 1995), e.g., symbiosis, the water to land transition, the changes between the phyla of land fungi. Three particular terms are used in evaluating evolutionary relationships (Moore, 1996a): homology, paramology, and analogy. Homology, from Darwin's theory of common descent, is the phenomenon of having a common historical origin but not necessarily the same final structure or function (e.g., vertebrate forelimbs). Paramology (Moore, 1971) applies to inferred relationships in evolutionary schemes based on contemporary forms that lack fossil antecedents, e.g., the various phylogenetic interpretations of prokaryotes, algae, and fungi; Boekhout et al. (1993) have evaluated the taxonomic resolution of a variety of morphologic, biochemical, physiological, and molecular characters (Table 1). Analogy is generally applied to similar forms that are unrelated, e.g., insect

  7. THE CHARACTER EDUCATION IN ISLAMIC EDUCATION VIEWPOINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djaswidi Al Hamdani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to study the concept of character and moral education according to the terminology, approaches, and methods of learning from the point of view of Islamic education. The approach used in this paper is a discussion of the linguistic (al-lughah. The results showed that the conceptual basis of character education in the curriculum in Indonesia too much because it has a number of terminological problems. The concept of morals, values, and characters have a special meaning that may be different from one another. As a result, the concept of the character presented in the curriculum subject is far from the actual context of the moral and less with actually happening in the community. Character education is also too much use of the approach and methods indoctrinasi than critical, reflective and empirical and is not integrated with the system and school culture. 

  8. Character Education and Students Social Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsu A. Kamaruddin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In an educational environment, in the form of character education program has been done both formally and informally. It's intended as one of the supporting ideas for follow-up in the form of design activities. Character education should basically refers to the vision and mission of the institution concerned. It shows the orientation of the two things in the character of the students are: aspects of human character and individual learners hallmark institution. In this paper, these two aspects is the author trying to ideas by referring to some other writings. The end result, the authors expect the birth of a design patent as early referral to spearhead a character development program learners.

  9. Moral character effects in endorser perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Joseph W.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research consists of two experimental studies investigating the influence of moral character on endorser perception, and the influence of perceiver characteristics on tarnished endorser perception and brand evaluations. Perceiver characteristics are discussed from the perspectives of dispositional tendency, innate moral intuitions and self-location. The first study compared the influences of moral character and warmth on endorser perception. The second study examined the impact of perceiver characteristics on tarnished endorsers and brand evaluations. The findings reveal that moral character is more influential than warmth on endorser evaluations. Tarnished endorsers with immoral character exert more negative influence than tarnished endorsers with coldness character on brand evaluations. Innate moral intuitions and self-location moderate brand evaluations. High-morality consumers and heart-locators are more vulnerable than low-morality and brain-locators to the brands endorsed by tarnished endorsers, respectively.

  10. Character Recognition Using Genetically Trained Neural Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, C.; Stantz, K.M.; Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.

    1998-10-01

    Computationally intelligent recognition of characters and symbols addresses a wide range of applications including foreign language translation and chemical formula identification. The combination of intelligent learning and optimization algorithms with layered neural structures offers powerful techniques for character recognition. These techniques were originally developed by Sandia National Laboratories for pattern and spectral analysis; however, their ability to optimize vast amounts of data make them ideal for character recognition. An adaptation of the Neural Network Designer soflsvare allows the user to create a neural network (NN_) trained by a genetic algorithm (GA) that correctly identifies multiple distinct characters. The initial successfid recognition of standard capital letters can be expanded to include chemical and mathematical symbols and alphabets of foreign languages, especially Arabic and Chinese. The FIN model constructed for this project uses a three layer feed-forward architecture. To facilitate the input of characters and symbols, a graphic user interface (GUI) has been developed to convert the traditional representation of each character or symbol to a bitmap. The 8 x 8 bitmap representations used for these tests are mapped onto the input nodes of the feed-forward neural network (FFNN) in a one-to-one correspondence. The input nodes feed forward into a hidden layer, and the hidden layer feeds into five output nodes correlated to possible character outcomes. During the training period the GA optimizes the weights of the NN until it can successfully recognize distinct characters. Systematic deviations from the base design test the network's range of applicability. Increasing capacity, the number of letters to be recognized, requires a nonlinear increase in the number of hidden layer neurodes. Optimal character recognition performance necessitates a minimum threshold for the number of cases when genetically training the net. And, the

  11. Massively parallel implementation of character recognition systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garris, Michael D.; Wilson, Charles L.; Blue, James L.; Candela, Gerald T.; Grother, Patrick J.; Janet, Stanley A.; Wilkinson, R. A.

    1992-08-01

    A massively parallel character recognition system has been implemented. The system is designed to study the feasibility of the recognition of handprinted text in a loosely constrained environment. The NIST handprint database, NIST Special Database 1, is used to provide test data for the recognition system. The system consists of eight functional components. The loading of the image into the system and storing the recognition results from the system are I/O components. In between are components responsible for image processing and recognition. The first image processing component is responsible for image correction for scale and rotation, data field isolation, and character data location within each field; the second performs character segmentation; and the third does character normalization. Three recognition components are responsible for feature extraction and character reconstruction, neural network-based character recognition, and low-confidence classification rejection. The image processing to load and isolate 34 fields on a scientific workstation takes 900 seconds. The same processing takes only 11 seconds using a massively parallel array processor. The image processing components, including the time to load the image data, use 94 of the system time. The segmentation time is 15 ms/character and segmentation accuracy is 89 for handprinted digits and alphas. Character recognition accuracy for medium quality machine print is 99.8. On handprinted digits, the recognition accuracy is 96 and recognition speeds of 10,100 characters/second can be realized. The limiting factor in the recognition portion of the system is feature extraction, which occurs at 806 characters/second. Through the use of a massively parallel machine and neural recognition algorithms, significant improvements in both accuracy and speed have been achieved, making this technology effective as a replacement for key data entry in existing data capture systems.

  12. Postprocessing for character recognition using pattern features and linguistic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Takatoshi; Okamoto, Masayosi; Horii, Hiroshi

    1993-04-01

    We propose a new method of post-processing for character recognition using pattern features and linguistic information. This method corrects errors in the recognition of handwritten Japanese sentences containing Kanji characters. This post-process method is characterized by having two types of character recognition. Improving the accuracy of the character recognition rate of Japanese characters is made difficult by the large number of characters, and the existence of characters with similar patterns. Therefore, it is not practical for a character recognition system to recognize all characters in detail. First, this post-processing method generates a candidate character table by recognizing the simplest features of characters. Then, it selects words corresponding to the character from the candidate character table by referring to a word and grammar dictionary before selecting suitable words. If the correct character is included in the candidate character table, this process can correct an error, however, if the character is not included, it cannot correct an error. Therefore, if this method can presume a character does not exist in a candidate character table by using linguistic information (word and grammar dictionary). It then can verify a presumed character by character recognition using complex features. When this method is applied to an online character recognition system, the accuracy of character recognition improves 93.5% to 94.7%. This proved to be the case when it was used for the editorials of a Japanese newspaper (Asahi Shinbun).

  13. Paleoanthropology and evolutionary theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Paleoanthropologists of the first half of the twentieth century were little concerned either with evolutionary theory or with the technicalities and broader implications of zoological nomenclature. In consequence, the paleoanthropological literature of the period consisted largely of a series of descriptions accompanied by authoritative pronouncements, together with a huge excess of hominid genera and species. Given the intellectual flimsiness of the resulting paleoanthropological framework, it is hardly surprising that in 1950 the ornithologist Ernst Mayr met little resistance when he urged the new postwar generation of paleoanthropologists to accept not only the elegant reductionism of the Evolutionary Synthesis but a vast oversimplification of hominid phylogenetic history and nomenclature. Indeed, the impact of Mayr's onslaught was so great that even when developments in evolutionary biology during the last quarter of the century brought other paleontologists to the realization that much more has been involved in evolutionary histories than the simple action of natural selection within gradually transforming lineages, paleoanthropologists proved highly reluctant to follow. Even today, paleoanthropologists are struggling to reconcile an intuitive realization that the burgeoning hominid fossil record harbors a substantial diversity of species (bringing hominid evolutionary patterns into line with that of other successful mammalian families), with the desire to cram a huge variety of morphologies into an unrealistically minimalist systematic framework. As long as this theoretical ambivalence persists, our perception of events in hominid phylogeny will continue to be distorted.

  14. Applying evolutionary anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Mhairi A; Lawson, David W

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary anthropology provides a powerful theoretical framework for understanding how both current environments and legacies of past selection shape human behavioral diversity. This integrative and pluralistic field, combining ethnographic, demographic, and sociological methods, has provided new insights into the ultimate forces and proximate pathways that guide human adaptation and variation. Here, we present the argument that evolutionary anthropological studies of human behavior also hold great, largely untapped, potential to guide the design, implementation, and evaluation of social and public health policy. Focusing on the key anthropological themes of reproduction, production, and distribution we highlight classic and recent research demonstrating the value of an evolutionary perspective to improving human well-being. The challenge now comes in transforming relevance into action and, for that, evolutionary behavioral anthropologists will need to forge deeper connections with other applied social scientists and policy-makers. We are hopeful that these developments are underway and that, with the current tide of enthusiasm for evidence-based approaches to policy, evolutionary anthropology is well positioned to make a strong contribution. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Disruptive selection as a driver of evolutionary branching and caste evolution in social insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planqué, R; Powell, S; Franks, N R; van den Berg, J B

    2016-11-01

    Theory suggests that evolutionary branching via disruptive selection may be a relatively common and powerful force driving phenotypic divergence. Here, we extend this theory to social insects, which have novel social axes of phenotypic diversification. Our model, built around turtle ant (Cephalotes) biology, is used to explore whether disruptive selection can drive the evolutionary branching of divergent colony phenotypes that include a novel soldier caste. Soldier evolution is a recurrent theme in social insect diversification that is exemplified in the turtle ants. We show that phenotypic mutants can gain competitive advantages that induce disruptive selection and subsequent branching. A soldier caste does not generally appear before branching, but can evolve from subsequent competition. The soldier caste then evolves in association with specialized resource preferences that maximize defensive performance. Overall, our model indicates that resource specialization may occur in the absence of morphological specialization, but that when morphological specialization evolves, it is always in association with resource specialization. This evolutionary coupling of ecological and morphological specialization is consistent with recent empirical evidence, but contrary to predictions of classical caste theory. Our model provides a new theoretical understanding of the ecology of caste evolution that explicitly considers the process of adaptive phenotypic divergence and diversification. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  16. Video Game Characters. Theory and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Schröter

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay develops a method for the analysis of video game characters based on a theoretical understanding of their medium-specific representation and the mental processes involved in their intersubjective construction by video game players. We propose to distinguish, first, between narration, simulation, and communication as three modes of representation particularly salient for contemporary video games and the characters they represent, second, between narrative, ludic, and social experience as three ways in which players perceive video game characters and their representations, and, third, between three dimensions of video game characters as ‘intersubjective constructs’, which usually are to be analyzed not only as fictional beings with certain diegetic properties but also as game pieces with certain ludic properties and, in those cases in which they function as avatars in the social space of a multiplayer game, as representations of other players. Having established these basic distinctions, we proceed to analyze their realization and interrelation by reference to the character of Martin Walker from the third-person shooter Spec Ops: The Line (Yager Development 2012, the highly customizable player-controlled characters from the role-playing game The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim (Bethesda 2011, and the complex multidimensional characters in the massively multiplayer online role-playing game Star Wars: The Old Republic (BioWare 2011-2014.

  17. Evolutionary engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for improved industrially important properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakar, Z Petek; Turanli-Yildiz, Burcu; Alkim, Ceren; Yilmaz, Ulkü

    2012-03-01

    This article reviews evolutionary engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Following a brief introduction to the 'rational' metabolic engineering approach and its limitations such as extensive genetic and metabolic information requirement on the organism of interest, complexity of cellular physiological responses, and difficulties of cloning in industrial strains, evolutionary engineering is discussed as an alternative, inverse metabolic engineering strategy. Major evolutionary engineering applications with S. cerevisiae are then discussed in two general categories: (1) evolutionary engineering of substrate utilization and product formation and (2) evolutionary engineering of stress resistance. Recent developments in functional genomics methods allow rapid identification of the molecular basis of the desired phenotypes obtained by evolutionary engineering. To conclude, when used alone or in combination with rational metabolic engineering and/or computational methods to study and analyze processes of adaptive evolution, evolutionary engineering is a powerful strategy for improvement in industrially important, complex properties of S. cerevisiae. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Archaeogenetics in evolutionary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, Abigail; Rühli, Frank

    2016-09-01

    Archaeogenetics is the study of exploration of ancient DNA (aDNA) of more than 70 years old. It is an important part of the wider studies of many different areas of our past, including animal, plant and pathogen evolution and domestication events. Hereby, we address specifically the impact of research in archaeogenetics in the broader field of evolutionary medicine. Studies on ancient hominid genomes help to understand even modern health patterns. Human genetic microevolution, e.g. related to abilities of post-weaning milk consumption, and specifically genetic adaptation in disease susceptibility, e.g. towards malaria and other infectious diseases, are of the upmost importance in contributions of archeogenetics on the evolutionary understanding of human health and disease. With the increase in both the understanding of modern medical genetics and the ability to deep sequence ancient genetic information, the field of archaeogenetic evolutionary medicine is blossoming.

  19. Evolutionary synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peisajovich, Sergio G

    2012-06-15

    Signaling networks process vast amounts of environmental information to generate specific cellular responses. As cellular environments change, signaling networks adapt accordingly. Here, I will discuss how the integration of synthetic biology and directed evolution approaches is shedding light on the molecular mechanisms that guide the evolution of signaling networks. In particular, I will review studies that demonstrate how different types of mutations, from the replacement of individual amino acids to the shuffling of modular domains, lead to markedly different evolutionary trajectories and consequently to diverse network rewiring. Moreover, I will argue that intrinsic evolutionary properties of signaling proteins, such as the robustness of wild type functions, the promiscuous nature of evolutionary intermediates, and the modular decoupling between binding and catalysis, play important roles in the evolution of signaling networks. Finally, I will argue that rapid advances in our ability to synthesize DNA will radically alter how we study signaling network evolution at the genome-wide level.

  20. Total Integrative Evolutionary Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard Thomsen, Ole; Brier, Søren

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we outline a cybersemiotic foundation for the trend of pragmatics-based functional linguistics, Functional Discourse Grammar. Cybersemiotics is a substantial inter- and transdisciplinary semiotic theory which integrates, on the one hand, second-order cybernetics and autopoiesis theory...... and, on the other, Peircean biosemiotics. According to Cybersemiotics, language is primarily a creative process of total integrative evolutionary communication. It comprises three evolutionary stages: (1) biological reflexive languaging (the reflexive foundation of social coordination), (2......). In this inclusive hierarchy language games subsume the other stages, and thus human evolutionary communication is primarily a symbolic-conventional practice. It is intertwined with the practice of living, that is, with different life forms, including other forms of semiotic behavior. Together they form a coherent...

  1. Teaching evolutionary biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Tidon

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary Biology integrates several disciplines of Biology in a complex and interactive manner, where a deep understanding of the subject demands knowledge in diverse areas. Since this knowledge is often inaccessible to the majority of specialized professionals, including the teachers, we present some reflections in order to stimulate discussions aimed at the improvement of the conditions of education in this area. We examine the profile of evolutionary teaching in Brazil, based on questionnaires distributed to teachers in Secondary Education in the Federal District, on data provided by the "National Institute for Educational Studies and Research", and on information collected from teachers working in various regions of this country. Issues related to biological misconceptions, curriculum and didactic material are discussed, and some proposals are presented with the objective of aiding discussions aimed at the improvement of the teaching of evolutionary biology.

  2. Evolutionary Snowdrift Game Incorporating Costly Punishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yap Yee Jiun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of punishments in promoting cooperation is an important issue. We incorporate costly punishments into the snowdrift game (SG by introducing a third punishing (P character and study the effects.  The punishers, who carry basically a cooperative (C character, are willing to pay a cost of a so as to punish a non-cooperative (D opponent by ß. Depending on the initial fractions of the characters, a, ß, and the cost-to-benefit ratio r in SG, the three-character system evolves either into a steady state consisting only of C and P characters or only of C and D characters in a well-mixed population.  The former situation represents an enhancement in cooperation relative to SG, while the latter is similar to SG. The dynamics in approaching these different steady states are found to be different.  Analytically, the key features in the steady states and dynamics obtained by simulations are captured by a set of differential equations.  The sensitivity to the initial distribution of characters is studied by depicting the flow in a phase portrait and analyzing the nature of fixed points. The analysis also shows the role of P-character in preventing a system from invasion by D-character agents. Starting from a population consisting only of C and P agents, a D-character agent intended to invade the system cannot survive when the initial fraction of P-agents is greater than r/ß. Our model, defined intentionally as a simulation algorithm, can be readily generalized to incorporate many interesting effects, such as those in a networked population. ABSTRAK: Peranan hukuman dalam meningkatkan kerjasama merupakan isu penting.  Hukuman berat diterapkan ke dalam permainan hanyutan salji (snowdrift game (SG dengan memperkenalkan karekter penghukum (P ketiga dan akibatnya dipantau. Penghukum, pada asasnya membawa watak koperatif (C, sanggup membayar kos a, agar dia menghukum lawan yang tidak koperatif (D dengan ß. Bergantung kepada pecahan permulaan watak

  3. Use of genome-scale metabolic models in evolutionary systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Balázs; Szappanos, Balázs; Notebaart, Richard A

    2011-01-01

    One of the major aims of the nascent field of evolutionary systems biology is to test evolutionary hypotheses that are not only realistic from a population genetic point of view but also detailed in terms of molecular biology mechanisms. By providing a mapping between genotype and phenotype for hundreds of genes, genome-scale systems biology models of metabolic networks have already provided valuable insights into the evolution of metabolic gene contents and phenotypes of yeast and other microbial species. Here we review the recent use of these computational models to predict the fitness effect of mutations, genetic interactions, evolutionary outcomes, and to decipher the mechanisms of mutational robustness. While these studies have demonstrated that even simplified models of biochemical reaction networks can be highly informative for evolutionary analyses, they have also revealed the weakness of this modeling framework to quantitatively predict mutational effects, a challenge that needs to be addressed for future progress in evolutionary systems biology.

  4. Testing for Independence between Evolutionary Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behdenna, Abdelkader; Pothier, Joël; Abby, Sophie S; Lambert, Amaury; Achaz, Guillaume

    2016-09-01

    Evolutionary events co-occurring along phylogenetic trees usually point to complex adaptive phenomena, sometimes implicating epistasis. While a number of methods have been developed to account for co-occurrence of events on the same internal or external branch of an evolutionary tree, there is a need to account for the larger diversity of possible relative positions of events in a tree. Here we propose a method to quantify to what extent two or more evolutionary events are associated on a phylogenetic tree. The method is applicable to any discrete character, like substitutions within a coding sequence or gains/losses of a biological function. Our method uses a general approach to statistically test for significant associations between events along the tree, which encompasses both events inseparable on the same branch, and events genealogically ordered on different branches. It assumes that the phylogeny and themapping of branches is known without errors. We address this problem from the statistical viewpoint by a linear algebra representation of the localization of the evolutionary events on the tree.We compute the full probability distribution of the number of paired events occurring in the same branch or in different branches of the tree, under a null model of independence where each type of event occurs at a constant rate uniformly inthephylogenetic tree. The strengths andweaknesses of themethodare assessed via simulations;we then apply the method to explore the loss of cell motility in intracellular pathogens. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Evolutionary Design in Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Jon

    Evolution is one of the most interesting and creative processes we currently understand, so it should come as no surprise that artists and designers are embracing the use of evolution in problems of artistic creativity. The material in this section illustrates the diversity of approaches being used by artists and designers in relation to evolution at the boundary of art and science. While conceptualising human creativity as an evolutionary process in itself may be controversial, what is clear is that evolutionary processes can be used to complement, even enhance human creativity, as the chapters in this section aptly demonstrate.

  6. Evolutionary Statistical Procedures

    CERN Document Server

    Baragona, Roberto; Poli, Irene

    2011-01-01

    This proposed text appears to be a good introduction to evolutionary computation for use in applied statistics research. The authors draw from a vast base of knowledge about the current literature in both the design of evolutionary algorithms and statistical techniques. Modern statistical research is on the threshold of solving increasingly complex problems in high dimensions, and the generalization of its methodology to parameters whose estimators do not follow mathematically simple distributions is underway. Many of these challenges involve optimizing functions for which analytic solutions a

  7. EVOLUTIONARY FOUNDATIONS FOR MOLECULAR MEDICINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesse, Randolph M.; Ganten, Detlev; Gregory, T. Ryan; Omenn, Gilbert S.

    2015-01-01

    Evolution has long provided a foundation for population genetics, but many major advances in evolutionary biology from the 20th century are only now being applied in molecular medicine. They include the distinction between proximate and evolutionary explanations, kin selection, evolutionary models for cooperation, and new strategies for tracing phylogenies and identifying signals of selection. Recent advances in genomics are further transforming evolutionary biology and creating yet more opportunities for progress at the interface of evolution with genetics, medicine, and public health. This article reviews 15 evolutionary principles and their applications in molecular medicine in hopes that readers will use them and others to speed the development of evolutionary molecular medicine. PMID:22544168

  8. Phenotypic and Seed Protein Analysis in 31 Lima Bean (Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    seed protein extracts and were electrophoresed at a constant 30 mA for 8 h. Coomassie Brilliant. Blue G-250 was used for staining the gel and stored in 20% glycerol solution. Data analysis. Gowers similarity coefficient was used to estimate similarity of accessions based on the phenotypic traits morphological characters.

  9. Character Development: Renewing an Old Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, Edward

    1986-01-01

    Growing public concern with student discipline, increases in student suicide rates, homicides, and high pregnancy rates of teenage girls are causing educators to give renewed attention to the concept of "character development" in public education. (MD)

  10. Character strenghts and sex differences in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Reyes Martín

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the association between character strengths and happiness and global health in adolescents by gender. The participants comprised 117 high-school students (μ =16.90, σ =.81 from Málaga (Spain. All participants completed the Values in Action 120-Items Questionnaire (VIA-120, the 12-Item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, and the Happiness Item. The results showed higher levels of character strengths and lower levels of temperance and religiousness in the humanity score. Moderately significant associations were found between all character strengths and general health, happiness, and especially hope. Boys had significantly higher scores on zest, prudence, self-regulation, and hope (Student t test. The study suggests that character strengths could contribute to increased life satisfaction and health among adolescents.

  11. 28 CFR 4.5 - Character endorsements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EXEMPTION UNDER THE LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959, AND THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT... describe applicant's character traits as they relate to the position for which the exemption is sought and...

  12. Brains with character: Reading and writing neuronarrative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yaczo, T.F.

    2015-01-01

    Brains with Character: Reading and Writing Neuronarrative tracks the concept of neuronarrative by analyzing the reciprocal and catalytic relationships between neuroscience and literary media. Crucial to understanding the contemporary stakes in these two cultural endeavors is how their relationships

  13. Seafloor character--Offshore of Carpinteria, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3261 presents data for the seafloor-character map (see sheet 5, SIM 3261) of the Offshore of Carpinteria map area, California. The raster data file...

  14. Seafloor character--Offshore of Pacifica, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Pacifica, California. The raster data file is included in "SFC_OffshorePacifica.zip," which is...

  15. Dobzhansky and Evolutionary Cytogenetics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    called adaptation. Certain individuals might possess character- istics that better fit the environment and consequently such individuals survive longer and reproduce more. If these ... phism in all natural populations and how populations use this reservoir of .... cellent method for the experimental study of natural selection in.

  16. ECONOMIC ETHICS: APPLIED AND PROFESSIONAL CHARACTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Gordova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In given article economic ethics are considered as set of norms of behavior of the businessman, the requirements shown by a cultural society to its style of work, to character of dialogue between participants of business, to their social shape. The conclusion becomes that economic ethics have applied character in relation to theoretical, to obschenormativnoy ethics, hence, represent section of applied ethics. On the other hand, the specific standard maintenance characterizes economic ethics as ethics professional.

  17. When development matters: From evolutionary psychology to evolutionary developmental psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Blasi, Carlos; Gardiner, Amy K.; Bjorklund, David F.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents evolutionary developmental psychology (EDP) as an emerging field of evolutionary psychology (EP). In describing the core tenets of both approaches and the differences between them, we emphasize the important roles that evolution and development have in understanding human behaviour. We suggest that developmental psychologists should pay more attention to evolutionary issues and, conversely, evolutionary psychologists should take development seriously. Key words: evol...

  18. Multimodal character viewpoint in quoted dialogue sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashmiri Stec

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the multimodal production of character viewpoint in spoken American English narratives by performing complementary qualitative and quantitative analyses of two quoted dialogues, focusing on the storyteller’s use of character viewpoint gestures, character intonation, character facial expression, spatial orientation and gaze. A micro-analysis revealed that the extent of multimodal articulation depends on (i the quoted speaker, with different multimodal articulatory patterns found for quotes by the speaker’s past self vs. a third-person character, and (ii the position of the quoted utterance within the quoted dialogue, with mid-dialogue utterances garnering less co-articulation than initial or final utterances within the quoted dialogue. We further investigated these observations using a quantitative approach, which was based on 'generalized additive modeling' (GAM. The GAM analysis revealed different multimodal patterns for each quoted character, as indicated by the number of co-produced multimodal articulators. These patterns were found to hold regardless of the quote’s position within the narrative. We discuss these findings with respect to previous work on multimodal quotation. This article is part of the special collection: Perspective Taking

  19. Revisiting Character Education from Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Eka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Since it was launched in 2010, Character Education is becoming a mesmerizing framework which is assumed to bring about the changes in Indonesian national education. Especially, National Education Framework for Character Education 2010 is agreed to be a guide for national education success in building nation character of the youngsters. However, such a dual-system of education—general and Islamic education, that is embraced in the current national education system emanates various Character Education both its interpretation and implementation. The discussion in this paper highlights that from various definitions and interpretations, character education practices deals with definite values rather than relative values. Islam world has many sources of values and ethics and thus Muslim educators and teachers are suggested to base the values inculcation to students on the Islamic sources of values and ethics. Undesired changes of society’s life caused by secualrism, personalism, pluralism, etc., make character education practices as necessary to conduct in order to counter those ideologies.

