Sample records for evolutionary autonomous agents

  1. Evolutionary autonomous agents and the nature of apraxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Frank


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolutionary autonomous agents are robots or robot simulations whose controller is a dynamical neural network and whose evolution occurs autonomously under the guidance of a fitness function without the detailed or explicit direction of an external programmer. They are embodied agents with a simple neural network controller and as such they provide the optimal forum by which sensorimotor interactions in a specified environment can be studied without the computational assumptions inherent in standard neuroscience. Methods Evolutionary autonomous agents were evolved that were able to perform identical movements under two different contexts, one which represented an automatic movement and one which had a symbolic context. In an attempt to model the automatic-voluntary dissociation frequently seen in ideomotor apraxia, lesions were introduced into the neural network controllers resulting in a behavioral dissociation with loss of the ability to perform the movement which had a symbolic context and preservation of the simpler, automatic movement. Results Analysis of the changes in the hierarchical organization of the networks in the apractic EAAs demonstrated consistent changes in the network dynamics across all agents with loss of longer duration time scales in the network dynamics. Conclusion The concepts of determinate motor programs and perceptual representations that are implicit in the present day understanding of ideomotor apraxia are assumptions inherent in the computational understanding of brain function. The strength of the present study using EAAs to model one aspect of ideomotor apraxia is the absence of these assumptions and a grounding of all sensorimotor interactions in an embodied, autonomous agent. The consistency of the hierarchical changes in the network dynamics across all apractic agents demonstrates that this technique is tenable and will be a valuable adjunct to a computational formalism in the understanding

  2. Evolutionary Autonomous Health Monitoring System (EAHMS) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For supporting NASA's Robotics, Tele-Robotics and Autonomous Systems Roadmap, we are proposing the "Evolutionary Autonomous Health Monitoring System" (EAHMS) for...

  3. Collaborating with Autonomous Agents (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Cross, Charles D.; Fan, Henry; Hempley, Lucas E.; Motter, Mark A.; Neilan, James H.; Qualls, Garry D.; Rothhaar, Paul M.; Tran, Loc D.; Allen, B. Danette


    With the anticipated increase of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) entering into the National Airspace System, it is highly likely that vehicle operators will be teaming with fleets of small autonomous vehicles. The small vehicles may consist of sUAS, which are 55 pounds or less that typically will y at altitudes 400 feet and below, and small ground vehicles typically operating in buildings or defined small campuses. Typically, the vehicle operators are not concerned with manual control of the vehicle; instead they are concerned with the overall mission. In order for this vision of high-level mission operators working with fleets of vehicles to come to fruition, many human factors related challenges must be investigated and solved. First, the interface between the human operator and the autonomous agent must be at a level that the operator needs and the agents can understand. This paper details the natural language human factors e orts that NASA Langley's Autonomy Incubator is focusing on. In particular these e orts focus on allowing the operator to interact with the system using speech and gestures rather than a mouse and keyboard. With this ability of the system to understand both speech and gestures, operators not familiar with the vehicle dynamics will be able to easily plan, initiate, and change missions using a language familiar to them rather than having to learn and converse in the vehicle's language. This will foster better teaming between the operator and the autonomous agent which will help lower workload, increase situation awareness, and improve performance of the system as a whole.

  4. Chaotic neurodynamics for autonomous agents. (United States)

    Harter, Derek; Kozma, Robert


    Mesoscopic level neurodynamics study the collective dynamical behavior of neural populations. Such models are becoming increasingly important in understanding large-scale brain processes. Brains exhibit aperiodic oscillations with a much more rich dynamical behavior than fixed-point and limit-cycle approximation allow. Here we present a discretized model inspired by Freeman's K-set mesoscopic level population model. We show that this version is capable of replicating the important principles of aperiodic/chaotic neurodynamics while being fast enough for use in real-time autonomous agent applications. This simplification of the K model provides many advantages not only in terms of efficiency but in simplicity and its ability to be analyzed in terms of its dynamical properties. We study the discrete version using a multilayer, highly recurrent model of the neural architecture of perceptual brain areas. We use this architecture to develop example action selection mechanisms in an autonomous agent.

  5. Self-Adapting Reactive Autonomous Agents (United States)

    Andrecut, M.; Ali, M. K.

    This paper describes a new self-adapting control algorithm for reactive autonomous agents. The architecture of the autonomous agents integrates the reactive behavior with reinforcement learning. We show how these components perform on-line adaptation of the autonomous agents to various complex navigation situations by constructing an internal model of the environment. Also, a discussion on cooperation and coordination of teams of agents is presented.

  6. Multi-agent autonomous system (United States)

    Fink, Wolfgang (Inventor); Dohm, James (Inventor); Tarbell, Mark A. (Inventor)


    A multi-agent autonomous system for exploration of hazardous or inaccessible locations. The multi-agent autonomous system includes simple surface-based agents or craft controlled by an airborne tracking and command system. The airborne tracking and command system includes an instrument suite used to image an operational area and any craft deployed within the operational area. The image data is used to identify the craft, targets for exploration, and obstacles in the operational area. The tracking and command system determines paths for the surface-based craft using the identified targets and obstacles and commands the craft using simple movement commands to move through the operational area to the targets while avoiding the obstacles. Each craft includes its own instrument suite to collect information about the operational area that is transmitted back to the tracking and command system. The tracking and command system may be further coupled to a satellite system to provide additional image information about the operational area and provide operational and location commands to the tracking and command system.

  7. Needs, Pains, and Motivations in Autonomous Agents. (United States)

    Starzyk, Janusz A; Graham, James; Puzio, Leszek

    This paper presents the development of a motivated learning (ML) agent with symbolic I/O. Our earlier work on the ML agent was enhanced, giving it autonomy for interaction with other agents. Specifically, we equipped the agent with drives and pains that establish its motivations to learn how to respond to desired and undesired events and create related abstract goals. The purpose of this paper is to explore the autonomous development of motivations and memory in agents within a simulated environment. The ML agent has been implemented in a virtual environment created within the NeoAxis game engine. Additionally, to illustrate the benefits of an ML-based agent, we compared the performance of our algorithm against various reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms in a dynamic test scenario, and demonstrated that our ML agent learns better than any of the tested RL agents.This paper presents the development of a motivated learning (ML) agent with symbolic I/O. Our earlier work on the ML agent was enhanced, giving it autonomy for interaction with other agents. Specifically, we equipped the agent with drives and pains that establish its motivations to learn how to respond to desired and undesired events and create related abstract goals. The purpose of this paper is to explore the autonomous development of motivations and memory in agents within a simulated environment. The ML agent has been implemented in a virtual environment created within the NeoAxis game engine. Additionally, to illustrate the benefits of an ML-based agent, we compared the performance of our algorithm against various reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms in a dynamic test scenario, and demonstrated that our ML agent learns better than any of the tested RL agents.

  8. Behavioural domain knowledge transfer for autonomous agents

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosman, Benjamin S


    Full Text Available task independent behaviour model based on the underlying structure of a domain which is common across multiple tasks presented to an autonomous agent. Our approach involves learning action priors: a behavioural model which encodes a notion of local...

  9. A Diversified Investment Strategy Using Autonomous Agents (United States)

    Barbosa, Rui Pedro; Belo, Orlando

    In a previously published article, we presented an architecture for implementing agents with the ability to trade autonomously in the Forex market. At the core of this architecture is an ensemble of classification and regression models that is used to predict the direction of the price of a currency pair. In this paper, we will describe a diversified investment strategy consisting of five agents which were implemented using that architecture. By simulating trades with 18 months of out-of-sample data, we will demonstrate that data mining models can produce profitable predictions, and that the trading risk can be diminished through investment diversification.

  10. Autonomous Formations of Multi-Agent Systems (United States)

    Dhali, Sanjana; Joshi, Suresh M.


    Autonomous formation control of multi-agent dynamic systems has a number of applications that include ground-based and aerial robots and satellite formations. For air vehicles, formation flight ("flocking") has the potential to significantly increase airspace utilization as well as fuel efficiency. This presentation addresses two main problems in multi-agent formations: optimal role assignment to minimize the total cost (e.g., combined distance traveled by all agents); and maintaining formation geometry during flock motion. The Kuhn-Munkres ("Hungarian") algorithm is used for optimal assignment, and consensus-based leader-follower type control architecture is used to maintain formation shape despite the leader s independent movements. The methods are demonstrated by animated simulations.

  11. Planning of Autonomous Multi-agent Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viksnin Ilya I.


    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a traffic management system with agents acting on behalf autonomous vehicle at the crossroads. Alternatively to existing solutions based on usage of semiautonomous control systems with the control unit, proposed in this paper algorithm apply the principles of decentralized multi-agent control. Agents during their collaboration generate intersection plan and determinate the optimal order of road intersection for a given criterion based on the exchange of information about them and their environment. The paper contains optimization criteria for possible routes selection and experiments that perform in order to estimate the proposed model. Experiment results show that this model can significantly reduce traffic density compared to the traditional traffic management systems. Moreover, the proposed algorithm efficiency increases with road traffic density. Furthermore, the availability of control unit in the system significantly reduces the negative impact of possible failures and hacker attacks.

  12. Apoptosis and Self-Destruct: A Contribution to Autonomic Agents? (United States)

    Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Mike


    Autonomic Computing (AC), a self-managing systems initiative based on the biological metaphor of the autonomic nervous system, is increasingly gaining momentum as the way forward in designing reliable systems. Agent technologies have been identified as a key enabler for engineering autonomicity in systems, both in terms of retrofitting autonomicity into legacy systems and designing new systems. The AC initiative provides an opportunity to consider other biological systems and principles in seeking new design strategies. This paper reports on one such investigation; utilizing the apoptosis metaphor of biological systems to provide a dynamic health indicator signal between autonomic agents.

  13. Theoretical foundations for the responsibility of autonomous agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hage, Jaap

    This article argues that it is possible to hold autonomous agents themselves, and not only their makers, users or owners, responsible for the acts of these agents. In this connection autonomous systems are computer programs that interact with the outside world without human interference. They

  14. Growing Up of Autonomous Agents: an Emergent Phenomenon (United States)

    Morgavi, Giovanna; Marconi, Lucia


    A fundamental research challenge is the design of robust artifacts that are capable of operating under changing environments and noisy input, and yet exhibit the desired behavior and response time. These systems should be able to adapt and learn how to react to unforeseen scenarios as well as to display properties comparable to biological entities. The turn to nature has brought us many unforeseen great concepts. Biological systems are able to handle many of these challenges with an elegance and efficiency still far beyond current human artifacts. A living artifact grows up when its capabilities, abilities/knowledge, shift to a further level of complexity, i.e. the complexity rank of its internal capabilities performs a step forward. In the attempt to define an architecture for autonomous growing up agents [1]. We conducted an experiment on the abstraction process in children as natural parts of a cognitive system. We found that linguistic growing up involve a number of different trial processes. We identified a fixed number of distinct paths that were crossed by children. Once a given interpretation paths was discovered useless, they tried to follow another path, until the new meaning was emerging. This study generates suggestion about the evolutionary conditions conducive to the emergence of growing up in robots and provides guidelines for designing artificial evolutionary systems displaying spontaneous adaptation abilities. The importance of multi-sensor perception, motivation and emotional drives are underlined and, above all, the growing up insights shows similarities to emergent self-organized behaviors.

  15. Formal Assurance for Cognitive Architecture Based Autonomous Agent (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Siddhartha; Eskridge, Thomas; Neogi, Natasha; Carvalho, Marco


    Autonomous systems are designed and deployed in different modeling paradigms. These environments focus on specific concepts in designing the system. We focus our effort in the use of cognitive architectures to design autonomous agents to collaborate with humans to accomplish tasks in a mission. Our research focuses on introducing formal assurance methods to verify the behavior of agents designed in Soar, by translating the agent to the formal verification environment Uppaal.

  16. Intelligent agents: adaptation of autonomous bimodal microsystems (United States)

    Smith, Patrice; Terry, Theodore B.


    Autonomous bimodal microsystems exhibiting survivability behaviors and characteristics are able to adapt dynamically in any given environment. Equipped with a background blending exoskeleton it will have the capability to stealthily detect and observe a self-chosen viewing area while exercising some measurable form of selfpreservation by either flying or crawling away from a potential adversary. The robotic agent in this capacity activates a walk-fly algorithm, which uses a built in multi-sensor processing and navigation subsystem or algorithm for visual guidance and best walk-fly path trajectory to evade capture or annihilation. The research detailed in this paper describes the theoretical walk-fly algorithm, which broadens the scope of spatial and temporal learning, locomotion, and navigational performances based on optical flow signals necessary for flight dynamics and walking stabilities. By observing a fly's travel and avoidance behaviors; and, understanding the reverse bioengineering research efforts of others, we were able to conceptualize an algorithm, which works in conjunction with decisionmaking functions, sensory processing, and sensorimotor integration. Our findings suggest that this highly complex decentralized algorithm promotes inflight or terrain travel mobile stability which is highly suitable for nonaggressive micro platforms supporting search and rescue (SAR), and chemical and explosive detection (CED) purposes; a necessity in turbulent, non-violent structured or unstructured environments.

  17. Exploration and Exploitation in Visuomotor Prediction of Autonomous Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bliek, L.


    This paper discusses various techniques to let an agent learn how to predict the effects of its own actions on its sensor data autonomously, and their usefulness to apply them to visual sensors. An Extreme Learning Machine is used for visuomotor prediction, while various autonomous control

  18. Swarm autonomic agents with self-destruct capability (United States)

    Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Sterritt, Roy (Inventor)


    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some embodiments an autonomic entity manages a system by generating one or more stay alive signals based on the functioning status and operating state of the system. In some embodiments, an evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy. The evolvable neural interface receives and generates heartbeat monitor signals and pulse monitor signals that are used to generate a stay alive signal that is used to manage the operations of the synthetic neural system. In another embodiment an asynchronous Alice signal (Autonomic license) requiring valid credentials of an anonymous autonomous agent is initiated. An unsatisfactory Alice exchange may lead to self-destruction of the anonymous autonomous agent for self-protection.

  19. Coevolution of Artificial Agents Using Evolutionary Computation in Bargaining Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangwook Lee


    Full Text Available Analysis of bargaining game using evolutionary computation is essential issue in the field of game theory. This paper investigates the interaction and coevolutionary process among heterogeneous artificial agents using evolutionary computation (EC in the bargaining game. In particular, the game performance with regard to payoff through the interaction and coevolution of agents is studied. We present three kinds of EC based agents (EC-agent participating in the bargaining game: genetic algorithm (GA, particle swarm optimization (PSO, and differential evolution (DE. The agents’ performance with regard to changing condition is compared. From the simulation results it is found that the PSO-agent is superior to the other agents.

  20. Instructable autonomous agents. Ph.D. Thesis (United States)

    Huffman, Scott Bradley


    In contrast to current intelligent systems, which must be laboriously programmed for each task they are meant to perform, instructable agents can be taught new tasks and associated knowledge. This thesis presents a general theory of learning from tutorial instruction and its use to produce an instructable agent. Tutorial instruction is a particularly powerful form of instruction, because it allows the instructor to communicate whatever kind of knowledge a student needs at whatever point it is needed. To exploit this broad flexibility, however, a tutorable agent must support a full range of interaction with its instructor to learn a full range of knowledge. Thus, unlike most machine learning tasks, which target deep learning of a single kind of knowledge from a single kind of input, tutorability requires a breadth of learning from a broad range of instructional interactions. The theory of learning from tutorial instruction presented here has two parts. First, a computational model of an intelligent agent, the problem space computational model, indicates the types of knowledge that determine an agent's performance, and thus, that should be acquirable via instruction. Second, a learning technique, called situated explanation specifies how the agent learns general knowledge from instruction. The theory is embodied by an implemented agent, Instructo-Soar, built within the Soar architecture. Instructo-Soar is able to learn hierarchies of completely new tasks, to extend task knowledge to apply in new situations, and in fact to acquire every type of knowledge it uses during task performance - control knowledge, knowledge of operators' effects, state inferences, etc. - from interactive natural language instructions. This variety of learning occurs by applying the situated explanation technique to a variety of instructional interactions involving a variety of types of instructions (commands, statements, conditionals, etc.). By taking seriously the requirements of flexible

  1. Evolutionary game theory using agent-based methods. (United States)

    Adami, Christoph; Schossau, Jory; Hintze, Arend


    Evolutionary game theory is a successful mathematical framework geared towards understanding the selective pressures that affect the evolution of the strategies of agents engaged in interactions with potential conflicts. While a mathematical treatment of the costs and benefits of decisions can predict the optimal strategy in simple settings, more realistic settings such as finite populations, non-vanishing mutations rates, stochastic decisions, communication between agents, and spatial interactions, require agent-based methods where each agent is modeled as an individual, carries its own genes that determine its decisions, and where the evolutionary outcome can only be ascertained by evolving the population of agents forward in time. While highlighting standard mathematical results, we compare those to agent-based methods that can go beyond the limitations of equations and simulate the complexity of heterogeneous populations and an ever-changing set of interactors. We conclude that agent-based methods can predict evolutionary outcomes where purely mathematical treatments cannot tread (for example in the weak selection-strong mutation limit), but that mathematics is crucial to validate the computational simulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Integration of Autonomous UAVs into Multi-agent Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Selecký


    Full Text Available In recent years, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs have attracted much attention both in the research field and in the field of commercial deployment. Researchers recently started to study problems and opportunities connected with the usage, deployment and operation of teams of multiple autonomous UAVs. These multi-UAV scenarios are by their nature well suited to be modelled and simulated as multi-agent systems. In this paper we present solutions to the problems that we had to deal with in the process of integrating two hardware UAVs into an existing multi-agent simulation system with additional virtual UAVs, resulting in a mixed reality system where hardware UAVs and virtual UAVs can co-exist, coordinate their flight and cooperate on common tasks. Hardware UAVs are capable of on-board planning and reasoning, and can cooperate and coordinate their movement with one another, and also with virtual UAVs.

  3. Evolutionary multi-agent systems from inspirations to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Byrski, Aleksander


    This book addresses agent-based computing, concentrating in particular on evolutionary multi-agent systems (EMAS), which have been developed since 1996 at the AGH University of Science and Technology in Cracow, Poland. It provides the relevant background information on and a detailed description of this computing paradigm, along with key experimental results. Readers will benefit from the insightful discussion, which primarily concerns the efficient implementation of computing frameworks for developing EMAS and similar computing systems, as well as a detailed formal model. Theoretical deliberations demonstrating that computing with EMAS always helps to find the optimal solution are also included, rounding out the coverage.

  4. Evolutionary Computation for the Identification of Emergent Behavior in Autonomous Systems (United States)

    Terrile, Richard J.; Guillaume, Alexandre


    Over the past several years the Center for Evolutionary Computation and Automated Design at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has developed a technique based on Evolutionary Computational Methods (ECM) that allows for the automated optimization of complex computationally modeled systems. An important application of this technique is for the identification of emergent behaviors in autonomous systems. Mobility platforms such as rovers or airborne vehicles are now being designed with autonomous mission controllers that can find trajectories over a solution space that is larger than can reasonably be tested. It is critical to identify control behaviors that are not predicted and can have surprising results (both good and bad). These emergent behaviors need to be identified, characterized and either incorporated into or isolated from the acceptable range of control characteristics. We use cluster analysis of automatically retrieved solutions to identify isolated populations of solutions with divergent behaviors.

  5. Autonomous Agents: The Origins and Co-Evolution of Reproducing Molecular Systems (United States)

    Kauffman, Stuart


    The central aim of this award concerned an investigation into, and adequate formulation of, the concept of an "autonomous agent." If we consider a bacterium swimming upstream in a glucose gradient, we are willing to say of the bacterium that it is going to get food. That is, we are willing, and do, describe the bacterium as acting on its own behalf in an environment. All free living cells are, in this sense, autonomous agents. But the bacterium is "just" a set of molecules. We define an autonomous agent as a physical system able to act on its own behalf in an environment, then ask, "What must a physical system be to be an autonomous agent?" The tentative definition for a molecular autonomous agent is that it must be self-reproducing and carry out at least one thermodynamic work cycle. The work carried out in this grant involved, among other features, the development of a detailed model of a molecular autonomous agent, and study of the kinetics of this system. In particular, a molecular autonomous agent must, by the above tentative definition, not only reproduce, but must carry out at least one work cycle. I took, as a simple example of a self-reproducing molecular system, the single-stranded DNA hexamer 3'CCGCGG5' which can line up and ligate its two complementary trimers, 5'CCG3' and 5'CGG3'. But the two ligated trimers constitute the same molecular sequence in the 3' to 5' direction as the initial hexamer, hence this system is autocatalytic. On the other hand the above system is not yet an autonomous agent. At the minimum, autonomous agents, as I have defined them, are a new class of chemical reaction network. At a maximum, they may constitute a proper definition of life itself.

  6. Autonomous Collaborative Agents for Onboard Multi-Sensor Re-Targeting Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In our Phase I effort we developed a prototype software-agent based framework to provide for autonomous re-targeting of sensors hosted on satellites in polar orbits,...

  7. Augmentation of the pressor response to octapressin by autonomic blocking agents in the pithed rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenen, F.H.H.; Jong, Wybren de

    The effect of octapressin on blood pressure was studied in anesthetized pithed male rats, pretreated with autonomic blocking agents. Phenoxybenzamine and chlorpromazine induced an augmentation of the blood pressure response to octapressin, whereas atropine, propranolol and hexamethonium had no

  8. Philosophical aspects of the use of autonomous agents in music production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer; Moore, Tim


    Music interaction through software agents is bound to become the goal of researchers in the near future. Some of the situations to be found in mu- sic interaction using autonomous agents are analyzed here. The seclusion sce- nario, in which a single person is isolated with her own musical ideas......, is dis- armed if an autonomous agent is recognized as a (quasi-) person. This enables the interaction that produces the meaning of the music. The unilateral scenario, in which music tends to contain either novelty, or understanding, is avoided if enough interaction and encounters are taking place....

  9. Embedded Autonomous Agents in Products Supporting Repair and Recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    John-Jules Meyer; Daniël Telgen; Ing. Erik Puik; Leo van Moergestel


    This paper describes a concept where products are equipped with agents that will assist in recycling and repairing the product. These so-called product agents represent the product in cyberspace and are capable to negotiate with other products in case of recycling or repair. Some product agents of

  10. Perancangan Network Monitoring Tools Menggunakan Autonomous Agent Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khurniawan Eko S


    Full Text Available Tugas pengelolaan jaringan yang dilakukan administrator jaringan diantaranya yaitu pengumpulan informasi resource jaringan yang tersedia. Teknologi SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol memberikan fleksibilitas bagi administrator jaringan dalam mengatur network secara keseluruhan dari satu lokasi. Aplikasi Network Monitoring Tools berbasis Agent JAVA terdiri dari Master agent yang bertugas untuk melakukan management Request agent serta akses database. Request agent yang bertugas untuk melakukan pemantauan server yang mengimplementasi library SNMP4j dengan sistem multi-agent. Disisi interface, aplikasi Network Monitoring Tools menggunakan media web sebagai interface administrator sehingga dapat digunakan darimana saja  dan kapan saja.  Hasil dari penelitian ini memperlihatkan bahwa aplikasi yang dibuat bekerja sebagai Network Monitoring Tools mampu bekerja dengan persen error pada kisaran 0-18%. Selain itu Aplikasi ini menghasilkan tren pembacaan data server lebih stabil dan cepat dibandingkan dengan aplikasi Cacti. Hal ini didukung oleh kemampuan Request Agent yang mampu merespon tingkat beban kerja server yang di pantau.

  11. Decentralized Autonomous-Agent-Based Infrastructure for Agile Multiparallel Manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniël Telgen; Leo van Moergestel; Ing. Erik Puik; John-Jules Meyer


    This paper describes an agent-based software infrastructure for agile industrial production. This production is done on special devices called equiplets. A grid of these equiplets connected by a fast network is capable of producing a variety of different products in parallel. The multi-agent-based

  12. Optimization of an Autonomous Car Controller Using a Self-Adaptive Evolutionary Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Seong Kim


    Full Text Available Autonomous cars control the steering wheel, acceleration and the brake pedal, the gears and the clutch using sensory information from multiple sources. Like a human driver, it understands the current situation on the roads from the live streaming of sensory values. The decision-making module often suffers from the limited range of sensors and complexity due to the large number of sensors and actuators. Because it is tedious and difficult to design the controller manually from trial-and-error, it is desirable to use intelligent optimization algorithms. In this work, we propose optimizing the parameters of an autonomous car controller using self-adaptive evolutionary strategies (SAESs which co-evolve solutions and mutation steps for each parameter. We also describe how the most generalized parameter set can be retrieved from the process of optimization. Open-source car racing simulation software (TORCS is used to test the goodness of the proposed methods on 6 different tracks. Experimental results show that the SAES is competitive with the manual design of authors and a simple ES.