  20. The character of free topological groups II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Nickolas

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A systematic analysis is made of the character of the free and free abelian topological groups on metrizable spaces and compact spaces, and on certain other closely related spaces. In the first case, it is shown that the characters of the free and the free abelian topological groups on X are both equal to the “small cardinal” d if X is compact and metrizable, but also, more generally, if X is a non-discrete k!-space all of whose compact subsets are metrizable, or if X is a non-discrete Polish space. An example is given of a zero-dimensional separable metric space for which both characters are equal to the cardinal of the continuum. In the case of a compact space X, an explicit formula is derived for the character of the free topological group on X involving no cardinal invariant of X other than its weight; in particular the character is fully determined by the weight in the compact case. This paper is a sequel to a paper by the same authors in which the characters of the free groups were analysed under less restrictive topological assumptions.

  1. Origins of evolutionary transitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-03-15

    Mar 15, 2014 ... I define an evolutionary transition as a shift in the hierarchical level at which heritable fitness variance ... life, for example in eusocial insects, around 150 million years ago. None of these transformations was ...... affecting and heritable trait, and to introduce a mechanism which inhibits them from subsequent ...

  2. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    After Maynard-Smith and Price [1] mathematically derived why a given behaviour or strategy was adopted by a certain proportion of the population at a given time, it was shown that a strategy which is currently stable in a population need not be stable in evolutionary time (across generations). Additionally it was sug-.

  3. Evolutionary trends in Heteroptera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobben, R.H.

    1968-01-01

    1. This work, the first volume of a series dealing with evolutionary trends in Heteroptera, is concerned with the egg system of about 400 species. The data are presented systematically in chapters 1 and 2 with a critical review of the literature after each family.

    2. Chapter 3 evaluates facts

  4. Towards Adaptive Evolutionary Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Sebastian HOlt; Rask, Nina; Risi, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents first results from an interdisciplinary project, in which the fields of architecture, philosophy and artificial life are combined to explore possible futures of architecture. Through an interactive evolutionary installation, called EvoCurtain, we investigate aspects of how...

  5. Origins of evolutionary transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Ellen

    2014-04-01

    An 'evolutionary transition in individuality' or 'major transition' is a transformation in the hierarchical level at which natural selection operates on a population. In this article I give an abstract (i.e. level-neutral and substrate-neutral) articulation of the transition process in order to precisely understand how such processes can happen, especially how they can get started.

  6. Evolutionary pattern search algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, W.E.

    1995-09-19

    This paper defines a class of evolutionary algorithms called evolutionary pattern search algorithms (EPSAs) and analyzes their convergence properties. This class of algorithms is closely related to evolutionary programming, evolutionary strategie and real-coded genetic algorithms. EPSAs are self-adapting systems that modify the step size of the mutation operator in response to the success of previous optimization steps. The rule used to adapt the step size can be used to provide a stationary point convergence theory for EPSAs on any continuous function. This convergence theory is based on an extension of the convergence theory for generalized pattern search methods. An experimental analysis of the performance of EPSAs demonstrates that these algorithms can perform a level of global search that is comparable to that of canonical EAs. We also describe a stopping rule for EPSAs, which reliably terminated near stationary points in our experiments. This is the first stopping rule for any class of EAs that can terminate at a given distance from stationary points.

  7. Optimal Mixing Evolutionary Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Thierens (Dirk); P.A.N. Bosman (Peter); N. Krasnogor

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractA key search mechanism in Evolutionary Algorithms is the mixing or juxtaposing of partial solutions present in the parent solutions. In this paper we look at the efficiency of mixing in genetic algorithms (GAs) and estimation-of-distribution algorithms (EDAs). We compute the mixing

  8. Learning: An Evolutionary Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Joanna

    2009-01-01

    This paper draws on the philosophy of Karl Popper to present a descriptive evolutionary epistemology that offers philosophical solutions to the following related problems: "What happens when learning takes place?" and "What happens in human learning?" It provides a detailed analysis of how learning takes place without any direct transfer of…

  9. Evolutionary mysteries in meiosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenormand, Thomas; Engelstädter, Jan; Johnston, Susan E.; Wijnker, Erik; Haag, Christoph R.

    2016-01-01

    Meiosis is a key event of sexual life cycles in eukaryotes. Its mechanistic details have been uncovered in several model organisms, and most of its essential features have received various and often contradictory evolutionary interpretations. In this perspective, we present an overview of these

  10. Editorial overview: Evolutionary psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gangestad, S.W.; Tybur, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Functional approaches in psychology - which ask what behavior is good for - are almost as old as scientific psychology itself. Yet sophisticated, generative functional theories were not possible until developments in evolutionary biology in the mid-20th century. Arising in the last three decades,

  11. Evolutionary Developmental Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, David C.; Bjorklund, David F.

    2000-01-01

    Describes evolutionary developmental psychology as the study of the genetic and ecological mechanisms that govern the development of social and cognitive competencies common to all human beings and the epigenetic (gene-environment interactions) processes that adapt these competencies to local conditions. Outlines basic assumptions and domains of…

  12. Origins of evolutionary transitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An `evolutionary transition in individuality' or `major transition' is a transformation in the hierarchical level at which natural selection operates on a population. In this article I give an abstract (i.e. level-neutral and substrate-neutral) articulation of the transition process in order to precisely understand how such processes can ...

  13. Evolutionary Theory under Fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Roger

    1980-01-01

    Summarizes events of a conference on evolutionary biology in Chicago entitled: "Macroevolution." Reviews the theory of modern synthesis, a term used to explain Darwinism in terms of population biology and genetics. Issues presented at the conference are discussed in detail. (CS)

  14. Evolutionary Theories of Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch, J P

    2005-04-29

    Current, mid-term and long range technologies for detection of pathogens and toxins are briefly described in the context of performance metrics and operational scenarios. Predictive (evolutionary) and speculative (revolutionary) assessments are given with trade-offs identified, where possible, among competing performance goals.

  15. Canalization of the evolutionary trajectory of the human influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Trevor; Rambaut, Andrew; Pascual, Mercedes

    2012-04-30

    Since its emergence in 1968, influenza A (H3N2) has evolved extensively in genotype and antigenic phenotype. However, despite strong pressure to evolve away from human immunity and to diversify in antigenic phenotype, H3N2 influenza shows paradoxically limited genetic and antigenic diversity present at any one time. Here, we propose a simple model of antigenic evolution in the influenza virus that accounts for this apparent discrepancy. In this model, antigenic phenotype is represented by a N-dimensional vector, and virus mutations perturb phenotype within this continuous Euclidean space. We implement this model in a large-scale individual-based simulation, and in doing so, we find a remarkable correspondence between model behavior and observed influenza dynamics. This model displays rapid evolution but low standing diversity and simultaneously accounts for the epidemiological, genetic, antigenic, and geographical patterns displayed by the virus. We find that evolution away from existing human immunity results in rapid population turnover in the influenza virus and that this population turnover occurs primarily along a single antigenic axis. Selective dynamics induce a canalized evolutionary trajectory, in which the evolutionary fate of the influenza population is surprisingly repeatable. In the model, the influenza population shows a 1- to 2-year timescale of repeatability, suggesting a window in which evolutionary dynamics could be, in theory, predictable.

  16. Phenotypic Divergence in the Reproductive Traits of Marbled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Leptoscarus vaigiensis, fishing pressure, fecundity, evolutionary response, MPAs, Kenya. Abstract — Phenotypic divergence in the reproductive traits of marbled parrotfish. (Leptoscarus vaigiensis) was studied during May 2011-April 2012 at six reef sites exposed to varying levels of fishing pressure in coastal ...

  17. Evolutionary Thinking in Environmental Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Evolutionary and environmental economics have a potentially close relationship. This paper reviews past and identifies potential applications of evolutionary concepts and methods to environmental economics. This covers a number of themes: resource use and ecosystem management; growth and

  18. Evolutionary plant physiology: Charles Darwin's forgotten synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Niklas, Karl J.

    2009-11-01

    Charles Darwin dedicated more than 20 years of his life to a variety of investigations on higher plants (angiosperms). It has been implicitly assumed that these studies in the fields of descriptive botany and experimental plant physiology were carried out to corroborate his principle of descent with modification. However, Darwin’s son Francis, who was a professional plant biologist, pointed out that the interests of his father were both of a physiological and an evolutionary nature. In this article, we describe Darwin’s work on the physiology of higher plants from a modern perspective, with reference to the following topics: circumnutations, tropisms and the endogenous oscillator model; the evolutionary patterns of auxin action; the root-brain hypothesis; phloem structure and photosynthesis research; endosymbioses and growth-promoting bacteria; photomorphogenesis and phenotypic plasticity; basal metabolic rate, the Pfeffer-Kleiber relationship and metabolic optimality theory with respect to adaptive evolution; and developmental constraints versus functional equivalence in relationship to directional natural selection. Based on a review of these various fields of inquiry, we deduce the existence of a Darwinian (evolutionary) approach to plant physiology and define this emerging scientific discipline as the experimental study and theoretical analysis of the functions of green, sessile organisms from a phylogenetic perspective.

  19. Ecological interactions drive evolutionary loss of traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellers, Jacintha; Kiers, E Toby; Currie, Cameron R; McDonald, Bradon R; Visser, Bertanne

    2012-10-01

    Loss of traits can dramatically alter the fate of species. Evidence is rapidly accumulating that the prevalence of trait loss is grossly underestimated. New findings demonstrate that traits can be lost without affecting the external phenotype, provided the lost function is compensated for by species interactions. This is important because trait loss can tighten the ecological relationship between partners, affecting the maintenance of species interactions. Here, we develop a new perspective on so-called `compensated trait loss' and how this type of trait loss may affect the evolutionary dynamics between interacting organisms. We argue that: (1) the frequency of compensated trait loss is currently underestimated because it can go unnoticed as long as ecological interactions are maintained; (2) by analysing known cases of trait loss, specific factors promoting compensated trait loss can be identified and (3) genomic sequencing is a key way forwards in detecting compensated trait loss. We present a comprehensive literature survey showing that compensated trait loss is taxonomically widespread, can involve essential traits, and often occurs as replicated evolutionary events. Despite its hidden nature, compensated trait loss is important in directing evolutionary dynamics of ecological relationships and has the potential to change facultative ecological interactions into obligatory ones. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  20. Incorporating evolutionary processes into population viability models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Jennifer C; Beissinger, Steven R; Bragg, Jason G; Coates, David J; Oostermeijer, J Gerard B; Sunnucks, Paul; Schumaker, Nathan H; Trotter, Meredith V; Young, Andrew G

    2015-06-01

    We examined how ecological and evolutionary (eco-evo) processes in population dynamics could be better integrated into population viability analysis (PVA). Complementary advances in computation and population genomics can be combined into an eco-evo PVA to offer powerful new approaches to understand the influence of evolutionary processes on population persistence. We developed the mechanistic basis of an eco-evo PVA using individual-based models with individual-level genotype tracking and dynamic genotype-phenotype mapping to model emergent population-level effects, such as local adaptation and genetic rescue. We then outline how genomics can allow or improve parameter estimation for PVA models by providing genotypic information at large numbers of loci for neutral and functional genome regions. As climate change and other threatening processes increase in rate and scale, eco-evo PVAs will become essential research tools to evaluate the effects of adaptive potential, evolutionary rescue, and locally adapted traits on persistence. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. The evolutionary ecology of the Lygaeidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdfield-Steel, Emily R; Shuker, David M

    2014-01-01

    The Lygaeidae (sensu lato) are a highly successful family of true bugs found worldwide, yet many aspects of their ecology and evolution remain obscure or unknown. While a few species have attracted considerable attention as model species for the study of insect physiology, it is only relatively recently that biologists have begun to explore aspects of their behavior, life history evolution, and patterns of intra- and interspecific ecological interactions across more species. As a result though, a range of new phenotypes and opportunities for addressing current questions in evolutionary ecology has been uncovered. For example, researchers have revealed hitherto unexpectedly rich patterns of bacterial symbiosis, begun to explore the evolutionary function of the family's complex genitalia, and also found evidence of parthenogenesis. Here we review our current understanding of the biology and ecology of the group as a whole, focusing on several of the best-studied characteristics of the group, including aposematism (i.e., the evolution of warning coloration), chemical communication, sexual selection (especially, postcopulatory sexual selection), sexual conflict, and patterns of host-endosymbiont coevolution. Importantly, many of these aspects of lygaeid biology are likely to interact, offering new avenues for research, for instance into how the evolution of aposematism influences sexual selection. With the growing availability of genomic tools for previously “non-model” organisms, combined with the relative ease of keeping many of the polyphagous species in the laboratory, we argue that these bugs offer many opportunities for behavioral and evolutionary ecologists. PMID:25360267

  2. Molecular identification of four phenotypes of human Demodex in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li; Zhao, Ya-E; Cheng, Juan; Ma, Jun-Xian

    2014-07-01

    Traditional classification of Demodex mites by hosts and phenotypic characteristics is defective because of environmental influences. In this study, we proposed molecular identification of four phenotypes of two human Demodex species based on mitochondrial cox1 fragments for the first time. Mites collected from sufferers' facial skin were classified into four phenotypes: phenotype A-C with finger-like terminus, and phenotype D with cone-like terminus. The results of molecular data showed that cox1 sequences were all 429 bp. Divergences, genetic distances and transition/transversion ratios among the three phenotypes with finger-like terminus were 0.0-3.0%, 0.000-0.031, and 6/3-5/0, respectively, in line with intraspecific differences. However, those measures between the phenotype with cone-like terminus and phenotypes with finger-like terminus were 19.6-20.5%, 0.256-0.271, and 0.58 (31/53)-0.66 (35/53), respectively, reaching interspecific level. Phylogenetic trees also showed that the three phenotypes with finger-like terminus clustered as one clade, and the phenotype with cone-like terminus formed another one. Therefore, we conclude that mitochondrial cox1 sequence is a good marker for identification of two human Demodex species. Molecular data indicate no subspecies differentiation. Terminus is an effective character for species identification. Mites with finger-like terminus are Demodex folliculorum, and those with cone-like terminus are Demodex brevis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Orchestra of Change: Strategically Harmonizing National Character, Military Forces, and the Character of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    national character, and the character of war cost the United States much blood and treasure over the last decade-and-a-half, but could be catastrophic if...remained wedded to parochial separations of infantry, armor, cavalry, and artillery.35 Parochial separations widened into broad chasms of...military forces remained wedded to industrial ways and ends. The resultant discord with the nation and the character of war led to significant

  4. Leading Character?s Antisocial Personality Disorder In James B Stewart?s Blind Eye

    OpenAIRE

    Lestari, Ayu

    2016-01-01

    110705043 The title of this thesis isLeading Character?s Antisocial Personality Disorder in James B Stewart?s Blind Eyethat is research about antisocial personality of leading character in the novel, namely Dr. Michael Swango. The purpose of this thesis is to find out characteristic of Swango that show he has antisocial personality disorder and to know the causes of his disorder. The writer refers to theory antisocial personality disorder that take in a research of APA (American Psychiatri...

  5. Acquisition of Chinese characters: the effects of character properties and individual differences among second language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Li-Jen; Kim, Tae-Jin; Yang, Xinyuan; Li, Huiwen; Liu, Yan; Wang, Haixia; Hyun Park, Jeong; Li, Ying

    2015-01-01

    In light of the dramatic growth of Chinese learners worldwide and a need for cross-linguistic research on Chinese literacy development, this study drew upon theories of visual complexity effect (Su and Samuels, 2010) and dual-coding processing (Sadoski and Paivio, 2013) and investigated (a) the effects of character properties (i.e., visual complexity and radical presence) on character acquisition and (b) the relationship between individual learner differences in radical awareness and character acquisition. Participants included adolescent English-speaking beginning learners of Chinese in the U.S. Following Kuo et al. (2014), a novel character acquisition task was used to investigate the process of acquiring the meaning of new characters. Results showed that (a) characters with radicals and with less visual complexity were easier to acquire than characters without radicals and with greater visual complexity; and (b) individual differences in radical awareness were associated with the acquisition of all types of characters, but the association was more pronounced with the acquisition of characters with radicals. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings were discussed.

  6. Acquisition of Chinese characters: The effects of character properties and individual differences among second language learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Jen eKuo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In light of the dramatic growth of Chinese learners worldwide and a need for cross-linguistic research on Chinese literacy development, this study drew upon theories of visual complexity effect (Su & Samuels, 2010 and dual-coding processing (Sadoski & Paivio, 2013 and investigated a the effects of character properties (i.e., visual complexity and radical presence on character acquisition and b the relationship between individual learner differences in radical awareness and character acquisition. Participants included adolescent English-speaking beginning learners of Chinese in the U.S. Following Kuo et al. (2014, a novel character acquisition task was used to investigate the process of acquiring the meaning of new characters. Results showed that a characters with radicals and with less visual complexity were easier to acquire than characters without radicals and with greater visual complexity; and b individual differences in radical awareness were associated with the acquisition of all types of characters, but the association was more pronounced with the acquisition of characters with radicals. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings were discussed.

  7. Genome sequencing reveals loci under artificial selection that underlie disease phenotypes in the laboratory rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atanur, S.S.; Diaz, A.G.; Maratou, K.; Sarkis, A.; Rotival, M.; Game, L.; Tschannen, M.R.; Kaisaki, P.J.; Otto, G.W.; Ma, M.C.; Keane, T.M.; Hummel, O.; Saar, K.; Chen, W.; Guryev, V.; Gopalakrishnan, K.; Garrett, M.R.; Joe, B.; Citterio, L.; Bianchi, G.; McBride, M.; Dominiczak, A.; Adams, D.J.; Serikawa, T.; Flicek, P.; Cuppen, E.; Hubner, N.; Petretto, E.; Gauguier, D.; Kwitek, A.; Jacob, H.; Aitman, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    Large numbers of inbred laboratory rat strains have been developed for a range of complex disease phenotypes. To gain insights into the evolutionary pressures underlying selection for these phenotypes, we sequenced the genomes of 27 rat strains, including 11 models of hypertension, diabetes, and

  8. Positional RNA-Seq identifies candidate genes for phenotypic engineering of sexual traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arbore, Roberto; Sekii, Kiyono; Beisel, Christian; Ladurner, Peter; Berezikov, Eugene; Schaerer, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: RNA interference (RNAi) of trait-specific genes permits the manipulation of specific phenotypic traits ("phenotypic engineering") and thus represents a powerful tool to test trait function in evolutionary studies. The identification of suitable candidate genes, however, often relies on

  9. Genome Sequencing Reveals Loci under Artificial Selection that Underlie Disease Phenotypes in the Laboratory Rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atanur, Santosh S.; Diaz, Ana Garcia; Maratou, Klio; Sarkis, Allison; Rotival, Maxime; Game, Laurence; Tschannen, Michael R.; Kaisaki, Pamela J.; Otto, Georg W.; Ma, Man Chun John; Keane, Thomas M.; Hummel, Oliver; Saar, Kathrin; Chen, Wei; Guryev, Victor; Gopalakrishnan, Kathirvel; Garrett, Michael R.; Joe, Bina; Citterio, Lorena; Bianchi, Giuseppe; McBride, Martin; Dominiczak, Anna; Adams, David J.; Serikawa, Tadao; Flicek, Paul; Cuppen, Edwin; Hubner, Norbert; Petretto, Enrico; Gauguier, Dominique; Kwitek, Anne; Jacob, Howard; Aitman, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Large numbers of inbred laboratory rat strains have been developed for a range of complex disease phenotypes. To gain insights into the evolutionary pressures underlying selection for these phenotypes, we sequenced the genomes of 27 rat strains, including 11 models of hypertension, diabetes, and

  10. Environmental fluctuations and their consequences for the evolution of phenotypic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Miguel A.; Ferrada, Evandro

    2017-05-01

    An essential aspect of the current theory of adaptive speciation is the maintenance of phenotypic variation and the evolution of stationary stable phenotypic diversity, a phenomenon known as evolutionary branching. Theoretical and empirical evidence suggest that phenotypic variation can be maintained by favoring rare phenotypes, for example, through frequency-dependent selection. However, even when phenotypic variation is provided, the conditions leading to evolutionary branching are not universal. In order to lead to stable diversification, current models of adaptive speciation, such as the Lotka-Volterra competition model, must resort to strong assumptions that range from using unrealistic shape parameters for the competition and carrying capacity functions, modeling separately the generation of discontinuities in niche space, to increasing the dimensionality of phenotypic traits. Here, we introduce a stochastic version of the Lotka-Volterra competition model. We demonstrate that environmental fluctuations suffice to lead consistently to phenotypic diversification and evolutionary branching. Our observations build upon previous findings identifying a role for stochastic fluctuations on the evolution of phenotypic diversity, emphasize the difference between strong versus weak assumptions in the stability of the LVC model, and suggest that the conditions for evolutionary branching are more relaxed than anticipated.

  11. Post processing for offline Chinese handwritten character string recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, YanWei; Ding, XiaoQing; Liu, ChangSong

    2012-01-01

    Offline Chinese handwritten character string recognition is one of the most important research fields in pattern recognition. Due to the free writing style, large variability in character shapes and different geometric characteristics, Chinese handwritten character string recognition is a challenging problem to deal with. However, among the current methods over-segmentation and merging method which integrates geometric information, character recognition information and contextual information, shows a promising result. It is found experimentally that a large part of errors are segmentation error and mainly occur around non-Chinese characters. In a Chinese character string, there are not only wide characters namely Chinese characters, but also narrow characters like digits and letters of the alphabet. The segmentation error is mainly caused by uniform geometric model imposed on all segmented candidate characters. To solve this problem, post processing is employed to improve recognition accuracy of narrow characters. On one hand, multi-geometric models are established for wide characters and narrow characters respectively. Under multi-geometric models narrow characters are not prone to be merged. On the other hand, top rank recognition results of candidate paths are integrated to boost final recognition of narrow characters. The post processing method is investigated on two datasets, in total 1405 handwritten address strings. The wide character recognition accuracy has been improved lightly and narrow character recognition accuracy has been increased up by 10.41% and 10.03% respectively. It indicates that the post processing method is effective to improve recognition accuracy of narrow characters.

  12. Relationship among phenotypic plasticity, phenotypic fluctuations ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-09-04

    Sep 4, 2009 ... ... and evolution speed is obtained. The correlation between developmental robustness to noise and evolutionary robustness to mutation is analysed by simulations of the gene network model. These results provide quantitative formulation on canalization and genetic assimilation, in terms of fluctuations of ...

  13. [Morphologic variation of the parthenogenetic lizard Aspidoscelis rodecki (Squamata: Teiidae): evolutionary and conservation implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizalde-Rocha, Sandra P; Méndez-de la Cruz, Fausto R; Méndez-Sánchez, J Fernando; Granados-González, Gisela; Hernândez-Gallegos, Oswaldo

    2008-12-01

    Post-formational divergence has been used for the recognition of new parthenogenetic species. Currently, the parthenogenetic lizard Aspidoscelis rodecki McCoy and Maslin 1962 is recognized as a single taxon that was derived from a single, parthenogenetically capable, hybrid. This lizard had been derived via hybridization between individuals of two gonochoristic species, Aspidoscelis ungusticeps Cope 1878 and Aspidoscelis deppii Wiegmann 1834. The distribution of A. rodecki includes Isla Contoy and Isla Mujeres and the adjacent mainland of Quintana Roo, México. Previous studies have found post-formational divergence in genetic, chromatic and life-history characteristics among a continental population (Puerto Juárez) and an insular population (Isla Contoy). A meristic analysis was carried out to evaluate the morphological divergence among both populations of A. rodecki. We used 38 individuals from Puerto Juárez and 23 individuals from Isla Contoy. Nine meristic characters with discrimination value among species of the genus Aspidoscelis were used in both univariate (t-Student) and multivariate analyses (principal components and canonical variate analysis). According to both analyses, Puerto Juárez is meristically distinguishable from Isla Contoy. Both populations differ in five meristic characters and were a high correct classification in the canonical variate analysis: 97% of Puerto Juárez and 100% of Isla Contoy. A small sample from Isla Mujeres and a single specimen from Punta Sam (mainland) may represent different morphological groups. Due to the patterns of phenotypic variation, A. rodecki is considered as a single variable parthenogenetic species with high priority to conservation. The populations of A. rodecki have been extremely affected by the tourism developers. If the habitat of the parthenogenetic lizard (beach grasses) is allowed to stay, the expansion by the developers will not affect the survivorship of these populations. Nevertheless, the first

  14. Benchmark for license plate character segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Gabriel Resende; da Silva, Sirlene Pio Gomes; Menotti, David; Shwartz, William Robson

    2016-09-01

    Automatic license plate recognition (ALPR) has been the focus of many researches in the past years. In general, ALPR is divided into the following problems: detection of on-track vehicles, license plate detection, segmentation of license plate characters, and optical character recognition (OCR). Even though commercial solutions are available for controlled acquisition conditions, e.g., the entrance of a parking lot, ALPR is still an open problem when dealing with data acquired from uncontrolled environments, such as roads and highways when relying only on imaging sensors. Due to the multiple orientations and scales of the license plates captured by the camera, a very challenging task of the ALPR is the license plate character segmentation (LPCS) step, because its effectiveness is required to be (near) optimal to achieve a high recognition rate by the OCR. To tackle the LPCS problem, this work proposes a benchmark composed of a dataset designed to focus specifically on the character segmentation step of the ALPR within an evaluation protocol. Furthermore, we propose the Jaccard-centroid coefficient, an evaluation measure more suitable than the Jaccard coefficient regarding the location of the bounding box within the ground-truth annotation. The dataset is composed of 2000 Brazilian license plates consisting of 14000 alphanumeric symbols and their corresponding bounding box annotations. We also present a straightforward approach to perform LPCS efficiently. Finally, we provide an experimental evaluation for the dataset based on five LPCS approaches and demonstrate the importance of character segmentation for achieving an accurate OCR.

  15. Character superimposition inpainting in surveillance video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lili; Tao, Junjie; You, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Video surveillance systems play an important role in the crime scene investigation, and the digital surveillance system always requires the superimposed video data being subjected to a data compression processing. The purpose of this paper is to study the use of inpainting techniques to remove the characters and inpaint the target region. We give the efficient framework including getting Character Superimposition mask, superimposition movement and inpainting the blanks. The character region is located with the manual ROI selection and varying text extractor, such as the time. The superimposed characters usually have distinguished colors from the original background, so the edges are easily detected. We use the canny operator the get the edge image. The missing information which is effect the structure of the original image is reconstructed using a structure propagating algorithm. The experiment was done with C/C++ in the vs2010 KDE. The framework of this paper showed is powerful to recreate the character superimposition region and helpful to the crime scene investigation.

  16. The extended evolutionary synthesis: its structure, assumptions and predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laland, Kevin N; Uller, Tobias; Feldman, Marcus W; Sterelny, Kim; Müller, Gerd B; Moczek, Armin; Jablonka, Eva; Odling-Smee, John

    2015-08-22

    Scientific activities take place within the structured sets of ideas and assumptions that define a field and its practices. The conceptual framework of evolutionary biology emerged with the Modern Synthesis in the early twentieth century and has since expanded into a highly successful research program to explore the processes of diversification and adaptation. Nonetheless, the ability of that framework satisfactorily to accommodate the rapid advances in developmental biology, genomics and ecology has been questioned. We review some of these arguments, focusing on literatures (evo-devo, developmental plasticity, inclusive inheritance and niche construction) whose implications for evolution can be interpreted in two ways—one that preserves the internal structure of contemporary evolutionary theory and one that points towards an alternative conceptual framework. The latter, which we label the 'extended evolutionary synthesis' (EES), retains the fundaments of evolutionary theory, but differs in its emphasis on the role of constructive processes in development and evolution, and reciprocal portrayals of causation. In the EES, developmental processes, operating through developmental bias, inclusive inheritance and niche construction, share responsibility for the direction and rate of evolution, the origin of character variation and organism-environment complementarity. We spell out the structure, core assumptions and novel predictions of the EES, and show how it can be deployed to stimulate and advance research in those fields that study or use evolutionary biology. © 2015 The Author(s).

  17. The extended evolutionary synthesis: its structure, assumptions and predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laland, Kevin N.; Uller, Tobias; Feldman, Marcus W.; Sterelny, Kim; Müller, Gerd B.; Moczek, Armin; Jablonka, Eva; Odling-Smee, John

    2015-01-01

    Scientific activities take place within the structured sets of ideas and assumptions that define a field and its practices. The conceptual framework of evolutionary biology emerged with the Modern Synthesis in the early twentieth century and has since expanded into a highly successful research program to explore the processes of diversification and adaptation. Nonetheless, the ability of that framework satisfactorily to accommodate the rapid advances in developmental biology, genomics and ecology has been questioned. We review some of these arguments, focusing on literatures (evo-devo, developmental plasticity, inclusive inheritance and niche construction) whose implications for evolution can be interpreted in two ways—one that preserves the internal structure of contemporary evolutionary theory and one that points towards an alternative conceptual framework. The latter, which we label the ‘extended evolutionary synthesis' (EES), retains the fundaments of evolutionary theory, but differs in its emphasis on the role of constructive processes in development and evolution, and reciprocal portrayals of causation. In the EES, developmental processes, operating through developmental bias, inclusive inheritance and niche construction, share responsibility for the direction and rate of evolution, the origin of character variation and organism–environment complementarity. We spell out the structure, core assumptions and novel predictions of the EES, and show how it can be deployed to stimulate and advance research in those fields that study or use evolutionary biology. PMID:26246559

  18. Applying evolutionary concepts to wildlife disease ecology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Wal, Eric; Garant, Dany; Calmé, Sophie; Chapman, Colin A; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Millien, Virginie; Rioux-Paquette, Sébastien; Pelletier, Fanie

    2014-08-01

    Existing and emerging infectious diseases are among the most pressing global threats to biodiversity, food safety and human health. The complex interplay between host, pathogen and environment creates a challenge for conserving species, communities and ecosystem functions, while mediating the many known ecological and socio-economic negative effects of disease. Despite the clear ecological and evolutionary contexts of host-pathogen dynamics, approaches to managing wildlife disease remain predominantly reactionary, focusing on surveillance and some attempts at eradication. A few exceptional studies have heeded recent calls for better integration of ecological concepts in the study and management of wildlife disease; however, evolutionary concepts remain underused. Applied evolution consists of four principles: evolutionary history, genetic and phenotypic variation, selection and eco-evolutionary dynamics. In this article, we first update a classical framework for understanding wildlife disease to integrate better these principles. Within this framework, we explore the evolutionary implications of environment-disease interactions. Subsequently, we synthesize areas where applied evolution can be employed in wildlife disease management. Finally, we discuss some future directions and challenges. Here, we underscore that despite some evolutionary principles currently playing an important role in our understanding of disease in wild animals, considerable opportunities remain for fostering the practice of evolutionarily enlightened wildlife disease management.

  19. Papillomaviruses: Viral evolution, cancer and evolutionary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Ignacio G; Félez-Sánchez, Marta

    2015-01-28

    Papillomaviruses (PVs) are a numerous family of small dsDNA viruses infecting virtually all mammals. PVs cause infections without triggering a strong immune response, and natural infection provides only limited protection against reinfection. Most PVs are part and parcel of the skin microbiota. In some cases, infections by certain PVs take diverse clinical presentations from highly productive self-limited warts to invasive cancers. We propose PVs as an excellent model system to study the evolutionary interactions between the immune system and pathogens causing chronic infections: genotypically, PVs are very diverse, with hundreds of different genotypes infecting skin and mucosa; phenotypically, they display extremely broad gradients and trade-offs between key phenotypic traits, namely productivity, immunogenicity, prevalence, oncogenicity and clinical presentation. Public health interventions have been launched to decrease the burden of PV-associated cancers, including massive vaccination against the most oncogenic human PVs, as well as systematic screening for PV chronic anogenital infections. Anti-PVs vaccines elicit protection against infection, induce cross-protection against closely related viruses and result in herd immunity. However, our knowledge on the ecological and intrapatient dynamics of PV infections remains fragmentary. We still need to understand how the novel anthropogenic selection pressures posed by vaccination and screening will affect viral circulation and epidemiology. We present here an overview of PV evolution and the connection between PV genotypes and the phenotypic, clinical manifestations of the diseases they cause. This differential link between viral evolution and the gradient cancer-warts-asymptomatic infections makes PVs a privileged playground for evolutionary medicine research. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Foundation for Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health.

  20. The evolutionary history of holometabolous insects inferred from transcriptome-based phylogeny and comprehensive morphological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite considerable progress in systematics, a comprehensive scenario of the evolution of phenotypic characters in the mega-diverse Holometabola based on a solid phylogenetic hypothesis was still missing. We addressed this issue by de novo sequencing transcriptome libraries of representatives of all orders of holometabolan insects (13 species in total) and by using a previously published extensive morphological dataset. We tested competing phylogenetic hypotheses by analyzing various specifically designed sets of amino acid sequence data, using maximum likelihood (ML) based tree inference and Four-cluster Likelihood Mapping (FcLM). By maximum parsimony-based mapping of the morphological data on the phylogenetic relationships we traced evolutionary transformations at the phenotypic level and reconstructed the groundplan of Holometabola and of selected subgroups. Results In our analysis of the amino acid sequence data of 1,343 single-copy orthologous genes, Hymenoptera are placed as sister group to all remaining holometabolan orders, i.e., to a clade Aparaglossata, comprising two monophyletic subunits Mecopterida (Amphiesmenoptera + Antliophora) and Neuropteroidea (Neuropterida + Coleopterida). The monophyly of Coleopterida (Coleoptera and Strepsiptera) remains ambiguous in the analyses of the transcriptome data, but appears likely based on the morphological data. Highly supported relationships within Neuropterida and Antliophora are Raphidioptera + (Neuroptera + monophyletic Megaloptera), and Diptera + (Siphonaptera + Mecoptera). ML tree inference and FcLM yielded largely congruent results. However, FcLM, which was applied here for the first time to large phylogenomic supermatrices, displayed additional signal in the datasets that was not identified in the ML trees. Conclusions Our phylogenetic results imply that an orthognathous larva belongs to the groundplan of Holometabola, with compound eyes and well-developed thoracic legs

  1. Evolutionary Diversification of Alanine Transaminases in Yeast: Catabolic Specialization and Biosynthetic Redundancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Escalera-Fanjul

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Gene duplication is one of the major evolutionary mechanisms providing raw material for the generation of genes with new or modified functions. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae originated after an allopolyploidization event, which involved mating between two different ancestral yeast species. ScALT1 and ScALT2 codify proteins with 65% identity, which were proposed to be paralogous alanine transaminases. Further analysis of their physiological role showed that while ScALT1 encodes an alanine transaminase which constitutes the main pathway for alanine biosynthesis and the sole pathway for alanine catabolism, ScAlt2 does not display alanine transaminase activity and is not involved in alanine metabolism. Moreover, phylogenetic studies have suggested that ScALT1 and ScALT2 come from each one of the two parental strains which gave rise to the ancestral hybrid. The present work has been aimed to the understanding of the properties of the ancestral type Lacchancea kluyveri LkALT1 and Kluyveromyces lactis KlALT1, alanine transaminases in order to better understand the ScALT1 and ScALT2 evolutionary history. These ancestral -type species were chosen since they harbor ALT1 genes, which are related to ScALT2. Presented results show that, although LkALT1 and KlALT1 constitute ScALT1 orthologous genes, encoding alanine transaminases, both yeasts display LkAlt1 and KlAlt1 independent alanine transaminase activity and additional unidentified alanine biosynthetic and catabolic pathway(s. Furthermore, phenotypic analysis of null mutants uncovered the fact that KlAlt1 and LkAlt1 have an additional role, not related to alanine metabolism but is necessary to achieve wild type growth rate. Our study shows that the ancestral alanine transaminase function has been retained by the ScALT1 encoded enzyme, which has specialized its catabolic character, while losing the alanine independent role observed in the ancestral type enzymes. The fact that ScAlt2 conserves 64

  2. The evolutionary history of holometabolous insects inferred from transcriptome-based phylogeny and comprehensive morphological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ralph S; Meusemann, Karen; Petersen, Malte; Mayer, Christoph; Wilbrandt, Jeanne; Ziesmann, Tanja; Donath, Alexander; Kjer, Karl M; Aspöck, Ulrike; Aspöck, Horst; Aberer, Andre; Stamatakis, Alexandros; Friedrich, Frank; Hünefeld, Frank; Niehuis, Oliver; Beutel, Rolf G; Misof, Bernhard

    2014-03-20

    Despite considerable progress in systematics, a comprehensive scenario of the evolution of phenotypic characters in the mega-diverse Holometabola based on a solid phylogenetic hypothesis was still missing. We addressed this issue by de novo sequencing transcriptome libraries of representatives of all orders of holometabolan insects (13 species in total) and by using a previously published extensive morphological dataset. We tested competing phylogenetic hypotheses by analyzing various specifically designed sets of amino acid sequence data, using maximum likelihood (ML) based tree inference and Four-cluster Likelihood Mapping (FcLM). By maximum parsimony-based mapping of the morphological data on the phylogenetic relationships we traced evolutionary transformations at the phenotypic level and reconstructed the groundplan of Holometabola and of selected subgroups. In our analysis of the amino acid sequence data of 1,343 single-copy orthologous genes, Hymenoptera are placed as sister group to all remaining holometabolan orders, i.e., to a clade Aparaglossata, comprising two monophyletic subunits Mecopterida (Amphiesmenoptera + Antliophora) and Neuropteroidea (Neuropterida + Coleopterida). The monophyly of Coleopterida (Coleoptera and Strepsiptera) remains ambiguous in the analyses of the transcriptome data, but appears likely based on the morphological data. Highly supported relationships within Neuropterida and Antliophora are Raphidioptera + (Neuroptera + monophyletic Megaloptera), and Diptera + (Siphonaptera + Mecoptera). ML tree inference and FcLM yielded largely congruent results. However, FcLM, which was applied here for the first time to large phylogenomic supermatrices, displayed additional signal in the datasets that was not identified in the ML trees. Our phylogenetic results imply that an orthognathous larva belongs to the groundplan of Holometabola, with compound eyes and well-developed thoracic legs, externally feeding on plants or

  3. Studies in evolutionary agroecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wille, Wibke

    Darwinian evolution by natural selection is driven primarily by differential survival and reproduction among individuals in a population. When the evolutionary interest of an individual is in conflict with the interests of the population, the genes increasing individual fitness at the cost...... performance are not in conflict, it is unlikely that plant breeding can radically improve the results of millions of years of evolution through natural selection. However, efforts to improve crops can be very successful, when breeding is directed towards goals diverging from natural selection. The potential...... of Evolutionary Agroecology that the highest yielding individuals do not necessarily perform best as a population. The investment of resources into strategies and structures increasing individual competitive ability carries a cost. If a whole population consists of individuals investing resources to compete...

  4. Evolutionary constrained optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Deb, Kalyanmoy

    2015-01-01

    This book makes available a self-contained collection of modern research addressing the general constrained optimization problems using evolutionary algorithms. Broadly the topics covered include constraint handling for single and multi-objective optimizations; penalty function based methodology; multi-objective based methodology; new constraint handling mechanism; hybrid methodology; scaling issues in constrained optimization; design of scalable test problems; parameter adaptation in constrained optimization; handling of integer, discrete and mix variables in addition to continuous variables; application of constraint handling techniques to real-world problems; and constrained optimization in dynamic environment. There is also a separate chapter on hybrid optimization, which is gaining lots of popularity nowadays due to its capability of bridging the gap between evolutionary and classical optimization. The material in the book is useful to researchers, novice, and experts alike. The book will also be useful...

  5. Anxiety: an evolutionary approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Bateson, M; Brilot, B; Nettle, D.

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most common mental illnesses, with huge attendant suffering. Current treatments are not universally effective, suggesting that a deeper understanding of the causes of anxiety is needed. To understand anxiety disorders better, it is first necessary to understand the normal anxiety response. This entails considering its evolutionary function as well as the mechanisms underlying it. We argue that the function of the human anxiety response, and homologues in other ...

  6. APLIKASI SPOKES-CHARACTERS DALAM KAITAN DENGAN MEREK PRODUK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Widjoyo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Advertisement by using spokes-characters have potency to alter the choice of consumer brand with the compared to bigger impact which do not use the spokes-character. A lot of producer which hence spokes-character to increase assess to sell from a product. Spokes-Characters experience of the evolution from time to time keep abreast of the era%2C now emerge the new type of spokes-character and its application. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Iklan dengan spokes-characters berpotensi mengubah pilihan merek konsumen dengan dampak lebih besar dibanding yang tidak menggunakan spokes-character. Banyak produsen yang memakai spokes-character untuk meningkatkan nilai jual dari sebuah produk. Spokes-characters mengalami evolusi dari masa ke masa mengikuti perkembangan jaman%2C sekarang muncul jenis baru spokes-character dan aplikasinya. spokes-characters%2C advertising%2C branding.

  7. Asymmetric Evolutionary Games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex McAvoy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary game theory is a powerful framework for studying evolution in populations of interacting individuals. A common assumption in evolutionary game theory is that interactions are symmetric, which means that the players are distinguished by only their strategies. In nature, however, the microscopic interactions between players are nearly always asymmetric due to environmental effects, differing baseline characteristics, and other possible sources of heterogeneity. To model these phenomena, we introduce into evolutionary game theory two broad classes of asymmetric interactions: ecological and genotypic. Ecological asymmetry results from variation in the environments of the players, while genotypic asymmetry is a consequence of the players having differing baseline genotypes. We develop a theory of these forms of asymmetry for games in structured populations and use the classical social dilemmas, the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Snowdrift Game, for illustrations. Interestingly, asymmetric games reveal essential differences between models of genetic evolution based on reproduction and models of cultural evolution based on imitation that are not apparent in symmetric games.

  8. Evolutionary theory and teleology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, R T

    1984-04-21

    The order within and among living systems can be explained rationally by postulating a process of descent with modification, effected by factors which are extrinsic or intrinsic to the organisms. Because at the time Darwin proposed his theory of evolution there was no concept of intrinsic factors which could evolve, he postulated a process of extrinsic effects--natural selection. Biological order was thus seen as an imposed, rather than an emergent, property. Evolutionary change was seen as being determined by the functional efficiency (adaptedness) of the organism in its environment, rather than by spontaneous changes in intrinsically generated organizing factors. The initial incompleteness of Darwin's explanatory model, and the axiomatization of its postulates in neo-Darwinism, has resulted in a theory of functionalism, rather than structuralism. As such, it introduces an unnecessary teleology which confounds evolutionary studies and reduces the usefulness of the theory. This problem cannot be detected from within the neo-Darwinian paradigm because the different levels of end-directed activity--teleomatic, teleonomic, and teleological--are not recognized. They are, in fact, considered to influence one another. The theory of nonequilibrium evolution avoids these problems by returning to the basic principles of biological order and developing a structuralist explanation of intrinsically generated change. Extrinsic factors may affect the resultant evolutionary pattern, but they are neither necessary nor sufficient for evolution to occur.

  9. Evolutionary mysteries in meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenormand, Thomas; Engelstädter, Jan; Johnston, Susan E; Wijnker, Erik; Haag, Christoph R

    2016-10-19

    Meiosis is a key event of sexual life cycles in eukaryotes. Its mechanistic details have been uncovered in several model organisms, and most of its essential features have received various and often contradictory evolutionary interpretations. In this perspective, we present an overview of these often 'weird' features. We discuss the origin of meiosis (origin of ploidy reduction and recombination, two-step meiosis), its secondary modifications (in polyploids or asexuals, inverted meiosis), its importance in punctuating life cycles (meiotic arrests, epigenetic resetting, meiotic asymmetry, meiotic fairness) and features associated with recombination (disjunction constraints, heterochiasmy, crossover interference and hotspots). We present the various evolutionary scenarios and selective pressures that have been proposed to account for these features, and we highlight that their evolutionary significance often remains largely mysterious. Resolving these mysteries will likely provide decisive steps towards understanding why sex and recombination are found in the majority of eukaryotes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Weird sex: the underappreciated diversity of sexual reproduction'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Asymmetric Evolutionary Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAvoy, Alex; Hauert, Christoph

    2015-08-01

    Evolutionary game theory is a powerful framework for studying evolution in populations of interacting individuals. A common assumption in evolutionary game theory is that interactions are symmetric, which means that the players are distinguished by only their strategies. In nature, however, the microscopic interactions between players are nearly always asymmetric due to environmental effects, differing baseline characteristics, and other possible sources of heterogeneity. To model these phenomena, we introduce into evolutionary game theory two broad classes of asymmetric interactions: ecological and genotypic. Ecological asymmetry results from variation in the environments of the players, while genotypic asymmetry is a consequence of the players having differing baseline genotypes. We develop a theory of these forms of asymmetry for games in structured populations and use the classical social dilemmas, the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Snowdrift Game, for illustrations. Interestingly, asymmetric games reveal essential differences between models of genetic evolution based on reproduction and models of cultural evolution based on imitation that are not apparent in symmetric games.

  11. The evolutionary position of turtles revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardoya, Rafael; Meyer, Axel

    2001-05-01

    Consensus on the evolutionary position of turtles within the amniote phylogeny has eluded evolutionary biologists for more than a century. This phylogenetic problem has remained unsolved partly because turtles have such a unique morphology that only few characters can be used to link them with any other group of amniotes. Among the many alternative hypotheses that have been postulated to explain the origin and phylogenetic relationships of turtles, a general agreement among paleontologists emerged in favoring the placement of turtles as the only living survivors of the anapsid reptiles (those that lack temporal fenestrae in the skull). However, recent morphological and molecular studies have radically changed our view of amniote phylogenetic relationships, and evidence is accumulating that supports the diapsid affinities of turtles. Molecular studies favor archosaurs (crocodiles and birds) as the living sister group of turtles, whereas morphological studies support lepidosaurs (tuatara, lizards, and snakes) as the closest living relatives of turtles. Accepting these hypotheses implies that turtles cannot be viewed any longer as primitive reptiles, and that they might have lost the temporal holes in the skull secondarily rather than never having had them.

  12. Conceptual Design Scheme for Virtual Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Gino; Servidio, Rocco

    The aim of this paper is to describe some theoretical considerations about virtual character design. In recent years, many prototypes of cognitive and behavioral architectures have been developed to simulate human behavior in artificial agents. Analyzing recent studies, we assume that there exists a variety of computational models and methods in order to increase the cognitive abilities of the virtual characters. In our opinion, it is necessary to perform a synthesis of these approaches in order to improve the existing models and avoiding the application of new approaches. Considering these aspects, in this paper we describe a taxonomy that explores the principal cognitive and computational parameters involved in the design, development and evaluation of a virtual character.

  13. The Inaccuracy of National Character Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Robert R; Chan, Wayne; Jussim, Lee; De Fruyt, Filip; Löckenhoff, Corinna E; De Bolle, Marleen; Costa, Paul T; Hřebíčková, Martina; Graf, Sylvie; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Yik, Michelle; Ficková, Emília; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Reátigui, Norma; de Figueora, Nora Leibovich; Schmidt, Vanina; Ahn, Chang-Kyu; Ahn, Hyun-Nie; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Cain, Thomas R; Crawford, Jarret T; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Nansubuga, Florence; Miramontez, Daniel R; Benet-Martínez, Veronica; Rossier, Jérôme; Bratko, Denis; Marušić, Iris; Halberstadt, Jamin; Yamaguchi, Mami; Knežević, Goran; Purić, Danka; Martin, Thomas A; Gheorghiu, Mirona; Smith, Peter B; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Wang, Lei; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Lima, Margarida P; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Sekowski, Andrzej; Alcalay, Lidia; Simonetti, Franco; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V; Pramila, V S; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    Consensual stereotypes of some groups are relatively accurate, whereas others are not. Previous work suggesting that national character stereotypes are inaccurate has been criticized on several grounds. In this article we (a) provide arguments for the validity of assessed national mean trait levels as criteria for evaluating stereotype accuracy; and (b) report new data on national character in 26 cultures from descriptions (N=3,323) of the typical male or female adolescent, adult, or old person in each. The average ratings were internally consistent and converged with independent stereotypes of the typical culture member, but were weakly related to objective assessments of personality. We argue that this conclusion is consistent with the broader literature on the inaccuracy of national character stereotypes.

  14. The Inaccuracy of National Character Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Robert R.; Chan, Wayne; Jussim, Lee; De Fruyt, Filip; Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; De Bolle, Marleen; Costa, Paul T.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Graf, Sylvie; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Yik, Michelle; Ficková, Emília; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Reátigui, Norma; de Figueora, Nora Leibovich; Schmidt, Vanina; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E.; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Cain, Thomas R.; Crawford, Jarret T.; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Nansubuga, Florence; Miramontez, Daniel R.; Benet-Martínez, Veronica; Rossier, Jérôme; Bratko, Denis; Marušić, Iris; Halberstadt, Jamin; Yamaguchi, Mami; Knežević, Goran; Purić, Danka; Martin, Thomas A.; Gheorghiu, Mirona; Smith, Peter B.; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Wang, Lei; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Lima, Margarida P.; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Sekowski, Andrzej; Alcalay, Lidia; Simonetti, Franco; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V.; Pramila, V. S.; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Consensual stereotypes of some groups are relatively accurate, whereas others are not. Previous work suggesting that national character stereotypes are inaccurate has been criticized on several grounds. In this article we (a) provide arguments for the validity of assessed national mean trait levels as criteria for evaluating stereotype accuracy; and (b) report new data on national character in 26 cultures from descriptions (N=3,323) of the typical male or female adolescent, adult, or old person in each. The average ratings were internally consistent and converged with independent stereotypes of the typical culture member, but were weakly related to objective assessments of personality. We argue that this conclusion is consistent with the broader literature on the inaccuracy of national character stereotypes. PMID:24187394

  15. Transliterating non-ASCII characters with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Bernstein

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This lesson shows how to use Python to transliterate automatically a list of words from a language with a non-Latin alphabet to a standardized format using the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII characters. It builds on readers’ understanding of Python from the lessons “Viewing HTML Files,” “Working with Web Pages,” “From HTML to List of Words (part 1” and “Intro to Beautiful Soup.” At the end of the lesson, we will use the transliteration dictionary to convert the names from a database of the Russian organization Memorial from Cyrillic into Latin characters. Although the example uses Cyrillic characters, the technique can be reproduced with other alphabets using Unicode.