  13. The Use of Software Agents for Autonomous Control of a DC Space Power System (United States)

    May, Ryan D.; Loparo, Kenneth A.


    In order to enable manned deep-space missions, the spacecraft must be controlled autonomously using on-board algorithms. A control architecture is proposed to enable this autonomous operation for an spacecraft electric power system and then implemented using a highly distributed network of software agents. These agents collaborate and compete with each other in order to implement each of the control functions. A subset of this control architecture is tested against a steadystate power system simulation and found to be able to solve a constrained optimization problem with competing objectives using only local information.

  14. Multi-Agent Control for Autonomous, Real-time and Choreographic Image Display


    Alonso Mora, Javier


    This thesis presents a new way of looking at images and videos, Display Swarm, which is a novel robot display providing new types of visual experience. This work is focused on creating a multi-agent control method for real-time, autonomous and choreographic image display, where each pixel of an image is a mobile robot. This robot display consists of a large number of small autonomous agents, each one representing a pixel of the image, and aims at the generation of aesthetic eff...

  15. Guiding Autonomous Agents to Better Behaviors through Human Advice (United States)


    and consequently, at S1. (right, Sailing) The agent navigates a sailboat from the start to finish, passing through the intermediate waypoints, taking...Vanderbei2, in which, given a grid of waypoints connected by legs, the agent navigates a sailboat from one way point to the next to reach the finish in...of planning ability through observation,” in IEEE Conf. on Robotics and Automation, 1985. [3] R. Khardon, “Learning action strategies for planning

  16. Minimal Representation and Decision Making for Networked Autonomous Agents (United States)


    and part number, if applicable. On classified documents, enter the title classification in parentheses. 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER. Enter all contract...contains classified information, stamp classification level on the top and bottom of this page. 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT. This block must be...agents (personnel, vehicles, robots , and so on) to service an equal number of targets while the agents consume the least amount of energy, captured

  17. Simulation of a multi-agent system for autonomous trailer docking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, Berry; Mes, Martijn R.K.; Schuur, Peter


    This paper presents a simulation model of a generic automated planning and control system for the pick-up and docking of semi-trailers by means of autonomous Yard Tractors (YTs) in a collision- and con flict free environment. To support the planning and control of the YTs, we propose a Multi-Agent

  18. Approach for Autonomous Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Using Intelligent Agents for Knowledge Creation (United States)

    Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.


    This paper describes the development of a planned approach for Autonomous operation of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). A Hybrid approach will seek to provide Knowledge Generation through the application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Intelligent Agents (IA) for UAV control. The applications of several different types of AI techniques for flight are explored during this research effort. The research concentration is directed to the application of different AI methods within the UAV arena. By evaluating AI and biological system approaches. which include Expert Systems, Neural Networks. Intelligent Agents, Fuzzy Logic, and Complex Adaptive Systems, a new insight may be gained into the benefits of AI and CAS techniques applied to achieving true autonomous operation of these systems. Although flight systems were explored, the benefits should apply to many Unmanned Vehicles such as: Rovers. Ocean Explorers, Robots, and autonomous operation systems. A portion of the flight system is broken down into control agents that represent the intelligent agent approach used in AI. After the completion of a successful approach, a framework for applying an intelligent agent is presented. The initial results from simulation of a security agent for communication are presented.

  19. Biomimetic evolutionary analysis: testing the adaptive value of vertebrate tail stiffness in autonomous swimming robots. (United States)

    Long, J H; Koob, T J; Irving, K; Combie, K; Engel, V; Livingston, N; Lammert, A; Schumacher, J


    For early vertebrates, a long-standing hypothesis is that vertebrae evolved as a locomotor adaptation, stiffening the body axis and enhancing swimming performance. While supported by biomechanical data, this hypothesis has not been tested using an evolutionary approach. We did so by extending biomimetic evolutionary analysis (BEA), which builds physical simulations of extinct systems, to include use of autonomous robots as proxies of early vertebrates competing in a forage navigation task. Modeled after free-swimming larvae of sea squirts (Chordata, Urochordata), three robotic tadpoles (;Tadros'), each with a propulsive tail bearing a biomimetic notochord of variable spring stiffness, k (N m(-1)), searched for, oriented to, and orbited in two dimensions around a light source. Within each of ten generations, we selected for increased swimming speed, U (m s(-1)) and decreased time to the light source, t (s), average distance from the source, R (m) and wobble maneuvering, W (rad s(-2)). In software simulation, we coded two quantitative trait loci (QTL) that determine k: bending modulus, E (Nm(-2)) and length, L (m). Both QTL were mutated during replication, independently assorted during meiosis and, as haploid gametes, entered into the gene pool in proportion to parental fitness. After random mating created three new diploid genotypes, we fabricated three new offspring tails. In the presence of both selection and chance events (mutation, genetic drift), the phenotypic means of this small population evolved. The classic hypothesis was supported in that k was positively correlated (r(2)=0.40) with navigational prowess, NP, the dimensionless ratio of U to the product of R, t and W. However, the plausible adaptive scenario, even in this simplified system, is more complex, since the remaining variance in NP was correlated with the residuals of R and U taken with respect to k, suggesting that changes in k alone are insufficient to explain the evolution of NP.

  20. A Game Theory Approach to Multi-Agent Decentralized Energy Management of Autonomous Polygeneration Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos-Spyridon Karavas


    Full Text Available Energy management systems are essential and indispensable for the secure and optimal operation of autonomous polygeneration microgrids which include distributed energy technologies and multiple electrical loads. In this paper, a multi-agent decentralized energy management system was designed. In particular, the devices of the microgrid under study were controlled as interactive agents. The energy management problem was formulated here through the application of game theory, in order to model the set of strategies between two players/agents, as a non-cooperative power control game or a cooperative one, according to the level of the energy produced by the renewable energy sources and the energy stored in the battery bank, for the purpose of accomplishing optimal energy management and control of the microgrid operation. The Nash equilibrium was used to compromise the possible diverging goals of the agents by maximizing their preferences. The proposed energy management system was then compared with a multi-agent decentralized energy management system where all the agents were assumed to be cooperative and employed agent coordination through Fuzzy Cognitive Maps. The results obtained from this comparison, demonstrate that the application of game theory based control, in autonomous polygeneration microgrids, can ensure operational and financial benefits over known energy management approaches incorporating distributed intelligence.

  1. Effect of autonomic blocking agents and structurally related substances on the “salt arousal of drinking”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wied, D. de

    The effect of autonomic blocking agents and structurally related substances was studied in rats in which thirst was produced by the administration of a hypertonic sodium chloride solution. Scopolamine, methamphetamine, amphetamine, chlorpromazine, atropine, mecamylamine, hexamethonium, nethalide,

  2. Hybrid evolutionary computing model for mobile agents of wireless Internet multimedia (United States)

    Hortos, William S.


    The ecosystem is used as an evolutionary paradigm of natural laws for the distributed information retrieval via mobile agents to allow the computational load to be added to server nodes of wireless networks, while reducing the traffic on communication links. Based on the Food Web model, a set of computational rules of natural balance form the outer stage to control the evolution of mobile agents providing multimedia services with a wireless Internet protocol WIP. The evolutionary model shows how mobile agents should behave with the WIP, in particular, how mobile agents can cooperate, compete and learn from each other, based on an underlying competition for radio network resources to establish the wireless connections to support the quality of service QoS of user requests. Mobile agents are also allowed to clone themselves, propagate and communicate with other agents. A two-layer model is proposed for agent evolution: the outer layer is based on the law of natural balancing, the inner layer is based on a discrete version of a Kohonen self-organizing feature map SOFM to distribute network resources to meet QoS requirements. The former is embedded in the higher OSI layers of the WIP, while the latter is used in the resource management procedures of Layer 2 and 3 of the protocol. Algorithms for the distributed computation of mobile agent evolutionary behavior are developed by adding a learning state to the agent evolution state diagram. When an agent is in an indeterminate state, it can communicate to other agents. Computing models can be replicated from other agents. Then the agents transitions to the mutating state to wait for a new information-retrieval goal. When a wireless terminal or station lacks a network resource, an agent in the suspending state can change its policy to submit to the environment before it transitions to the searching state. The agents learn the facts of agent state information entered into an external database. In the cloning process, two

  3. Systems, methods and apparatus for modeling, specifying and deploying policies in autonomous and autonomic systems using agent-oriented software engineering (United States)

    Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Penn, Joaquin (Inventor); Sterritt, Roy (Inventor)


    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some embodiments, an agent-oriented specification modeled with MaCMAS, is analyzed, flaws in the agent-oriented specification modeled with MaCMAS are corrected, and an implementation is derived from the corrected agent-oriented specification. Described herein are systems, method and apparatus that produce fully (mathematically) tractable development of agent-oriented specification(s) modeled with methodology fragment for analyzing complex multiagent systems (MaCMAS) and policies for autonomic systems from requirements through to code generation. The systems, method and apparatus described herein are illustrated through an example showing how user formulated policies can be translated into a formal mode which can then be converted to code. The requirements-based programming systems, method and apparatus described herein may provide faster, higher quality development and maintenance of autonomic systems based on user formulation of policies.

  4. Evolutionary Paths to Corrupt Societies of Artificial Agents (United States)

    Nasrallah, Walid

    Virtual corrupt societies can be defined as groups of interacting computer-generated agents who predominantly choose behavior that gives short term personal gain at the expense of a higher aggregate cost to others. This paper focuses on corrupt societies that, unlike published models in which cooperation must evolve in order for the society to continue to survive, do not naturally die out as the corrupt class siphons off the resources. For example, a very computationally simple strategy of avoiding confrontation can allow a majority of "unethical" individuals to survive off the efforts of an "ethical" but productive minority. Analogies are drawn to actual human societies in which similar conditions gave rise to behavior traditionally defined as economic or political corruption.

  5. Behavior Emergence in Autonomous Robot Control by Means of Evolutionary Neural Networks (United States)

    Neruda, Roman; Slušný, Stanislav; Vidnerová, Petra

    We study the emergence of intelligent behavior of a simple mobile robot. Robot control system is realized by mechanisms based on neural networks and evolutionary algorithms. The evolutionary algorithm is responsible for the adaptation of a neural network parameters based on the robot's performance in a simulated environment. In experiments, we demonstrate the performance of evolutionary algorithm on selected problems, namely maze exploration and discrimination of walls and cylinders. A comparison of different networks architectures is presented and discussed.

  6. Requirement analysis for autonomous systems and intelligent agents in future Danish electric power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem, Arshad; Lind, Morten


    we review innovative control architectures in electric power systems such as Microgrids, Virtual power plants and Cell based systems. We evaluate application of autonomous systems and intelligent agents in each of these control architectures particularly in the context of Denmark's strategic energy...... plans. The second part formulates a flexible control architecture for electric power systems with very high penetration of distributed generation. This control architecture is based upon the requirements identified in the first part. We also present development of a software framework to test...

  7. Developmental and Evolutionary Lexicon Acquisition in Cognitive Agents/Robots with Grounding Principle: A Short Review. (United States)

    Rasheed, Nadia; Amin, Shamsudin H M


    Grounded language acquisition is an important issue, particularly to facilitate human-robot interactions in an intelligent and effective way. The evolutionary and developmental language acquisition are two innovative and important methodologies for the grounding of language in cognitive agents or robots, the aim of which is to address current limitations in robot design. This paper concentrates on these two main modelling methods with the grounding principle for the acquisition of linguistic ability in cognitive agents or robots. This review not only presents a survey of the methodologies and relevant computational cognitive agents or robotic models, but also highlights the advantages and progress of these approaches for the language grounding issue.

  8. Agent Based Software for the Autonomous Control of Formation Flying Spacecraft (United States)

    How, Jonathan P.; Campbell, Mark; Dennehy, Neil (Technical Monitor)


    Distributed satellite systems is an enabling technology for many future NASA/DoD earth and space science missions, such as MMS, MAXIM, Leonardo, and LISA [1, 2, 3]. While formation flying offers significant science benefits, to reduce the operating costs for these missions it will be essential that these multiple vehicles effectively act as a single spacecraft by performing coordinated observations. Autonomous guidance, navigation, and control as part of a coordinated fleet-autonomy is a key technology that will help accomplish this complex goal. This is no small task, as most current space missions require significant input from the ground for even relatively simple decisions such as thruster burns. Work for the NMP DS1 mission focused on the development of the New Millennium Remote Agent (NMRA) architecture for autonomous spacecraft control systems. NMRA integrates traditional real-time monitoring and control with components for constraint-based planning, robust multi-threaded execution, and model-based diagnosis and reconfiguration. The complexity of using an autonomous approach for space flight software was evident when most of its capabilities were stripped off prior to launch (although more capability was uplinked subsequently, and the resulting demonstration was very successful).

  9. An autonomic system based on ontologies and intelligent agents for use in information security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Ribeiro de Azevedo


    Full Text Available This paper presents an autonomic system based on ontologies and intelligent agents for use in information security, aiming to protect the computing infrastructure and information technology from malicious agents. Theoretical support for the research development was grounded on concepts from Information Science and Computer Science. The results of using the proposed system in a simulated environment are presented. A strategy for system evaluation was performed to check the system use in simulated scenarios to verify and analyze the potential of the proposed tool and its autonomic functioning in activities of information security. The evaluation consisted in the execution of denial of service attacks (DoS and SYN Flooding. The AutoCore achieved the desired objectives. The results show that the AutoCore is a suitable tool for the treatment and utilization of information with regard to information security, enabling those responsible for Risk Management and Information Security Management to make strategic decisions alignment of Information and Communication Technologies Security with the business processes of organizations.

  10. A Cybersemiotic Approach to Agent Based Simulation of Evolutionary Processes within Digital Business Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Georgescu


    Full Text Available The global evolutionary business environment is increasingly populated by a large number of networked organizations interacting with each other and with a variety of environmental conditions to adapt, evolve and maintain them under conditions of good control. This paper proposes cybersemiotics as a conceptual framework for agent based simulation of decision making processes within Digital Business Ecosystems, which are complex, evolutionary, self-organizing, autopoietic, and knowledge-centric business environments. We argue that semiotic agents are equipped with most appropriate characteristics to accomplish such a task. They are deliberative, dynamically uncoupled to their environments, engage processes of perception, interpretation, decision and action with their environments, possess internally stored representations of measured states of affairs, goal states and possible actions, have means to describe and handle their own preferences and beliefs, can coordinate actions and learn about their environment through communication.

  11. Detection of aerosolized biological agents by immunoassay followed by autonomous PCR confirmation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzenitis, J M; Hindson, B J; McBride, M T; Makarewicz, A J; Henderer, B D; Sathyam, U S; Smith, S M; Gutierrez, D M; Metz, T R; Venkateswaran, K S; Colston, B W; Farrow, S W


    An Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) unit is an automated, podium-sized system that monitors the air for all three biological threat agents (bacteria, viruses, and toxins). The system has been developed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy and Department of Homeland Security by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to protect people in critical or high-traffic facilities and at special events. The system performs continuous aerosol collection, sample preparation, and multiplexed biological tests using advanced immunoassays as the primary screen. Over ten agents are assayed at once, and results are reported hourly. R&D work this year focused on incorporating polymerase chain-reaction (PCR) techniques for detecting DNA as confirmation of immunoassay positives. The primary objective of the Dugway testing was to demonstrate the APDS with immunoassay identification and PCR confirmation of bacteria. A secondary objective was to demonstrate immunoassay identification of a protein toxoid (denatured toxin) aerosol release. A total of 12 agent trials were conducted over 14 days of testing, for a total of four work weeks at Dugway. Both testing objectives were achieved with multiple releases and clear identifications. The APDS was shown to be effective for identifying aerosolized Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Bacillus globigii, and botulinum toxoid. The two areas for improvement were operational as opposed to hardware-related. The first was slowing the PCR thermal cycling to achieve stronger signals, which was demonstrated during the later phases of testing. The second area is to improve the parameters for autonomous PCR triggering; this is one of the focuses of the upcoming year's work.

  12. Distributed Resource Exploitation for Autonomous Mobile Sensor Agents in Dynamic Environments (United States)

    Doumit, Sarjoun; Minai, Ali

    This paper studies the distributed resource exploitation problem (DREP) where many resources are distributed across an unknown environment, and several agents move around in it with the goal to exploit/visit the resources. A resource may be anything that can be harvested/sensed/acted upon by an agent when the agent visits that resource's physical location. A sensory agent (SA) is a mobile and autonomous sensory entity that has the capability of sensing a resource's attribute and therefore determining the exploitatory gain factor or profitability when this resource is visited. This type of problem can be seen as a combination of two well-known problems: the Dynamic Traveling Salesman Problem (DTSP) [8] and the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) [1]. But the DREP differs significantly from these two. In the DTSP we have a single agent that needs to visit many fixed cities that have costs associated to their pairwise links, so it is an optimization of paths on a static graph with time-varying costs. In VRP on the other hand, we have a number of vehicles with uniform capacity, a common depot, and several stationary customers scattered around an environment, so the goal is to find the set of routes with overall minimum route cost to service all the customers. In our problem, we have multiple SAs deployed in an unknown environment with multiple dynamic resources each with a dynamically varying value. The goal of the SAs is to adapt their paths collaboratively to the dynamics of the resources in order to maximize the general profitability of the system.

  13. Autonomous Detection of Aerosolized Biological Agents by Multiplexed Immunoassay with PCR Confirmation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindson, B J; McBride, M T; Makarewicz, A J; Henderer, B D; Setlur, U S; Smith, S M; Gutierrez, D M; Metz, T R; Nasarabadi, S L; Venkateswaran, K S; Farrow, S W; Colston, Jr., B W; Dzenitis, J M


    The autonomous pathogen detection system (APDS) is an automated, podium-sized instrument that continuously monitors the air for biological threat agents (bacteria, viruses, and toxins). The system has been developed to warn of a biological attack in critical or high-traffic facilities and at special events. The APDS performs continuous aerosol collection, sample preparation, and detection using multiplexed immunoassay followed by confirmatory PCR using real-time TaqMan assays. We have integrated completely reusable flow-through devices that perform DNA extraction and PCR amplification. The fully integrated system was challenged with aerosolized Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Bacillus globigii and botulinum toxoid. By coupling highly selective antibody and DNA based assays, the probability of an APDS reporting a false positive is extremely low.

  14. A Neural Path Integration Mechanism for Adaptive Vector Navigation in Autonomous Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldschmidt, Dennis; Dasgupta, Sakyasingha; Wörgötter, Florentin


    Animals show remarkable capabilities in navigating their habitat in a fully autonomous and energy-efficient way. In many species, these capabilities rely on a process called path integration, which enables them to estimate their current location and to find their way back home after long......-distance journeys. Path integration is achieved by integrating compass and odometric cues. Here we introduce a neural path integration mechanism that interacts with a neural locomotion control to simulate homing behavior and path integration-related behaviors observed in animals. The mechanism is applied...... to a simulated sixlegged artificial agent. Input signals from an allothetic compass and odometry are sustained through leaky neural integrator circuits, which are then used to compute the home vector by local excitation-global inhibition interactions. The home vector is computed and represented in circular...

  15. Systematic morphology and evolutionary anatomy of the autonomic cardiac nervous system in the lesser apes, gibbons (hylobatidae). (United States)

    Kawashima, Tomokazu; Thorington, Richard W; Kunimatsu, Yutaka; Whatton, James F


    We examined the morphology of the autonomic cardiac nervous system (ACNS) on 20 sides of 10 gibbons (Hylobatidae) of three genera, and we have inferred the evolution of the anatomy of the primate ACNS. We report the following. (1) Several trivial intraspecific and interspecific variations are present in gibbons, but the general arrangement of the ACNS in gibbons is consistent. (2) Although the parasympathetic vagal cardiac nervous system is extremely consistent, the sympathetic cardiac nervous system, such as the composition of the sympathetic ganglia and the range of origin of the sympathetic cardiac nerves, exhibit topographical differences among primates. (3) The vertebral ganglion, seldom observed in the Old World monkeys (Cercopithecidae), was consistently present in gibbons as well as in humans. (4) There are fewer thoracic ganglia contributing to the cervicothoracic ganglion in humans than in gibbons and in gibbons than in Old World monkeys. (5) The superior cardiac nerve originating from the superior cervical ganglion, rarely observed in Old World monkeys but commonly observed in humans, was present in 13 of 20 sides (65%), mostly on the left. Accordingly, the ACNS morphology exhibits evolutionary changes within the primate lineage. These evolutionary differences between Old World monkeys, gibbons, and humans are most parsimoniously interpreted as resulting from regular changes in the lineages leading from their common ancestor to the extant species that we dissected. They include the reduction in the number of thoracic ganglia contributing to the cervicothoracic ganglion and the expansion of the range of the cardiac nervous origin.

  16. Evolutionary approach for spatial architecture layout design enhanced by an agent-based topology finding system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zifeng Guo


    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for the automatic generation of a spatial architectural layout from a user-specified architectural program. The proposed approach binds a multi-agent topology finding system and an evolutionary optimization process. The former generates topology satisfied layouts for further optimization, while the latter focuses on refining the layouts to achieve predefined architectural criteria. The topology finding process narrows the search space and increases the performance in subsequent optimization. Results imply that the spatial layout modeling and the multi-floor topology are handled.

  17. Evolutionary Agent-Based Simulation of the Introduction of New Technologies in Air Traffic Management (United States)

    Yliniemi, Logan; Agogino, Adrian K.; Tumer, Kagan


    Accurate simulation of the effects of integrating new technologies into a complex system is critical to the modernization of our antiquated air traffic system, where there exist many layers of interacting procedures, controls, and automation all designed to cooperate with human operators. Additions of even simple new technologies may result in unexpected emergent behavior due to complex human/ machine interactions. One approach is to create high-fidelity human models coming from the field of human factors that can simulate a rich set of behaviors. However, such models are difficult to produce, especially to show unexpected emergent behavior coming from many human operators interacting simultaneously within a complex system. Instead of engineering complex human models, we directly model the emergent behavior by evolving goal directed agents, representing human users. Using evolution we can predict how the agent representing the human user reacts given his/her goals. In this paradigm, each autonomous agent in a system pursues individual goals, and the behavior of the system emerges from the interactions, foreseen or unforeseen, between the agents/actors. We show that this method reflects the integration of new technologies in a historical case, and apply the same methodology for a possible future technology.

  18. Moteur décisionnel reposant sur un modèle de confiance pour des agents autonomes


    Callebert, L; Lourdeaux, Domitile; Barthès, Jean-Paul,


    National audience; Dans les environnements virtuels collaboratifs, la prise en compte des facteurs humains tels que la confiance sont in-dispensables à la modélisation des comportements des per-sonnages virtuels autonomes qui réalisent une activité collective. Nous proposons un moteur décisionnel pour des agents autonomes qui repose sur un modèle de confiance. Trois facteurs de confiance sont considérés : la confiance en l'intégrité, en la bienveillance et en les compétences de chacun des aut...

  19. EvoBuild: A Quickstart Toolkit for Programming Agent-Based Models of Evolutionary Processes (United States)

    Wagh, Aditi; Wilensky, Uri


    Extensive research has shown that one of the benefits of programming to learn about scientific phenomena is that it facilitates learning about mechanisms underlying the phenomenon. However, using programming activities in classrooms is associated with costs such as requiring additional time to learn to program or students needing prior experience with programming. This paper presents a class of programming environments that we call quickstart: Environments with a negligible threshold for entry into programming and a modest ceiling. We posit that such environments can provide benefits of programming for learning without incurring associated costs for novice programmers. To make this claim, we present a design-based research study conducted to compare programming models of evolutionary processes with a quickstart toolkit with exploring pre-built models of the same processes. The study was conducted in six seventh grade science classes in two schools. Students in the programming condition used EvoBuild, a quickstart toolkit for programming agent-based models of evolutionary processes, to build their NetLogo models. Students in the exploration condition used pre-built NetLogo models. We demonstrate that although students came from a range of academic backgrounds without prior programming experience, and all students spent the same number of class periods on the activities including the time students took to learn programming in this environment, EvoBuild students showed greater learning about evolutionary mechanisms. We discuss the implications of this work for design research on programming environments in K-12 science education.