  16. Chinese kindergartners learn to read characters analytically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Li; McBride, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    Do Chinese children implicitly extract information from Chinese print before they are formally taught to read? We examined Chinese kindergartners' sensitivity to regularities in Chinese characters and the relationship between such sensitivity and later literacy ability. Eighty-five kindergartners from Beijing were given a character-learning task and assessed on word reading and word writing twice within a 1-year interval. Sensitivity to the structural and phonetic regularities in Chinese appeared in 4-year-olds, and sensitivity to the positions of radicals in Chinese characters emerged in 5-year-olds. Such sensitivities explained unique variance in Chinese word reading and writing 1 year later, with age and nonverbal IQ statistically controlled. Young children detected regularities in written Chinese before they received formal instruction in it, which underscores both the importance of early statistical learning for literacy development and the analytic properties of Chinese print. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Psychotic symptoms in the general population - an evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ian, Kelleher; Jenner, Jack A; Cannon, Mary

    2010-09-01

    Our ideas about the intrinsically pathological nature of hallucinations and delusions are being challenged by findings from epidemiology, neuroimaging and clinical research. Population-based studies using both self-report and interview surveys show that the prevalence of psychotic symptoms is far greater than had been previously considered, prompting us to re-evaluate these psychotic symptoms and their meaning in an evolutionary context. This non-clinical phenotype may hold the key to understanding the persistence of psychosis in the population. From a neuroscientific point of view, detailed investigation of the non-clinical psychosis phenotype should provide novel leads for research into the aetiology, nosology and treatment of psychosis.

  18. Markov random field-based statistical character structure modeling for handwritten Chinese character recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jia; Liu, Zhi-Qiang

    2008-05-01

    This paper proposes a statistical-structural character modeling method based on Markov random fields (MRFs) for handwritten Chinese character recognition (HCCR). The stroke relationships of a Chinese character reflect its structure, which can be statistically represented by the neighborhood system and clique potentials within the MRF framework. Based on the prior knowledge of character structures, we design the neighborhood system that accounts for the most important stroke relationships. We penalize the structurally mismatched stroke relationships with MRFs using the prior clique potentials, and derive the likelihood clique potentials from Gaussian mixture models, which encode the large variations of stroke relationships statistically. In the proposed HCCR system, we use the single-site likelihood clique potentials to extract many candidate strokes from character images, and use the pairsite clique potentials to determine the best structural match between the input candidate strokes and the MRF-based character models by relaxation labeling. The experiments on the KAIST character database demonstrate that MRFs can statistically model character structures, and work well in the HCCR system.

  19. PHENOTYPIC DIVERSITY OF ALFALFA (MEDICAGO SATIVA L. GERMPLASM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Tucak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate phenotypic diversity in the alfalfa germplasm collections using multivariate analysis to examine the extent of genetic diversity and contribution of selected characters to the total diversity and finally to select the most promising clusters/populations for further breeding work. Forty alfalfa populations/cultivars of different geographical origin were evaluated for 12 agro-morphological characters during two consecutive years. The populations/ cultivars were grouped into six clusters. In most cases populations/cultivars within clusters were not associated with their geographical origin. Intercluster distances were larger than the intracluster ones. This research revealed a broad phenotypic diversity within and between the alfalfa germplasm collections. The following characters contributed most to the total phenotypic diversity: dry matter yield in the first production year, plant height and length of central leaflet. Based on the mean value of the evaluated characters and determined distances between clusters, the most promising populations/cultivars belong to the clusters IV and V. Selected populations/cultivars could be considered as a valuable genetic material for the yield and quality improvement of alfalfa in our breeding programme.

  20. Character Apps for Children's Snacks: Effects of Character Awareness on Snack Selection and Consumption Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Marisa M; Cotto, Caroline E; Calvert, Sandra L

    2018-01-03

    Media characters are used to market snacks that are typically of poor nutritional value, which has been linked to childhood obesity. This study examines whether children's snack selections and consumption patterns are influenced by an app depicting a popular children's media character, as well as the role that children's awareness of the character plays. The results can increase our understanding of how to encourage healthier snack selection and consumption in newer game-based marketing venues, such as apps. Four- and 5-year-old children (N = 132) played a bowling game on an iPad with no character or with a character holding either healthier or unhealthy snacks. After app-play, children selected and consumed healthier or unhealthy snacks. Children's awareness of the character was measured by children's verbalizations of the character's name during or after app-play. An ordered logistic regression found no significant effect of treatment conditions compared with the control group. Within treatment conditions, awareness of the character led to selection and consumption of more healthy snacks in the healthier condition (odds ratio β = 10.340, P = 0.008), and of unhealthy snacks in the unhealthy condition (odds ratio β = 0.228, P = 0.033), but children were unaware that the character influenced their decisions. Results suggest that young children will choose and consume healthier, not just unhealthy, products when they are aware that a popular character in an app is associated with the snack, potentially leading to healthier eating patterns.

  1. C-CAT: a computer software used to analyze and select Chinese characters and character components for psychological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Ming; Hue, Chih-Wei

    2008-11-01

    The Character-Component Analysis Toolkit (C-CAT) software was designed to assist researchers in constructing experimental materials using traditional Chinese characters. The software package contains two sets of character stocks: one suitable for research using literate adults as subjects and one suitable for research using schoolchildren as subjects. The software can identify linguistic properties, such as the number of strokes contained, the character-component pronunciation regularity, and the arrangement of character components within a character. Moreover, it can compute a character's linguistic frequency, neighborhood size, and phonetic validity with respect to a user-selected character stock. It can also search the selected character stock for similar characters or for character components with user-specified linguistic properties.

  2. Individual-based modeling of ecological and evolutionary processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelis, Donald L.; Mooij, Wolf M.

    2005-01-01

    Individual-based models (IBMs) allow the explicit inclusion of individual variation in greater detail than do classical differential-equation and difference-equation models. Inclusion of such variation is important for continued progress in ecological and evolutionary theory. We provide a conceptual basis for IBMs by describing five major types of individual variation in IBMs: spatial, ontogenetic, phenotypic, cognitive, and genetic. IBMs are now used in almost all subfields of ecology and evolutionary biology. We map those subfields and look more closely at selected key papers on fish recruitment, forest dynamics, sympatric speciation, metapopulation dynamics, maintenance of diversity, and species conservation. Theorists are currently divided on whether IBMs represent only a practical tool for extending classical theory to more complex situations, or whether individual-based theory represents a radically new research program. We feel that the tension between these two poles of thinking can be a source of creativity in ecology and evolutionary theory.

  3. Evolutionary systems biology: what it is and why it matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyer, Orkun S; O'Malley, Maureen A

    2013-08-01

    Evolutionary systems biology (ESB) is a rapidly growing integrative approach that has the core aim of generating mechanistic and evolutionary understanding of genotype-phenotype relationships at multiple levels. ESB's more specific objectives include extending knowledge gained from model organisms to non-model organisms, predicting the effects of mutations, and defining the core network structures and dynamics that have evolved to cause particular intracellular and intercellular responses. By combining mathematical, molecular, and cellular approaches to evolution, ESB adds new insights and methods to the modern evolutionary synthesis, and offers ways in which to enhance its explanatory and predictive capacities. This combination of prediction and explanation marks ESB out as a research manifesto that goes further than its two contributing fields. Here, we summarize ESB via an analysis of characteristic research examples and exploratory questions, while also making a case for why these integrative efforts are worth pursuing. © 2013 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The Ecology and Evolution of Stoichiometric Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Miguel C; Seehausen, Ole; Matthews, Blake

    2017-02-01

    Ecological stoichiometry has generated new insights into how the balance of elements affects ecological interactions and ecosystem processes, but little is known about the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of stoichiometric traits. Understanding the origins and drivers of stoichiometric trait variation between and within species will improve our understanding about the ecological responses of communities to environmental change and the ecosystem effects of organisms. In addition, studying the plasticity, heritability, and genetic basis of stoichiometric traits might improve predictions about how organisms adapt to changing environmental conditions, and help to identify interactions and feedbacks between phenotypic evolution and ecosystem processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prediction of natural disasters basing of chrono-and-information field characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapunov, Valentin

    2013-04-01

    Living organisms are able to predict some future events particular catastrophic incidents. This is adaptive characters producing by evolution. The more energy produces incident the more possibility to predict one. Wild animals escaped natural hazards including tsunami (e.g. extremal tsunami in Asia December 2004). Living animals are able to predict strong phenomena of obscure nature. For example majority of animals escaped Tungus catastrophe taking place in Siberia at 1908. Wild animals are able to predict nuclear weapon experiences. The obscure characters are not typical for human, but they are fixed under probability 15%. Such were summarized by L.Vasiliev (1961). Effective theory describing such a characters is absent till now. N.Kozyrev (1991) suggested existence of unknown physical field (but gravitation and electro magnetic). The field was named "time" or "chrono". Some characters of the field appeared to be object of physical experiment. Kozyrev suggested specific role of the field for function of living organisms. Transition of biological information throw space (telepathy) and time (proscopy) may be based on characters of such a field. Hence physical chrono-and-information field is under consideration. Animals are more familiar with such a field than human. Evolutionary process experienced with possibility of extremal development of contact with such a field using highest primates. This mode of evolution appeared to stay obscure producing probable species "Wildman" (Bigfoot). Specific adaptive fitches suggest impossibility to study of such a species by usual ecological approaches. The perspective way for study of mysterious phenomena of physic is researches of this field characters.

  6. Phenotypes in phylogeography: Species’ traits, environmental variation, and vertebrate diversification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Rayna C.; Mason, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    Almost 30 y ago, the field of intraspecific phylogeography laid the foundation for spatially explicit and genealogically informed studies of population divergence. With new methods and markers, the focus in phylogeography shifted to previously unrecognized geographic genetic variation, thus reducing the attention paid to phenotypic variation in those same diverging lineages. Although phenotypic differences among lineages once provided the main data for studies of evolutionary change, the mechanisms shaping phenotypic differentiation and their integration with intraspecific genetic structure have been underexplored in phylogeographic studies. However, phenotypes are targets of selection and play important roles in species performance, recognition, and diversification. Here, we focus on three questions. First, how can phenotypes elucidate mechanisms underlying concordant or idiosyncratic responses of vertebrate species evolving in shared landscapes? Second, what mechanisms underlie the concordance or discordance of phenotypic and phylogeographic differentiation? Third, how can phylogeography contribute to our understanding of functional phenotypic evolution? We demonstrate that the integration of phenotypic data extends the reach of phylogeography to explain the origin and maintenance of biodiversity. Finally, we stress the importance of natural history collections as sources of high-quality phenotypic data that span temporal and spatial axes. PMID:27432983

  7. 8 CFR 316.10 - Good moral character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good moral character. 316.10 Section 316.10... NATURALIZATION § 316.10 Good moral character. (a) Requirement of good moral character during the statutory period... prescribed period, he or she has been and continues to be a person of good moral character. This includes the...

  8. A Developmental Study of Chinese Children's Word and Character Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Wang, Ying; Tong, Xiuhong; McBride, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between Chinese children's character and word reading, 62 third and 50 fifth grade children in Hong Kong were asked to read single characters and words that were comprised of these characters. Results showed that words helped children to recognize characters for both grades of children. Compared to older children,…

  9. Technical guide for monitoring selected conditions related to wilderness character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Landres; Steve Boutcher; Liese Dean; Troy Hall; Tamara Blett; Terry Carlson; Ann Mebane; Carol Hardy; Susan Rinehart; Linda Merigliano; David N. Cole; Andy Leach; Pam Wright; Deb Bumpus

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of monitoring wilderness character is to improve wilderness stewardship by providing managers a tool to assess how selected actions and conditions related to wilderness character are changing over time. Wilderness character monitoring provides information to help answer two key questions about wilderness character and wilderness stewardship: 1. How is...

  10. Genotype to phenotype

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Malcolm, Sue; Goodship, Timothy H. J

    2001-01-01

    ... Disorders Molecular Genetics of Hypertension Human Gene EvolutionAnalysis of Multifactorial Disease Transcription Factors Molecular Genetics of Cancer, Second edition Genotype to Phenotype, second e...

  11. Ecological and evolutionary effects of stickleback on community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Roches, Simone; Shurin, Jonathan B; Schluter, Dolph; Harmon, Luke J

    2013-01-01

    Species' ecology and evolution can have strong effects on communities. Both may change concurrently when species colonize a new ecosystem. We know little, however, about the combined effects of ecological and evolutionary change on community structure. We simultaneously examined the effects of top-predator ecology and evolution on freshwater community parameters using recently evolved generalist and specialist ecotypes of three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). We used a mesocosm experiment to directly examine the effects of ecological (fish presence and density) and evolutionary (phenotypic diversity and specialization) factors on community structure at lower trophic levels. We evaluated zooplankton biomass and composition, periphyton and phytoplankton chlorophyll-a concentration, and net primary production among treatments containing different densities and diversities of stickleback. Our results showed that both ecological and evolutionary differences in the top-predator affect different aspects of community structure and composition. Community structure, specifically the abundance of organisms at each trophic level, was affected by stickleback presence and density, whereas composition of zooplankton was influenced by stickleback diversity and specialization. Primary productivity, in terms of chlorophyll-a concentration and net primary production was affected by ecological but not evolutionary factors. Our results stress the importance of concurrently evaluating both changes in density and phenotypic diversity on the structure and composition of communities.

  12. Ecological and evolutionary effects of stickleback on community structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Des Roches

    Full Text Available Species' ecology and evolution can have strong effects on communities. Both may change concurrently when species colonize a new ecosystem. We know little, however, about the combined effects of ecological and evolutionary change on community structure. We simultaneously examined the effects of top-predator ecology and evolution on freshwater community parameters using recently evolved generalist and specialist ecotypes of three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus. We used a mesocosm experiment to directly examine the effects of ecological (fish presence and density and evolutionary (phenotypic diversity and specialization factors on community structure at lower trophic levels. We evaluated zooplankton biomass and composition, periphyton and phytoplankton chlorophyll-a concentration, and net primary production among treatments containing different densities and diversities of stickleback. Our results showed that both ecological and evolutionary differences in the top-predator affect different aspects of community structure and composition. Community structure, specifically the abundance of organisms at each trophic level, was affected by stickleback presence and density, whereas composition of zooplankton was influenced by stickleback diversity and specialization. Primary productivity, in terms of chlorophyll-a concentration and net primary production was affected by ecological but not evolutionary factors. Our results stress the importance of concurrently evaluating both changes in density and phenotypic diversity on the structure and composition of communities.

  13. Defining moments in leadership character development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    Critical moments in life define one's character and clarify true values. Reflective leadership is espoused as an important practice for transformational leaders. Professional development educators can help surface and explore defining moments, strengthen leadership behavior with defining moments as a catalyst for change, and create safe spaces for leaders to expand their leadership capacity. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Interactive Character Deformation Using Simplified Elastic Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Z.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis describes the results of our research into realistic skin and model deformation methods aimed at the field of character deformation and animation. The main contributions lie in the properties of our deformation scheme. Our approach preserves the volume of the deformed object while

  15. Character Education: Better Students, Better People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Maurice, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The application of social-emotional and character development (SECD) in classrooms is about teaching, practicing, and modeling essential personal and civic life habits and skills that are almost universally understood as making people good human beings. Among these habits are respect, responsibility, integrity, caring, fairness, and constructive…

  16. Moral-Character Development for Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapsley, Daniel; Woodbury, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    In this article the authors accept the common view that moral-character education is immanent to the life of classroom and schools and inevitable even when remanded to the hidden curriculum. Most schools claim to address the moral formation of students, and many educators enter the profession for values-laden reasons. Yet the language of values,…

  17. Educating for Character in the Sexual Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lickona, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Changes in American sexual behavior brought about by the sexual revolution have been linked to the breakdown of the family and other social ills. Because sex has profound consequences for self, others, and society, sex education is an important part of character education. Sexual abstinence before marriage is associated with better physical and…

  18. Integrating cultural resources and wilderness character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill Cowley; Peter Landres; Melissa Memory; Doug Scott; Adrienne Lindholm

    2012-01-01

    Cultural resources are an integral part of wilderness and wilderness character, and all wilderness areas have a human history. This article develops a foundation for wilderness and cultural resource staffs to continue communicating with one another in order to make better decisions for wilderness stewardship. Following a discussion of relevant legislative history, we...

  19. Emotional characters for automatic plot creation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theune, Mariet; Rensen, S.; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Göbel, S.; Spierling, U.; Hoffmann, A.; Iurgel, I.; Schneider, O.; Dechau, J.; Feix, A.

    The Virtual Storyteller is a multi-agent framework for automatic story generation. In this paper we describe how plots emerge from the actions of semi-autonomous character agents, focusing on the influence of the characters’ emotions on plot development.

  20. Character Development in Elementary-Grade Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lickona, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Identifies goals of character development for elementary school children. Offers four processes that promote positive social growth and moral maturity: (1) building self-esteem and a sense of community; (2) learning to cooperate and help others; (3) reflecting on moral choices; and (4) participating in decision making. Suggests how teachers have…

  1. The Hispanic Character. (El Caracter Hispano.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Hugo

    1980-01-01

    A discussion of the Hispanic character includes comments on the emulation of an ideal self; the sociopolitical background centered around a large, loving family network; congeniality; sense of humor; work ethics, attitudes, and habits; and religion. The article notes three significant realities surrounding differences among Hispanic groups. (SB)

  2. Reflecting on Character (Reflexionando Sobre el Caracter).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candelaria, Cordelia

    1980-01-01

    Responding to the "Proyecto Resolana" article in the July/August 1980 issue of this journal, the article notes the heterogeneity of Hispanic Americans, the three main effects of the European conquest on people of the Western Hemisphere, and attempts to further define the character of Hispanic Americans. (SB)

  3. Honesty, Cheating, and Character in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Most college faculty care about the characters of their students, especially when it comes to questions of honesty. But can students today be trusted not to cheat when completing papers and exams, and not to do so for the right reasons? In section one of this article, the author reviews some of the leading research on cheating behavior, and in…

  4. Character and Moral Education: A Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVitis, Joseph L., Ed.; Yu, Tianlong, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Against a formidable national discourse that emphasizes academic standardization, accountability, and high-stakes testing in educational policy, "Character and Moral Education: A Reader" seeks to re-introduce and revive the moral mission of education in public conversation and practices in America's schools. With contributions from a…

  5. Molecular phylogenetics and character evolution of Cannabaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, M.Q.; Velzen, van R.; Bakker, F.T.; Sattarian, A.; Li, D.Z.; Yi, T.S.

    2013-01-01

    Cannabaceae includes ten genera that are widely distributed in tropical to temperate regions of the world. Because of limited taxon and character sampling in previous studies, intergeneric phylogenetic relationships within this family have been poorly resolved. We conducted a molecular phylogenetic

  6. Movement and Character. Lecture, London, 1946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesorri, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Montessori's words from the 1946 London Lectures describe principles of intelligence and character, the work of the hand, and movement with a purpose as being integral to self-construction. The perfection of movement is spiritual, says Dr. Montessori. Repetition of practical life exercises are exercises in movement with the dignity of human…

  7. Cyberethics: Envisioning Character Education in Cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittier, David B.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents theory and research forming the framework of a graduate course in cyberethics education. The course content includes theory and research on the psychology of the Internet, moral development, and character education. Discussion includes application of these constructs to issues such as empathy, privacy, and other issues as…

  8. The Problem of Loyalty in Teaching Character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Sharon K.

    2012-01-01

    In the last year, two prominent, famous, and revered coaches, Jim Tressel and Joe Paterno, committed disastrous lapses of ethics. Both coaches preached that sport and athletics build character. They either taught ethics or leadership courses at their institutions or were exemplars of ethical behavior in their personal and professional lives. Both…

  9. Chinese Character Decoding: A Semantic Bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Clay; Bever, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The effects of semantic and phonetic radicals on Chinese character decoding were examined. Our results suggest that semantic and phonetic radicals are each available for access when a corresponding task emphasizes one or the other kind of radical. But in a more neutral lexical recognition task, the semantic radical is more informative. Semantic…

  10. Mapping wilderness character in Olympic National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Tricker; Peter Landres; Jennifer Chenoweth; Roger Hoffman; Scott Ruth

    2013-01-01

    The Olympic Wilderness was established November 16, 1988 when President Ronald Reagan signed the Washington Park Wilderness Act. A total of 876,447 acres or 95% of Olympic National Park (OLYM) was designated as wilderness and became a part of the National Wilderness Preservation System, wherein wilderness character would be preserved. The purpose of this project was to...

  11. On Repairing Generated Behaviors for Graphical Characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corradini, Andrea; Mehta, Manish

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we continue our work on the creation of artificial intelligence (AI) behaviors for graphical interactive characters by novice users. We refer to novice users as any persons who do not have any particular skills, training and experience in both programming and design. The focus...

  12. On the Prospects for Aristotelian Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapsley, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The prospects for Aristotelian character education (ACE) is considered. Seven important claims that should win wide acceptance are reviewed; and also two challenges that are impediments. I argue many of the assumptions of ACE turn out not to be distinctive. The conflation of realism and naturalism is ill-considered, and the account of…

  13. Aristotelian Character Education: A Response to Commentators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjánsson, Kristján

    2016-01-01

    This article contains the responses of the author of Aristotelian Character Education (Routledge, 2015), Kristján Kristjánsson, to responses by three commentators, Randall Curren, Daniel Laspley and Christian Miller, published in this same issue of "JME."

  14. Computational Design of Animated Mechanical Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coros, Stelian; Thomaszewski, Bernhard; DRZ Team Team

    2014-03-01

    A factor key to the appeal of modern CG movies and video-games is that the virtual worlds they portray place no bounds on what can be imagined. Rapid manufacturing devices hold the promise of bringing this type of freedom to our own world, by enabling the fabrication of physical objects whose appearance, deformation behaviors and motions can be precisely specified. In order to unleash the full potential of this technology however, computational design methods that create digital content suitable for fabrication need to be developed. In recent work, we presented a computational design system that allows casual users to create animated mechanical characters. Given an articulated character as input, the user designs the animated character by sketching motion curves indicating how they should move. For each motion curve, our framework creates an optimized mechanism that reproduces it as closely as possible. The resulting mechanisms are attached to the character and then connected to each other using gear trains, which are created in a semi-automated fashion. The mechanical assemblies generated with our system can be driven with a single input driver, such as a hand-operated crank or an electric motor, and they can be fabricated using rapid prototyping devices.

  15. genotypes using SSR markers and morphological characters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... software, Setauket, NY). The morpho-physiological characters were standardized prior to cluster analysis. The matrix of average taxo- nomic distance for individuals and morphological traits was then computed using SIMINIT function and EUCLIDIAN distance coefficient. This dissimilarity coefficient is based ...

  16. Seafloor character--Offshore of Ventura, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3254 presents data for the seafloor-character map (see sheet 7, SIM 3254) of the Offshore of Ventura map area, California. The raster data file is...

  17. A New Experiment on Bengali Character Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Sumana; Bhattacharyya, Debnath; Jeon, Seung-Whan; Kim, Tai-Hoon; Kim, Haeng-Kon

    This paper presents a method to use View based approach in Bangla Optical Character Recognition (OCR) system providing reduced data set to the ANN classification engine rather than the traditional OCR methods. It describes how Bangla characters are processed, trained and then recognized with the use of a Backpropagation Artificial neural network. This is the first published account of using a segmentation-free optical character recognition system for Bangla using a view based approach. The methodology presented here assumes that the OCR pre-processor has presented the input images to the classification engine described here. The size and the font face used to render the characters are also significant in both training and classification. The images are first converted into greyscale and then to binary images; these images are then scaled to a fit a pre-determined area with a fixed but significant number of pixels. The feature vectors are then formed extracting the characteristics points, which in this case is simply a series of 0s and 1s of fixed length. Finally, an artificial neural network is chosen for the training and classification process.

  18. Submatrices of character tables and basic sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Olsson, Jørn Børling

    2012-01-01

    combinatorial determinant formulae for submatrices of the character table and Cartan matrices with respect to basic sets; we observe that similar phenomena occur for the transition matrices between power sum symmetric functions to bounded partitions and the k-Schur functions dened by Lapointe and Morse....... Arithmetic properties of the numbers occurring in this context are studied via generating functions...

  19. Temperament and Character in Psychosomatic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medine Yazici Gulec

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Personality takes an important role in etiology of psychosomatic disorders. The studies conducted with Temperament and Character Inventory which investigates the personality according to psychobiological model is considered to have a major role in understanding the relationship between personality and psychosomatic disorders. In order to emphasize the previous studies on this subject, we have done database search in Pubmed and Turk Psikiyatri Dizini (Turkish Psychiatry Directory for the time period between 1991 and 2009 to determine and evaluate the articles conducted among somatization, dermatologic illness, headache, physical medicine, angina, irritable bowel syndrome and asthma patients using Temperament and Character Inventory. The most significant consistent result of these studies was elevated harm avoid-ance scores. Harm avoidance scores still remain high even after controlling for the effect of depression and anxiety. Thus this temperament dimension is possibly an important state and trait feature for development of psychosomatic illnesses. These findings also confirmed that serotonergic systems get involved in the process of psychosomatic organization. In many studies, the mean scores of self direction sub-dimension of Temperament and Character Inventory which has been considered as the fundamental dimension to achieve mature personality, was found to be lower in psychosomatic patient groups than normal healthy control. This result hence supports the notion that process of illness affects the personality among these patients. Detailed evaluation of temparement and character profiles of psychosomatic patients would contribute much into understanding the etiology of these disorders.