  20. Risk-based Inspection Scheduling Planning for Intelligent Agent in the Autonomous Fault Management (United States)

    Hari Nugroho, Djoko; Sudarno


    This paper developed an autonomous fault management focusing to the inspection scheduling planning which was implemented to the advanced small nuclear reactor without on-site refuelling to assure the safety without human intervention. The inspection scheduling planning was developed optimally on the risk-based approach compromising between two important constraints related to the risk of action planning as such failure probability and shortest path. Performance was represented using computer simulation implemented to the DURESS components location and failure probability. It could be concluded that the first priority to be inspected was flow sensor FB2 which had the largest comparation value of 0.104233 comparing with the other components. The next route would be visited were sequentially FB1, FA2, FA1, FB, FA, VB, pump B, VA, pump A, VB2, VB1, VA2, VA1, reservoir 2, reservoir 1, FR2, and FR1. The movement route planning could be transferred to activate the robot arm which reflected as intelligent agent.

  1. Markov decision processes and the belief-desire-intention model bridging the gap for autonomous agents

    CERN Document Server

    Simari, Gerardo I


    In this work, we provide a treatment of the relationship between two models that have been widely used in the implementation of autonomous agents: the Belief DesireIntention (BDI) model and Markov Decision Processes (MDPs). We start with an informal description of the relationship, identifying the common features of the two approaches and the differences between them. Then we hone our understanding of these differences through an empirical analysis of the performance of both models on the TileWorld testbed. This allows us to show that even though the MDP model displays consistently better behavior than the BDI model for small worlds, this is not the case when the world becomes large and the MDP model cannot be solved exactly. Finally we present a theoretical analysis of the relationship between the two approaches, identifying mappings that allow us to extract a set of intentions from a policy (a solution to an MDP), and to extract a policy from a set of intentions.

  2. Autonomous construction agents: An investigative framework for large sensor network self-management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Joshua Bruce [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Recent technological advances have made it cost effective to utilize massive, heterogeneous sensor networks. To gain appreciable value from these informational systems, there must be a control scheme that coordinates information flow to produce meaningful results. This paper will focus on tools developed to manage the coordination of autonomous construction agents using stigmergy, in which a set of basic low-level rules are implemented through various environmental cues. Using VE-Suite, an open-source virtual engineering software package, an interactive environment is created to explore various informational configurations for the construction problem. A simple test case is developed within the framework, and construction times are analyzed for possible functional relationships pertaining to performance of a particular set of parameters and a given control process. Initial experiments for the test case show sensor saturation occurs relatively quickly with 5-7 sensors, and construction time is generally independent of sensor range except for small numbers of sensors. Further experiments using this framework are needed to define other aspects of sensor performance. These trends can then be used to help decide what kinds of sensing capabilities are required to simultaneously achieve the most cost-effective solution and provide the required value of information when applied to the development of real world sensor applications.

  3. The origin of digital species: The evolution of autonomous agents and lineages in a simulated ecosystem (United States)

    Earon, Ernest J. P.

    As mobile robotics technology continues to advance, the manual development of algorithms and controllers for these systems will become less feasible, if possible at all. As such, it will become increasingly necessary to turn to techniques that allow the automatic design of such systems, both in software and indeed in hardware. Evolutionary methods can provide powerful tools for automatic design as is evidenced by the abundance of diverse natural systems from the simple to the massively sophisticated and coupled. One of the fundamental features, and one of the lesser understood phenomena, in biology is that of speciation. In order to better understand the development and creation of species, and their role in evolution, a method for tracking speciation in simulation is presented. While there is much dispute in the field of biology as to the precise definition of the term species, there is little debate that the natural world is full of distinct subpopulations. Each of these populations has developed unique features for, and solutions to, the problem of surviving in an incredibly complex world. The power of investigating species over individual agents arises from improved robustness of a grouping of like individuals as opposed to single entities more sensitive to very local conditions and interactions. In essence, a species is a more complete view of the fitness and survivability of a genome than a single agent. A simulation engine is presented which allows the study of evolution from a species point of view. Results from simulations offer insight into the role of genetic neutrality in evolution as well as the effect of this neutrality on mechanisms such as mutation pressure. Several results are presented which provide insight into these features which can serve as analogs for similar biological effects as well as features such as genetic cross drift (or convergent evolution of species). Some insight into the such as solution bloating are also detailed. The

  4. The co-evolutionary dynamics of directed network of spin market agents (United States)

    Horváth, Denis; Kuscsik, Zoltán; Gmitra, Martin


    The spin market model [S. Bornholdt, Int. J. Mod. Phys. C 12 (2001) 667] is generalized by employing co-evolutionary principles, where strategies of the interacting and competitive traders are represented by local and global couplings between the nodes of dynamic directed stochastic network. The co-evolutionary principles are applied in the frame of Bak-Sneppen self-organized dynamics [P. Bak, K. Sneppen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71 (1993) 4083] that includes the processes of selection and extinction actuated by the local (node) fitness. The local fitness is related to orientation of spin agent with respect to the instant magnetization. The stationary regime is formed due to the interplay of self-organization and adaptivity effects. The fat tailed distributions of log-price returns are identified numerically. The non-trivial model consequence is the evidence of the long time market memory indicated by the power-law range of the autocorrelation function of volatility with exponent smaller than one. The simulations yield network topology with broad-scale node degree distribution characterized by the range of exponents 1.3<γin<3 coinciding with social networks.

  5. Evolutionary Game Analysis of Competitive Information Dissemination on Social Networks: An Agent-Based Computational Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Sun


    Full Text Available Social networks are formed by individuals, in which personalities, utility functions, and interaction rules are made as close to reality as possible. Taking the competitive product-related information as a case, we proposed a game-theoretic model for competitive information dissemination in social networks. The model is presented to explain how human factors impact competitive information dissemination which is described as the dynamic of a coordination game and players’ payoff is defined by a utility function. Then we design a computational system that integrates the agent, the evolutionary game, and the social network. The approach can help to visualize the evolution of % of competitive information adoption and diffusion, grasp the dynamic evolution features in information adoption game over time, and explore microlevel interactions among users in different network structure under various scenarios. We discuss several scenarios to analyze the influence of several factors on the dissemination of competitive information, ranging from personality of individuals to structure of networks.

  6. Multi-agent evolutionary systems for the generation of complex virtual worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kruse


    Full Text Available Modern films, games and virtual reality applications are dependent on convincing computer graphics. Highly complex models are a requirement for the successful delivery of many scenes and environments. While workflows such as rendering, compositing and animation have been streamlined to accommodate increasing demands, modelling complex models is still a laborious task. This paper introduces the computational benefits of an Interactive Genetic Algorithm (IGA to computer graphics modelling while compensating the effects of user fatigue, a common issue with Interactive Evolutionary Computation. An intelligent agent is used in conjunction with an IGA that offers the potential to reduce the effects of user fatigue by learning from the choices made by the human designer and directing the search accordingly. This workflow accelerates the layout and distribution of basic elements to form complex models. It captures the designer’s intent through interaction, and encourages playful discovery.

  7. SIS evolutionary game model and multi-agent simulation of an infectious disease emergency. (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Yang, Qing; Liu, Xingxing; Wang, Pan


    Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS) infectious disease outbreaks are hazardous events. However, if governments sectors do not adequately supervise such outbreaks, these infectious diseases could spread significantly, resulting in large economic losses and social issues. In this paper, an evolutionary game and simulation model based on the interactions between strategies and states was proposed, and the game between the public and government sectors and its impact on epidemic situations was discussed. Replicator dynamics equations and the multi-agent model simulation were used for analysis. According to replicator dynamics equations as well as the multi-agent model simulation, the public all eventually adopted the mobility strategy. In addition, the supervision strength of the governmental sectors was equal to 0 after the strength fluctuated at a low level under the trigger strategy. Ultimately, the entire public shifted to the S state throughout the course of the emergency. Social order was maintained and social loss was controlled to a certain extent in the final analysis.

  8. MAE-FMD: multi-agent evolutionary method for functional module detection in protein-protein interaction networks. (United States)

    Ji, Jun Zhong; Jiao, Lang; Yang, Cui Cui; Lv, Jia Wei; Zhang, Ai Dong


    Studies of functional modules in a Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) network contribute greatly to the understanding of biological mechanisms. With the development of computing science, computational approaches have played an important role in detecting functional modules. We present a new approach using multi-agent evolution for detection of functional modules in PPI networks. The proposed approach consists of two stages: the solution construction for agents in a population and the evolutionary process of computational agents in a lattice environment, where each agent corresponds to a candidate solution to the detection problem of functional modules in a PPI network. First, the approach utilizes a connection-based encoding scheme to model an agent, and employs a random-walk behavior merged topological characteristics with functional information to construct a solution. Next, it applies several evolutionary operators, i.e., competition, crossover, and mutation, to realize information exchange among agents as well as solution evolution. Systematic experiments have been conducted on three benchmark testing sets of yeast networks. Experimental results show that the approach is more effective compared to several other existing algorithms. The algorithm has the characteristics of outstanding recall, F-measure, sensitivity and accuracy while keeping other competitive performances, so it can be applied to the biological study which requires high accuracy.

  9. Simulation of the capillary flow of an autonomic healing agent in discrete cracks in cementitious materials


    Gardner, Diane Ruth; Jefferson, Anthony Duncan; Hoffman, Andrea; Lark, Robert John


    Autonomic self-healing cementitious materials generally rely upon the transport of adhesives via capillary flow in discrete cracks to heal macro-cracks. A series of experimental and numerical studies are presented that simulate the capillary flow of cyanoacrylate in a range of discrete cracks in prismatic cementitious specimens. The numerical procedure developed incorporates corrections to established capillary flow theory to consider stick-slip behaviour of the meniscus and frictional dissip...

  10. Autonomous Navigation, Dynamic Path and Work Flow Planning in Multi-Agent Robotic Swarms Project (United States)

    Falker, John; Zeitlin, Nancy; Leucht, Kurt; Stolleis, Karl


    Kennedy Space Center has teamed up with the Biological Computation Lab at the University of New Mexico to create a swarm of small, low-cost, autonomous robots, called Swarmies, to be used as a ground-based research platform for in-situ resource utilization missions. The behavior of the robot swarm mimics the central-place foraging strategy of ants to find and collect resources in an unknown environment and return those resources to a central site.

  11. Mobbing Behavior and Deceit and its Role in Bioinspired Autonomous Robotic Agents (United States)


    Babbler. A number of ethological studies have been conducted on 1 This research was...where the robotic agents emulate the ethology of mobbing birds. The addition of deception to the handicap principle returns mixed results. For

  12. Effect of autonomic blocking agents on the cardiovascular effects of octapressin in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Wybren de; McLeod, Stuart M.

    Cardiovascular effects of Octapressin were studied in anesthetized male albino rats. The effect of pretreatment with the following blocking agents was evaluated: atropine, phenoxybenzamine, propranolol, hexamethonium and chlorpromazine. A decrease in blood pressure and in heart rate was induced by

  13. Terrain-Following Motion of an Autonomous Agent as Means of Motion Planning in the Unknown Environment (United States)

    Abramova, Inna

    This work considers the problem of motion planning in the unknown environment, where terrain features and goal positioning data are used for navigation. The described terrain-following motion control law is based on reactive collision avoidance methods, but also involves a strong deliberative component as well as full consideration of kinematic and dynamic constraints of the autonomous mobile agent. That way common pitfalls such as generating impossible paths, losing the goal, and getting stuck in the local minima are avoided, whereas the necessary ability to react quickly to changes in the environment is ensured. Emergency obstacle avoidance maneuver supplements the described navigation algorithm when physical constraints of an agent make regularly generated path segment infeasible. Terrain-acquiring sensor model constitutes an important part of the described navigation algorithm since processing of sensor data determines behavior type of an agent, for example, whether it tends to choose low-lying terrain areas vs. passing above the hills, or favors close-to-horizontal motion. The implemented terrain-acquiring sensor model is consistent with the simplified model of rotating laser rangefinder/ LIDAR, where terrain "vision" process is discrete, and could be viewed as "snapshot-based ray-tracing". The equations of motion are derived using Udwadia-Kalaba Equation, thus, obtained control force is always minimized. Case studies, illustrating different behavior types and resulting paths, are presented.

  14. A Multi Agent System for Flow-Based Intrusion Detection Using Reputation and Evolutionary Computation (United States)


    xiii I. Introduction ...47 MCDM multiple criteria decision making . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 MOEA Multi Objective Evolutionary Algorithm...COMPUTATION I. Introduction Surveying the modern digital expanse of the computer network for entities nefar- ious and profane is the work of an Intrusion

  15. Multiresolution motion planning for autonomous agents via wavelet-based cell decompositions. (United States)

    Cowlagi, Raghvendra V; Tsiotras, Panagiotis


    We present a path- and motion-planning scheme that is "multiresolution" both in the sense of representing the environment with high accuracy only locally and in the sense of addressing the vehicle kinematic and dynamic constraints only locally. The proposed scheme uses rectangular multiresolution cell decompositions, efficiently generated using the wavelet transform. The wavelet transform is widely used in signal and image processing, with emerging applications in autonomous sensing and perception systems. The proposed motion planner enables the simultaneous use of the wavelet transform in both the perception and in the motion-planning layers of vehicle autonomy, thus potentially reducing online computations. We rigorously prove the completeness of the proposed path-planning scheme, and we provide numerical simulation results to illustrate its efficacy.

  16. The Power of Flexibility: Autonomous Agents That Conserve Energy in Commercial Buildings (United States)

    Kwak, Jun-young

    Agent-based systems for energy conservation are now a growing area of research in multiagent systems, with applications ranging from energy management and control on the smart grid, to energy conservation in residential buildings, to energy generation and dynamic negotiations in distributed rural communities. Contributing to this area, my thesis presents new agent-based models and algorithms aiming to conserve energy in commercial buildings. More specifically, my thesis provides three sets of algorithmic contributions. First, I provide online predictive scheduling algorithms to handle massive numbers of meeting/event scheduling requests considering flexibility , which is a novel concept for capturing generic user constraints while optimizing the desired objective. Second, I present a novel BM-MDP ( Bounded-parameter Multi-objective Markov Decision Problem) model and robust algorithms for multi-objective optimization under uncertainty both at the planning and execution time. The BM-MDP model and its robust algorithms are useful in (re)scheduling events to achieve energy efficiency in the presence of uncertainty over user's preferences. Third, when multiple users contribute to energy savings, fair division of credit for such savings to incentivize users for their energy saving activities arises as an important question. I appeal to cooperative game theory and specifically to the concept of Shapley value for this fair division. Unfortunately, scaling up this Shapley value computation is a major hindrance in practice. Therefore, I present novel approximation algorithms to efficiently compute the Shapley value based on sampling and partitions and to speed up the characteristic function computation. These new models have not only advanced the state of the art in multiagent algorithms, but have actually been successfully integrated within agents dedicated to energy efficiency: SAVES, TESLA and THINC. SAVES focuses on the day-to-day energy consumption of individuals and

  17. The Use of an Autonomous Pedagogical Agent and Automatic Speech Recognition for Teaching Sight Words to Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (United States)

    Saadatzi, Mohammad Nasser; Pennington, Robert C.; Welch, Karla C.; Graham, James H.; Scott, Renee E.


    In the current study, we examined the effects of an instructional package comprised of an autonomous pedagogical agent, automatic speech recognition, and constant time delay during the instruction of reading sight words aloud to young adults with autism spectrum disorder. We used a concurrent multiple baseline across participants design to…

  18. Autonomous agent-based simulation of a model simulating the human air-threat assessment process


    Ozkan, Baris Egemen


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Air Defense Laboratory (ADL) Simulation is a software program that models the way an air-defense officer thinks in the threat assessment process. The model uses multi-agent system (MAS) technology and is implemented in Java programming language. This research is a portion of Red Intent Project whose goal is to ultimately implement a model to predict the intent of any given track in the environment. For any air track in the simulati...

  19. Evolutionary games played by multi-agent system with different memory capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Jianlei; Zhang, Chunyan


    The evolution of cooperation is still an enigma. Resolution of cooperative dilemma is a hot topic as a perplexing interdisciplinary project, and has captured wide attention of researchers from many disciplines as a multidisciplinary field. Our main concern is the design of a networked evolutionary

  20. Influences of agents with a self-reputation awareness component in an evolutionary spatial IPD game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yuan Huang

    Full Text Available Iterated prisoner's dilemma (IPD researchers have shown that strong positive reputations plus an efficient reputation evaluation system encourages both sides to pursue long-term collaboration and to avoid falling into mutual defection cycles. In agent-based environments with reliable reputation rating systems, agents interested in maximizing their private interests must show concern for other agents as well as their own self-reputations--an important capability that standard IPD game agents lack. Here we present a novel learning agent model possessing self-reputation awareness. Agents in our proposed model are capable of evaluating self-behaviors based on a mix of public and private interest considerations, and of testing various solutions aimed at meeting social standards. Simulation results indicate multiple outcomes from the addition of a small percentage of self-reputation awareness agents: faster cooperation, faster movement toward stability in an agent society, a higher level of public interest in the agent society, the resolution of common conflicts between public and private interests, and a lower potential for rational individual behavior to transform into irrational group behavior.

  1. Influences of agents with a self-reputation awareness component in an evolutionary spatial IPD game. (United States)

    Huang, Chung-Yuan; Lee, Chun-Liang


    Iterated prisoner's dilemma (IPD) researchers have shown that strong positive reputations plus an efficient reputation evaluation system encourages both sides to pursue long-term collaboration and to avoid falling into mutual defection cycles. In agent-based environments with reliable reputation rating systems, agents interested in maximizing their private interests must show concern for other agents as well as their own self-reputations--an important capability that standard IPD game agents lack. Here we present a novel learning agent model possessing self-reputation awareness. Agents in our proposed model are capable of evaluating self-behaviors based on a mix of public and private interest considerations, and of testing various solutions aimed at meeting social standards. Simulation results indicate multiple outcomes from the addition of a small percentage of self-reputation awareness agents: faster cooperation, faster movement toward stability in an agent society, a higher level of public interest in the agent society, the resolution of common conflicts between public and private interests, and a lower potential for rational individual behavior to transform into irrational group behavior.

  2. Multi-agent simulation of competitive electricity markets: Autonomous systems cooperation for European market modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Gabriel; Pinto, Tiago; Morais, Hugo


    , respecting to the reality of different countries. This integration is done through the development of an upper ontology which integrates the essential concepts necessary to interpret all the available information. The continuous development of Multi-Agent System for Competitive Electricity Markets platform......The electricity market restructuring, and its worldwide evolution into regional and even continental scales, along with the increasing necessity for an adequate integration of renewable energy sources, is resulting in a rising complexity in power systems operation. Several power system simulators...... have been developed in recent years with the purpose of helping operators, regulators, and involved players to understand and deal with this complex and constantly changing environment. The main contribution of this paper is given by the integration of several electricity market and power system models...

  3. An Agent-Based Model to study the epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of Influenza viruses


    Drake John M; Roche Benjamin; Rohani Pejman


    Abstract Background Influenza A viruses exhibit complex epidemiological patterns in a number of mammalian and avian hosts. Understanding transmission of these viruses necessitates taking into account their evolution, which represents a challenge for developing mathematical models. This is because the phrasing of multi-strain systems in terms of traditional compartmental ODE models either requires simplifying assumptions to be made that overlook important evolutionary processes, or leads to co...

  4. An Evolutionary, Agent-Based Model to Aid in Computer Intrusion Detection and Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shargel, Ben; Bonabeau, Eric; Budynek, Julien; Gaudiano, Paolo


    We have developed a realistic agent-based simulation model of hacker behavior. In the model, hacker scripts are generated using a simple but powerful hacker grammar that has the potential to cover all possible hacker scripts...

  5. Evolutionary aspects of non-cell-autonomous regulation in vascular plants: structural background and models to study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiia I. Evkaikina


    Full Text Available Plasmodesmata (PD serve for the exchange of information in form of miRNA, proteins and mRNA between adjacent cells in the course of plant development. This fundamental role of PD is well established in angiosperms but has not yet been traced back to the evolutionary ancient plant taxa where functional studies lag behind studies of PD structure and ontogenetic origin. There is convincing evidence that the ability to form secondary (post-cytokinesis PD, which can connect any adjacent cells, contrary to primary PD which form during cytokinesis and link only cells of the same lineage, appeared in the evolution of higher plants at least twice: in seed plants and in some representatives of the Lycopodiophyta. The (inability to form secondary PD is manifested in the symplastic organization of the shoot apical meristem (SAM which in most taxa of seedless vascular plants differs dramatically from that in seed plants. Lycopodiophyta appear to be suitable models to analyze the transport of developmental regulators via PD in SAMs with symplastic organization both different from, as well as analogous to, that in angiosperms, and to understand the evolutionary aspects of the role of this transport in the morphogenesis of vascular plant taxa.

  6. La notion d'intentionnalité dans la spécification de comportements d'agents autonomes situés en environnement virtuel


    Favier, Pierre-Alexandre


    Rapporteurs : Philippe Mathieu (LIFL / Lille) Jean-Pierre Müller (CIRAD / Montpellier); This thesis lies within the scope of the specification of behaviors of autonomous agents situated in a virtual universe. The objective is the proposal for a behavioral model which exploits the concept of intention like semantic bond between the various stages of the cycle of software development. For this purpose, the concept of intention, and more largely of intentionnality, is studied under three differe...

  7. An Agent-Based Model to study the epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of Influenza viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drake John M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza A viruses exhibit complex epidemiological patterns in a number of mammalian and avian hosts. Understanding transmission of these viruses necessitates taking into account their evolution, which represents a challenge for developing mathematical models. This is because the phrasing of multi-strain systems in terms of traditional compartmental ODE models either requires simplifying assumptions to be made that overlook important evolutionary processes, or leads to complex dynamical systems that are too cumbersome to analyse. Results Here, we develop an Individual-Based Model (IBM in order to address simultaneously the ecology, epidemiology and evolution of strain-polymorphic pathogens, using Influenza A viruses as an illustrative example. Conclusions We carry out careful validation of our IBM against comparable mathematical models to demonstrate the robustness of our algorithm and the sound basis for this novel framework. We discuss how this new approach can give critical insights in the study of influenza evolution.

  8. An agent-based model to study the epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of Influenza viruses. (United States)

    Roche, Benjamin; Drake, John M; Rohani, Pejman


    Influenza A viruses exhibit complex epidemiological patterns in a number of mammalian and avian hosts. Understanding transmission of these viruses necessitates taking into account their evolution, which represents a challenge for developing mathematical models. This is because the phrasing of multi-strain systems in terms of traditional compartmental ODE models either requires simplifying assumptions to be made that overlook important evolutionary processes, or leads to complex dynamical systems that are too cumbersome to analyse. Here, we develop an Individual-Based Model (IBM) in order to address simultaneously the ecology, epidemiology and evolution of strain-polymorphic pathogens, using Influenza A viruses as an illustrative example. We carry out careful validation of our IBM against comparable mathematical models to demonstrate the robustness of our algorithm and the sound basis for this novel framework. We discuss how this new approach can give critical insights in the study of influenza evolution.

  9. Smart Grid Cost-Emission Unit Commitment via Co-Evolutionary Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhang


    Full Text Available In this paper, the uncertainty of wind, solar and load; smart charging and discharging of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs to and from various energy sources; and the coordination of wind, solar power, PHEVs and cost-emission are considered in the smart grid unit commitment (UC. First, a multi-scenario simulation is used in which a set of valid scenarios is considered for the uncertainties of wind and solar energy sources and load. Then the UC problem for the set of scenarios is decomposed into the optimization of interactive agents by multi-agent technology. Agents’ action is represented by a genetic algorithm with adaptive crossover and mutation operators. The adaptive co-evolution of agents is reached by adaptive cooperative multipliers. Finally, simulation is implemented on an example of a power system containing thermal units, a wind farm, solar power plants and PHEVs. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed method. Thermal units, wind, solar power and PHEVs are mutually complementarily by the adaptive cooperative mechanism. The adaptive multipliers’ updating strategy can save more computational time and further improve the efficiency.

  10. Research Institute for Autonomous Precision Guided Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rogacki, John R


    ... vehicles, cooperative flight of autonomous aerial vehicles using GPS and vision information, cooperative and sharing of information in search missions involving multiple autonomous agents, multi-scale...

  11. Guidance and Navigation Software Architecture Design for the Autonomous Multi-Agent Physically Interacting Spacecraft (AMPHIS) Test Bed (United States)


    class, the Jules Verne successfully completed the autonomous rendezvous and docking system in Europe’s largest ship hull test facility in September...replicate the 2007 Jules Verne mission. 23. Banke, K., Air Force XSS-10 Micro-Satellite Mission a

  12. Evolutionary humanoid robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Eaton, Malachy


    This book examines how two distinct strands of research on autonomous robots, evolutionary robotics and humanoid robot research, are converging. The book will be valuable for researchers and postgraduate students working in the areas of evolutionary robotics and bio-inspired computing.