  20. The inaccuracy of national character stereotypes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    McCrae, R. R.; Chan, W.; Jussim, L.; De Fruyt, F.; Löckenhoff, C.E.; De Bolle, M.; Costa Jr., P.T.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Graf, Sylvie; Realo, A.; Allik, J.; Nakazato, K.; Shimonaka, Y.; Yik, M.; Ficková, E.; Brunner-Sciarra, M.; Reátigui, N.; Leibovich de Figueroa, N.; Schmidt, V.; Ahn, Ch.; Ahn, H.; Aguilar-Vafaie, M.E.; Siuta, J.; Szmigielska, B.; Cain, T.R.; Crawford, J.T.; Mastor, K.A.; Rolland, J. P.; Nansubuga, F.; Miramontez, D.R.; Benet-Martínez, V.; Rossier, J.; Bratko, D.; Marušić, I.; Halberstadt, J.; Yamaguchi, N.; Knežević, G.; Purić, D.; Martin, T. A.; Gheorghiu, M.; Smith, P.B.; Barbaranelli, C.; Wang, L.; Shakespeare-Finch, J.; Lima, M.P.; Klinkosz, W.; Sekowski, A.; Alcalay, L.; Simonetti, F.; Avdeyeva, T.V.; Pramila, V.S.; Terracciano, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 6 (2013), s. 831-842 ISSN 0092-6566 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-25656S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : national character * stereotypes * Five-Factor Model of Personality Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 2.011, year: 2013

  1. Natural history collections as windows on evolutionary processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Michael W.; Hammond, Talisin T.; Wogan, Guinevere O.U.; Walsh, Rachel E.; LaBarbera, Katie; Wommack, Elizabeth A.; Martins, Felipe M.; Crawford, Jeremy C.; Mack, Katya L.; Bloch, Luke M.; Nachman, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    Natural history collections provide an immense record of biodiversity on Earth. These repositories have traditionally been used to address fundamental questions in biogeography, systematics, and conservation. However, they also hold the potential for studying evolution directly. While some of the best direct observations of evolution have come from long-term field studies or from experimental studies in the lab, natural history collections are providing new insights into evolutionary change in natural populations. By comparing phenotypic and genotypic changes in populations through time, natural history collections provide a window into evolutionary processes. Recent studies utilizing this approach have revealed some dramatic instances of phenotypic change over short time scales in response to presumably strong selective pressures. In some instances evolutionary change can be paired with environmental change, providing a context for potential selective forces. Moreover, in a few cases, the genetic basis of phenotypic change is well understood, allowing for insight into adaptive change at multiple levels. These kinds of studies open the door to a wide range of previously intractable questions by enabling the study of evolution through time, analogous to experimental studies in the laboratory, but amenable to a diversity of species over longer timescales in natural populations. PMID:26757135

  2. Quantitative genetics of functional characters in Drosophila ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    HENRIQUE TEOTÓNIO 1,2 *, MARGARIDA MATOS 3 and MICHAEL R. ROSE 1. 1Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-2525, USA. 2Present address: Centro de Biologia do Desenvolvimento, Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência,. Rua da Quinta Grande 6, 2780-156 Oeiras, ...

  3. Character-driven game design : a design approach and its foundations in character engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Lankoski, Petri

    2010-01-01

    In this study I propose a design approach for character-based games. In order to develop a design method for character-based games, I look at how games guide players and the playing experience (especially the relationship between formal features and playing experience). This design approach has been used in the design of the game Lies and Seductions. Research implies that people react to human-like entities (e.g., game characters) as if they were people, including empathizing with charac...

  4. Comparative genomics and evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashov, A S

    1999-12-01

    Data of large-scale DNA sequencing are relevant to some of the most fundamental issues in evolutionary biology: suboptimality, homology, hierarchy, ancestry, novelties, the role of natural selection, and the relative importance of directional versus stabilizing selection. Already, these data provided the best available evidence for some evolutionary phenomena, and in several cases led to refinement of old concepts. Still, the Darwinian evolutionary paradigm will successfully accommodate comparative genomics.

  5. Does selection or genetic drift explain geographic differentiation of morphological characters in house sparrows Passer domesticus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holand, Anna M; Jensen, Henrik; Tufto, Jarle; Moe, Rune

    2011-10-01

    Understanding the relative influence of genetic drift and selection is fundamental in evolutionary biology. The theory of neutrality predicts that the genetic differentiation of a quantitative trait (QST) equals the genetic differentiation at neutral molecular markers (FST) if the quantitative trait has not been under selection. Thus, the relative magnitude of observed QST and expected QST under neutral expectations suggests the importance of selection and genetic drift for any observed phenotypic divergence. Because QST is based on additive genetic variance, estimating QST based on phenotypic measurements is problematic due to unknown environmental effects. To account for this, we used a model where the environmental component was allowed to vary when estimating QST. The model was used on data from 14 house sparrow (Passer domesticus) populations in Norway. In accordance with the significant phenotypic inter-population differences our analyses suggested that directional selection may have favoured different optimal phenotypes for some morphological traits across populations. In particular, different body mass and male ornamental phenotypes seemed to have been favoured. The conclusions are, however, dependent on assumptions regarding the proportion of the observed inter-population variation that is due to additive genetic differences, showing the importance of collecting such information in natural populations. By estimating QST, allowing the additive genetic proportion of phenotypic inter-population variation to vary, and by making use of recent statistical methods to compare observed QST with neutral expectations, we can use data that are relatively easy to collect to identify adaptive variation in natural populations.

  6. Phenotype as Agent for Epigenetic Inheritance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Torday

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The conventional understanding of phenotype is as a derivative of descent with modification through Darwinian random mutation and natural selection. Recent research has revealed Lamarckian inheritance as a major transgenerational mechanism for environmental action on genomes whose extent is determined, in significant part, by germ line cells during meiosis and subsequent stages of embryological development. In consequence, the role of phenotype can productively be reconsidered. The possibility that phenotype is directed towards the effective acquisition of epigenetic marks in consistent reciprocation with the environment during the life cycle of an organism is explored. It is proposed that phenotype is an active agent in niche construction for the active acquisition of epigenetic marks as a dominant evolutionary mechanism rather than a consequence of Darwinian selection towards reproductive success. The reproductive phase of the life cycle can then be appraised as a robust framework in which epigenetic inheritance is entrained to affect growth and development in continued reciprocal responsiveness to environmental stresses. Furthermore, as first principles of physiology determine the limits of epigenetic inheritance, a coherent justification can thereby be provided for the obligate return of all multicellular eukaryotes to the unicellular state.

  7. Clinical phenotypes of asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bel, Elisabeth H.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma is a phenotypically heterogeneous disorder and, over the years, many different clinical subtypes of asthma have been described. A precise definition of asthma phenotypes is now becoming more and more important, not only for a better understanding of pathophysiologic

  8. Interspecies gene transfer as a method for understanding the genetic basis for evolutionary change: Progress, Pitfalls and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachezar A. Nikolov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent revolution in high throughput sequencing and associated applications provides excellent opportunities to catalogue variation in DNA sequences and gene expression between species. However, understanding the astonishing diversity of the Tree of Life requires understanding the phenotypic consequences of such variation and identification of those rare genetic changes that are causal to diversity. One way to study the genetic basis for trait diversity is to apply a transgenic approach and introduce genes of interest from a donor into a recipient species. Such interspecies gene transfer (IGT is based on the premise that if a gene is causal to the morphological divergence of the two species, the transfer will endow the recipient with properties of the donor. Extensions of this approach further allow identifying novel loci for the diversification of form and investigating cis- and trans-contributions to morphological evolution. Here we review recent examples from both plant and animal systems that have employed IGT to provide insight into the genetic basis of evolutionary change. We outline the practice of IGT, its methodological strengths and weaknesses, and consider guidelines for its application, emphasizing the importance of phylogenetic distance, character polarity, and life history. We also discuss future perspectives for exploiting IGT in the context of expanding genomic resources in emerging experimental systems and advances in genome editing.

  9. Rethinking the evolution of specialization: A model for the evolution of phenotypic heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Ilan N; Doebeli, Michael

    2017-12-21

    Phenotypic heterogeneity refers to genetically identical individuals that express different phenotypes, even when in the same environment. Traditionally, "bet-hedging" in fluctuating environments is offered as the explanation for the evolution of phenotypic heterogeneity. However, there are an increasing number of examples of microbial populations that display phenotypic heterogeneity in stable environments. Here we present an evolutionary model of phenotypic heterogeneity of microbial metabolism and a resultant theory for the evolution of phenotypic versus genetic specialization. We use two-dimensional adaptive dynamics to track the evolution of the population phenotype distribution of the expression of two metabolic processes with a concave trade-off. Rather than assume a Gaussian phenotype distribution, we use a Beta distribution that is capable of describing genotypes that manifest as individuals with two distinct phenotypes. Doing so, we find that environmental variation is not a necessary condition for the evolution of phenotypic heterogeneity, which can evolve as a form of specialization in a stable environment. There are two competing pressures driving the evolution of specialization: directional selection toward the evolution of phenotypic heterogeneity and disruptive selection toward genetically determined specialists. Because of the lack of a singular point in the two-dimensional adaptive dynamics and the fact that directional selection is a first order process, while disruptive selection is of second order, the evolution of phenotypic heterogeneity dominates and often precludes speciation. We find that branching, and therefore genetic specialization, occurs mainly under two conditions: the presence of a cost to maintaining a high phenotypic variance or when the effect of mutations is large. A cost to high phenotypic variance dampens the strength of selection toward phenotypic heterogeneity and, when sufficiently large, introduces a singular point into

  10. Evolutionary status of Polaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadeyev, Yu. A.

    2015-05-01

    Hydrodynamic models of short-period Cepheids were computed to determine the pulsation period as a function of evolutionary time during the first and third crossings of the instability strip. The equations of radiation hydrodynamics and turbulent convection for radial stellar pulsations were solved with the initial conditions obtained from the evolutionary models of Population I stars (X = 0.7, Z = 0.02) with masses from 5.2 to 6.5 M⊙ and the convective core overshooting parameter 0.1 ≤ αov ≤ 0.3. In Cepheids with period of 4 d the rate of pulsation period change during the first crossing of the instability strip is over 50 times larger than that during the third crossing. Polaris is shown to cross the instability strip for the first time and to be the fundamental mode pulsator. The best agreement between the predicted and observed rates of period change was obtained for the model with mass of 5.4 M⊙ and the overshooting parameter αov = 0.25. The bolometric luminosity and radius are L = 1.26 × 103 L⊙ and R = 37.5 R⊙, respectively. In the HR diagram, Polaris is located at the red edge of the instability strip.

  11. Genetic Regulation of Phenotypic Plasticity and Canalisation in Yeast Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Anupama; Dhole, Kaustubh; Sinha, Himanshu

    2016-01-01

    The ability of a genotype to show diverse phenotypes in different environments is called phenotypic plasticity. Phenotypic plasticity helps populations to evade extinctions in novel environments, facilitates adaptation and fuels evolution. However, most studies focus on understanding the genetic basis of phenotypic regulation in specific environments. As a result, while it's evolutionary relevance is well established, genetic mechanisms regulating phenotypic plasticity and their overlap with the environment specific regulators is not well understood. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is highly sensitive to the environment, which acts as not just external stimulus but also as signalling cue for this unicellular, sessile organism. We used a previously published dataset of a biparental yeast population grown in 34 diverse environments and mapped genetic loci regulating variation in phenotypic plasticity, plasticity QTL, and compared them with environment-specific QTL. Plasticity QTL is one whose one allele exhibits high plasticity whereas the other shows a relatively canalised behaviour. We mapped phenotypic plasticity using two parameters-environmental variance, an environmental order-independent parameter and reaction norm (slope), an environmental order-dependent parameter. Our results show a partial overlap between pleiotropic QTL and plasticity QTL such that while some plasticity QTL are also pleiotropic, others have a significant effect on phenotypic plasticity without being significant in any environment independently. Furthermore, while some plasticity QTL are revealed only in specific environmental orders, we identify large effect plasticity QTL, which are order-independent such that whatever the order of the environments, one allele is always plastic and the other is canalised. Finally, we show that the environments can be divided into two categories based on the phenotypic diversity of the population within them and the two categories have differential regulators of

  12. COMPUTER APPROACHES TO WHEAT HIGH-THROUGHPUT PHENOTYPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonnikov D.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The growing need for rapid and accurate approaches for large-scale assessment of phenotypic characters in plants becomes more and more obvious in the studies looking into relationships between genotype and phenotype. This need is due to the advent of high throughput methods for analysis of genomes. Nowadays, any genetic experiment involves data on thousands and dozens of thousands of plants. Traditional ways of assessing most phenotypic characteristics (those with reliance on the eye, the touch, the ruler are little effective on samples of such sizes. Modern approaches seek to take advantage of automated phenotyping, which warrants a much more rapid data acquisition, higher accuracy of the assessment of phenotypic features, measurement of new parameters of these features and exclusion of human subjectivity from the process. Additionally, automation allows measurement data to be rapidly loaded into computer databases, which reduces data processing time.In this work, we present the WheatPGE information system designed to solve the problem of integration of genotypic and phenotypic data and parameters of the environment, as well as to analyze the relationships between the genotype and phenotype in wheat. The system is used to consolidate miscellaneous data on a plant for storing and processing various morphological traits and genotypes of wheat plants as well as data on various environmental factors. The system is available at www.wheatdb.org. Its potential in genetic experiments has been demonstrated in high-throughput phenotyping of wheat leaf pubescence.

  13. [Evolutionary medicine: the future looking at the past].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Serafim; Rosado, Margarida

    2008-01-01

    Evolutionary medicine is an emergent basic science that offers new and varied perspectives to the comprehension of the human health and disease, considering them as a result of a gap between our modern lives and the environment where human beings evolve. This work's goals are to understand the importance of the evolutionary theories on concepts of health and disease, providing a new insight on medicine investigation. This bibliography review is based on Medline and PsycINFO articles research between 1996 and 2007 about review and experimental studies published in English, using the key words evolutionary and medicine, psychiatry, psychology, behaviour, health, disease, gene. There were selected forty-five articles based on and with special interest on the authors' practice. There were also consulted some allusive books. The present human genome and phenotypes are essentially Palaeolithic ones: they are not adapted to the modern life style, thus favouring the so called diseases of civilization. Fitting evolutionary strategies, apparently protective ones, when excessive, are the core syndromes of many emotional disruptive behaviours and diseases. Having the stone age's genes, we are obliged to live in the space age. With the evolutionary approach, postmodern medicine is detecting better the vulnerabilities, restrictions, biases, adaptations and maladaptations of human body, its actual diseases and its preventions and treatment.

  14. Evolutionary explanations for natural language: criteria from evolutionary biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidema, W.; de Boer, B.

    2008-01-01

    Theories of the evolutionary origins of language must be informed by empirical and theoretical results from a variety of different fields. Complementing recent surveys of relevant work from linguistics, animal behaviour and genetics, this paper surveys the requirements on evolutionary scenarios that

  15. Phenotypic plasticity in growth habit in Plantago lanceolata: how tight is a suite of correlated characters?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Tienderen, P.H.; Van Hinsberg, A.

    1996-01-01

    The growth habit of the rosette plant Plantago lanceolata is highly variable, and many vegetative and reproductive traits co-vary. At one end of the range plants have relatively few but long and erect leaves, form few daughter rosettes, and produce a limited number of large spikes, with relatively

  16. Parietal dysgraphia: characterization of abnormal writing stroke sequences, character formation and character recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Nakazawa, Gaku; Ugawa, Yoshikazu; Momose, Toshimitsu; Tsuji, Shoji; Mannen, Toru

    2007-01-01

    To characterize various dysgraphic symptoms in parietal agraphia. We examined the writing impairments of four dysgraphia patients from parietal lobe lesions using a special writing test with 100 character kanji (Japanese morphograms) and their kana (Japanese phonetic writing) transcriptions, and related the test performance to a lesion site. Patients 1 and 2 had postcentral gyrus lesions and showed character distortion and tactile agnosia, with patient 1 also having limb apraxia. Patients 3 and 4 had superior parietal lobule lesions and features characteristic of apraxic agraphia (grapheme deformity and a writing stroke sequence disorder) and character imagery deficits (impaired character recall). Agraphia with impaired character recall and abnormal grapheme formation were more pronounced in patient 4, in whom the lesion extended to the inferior parietal, superior occipital and precuneus gyri. The present findings and a review of the literature suggest that: (i) a postcentral gyrus lesion can yield graphemic distortion (somesthetic dysgraphia), (ii) abnormal grapheme formation and impaired character recall are associated with lesions surrounding the intraparietal sulcus, the symptom being more severe with the involvement of the inferior parietal, superior occipital and precuneus gyri, (iii) disordered writing stroke sequences are caused by a damaged anterior intraparietal area.

  17. Evolutionary psychology from a developmental systems perspective: comment on Lickliter and Honeycutt (2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, David F

    2003-11-01

    Although agreeing with R. Lickliter and H. Honeycutt (2003) that evolutionary psychology lacks and should adopt a coherent developmental model to explain how evolved mechanisms become expressed in phenotypes, it is argued that adhering to the principles of developmental systems theory, despite enhancing evolutionary psychology, would not change appreciably its basic focus. The concepts of innateness and modularity, what is inherited and what evolves, as well as the possible role of developmental plasticity in the evolution of human cognition are discussed. It is proposed that evolutionary psychology can incorporate the developmental systems perspective into its theorizing, with the end result being a science that more closely reflects human nature.

  18. Does plasticity enhance or dampen phenotypic parallelism? A test with three lake-stream stickleback pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke, K B; Bukhari, M; Kaeuffer, R; Rolshausen, G; Räsänen, K; Bolnick, D I; Peichel, C L; Hendry, A P

    2016-01-01

    Parallel (and convergent) phenotypic variation is most often studied in the wild, where it is difficult to disentangle genetic vs. environmentally induced effects. As a result, the potential contributions of phenotypic plasticity to parallelism (and nonparallelism) are rarely evaluated in a formal sense. Phenotypic parallelism could be enhanced by plasticity that causes stronger parallelism across populations in the wild than would be expected from genetic differences alone. Phenotypic parallelism could be dampened if site-specific plasticity induced differences between otherwise genetically parallel populations. We used a common-garden study of three independent lake-stream stickleback population pairs to evaluate the extent to which adaptive divergence has a genetic or plastic basis, and to investigate the enhancing vs. dampening effects of plasticity on phenotypic parallelism. We found that lake-stream differences in most traits had a genetic basis, but that several traits also showed contributions from plasticity. Moreover, plasticity was much more prevalent in one watershed than in the other two. In most cases, plasticity enhanced phenotypic parallelism, whereas in a few cases, plasticity had a dampening effect. Genetic and plastic contributions to divergence seem to play a complimentary, likely adaptive, role in phenotypic parallelism of lake-stream stickleback. These findings highlight the value of formally comparing wild-caught and laboratory-reared individuals in the study of phenotypic parallelism. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  19. Character pattern recognition and communications apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondraske, G.V.; Shennib, A.

    1987-06-16

    This patent describes a method of communicating, utilizing a signal-generating keyboard where at least some of the keys represent two or more alphabetical characters, comprising the steps of: inputting a word into the keyboard bhy depressing a single key for each alphabetical character of the word; transmitting signals generated by the key depressions; receiving the transmitted signals and decoding the signals into binary code; matching the binary code with one or more pre-programmed codes, each pre-programmed code being representative of a syllabic element; forming a representation of the word from the one or more syllabic elements represented by the matched one or more pre-programmed codes; and outputting the word representation in a form perceptible to the user.

  20. The Character, Organization Change and Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santo Fernandi Wijaya

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The success of building an integrated information system is an expectation of every company management to achieve effective and efficient working system. However, in the real business practices, not a few companies failed in building an integrated information system caused by the absence of several factors: strong commitment, hard work and smart effort conducted by a team. The team determines the success level in building an integrated information system. A factor of intelligence and mental maturity of users in running a new information system that has not been known is also another key to success. Therefore, it takes a good user’s character supported by a management decision to make management changes to achieve the building success level. This study aims to address the role of character and organization changes in achieving a success building an integrated information system. 

  1. On the Characters of Parafermionic Field Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gepner, Doron

    2015-06-01

    We study cosets of the type H l / U(1) r , where H is any Lie algebra at level l and rank r. These theories are parafermionic and their characters are related to the string functions, which are generating functions for the multiplicities of weights in the affine representations. An identity for the characters is described, which apply to all the algebras and all the levels. The expression is of the Rogers-Ramanujan type. We verify this conjecture, for many algebras and levels, using Freudenthal-Kac formula, which calculates the multiplicities in the affine representations, recursively, up to some grade. Our conjecture encapsulates all the known results about these string functions, along with giving a vast wealth of new ones.

  2. [Iatrogenes of manipulator character in abdominal surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungurian, V M; Grinev, M V; Demko, A E; Povzun, S A

    2013-01-01

    The authors analyzed the data of 281 cases of iatrogenes of manipulator character in abdominal surgery in order to investigate the circumstances and character of origin. There were 187 cases of operative confirmation and 84 cases of unintentional intraoperative retained foreign bodies. It was detected, that primary planned intervention of higher category of complexity should be related to the high risk group of the development of the operative confirmation. Retained foreign bodies with soft fabric base were diagnosed in early postoperative period as the result of the beginning of postoperative complications. The retained foreign bodies with tough backer material as a rule didn't cause the complications in early postoperative period. They were diagnosed in long-term postoperative period in majority of cases.

  3. On the total character of finite groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Prajapati

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For a finite group $G$, we study the total character $tau_G$ afforded by the direct sum of all the non-isomorphic irreducible complex representations of $G$. We resolve for several classes of groups (the Camina $p$-groups, the generalized Camina $p$-groups, the groups which admit $(G,Z(G$ as a generalized Camina pair, the problem of existence of a polynomial $f(x in mathbb{Q}[x]$ such that $f(chi = tau_G$ for some irreducible character $chi$ of $G$. As a consequence, we completely determine the $p$-groups of order at most $p^5$ (with $p$ odd which admit such a polynomial. We deduce the characterization that these are the groups $G$ for which $Z(G$ is cyclic and $(G,Z(G$ is a generalized Camina pair and, we conjecture that this holds good for $p$-groups of any order.

  4. Correlators in tensor models from character calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, A.; Morozov, A.

    2017-11-01

    We explain how the calculations of [20], which provided the first evidence for non-trivial structures of Gaussian correlators in tensor models, are efficiently performed with the help of the (Hurwitz) character calculus. This emphasizes a close similarity between technical methods in matrix and tensor models and supports a hope to understand the emerging structures in very similar terms. We claim that the 2m-fold Gaussian correlators of rank r tensors are given by r-linear combinations of dimensions with the Young diagrams of size m. The coefficients are made from the characters of the symmetric group Sm and their exact form depends on the choice of the correlator and on the symmetries of the model. As the simplest application of this new knowledge, we provide simple expressions for correlators in the Aristotelian tensor model as tri-linear combinations of dimensions.

  5. Correlators in tensor models from character calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mironov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We explain how the calculations of [20], which provided the first evidence for non-trivial structures of Gaussian correlators in tensor models, are efficiently performed with the help of the (Hurwitz character calculus. This emphasizes a close similarity between technical methods in matrix and tensor models and supports a hope to understand the emerging structures in very similar terms. We claim that the 2m-fold Gaussian correlators of rank r tensors are given by r-linear combinations of dimensions with the Young diagrams of size m. The coefficients are made from the characters of the symmetric group Sm and their exact form depends on the choice of the correlator and on the symmetries of the model. As the simplest application of this new knowledge, we provide simple expressions for correlators in the Aristotelian tensor model as tri-linear combinations of dimensions.

  6. The genomic landscape of rapid repeated evolutionary ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlantic killifish populations have rapidly adapted to normally lethal levels of pollution in four urban estuaries. Through analysis of 384 whole killifish genome sequences and comparative transcriptomics in four pairs of sensitive and tolerant populations, we identify the aryl hydrocarbon receptor–based signaling pathway as a shared target of selection. This suggests evolutionary constraint on adaptive solutions to complex toxicant mixtures at each site. However, distinct molecular variants apparently contribute to adaptive pathway modification among tolerant populations. Selection also targets other toxicity-mediatinggenes and genes of connected signaling pathways; this indicates complex tolerance phenotypes and potentially compensatory adaptations. Molecular changes are consistent with selection on standing genetic variation. In killifish, high nucleotide diversityhas likely been a crucial substrate for selective sweeps to propel rapid adaptation. This manuscript describes genomic evaluations that contribute to our understanding of the ecological and evolutionary risks associated with chronic contaminant exposures to wildlife populations. Here, we assessed genetic patterns associated with long-term response to an important class of highly toxic environmental pollutants. Specifically, chemical-specific tolerance has rapidly and repeatedly evolved in an estuarine fish species resident to estuaries of the Atlantic U.S. coast. We used laboratory studies to ch

  7. Dyslexia and Configural Perception of Character Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph W Houpt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Developmental dyslexia is a complex and heterogeneous disorder characterized by unexpected difficulty in learning to read. Although it is considered to be biologically based, the degree of variation has made the nature and locus of dyslexia difficult to ascertain. Hypotheses regarding the cause have ranged from low-level perceptual deficits to higher order cognitive deficits, such as phonological processing and visual-spatial attention. We applied the capacity coefficient, a measure obtained from a mathematical cognitive model of response times to measure how efficiently participants processed different classes of stimuli. The capacity coefficient was used to test the extent to which individuals with dyslexia can be distinguished from normal reading individuals based on their ability to take advantage of word, pronounceable nonword, consonant sequence or unfamiliar context when categorizing character strings. Within subject variability of the capacity coefficient across character string types was fairly regular across normal reading adults and consistent with a previous study of word perception with the capacity coefficient - words and pseudowords were processed at supercapacity and unfamiliar characters strings at limited-capacity. Two distinct patterns were observed in individuals with dyslexia. One group had a profile similar to the normal reading adults while the other group showed very little variation in capacity across conditions. It is possible that these individuals used a similar strategy for all four conditions and were able to generalize this strategy when processing unfamiliar characters. This difference across dyslexia groups may be used to identify sub-types of the disorder and suggest significant differences in word level processing among these subtypes. Therefore, this approach may be useful in further delineating among types of dyslexia, which in turn may lead to better understanding of the etiologies of dyslexia.