  13. Intelligence agents, autonomous slaves and the U.S. Supreme Court’s wrong (and right) concept of personal autonomy


    BITTON, Raphael


    This paper traces the boundaries of consent in the relations of recruited intelligence agents and their handlers. The U.S. Supreme Court considered these relations to be contractual. However, such a contract, according to the Supreme Court, is unenforceable. An Agent’s autonomy largely underpins the argument for the prima facie legitimacy of Human Intelligence (HUMINT) relations with each agent. Autonomy is also an essential element in recognizing the formulation of a recruitment contract. Sk...

  14. ADAM: ADaptive Autonomous Machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosten, Daan C.; Nijenhuis, Lucas F.J.; Bakkers, André; Vervoort, Wiek


    This paper describes a part of the development of an adaptive autonomous machine that is able to move in an unknown world extract knowledge out of the perceived data, has the possibility to reason, and finally has the capability to exchange experiences and knowledge with other agents. The agent is

  15. Evolutionary relationships among parvoviruses: virus-host coevolution among autonomous primate parvoviruses and links between adeno-associated and avian parvoviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukashov, V. V.; Goudsmit, J.


    The current classification of parvoviruses is based on virus host range and helper virus dependence, while little data on evolutionary relationships among viruses are available. We identified and analyzed 472 sequences of parvoviruses, among which there were (virtually) full-length genomes of all 41

  16. Agent Based Individual Traffic Guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen

    This thesis investigates the possibilities in applying Operations Research (OR) to autonomous vehicular traffic. The explicit difference to most other research today is that we presume that an agent is present in every vehicle - hence Agent Based Individual Traffic guidance (ABIT). The next...... evolutionary step for the in-vehicle route planners is the introduction of two-way communication. We presume that the agent is capable of exactly this. Based on this presumption we discuss the possibilities and define a taxonomy and use this to discuss the ABIT system. Based on a set of scenarios we conclude...... of the project were not previously considered. We define a special inseparable cost function and develop a solution complex capable of using this cost function. In relation to calibration and estimation of statistical models used for dynamic route guidance we worked with generating random number sequences...

  17. Agent-based computational economics using NetLogo

    CERN Document Server

    Damaceanu, Romulus-Catalin


    Agent-based Computational Economics using NetLogo explores how researchers can create, use and implement multi-agent computational models in Economics by using NetLogo software platform. Problems of economic science can be solved using multi-agent modelling (MAM). This technique uses a computer model to simulate the actions and interactions of autonomous entities in a network, in order to analyze the effects on the entire economic system. MAM combines elements of game theory, complex systems, emergence and evolutionary programming. The Monte Carlo method is also used in this e-book to introduc

  18. Autonomous Agents as Artistic Collaborators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadish, David

    structures. At the same time, one of my artistic interests is in ceding a great deal of creative control to a cluster of robotic actors, in the process interrogating the lack of control that we, as a species, exert over the world. Here, I explore this idea in the context of an ongoing project called...

  19. Integrating evolutionary game theory into an agent-based model of ductal carcinoma in situ: Role of gap junctions in cancer progression. (United States)

    Malekian, Negin; Habibi, Jafar; Zangooei, Mohammad Hossein; Aghakhani, Hojjat


    There are many cells with various phenotypic behaviors in cancer interacting with each other. For example, an apoptotic cell may induce apoptosis in adjacent cells. A living cell can also protect cells from undergoing apoptosis and necrosis. These survival and death signals are propagated through interaction pathways between adjacent cells called gap junctions. The function of these signals depends on the cellular context of the cell receiving them. For instance, a receiver cell experiencing a low level of oxygen may interpret a received survival signal as an apoptosis signal. In this study, we examine the effect of these signals on tumor growth. We make an evolutionary game theory component in order to model the signal propagation through gap junctions. The game payoffs are defined as a function of cellular context. Then, the game theory component is integrated into an agent-based model of tumor growth. After that, the integrated model is applied to ductal carcinoma in situ, a type of early stage breast cancer. Different scenarios are explored to observe the impact of the gap junction communication and parameters of the game theory component on cancer progression. We compare these scenarios by using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test succeeds in proving a significant difference between the tumor growth of the model before and after considering the gap junction communication. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test also proves that the tumor growth significantly depends on the oxygen threshold of turning survival signals into apoptosis. In this study, the gap junction communication is modeled by using evolutionary game theory to illustrate its role at early stage cancers such as ductal carcinoma in situ. This work indicates that the gap junction communication and the oxygen threshold of turning survival signals into apoptosis can notably affect cancer progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J


    The diagnosis of autonomic neuropathy is often difficult to establish, since clinical symptoms generally appear late in the course of the disease, and may be non-specific. A number of recently developed quantifiable and reproducible autonomic nerve function tests are reviewed, with emphasis on th...

  1. Autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J


    In order to elucidate the physiological significance of autonomic neuropathy in juvenile diabetics, cardiovascular, hormonal and metabolic functions have been investigated in three groups of juvenile diabetics: One group had no signs of neuropathy, one group had presumably slight autonomic...... neuropathy (reduced beat-to-beat variation in heart rate during hyperventilation) and one group had clinically severe autonomic neuropathy, defined by presence of orthostatic hypotension. In all three experimental situations we found sympathetic dysfunction causing cardiovascular and/or hormonal...... maladjustments in patients with autonomic neuropathy. Regarding metabolic functions we found normal responses to graded exercise and insulin-induced hypoglycemia in patients with autonomic neuropathy in spite of blunted catecholamine responses, suggesting increased sensitivity of glycogen stores and adipose...

  2. Computing architecture for autonomous microgrids (United States)

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.


    A computing architecture that facilitates autonomously controlling operations of a microgrid is described herein. A microgrid network includes numerous computing devices that execute intelligent agents, each of which is assigned to a particular entity (load, source, storage device, or switch) in the microgrid. The intelligent agents can execute in accordance with predefined protocols to collectively perform computations that facilitate uninterrupted control of the .

  3. Open Issues in Evolutionary Robotics. (United States)

    Silva, Fernando; Duarte, Miguel; Correia, Luís; Oliveira, Sancho Moura; Christensen, Anders Lyhne


    One of the long-term goals in evolutionary robotics is to be able to automatically synthesize controllers for real autonomous robots based only on a task specification. While a number of studies have shown the applicability of evolutionary robotics techniques for the synthesis of behavioral control, researchers have consistently been faced with a number of issues preventing the widespread adoption of evolutionary robotics for engineering purposes. In this article, we review and discuss the open issues in evolutionary robotics. First, we analyze the benefits and challenges of simulation-based evolution and subsequent deployment of controllers versus evolution on real robotic hardware. Second, we discuss specific evolutionary computation issues that have plagued evolutionary robotics: (1) the bootstrap problem, (2) deception, and (3) the role of genomic encoding and genotype-phenotype mapping in the evolution of controllers for complex tasks. Finally, we address the absence of standard research practices in the field. We also discuss promising avenues of research. Our underlying motivation is the reduction of the current gap between evolutionary robotics and mainstream robotics, and the establishment of evolutionary robotics as a canonical approach for the engineering of autonomous robots.

  4. Markets and institutions: relations agents/regulators. The new power of Spanish Autonomous Communities; Mercado e instituciones: Las relaciones agentes/reguladores. Los nuevos poderes de las comunidades autonomas espanolas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guayo Castiella, I. de


    The implementation in Spain of the 2003 European Directive on common rules for the internal market for electricity implies a more precise determination of who are the regulatory authorities, as well as which powers enjoy each of them; in Spain, also, the implementation process, relating to the regulatory authorities issues, including the competence of the Autonomous Communities. The implementation process has taken place soon after new Statutes of a number of Autonomous Communities have been passed, where energy issues, at least apparently, are subject to a new treatment. (Author) 25 refs.

  5. Autonomous search

    CERN Document Server

    Hamadi, Youssef; Saubion, Frédéric


    Autonomous combinatorial search (AS) represents a new field in combinatorial problem solving. Its major standpoint and originality is that it considers that problem solvers must be capable of self-improvement operations. This is the first book dedicated to AS.

  6. Development of an evolutionary simulator and an overall control system for intelligent wheelchair (United States)

    Imai, Makoto; Kawato, Koji; Hamagami, Tomoki; Hirata, Hironori

    The goal of this research is to develop an intelligent wheelchair (IWC) system which aids an indoor safe mobility for elderly and disabled people with a new conceptual architecture which realizes autonomy, cooperativeness, and a collaboration behavior. In order to develop the IWC system in real environment, we need design-tools and flexible architecture. In particular, as more significant ones, this paper describes two key techniques which are an evolutionary simulation and an overall control mechanism. The evolutionary simulation technique corrects the error between the virtual environment in a simulator and real one in during the learning of an IWC agent, and coevolves with the agent. The overall control mechanism is implemented with subsumption architecture which is employed in an autonomous robot controller. By using these techniques in both simulations and experiments, we confirm that our IWC system acquires autonomy, cooperativeness, and a collaboration behavior efficiently.

  7. Autonomic Neuropathy (United States)

    ... home. Accessed April 30, 2015. Tesfaye S. Neuropathy in diabetes. Medicine. 2015;43:26. Accessed May 13, 2015. Coon E (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. May 14, 2015. June 06, 2015 Original article: ...

  8. Agent Standards Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation of the work herein proposed is the development of standards for software autonomous agents. These standards are essential to achieve software...

  9. Basic emotions and adaptation. A computational and evolutionary model. (United States)

    Pacella, Daniela; Ponticorvo, Michela; Gigliotta, Onofrio; Miglino, Orazio


    The core principles of the evolutionary theories of emotions declare that affective states represent crucial drives for action selection in the environment and regulated the behavior and adaptation of natural agents in ancestrally recurrent situations. While many different studies used autonomous artificial agents to simulate emotional responses and the way these patterns can affect decision-making, few are the approaches that tried to analyze the evolutionary emergence of affective behaviors directly from the specific adaptive problems posed by the ancestral environment. A model of the evolution of affective behaviors is presented using simulated artificial agents equipped with neural networks and physically inspired on the architecture of the iCub humanoid robot. We use genetic algorithms to train populations of virtual robots across generations, and investigate the spontaneous emergence of basic emotional behaviors in different experimental conditions. In particular, we focus on studying the emotion of fear, therefore the environment explored by the artificial agents can contain stimuli that are safe or dangerous to pick. The simulated task is based on classical conditioning and the agents are asked to learn a strategy to recognize whether the environment is safe or represents a threat to their lives and select the correct action to perform in absence of any visual cues. The simulated agents have special input units in their neural structure whose activation keep track of their actual "sensations" based on the outcome of past behavior. We train five different neural network architectures and then test the best ranked individuals comparing their performances and analyzing the unit activations in each individual's life cycle. We show that the agents, regardless of the presence of recurrent connections, spontaneously evolved the ability to cope with potentially dangerous environment by collecting information about the environment and then switching their behavior

  10. Autonom UAV


    Holtby, Johan


    In Abisko National Park there are a numberof weather stations. To be able toretrieve the data from the nodes in thefuture a Quadrocopter-prototype has beendeveloped during this master thesisproject as a first step. A quadrocopter isa helicopter with four rotors placed in across formation. The quadrocopter cannavigate autonomous between different GPSpositionsthat are updated during flighttrough Xbee-modules. All levels fromsources code, design of the electronics todevelopment of the chassis wa...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian PESTRITU


    Full Text Available This paper aims to present how technology has advanced in terms of programmable microcontrollers and how circuits can be equipped with complex software so they can to act on their own, becoming a so-called autonomous robot or agent. To illustrate this, the 3PI robot is used, which is faced with solving a problem by itself, namely: solving a maze on its own. To make this possible so we had to implement this robot with a computer algorithm that helps it to remember the route that it had just travelled and then find the shortest and fastest way to the destination point.

  12. Evolutionary Nephrology. (United States)

    Chevalier, Robert L


    Progressive kidney disease follows nephron loss, hyperfiltration, and incomplete repair, a process described as "maladaptive." In the past 20 years, a new discipline has emerged that expands research horizons: evolutionary medicine. In contrast to physiologic (homeostatic) adaptation, evolutionary adaptation is the result of reproductive success that reflects natural selection. Evolutionary explanations for physiologically maladaptive responses can emerge from mismatch of the phenotype with environment or evolutionary tradeoffs. Evolutionary adaptation to a terrestrial environment resulted in a vulnerable energy-consuming renal tubule and a hypoxic, hyperosmolar microenvironment. Natural selection favors successful energy investment strategy: energy is allocated to maintenance of nephron integrity through reproductive years, but this declines with increasing senescence after ~40 years of age. Risk factors for chronic kidney disease include restricted fetal growth or preterm birth (life history tradeoff resulting in fewer nephrons), evolutionary selection for APOL1 mutations (that provide resistance to trypanosome infection, a tradeoff), and modern life experience (Western diet mismatch leading to diabetes and hypertension). Current advances in genomics, epigenetics, and developmental biology have revealed proximate causes of kidney disease, but attempts to slow kidney disease remain elusive. Evolutionary medicine provides a complementary approach by addressing ultimate causes of kidney disease. Marked variation in nephron number at birth, nephron heterogeneity, and changing susceptibility to kidney injury throughout life history are the result of evolutionary processes. Combined application of molecular genetics, evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo), developmental programming and life history theory may yield new strategies for prevention and treatment of chronic kidney disease.

  13. Desenvolvimento de uma arquitetura embarcada reativa para agentes autônomos inteligentes, aplicada ao futebol de robôs = Development of an onboard reactive architecture for intelligent autonomous agents, applied to robot soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Jose Biazus


    Full Text Available Dentre as principais dificuldades encontradas para a construção de sistemas multiagentes em que existe a disponibilidade de um sistema de visão local, como é o caso de algumas categorias de futebol de robôs, destacam-se: necessidade de resposta em tempo realpara identificação dos objetos em cena, conhecimento do ambiente, distribuição das competências de controle entre os comportamentos reativos a cargo de cada agente. O presente artigo descreve a implementação de uma arquitetura embarcada reativa paracontrole de Sistemas Multiagentes equipados com sistema de visão local e dotados de sensores, e sua aplicação em ambientes de futebol de robôs. Neste trabalho, foram descritas as técnicas de processamento digital de imagens e a arquitetura proposta para satisfazer às restrições relacionadas ao problema.There are a lot of difficulties that must be faced during the development of multi-agent systems equipped with local vision, as is the case of some robotic soccer leagues, such as: the real-time constraints for recognition of scene objects, acquisition of environment knowledge, and the distribution and allocation ofcontrol competencies among reactive behaviors under the responsibility of each agent. This article describes the implementation of an onboard reactive control architecture for a multiagent system, equipped with local vision camera and local sensors. This multiple agent system is applied in robot soccer environments. The work describes the digital image processing techniques as well as the proposed control architecture that satisfy the constraints related with this kind of application.

  14. Programming multi-agent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dastani, Mehdi


    With the significant advances in the area of autonomous agents and multi-agent systems in the last decade, promising technologies for the development and engineering of multi-agent systems have emerged. The result is a variety of agent-oriented programming languages, development frameworks,

  15. Evolutionary Nephrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Chevalier


    Full Text Available Progressive kidney disease follows nephron loss, hyperfiltration, and incomplete repair, a process described as “maladaptive.” In the past 20 years, a new discipline has emerged that expands research horizons: evolutionary medicine. In contrast to physiologic (homeostatic adaptation, evolutionary adaptation is the result of reproductive success that reflects natural selection. Evolutionary explanations for physiologically maladaptive responses can emerge from mismatch of the phenotype with environment or from evolutionary tradeoffs. Evolutionary adaptation to a terrestrial environment resulted in a vulnerable energy-consuming renal tubule and a hypoxic, hyperosmolar microenvironment. Natural selection favors successful energy investment strategy: energy is allocated to maintenance of nephron integrity through reproductive years, but this declines with increasing senescence after ∼40 years of age. Risk factors for chronic kidney disease include restricted fetal growth or preterm birth (life history tradeoff resulting in fewer nephrons, evolutionary selection for APOL1 mutations (which provide resistance to trypanosome infection, a tradeoff, and modern life experience (Western diet mismatch leading to diabetes and hypertension. Current advances in genomics, epigenetics, and developmental biology have revealed proximate causes of kidney disease, but attempts to slow kidney disease remain elusive. Evolutionary medicine provides a complementary approach by addressing ultimate causes of kidney disease. Marked variation in nephron number at birth, nephron heterogeneity, and changing susceptibility to kidney injury throughout the life history are the result of evolutionary processes. Combined application of molecular genetics, evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo, developmental programming, and life history theory may yield new strategies for prevention and treatment of chronic kidney disease.

  16. Graduated embodiment for sophisticated agent evolution and optimization.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, Arthurine Renee; Peters, Michael D.; Boslough, Mark Bruce Elrick


    We summarize the results of a project to develop evolutionary computing methods for the design of behaviors of embodied agents in the form of autonomous vehicles. We conceived and implemented a strategy called graduated embodiment. This method allows high-level behavior algorithms to be developed using genetic programming methods in a low-fidelity, disembodied modeling environment for migration to high-fidelity, complex embodied applications. This project applies our methods to the problem domain of robot navigation using adaptive waypoints, which allow navigation behaviors to be ported among autonomous mobile robots with different degrees of embodiment, using incremental adaptation and staged optimization. Our approach to biomimetic behavior engineering is a hybrid of human design and artificial evolution, with the application of evolutionary computing in stages to preserve building blocks and limit search space. The methods and tools developed for this project are directly applicable to other agent-based modeling needs, including climate-related conflict analysis, multiplayer training methods, and market-based hypothesis evaluation.

  17. Proteomics in evolutionary ecology. (United States)

    Baer, B; Millar, A H


    Evolutionary ecologists are traditionally gene-focused, as genes propagate phenotypic traits across generations and mutations and recombination in the DNA generate genetic diversity required for evolutionary processes. As a consequence, the inheritance of changed DNA provides a molecular explanation for the functional changes associated with natural selection. A direct focus on proteins on the other hand, the actual molecular agents responsible for the expression of a phenotypic trait, receives far less interest from ecologists and evolutionary biologists. This is partially due to the central dogma of molecular biology that appears to define proteins as the 'dead-end of molecular information flow' as well as technical limitations in identifying and studying proteins and their diversity in the field and in many of the more exotic genera often favored in ecological studies. Here we provide an overview of a newly forming field of research that we refer to as 'Evolutionary Proteomics'. We point out that the origins of cellular function are related to the properties of polypeptide and RNA and their interactions with the environment, rather than DNA descent, and that the critical role of horizontal gene transfer in evolution is more about coopting new proteins to impact cellular processes than it is about modifying gene function. Furthermore, post-transcriptional and post-translational processes generate a remarkable diversity of mature proteins from a single gene, and the properties of these mature proteins can also influence inheritance through genetic and perhaps epigenetic mechanisms. The influence of post-transcriptional diversification on evolutionary processes could provide a novel mechanistic underpinning for elements of rapid, directed evolutionary changes and adaptations as observed for a variety of evolutionary processes. Modern state-of the art technologies based on mass spectrometry are now available to identify and quantify peptides, proteins, protein

  18. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzenitis, J M; Makarewicz, A J


    We developed, tested, and now operate a civilian biological defense capability that continuously monitors the air for biological threat agents. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) collects, prepares, reads, analyzes, and reports results of multiplexed immunoassays and multiplexed PCR assays using Luminex{copyright} xMAP technology and flow cytometer. The mission we conduct is particularly demanding: continuous monitoring, multiple threat agents, high sensitivity, challenging environments, and ultimately extremely low false positive rates. Here, we introduce the mission requirements and metrics, show the system engineering and analysis framework, and describe the progress to date including early development and current status.

  19. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael


    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  20. Intelligent autonomous systems 12. Vol. 2. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sukhan [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Gyeonggi-Do (Korea, Republic of). College of Information and Communication Engineering; Yoon, Kwang-Joon [Konkuk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyungsuck [Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jangmyung (eds.) [Pusan National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Electronics Engineering


    Recent research in Intelligent and Autonomous Systems. Volume 2 of the proceedings of the 12th International Conference IAS-12, held June 26-29, 2012, jeju Island, Korea. Written by leading experts in the field. Intelligent autonomous systems are emerged as a key enabler for the creation of a new paradigm of services to humankind, as seen by the recent advancement of autonomous cars licensed for driving in our streets, of unmanned aerial and underwater vehicles carrying out hazardous tasks on-site, and of space robots engaged in scientific as well as operational missions, to list only a few. This book aims at serving the researchers and practitioners in related fields with a timely dissemination of the recent progress on intelligent autonomous systems, based on a collection of papers presented at the 12th International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems, held in Jeju, Korea, June 26-29, 2012. With the theme of ''Intelligence and Autonomy for the Service to Humankind, the conference has covered such diverse areas as autonomous ground, aerial, and underwater vehicles, intelligent transportation systems, personal/domestic service robots, professional service robots for surgery/rehabilitation, rescue/security and space applications, and intelligent autonomous systems for manufacturing and healthcare. This volume 2 includes contributions devoted to Service Robotics and Human-Robot Interaction and Autonomous Multi-Agent Systems and Life Engineering.

  1. Evolutionary Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Gorelik


    Full Text Available In this article, we advance the concept of “evolutionary awareness,” a metacognitive framework that examines human thought and emotion from a naturalistic, evolutionary perspective. We begin by discussing the evolution and current functioning of the moral foundations on which our framework rests. Next, we discuss the possible applications of such an evolutionarily-informed ethical framework to several domains of human behavior, namely: sexual maturation, mate attraction, intrasexual competition, culture, and the separation between various academic disciplines. Finally, we discuss ways in which an evolutionary awareness can inform our cross-generational activities—which we refer to as “intergenerational extended phenotypes”—by helping us to construct a better future for ourselves, for other sentient beings, and for our environment.

  2. Evolutionary macroecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alexandre F. Diniz-Filho


    Full Text Available Macroecology focuses on ecological questions at broad spatial and temporal scales, providing a statistical description of patterns in species abundance, distribution and diversity. More recently, historical components of these patterns have begun to be investigated more deeply. We tentatively refer to the practice of explicitly taking species history into account, both analytically and conceptually, as ‘evolutionary macroecology’. We discuss how the evolutionary dimension can be incorporated into macroecology through two orthogonal and complementary data types: fossils and phylogenies. Research traditions dealing with these data have developed more‐or‐less independently over the last 20–30 years, but merging them will help elucidate the historical components of diversity gradients and the evolutionary dynamics of species’ traits. Here we highlight conceptual and methodological advances in merging these two research traditions and review the viewpoints and toolboxes that can, in combination, help address patterns and unveil processes at temporal and spatial macro‐scales.

  3. Evolutionary Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, Ulrik William


    cognitive bounds will perceive business opportunities identically. In addition, because cues provide information about latent causal structures of the environment, changes in causality must be accompanied by changes in cognitive representations if adaptation is to be maintained. The concept of evolutionary......, they are correlated among people who share environments because these individuals satisfice within their cognitive bounds by using cues in order of validity, as opposed to using cues arbitrarily. Any difference in expectations thereby arise from differences in cognitive ability, because two individuals with identical......The concept of evolutionary expectations descends from cue learning psychology, synthesizing ideas on rational expectations with ideas on bounded rationality, to provide support for these ideas simultaneously. Evolutionary expectations are rational, but within cognitive bounds. Moreover...

  4. [Evolutionary medicine]. (United States)

    Wjst, M


    Evolutionary medicine allows new insights into long standing medical problems. Are we "really stoneagers on the fast lane"? This insight might have enormous consequences and will allow new answers that could never been provided by traditional anthropology. Only now this is made possible using data from molecular medicine and systems biology. Thereby evolutionary medicine takes a leap from a merely theoretical discipline to practical fields - reproductive, nutritional and preventive medicine, as well as microbiology, immunology and psychiatry. Evolutionary medicine is not another "just so story" but a serious candidate for the medical curriculum providing a universal understanding of health and disease based on our biological origin. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. A logic for agent organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dignum, M.V.; Dignum, F.P.M.


    Organization concepts and models are increasingly being adopted for the design and specification of multi-agent systems. Agent organizations can be seen as mechanisms of social order, created to achieve common goals for more or less autonomous agents. In order to develop a theory on the relation

  6. Agent Transparency for an Autonomous Squad Member (United States)


    questions included indicated multicollinearity between probes 7 and 8, p = 0.817, therefore question 8 was excluded from the analysis. Although the...decisions: controlling intent and appraisal errors in a target detection task. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society

  7. Multi-agent autonomous system and method (United States)

    Fink, Wolfgang (Inventor); Dohm, James (Inventor); Tarbell, Mark A. (Inventor)


    A method of controlling a plurality of crafts in an operational area includes providing a command system, a first craft in the operational area coupled to the command system, and a second craft in the operational area coupled to the command system. The method further includes determining a first desired destination and a first trajectory to the first desired destination, sending a first command from the command system to the first craft to move a first distance along the first trajectory, and moving the first craft according to the first command. A second desired destination and a second trajectory to the second desired destination are determined and a second command is sent from the command system to the second craft to move a second distance along the second trajectory.

  8. Enhancing agent safety through autonomous environment adaptation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosman, Benjamin S


    Full Text Available ). Another common scenario may involve dis- couraging a child from exploring or playing near stairs or other falling hazards, without him directly experiencing the potential negative consequences of interacting in such an area. The trauma from experiencing...–670. [17] R. C. Browning, E. A. Baker, J. A. Herron, and R. Kram, “Effects of obesity and sex on the energetic cost and preferred speed of walking,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 100, no. 2, pp. 390–398, 2006. [18] G. Cavagna, P. Franzetti, and T...

  9. The major synthetic evolutionary transitions. (United States)

    Solé, Ricard


    Evolution is marked by well-defined events involving profound innovations that are known as 'major evolutionary transitions'. They involve the integration of autonomous elements into a new, higher-level organization whereby the former isolated units interact in novel ways, losing their original autonomy. All major transitions, which include the origin of life, cells, multicellular systems, societies or language (among other examples), took place millions of years ago. Are these transitions unique, rare events? Have they instead universal traits that make them almost inevitable when the right pieces are in place? Are there general laws of evolutionary innovation? In order to approach this problem under a novel perspective, we argue that a parallel class of evolutionary transitions can be explored involving the use of artificial evolutionary experiments where alternative paths to innovation can be explored. These 'synthetic' transitions include, for example, the artificial evolution of multicellular systems or the emergence of language in evolved communicating robots. These alternative scenarios could help us to understand the underlying laws that predate the rise of major innovations and the possibility for general laws of evolved complexity. Several key examples and theoretical approaches are summarized and future challenges are outlined.This article is part of the themed issue 'The major synthetic evolutionary transitions'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Adaptive multi-agent system for information retrieval (United States)

    Maleki-dizaji, Saeedeh; Nyongesa, H. O.; Siddiqqi, J.


    The current exponential growth of the Internet precipitates a need for improved tools to help people cope with the volume of information available. Existing search engines such, as Yahoo, Alta vista and Excite are efficient in terms of high recall (percentage of relevant document that are retrieved from Internet), and fast response time, at the cost of poor precision (percentage of documents retrieved that are considered relevant). The problem is due to the lack of filtering, lack of specialisation, lack of relevance feedback, lack of adaptation and lack of exploration. One solution for the above problems is to use intelligent agents, which can operate autonomously and become better over time. The agents rely on a user model to improve their performance in retrieving the information. This paper presents an adaptive information retrieval (IR) that learns from the user feedback through an evolutionary method, namely, genetic algorithms (GA).

  11. Continuous and embedded learning in autonomous vehicles: adapting to sensor failures (United States)

    Schultz, Alan C.; Grefenstette, John J.


    This project describes an approach to creating autonomous systems that can continue to learn throughout their lives, that is, to be adaptive to changes in the environment and in their own capabilities. Evolutionary learning methods have been found to be useful in several areas in the development of autonomous vehicles. In our research, evolutionary algorithms are used to explore the alternative robot behaviors within a simulation model as a way of reducing the overall knowledge engineering effort. The learned behaviors are then tested in the actual robot and the results compared. Initial research demonstrated the ability to learn reasonable complex robot behaviors such as herding, and navigation and collision avoidance using this offline learning approach. In this work, the vehicle is always exploring different strategies via an internal simulation model; the simulation in term, is changing over time to better match the world. This model, which we call Continuous and Embedded Learning (also referred to as Anytime Learning), is a general approach to continuous learning in a changing environment. The agent's learning module continuously tests new strategies against a simulation model of the task environment, and dynamically updates the knowledge base used by the agent on the basis of the results. The execution module controls the agent's interaction with the environment, and includes a monitor that can dynamically modify the simulation model based on its observations of the environment. When a simulation model is modified, the learning process continues on the modified model. The learning system is assume to operate indefinitely, and the execution system uses the results of learning as they become available. Early experimental studies demonstrate a robot that can learn to adapt to failures in its sonar sensors.

  12. Autonomous Image Segmentation using Density-Adaptive Dendritic Cell Algorithm


    Vishwambhar Pathak; Praveen Dhyani; Prabhat Mahanti


    Contemporary image processing based applications like medical diagnosis automation and analysis of satellite imagery include autonomous image segmentation as inevitable facility. The research done shows the efficiency of an adaptive evolutionary algorithm based on immune system dynamics for the task of autonomous image segmentation. The recognition dynamics of immune-kernels modeled with infinite Gaussian mixture models exhibit the capability to automatically determine appropriate number of s...

  13. Complex evolutionary systems in behavioral finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.; Wagener, F.


    Traditional finance is built on the rationality paradigm. This chapter discusses simple models from an alternative approach in which financial markets are viewed as complex evolutionary systems. Agents are boundedly rational and base their investment decisions upon market forecasting heuristics.

  14. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders (United States)

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

  15. The evolutionary consequences of disrupted male mating signals: an agent-based modelling exploration of endocrine disrupting chemicals in the guppy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair McNair Senior

    Full Text Available Females may select a mate based on signalling traits that are believed to accurately correlate with heritable aspects of male quality. Anthropogenic actions, in particular chemicals released into the environment, are now disrupting the accuracy of mating signals to convey information about male quality. The long-term prediction for disrupted mating signals is most commonly loss of female preference. Yet, this prediction has rarely been tested using quantitative models. We use agent-based models to explore the effects of rapid disruption of mating signals. In our model, a gene determines survival. Males signal their level of genetic quality via a signal trait, which females use to select a mate. We allowed this system of sexual selection to become established, before introducing a disruption between the male signal trait and quality, which was similar in nature to that induced by exogenous chemicals. Finally, we assessed the capacity of the system to recover from this disruption. We found that within a relatively short time frame, disruption of mating signals led to a lasting loss of female preference. Decreases in mean viability at the population-level were also observed, because sexual-selection acting against newly arising deleterious mutations was relaxed. The ability of the population to recover from disrupted mating signals was strongly influenced by the mechanisms that promoted or maintained genetic diversity in traits under sexual selection. Our simple model demonstrates that environmental perturbations to the accuracy of male mating signals can result in a long-term loss of female preference for those signals within a few generations. What is more, the loss of this preference can have knock-on consequences for mean population fitness.

  16. Evolutionary institutionalism. (United States)

    Fürstenberg, Dr Kai

    Institutions are hard to define and hard to study. Long prominent in political science have been two theories: Rational Choice Institutionalism (RCI) and Historical Institutionalism (HI). Arising from the life sciences is now a third: Evolutionary Institutionalism (EI). Comparative strengths and weaknesses of these three theories warrant review, and the value-to-be-added by expanding the third beyond Darwinian evolutionary theory deserves consideration. Should evolutionary institutionalism expand to accommodate new understanding in ecology, such as might apply to the emergence of stability, and in genetics, such as might apply to political behavior? Core arguments are reviewed for each theory with more detailed exposition of the third, EI. Particular attention is paid to EI's gene-institution analogy; to variation, selection, and retention of institutional traits; to endogeneity and exogeneity; to agency and structure; and to ecosystem effects, institutional stability, and empirical limitations in behavioral genetics. RCI, HI, and EI are distinct but complementary. Institutional change, while amenable to rational-choice analysis and, retrospectively, to criticaljuncture and path-dependency analysis, is also, and importantly, ecological. Stability, like change, is an emergent property of institutions, which tend to stabilize after change in a manner analogous to allopatric speciation. EI is more than metaphorically biological in that institutional behaviors are driven by human behaviors whose evolution long preceded the appearance of institutions themselves.

  17. Autonomous Mission Operations for Sensor Webs (United States)

    Underbrink, A.; Witt, K.; Stanley, J.; Mandl, D.


    We present interim results of a 2005 ROSES AIST project entitled, "Using Intelligent Agents to Form a Sensor Web for Autonomous Mission Operations", or SWAMO. The goal of the SWAMO project is to shift the control of spacecraft missions from a ground-based, centrally controlled architecture to a collaborative, distributed set of intelligent agents. The network of intelligent agents intends to reduce management requirements by utilizing model-based system prediction and autonomic model/agent collaboration. SWAMO agents are distributed throughout the Sensor Web environment, which may include multiple spacecraft, aircraft, ground systems, and ocean systems, as well as manned operations centers. The agents monitor and manage sensor platforms, Earth sensing systems, and Earth sensing models and processes. The SWAMO agents form a Sensor Web of agents via peer-to-peer coordination. Some of the intelligent agents are mobile and able to traverse between on-orbit and ground-based systems. Other agents in the network are responsible for encapsulating system models to perform prediction of future behavior of the modeled subsystems and components to which they are assigned. The software agents use semantic web technologies to enable improved information sharing among the operational entities of the Sensor Web. The semantics include ontological conceptualizations of the Sensor Web environment, plus conceptualizations of the SWAMO agents themselves. By conceptualizations of the agents, we mean knowledge of their state, operational capabilities, current operational capacities, Web Service search and discovery results, agent collaboration rules, etc. The need for ontological conceptualizations over the agents is to enable autonomous and autonomic operations of the Sensor Web. The SWAMO ontology enables automated decision making and responses to the dynamic Sensor Web environment and to end user science requests. The current ontology is compatible with Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC

  18. Autonomous System Technologies for Resilient Airspace Operations (United States)

    Houston, Vincent E.; Le Vie, Lisa R.


    Increasing autonomous systems within the aircraft cockpit begins with an effort to understand what autonomy is and developing the technology that encompasses it. Autonomy allows an agent, human or machine, to act independently within a circumscribed set of goals; delegating responsibility to the agent(s) to achieve overall system objective(s). Increasingly Autonomous Systems (IAS) are the highly sophisticated progression of current automated systems toward full autonomy. Working in concert with humans, these types of technologies are expected to improve the safety, reliability, costs, and operational efficiency of aviation. IAS implementation is imminent, which makes the development and the proper performance of such technologies, with respect to cockpit operation efficiency, the management of air traffic and data communication information, vital. A prototype IAS agent that attempts to optimize the identification and distribution of "relevant" air traffic data to be utilized by human crews during complex airspace operations has been developed.

  19. Basic emotions and adaptation. A computational and evolutionary model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pacella

    Full Text Available The core principles of the evolutionary theories of emotions declare that affective states represent crucial drives for action selection in the environment and regulated the behavior and adaptation of natural agents in ancestrally recurrent situations. While many different studies used autonomous artificial agents to simulate emotional responses and the way these patterns can affect decision-making, few are the approaches that tried to analyze the evolutionary emergence of affective behaviors directly from the specific adaptive problems posed by the ancestral environment. A model of the evolution of affective behaviors is presented using simulated artificial agents equipped with neural networks and physically inspired on the architecture of the iCub humanoid robot. We use genetic algorithms to train populations of virtual robots across generations, and investigate the spontaneous emergence of basic emotional behaviors in different experimental conditions. In particular, we focus on studying the emotion of fear, therefore the environment explored by the artificial agents can contain stimuli that are safe or dangerous to pick. The simulated task is based on classical conditioning and the agents are asked to learn a strategy to recognize whether the environment is safe or represents a threat to their lives and select the correct action to perform in absence of any visual cues. The simulated agents have special input units in their neural structure whose activation keep track of their actual "sensations" based on the outcome of past behavior. We train five different neural network architectures and then test the best ranked individuals comparing their performances and analyzing the unit activations in each individual's life cycle. We show that the agents, regardless of the presence of recurrent connections, spontaneously evolved the ability to cope with potentially dangerous environment by collecting information about the environment and then

  20. Towards artificial situation awareness by autonomous vehicles


    McAree, O.; Aitken, J M; Veres, S.M.


    This paper presents a novel approach to artificial situation awareness for an autonomous vehicle operating in complex dynamic environments populated by other agents. A key aspect of situation awareness is the use of mental models to predict future states of the environment, allowing safe and rational routing decisions to be made. We present a technique for predicting future discrete state transitions (such as the commencement of a turn) by other agents, based upon an uncertain mental model. P...

  1. Requirement analysis for autonomous systems and intelligent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... very high penetration of distributed generation. This control architecture is based upon the requirements identified in the first part. We also present development of a software framework to test such flexible control architectures. Keywords: Electric power system, distributed control, autonomous systems, intelligent agents ...

  2. Biomimetic Emotional Learning Agents


    Kenyon, Samuel H.


    This extended abstract proposes a type of AI agent comprised of: an autonomous real-time control system, low-level emotional learning (including a simple knowledge base that links homeostatic/innate drives to sensory perception states), and a novel sliding-priority drive motivation mechanism. Learning occurs in both phylogenetic and ontogenetic training.

  3. Engineering autonomous systems


    Serbedzija N.; Bures T.; Keznikl J.


    Future technology needs adaptive, autonomous, self-aware and intelligent behavior offering solutions that are intuitively integrated in our everyday surroundings. One such approach is presented illustrating the major engineering process of autonomous systems construction. The dynamism and autonomous nature of the system elements is modeled by the novel communication/distribution principle that is knowledge- and predicate-based, allowing for late (in run-time) evaluation of communication and c...

  4. Multiple explanations in Darwinian evolutionary theory. (United States)

    Bock, Walter J


    Variational evolutionary theory as advocated by Darwin is not a single theory, but a bundle of related but independent theories, namely: (a) variational evolution; (b) gradualism rather than large leaps; (c) processes of phyletic evolution and of speciation; (d) causes for the formation of varying individuals in populations and for the action of selective agents; and (e) all organisms evolved from a common ancestor. The first four are nomological-deductive explanations and the fifth is historical-narrative. Therefore evolutionary theory must be divided into nomological and historical theories which are both testable against objective empirical observations. To be scientific, historical evolutionary theories must be based on well corroborated nomological theories, both evolutionary and functional. Nomological and general historical evolutionary theories are well tested and must be considered as strongly corroborated scientific theories. Opponents of evolutionary theory are concerned only with historical evolutionary theories, having little interest in nomological theory. Yet given a well corroborated nomological evolutionary theory, historical evolutionary theories follow automatically. If understood correctly, both forms of evolutionary theories stand on their own as corroborated scientific theories and should not be labeled as facts.

  5. Computation Environments (2) Persistently Evolutionary Semantics


    Ramezanian, Rasoul


    In the manuscript titled "Computation environment (1)", we introduced a notion called computation environment as an interactive model for computation and complexity theory. In this model, Turing machines are not autonomous entities and find their meanings through the interaction between a computist and a universal processor, and thus due to evolution of the universal processor, the meanings of Turing machines could change. In this manuscript, we discuss persistently evolutionary intensions. W...

  6. Algorithmic Mechanism Design of Evolutionary Computation. (United States)

    Pei, Yan


    We consider algorithmic design, enhancement, and improvement of evolutionary computation as a mechanism design problem. All individuals or several groups of individuals can be considered as self-interested agents. The individuals in evolutionary computation can manipulate parameter settings and operations by satisfying their own preferences, which are defined by an evolutionary computation algorithm designer, rather than by following a fixed algorithm rule. Evolutionary computation algorithm designers or self-adaptive methods should construct proper rules and mechanisms for all agents (individuals) to conduct their evolution behaviour correctly in order to definitely achieve the desired and preset objective(s). As a case study, we propose a formal framework on parameter setting, strategy selection, and algorithmic design of evolutionary computation by considering the Nash strategy equilibrium of a mechanism design in the search process. The evaluation results present the efficiency of the framework. This primary principle can be implemented in any evolutionary computation algorithm that needs to consider strategy selection issues in its optimization process. The final objective of our work is to solve evolutionary computation design as an algorithmic mechanism design problem and establish its fundamental aspect by taking this perspective. This paper is the first step towards achieving this objective by implementing a strategy equilibrium solution (such as Nash equilibrium) in evolutionary computation algorithm.

  7. Semi-Autonomous Systems Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — VisionThe Semi-Autonomous Systems Lab focuses on developing a comprehensive framework for semi-autonomous coordination of networked robotic systems. Semi-autonomous...

  8. Towards Behavior Control for Evolutionary Robot Based on RL with ENN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingan Yang


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a behavior-switching control strategy of an evolutionary robot based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN and genetic algorithm (GA. This method is able not only to construct the reinforcement learning models for autonomous robots and evolutionary robot modules that control behaviors and reinforcement learning environments, and but also to perform the behavior-switching control and obstacle avoidance of an evolutionary robot in the unpredictable environments with the static and moving obstacles by combining ANN and GA. The experimental results have demonstrated that our method can perform the decision-making strategy and parameter setup optimization of ANN and GA by learning and can effectively escape from a trap of local minima, avoid motion deadlock status of humanoid soccer robotic agents, and reduce the oscillation of the planned trajectory among the multiple obstacles by crossover and mutation. We have successfully applied some results of the proposed algorithm to our simulation humanoid robotic soccer team CIT3D which won the 1st prize of RoboCup Championship and ChinaOpen2010 and the 2nd place of the official RoboCup World Championship on 5-11, July 2011 in Istanbul, Turkey. In comparison with the conventional behavior network and the adaptive behavior method, our algorithm simplified the genetic encoding complexity, improved the convergence rate ρ and the network performance.

  9. Evolutionary developmental psychology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, Ashley C; Bjorklund, David F


    The field of evolutionary developmental psychology can potentially broaden the horizons of mainstream evolutionary psychology by combining the principles of Darwinian evolution by natural selection...

  10. Testing for autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J


    Autonomic neuropathy is a common complication in long-term diabetes, about 30% of the patients showing measurable signs of autonomic dysfunction after 10 years duration of disease. The diagnosis is often difficult to establish because clinical symptoms generally occur late in the course of the di...

  11. Invisible hand effect in an evolutionary minority game model (United States)

    Sysi-Aho, Marko; Saramäki, Jari; Kaski, Kimmo


    In this paper, we study the properties of a minority game with evolution realized by using genetic crossover to modify fixed-length decision-making strategies of agents. Although the agents in this evolutionary game act selfishly by trying to maximize their own performances only, it turns out that the whole society will eventually be rewarded optimally. This “invisible hand” effect is what Adam Smith over two centuries ago expected to take place in the context of free market mechanism. However, this behaviour of the society of agents is realized only under idealized conditions, where all agents are utilizing the same efficient evolutionary mechanism. If on the other hand part of the agents are adaptive, but not evolutionary, the system does not reach optimum performance, which is also the case if part of the evolutionary agents form a uniformly acting “cartel”.

  12. Autonomous multifunctional nanobrushes-autonomous materials (United States)

    Ghasemi-Nejhad, Mehrdad N.; Tius, Marcus A.


    In this work, taking advantage of carbon nanotubes' small size, and exceptional mechanical, chemical and electrical properties, we report on a series of nano-synthesis procedures that combine conventional chemical vapor deposition and selective substrate area growth followed by chemical functionalizations to fabricate functionalized nano-brushes from aligned carbon nanotube arrays and chemically selective functional groups. The high aspect ratio and small dimension, mechanical stability and flexibility, surface chemical and adhesive characteristics of carbon nanotubes provide opportunities to create nano-brushes with selected chemical functionalities. The nano-brushes are made from aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube bristles grafted onto long SiC fiber handles in various configurations and functionalized with various chemical functional groups. These nano-brushes can easily be manipulated physically, either manually or with the aid of motors. Here, we explain the autonomous characteristics of the functionalized nano-brushes employing functional chemical groups such that the nano-brush can potentially collect various metal particles, ions, and contaminants from liquid solutions and the air environment, autonomously. These functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube based nano-brushes can work swiftly in both liquid and air environments. With surface modification and functionalization, the nanotube nano-brushes can potentially become a versatile nano-devices in many chemical and biological applications, where they can autonomously pick up the particles they encounter since they can be chemically programmed to function as Autonomous Chemical Nano Robots (ACNR).

  13. Financial Markets as Nonlinear Adaptive Evolutionary Systems


    Hommes, C.H.


    This paper gives an overview of joint work with Buz Brock, on evolutionary adaptive belief systems (ABS) for modelling financial markets. Recent work with Andrea Gaunersdorfer is also reviewed and some recent experimental work on expectation formation in financial markets is also discussed. Financial markets are viewed as evolutionary systems between different, competing trading strategies. Agents are boundedly rational in the sense that they tend to follow strategies that have performed well...

  14. A Framework for Organization-Aware Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Dignum, Virginia; Villadsen, Jørgen


    This short paper introduces and summarizes the AORTA reasoning framework that can be integrated into BDI-agents to enable organizational decision-making. This work has recently been published in the Journal of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems (JAAMAS), as [3]....

  15. Mobile Agents in Networking and Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Jiannong


    The book focuses on mobile agents, which are computer programs that can autonomously migrate between network sites. This text introduces the concepts and principles of mobile agents, provides an overview of mobile agent technology, and focuses on applications in networking and distributed computing.

  16. A Multifunctional Coating for Autonomous Corrosion Control (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Jolley, Scott t.


    Nearly all metals and their alloys are subject to corrosion that causes them to lose their structural integrity or other critical functionality. Protective coatings are the most commonly used method of corrosion control. However, progressively stricter environmental regulations have resulted in the ban of many commercially available corrosion protective coatings due to the harmful effects of their solvents or corrosion inhibitors. This work concerns the development of a multifunctional smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion. This coating is being developed to have the inherent ability to detect the chemical changes associated with the onset of corrosion and respond autonomously to indicate it and control it. The multi-functionality of the coating is based on microencapsulation technology specifically designed for corrosion control applications. This design has, in addition to all the advantages of existing microcapsulation designs, the corrosion controlled release function that triggers the delivery of corrosion indicators and inhibitors on demand, only when and where needed. Microencapsulation of self-healing agents for autonomous repair of mechanical damage to the coating is also being pursued. Corrosion indicators, corrosion inhibitors, as well as self-healing agents, have been encapsulated and dispersed into several paint systems to test the corrosion detection, inhibition, and self-healing properties of the coating. Key words: Corrosion, coating, autonomous corrosion control, corrosion indication, corrosion inhibition, self-healing coating, smart coating, multifunctional coating, microencapsulation.

  17. Intelligent environment for monitoring Alzheimer patients, agent technology for health care


    Corchado Rodríguez, Juan M.; Paz, Yanira de; Bajo Pérez, Javier; Tapia, Dante I.


    This paper presents an autonomous intelligent agent developed for monitoring Alzheimer patients' health care in execution time in geriatric residences. The AGALZ (Autonomous aGent for monitoring ALZheimer patients) is an autonomous deliberative case-based planner agent designed to plan the nurses' working time dynamically, to maintain the standard working reports about the nurses' activities, and to guarantee that the patients assigned to the nurses are given the right care. The agent operate...

  18. Modern approaches to agent-based complex automated negotiation

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Quan; Ito, Takayuki; Zhang, Minjie; Ren, Fenghui; Aydoğan, Reyhan; Hadfi, Rafik


    This book addresses several important aspects of complex automated negotiations and introduces a number of modern approaches for facilitating agents to conduct complex negotiations. It demonstrates that autonomous negotiation is one of the most important areas in the field of autonomous agents and multi-agent systems. Further, it presents complex automated negotiation scenarios that involve negotiation encounters that may have, for instance, a large number of agents, a large number of issues with strong interdependencies and/or real-time constraints.

  19. Evolutionary Information Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Burgin


    Full Text Available Evolutionary information theory is a constructive approach that studies information in the context of evolutionary processes, which are ubiquitous in nature and society. In this paper, we develop foundations of evolutionary information theory, building several measures of evolutionary information and obtaining their properties. These measures are based on mathematical models of evolutionary computations, machines and automata. To measure evolutionary information in an invariant form, we construct and study universal evolutionary machines and automata, which form the base for evolutionary information theory. The first class of measures introduced and studied in this paper is evolutionary information size of symbolic objects relative to classes of automata or machines. In particular, it is proved that there is an invariant and optimal evolutionary information size relative to different classes of evolutionary machines. As a rule, different classes of algorithms or automata determine different information size for the same object. The more powerful classes of algorithms or automata decrease the information size of an object in comparison with the information size of an object relative to weaker4 classes of algorithms or machines. The second class of measures for evolutionary information in symbolic objects is studied by introduction of the quantity of evolutionary information about symbolic objects relative to a class of automata or machines. To give an example of applications, we briefly describe a possibility of modeling physical evolution with evolutionary machines to demonstrate applicability of evolutionary information theory to all material processes. At the end of the paper, directions for future research are suggested.