  8. Religion, National Character and Strategic Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    abortion, homosexuality, and euthanasia .4 In an effort to neutralize the Christian influence, humanists began to rewrite history to fit their concept of...of the founding leaders of this nation in God. The author focuses on the uniquely Christian character of the psycho-social values which inspired the...secularists, during the three decades following World War II, to censor the powerful effect of Christian principles frcm history and from social

  9. The pedagogical character of Janez Kuhar

    OpenAIRE

    Mohar, Jožica

    2011-01-01

    The diploma thesis attempts to provide theoretical and empirical evidence that the pedagogical character of a teacher and his/her attitude towards music education represents, in addition to motivation, an important factor in comprehensive development of the pupil/student. The theoretical part of the thesis includes a detailed description of the teacher and his/her personality and education structure. This involves in particular the teacher’s pedagogical instinct and systematic planning of mus...

  10. L(1,χ) with general Dirichlet character

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    log sin πa d. , if d > 0. Here L(s,χ) is the Dirichlet's L-series associated with the real primitive charac- ter (d/a), where (d/a) is Kronecker's symbol. The question arises as to whether the corresponding expression for L(1,χ) holds for any general primitive Dirichlet character χ(mod q), where q ≥ 2 is an integer. We shall show ...

  11. Fermionic expressions for minimal model virasoro characters

    CERN Document Server

    Welsh, Trevor A

    2005-01-01

    Fermionic expressions for all minimal model Virasoro characters $\\chi^{p, p'}_{r, s}$ are stated and proved. Each such expression is a sum of terms of {\\em fundamental fermionic form} type. In most cases, all these terms are written down using certain trees which are constructed for $s$ and $r$ from the Takahashi lengths and truncated Takahashi lengths associated with the continued fraction of $p'/p$. In the remaining cases, in addition to such terms, the fermionic expression for $\\chi^{p, p'}_{r, s}$ contains a different character $\\chi^{\\hat p, \\hat p'}_{\\hat r,\\hat s}$, and is thus recursive in nature. Bosonic-fermionic $q$-series identities for all characters $\\chi^{p, p'}_{r, s}$ result from equating these fermionic expressions with known bosonic expressions. In the cases for which $p=2r$, $p=3r$, $p'=2s$ or $p'=3s$, Rogers-Ramanujan type identities result from equating these fermionic expressions with known product expressions for $\\chi^{p, p'}_{r, s}$. The fermionic expressions are proved by first obta...

  12. Character displacement promotes cooperation in bacterial biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockhurst, Michael A; Hochberg, Michael E; Bell, Thomas; Buckling, Angus

    2006-10-24

    Resource competition within a group of cooperators is expected to decrease selection for cooperative behavior but can also result in diversifying selection for the use of different resources, which in turn could retard the breakdown of cooperation. Diverse groups are likely to be less susceptible to invasion by noncooperating social cheats: First, competition repression resulting from character displacement may provide less of a selective advantage to cheating; second, cheats may trade off the ability to exploit cooperators that specialize in one type of resource against cooperators that specialize in another ; third, diverse communities of any kind may have higher invasion resistance because there are fewer resources available for an invader to use . Furthermore, diverse groups are likely to be more productive than clonal groups if a wider range of total resources are being used . We addressed these issues by using the cooperative trait of biofilm formation in Pseudomonas fluorescens. Character displacement through resource competition evolved within biofilms; productivity increased with increasing character displacement, and diverse biofilms were less susceptible to invasion by cheats. These results demonstrate that diversification into different ecological niches can minimize selection against cooperation in the face of local resource competition.

  13. Stochastic noncooperative and cooperative evolutionary game strategies of a population of biological networks under natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bor-Sen; Yeh, Chin-Hsun

    2017-12-01

    We review current static and dynamic evolutionary game strategies of biological networks and discuss the lack of random genetic variations and stochastic environmental disturbances in these models. To include these factors, a population of evolving biological networks is modeled as a nonlinear stochastic biological system with Poisson-driven genetic variations and random environmental fluctuations (stimuli). To gain insight into the evolutionary game theory of stochastic biological networks under natural selection, the phenotypic robustness and network evolvability of noncooperative and cooperative evolutionary game strategies are discussed from a stochastic Nash game perspective. The noncooperative strategy can be transformed into an equivalent multi-objective optimization problem and is shown to display significantly improved network robustness to tolerate genetic variations and buffer environmental disturbances, maintaining phenotypic traits for longer than the cooperative strategy. However, the noncooperative case requires greater effort and more compromises between partly conflicting players. Global linearization is used to simplify the problem of solving nonlinear stochastic evolutionary games. Finally, a simple stochastic evolutionary model of a metabolic pathway is simulated to illustrate the procedure of solving for two evolutionary game strategies and to confirm and compare their respective characteristics in the evolutionary process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Anxiety: an evolutionary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Melissa; Brilot, Ben; Nettle, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most common mental illnesses, with huge attendant suffering. Current treatments are not universally effective, suggesting that a deeper understanding of the causes of anxiety is needed. To understand anxiety disorders better, it is first necessary to understand the normal anxiety response. This entails considering its evolutionary function as well as the mechanisms underlying it. We argue that the function of the human anxiety response, and homologues in other species, is to prepare the individual to detect and deal with threats. We use a signal detection framework to show that the threshold for expressing the anxiety response ought to vary with the probability of threats occurring, and the individual's vulnerability to them if they do occur. These predictions are consistent with major patterns in the epidemiology of anxiety. Implications for research and treatment are discussed.

  15. Towards Adaptive Evolutionary Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Sebastian HOlt; Rask, Nina; Risi, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents first results from an interdisciplinary project, in which the fields of architecture, philosophy and artificial life are combined to explore possible futures of architecture. Through an interactive evolutionary installation, called EvoCurtain, we investigate aspects of how...... living in the future could occur, if built spaces could evolve and adapt alongside inhabitants. As such, present study explores the interdisciplinary possibilities in utilizing computational power to co-create with users and generate designs based on human input. We argue that this could lead...... to the development of designs tailored to the individual preferences of inhabitants, changing the roles of architects and designers entirely. Architecture-as-it-could-be is a philosophical approach conducted through artistic methods to anticipate the technological futures of human-centered development within...

  16. Topics of Evolutionary Computation 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursem, Rasmus Kjær

    This booklet contains the student reports from the course: Topics of Evolutionary Computation, Fall 2001, given by Thiemo Krink, Rene Thomsen and Rasmus K. Ursem......This booklet contains the student reports from the course: Topics of Evolutionary Computation, Fall 2001, given by Thiemo Krink, Rene Thomsen and Rasmus K. Ursem...

  17. Conceptual foundations of evolutionary thought

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K. P. MOHANAN

    2017-07-04

    Jul 4, 2017 ... This article seeks to explore the conceptual foundations of evolutionary thought in the physical, biological, and human sciences. Viewing evolution as symmetry breaking, it explores the concepts of change, history, and evolutionary history, and outlines a concept of biological macroevolution.

  18. Child Development and Evolutionary Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, David F.; Pellegrini, Anthony D.

    2000-01-01

    Argues that an evolutionary account provides insight into developmental function and individual differences. Outlines some assumptions of evolutionary psychology related to development. Introduces the developmental systems approach, differential influence of natural selection at different points in ontogeny, and development of evolved…

  19. Temporal Dynamics of the Modulation of Character Structure and Phonetic Radical in Chinese Character Processing—an ERP Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet H. Hsiao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese orthography, with semantic and phonetic radicals configured in different character structures, provides a unique opportunity to examine visual word processing. Previous ERP research showed that when participants silently named centrally presented characters, there was greater left hemisphere lateralization in N170 amplitude for sP characters (right-heavy, with a semantic radical on the left and a phonetic radical on the right than Ps characters (the opposite configuration, suggesting that characters with different structures are processed differently in the brain. Here we utilize four additional character types, sS (right-heavy, no phonetic radical; Ss (the opposite configuration; Syp and Sys characters (symmetric structure, with and without phonetic radical respectively to further examine how phonetic radical and character structure influence Chinese character processing. A significant interaction was found between character structure and hemisphere in P120 latency, suggesting that the modulation of character structure happens as early as 120 ms after the stimulus onset. Furthermore, the hemispheric asymmetry effects in N170 and P200 were found to be influenced by both phonetic radical and character structure, while N350 appeared to be modulated by phonetic radical only. These findings demonstrate that the modulation of character structure and phonetic radical have different time courses in Chinese character processing.

  20. Evolutionary Explanations of Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Kardum

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews several most important evolutionary mechanisms that underlie eating disorders. The first part clarifies evolutionary foundations of mental disorders and various mechanisms leading to their development. In the second part selective pressures and evolved adaptations causing contemporary epidemic of obesity as well as differences in dietary regimes and life-style between modern humans and their ancestors are described. Concerning eating disorders, a number of current evolutionary explanations of anorexia nervosa are presented together with their main weaknesses. Evolutionary explanations of eating disorders based on the reproductive suppression hypothesis and its variants derived from kin selection theory and the model of parental manipulation were elaborated. The sexual competition hypothesis of eating disorder, adapted to flee famine hypothesis as well as explanation based on the concept of social attention holding power and the need to belonging were also explained. The importance of evolutionary theory in modern conceptualization and research of eating disorders is emphasized.

  1. Phenotypic divergence despite low genetic differentiation in house sparrow populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Cohen, Shachar; Dor, Roi

    2018-01-10

    Studying patterns of phenotypic variation among populations can shed light on the drivers of evolutionary processes. The house sparrow (Passer domesticus) is one of the world's most ubiquitous bird species, as well as a successful invader. We investigated phenotypic variation in house sparrow populations across a climatic gradient and in relation to a possible scenario of an invasion. We measured variation in morphological, coloration, and behavioral traits (exploratory behavior and neophobia) and compared it to the neutral genetic variation. We found that sparrows were larger and darker in northern latitudes, in accordance with Bergmann's and Gloger's biogeographic rules. Morphology and behavior mostly differed between the southernmost populations and the other regions, supporting the possibility of an invasion. Genetic differentiation was low and diversity levels were similar across populations, indicating high gene flow. Nevertheless, the southernmost and northern populations differed genetically to some extent. Furthermore, genetic differentiation (F ST) was lower in comparison to phenotypic variation (P ST), indicating that the phenotypic variation is shaped by directional selection or by phenotypic plasticity. This study expands our knowledge on evolutionary mechanisms and biological invasions.

  2. Natural variation of model mutant phenotypes in Ciona intestinalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Sordino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The study of ascidians (Chordata, Tunicata has made a considerable contribution to our understanding of the origin and evolution of basal chordates. To provide further information to support forward genetics in Ciona intestinalis, we used a combination of natural variation and neutral population genetics as an approach for the systematic identification of new mutations. In addition to the significance of developmental variation for phenotype-driven studies, this approach can encompass important implications in evolutionary and population biology. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report a preliminary survey for naturally occurring mutations in three geographically interconnected populations of C. intestinalis. The influence of historical, geographical and environmental factors on the distribution of abnormal phenotypes was assessed by means of 12 microsatellites. We identified 37 possible mutant loci with stereotyped defects in embryonic development that segregate in a way typical of recessive alleles. Local populations were found to differ in genetic organization and frequency distribution of phenotypic classes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Natural genetic polymorphism of C. intestinalis constitutes a valuable source of phenotypes for studying embryonic development in ascidians. Correlating genetic structure and the occurrence of abnormal phenotypes is a crucial focus for understanding the selective forces that shape natural finite populations, and may provide insights of great importance into the evolutionary mechanisms that generate animal diversity.

  3. Formal proof that the split genes of tRNAs of Nanoarchaeum equitans are an ancestral character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giulio, Massimo

    2009-11-01

    A proof is given that the genes of the tRNA molecule of Nanoarchaeum equitans split into the 5' and 3' halves are an ancestral trait. First, the existence of a natural succession of evolutionary stages will be proven, formed in the order of the three gene structures of tRNAs known today: (i) the split genes of tRNAs, (ii) the genes of tRNAs with introns, and (iii) the genes of tRNAs continuously codifying for the tRNA molecule. This succession of evolutionary stages identifies the split genes of tRNAs as a pleisiomorphic character. The proof that this succession of evolutionary stages is, moreover, true is performed by proving that all the possible remaining five successions of evolutionary stages are false. Indeed, the succession of evolutionary stages considering split genes as a derived character turns out to be false in that the increase in complexity inherent to this succession cannot be justified by the split genes of tRNAs because these could not have conferred any selective advantage justifying this increase in complexity. Furthermore, genetic drift is unable to explain the evolution of split genes of tRNAs because of the enormous genetic effective size of the population observed in these organisms. The remaining four successions of evolutionary stages are also false because: (i) they are not natural successions of evolutionary stages, (ii) the absolute observed frequencies of these evolutionary stages are such as to exclude categorically that they might be natural successions of evolutionary stages, and also (iii) two of these are falsified by the fact that they do not place the evolutionary stage of genes of tRNAs with introns in a close evolutionary relationship with that of the split genes of tRNAs which can, instead, be proven to have a close evolutionary link. Therefore, there remains only the succession of evolutionary stages considering the split genes of tRNAs codifying for the 5' and 3' halves, as a pleisiomorphic character, as the only succession

  4. Speciation, Phenotypic Variation and Plasticity: What Can Endocrine Disruptors Tell Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala-García, Braulio; López-Santibáñez Guevara, Marta; Marcos-Camacho, Lluvia I.; Fuentes-Farías, Alma L.; Meléndez-Herrera, Esperanza; Gutiérrez-Ospina, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Phenotype variability, phenotypic plasticity, and the inheritance of phenotypic traits constitute the fundamental ground of processes such as individuation, individual and species adaptation and ultimately speciation. Even though traditional evolutionary thinking relies on genetic mutations as the main source of intra- and interspecies phenotypic variability, recent studies suggest that the epigenetic modulation of gene transcription and translation, epigenetic memory, and epigenetic inheritance are by far the most frequent reliable sources of transgenerational variability among viable individuals within and across organismal species. Therefore, individuation and speciation should be considered as nonmutational epigenetic phenomena. PMID:23762055

  5. Simulation of quantitative characters by genes with biochemically definable action. VI. Modifications of a simple model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkmann, G; Seyffert, W

    1977-03-01

    Investigations on metric characters of defined genotypes of Matthiola incana, and application of different linear models for the estimation of genetic parameters, indicate that the use of midparental value as a reference point results in parameter estimates that do not correspond to the actual biological situation. Use of the most recessive genotype as a reference point causes all of the contributions of single loci to be undirectional and positive, and all the allelic and nonallelic interactions to be unidirectional and negative, in accord with our Model 2.2. The results indicate that the phenotypic response to allelic substitutions follows the characteristics of a saturation curve. The possibility is discussed that the saturation character results from regulating processes, whereas deviations of single measurements from the response curve, or response surface, reflect real interactions between allelic and nonallelic genes.

  6. variation, correlation and heritability of interest characters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2016-05-17

    May 17, 2016 ... The objective of this study was to determine genetic variability, strength of association and level of heritability among agronomic interest traits. Phenotypic and genotypic variations and heritability of 14 traits were estimated in 61 accessions at Institut de Développement Rural (IDR), Gampela in Burkina Faso ...

  7. variation, correlation and heritability of interest characters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2016-05-17

    May 17, 2016 ... fruit weight, leaf blade length and width, and height at flowering. In addition, genetic and phenotypic variances were high for the number of seed, fruit weight, plant height at flowering and days to 50% flowering. High heritability estimates were recorded for all traits. Fruit weight showed a positive association ...

  8. Use of morphological characters to identify cassava mosaic disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of morphological characters to identify cassava mosaic disease and cassava bacterial blight resistance. ... Both the improved cassava breeds and local germplasms in the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan expressed wide genetic variability in morphological characters and diseases resistance.

  9. The Dark Cube: dark character profiles and OCEAN

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia, Danilo; Gonzalez Moraga, Fernando R

    2017-01-01

    .... Here we used the Dark Cube (Garcia Rosenberg, 2016), a model of malevolent character theoretically based on Cloningers biopsychosocial model of personality and in the assumption of a ternary structure of malevolent character...

  10. Seafloor character--Offshore of Fort Ross, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Fort Ross, California (raster data file is included in "SeafloorCharacter_OffshoreFortRoss.zip,"...

  11. Seafloor character--Offshore of Salt Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Salt Point, California (raster data file is included in "SeafloorCharacter_SaltPoint.zip," which...

  12. Seafloor character--Offshore of Bodega Head, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Bodega Head, California (raster data file is included in "SeafloorCharacter_BodegaHead.zip,"...

  13. Phenotypic variation in tusta pepper populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric G. Santiago-Luna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to describe agromorphological variability of Oaxaca populations of tusta pepper (Capsicum annuum L.. 31 accessions or sample collections were taken from Santa María Tonameca and Santo Domingo de Morelos, Oaxaca, Mexico. The phenotypic variation was described and classified; hence, pepper samples were sown, transplanted, and characterized at greenhouse conditions in Madgalena Apasco, Oaxaca, from November 2012 to January 2013. The transplantation was done under a randomized complete block design with three replications. Significant differences between means of tusta pepper populations were determined for plant height at 60 and 120 days after transplantation, stem diameter, days to flowering, number of fruits, and fruit length and width. On the other hand, in phenotypic diversity patterns, important differences were determined between the populations from Santa María Tonameca and Santo Domingo de Morelos The latter were highly variable in the characters evaluated. Three phenotypic diversity groups were determined in traits associated to plant, fruit, and yield per plant. The highest weight loss (up to 13.3 g during 30 days of storage at room temperature was quantified for the fruits of major size and density, indicating high water content.

  14. The character strengths of class clowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, Willibald; Platt, Tracey; Hofmann, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of “identified as a class clown,” “comic talent,” “disruptive rule-breaker,” and “subversive joker.” Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park and Peterson, 2006) showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, class clown behaviors were generally shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors “identified as the class clown” and “comic talent” were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors (“disruptive rule-breaker,” “subversive joker”) were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by

  15. The Character Strengths of Class Clowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willibald F. Ruch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of identified as a class clown, comic talent, disruptive rule-breaker, and subversive joker. Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park & Peterson, 2006 showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, generally class clown behaviors were shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors identified as the class clown and comic talent were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors (disruptive rule-breaker, subversive joker were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by teachers.

  16. Recognition and the character of Seneca's Medea.

    OpenAIRE

    Bexley, E. M.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the character and identity of Seneca's Medea. Focusing on the recognition scene at the end of the play, I investigate how Medea constructs herself both as a literary figure and as an implied human personality. The concluding scene of Seneca's Medea raises crucial questions about self-coherence and recognisability: in contrast to other moments of anagnōrisis in Greco-Roman drama, it confirms the pre-existing facets of Medea's identity, rather than revealing new ones. This...

  17. ZBrush Character Creation Advanced Digital Sculpting

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer, Scott

    2011-01-01

    A stunning, content-rich update to this top-selling ZBrush guide! This second edition of ZBrush Character Creation has been fully updated for ZBrush 4, the newest version of this fascinating and popular 3D sculpting software. ZBrush enables users to create detailed organic models using a brush-based toolset and tablet. The startling results look as though they've been painted with real brushes and oils, and ZBrush is increasingly popular for use in film, game, and broadcast pipelines. Author Scott Spencer is embedded in the ZBrush community and his movie credits include Harry Potter and The Or

  18. An interpretation of suicide and murder character elimination in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates character elimination by means of suicide and murder in selected isiXhosa dramas. It is noticed that women characters in particular are most likely to commit suicide when they are frustrated by something. In the selected texts, the characters who commit suicide or murder do not do so by choice, but ...

  19. Character Education of the Most Developed Countries in ASEAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istiningsih

    2016-01-01

    Character education into an international issue, especially in developing countries. More specifically in Indonesia, character education is a major issue in the 2012's to the present. What kind of education that may build character? To be able to answer this question, we need a broad and deep research. Research simpler related to character…

  20. 12 CFR 925.12 - Character of management requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Character of management requirement. 925.12... ASSOCIATES MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Eligibility Requirements § 925.12 Character of management requirement. An applicant shall be deemed to be in compliance with the character of management requirement of section 4(a)(2...

  1. Chinese-Mandarin Table of Simplified Chinese Characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    The table of 545 simplified Chinese characters indicates the proper forms for general use according to the State Council of the People's Republic of China. The simplified characters are arranged according to a system that combines stroke counting and stroke order. Alongside the simplified characters are their traditional and more complex forms,…

  2. Applying Adult Learning Theory through a Character Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the behavior of a character, Celie, in a movie, 'The Color Purple," through the lens of two adult learning theorists to determine the relationships the character has with each theory. The development and portrayal of characters in movies can be explained and understood by the analysis of adult learning…

  3. 50 CFR 80.13 - Substantiality in character and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substantiality in character and design. 80... Substantiality in character and design. All projects proposed for funding under the Acts must be substantial in character and design. A substantial project (for fish and wildlife purposes) is one which: (a) Identifies...

  4. WWC Evidence Review Protocol for Character Education Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Character education is an inclusive concept regarding all aspects of how families, schools, and related social institutions support the positive character development of children and adults. "Character" in this context refers to the moral and ethical qualities of persons as well as the demonstration of those qualities in their emotional…

  5. How Character Complexity Modulates Eye Movement Control in Chinese Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guojie; Li, Xingshan

    2015-01-01

    This empirical study examined whether the visual complexities of the first and second characters in two-character words play similar roles in modulating the fixation time and saccade target selection during un-spaced Chinese reading. Consistent with prior research, words with low-complexity characters were fixated for shorter times than words with…

  6. Evolutionary allometry reveals a shift in selection pressure on male horn size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidière, M; Lemaître, J-F; Pélabon, C; Gimenez, O; Gaillard, J-M

    2017-10-01

    How selection pressures acting within species interact with developmental constraints to shape macro-evolutionary patterns of species divergence is still poorly understood. In particular, whether or not sexual selection affects evolutionary allometry, the increase in trait size with body size across species, of secondary sexual characters, remains largely unknown. In this context, bovid horn size is an especially relevant trait to study because horns are present in both sexes, but the intensity of sexual selection acting on them is expected to vary both among species and between sexes. Using a unique data set of sex-specific horn size and body mass including 91 species of bovids, we compared the evolutionary allometry between horn size and body mass between sexes while accounting for both the intensity of sexual selection and phylogenetic relationship among species. We found a nonlinear evolutionary allometry where the allometric slope decreased with increasing species body mass. This pattern, much more pronounced in males than in females, suggests either that horn size is limited by some constraints in the largest bovids or is no longer the direct target of sexual selection in very large species. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  7. Character Development Through Youth Sport: High School Coaches’ Perspectives about a Character-based Education Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlyn A. Ferris

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined high school sports coaches’ perspectives about a character-based coach education workshop designed to promote positive coaching practices and transform the culture of youth sports. Fifteen coaches (Mage = 42.07, SD = 14.62, 73.3% male provided feedback about Positive Coaching Alliance’s (PCA “Double-Goal Coach” training program and what aspects of the workshop they applied to their coaching practices. Results indicated that coaches believed that participation in PCA workshops contributed to the value coaches attributed to individuals, to coach-oriented character development, and to positive relationships within youth sports. The coaches also suggested changes in future PCA workshops. These findings provide preliminary evidence that coaches’ incorporate skills acquired through participation in character-based coach education programs. We discuss implications for coaches and athletes, and for policies aimed at enhancing positive youth attributes developed through sport.

  8. Seasonality and the evolutionary divergence of plant parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Frédéric M; Castel, Magda; Poggi, Sylvain; Andrivon, Didier; Mailleret, Ludovic

    2011-12-01

    The coexistence of closely related plant parasites is widespread. Yet, understanding the ecological determinants of evolutionary divergence in plant parasites remains an issue. Niche differentiation through resource specialization has been widely researched, but it hardly explains the coexistence of parasites exploiting the same host plant. Time-partitioning has so far received less attention, although in temperate climates, parasites may specialize on either the early or the late season. Accordingly, we investigated whether seasonality can also promote phenotypic divergence. For plant parasites, seasonality generally engenders periodic host absence. To account for abrupt seasonal events, we made use of an epidemic model that combines continuous and discrete dynamics. Based on the assumption of a trade-off between in-season transmission and inter-season survival, we found through an "evolutionary invasion analysis" that evolutionary divergence of the parasite phenotype can occur. Since such a trade-off has been reported, this study provides further ecological bases for the coexistence of closely related plant parasites. Moreover, this study provides original insights into the coexistence of sibling plant pathogens which perform either a single or several infection cycles within a season (mono- and polycyclic diseases, or uni- and multivoltine life cycles).