  20. Highly Autonomous Systems Workshop (United States)

    Doyle, R.; Rasmussen, R.; Man, G.; Patel, K.


    It is our aim by launching a series of workshops on the topic of highly autonomous systems to reach out to the larger community interested in technology development for remotely deployed systems, particularly those for exploration.

  1. Autonomous Star Tracker Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Kilsgaard, Søren


    Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances.......Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances....

  2. Evolving self-assembly in autonomous homogeneous robots: experiments with two physical robots. (United States)

    Ampatzis, Christos; Tuci, Elio; Trianni, Vito; Christensen, Anders Lyhne; Dorigo, Marco


    This research work illustrates an approach to the design of controllers for self-assembling robots in which the self-assembly is initiated and regulated by perceptual cues that are brought forth by the physical robots through their dynamical interactions. More specifically, we present a homogeneous control system that can achieve assembly between two modules (two fully autonomous robots) of a mobile self-reconfigurable system without a priori introduced behavioral or morphological heterogeneities. The controllers are dynamic neural networks evolved in simulation that directly control all the actuators of the two robots. The neurocontrollers cause the dynamic specialization of the robots by allocating roles between them based solely on their interaction. We show that the best evolved controller proves to be successful when tested on a real hardware platform, the swarm-bot. The performance achieved is similar to the one achieved by existing modular or behavior-based approaches, also due to the effect of an emergent recovery mechanism that was neither explicitly rewarded by the fitness function, nor observed during the evolutionary simulation. Our results suggest that direct access to the orientations or intentions of the other agents is not a necessary condition for robot coordination: Our robots coordinate without direct or explicit communication, contrary to what is assumed by most research works in collective robotics. This work also contributes to strengthening the evidence that evolutionary robotics is a design methodology that can tackle real-world tasks demanding fine sensory-motor coordination.

  3. Smartdata privacy meets evolutionary robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Inman; Tomko, George


    Privacy by Design and the Promise of SmartData.- SmartData: the Need, the Goal and the Challenge.- Perspectives on Artificial Intelligence.- Context dependent information processing entails scale-free dynamics.- Philosophy and SmartData.- Relevance Realization and the Neurodynamics and Neural Connectivity of General Intelligence.- What Matters: Real Bodies and Virtual Worlds.- The development of autonomous virtual agents.- Patterns of Attractors in the "Brain"".- A Privacy-Enabled Mobile Computing Model Using Intelligent Cloud-Based Services.- Unconstraint the Population: the Benefits of Horiz

  4. APDS: Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langlois, R G; Brown, S; Burris, L; Colston, B; Jones, L; Makarewicz, T; Mariella, R; Masquelier, D; McBride, M; Milanovich, F; Masarabadi, S; Venkateswaran, K; Marshall, G; Olson, D; Wolcott, D


    An early warning system to counter bioterrorism, the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) continuously monitors the environment for the presence of biological pathogens (e.g., anthrax) and once detected, it sounds an alarm much like a smoke detector warns of a fire. Long before September 11, 2001, this system was being developed to protect domestic venues and events including performing arts centers, mass transit systems, major sporting and entertainment events, and other high profile situations in which the public is at risk of becoming a target of bioterrorist attacks. Customizing off-the-shelf components and developing new components, a multidisciplinary team developed APDS, a stand-alone system for rapid, continuous monitoring of multiple airborne biological threat agents in the environment. The completely automated APDS samples the air, prepares fluid samples in-line, and performs two orthogonal tests: immunoassay and nucleic acid detection. When compared to competing technologies, APDS is unprecedented in terms of flexibility and system performance.

  5. The need for agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abolfazlian, Ali Reza Kian


    I denne artikel arbejder vi med begrebet Intelligent Software Agents (ISAs), som autonomous, social, reactive, proactive og subservient computer systemer. Baseret på socialt psykologiske argumenter viser jeg endvidere, hvordan både den menneskelige natur og det teknologiske stadium, som mennesket...... befinder sig i, forårsager behovet for disse ISAs. Der gives eksempler på ISAs, samt de områder, hvor man har særlige behov for disse agenter, og hvordan nogle af disse ISAs allerede er blevet taget i brug for at løse problemerne i disse områder....

  6. Autonomic cardiac innervation (United States)

    Hasan, Wohaib


    Autonomic cardiac neurons have a common origin in the neural crest but undergo distinct developmental differentiation as they mature toward their adult phenotype. Progenitor cells respond to repulsive cues during migration, followed by differentiation cues from paracrine sources that promote neurochemistry and differentiation. When autonomic axons start to innervate cardiac tissue, neurotrophic factors from vascular tissue are essential for maintenance of neurons before they reach their targets, upon which target-derived trophic factors take over final maturation, synaptic strength and postnatal survival. Although target-derived neurotrophins have a central role to play in development, alternative sources of neurotrophins may also modulate innervation. Both developing and adult sympathetic neurons express proNGF, and adult parasympathetic cardiac ganglion neurons also synthesize and release NGF. The physiological function of these “non-classical” cardiac sources of neurotrophins remains to be determined, especially in relation to autocrine/paracrine sustenance during development.   Cardiac autonomic nerves are closely spatially associated in cardiac plexuses, ganglia and pacemaker regions and so are sensitive to release of neurotransmitter, neuropeptides and trophic factors from adjacent nerves. As such, in many cardiac pathologies, it is an imbalance within the two arms of the autonomic system that is critical for disease progression. Although this crosstalk between sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves has been well established for adult nerves, it is unclear whether a degree of paracrine regulation occurs across the autonomic limbs during development. Aberrant nerve remodeling is a common occurrence in many adult cardiovascular pathologies, and the mechanisms regulating outgrowth or denervation are disparate. However, autonomic neurons display considerable plasticity in this regard with neurotrophins and inflammatory cytokines having a central regulatory



    G. Geetha; C.Jayakumar


    Mobile agent plays an important role in developing applications of open, distributed and mixed environments, such as the internet. Mobile agent or mobile software agent is piece of software that can operate autonomously to accomplish user assigned task. To explain more, mobile agent is the process which can migrate to hosts autonomously. As an agent travels to do execution in different environment in different host or servers, the agents are in need of protecting themselves and their data fro...

  8. Flocking algorithm for autonomous flying robots. (United States)

    Virágh, Csaba; Vásárhelyi, Gábor; Tarcai, Norbert; Szörényi, Tamás; Somorjai, Gergő; Nepusz, Tamás; Vicsek, Tamás


    Animal swarms displaying a variety of typical flocking patterns would not exist without the underlying safe, optimal and stable dynamics of the individuals. The emergence of these universal patterns can be efficiently reconstructed with agent-based models. If we want to reproduce these patterns with artificial systems, such as autonomous aerial robots, agent-based models can also be used in their control algorithms. However, finding the proper algorithms and thus understanding the essential characteristics of the emergent collective behaviour requires thorough and realistic modeling of the robot and also the environment. In this paper, we first present an abstract mathematical model of an autonomous flying robot. The model takes into account several realistic features, such as time delay and locality of communication, inaccuracy of the on-board sensors and inertial effects. We present two decentralized control algorithms. One is based on a simple self-propelled flocking model of animal collective motion, the other is a collective target tracking algorithm. Both algorithms contain a viscous friction-like term, which aligns the velocities of neighbouring agents parallel to each other. We show that this term can be essential for reducing the inherent instabilities of such a noisy and delayed realistic system. We discuss simulation results on the stability of the control algorithms, and perform real experiments to show the applicability of the algorithms on a group of autonomous quadcopters. In our case, bio-inspiration works in two ways. On the one hand, the whole idea of trying to build and control a swarm of robots comes from the observation that birds tend to flock to optimize their behaviour as a group. On the other hand, by using a realistic simulation framework and studying the group behaviour of autonomous robots we can learn about the major factors influencing the flight of bird flocks.

  9. Eco-evolutionary dynamics in an urbanizing planet. (United States)

    Alberti, Marina


    A great challenge for ecology in the coming decades is to understand the role humans play in eco-evolutionary dynamics. If, as emerging evidence shows, rapid evolutionary change affects ecosystem functioning and stability, current rapid environmental change and its evolutionary effects might have significant implications for ecological and human wellbeing on a relatively short time scale. Humans are major selective agents with potential for unprecedented evolutionary consequences for Earth's ecosystems, especially as cities expand rapidly. In this review, I identify emerging hypotheses on how urbanization drives eco-evolutionary dynamics. Studying how human-driven micro-evolutionary changes interact with ecological processes offers us the chance to advance our understanding of eco-evolutionary feedbacks and will provide new insights for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function over the long term. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An Algorithm for Autonomous Formation Obstacle Avoidance (United States)

    Cruz, Yunior I.

    The level of human interaction with Unmanned Aerial Systems varies greatly from remotely piloted aircraft to fully autonomous systems. In the latter end of the spectrum, the challenge lies in designing effective algorithms to dictate the behavior of the autonomous agents. A swarm of autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles requires collision avoidance and formation flight algorithms to negotiate environmental challenges it may encounter during the execution of its mission, which may include obstacles and chokepoints. In this work, a simple algorithm is developed to allow a formation of autonomous vehicles to perform point to point navigation while avoiding obstacles and navigating through chokepoints. Emphasis is placed on maintaining formation structures. Rather than breaking formation and individually navigating around the obstacle or through the chokepoint, vehicles are required to assemble into appropriately sized/shaped sub-formations, bifurcate around the obstacle or negotiate the chokepoint, and reassemble into the original formation at the far side of the obstruction. The algorithm receives vehicle and environmental properties as inputs and outputs trajectories for each vehicle from start to the desired ending location. Simulation results show that the algorithm safely routes all vehicles past the obstruction while adhering to the aforementioned requirements. The formation adapts and successfully negotiates the obstacles and chokepoints in its path while maintaining proper vehicle separation.

  11. Autonomous electrochromic assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berland, Brian Spencer; Lanning, Bruce Roy; Stowell, Jr., Michael Wayne


    This disclosure describes system and methods for creating an autonomous electrochromic assembly, and systems and methods for use of the autonomous electrochromic assembly in combination with a window. Embodiments described herein include an electrochromic assembly that has an electrochromic device, an energy storage device, an energy collection device, and an electrochromic controller device. These devices may be combined into a unitary electrochromic insert assembly. The electrochromic assembly may have the capability of generating power sufficient to operate and control an electrochromic device. This control may occur through the application of a voltage to an electrochromic device to change its opacity state. The electrochromic assembly may be used in combination with a window.

  12. The Autonomous Helicopter System (United States)

    Gilmore, John F.


    This paper describes an autonomous airborne vehicle being developed at the Georgia Tech Engineering Experiment Station. The Autonomous Helicopter System (AHS) is a multi-mission system consisting of three distinct sections: vision, planning and control. Vision provides the local and global scene analysis which is symbolically represented and passed to planning as the initial route planning constraints. Planning generates a task dependent path for the vehicle to traverse which assures maximum mission system success as well as safety. Control validates the path and either executes the given route or feeds back to previous sections in order to resolve conflicts.

  13. Autonomous and Autonomic Systems: A Paradigm for Future Space Exploration Missions (United States)

    Truszkowski, Walter F.; Hinchey, Michael G.; Rash, James L.; Rouff, Christopher A.


    NASA increasingly will rely on autonomous systems concepts, not only in the mission control centers on the ground, but also on spacecraft and on rovers and other assets on extraterrestrial bodies. Automomy enables not only reduced operations costs, But also adaptable goal-driven functionality of mission systems. Space missions lacking autonomy will be unable to achieve the full range of advanced mission objectives, given that human control under dynamic environmental conditions will not be feasible due, in part, to the unavoidably high signal propagation latency and constrained data rates of mission communications links. While autonomy cost-effectively supports accomplishment of mission goals, autonomicity supports survivability of remote mission assets, especially when human tending is not feasible. Autonomic system properties (which ensure self-configuring, self-optimizing self-healing, and self-protecting behavior) conceptually may enable space missions of a higher order into any previously flown. Analysis of two NASA agent-based systems previously prototyped, and of a proposed future mission involving numerous cooperating spacecraft, illustrates how autonomous and autonomic system concepts may be brought to bear on future space missions.

  14. Game Theory Models for the Verification of the Collective Behaviour of Autonomous Cars


    Varga, László Z.


    The collective of autonomous cars is expected to generate almost optimal traffic. In this position paper we discuss the multi-agent models and the verification results of the collective behaviour of autonomous cars. We argue that non-cooperative autonomous adaptation cannot guarantee optimal behaviour. The conjecture is that intention aware adaptation with a constraint on simultaneous decision making has the potential to avoid unwanted behaviour. The online routing game model is expected to b...

  15. Feeling good: autonomic nervous system responding in five positive emotions. (United States)

    Shiota, Michelle N; Neufeld, Samantha L; Yeung, Wan H; Moser, Stephanie E; Perea, Elaine F


    Although dozens of studies have examined the autonomic nervous system (ANS) aspects of negative emotions, less is known about ANS responding in positive emotion. An evolutionary framework was used to define five positive emotions in terms of fitness-enhancing function, and to guide hypotheses regarding autonomic responding. In a repeated measures design, participants viewed sets of visual images eliciting these positive emotions (anticipatory enthusiasm, attachment love, nurturant love, amusement, and awe) plus an emotionally neutral state. Peripheral measures of sympathetic and vagal parasympathetic activation were assessed. Results indicated that the emotion conditions were characterized by qualitatively distinct profiles of autonomic activation, suggesting the existence of multiple, physiologically distinct positive emotions. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Evolutionary molecular medicine. (United States)

    Nesse, Randolph M; Ganten, Detlev; Gregory, T Ryan; Omenn, Gilbert S


    Evolution has long provided a foundation for population genetics, but some major advances in evolutionary biology from the twentieth century that provide foundations for evolutionary medicine are only now being applied in molecular medicine. They include the need for both proximate and evolutionary explanations, kin selection, evolutionary models for cooperation, competition between alleles, co-evolution, and new strategies for tracing phylogenies and identifying signals of selection. Recent advances in genomics are transforming evolutionary biology in ways that create even more opportunities for progress at its interfaces with genetics, medicine, and public health. This article reviews 15 evolutionary principles and their applications in molecular medicine in hopes that readers will use them and related principles to speed the development of evolutionary molecular medicine.

  17. Towards Behavior Control for Evolutionary Robot Based on RL with ENN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingan Yang


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a behavior-switching control strategy of anevolutionary robotics based on Artificial NeuralNetwork (ANN and Genetic Algorithms (GA. This method is able not only to construct thereinforcement learning models for autonomous robots and evolutionary robot modules thatcontrol behaviors and reinforcement learning environments, and but also to perform thebehavior-switching control and obstacle avoidance of an evolutionary robotics (ER intime-varying environments with static and moving obstacles by combining ANN and GA.The experimental results on thebasic behaviors and behavior-switching control have demonstrated that ourmethod can perform the decision-making strategy and parameters set opimization ofFNN and GA by learning and can escape successfully from the trap of a localminima and avoid \\emph{"motion deadlock" status} of humanoid soccer robotics agents,and reduce the oscillation of the planned trajectory betweenthe multiple obstacles by crossover and mutation. Some results of the proposed algorithmhave been successfully applied to our simulation humanoid robotics soccer team CIT3Dwhich won \\emph{the 1st prize} of RoboCup Championship and ChinaOpen2010 (July 2010 and \\emph{the $2^{nd}$ place}of the official RoboCup World Championship on 5-11 July, 2011 in Istanbul, Turkey.As compared with the conventional behavior network and the adaptive behavior method,the genetic encoding complexity of our algorithm is simplified, and the networkperformance and the {\\em convergence rate $\\rho$} have been greatlyimproved.

  18. Developing Autonomous Learners. (United States)

    Mulcahy, Robert F.


    Defines the concept of autonomous learning. Presents the Strategies Program for Effective Learning/Thinking (SPELT), including its underlying assumptions, instructional model, teacher training procedures, research findings, and anticipated future development. Research results include implications for learning-disabled and gifted students. (KS)

  19. Autonomous Forest Fire Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breejen, E. den; Breuers, M.; Cremer, F.; Kemp, R.A.W.; Roos, M.; Schutte, K.; Vries, J.S. de


    Forest fire detection is a very important issue in the pre-suppression process. Timely detection allows the suppression units to reach the fire in its initial stages and this will reduce the suppression costs considerably. The autonomous forest fire detection principle is based on temporal contrast

  20. Autonomous component carrier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben


    in local areas, basing our study case on LTE-Advanced. We present extensive network simulation results to demonstrate that a simple and robust interference management scheme, called autonomous component carrier selection allows each cell to select the most attractive frequency configuration; improving...

  1. Advanced Autonomous Systems for Space Operations (United States)

    Gross, A. R.; Smith, B. D.; Muscettola, N.; Barrett, A.; Mjolssness, E.; Clancy, D. J.


    otherwise possible, as well as many more efficient and low cost applications. In addition, utilizing component and system modeling and reasoning capabilities, autonomous systems will play an increasing role in ground operations for space missions, where they will both reduce the human workload as well as provide greater levels of monitoring and system safety. This paper will focus specifically on new and innovative software for remote, autonomous, space systems flight operations. Topics to be presented will include a brief description of key autonomous control concepts, the Remote Agent program that commanded the Deep Space 1 spacecraft to new levels of system autonomy, recent advances in distributed autonomous system capabilities, and concepts for autonomous vehicle health management systems. A brief description of teaming spacecraft and rovers for complex exploration missions will also be provided. New on-board software for autonomous science data acquisition for planetary exploration will be described, as well as advanced systems for safe planetary landings. A new multi-agent architecture that addresses some of the challenges of autonomous systems will be presented. Autonomous operation of ground systems will also be considered, including software for autonomous in-situ propellant production and management, and closed- loop ecological life support systems (CELSS). Finally, plans and directions for the future will be discussed.

  2. Frequency and motivational state: evolutionary simulations suggest an adaptive function for network oscillations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerebout, B.T.; Phaf, R.H.; Taatgen, N.A.; van Rijn, H.


    Evolutionary simulations of foraging agents, controlled by artificial neural networks, unexpectedly yielded oscillating node activations in the networks. The agents had to navigate a virtual environment to collect food while avoiding predation. Between generations their neural networks were

  3. Catecholamines and diabetic autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J


    In diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy plasma noradrenaline concentration, used as an index of sympathetic nervous activity, is low. This decrease is, however, only found in patients with a long duration of diabetes with clinically severe autonomic neuropathy. This apparent insensitivity...... of plasma catecholamine measurements is not due to changes in the clearance of catecholamines in diabetic autonomic neuropathy. The physiological responses to infused adrenaline and to noradrenaline are enhanced, for noradrenaline mainly cardiovascular responses. Adrenoceptors (alpha and beta adrenoceptors......) are not altered in circulating blood cells in diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Thus, a generalized up-regulation of adrenoceptors does not occur in diabetic autonomic neuropathy....

  4. Trigeminal autonomic cephalgias (United States)


    Summary points 1. Trigeminal autonomic cephalgias (TACs) are headaches/facial pains classified together based on:a suspected common pathophysiology involving the trigeminovascular system, the trigeminoparasympathetic reflex and centres controlling circadian rhythms;a similar clinical presentation of trigeminal pain, and autonomic activation. 2. There is much overlap in the diagnostic features of individual TACs. 3. In contrast, treatment response is relatively specific and aids in establishing a definitive diagnosis. 4. TACs are often presentations of underlying pathology; all patients should be imaged. 5. The aim of the article is to provide the reader with a broad introduction to, and an overview of, TACs. The reading list is extensive for the interested reader. PMID:26516482

  5. Mobile Autonomous Humanoid Assistant (United States)

    Diftler, M. A.; Ambrose, R. O.; Tyree, K. S.; Goza, S. M.; Huber, E. L.


    A mobile autonomous humanoid robot is assisting human co-workers at the Johnson Space Center with tool handling tasks. This robot combines the upper body of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Robonaut system with a Segway(TradeMark) Robotic Mobility Platform yielding a dexterous, maneuverable humanoid perfect for aiding human co-workers in a range of environments. This system uses stereo vision to locate human team mates and tools and a navigation system that uses laser range and vision data to follow humans while avoiding obstacles. Tactile sensors provide information to grasping algorithms for efficient tool exchanges. The autonomous architecture utilizes these pre-programmed skills to form human assistant behaviors. The initial behavior demonstrates a robust capability to assist a human by acquiring a tool from a remotely located individual and then following the human in a cluttered environment with the tool for future use.

  6. Mobile Intelligent Autonomous Systems


    Jitendra R. Raol; Ajith Gopal


    Mobile intelligent autonomous systems (MIAS) is a fast emerging research area. Although it can be regarded as a general R&D area, it is mainly directed towards robotics. Several important subtopics within MIAS research are:(i) perception and reasoning, (ii) mobility and navigation,(iii) haptics and teleoperation, (iv) image fusion/computervision, (v) modelling of manipulators, (vi) hardware/software architectures for planning and behaviour learning leadingto robotic architecture, (vii) ve...

  7. Remembering the evolutionary Freud. (United States)

    Young, Allan


    Throughout his career as a writer, Sigmund Freud maintained an interest in the evolutionary origins of the human mind and its neurotic and psychotic disorders. In common with many writers then and now, he believed that the evolutionary past is conserved in the mind and the brain. Today the "evolutionary Freud" is nearly forgotten. Even among Freudians, he is regarded to be a red herring, relevant only to the extent that he diverts attention from the enduring achievements of the authentic Freud. There are three ways to explain these attitudes. First, the evolutionary Freud's key work is the "Overview of the Transference Neurosis" (1915). But it was published at an inopportune moment, forty years after the author's death, during the so-called "Freud wars." Second, Freud eventually lost interest in the "Overview" and the prospect of a comprehensive evolutionary theory of psychopathology. The publication of The Ego and the Id (1923), introducing Freud's structural theory of the psyche, marked the point of no return. Finally, Freud's evolutionary theory is simply not credible. It is based on just-so stories and a thoroughly discredited evolutionary mechanism, Lamarckian use-inheritance. Explanations one and two are probably correct but also uninteresting. Explanation number three assumes that there is a fundamental difference between Freud's evolutionary narratives (not credible) and the evolutionary accounts of psychopathology that currently circulate in psychiatry and mainstream journals (credible). The assumption is mistaken but worth investigating.

  8. Nature's Autonomous Oscillators (United States)

    Mayr, H. G.; Yee, J.-H.; Mayr, M.; Schnetzler, R.


    Nonlinearity is required to produce autonomous oscillations without external time dependent source, and an example is the pendulum clock. The escapement mechanism of the clock imparts an impulse for each swing direction, which keeps the pendulum oscillating at the resonance frequency. Among nature's observed autonomous oscillators, examples are the quasi-biennial oscillation and bimonthly oscillation of the Earth atmosphere, and the 22-year solar oscillation. The oscillations have been simulated in numerical models without external time dependent source, and in Section 2 we summarize the results. Specifically, we shall discuss the nonlinearities that are involved in generating the oscillations, and the processes that produce the periodicities. In biology, insects have flight muscles, which function autonomously with wing frequencies that far exceed the animals' neural capacity; Stretch-activation of muscle contraction is the mechanism that produces the high frequency oscillation of insect flight, discussed in Section 3. The same mechanism is also invoked to explain the functioning of the cardiac muscle. In Section 4, we present a tutorial review of the cardio-vascular system, heart anatomy, and muscle cell physiology, leading up to Starling's Law of the Heart, which supports our notion that the human heart is also a nonlinear oscillator. In Section 5, we offer a broad perspective of the tenuous links between the fluid dynamical oscillators and the human heart physiology.

  9. A Large Scale, High Resolution Agent-Based Insurgency Model (United States)


    evolutionary computation, such as genetic algorithms (Mitchell, 1998) may be useful. Data could also be integrated by constraining agent attributes based...civil violence: an evolutionary multi- agent, game theoretic approach. Proc. IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation. Vancouver, BC, Canada, July 16-21...pastoral nomad/sedentary peasant interaction. Mathematical Anthropology and Cultural Theory: An International Journal 1(4), 2005. LeGrande, S

  10. PET imaging of the autonomic nervous system. (United States)

    Thackeray, James T; Bengel, Frank M


    The autonomic nervous system is the primary extrinsic control of heart rate and contractility, and is subject to adaptive and maladaptive changes in cardiovascular disease. Consequently, noninvasive assessment of neuronal activity and function is an attractive target for molecular imaging. A myriad of targeted radiotracers have been developed over the last 25 years for imaging various components of the sympathetic and parasympathetic signal cascades. While routine clinical use remains somewhat limited, a number of larger scale studies in recent years have supplied momentum to molecular imaging of autonomic signaling. Specifically, the findings of the ADMIRE HF trial directly led to United States Food and Drug Administration approval of 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) for Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) assessment of sympathetic neuronal innervation, and comparable results have been reported using the analogous PET agent 11C-meta-hydroxyephedrine (HED). Due to the inherent capacity for dynamic quantification and higher spatial resolution, regional analysis may be better served by PET. In addition, preliminary clinical and extensive preclinical experience has provided a broad foundation of cardiovascular applications for PET imaging of the autonomic nervous system. Recent years have witnessed the growth of novel quantification techniques, expansion of multiple tracer studies, and improved understanding of the uptake of different radiotracers, such that the transitional biology of dysfunctional subcellular catecholamine handling can be distinguished from complete denervation. As a result, sympathetic neuronal molecular imaging is poised to play a role in individualized patient care, by stratifying cardiovascular risk, visualizing underlying biology, and guiding and monitoring therapy.

  11. The autonomic nervous system and renal physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Elia JA


    Full Text Available John A D'Elia,1,2 Larry A Weinrauch1,2 1Joslin Diabetes Center, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Research in resistant hypertension has again focused on autonomic nervous system denervation – 50 years after it had been stopped due to postural hypotension and availability of newer drugs. These (ganglionic blockers drugs have all been similarly stopped, due to postural hypotension and yet newer antihypertensive agents. Recent demonstration of the feasibility of limited regional transcatheter sympathetic denervation has excited clinicians due to potential therapeutic implications. Standard use of ambulatory blood pressure recording equipment may alter our understanding of the diagnosis, potential treatment strategies, and health care outcomes – when faced with patients whose office blood pressure remains in the hypertensive range – while under treatment with three antihypertensive drugs at the highest tolerable doses, plus a diuretic. We review herein clinical relationships between autonomic function, resistant hypertension, current treatment strategies, and reflect upon the possibility of changes in our approach to resistant hypertension. Keywords: resistant hypertension, renal sympathetic ablation, autonomic nervous system, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, blood pressure control

  12. Improving Human/Autonomous System Teaming Through Linguistic Analysis (United States)

    Meszaros, Erica L.


    An area of increasing interest for the next generation of aircraft is autonomy and the integration of increasingly autonomous systems into the national airspace. Such integration requires humans to work closely with autonomous systems, forming human and autonomous agent teams. The intention behind such teaming is that a team composed of both humans and autonomous agents will operate better than homogenous teams. Procedures exist for licensing pilots to operate in the national airspace system and current work is being done to define methods for validating the function of autonomous systems, however there is no method in place for assessing the interaction of these two disparate systems. Moreover, currently these systems are operated primarily by subject matter experts, limiting their use and the benefits of such teams. Providing additional information about the ongoing mission to the operator can lead to increased usability and allow for operation by non-experts. Linguistic analysis of the context of verbal communication provides insight into the intended meaning of commonly heard phrases such as "What's it doing now?" Analyzing the semantic sphere surrounding these common phrases enables the prediction of the operator's intent and allows the interface to supply the operator's desired information.

  13. Optimal autonomous spacecraft resiliency maneuvers using metaheuristics (United States)

    Showalter, Daniel J.

    The growing congestion in space has increased the need for spacecraft to develop resilience capabilities in response to natural and man-made hazards. Equipping satellites with increased maneuvering capability has the potential to enhance resilience by altering their arrival conditions as they enter potentially hazardous regions. The propellant expenditure corresponding to increased maneuverability requires these maneuvers be optimized to minimize fuel expenditure and to the extent which resiliency can be preserved. This research introduces maneuvers to enhance resiliency and investigates the viability of metaheuristics to enable their autonomous optimization. Techniques are developed to optimize impulsive and continuous-thrust resiliency maneuvers. The results demonstrate that impulsive and low-thrust resiliency maneuvers require only meters per second of delta-velocity. Additionally, bi-level evolutionary algorithms are explored in the optimization of resiliency maneuvers which require a maneuvering spacecraft to perform an inspection of one of several target satellites while en-route to geostationary orbit. The methods developed are shown to consistently produce optimal and near-optimal results for the problems investigated and can be applied to future classes of resiliency maneuvers yet to be defined. Results indicate that the inspection requires an increase of only five percent of the propellant needed to transfer from low Earth orbit to geostationary orbit. The maneuvers and optimization techniques developed throughout this dissertation demonstrate the viability of the autonomous optimization of spacecraft resiliency maneuvers and can be utilized to optimize future classes of resiliency maneuvers.

  14. Multi Agent Systems and Web Services : Adaptive Workflow in E-Commerce


    Roomi, Farash


    In Multi-agent System (MAS), all agents communicate with each other by sending messages to each other in an expressive agent communication language. Agent communication language (ACL) [12], defines type of messages and their meaning that agents can exchange. Messages that agents communicate have semantic meanings which can be proposition, rules or actions [27]. In other words, multi-agent system is an association of synchronized, autonomous agents, which interact with each other in achieving ...

  15. Evolutionary Biology Today

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 11. Evolutionary Biology Today - The Domain of Evolutionary Biology. Amitabh Joshi. Series Article Volume 7 Issue 11 November 2002 pp 8-17. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  16. Part E: Evolutionary Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    evolutionary algorithms, such as memetic algorithms, which have emerged as a very promising tool for solving many real-world problems in a multitude of areas of science and technology. Moreover, parallel evolutionary combinatorial optimization has been presented. Search operators, which are crucial in all...

  17. Evolutionary Biology Today

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amitabh Joshi studies and teaches evolutionary ' genetics and population ecology at the Jawaharlal. Nehru Centre for Advanced. Scientific Research,. Bangalore. His current research interests are in life- history, evolution, the evolutionary genetics of biological clocks, the evolution of ecological specialization dynamics. He.

  18. Evolutionary Biology Today

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 2. Evolutionary Biology Today - What do Evolutionary Biologists do? Amitabh Joshi. Series Article Volume 8 Issue 2 February 2003 pp 6-18. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  19. Applying evolutionary anthropology


    Gibson, Mhairi A; Lawson, David W


    Evolutionary anthropology provides a powerful theoretical framework for understanding how both current environments and legacies of past selection shape human behavioral diversity. This integrative and pluralistic field, combining ethnographic, demographic, and sociological methods, has provided new insights into the ultimate forces and proximate pathways that guide human adaptation and variation. Here, we present the argument that evolutionary anthropological studies of human behavior also h...

  20. Autonomic Road Transport Support Systems


    McCluskey, T.L.; Kotsialos, A.; Müller, J.P.; Klugl, F.; Schumann, R.


    The work on Autonomic Road Transport Support (ARTS) presented here aims at\\ud meeting the challenge of engineering autonomic behavior in Intelligent Transportation\\ud Systems (ITS) by fusing research from the disciplines of traffic engineering\\ud and autonomic computing. Ideas and techniques from leading edge artificial intelligence\\ud research have been adapted for ITS over the last years. Examples include\\ud adaptive control embedded in real time traffic control systems, heuristic algorithm...

  1. A hybrid POMDP-BDI agent architecture with online stochastic planning and plan caching

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moodley, D


    Full Text Available This article presents an agent architecture for controlling an autonomous agent in stochastic, noisy environments. The architecture combines the partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP) model with the belief-desire-intention (BDI...

  2. Multi-Agent Based Agile (XP) Software Development Process Scheduling Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Y M Malgwi; N V Blamah


    .... In such changing environment agile development methodology is suited. In this paper, a multi-agent based approach to process scheduling was adopted, where each activity is viewed as an autonomous and flexible agent process...

  3. Robotics and Autonomous Systems Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides an environment for developing and evaluating intelligent software for both actual and simulated autonomous vehicles. Laboratory computers provide...

  4. An Intelligent Multiagent System for Autonomous Microgrid Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuo Kinoshita


    Full Text Available A microgrid is an eco-friendly power system because renewable sources such as solar and wind power are used as the main power sources. For this reason, much research, development, and demonstration projects have recently taken place in many countries. Operation is one of the important research topics for microgrids. For efficient and economical microgrid operation, a human operator is required as in other power systems, but it is difficult because there are some restrictions related to operation costs and privacy issues. To overcome the restriction, autonomous operation for microgrids is required. Recently, an intelligent agent system for autonomous microgrid operation has been studied as a potential solution. This paper proposes a multiagent system for autonomous microgrid operation. To build the multiagent system, the functionalities of agents, interactions among agents, and an effective agent protocol have been designed. The proposed system has been implemented by using an ADIPS/DASH framework as an agent platform. The intelligent multiagent system for microgrid operation based on the proposed scheme is tested to show the functionality and feasibility on a distributed environment through the Internet.

  5. Autonomous mobile robot teams (United States)

    Agah, Arvin; Bekey, George A.


    This paper describes autonomous mobile robot teams performing tasks in unstructured environments. The behavior and the intelligence of the group is distributed, and the system does not include a central command base or leader. The novel concept of the Tropism-Based Cognitive Architecture is introduced, which is used by the robots in order to produce behavior transforming their sensory information to proper action. The results of a number of simulation experiments are presented. These experiments include worlds where the robot teams must locate, decompose, and gather objects, and defend themselves against hostile predators, while navigating around stationary and mobile obstacles.

  6. Modeling Poker Challenges by Evolutionary Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Alberto Javarone


    Full Text Available We introduce a model for studying the evolutionary dynamics of Poker. Notably, despite its wide diffusion and the raised scientific interest around it, Poker still represents an open challenge. Recent attempts for uncovering its real nature, based on statistical physics, showed that Poker in some conditions can be considered as a skill game. In addition, preliminary investigations reported a neat difference between tournaments and ‘cash game’ challenges, i.e., between the two main configurations for playing Poker. Notably, these previous models analyzed populations composed of rational and irrational agents, identifying in the former those that play Poker by using a mathematical strategy, while in the latter those playing randomly. Remarkably, tournaments require very few rational agents to make Poker a skill game, while ‘cash game’ may require several rational agents for not being classified as gambling. In addition, when the agent interactions are based on the ‘cash game’ configuration, the population shows an interesting bistable behavior that deserves further attention. In the proposed model, we aim to study the evolutionary dynamics of Poker by using the framework of Evolutionary Game Theory, in order to get further insights on its nature, and for better clarifying those points that remained open in the previous works (as the mentioned bistable behavior. In particular, we analyze the dynamics of an agent population composed of rational and irrational agents, that modify their behavior driven by two possible mechanisms: self-evaluation of the gained payoff, and social imitation. Results allow to identify a relation between the mechanisms for updating the agents’ behavior and the final equilibrium of the population. Moreover, the proposed model provides further details on the bistable behavior observed in the ‘cash game’ configuration.

  7. Towards autonomous vehicular clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Olariu


    Full Text Available The dawn of the 21st century has seen a growing interest in vehicular networking and its myriad potential applications. The initial view of practitioners and researchers was that radio-equipped vehicles could keep the drivers informed about potential safety risks and increase their awareness of road conditions. The view then expanded to include access to the Internet and associated services. This position paper proposes and promotes a novel and more comprehensive vision namely, that advances in vehicular networks, embedded devices and cloud computing will enable the formation of autonomous clouds of vehicular computing, communication, sensing, power and physical resources. Hence, we coin the term, autonomous vehicular clouds (AVCs. A key feature distinguishing AVCs from conventional cloud computing is that mobile AVC resources can be pooled dynamically to serve authorized users and to enable autonomy in real-time service sharing and management on terrestrial, aerial, or aquatic pathways or theaters of operations. In addition to general-purpose AVCs, we also envision the emergence of specialized AVCs such as mobile analytics laboratories. Furthermore, we envision that the integration of AVCs with ubiquitous smart infrastructures including intelligent transportation systems, smart cities and smart electric power grids will have an enormous societal impact enabling ubiquitous utility cyber-physical services at the right place, right time and with right-sized resources.

  8. Nemesis Autonomous Test System (United States)

    Barltrop, Kevin J.; Lee, Cin-Young; Horvath, Gregory A,; Clement, Bradley J.


    A generalized framework has been developed for systems validation that can be applied to both traditional and autonomous systems. The framework consists of an automated test case generation and execution system called Nemesis that rapidly and thoroughly identifies flaws or vulnerabilities within a system. By applying genetic optimization and goal-seeking algorithms on the test equipment side, a "war game" is conducted between a system and its complementary nemesis. The end result of the war games is a collection of scenarios that reveals any undesirable behaviors of the system under test. The software provides a reusable framework to evolve test scenarios using genetic algorithms using an operation model of the system under test. It can automatically generate and execute test cases that reveal flaws in behaviorally complex systems. Genetic algorithms focus the exploration of tests on the set of test cases that most effectively reveals the flaws and vulnerabilities of the system under test. It leverages advances in state- and model-based engineering, which are essential in defining the behavior of autonomous systems. It also uses goal networks to describe test scenarios.

  9. Learning for Autonomous Navigation (United States)

    Angelova, Anelia; Howard, Andrew; Matthies, Larry; Tang, Benyang; Turmon, Michael; Mjolsness, Eric


    Robotic ground vehicles for outdoor applications have achieved some remarkable successes, notably in autonomous highway following (Dickmanns, 1987), planetary exploration (1), and off-road navigation on Earth (1). Nevertheless, major challenges remain to enable reliable, high-speed, autonomous navigation in a wide variety of complex, off-road terrain. 3-D perception of terrain geometry with imaging range sensors is the mainstay of off-road driving systems. However, the stopping distance at high speed exceeds the effective lookahead distance of existing range sensors. Prospects for extending the range of 3-D sensors is strongly limited by sensor physics, eye safety of lasers, and related issues. Range sensor limitations also allow vehicles to enter large cul-de-sacs even at low speed, leading to long detours. Moreover, sensing only terrain geometry fails to reveal mechanical properties of terrain that are critical to assessing its traversability, such as potential for slippage, sinkage, and the degree of compliance of potential obstacles. Rovers in the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission have got stuck in sand dunes and experienced significant downhill slippage in the vicinity of large rock hazards. Earth-based off-road robots today have very limited ability to discriminate traversable vegetation from non-traversable vegetation or rough ground. It is impossible today to preprogram a system with knowledge of these properties for all types of terrain and weather conditions that might be encountered.

  10. Expanded Perspectives on Autonomous Learners (United States)

    Oxford, Rebecca L.


    This paper explores two general perspectives on autonomous learners: psychological and sociocultural. These perspectives introduce a range of theoretically grounded facets of autonomous learners, facets such as the self-regulated learner, the emotionally intelligent learner, the self-determined learner, the mediated learner, the socioculturally…

  11. Eco-evolutionary feedbacks, adaptive dynamics and evolutionary rescue theory. (United States)

    Ferriere, Regis; Legendre, Stéphane


    Adaptive dynamics theory has been devised to account for feedbacks between ecological and evolutionary processes. Doing so opens new dimensions to and raises new challenges about evolutionary rescue. Adaptive dynamics theory predicts that successive trait substitutions driven by eco-evolutionary feedbacks can gradually erode population size or growth rate, thus potentially raising the extinction risk. Even a single trait substitution can suffice to degrade population viability drastically at once and cause 'evolutionary suicide'. In a changing environment, a population may track a viable evolutionary attractor that leads to evolutionary suicide, a phenomenon called 'evolutionary trapping'. Evolutionary trapping and suicide are commonly observed in adaptive dynamics models in which the smooth variation of traits causes catastrophic changes in ecological state. In the face of trapping and suicide, evolutionary rescue requires that the population overcome evolutionary threats generated by the adaptive process itself. Evolutionary repellors play an important role in determining how variation in environmental conditions correlates with the occurrence of evolutionary trapping and suicide, and what evolutionary pathways rescue may follow. In contrast with standard predictions of evolutionary rescue theory, low genetic variation may attenuate the threat of evolutionary suicide and small population sizes may facilitate escape from evolutionary traps.

  12. Evolutionary Mechanisms for Loneliness (United States)

    Cacioppo, John T.; Cacioppo, Stephanie; Boomsma, Dorret I.


    Robert Weiss (1973) conceptualized loneliness as perceived social isolation, which he described as a gnawing, chronic disease without redeeming features. On the scale of everyday life, it is understandable how something as personally aversive as loneliness could be regarded as a blight on human existence. However, evolutionary time and evolutionary forces operate at such a different scale of organization than we experience in everyday life that personal experience is not sufficient to understand the role of loneliness in human existence. Research over the past decade suggests a very different view of loneliness than suggested by personal experience, one in which loneliness serves a variety of adaptive functions in specific habitats. We review evidence on the heritability of loneliness and outline an evolutionary theory of loneliness, with an emphasis on its potential adaptive value in an evolutionary timescale. PMID:24067110

  13. Evolutionary behavioral genetics. (United States)

    Zietsch, Brendan P; de Candia, Teresa R; Keller, Matthew C


    We describe the scientific enterprise at the intersection of evolutionary psychology and behavioral genetics-a field that could be termed Evolutionary Behavioral Genetics-and how modern genetic data is revolutionizing our ability to test questions in this field. We first explain how genetically informative data and designs can be used to investigate questions about the evolution of human behavior, and describe some of the findings arising from these approaches. Second, we explain how evolutionary theory can be applied to the investigation of behavioral genetic variation. We give examples of how new data and methods provide insight into the genetic architecture of behavioral variation and what this tells us about the evolutionary processes that acted on the underlying causal genetic variants.

  14. Marine mammals: evolutionary biology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berta, Annalisa; Sumich, James L; Kovacs, Kit M


    The third edition of Marine Mammals: Evolutionary Biology provides a comprehensive and current assessment of the diversity, evolution, and biology of marine mammals, while highlighting the latest tools and techniques for their study...

  15. Issues Regarding the Future Application of Autonomous Systems to Command and Control (C2) (United States)


    just in terms of transcription errors, but also in ontology and data interpretation. In an autonomously supported UC2 environment with decisions being...sensitive neural network based forex trading agents. CoRR, abs/1111.5892, 2011. She13. GeneI. Sher. Evolving currency trading agents. In Handbook of

  16. Autonomous Evolution of Complete Piano Pieces and Performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlstedt, Palle


    Evolutionary algorithms are used to evolve musical score material and corresponding performance data, in an autonomous process. In this way complete piano compositions are created and subsequently performed on a computer-controlled grand piano. The efficiency of the creative evolution depends...... gestures. This is combined with a set of automated formalized selection criteria based on experiences from human selection processes in a previous, interactive version of the same system, leading to surprisingly musical output and convincing performances. The system is also capable of rudimentary learning......, through recycling of its own musical output, and an accumulated database of human musical input....

  17. Recent advances in agent-based complex automated negotiation

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Takayuki; Zhang, Minjie; Fujita, Katsuhide; Robu, Valentin


    This book covers recent advances in Complex Automated Negotiations as a widely studied emerging area in the field of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. The book includes selected revised and extended papers from the 7th International Workshop on Agent-Based Complex Automated Negotiation (ACAN2014), which was held in Paris, France, in May 2014. The book also includes brief introductions about Agent-based Complex Automated Negotiation which are based on tutorials provided in the workshop, and brief summaries and descriptions about the ANAC'14 (Automated Negotiating Agents Competition) competition, where authors of selected finalist agents explain the strategies and the ideas used by them. The book is targeted to academic and industrial researchers in various communities of autonomous agents and multi-agent systems, such as agreement technology, mechanism design, electronic commerce, related areas, as well as graduate, undergraduate, and PhD students working in those areas or having interest in them.

  18. Operator Informational Needs for Multiple Autonomous Small Vehicles (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Fan, Henry; Cross, Charles D.; Hempley, Lucas E.; Cichella, Venanzio; Puig-Navarro, Javier; Mehdi, Syed Bilal


    With the anticipated explosion of small unmanned aerial vehicles, it is highly likely that operators will be controlling fleets of autonomous vehicles. To fulfill the promise of autonomy, vehicle operators will not be concerned with manual control of the vehicle; instead, they will deal with the overall mission. Furthermore, the one operator to many vehicles is becoming a constant meme with various industries including package delivery, search and rescue, and utility companies. In order for an operator to concurrently control several vehicles, his station must look and behave very differently than the current ground control station instantiations. Furthermore, the vehicle will have to be much more autonomous, especially during non-normal operations, in order to accommodate the knowledge deficit or the information overload of the operator in charge of several vehicles. The expected usage increase of small drones requires presenting the operational information generated by a fleet of heterogeneous autonomous agents to an operator. NASA Langley Research Center's Autonomy Incubator has brought together researchers in various disciplines including controls, trajectory planning, systems engineering, and human factors to develop an integrated system to study autonomy issues. The initial human factors effort is focusing on mission displays that would give an operator the overall status of all autonomous agents involved in the current mission. This paper will discuss the specifics of the mission displays for operators controlling several vehicles.

  19. Rapid Preliminary Design of Interplanetary Trajectories Using the Evolutionary Mission Trajectory Generator (United States)

    Englander, Jacob


    This set of tutorial slides is an introduction to the Evolutionary Mission Trajectory Generator (EMTG), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's autonomous tool for preliminary design of interplanetary missions. This slide set covers the basics of creating and post-processing simple interplanetary missions in EMTG using both high-thrust chemical and low-thrust electric propulsion along with a variety of operational constraints.

  20. Cybersecurity for aerospace autonomous systems (United States)

    Straub, Jeremy


    High profile breaches have occurred across numerous information systems. One area where attacks are particularly problematic is autonomous control systems. This paper considers the aerospace information system, focusing on elements that interact with autonomous control systems (e.g., onboard UAVs). It discusses the trust placed in the autonomous systems and supporting systems (e.g., navigational aids) and how this trust can be validated. Approaches to remotely detect the UAV compromise, without relying on the onboard software (on a potentially compromised system) as part of the process are discussed. How different levels of autonomy (task-based, goal-based, mission-based) impact this remote characterization is considered.

  1. Autonomous Navigation Using Celestial Objects (United States)

    Folta, David; Gramling, Cheryl; Leung, Dominic; Belur, Sheela; Long, Anne


    In the twenty-first century, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Enterprises envision frequent low-cost missions to explore the solar system, observe the universe, and study our planet. Satellite autonomy is a key technology required to reduce satellite operating costs. The Guidance, Navigation, and Control Center (GNCC) at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) currently sponsors several initiatives associated with the development of advanced spacecraft systems to provide autonomous navigation and control. Autonomous navigation has the potential both to increase spacecraft navigation system performance and to reduce total mission cost. By eliminating the need for routine ground-based orbit determination and special tracking services, autonomous navigation can streamline spacecraft ground systems. Autonomous navigation products can be included in the science telemetry and forwarded directly to the scientific investigators. In addition, autonomous navigation products are available onboard to enable other autonomous capabilities, such as attitude control, maneuver planning and orbit control, and communications signal acquisition. Autonomous navigation is required to support advanced mission concepts such as satellite formation flying. GNCC has successfully developed high-accuracy autonomous navigation systems for near-Earth spacecraft using NASA's space and ground communications systems and the Global Positioning System (GPS). Recently, GNCC has expanded its autonomous navigation initiative to include satellite orbits that are beyond the regime in which use of GPS is possible. Currently, GNCC is assessing the feasibility of using standard spacecraft attitude sensors and communication components to provide autonomous navigation for missions including: libration point, gravity assist, high-Earth, and interplanetary orbits. The concept being evaluated uses a combination of star, Sun, and Earth sensor measurements along with forward-link Doppler

  2. Nonuniform Deployment of Autonomous Agents in Harbor-Like Environments (United States)


    References [1] V. Sarma and S. Raju, Multisensor data fusion and de- cision support for airborne target identification, IEEE Transactions on Systems...extensively from algorithmic to implementation aspects. Mobility, coupled with estimation, data fusion , and motion control algorithms, enables groups of...scientific data in an underwater environment, and optimal DRDC-RDDC-2014-P78 8 S. Miah, B. Nguyen, A. Bourque, D. Spinello −0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

  3. Agent-based Multimodal Interface for Dynamically Autonomous Mobile Robots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sofge, Donald; Bugajska, Magdalena; Adams, William; Perzanowski, Dennis; Schultz, Alan


    .... The robot implements and integrates a variety of artificial intelligence techniques including a multimodal interface that allows natural language understanding, gesture interpretation, simultaneous...