  9. Evolutionary genomics of yeast pathogens in the Saccharomycotina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo-Ortíz, Miguel A.; Marcet-Houben, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Saccharomycotina comprises a diverse group of yeasts that includes numerous species of industrial or clinical relevance. Opportunistic pathogens within this clade are often assigned to the genus Candida but belong to phylogenetically distant lineages that also comprise non-pathogenic species. This indicates that the ability to infect humans has evolved independently several times among Saccharomycotina. Although the mechanisms of infection of the main groups of Candida pathogens are starting to be unveiled, we still lack sufficient understanding of the evolutionary paths that led to a virulent phenotype in each of the pathogenic lineages. Deciphering what genomic changes underlie the evolutionary emergence of a virulence trait will not only aid the discovery of novel virulence mechanisms but it will also provide valuable information to understand how new pathogens emerge, and what clades may pose a future danger. Here we review recent comparative genomics efforts that have revealed possible evolutionary paths to pathogenesis in different lineages, focusing on the main three agents of candidiasis worldwide: Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata. We will discuss what genomic traits may facilitate the emergence of virulence, and focus on two different genome evolution mechanisms able to generate drastic phenotypic changes and which have been associated to the emergence of virulence: gene family expansion and interspecies hybridization. PMID:27493146

  10. AraPheno: a public database for Arabidopsis thaliana phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seren, Ümit; Grimm, Dominik; Fitz, Joffrey; Weigel, Detlef; Nordborg, Magnus; Borgwardt, Karsten; Korte, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    Natural genetic variation makes it possible to discover evolutionary changes that have been maintained in a population because they are advantageous. To understand genotype–phenotype relationships and to investigate trait architecture, the existence of both high-resolution genotypic and phenotypic data is necessary. Arabidopsis thaliana is a prime model for these purposes. This herb naturally occurs across much of the Eurasian continent and North America. Thus, it is exposed to a wide range of environmental factors and has been subject to natural selection under distinct conditions. Full genome sequencing data for more than 1000 different natural inbred lines are available, and this has encouraged the distributed generation of many types of phenotypic data. To leverage these data for meta analyses, AraPheno (https://arapheno.1001genomes.org) provide a central repository of population-scale phenotypes for A. thaliana inbred lines. AraPheno includes various features to easily access, download and visualize the phenotypic data. This will facilitate a comparative analysis of the many different types of phenotypic data, which is the base to further enhance our understanding of the genotype–phenotype map. PMID:27924043

  11. Adaptive dynamics of competition for nutritionally complementary resources: character convergence, displacement, and parallelism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasseur, David A; Fox, Jeremy W

    2011-10-01

    Consumers acquire essential nutrients by ingesting the tissues of resource species. When these tissues contain essential nutrients in a suboptimal ratio, consumers may benefit from ingesting a mixture of nutritionally complementary resource species. We investigate the joint ecological and evolutionary consequences of competition for complementary resources, using an adaptive dynamics model of two consumers and two resources that differ in their relative content of two essential nutrients. In the absence of competition, a nutritionally balanced diet rarely maximizes fitness because of the dynamic feedbacks between uptake rate and resource density, whereas in sympatry, nutritionally balanced diets maximize fitness because competing consumers with different nutritional requirements tend to equalize the relative abundances of the two resources. Adaptation from allopatric to sympatric fitness optima can generate character convergence, divergence, and parallel shifts, depending not on the degree of diet overlap but on the match between resource nutrient content and consumer nutrient requirements. Contrary to previous verbal arguments that suggest that character convergence leads to neutral stability, coadaptation of competing consumers always leads to stable coexistence. Furthermore, we show that incorporating costs of consuming or excreting excess nonlimiting nutrients selects for nutritionally balanced diets and so promotes character convergence. This article demonstrates that resource-use overlap has little bearing on coexistence when resources are nutritionally complementary, and it highlights the importance of using mathematical models to infer the stability of ecoevolutionary dynamics.

  12. Developmental and ultrastructural characters of the pollen grains and tapetum in species of Nymphaea subgenus Hydrocallis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zini, Lucía Melisa; Galati, Beatriz Gloria; Zarlavsky, Gabriela; Ferrucci, María Silvia

    2017-07-01

    Variations in pollen characters and tapetum behavior were recently acknowledged in the early-divergent family Nymphaeaceae and even within the genus Nymphaea, which probably is not monophyletic; some traits such as infratectum and tapetum type are also a matter of different interpretations. In this study, developmental characters of the pollen grains and tapetum in Nymphaea subgenus Hydrocallis are provided for the first time. Observations were made in N. amazonum, N. gardneriana, and N. prolifera using light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Tapetum is of the secretory type and produces orbicules. At microspore and pollen grain stages, the distal and proximal walls differ considerably. This result supports the operculate condition of the aperture in Hydrocallis, and such aperture might be plesiomorphic for Nymphaeoideae. The infratectum is intermediate, composed of inter-columellae granular elements, robust columellae consisting of agglomerated granules, complete columellae, and fused columellae. Narrow microchannels are present and persist until the mature pollen grain stage. The membranous granular layer is often present in the pollen grains of Nymphaeaceae. In N. gardneriana, this layer is most probably a component of the intine because it is lost after acetolysis. Orbicules in the Nymphaeaceae are characterized as spherical or subspherical, with a smooth sporopolleninic wall that surrounds an electron-lucent core and with individual orbicules that usually merge to give irregular aggregations. The aperture, pollen wall ultrastructure, and the tapetum of the studied species are discussed in an evolutionary and systematic context, and these characters are also compared with those of other angiosperm lineages.

  13. The First Comprehensive Phylogeny of Coptis (Ranunculaceae and Its Implications for Character Evolution and Classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Li Xiang

    Full Text Available Coptis (Ranunculaceae contains 15 species and is one of the pharmaceutically most important plant genera in eastern Asia. Understanding of the evolution of morphological characters and phylogenetic relationships within the genus is very limited. Here, we present the first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the genus based on two plastid and one nuclear markers. The phylogeny was reconstructed using Bayesian inference, as well as maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods. The Swofford-Olsen-Waddell-Hillis and Bayesian tests were used to assess the strength of the conflicts between traditional taxonomic units and those suggested by the phylogenetic inferences. Evolution of morphological characters was inferred using Bayesian method to identify synapomorphies for the infrageneric lineages. Our data recognize two strongly supported clades within Coptis. The first clade contains subgenus Coptis and section Japonocoptis of subgenus Metacoptis, supported by morphological characters, such as traits of the central leaflet base, petal color, and petal shape. The second clade consists of section Japonocoptis of subgenus Metacoptis. Coptis morii is not united with C. quinquefolia, in contrast with the view that C. morii is a synonym of C. quinquefolia. Two varieties of C. chinensis do not cluster together. Coptis groenlandica and C. lutescens are reduced to C. trifolia and C. japonica, respectively. Central leaflet base, sepal shape, and petal blade carry a strong phylogenetic signal in Coptis, while leaf type, sepal and petal color, and petal shape exhibit relatively higher levels of evolutionary flexibility.

  14. Industrial Applications of Evolutionary Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, Ernesto; Tonda, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    This book is intended as a reference both for experienced users of evolutionary algorithms and for researchers that are beginning to approach these fascinating optimization techniques. Experienced users will find interesting details of real-world problems, and advice on solving issues related to fitness computation, modeling and setting appropriate parameters to reach optimal solutions. Beginners will find a thorough introduction to evolutionary computation, and a complete presentation of all evolutionary algorithms exploited to solve different problems. The book could fill the gap between the

  15. Good character at school: Positive classroom behavior mediates the link between character strengths and school achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa eWagner

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Character strengths have been found to be substantially related to children’s and adolescents’ well-being. Initial evidence suggests that they also matter for school success (e.g., Weber and Ruch, 2012. The present set of two studies aimed at replicating and extending these findings in two different age groups, primary school students (N = 179; mean age = 11.6 years and secondary school students (N = 199; mean age = 14.4 years. The students completed the VIA-Youth, a self-report measure of the 24 character strengths in the VIA classification. Their teachers rated the students’ positive behavior in the classroom. Additionally, school achievement was assessed: For the primary school students (Study 1, teachers rated the students’ overall school achievement and for the secondary school students (Study 2, we used their grades as a measure of school achievement. We found that several character strengths were associated with both positive classroom behavior and school achievement. Across both samples school achievement was correlated with love of learning, perseverance, zest, gratitude, hope, and perspective. The strongest correlations with positive classroom behavior were found for perseverance, self-regulation, prudence, social intelligence, and hope. For both samples, there were indirect effects of most of the character strengths on school achievement through teacher-rated positive classroom behavior. The converging findings from the two samples support the notion that character strengths contribute to positive classroom behavior, which in turn enhances school achievement. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research and for school interventions based on character strengths.

  16. Good character at school: positive classroom behavior mediates the link between character strengths and school achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Lisa; Ruch, Willibald

    2015-01-01

    Character strengths have been found to be substantially related to children's and adolescents' well-being. Initial evidence suggests that they also matter for school success (e.g., Weber and Ruch, 2012). The present set of two studies aimed at replicating and extending these findings in two different age groups, primary school students (N = 179; mean age = 11.6 years) and secondary school students (N = 199; mean age = 14.4 years). The students completed the VIA-Youth (Values in Action Inventory of Strengths for Youth), a self-report measure of the 24 character strengths in the VIA classification. Their teachers rated the students' positive behavior in the classroom. Additionally, school achievement was assessed: For the primary school students (Study 1), teachers rated the students' overall school achievement and for the secondary school students (Study 2), we used their grades as a measure of school achievement. We found that several character strengths were associated with both positive classroom behavior and school achievement. Across both samples, school achievement was correlated with love of learning, perseverance, zest, gratitude, hope, and perspective. The strongest correlations with positive classroom behavior were found for perseverance, self-regulation, prudence, social intelligence, and hope. For both samples, there were indirect effects of some of the character strengths on school achievement through teacher-rated positive classroom behavior. The converging findings from the two samples support the notion that character strengths contribute to positive classroom behavior, which in turn enhances school achievement. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research and for school interventions based on character strengths.

  17. Evolutionary biology redux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torday, John S

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a novel, enlightened concept for determining the mechanism of evolution. It is based on homeostasis, which distinguishes life from non-life and as such is the universal mechanism for the evolution of all living organisms. This view of evolution is logical, mechanistic, non-scalar, predictive, testable, and falsifiable, and it illuminates the epistemological relationships between physics and biology, ontogeny and phylogeny, development and aging, ultimate and proximate causation, health and disease. In addition to validating Haeckel's biogenetic law and Lamarckian epigenetics, reflecting the enabling value of the cellular approach, this perspective also expresses the evolutionary process at the cell-molecular level, since the mechanism of cell communication itself is universal in biology, in keeping with a Kuhnian paradigm shift. This approach may even elucidate the nature and evolution of consciousness as a manifestation of the cellular continuum from unicellular to multicellular life. We need such a functional genomic mechanism for the process of evolution if we are to make progress in biology and medicine. Like Copernican heliocentrism, a cellular approach to evolution may fundamentally change humankind's perceptions about our place in the universe.

  18. Experimentally evolved and phenotypically plastic responses to enforced monogamy in a hermaphroditic flatworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicke, T; Sandner, P; Ramm, S A; Vizoso, D B; Schärer, L

    2016-09-01

    Sexual selection is considered a potent evolutionary force in all sexually reproducing organisms, but direct tests in terms of experimental evolution of sexual traits are still lacking for simultaneously hermaphroditic animals. Here, we tested how evolution under enforced monogamy affected a suite of reproductive traits (including testis area, sex allocation, genital morphology, sperm morphology and mating behaviour) in the outcrossing hermaphroditic flatworm Macrostomum lignano, using an assay that also allowed the assessment of phenotypically plastic responses to group size. The experiment comprised 32 independent selection lines that evolved under either monogamy or polygamy for 20 generations. While we did not observe an evolutionary shift in sex allocation, we detected effects of the selection regime for two male morphological traits. Specifically, worms evolving under enforced monogamy had a distinct shape of the male copulatory organ and produced sperm with shorter appendages. Many traits that did not evolve under enforced monogamy showed phenotypic plasticity in response to group size. Notably, individuals that grew up in larger groups had a more male-biased sex allocation and produced slightly longer sperm than individuals raised in pairs. We conclude that, in this flatworm, enforced monogamy induced moderate evolutionary but substantial phenotypically plastic responses. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  19. The phenotypic and genetic covariance structure of drosphilid wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuigan, Katrina; Blows, Mark W

    2007-04-01

    Evolutionary constraint results from the interaction between the distribution of available genetic variation and the position of selective optima. The availability of genetic variance in multitrait systems, as described by the additive genetic variance-covariance matrix (G), has been the subject of recent attempts to assess the prevalence of genetic constraints. However, evolutionary constraints have not yet been considered from the perspective of the phenotypes available to multivariate selection, and whether genetic variance is present in all phenotypes potentially under selection. Determining the rank of the phenotypic variance-covariance matrix (P) to characterize the phenotypes available to selection, and contrasting it with the rank of G, may provide a general approach to determining the prevalence of genetic constraints. In a study of a laboratory population of Drosophila bunnanda from northern Australia we applied factor-analytic modeling to repeated measures of individual wing phenotypes to determine the dimensionality of the phenotypic space described by P. The phenotypic space spanned by the 10 wing traits had 10 statistically supported dimensions. In contrast, factor-analytic modeling of G estimated for the same 10 traits from a paternal half-sibling breeding design suggested G had fewer dimensions than traits. Statistical support was found for only five and two genetic dimensions, describing a total of 99% and 72% of genetic variance in wing morphology in females and males, respectively. The observed mismatch in dimensionality between P and G suggests that although selection might act to shift the intragenerational population mean toward any trait combination, evolution may be restricted to fewer dimensions.

  20. Cooperation between phenotypic plasticity and genetic mutations can account for the cumulative selection in evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Ken; Kinjo, Akira R

    2014-01-01

    We propose the cooperative model of phenotype-driven evolution, in which natural selection operates on a phenotype caused by both genetic and epigenetic factors. The conventional theory of evolutionary synthesis assumes that a phenotypic value (P) is the sum of genotypic value (G) and environmental deviation (E), P=G+E, where E is the fluctuations of the phenotype among individuals in the absence of environmental changes. In contrast, the cooperative model assumes that an evolution is triggered by an environmental change and individuals respond to the change by phenotypic plasticity (epigenetic changes). The phenotypic plasticity, while essentially qualitative, is denoted by a quantitative value F which is modeled as a normal random variable like E, but with a much larger variance. Thus, the fundamental equation of the cooperative model is given as P=G+F where F includes the effect of E. Computer simulations using a genetic algorithm demonstrated that the cooperative model realized much faster evolution than the evolutionary synthesis. This accelerated evolution was found to be due to the cumulative evolution made possible by a ratchet mechanism due to the epigenetic contribution to the phenotypic value. The cooperative model can well account for the phenomenon of genetic assimilation, which, in turn, suggests the mechanism of cumulative selection. The cooperative model may also serve as a theoretical basis to understand various ideas and phenomena of the phenotype-driven evolution such as genetic assimilation, the theory of facilitated phenotypic variation, and epigenetic inheritance over generations.

  1. Phenotypic variation in infants, not adults, reflects genotypic variation among chimpanzees and bonobos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Morimoto

    Full Text Available Studies comparing phenotypic variation with neutral genetic variation in modern humans have shown that genetic drift is a main factor of evolutionary diversification among populations. The genetic population history of our closest living relatives, the chimpanzees and bonobos, is now equally well documented, but phenotypic variation among these taxa remains relatively unexplored, and phenotype-genotype correlations are not yet documented. Also, while the adult phenotype is typically used as a reference, it remains to be investigated how phenotype-genotye correlations change during development. Here we address these questions by analyzing phenotypic evolutionary and developmental diversification in the species and subspecies of the genus Pan. Our analyses focus on the morphology of the femoral diaphysis, which represents a functionally constrained element of the locomotor system. Results show that during infancy phenotypic distances between taxa are largely congruent with non-coding (neutral genotypic distances. Later during ontogeny, however, phenotypic distances deviate from genotypic distances, mainly as an effect of heterochronic shifts between taxon-specific developmental programs. Early phenotypic differences between Pan taxa are thus likely brought about by genetic drift while late differences reflect taxon-specific adaptations.

  2. Phenotypic variation in infants, not adults, reflects genotypic variation among chimpanzees and bonobos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Naoki; Ponce de León, Marcia S; Zollikofer, Christoph P E

    2014-01-01

    Studies comparing phenotypic variation with neutral genetic variation in modern humans have shown that genetic drift is a main factor of evolutionary diversification among populations. The genetic population history of our closest living relatives, the chimpanzees and bonobos, is now equally well documented, but phenotypic variation among these taxa remains relatively unexplored, and phenotype-genotype correlations are not yet documented. Also, while the adult phenotype is typically used as a reference, it remains to be investigated how phenotype-genotye correlations change during development. Here we address these questions by analyzing phenotypic evolutionary and developmental diversification in the species and subspecies of the genus Pan. Our analyses focus on the morphology of the femoral diaphysis, which represents a functionally constrained element of the locomotor system. Results show that during infancy phenotypic distances between taxa are largely congruent with non-coding (neutral) genotypic distances. Later during ontogeny, however, phenotypic distances deviate from genotypic distances, mainly as an effect of heterochronic shifts between taxon-specific developmental programs. Early phenotypic differences between Pan taxa are thus likely brought about by genetic drift while late differences reflect taxon-specific adaptations.

  3. Polytope expansion of Lie characters and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, Mark A., E-mail: walton@uleth.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta T1K 3M4 (Canada)

    2013-12-15

    The weight systems of finite-dimensional representations of complex, simple Lie algebras exhibit patterns beyond Weyl-group symmetry. These patterns occur because weight systems can be decomposed into lattice polytopes in a natural way. Since lattice polytopes are relatively simple, this decomposition is useful, in addition to being more economical than the decomposition into single weights. An expansion of characters into polytope sums follows from the polytope decomposition of weight systems. We study this polytope expansion here. A new, general formula is given for the polytope sums involved. The combinatorics of the polytope expansion are analyzed; we point out that they are reduced from those of the Weyl character formula (described by the Kostant partition function) in an optimal way. We also show that the weight multiplicities can be found easily from the polytope multiplicities, indicating explicitly the equivalence of the two descriptions. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of the polytope expansion by showing how polytope multiplicities can be used in the calculation of tensor product decompositions, and subalgebra branching rules.

  4. The characters of Palaeozoic jawed vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazeau, Martin D; Friedman, Matt

    2014-04-01

    Newly discovered fossils from the Silurian and Devonian periods are beginning to challenge embedded perceptions about the origin and early diversification of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes). Nevertheless, an explicit cladistic framework for the relationships of these fossils relative to the principal crown lineages of the jawed vertebrates (osteichthyans: bony fishes and tetrapods; chondrichthyans: sharks, batoids, and chimaeras) remains elusive. We critically review the systematics and character distributions of early gnathostomes and provide a clearly stated hierarchy of synapomorphies covering the jaw-bearing stem gnathostomes and osteichthyan and chondrichthyan stem groups. We show that character lists, designed to support the monophyly of putative groups, tend to overstate their strength and lack cladistic corroboration. By contrast, synapomorphic hierarchies are more open to refutation and must explicitly confront conflicting evidence. Our proposed synapomorphy scheme is used to evaluate the status of the problematic fossil groups Acanthodii and Placodermi, and suggest profitable avenues for future research. We interpret placoderms as a paraphyletic array of stem-group gnathostomes, and suggest what we regard as two equally plausible placements of acanthodians: exclusively on the chondrichthyan stem, or distributed on both the chondrichthyan and osteichthyan stems.

  5. Strong artificial selection in the wild results in predicted small evolutionary change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, E.; Visser, J.; Van Noordwijk, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Estimates of genetic variation and selection allow for quantitative predictions of evolutionary change, at least in controlled laboratory experiments. Natural populations are, however, different in many ways, and natural selection on heritable traits does not always result in phenotypic change. To

  6. EvoluZion: A Computer Simulator for Teaching Genetic and Evolutionary Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita, Adolfo R.

    2017-01-01

    EvoluZion is a forward-in-time genetic simulator developed in Java and designed to perform real time simulations on the evolutionary history of virtual organisms. These model organisms harbour a set of 13 genes that codify an equal number of phenotypic features. These genes change randomly during replication, and mutant genes can have null,…

  7. Integrating Character Education Model With Spiral System In Chemistry Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartutik; Rusdarti; Sumaryanto; Supartono

    2017-04-01

    Integrating character education is the responsibility of all subject teachers including chemistry teacher. The integration of character education is just administrative requirements so that the character changes are not measurable. The research objective 1) describing the actual conditions giving character education, 2) mapping the character integration of chemistry syllabus with a spiral system, and 3) producing syllabus and guide system integrating character education in chemistry lessons. Of the eighteen value character, each character is mapped to the material chemistry value concepts of class X and repeated the system in class XI and class XII. Spiral system integration means integrating the character values of chemistry subjects in steps from class X to XII repeatedly at different depth levels. Besides developing the syllabus, also made the integration of characters in a learning guide. This research was designed with research and development [3] with the scope of 20 chemistry teachers in Semarang. The focus of the activities is the existence of the current character study, mapping the character values in the syllabus, and assessment of the integration guides of character education. The validity test of Syllabus and Lesson Plans by experts in FGD. The data were taken with questionnaire and interviews, then processed by descriptive analysis. The result shows 1) The factual condition, in general, the teachers designed learning one-time face-to-face with the integration of more than four characters so that behaviour changes and depth of character is poorly controlled, 2) Mapping each character values focused in the syllabus. Meaning, on one or two basic competence in four or five times, face to face, enough integrated with the value of one character. In this way, there are more noticeable changes in students behaviour. Guidance is needed to facilitate the integration of character education for teachers integrating systems. Product syllabus and guidelines

  8. Iterative cross section sequence graph for handwritten character segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawoud, Amer

    2007-08-01

    The iterative cross section sequence graph (ICSSG) is an algorithm for handwritten character segmentation. It expands the cross section sequence graph concept by applying it iteratively at equally spaced thresholds. The iterative thresholding reduces the effect of information loss associated with image binarization. ICSSG preserves the characters' skeletal structure by preventing the interference of pixels that causes flooding of adjacent characters' segments. Improving the structural quality of the characters' skeleton facilitates better feature extraction and classification, which improves the overall performance of optical character recognition (OCR). Experimental results showed significant improvements in OCR recognition rates compared to other well-established segmentation algorithms.

  9. Evolutionary computation for reinforcement learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whiteson, S.; Wiering, M.; van Otterlo, M.

    2012-01-01

    Algorithms for evolutionary computation, which simulate the process of natural selection to solve optimization problems, are an effective tool for discovering high-performing reinforcement-learning policies. Because they can automatically find good representations, handle continuous action spaces,

  10. Evolutionary tradeoffs, Pareto optimality and the morphology of ammonite shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tendler, Avichai; Mayo, Avraham; Alon, Uri

    2015-03-07

    Organisms that need to perform multiple tasks face a fundamental tradeoff: no design can be optimal at all tasks at once. Recent theory based on Pareto optimality showed that such tradeoffs lead to a highly defined range of phenotypes, which lie in low-dimensional polyhedra in the space of traits. The vertices of these polyhedra are called archetypes- the phenotypes that are optimal at a single task. To rigorously test this theory requires measurements of thousands of species over hundreds of millions of years of evolution. Ammonoid fossil shells provide an excellent model system for this purpose. Ammonoids have a well-defined geometry that can be parameterized using three dimensionless features of their logarithmic-spiral-shaped shells. Their evolutionary history includes repeated mass extinctions. We find that ammonoids fill out a pyramid in morphospace, suggesting five specific tasks - one for each vertex of the pyramid. After mass extinctions, surviving species evolve to refill essentially the same pyramid, suggesting that the tasks are unchanging. We infer putative tasks for each archetype, related to economy of shell material, rapid shell growth, hydrodynamics and compactness. These results support Pareto optimality theory as an approach to study evolutionary tradeoffs, and demonstrate how this approach can be used to infer the putative tasks that may shape the natural selection of phenotypes.

  11. Genetic divergence through joint analysis of morphoagronomic and molecular characters in accessions of Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana-Caldas, C N; Silva, S A; Machado, E L; de Souza, D R; Cerqueira-Pereira, E C; Silva, M S

    2016-10-05

    The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic divergence between accessions of Jatropha curcas through joint analysis of morphoagronomic and molecular characters. To this end, we investigated 11 morphoagronomic characters and performed molecular genotyping, using 23 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers in 46 accessions of J. curcas. We calculated the contribution of each character on divergence using analysis of variance. The grouping among accessions was performed using the Ward-MLM (modified location model) method, using morphoagronomic and molecular data, whereas the cophenetic correlation was obtained based on Gower's algorithm. There were significant differences in all growth-related characteristics: number of primary and secondary branches per plant, plant height, and stem diameter. For characters related to grain production, differences were found for number of fruit clusters per plant and number of inflorescence clusters per plant and average number of seeds per fruit. The greatest phenotypic variation was found in plant height (59.67- 222.33 cm), whereas the smallest variation was found in average number of seeds per fruit (0-2.90), followed by the number of fruit clusters per plant (0-8.67). In total, 94 polymorphic ISSR fragments were obtained. The genotypic grouping identified six groups, indicating that there is genetic divergence among the accessions. The most promising crossings for future hybridization were identified among accessions UFRB60 and UFVJC45, and UFRB61 and UFVJC18. In conclusion, the joint analysis of morphoagronomic characters and ISSR markers is an efficient method to assess the genetic divergence in J. curcas.

  12. [Evolutionary basis of ecological diversity in dicotyledons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamaleĭ, Iu V

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary prerequisites of dicots current ecological diversity are studied. Structural and functional differences of the taxa generations replacing one another under the influence of the planet climate changes are described. The results of comparison of plant groups belonging to different subclasses confirm the adaptive parallelism in the structural and functional evolution, as well as the relationship between adaptogenesis and climate changes in Cenozoic. The supposition is made that the system of structural and functional traits of a taxon forms in compliance with climate specificity at the time and place of its establishment. Stability of plant species characters and their environmental requirements is corroborated by shift of species ranges in full accordance with habitat drift under climate changes influence. The similarity of evolutional and zonal series of dicots is shown. The present structural and functional diversity of taxa and ecosystems is considered to be a consequence of dissimilarity in their phylogenetic age. The conclusion is made that the current biological diversity is founded on historical diversity of habitats and plant species being phylogenetically adapted to them.

  13. Plausibility Effects when Reading One- and Two-Character Words in Chinese: Evidence from Eye Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinmian; Staub, Adrian; Li, Nan; Wang, Suiping; Rayner, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Eye movements of Chinese readers were monitored as they read sentences containing a critical character that was either a 1-character word or the initial character of a 2-character word. Due to manipulation of the verb prior to the target word, the 1-character target word (or the first character of the 2-character target word) was either plausible…

  14. Optimal Control of Evolutionary Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, Raj; McLendon, George

    2008-01-01

    Elucidating the fitness measures optimized during the evolution of complex biological systems is a major challenge in evolutionary theory. We present experimental evidence and an analytical framework demonstrating how biochemical networks exploit optimal control strategies in their evolutionary dynamics. Optimal control theory explains a striking pattern of extremization in the redox potentials of electron transport proteins, assuming only that their fitness measure is a control objective functional with bounded controls.

  15. Evolutionary trade-offs in kidney injury and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yutian; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2017-11-01

    Evolutionary medicine has proven helpful to understand the origin of human disease, e.g. in identifying causal roles of recent environmental changes impacting on human physiology (environment-phenotype mismatch). In contrast, diseases affecting only a limited number of members of a species often originate from evolutionary trade-offs for usually physiologic adaptations assuring reproductive success in the context of extrinsic threats. For example, the G1 and G2 variants of the APOL1 gene supporting control of Trypanosoma infection come with the trade-off that they promote the progression of kidney disease. In this review we extend the concept of evolutionary nephrology by discussing how the physiologic adaptations (danger responses) to tissue injury create evolutionary trade-offs that drive histopathological changes underlying acute and chronic kidney diseases. The evolution of multicellular organisms positively selected a number of danger response programs for their overwhelming benefits in assuring survival such as clotting, inflammation, epithelial healing and mesenchymal healing, i.e. fibrosis and sclerosis. Upon kidney injury these danger programs often present as pathomechanisms driving persistent nephron loss and renal failure. We explore how classic kidney disease entities involve insufficient or overshooting activation of these danger response programs for which the underlying genetic basis remains largely to be defined. Dissecting the causative and hierarchical relationships between danger programs should help to identify molecular targets to control kidney injury and to improve disease outcomes.

  16. Evolutionary genomics of animal personality

    OpenAIRE

    van Oers, Kees; Mueller, Jakob C.

    2010-01-01

    Research on animal personality can be approached from both a phenotypic and a genetic perspective. While using a phenotypic approach one can measure present selection on personality traits and their combinations. However, this approach cannot reconstruct the historical trajectory that was taken by evolution. Therefore, it is essential for our understanding of the causes and consequences of personality diversity to link phenotypic variation in personality traits with polymorphisms in genomic r...

  17. How familiar characters influence children's judgments about information and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danovitch, Judith H; Mills, Candice M

    2014-12-01

    Children are exposed to advertisements and products that incorporate familiar characters, such as Dora the Explorer and Bob the Builder, virtually from birth. How does the presence of these characters influence children's judgments about information and products? Three experiments (N=125) explored how 4-year-olds evaluate messages from familiar characters and how their trust in a familiar character's testimony relates to their product preferences. Children endorsed objective and subjective claims made by a familiar character more often than those made by a perceptually similar but unfamiliar character even in situations where they had evidence that the familiar character was unreliable. Children also preferred low-quality products bearing a familiar character's image over high-quality products without a character image up to 74% of the time (whereas control groups preferred the low-quality products less than 6% of the time when they did not include a character image). These findings suggest that young children are powerfully influenced by familiar characters encountered in the media, leaving them vulnerable to advertising messages and clouding their judgments about products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Model Pembelajaran Character Building dan Implikasinya Terhadap Perilaku Mahasiswa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Masrukhin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Character Building Subject is required for students in preparation to face the world outside the campus, workplace, society, peers, and even family. Character Building is a process or efforts done to develop, improve and/or to shape characters, dispositions, psychological nature, morals (manners of human beings (people that indicate attitudes and good behaviors. Values and factors that influence the Character Building are spirit, togetherness, and caring. The concept of Character Building which could be obtained in formal institutions (campus, informal institutions (family, and non-formal institutions (courses, student spiritual clubs has an influence and impact on the character of students, whether intentional or not. Nevertheless, it will not happen if there is no self-consciousness in the student. Good Character Building will also be a benchmark in the workplace. Learning Character Building that students get apparently contributes to the formation of student character, of which influences their behaviors. The effect can be seen from the attitude of students such as honesty, trustworthiness in maintaining trust and job given. Character Building is a subject that imparts the values of good behavior to students; and therefore when they jump into the workplace, there will no longer happen the cases of corruption and fraud resulting from the dishonesty because people like that do not have a good character.  

  19. Cranial shape and correlated characters in crocodilian evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadleir, Rudyard W; Makovicky, Peter J

    2008-11-01

    Crocodilians show a high degree of cranial variation and convergence throughout their 80 million-year fossil record that complicates their phylogenetic reconstruction. Conflicting phylogenetic results from different data partitions and character homoplasies typify crocodilian phylogeny, and differences between molecular and morphological phylogenetic hypotheses are believed to be associated with the slender-snout skull shape of Gavialis gangeticus and Tomistoma schlegelii. Slender-snout skulls are one of five identified eusuchian cranial ecomorph shape categories (ESCs) thought to reflect functional or ecological specialization. This paper tested the effect of transitions among general, blunt and slender ESCs on cranial character-state distributions in phylogeny using the concentrated changes test. In addition, 'tree-free' character compatibility analysis of character independence was conducted on the morphological character matrix to determine if character correlations are observed independent of specific tree topologies. Results suggest cranial ESCs do affect cranial character-state gains in phylogeny. Concentrated changes identify a broad suite of character-state changes that significantly correlate with transitions to slender, general and blunt ESCs on morphological, molecular and combined-data tree topologies, but numbers of correlated characters for each category differ according to topology. Character compatibility analysis results do not mirror the concentrated changes test results and reflect hierarchically distributed support throughout the data. As cranial ESCs affect character-state transitions, it is possible that nonphylogenetic variables could affect inferences of crocodilian phylogeny by affecting cranial morphology.

  20. READING LITERATURE, TAKING PHILOSOPHICAL IDEAS, AND OBTAINING CHARACTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Maisaroh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe the philosophical ideas and characters containing in trilogy of 'RaraMendut's' novel by YB Mangunwijaya. The method used is the knowledge archeology of Michel Foucault. The research proves that the philosophical ideas as follows: 1 wife's faithfulness contains characters of wife’s strong determination and true faithfulness sense; 2 The women seizing fate's  contains the character of high struggle spirit;3 women as a glory’s symbol contains character of self-actualization ability; 4 women and a country's defense contains a character of clever to take on the role / responsive; 5 women and their benefits contains the character as a source of love and life spirit; 6 women as good mothers contains the character of conciliatory, reassuring, joyful, sincere, and full of love; 7 the anxiety to old age contains the character of religious and strong self-awareness; 8 the glory contains the character of the glory of battle with themselves; 9 the child's nature contains the character of belief in the skill/ creativity of children and believe to God the Evolver; And 10 the essence of wisdom and usefulness of life contain  the characters of uniting the scattered things, receiving and embracing sincerely things bad/ broken/ waste, understanding and forgiving, voice sincerity and excitement, not easy to complain.

  1. The Contaminant Cobweb: Complex Characters and Monstrous Mashup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech Albertsen, Anita Nell

    2017-01-01

    This article maps out character complexity in Penny Dreadful by focusing on the intertextuality of monstrous female characters. The aim of this study is twofold. First, it seeks to examine show how mashup characters gain complexity through textual contamination as they are woven into an intertext......This article maps out character complexity in Penny Dreadful by focusing on the intertextuality of monstrous female characters. The aim of this study is twofold. First, it seeks to examine show how mashup characters gain complexity through textual contamination as they are woven...... into an intertextual cobweb of signification. Secondly, it aims at examining how monstrous complex characters like Vanessa Ives can be conceived as mashups contaminated by different manifestations of the monstrous-feminine as coined by Barbara Creed. An overarching hypothesis of this study is that interfigural...

  2. Consciousness and abilities of dream characters observed during lucid dreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholey, P

    1989-04-01

    A description of several phenomenological experiments is given. These were done to investigate of which cognitive accomplishments dream characters are capable in lucid dreams. Nine male experienced lucid dreamers participated as subjects. They were directed to set different tasks to dream characters they met while lucid dreaming. Dream characters were asked to draw or write, to name unknown words, to find rhyme words, to make verses, and to solve arithmetic problems. Part of the dream characters actually agreed to perform the tasks and were successful, although the arithmetic accomplishments were poor. From the phenomenological findings, nothing contradicts the assumption that dream characters have consciousness in a specific sense. Herefrom the conclusion was drawn, that in lucid dream therapy communication with dream characters should be handled as if they were rational beings. Finally, several possibilities of assessing the question, whether dream characters possess consciousness, can be examined with the aid of psychophysiological experiments.

  3. Accelerating Progress: A New Era of Research on Character Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Sarah; Bollinger, Richard

    2017-06-01

    Adolescent character development is a high priority for educators, policymakers, and front-line youth workers. To meet this growing demand, and as exemplified in the five articles in this special section, character development scholars are drawing from a range of academic disciplines to push beyond the traditional boundaries of the science of character development. These articles highlight important trends in character research, including the co-development of a subset of character strengths, the articulation of developmental trajectories of character, the use of advanced methodological approaches, and the implications for education. Studies such as these are critically important for establishing the research base that will be used to design the character development programs of tomorrow.

  4. Character education in perspective of chemistry pre-service teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merdekawati, Krisna

    2017-12-01

    As one of the pre-service teacher education programs, Chemistry Education Department Islamic University of Indonesia (UII) is committed to providing quality education. It is an education that can produce competent and characteristic chemistry pre-service teacher. The focus of research is to describe the perception of students as a potential teacher of chemistry on character education and achievement of character education. The research instruments include questionnaires and observation sheets. Research data show that students have understood the importance of character education and committed to organizing character education later in schools. Students have understood the ways in which character education can be used. The students stated that Chemistry Education Department has tried to equip students with character education. The observation result shows that students generally have character as a pre-service teacher.

  5. Evolutionary Origin of Euglena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakryś, Bożena; Milanowski, Rafał; Karnkowska, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Euglenids (Excavata, Discoba, Euglenozoa, Euglenida) is a group of free-living, single-celled flagellates living in the aquatic environments. The uniting and unique morphological feature of euglenids is the presence of a cell covering called the pellicle. The morphology and organization of the pellicle correlate well with the mode of nutrition and cell movement. Euglenids exhibit diverse modes of nutrition, including phagotrophy and photosynthesis. Photosynthetic species (Euglenophyceae) constitute a single subclade within euglenids. Their plastids embedded by three membranes arose as the result of a secondary endosymbiosis between phagotrophic eukaryovorous euglenid and the Pyramimonas-related green alga. Within photosynthetic euglenids three evolutionary lineages can be distinguished. The most basal lineage is formed by one mixotrophic species, Rapaza viridis. Other photosynthetic euglenids are split into two groups: predominantly marine Eutreptiales and freshwater Euglenales. Euglenales are divided into two families: Phacaceae, comprising three monophyletic genera (Discoplastis, Lepocinclis, Phacus) and Euglenaceae with seven monophyletic genera (Euglenaformis, Euglenaria, Colacium, Cryptoglena, Strombomonas, Trachelomonas, Monomorphina) and polyphyletic genus Euglena. For 150 years researchers have been studying Euglena based solely on morphological features what resulted in hundreds of descriptions of new taxa and many artificial intra-generic classification systems. In spite of the progress towards defining Euglena, it still remains polyphyletic and morphologically almost undistinguishable from members of the recently described genus Euglenaria; members of both genera have cells undergoing metaboly (dynamic changes in cell shape), large chloroplasts with pyrenoids and monomorphic paramylon grains. Model organisms Euglena gracilis Klebs, the species of choice for addressing fundamental questions in eukaryotic biochemistry, cell and molecular biology, is a

  6. Molluscan Evolutionary Genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simison, W. Brian; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-12-01

    In the last 20 years there have been dramatic advances in techniques of high-throughput DNA sequencing, most recently accelerated by the Human Genome Project, a program that has determined the three billion base pair code on which we are based. Now this tremendous capability is being directed at other genome targets that are being sampled across the broad range of life. This opens up opportunities as never before for evolutionary and organismal biologists to address questions of both processes and patterns of organismal change. We stand at the dawn of a new 'modern synthesis' period, paralleling that of the early 20th century when the fledgling field of genetics first identified the underlying basis for Darwin's theory. We must now unite the efforts of systematists, paleontologists, mathematicians, computer programmers, molecular biologists, developmental biologists, and others in the pursuit of discovering what genomics can teach us about the diversity of life. Genome-level sampling for mollusks to date has mostly been limited to mitochondrial genomes and it is likely that these will continue to provide the best targets for broad phylogenetic sampling in the near future. However, we are just beginning to see an inroad into complete nuclear genome sequencing, with several mollusks and other eutrochozoans having been selected for work about to begin. Here, we provide an overview of the state of molluscan mitochondrial genomics, highlight a few of the discoveries from this research, outline the promise of broadening this dataset, describe upcoming projects to sequence whole mollusk nuclear genomes, and challenge the community to prepare for making the best use of these data.

  7. What a Character! Character Study as a Guide to Literary Meaning Making in Grades K?8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roser, Nancy L., Ed.; Martinez, Miriam G., Ed.; Yokota, Junko; O'Neal, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    Bring text and its meaning alive for students! This collection offers the perspectives of classroom teachers, researchers, and children's book authors, including award-winners Kate DiCamillo and Katherine Paterson. Together, they share their thoughts on the power of character study and how to use it to guide elementary-and middle-grade students…

  8. Boolean logic and character state identity: pitfalls of character coding in metazoan cladistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenner, Ronald A.

    2002-01-01

    A critical study of the morphological data sets used for the most recent analyses of metazoan cladistics exposes a rather cavalier attitude towards character coding. Binary absence/presence coding is ubiquitous, but without any explicit justification. This uncompromising application of Boolean logic

  9. Games of Character: Team Sports, Games, and Character Development in Victorian Public Schools, 1850-1900

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishon, Gideon

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the ascendance of team sports as tools of "character building" in British Victorian public schools in the second half of the nineteenth century. The focus of this enquiry is the commonly overlooked pedagogical innovation underlying this process--the utilisation of "organised games" as educational tools.…

  10. Explaining the role of character development in the evaluation of morally ambiguous characters in entertainment media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleemans, M.; Eden, A.; Daalmans, S.; Ommen, M.E. van; Weijers, G.W.M.

    2017-01-01

    The current project aims at better understanding how narrative characteristics in stories function in the liking, moral evaluation, and enjoyment of narratives featuring morally ambiguous characters (MACs). Shafer and Raney (2012) found that viewers differently enjoyed a heroic versus MAC-centered

  11. Using evolutionary demography to link life history theory, quantitative genetics and population ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, Tim; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Childs, Dylan Z

    2010-11-01

    1. There is a growing number of empirical reports of environmental change simultaneously influencing population dynamics, life history and quantitative characters. We do not have a well-developed understanding of links between the dynamics of these quantities. 2. Insight into the joint dynamics of populations, quantitative characters and life history can be gained by deriving a model that allows the calculation of fundamental quantities that underpin population ecology, evolutionary biology and life history. The parameterization and analysis of such a model for a specific system can be used to predict how a population will respond to environmental change. 3. Age-stage-structured models can be constructed from character-demography associations that describe age-specific relationships between the character and: (i) survival; (ii) fertility; (iii) ontogenetic development of the character among survivors; and (iv) the distribution of reproductive allocation. 4. These models can be used to calculate a wide range of useful biological quantities including population growth and structure; terms in the Price equation including selection differentials; estimates of biometric heritabilities; and life history descriptors including generation time. We showcase the method through parameterization of a model using data from a well-studied population of Soay sheep Ovis aries. 5. Perturbation analysis is used to investigate how the quantities listed in summary point 4 change as each parameter in each character-demography function is altered. 6. A wide range of joint dynamics of life history, quantitative characters and population growth can be generated in response to changes in different character-demography associations; we argue this explains the diversity of observations on the consequences of environmental change from studies of free-living populations. 7. The approach we describe has the potential to explain within and between species patterns in quantitative characters, life

  12. Pancreatic cancer biology and genetics from an evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makohon-Moore, Alvin; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is an evolutionary disease, containing the hallmarks of an asexually reproducing unicellular organism subject to evolutionary paradigms. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (hereafter referred to as pancreatic cancer) is a particularly robust example of this phenomenon. Genomic features indicate that pancreatic cancer cells are selected for fitness advantages when encountering the geographic and resource-depleted constraints of the microenvironment. Phenotypic adaptations to these pressures help disseminated cells to survive in secondary sites, a major clinical problem for patients with this disease. In this Review we gather the wide-ranging aspects of pancreatic cancer research into a single concept rooted in Darwinian evolution, with the goal of identifying novel insights and opportunities for study.

  13. Comparative Advantages of Spin-off Firms: An Evolutionary Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgehan Uzunca

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available As predicted by evolutionary economics, historical antecedents matter when it comes to the relationship between survival of entrants and organizational capabilities. Spinoff firms provide an exemplary case of such relationship where the founders’ pre-entry capabilities that are inherited from the parent firm increases their survival chances. Looking closer and deeper to the evolutionary spinoff success mechanisms, I examine three specific genetic features which make spinoff firms more advantageous compared to other entrants; namely 1 Genotype: Transfer of blueprint, 2 Phenotype: Organizational learning, and 3 Memes: Informal relations and social capital. A detailed theoretical analysis of each mechanism prevails how they function and provide sustainable competitive advantage to spinoff firms. Testable hypotheses are provided about each mechanism.

  14. Pancreatic cancer biology and genetics from an evolutionary perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makohon-Moore, Alvin; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A.

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is an evolutionary disease, containing the hallmarks of an asexually reproducing unicellular organism subject to evolutionary paradigms. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (hereafter referred to as pancreatic cancer) is a particularly robust example of this phenomenon. Genomic features indicate that pancreatic cancer cells are selected for fitness advantages when encountering the geographic and resource-depleted constraints of the microenvironment. Phenotypic adaptations to these pressures help disseminated cells to survive in secondary sites, a major clinical problem for patients with this disease. In this Review we gather the wide-ranging aspects of pancreatic cancer research into a single concept rooted in Darwinian evolution, with the goal of identifying novel insights and opportunities for study. PMID:27444064

  15. Gilbert Gottlieb: intermediator between psychology and evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Jay S

    2007-12-01

    This article describes and evaluates Gilbert Gottlieb's role as an intermediator between psychology and evolutionary biology. He proposed that altered developmental conditions gave rise to new behavioral phenotypes (behavioral neophenotypes) that could provide the basis for initiating speciation. As an example, Gottlieb cited sympatric speciation of two species of fruit flies (Rhageletis pomella), which he believed was based on an ontogenetic shift in pupal feeding on apples or hawthorn fruit which determined their adult selection of apple or hawthorn trees for ovipositing. Recent evidence has provided additional links in the process of speciation of these fruit flies. Unlike other efforts to incorporate evolution in psychology, Gottlieb's theoretical contribution was based on actual evolutionary processes including recent developments in the field of evo-devo.

  16. Macroevolutionary patterns in the evolutionary radiation of archosaurs (Tetrapoda:Diapsida)

    OpenAIRE

    Brusatte, S.L.; Benton, M.J.; Ruta, M.; Lloyd, G.T.; Wang, Steve C.

    2010-01-01

    The rise of archosaurs during the Triassic and Early Jurassic has been treated as a classic example of an evolutionary radiation in the fossil record. This paper reviews published studies and provides new data on archosaur lineage origination, diversity and lineage evolution, morphological disparity, rates of morphological character change, and faunal abundance during the Triassic-Early Jurassic. The fundamental archosaur lineages originated early in the Triassic, in concert with the highest ...

  17. Braille character discrimination in blindfolded human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Thomas; Théoret, Hugo; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2002-04-16

    Visual deprivation may lead to enhanced performance in other sensory modalities. Whether this is the case in the tactile modality is controversial and may depend upon specific training and experience. We compared the performance of sighted subjects on a Braille character discrimination task to that of normal individuals blindfolded for a period of five days. Some participants in each group (blindfolded and sighted) received intensive Braille training to offset the effects of experience. Blindfolded subjects performed better than sighted subjects in the Braille discrimination task, irrespective of tactile training. For the left index finger, which had not been used in the formal Braille classes, blindfolding had no effect on performance while subjects who underwent tactile training outperformed non-stimulated participants. These results suggest that visual deprivation speeds up Braille learning and may be associated with behaviorally relevant neuroplastic changes.

  18. Eavesdropping on Character: Assessing Everyday Moral Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollich, Kathryn L; Doris, John M; Vazire, Simine; Raison, Charles L; Jackson, Joshua J; Mehl, Matthias R

    2016-04-01

    Despite decades of interest in moral character, comparatively little is known about moral behavior in everyday life. This paper reports a novel method for assessing everyday moral behaviors using the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR)-a digital audio-recorder that intermittently samples snippets of ambient sounds from people's environments-and examines the stability of these moral behaviors. In three samples (combined N = 186), participants wore an EAR over one or two weekends. Audio files were coded for everyday moral behaviors (e.g., showing sympathy, gratitude) and morally-neutral comparison language behaviors (e.g., use of prepositions, articles). Results indicate that stable individual differences in moral behavior can be systematically observed in daily life, and that their stability is comparable to the stability of neutral language behaviors.

  19. Diversity, disparity, and evolutionary rate estimation for unresolved Yule trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Forrest W; Suchard, Marc A

    2013-05-01

    The branching structure of biological evolution confers statistical dependencies on phenotypic trait values in related organisms. For this reason, comparative macroevolutionary studies usually begin with an inferred phylogeny that describes the evolutionary relationships of the organisms of interest. The probability of the observed trait data can be computed by assuming a model for trait evolution, such as Brownian motion, over the branches of this fixed tree. However, the phylogenetic tree itself contributes statistical uncertainty to estimates of rates of phenotypic evolution, and many comparative evolutionary biologists regard the tree as a nuisance parameter. In this article, we present a framework for analytically integrating over unknown phylogenetic trees in comparative evolutionary studies by assuming that the tree arises from a continuous-time Markov branching model called the Yule process. To do this, we derive a closed-form expression for the distribution of phylogenetic diversity (PD), which is the sum of branch lengths connecting the species in a clade. We then present a generalization of PD which is equivalent to the expected trait disparity in a set of taxa whose evolutionary relationships are generated by a Yule process and whose traits evolve by Brownian motion. We find expressions for the distribution of expected trait disparity under a Yule tree. Given one or more observations of trait disparity in a clade, we perform fast likelihood-based estimation of the Brownian variance for unresolved clades. Our method does not require simulation or a fixed phylogenetic tree. We conclude with a brief example illustrating Brownian rate estimation for 12 families in the mammalian order Carnivora, in which the phylogenetic tree for each family is unresolved.

  20. Lefschetz-Pontrjagin duality for differential characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REESE HARVEY

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A theory of differential characters is developed for manifolds with boundary. This is done from both the Cheeger-Simons and the deRham-Federer viewpoints. The central result of the paper is the formulation and proof of a Lefschetz-Pontrjagin Duality Theorem, which asserts that the pairing given by (alpha, beta (alpha * beta [X] induces isomorphisms onto the smooth Pontrjagin duals. In particular, and are injective with dense range in the group of all continuous homomorphisms into the circle. A coboundary map is introduced which yields a long sequence for the character groups associated to the pair (X, X. The relation of the sequence to the duality mappings is analyzed.Uma teoria de caracteres diferenciais é aqui desenvolvida para variedades com bordo. Isto é feito tanto do ponto de vista de Cheeger-Simons como do deRham-Federer. O resultado central deste artigo é a formulação e a prova de um teorema da dualidade de Lefschetz-Pontrjagin, que afirma que o pareamento dado por (alfa,beta (alfa * beta [X] induz isomorfismos sobre os duais diferenciáveis de Pontrjagin. Em particular, e são injetivos com domínios densos no grupo de todos os homeomorfismos contínuos no círculo. Uma aplicação de cobordo é introduzida, a qual fornece uma sequência longa para os grupos de caracteres associados ao par ( X, X. A relação desta sequência com as aplicações de dualidade é analisada.