  4. Discovery Learning in Autonomous Agents Using Genetic Algorithms (United States)


    that interract with simulated environments(80). Animats have gained notoriety in the computer science, machine learning, ethology (animal behavioral...discussed, as well as in the n’ext section on classifter syistema, eycept that animate have deeper rocts iw the ethological anti biolngicil sciences...the Samuel system becomes part of "a larger system based on a technique termed anytime learning. The task in this system is to control "a " cat

  5. The Unified Behavior Framework for the Simulation of Autonomous Agents (United States)


    higher priority. . . . . . 10 2.6 A UML diagram of the Unified Behavior Framework (UBF) [4]. . . . . . . . . 13 2.7 A graphical depiction of the...artificial intelligence USAF United States Air Force CRA Charles River Analytics UML Unified Modeling Language HOTAS hands on throttle-and-stick IFF...unifying them under one framework [4]. A Unified Modeling Language ( UML ) diagram of the UBF is shown in Figure 2.6. The paper presented in chapter 3

  6. Decentralized Planning for Autonomous Agents Cooperating in Complex Missions (United States)


    Cameron Fraser, Karl Kulling, Brett Bethke, Luca Bertuccelli, Sergio Cafarelli, Han-Lim Choi, and Kathryn Fischer. I also want to thank Olivier Toupet for...of the IFAC World Congress, (Barcelona, Spain), 2002. 124 [42] M. Flint, E. Fernandez -Gaucherand, and M. Polycarpou, "A probabilistic frame- work for

  7. Determining Resource Needs of Autonomous Agents in Decoupled Plans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterman, J.E.G.; Ravenhorst, R.; Witteveen, C.; Van Leeuwen, P.


    At airports, the turnaround process of aircraft is crucial for a timely and efficient handling of air traffic. During this process, a number of services need to be provided during the time the aircraft is at the gate: e.g., de-boarding, cleaning, catering, fuelling, and boarding. These services are

  8. A Hybrid Approach for Fault Detection in Autonomous Physical Agents (United States)


    positives (false alarms). In this paper we aim to extend the state of the art by describing a hybrid approach which is based on the SFDD approach and...ttributes with c rue : onstruction is owever, this o nd not the decis When no oth ecides on a cla n this particular hange the maj ree makes the s...hybrid approach tends to 0. We chose to demonstrate how a hybrid approach extends the state of the art with the use of, and a comparison to the SFDD

  9. Paleoanthropology and evolutionary theory. (United States)

    Tattersall, Ian


    Paleoanthropologists of the first half of the twentieth century were little concerned either with evolutionary theory or with the technicalities and broader implications of zoological nomenclature. In consequence, the paleoanthropological literature of the period consisted largely of a series of descriptions accompanied by authoritative pronouncements, together with a huge excess of hominid genera and species. Given the intellectual flimsiness of the resulting paleoanthropological framework, it is hardly surprising that in 1950 the ornithologist Ernst Mayr met little resistance when he urged the new postwar generation of paleoanthropologists to accept not only the elegant reductionism of the Evolutionary Synthesis but a vast oversimplification of hominid phylogenetic history and nomenclature. Indeed, the impact of Mayr's onslaught was so great that even when developments in evolutionary biology during the last quarter of the century brought other paleontologists to the realization that much more has been involved in evolutionary histories than the simple action of natural selection within gradually transforming lineages, paleoanthropologists proved highly reluctant to follow. Even today, paleoanthropologists are struggling to reconcile an intuitive realization that the burgeoning hominid fossil record harbors a substantial diversity of species (bringing hominid evolutionary patterns into line with that of other successful mammalian families), with the desire to cram a huge variety of morphologies into an unrealistically minimalist systematic framework. As long as this theoretical ambivalence persists, our perception of events in hominid phylogeny will continue to be distorted.

  10. Applying evolutionary anthropology. (United States)

    Gibson, Mhairi A; Lawson, David W


    Evolutionary anthropology provides a powerful theoretical framework for understanding how both current environments and legacies of past selection shape human behavioral diversity. This integrative and pluralistic field, combining ethnographic, demographic, and sociological methods, has provided new insights into the ultimate forces and proximate pathways that guide human adaptation and variation. Here, we present the argument that evolutionary anthropological studies of human behavior also hold great, largely untapped, potential to guide the design, implementation, and evaluation of social and public health policy. Focusing on the key anthropological themes of reproduction, production, and distribution we highlight classic and recent research demonstrating the value of an evolutionary perspective to improving human well-being. The challenge now comes in transforming relevance into action and, for that, evolutionary behavioral anthropologists will need to forge deeper connections with other applied social scientists and policy-makers. We are hopeful that these developments are underway and that, with the current tide of enthusiasm for evidence-based approaches to policy, evolutionary anthropology is well positioned to make a strong contribution. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. DualTrust: A Trust Management Model for Swarm-Based Autonomic Computing Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiden, Wendy M. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)


    Trust management techniques must be adapted to the unique needs of the application architectures and problem domains to which they are applied. For autonomic computing systems that utilize mobile agents and ant colony algorithms for their sensor layer, certain characteristics of the mobile agent ant swarm -- their lightweight, ephemeral nature and indirect communication -- make this adaptation especially challenging. This thesis looks at the trust issues and opportunities in swarm-based autonomic computing systems and finds that by monitoring the trustworthiness of the autonomic managers rather than the swarming sensors, the trust management problem becomes much more scalable and still serves to protect the swarm. After analyzing the applicability of trust management research as it has been applied to architectures with similar characteristics, this thesis specifies the required characteristics for trust management mechanisms used to monitor the trustworthiness of entities in a swarm-based autonomic computing system and describes a trust model that meets these requirements.

  12. Priming of supernatural agent concepts and agency detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Elk, M.; Rutjens, B.T.; van der Pligt, J.; van Harreveld, F.


    In evolutionary approaches to religion it is argued that belief in supernatural agents is strongly related to a perceptual bias to over-detect the presence of agents in the environment. We report five experiments that investigate whether processing concepts about supernatural agents facilitates

  13. Autonomic and Apoptotic, Aeronautical and Aerospace Systems, and Controlling Scientific Data Generated Therefrom (United States)

    Sterritt, Roy (Inventor); Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor)


    A self-managing system that uses autonomy and autonomicity is provided with the self-* property of autopoiesis (self-creation). In the event of an agent in the system self-destructing, autopoiesis auto-generates a replacement. A self-esteem reward scheme is also provided and can be used for autonomic agents, based on their performance and trust. Art agent with greater self-esteem may clone at a greater rate compared to the rate of an agent with lower self-esteem. A self-managing system is provided for a high volume of distributed autonomic/self-managing mobile agents, and autonomic adhesion is used to attract similar agents together or to repel dissimilar agents from an event horizon. An apoptotic system is also provided that accords an "expiry date" to data and digital objects, for example, that are available on the internet, which finds usefulness not only in general but also for controlling the loaning and use of space scientific data.

  14. Archaeogenetics in evolutionary medicine. (United States)

    Bouwman, Abigail; Rühli, Frank


    Archaeogenetics is the study of exploration of ancient DNA (aDNA) of more than 70 years old. It is an important part of the wider studies of many different areas of our past, including animal, plant and pathogen evolution and domestication events. Hereby, we address specifically the impact of research in archaeogenetics in the broader field of evolutionary medicine. Studies on ancient hominid genomes help to understand even modern health patterns. Human genetic microevolution, e.g. related to abilities of post-weaning milk consumption, and specifically genetic adaptation in disease susceptibility, e.g. towards malaria and other infectious diseases, are of the upmost importance in contributions of archeogenetics on the evolutionary understanding of human health and disease. With the increase in both the understanding of modern medical genetics and the ability to deep sequence ancient genetic information, the field of archaeogenetic evolutionary medicine is blossoming.

  15. Evolutionary synthetic biology. (United States)

    Peisajovich, Sergio G


    Signaling networks process vast amounts of environmental information to generate specific cellular responses. As cellular environments change, signaling networks adapt accordingly. Here, I will discuss how the integration of synthetic biology and directed evolution approaches is shedding light on the molecular mechanisms that guide the evolution of signaling networks. In particular, I will review studies that demonstrate how different types of mutations, from the replacement of individual amino acids to the shuffling of modular domains, lead to markedly different evolutionary trajectories and consequently to diverse network rewiring. Moreover, I will argue that intrinsic evolutionary properties of signaling proteins, such as the robustness of wild type functions, the promiscuous nature of evolutionary intermediates, and the modular decoupling between binding and catalysis, play important roles in the evolution of signaling networks. Finally, I will argue that rapid advances in our ability to synthesize DNA will radically alter how we study signaling network evolution at the genome-wide level.

  16. Total Integrative Evolutionary Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard Thomsen, Ole; Brier, Søren


    In this paper we outline a cybersemiotic foundation for the trend of pragmatics-based functional linguistics, Functional Discourse Grammar. Cybersemiotics is a substantial inter- and transdisciplinary semiotic theory which integrates, on the one hand, second-order cybernetics and autopoiesis theory...... and, on the other, Peircean biosemiotics. According to Cybersemiotics, language is primarily a creative process of total integrative evolutionary communication. It comprises three evolutionary stages: (1) biological reflexive languaging (the reflexive foundation of social coordination), (2......). In this inclusive hierarchy language games subsume the other stages, and thus human evolutionary communication is primarily a symbolic-conventional practice. It is intertwined with the practice of living, that is, with different life forms, including other forms of semiotic behavior. Together they form a coherent...

  17. Teaching evolutionary biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Tidon


    Full Text Available Evolutionary Biology integrates several disciplines of Biology in a complex and interactive manner, where a deep understanding of the subject demands knowledge in diverse areas. Since this knowledge is often inaccessible to the majority of specialized professionals, including the teachers, we present some reflections in order to stimulate discussions aimed at the improvement of the conditions of education in this area. We examine the profile of evolutionary teaching in Brazil, based on questionnaires distributed to teachers in Secondary Education in the Federal District, on data provided by the "National Institute for Educational Studies and Research", and on information collected from teachers working in various regions of this country. Issues related to biological misconceptions, curriculum and didactic material are discussed, and some proposals are presented with the objective of aiding discussions aimed at the improvement of the teaching of evolutionary biology.

  18. Cranial Autonomic Symptoms in Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available Cranial autonomic symptoms (CAS in patients with migraine and cluster headaches (CH were characterized and compared in a prospective study of consecutive patients attending a headache clinic at Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan.

  19. Autonomic Dysregulation in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Pintér


    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic, progressive central neurological disease characterized by inflammation and demyelination. In patients with MS, dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system may present with various clinical symptoms including sweating abnormalities, urinary dysfunction, orthostatic dysregulation, gastrointestinal symptoms, and sexual dysfunction. These autonomic disturbances reduce the quality of life of affected patients and constitute a clinical challenge to the physician due to variability of clinical presentation and inconsistent data on diagnosis and treatment. Early diagnosis and initiation of individualized interdisciplinary and multimodal strategies is beneficial in the management of autonomic dysfunction in MS. This review summarizes the current literature on the most prevalent aspects of autonomic dysfunction in MS and provides reference to underlying pathophysiological mechanisms as well as means of diagnosis and treatment.

  20. Framework for Autonomous Optimization Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phoenix Integration and MIT propose to create a novel autonomous optimization tool and application programming interface (API). The API will demonstrate the ability...

  1. Self-explaining agents in virtual training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Bosch, K. van den; Meyer, J.J.C.


    Virtual training systems are increasingly used for the training of complex, dynamic tasks. To give trainees the opportunity to train autonomously, intelligent agents are used to generate the behavior of the virtual players in the training scenario. For effective training however, trainees should be

  2. Control concept for autonomous changeable material flow systems


    Wilke, Michael


    Today’s material flow systems for mass customization or dynamic productions are usually realized with manual transportation systems. However new concepts in the domain of material flow and device control like function-oriented modularization and intelligent multi-agent-systems offer the possibility to employ changeable and automated material flow systems in dynamic production structures. These systems need the ability to react on unplanned and unexpected events autonomously.

  3. Autonomous Energy Grids: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, Benjamin D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dall-Anese, Emiliano [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bernstein, Andrey [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yingchen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hodge, Brian S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    With much higher levels of distributed energy resources - variable generation, energy storage, and controllable loads just to mention a few - being deployed into power systems, the data deluge from pervasive metering of energy grids, and the shaping of multi-level ancillary-service markets, current frameworks to monitoring, controlling, and optimizing large-scale energy systems are becoming increasingly inadequate. This position paper outlines the concept of 'Autonomous Energy Grids' (AEGs) - systems that are supported by a scalable, reconfigurable, and self-organizing information and control infrastructure, can be extremely secure and resilient (self-healing), and self-optimize themselves in real-time for economic and reliable performance while systematically integrating energy in all forms. AEGs rely on scalable, self-configuring cellular building blocks that ensure that each 'cell' can self-optimize when isolated from a larger grid as well as partaking in the optimal operation of a larger grid when interconnected. To realize this vision, this paper describes the concepts and key research directions in the broad domains of optimization theory, control theory, big-data analytics, and complex system modeling that will be necessary to realize the AEG vision.

  4. Autonomous rotor heat engine (United States)

    Roulet, Alexandre; Nimmrichter, Stefan; Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Seah, Stella; Scarani, Valerio


    The triumph of heat engines is their ability to convert the disordered energy of thermal sources into useful mechanical motion. In recent years, much effort has been devoted to generalizing thermodynamic notions to the quantum regime, partly motivated by the promise of surpassing classical heat engines. Here, we instead adopt a bottom-up approach: we propose a realistic autonomous heat engine that can serve as a test bed for quantum effects in the context of thermodynamics. Our model draws inspiration from actual piston engines and is built from closed-system Hamiltonians and weak bath coupling terms. We analytically derive the performance of the engine in the classical regime via a set of nonlinear Langevin equations. In the quantum case, we perform numerical simulations of the master equation. Finally, we perform a dynamic and thermodynamic analysis of the engine's behavior for several parameter regimes in both the classical and quantum case and find that the latter exhibits a consistently lower efficiency due to additional noise.

  5. Is paramecium swimming autonomic? (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R.; Toplosky, Norman; Hansen, Joshua


    We seek to explore if the swimming of paramecium has an underlying autonomic mechanism. Such robotic elements may be useful in capturing the disturbance field in an environment in real time. Experimental evidence is emerging that motion control neurons of other animals may be present in paramecium as well. The limit cycle determined using analog simulation of the coupled nonlinear oscillators of olivo-cerebellar dynamics (ieee joe 33, 563-578, 2008) agrees with the tracks of the cilium of a biological paramecium. A 4-motor apparatus has been built that reproduces the kinematics of the cilium motion. The motion of the biological cilium has been analyzed and compared with the results of the finite element modeling of forces on a cilium. The modeling equates applied torque at the base of the cilium with drag, the cilium stiffness being phase dependent. A low friction pendulum apparatus with a multiplicity of electromagnetic actuators is being built for verifying the maps of the attractor basin computed using the olivo-cerebellar dynamics for different initial conditions. Sponsored by ONR 33.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, Robert R.; Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Murray, Claire E.; Stanimirović, Snežana; Babler, Brian [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Heiles, Carl [Radio Astronomy Lab, UC Berkeley, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hennebelle, Patrick [Laboratoire AIM, Paris-Saclay, CEA/IRFU/SAp-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, F-91191 Gif-sur Yvette Cedex (France); Goss, W. M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Dickey, John, E-mail: [University of Tasmania, School of Maths and Physics, Private Bag 37, Hobart, TAS 7001 (Australia)


    We present a new algorithm, named Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), for automatically decomposing spectra into Gaussian components. AGD uses derivative spectroscopy and machine learning to provide optimized guesses for the number of Gaussian components in the data, and also their locations, widths, and amplitudes. We test AGD and find that it produces results comparable to human-derived solutions on 21 cm absorption spectra from the 21 cm SPectral line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA (21-SPONGE) survey. We use AGD with Monte Carlo methods to derive the H i line completeness as a function of peak optical depth and velocity width for the 21-SPONGE data, and also show that the results of AGD are stable against varying observational noise intensity. The autonomy and computational efficiency of the method over traditional manual Gaussian fits allow for truly unbiased comparisons between observations and simulations, and for the ability to scale up and interpret the very large data volumes from the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and pathfinder telescopes.

  7. Equilibrium selection in alternating-offers bargaining models: the evolutionary computing approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.D.B. van Bragt; E.H. Gerding (Enrico); J.A. La Poutré (Han)


    textabstractA systematic validation of evolutionary techniques in the field of bargaining is presented. For this purpose, the dynamic and equilibrium-selecting behavior of a multi-agent system consisting of adaptive bargaining agents is investigated. The agents' bargaining strategies are updated by

  8. Biology-Inspired Autonomous Control (United States)


    AFRL-RW-EG-TR-2011-021 BIOLOGY -INSPIRED AUTONOMOUS CONTROL Multiple Authors – See Table of Contents Appendices Multiple...From - To) (Oct,1,2007)-(May 31,2011) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N/A Biology -Inspired Autonomous Control 5b. GRANT NUMBER N...limitations of conventional approaches by applying principles derived from studying the biology of flying organisms. The research was focused on

  9. Evolutionary Design in Art (United States)

    McCormack, Jon

    Evolution is one of the most interesting and creative processes we currently understand, so it should come as no surprise that artists and designers are embracing the use of evolution in problems of artistic creativity. The material in this section illustrates the diversity of approaches being used by artists and designers in relation to evolution at the boundary of art and science. While conceptualising human creativity as an evolutionary process in itself may be controversial, what is clear is that evolutionary processes can be used to complement, even enhance human creativity, as the chapters in this section aptly demonstrate.

  10. Evolutionary Statistical Procedures

    CERN Document Server

    Baragona, Roberto; Poli, Irene


    This proposed text appears to be a good introduction to evolutionary computation for use in applied statistics research. The authors draw from a vast base of knowledge about the current literature in both the design of evolutionary algorithms and statistical techniques. Modern statistical research is on the threshold of solving increasingly complex problems in high dimensions, and the generalization of its methodology to parameters whose estimators do not follow mathematically simple distributions is underway. Many of these challenges involve optimizing functions for which analytic solutions a

  11. Quantum Behavior of an Autonomous Maxwell Demon (United States)

    Chapman, Adrian; Miyake, Akimasa


    A Maxwell Demon is an agent that can exploit knowledge of a system's microstate to perform useful work. The second law of thermodynamics is only recovered upon taking into account the work required to irreversibly update the demon's memory, bringing information theoretic concepts into a thermodynamic framework. Recently, there has been interest in modeling a classical Maxwell demon as an autonomous physical system to study this information-work tradeoff explicitly. Motivated by the idea that states with non-local entanglement structure can be used as a computational resource, we ask whether these states have thermodynamic resource quality as well by generalizing a particular classical autonomous Maxwell demon to the quantum regime. We treat the full quantum description using a matrix product operator formalism, which allows us to handle quantum and classical correlations in a unified framework. Applying this, together with techniques from statistical mechanics, we are able to approximate nonlocal quantities such as the erasure performed on the demon's memory register when correlations are present. Finally, we examine how the demon may use these correlations as a resource to outperform its classical counterpart.

  12. A Framework for Organization-Aware Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Dignum, Virginia; Villadsen, Jørgen


    boundaries and work towards the objectives of the organization. In this paper, we present the AORTA reasoning framework and show how it can be integrated into typical BDI-agents. We provide operational semantics that enables agents to make organizational decisions in order to coordinate and cooperate without...... explicit coordination mechanisms within the agents. The organizational model is independent of that of the agents, and the approach is not tied to a specific organizational model, but uses an organizational metamodel. We show how AORTA helps agents work together in a system with an organization......Open systems are characterized by the presence of a diversity of heterogeneous and autonomous agents that act according to private goals. Organizations, such as those used in real-life to structure human activities such as task allocation, coordination and supervision, can regulate the agents...

  13. Multi-agent for manufacturing systems optimization (United States)

    Ciortea, E. M.; Tulbure, A.; Huţanu, C.-tin


    The paper is meant to be a dynamic approach to optimize manufacturing systems based on multi-agent systems. Multi-agent systems are semiautonomous decision makers and cooperate to optimize the manufacturing process. Increasing production the capacity is achieved by developing, implementing efficient and effective systems from control based on current manufacturing process. The model multi-agent proposed in this paper is based on communication between agents who, based on their mechanisms drive to autonomous decision making. Methods based on multi-agent programming are applied between flexible manufacturing processes and cooperation with agents. Based on multi-agent technology and architecture of intelligent manufacturing can lead to development of strategies for control and optimization of scheduled production resulting from the simulation.


    Nesse, Randolph M.; Ganten, Detlev; Gregory, T. Ryan; Omenn, Gilbert S.


    Evolution has long provided a foundation for population genetics, but many major advances in evolutionary biology from the 20th century are only now being applied in molecular medicine. They include the distinction between proximate and evolutionary explanations, kin selection, evolutionary models for cooperation, and new strategies for tracing phylogenies and identifying signals of selection. Recent advances in genomics are further transforming evolutionary biology and creating yet more opportunities for progress at the interface of evolution with genetics, medicine, and public health. This article reviews 15 evolutionary principles and their applications in molecular medicine in hopes that readers will use them and others to speed the development of evolutionary molecular medicine. PMID:22544168

  15. Collaborative autonomous sensing with Bayesians in the loop (United States)

    Ahmed, Nisar


    There is a strong push to develop intelligent unmanned autonomy that complements human reasoning for applications as diverse as wilderness search and rescue, military surveillance, and robotic space exploration. More than just replacing humans for `dull, dirty and dangerous' work, autonomous agents are expected to cope with a whole host of uncertainties while working closely together with humans in new situations. The robotics revolution firmly established the primacy of Bayesian algorithms for tackling challenging perception, learning and decision-making problems. Since the next frontier of autonomy demands the ability to gather information across stretches of time and space that are beyond the reach of a single autonomous agent, the next generation of Bayesian algorithms must capitalize on opportunities to draw upon the sensing and perception abilities of humans-in/on-the-loop. This work summarizes our recent research toward harnessing `human sensors' for information gathering tasks. The basic idea behind is to allow human end users (i.e. non-experts in robotics, statistics, machine learning, etc.) to directly `talk to' the information fusion engine and perceptual processes aboard any autonomous agent. Our approach is grounded in rigorous Bayesian modeling and fusion of flexible semantic information derived from user-friendly interfaces, such as natural language chat and locative hand-drawn sketches. This naturally enables `plug and play' human sensing with existing probabilistic algorithms for planning and perception, and has been successfully demonstrated with human-robot teams in target localization applications.

  16. Application of On-Board Evolutionary Algorithms to Underwater Robots to Optimally Replan Missions with Energy Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Seto


    Full Text Available The objective is to show that on-board mission replanning for an AUV sensor coverage mission, based on available energy, enhances mission success. Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs are tasked to increasingly long deployments, consequently energy management issues are timely and relevant. Energy shortages can occur if the AUV unexpectedly travels against stronger currents, is not trimmed for the local water salinity has to get back on course, and so forth. An on-board knowledge-based agent, based on a genetic algorithm, was designed and validated to replan a near-optimal AUV survey mission. It considers the measured AUV energy consumption, attitudes, speed over ground, and known response to proposed missions through on-line dynamics and control predictions. For the case studied, the replanned mission improves the survey area coverage by a factor of 2 for an energy budget, that is, a factor of 2 less than planned. The contribution is a novel on-board cognitive capability in the form of an agent that monitors the energy and intelligently replans missions based on energy considerations with evolutionary methods.

  17. Evolutionary impact assessment: accounting for evolutionary consequences of fishing in an ecosystem approach to fisheries management (United States)

    Laugen, Ane T; Engelhard, Georg H; Whitlock, Rebecca; Arlinghaus, Robert; Dankel, Dorothy J; Dunlop, Erin S; Eikeset, Anne M; Enberg, Katja; Jørgensen, Christian; Matsumura, Shuichi; Nusslé, Sébastien; Urbach, Davnah; Baulier, Loїc; Boukal, David S; Ernande, Bruno; Johnston, Fiona D; Mollet, Fabian; Pardoe, Heidi; Therkildsen, Nina O; Uusi-Heikkilä, Silva; Vainikka, Anssi; Heino, Mikko; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D; Dieckmann, Ulf


    Managing fisheries resources to maintain healthy ecosystems is one of the main goals of the ecosystem approach to fisheries (EAF). While a number of international treaties call for the implementation of EAF, there are still gaps in the underlying methodology. One aspect that has received substantial scientific attention recently is fisheries-induced evolution (FIE). Increasing evidence indicates that intensive fishing has the potential to exert strong directional selection on life-history traits, behaviour, physiology, and morphology of exploited fish. Of particular concern is that reversing evolutionary responses to fishing can be much more difficult than reversing demographic or phenotypically plastic responses. Furthermore, like climate change, multiple agents cause FIE, with effects accumulating over time. Consequently, FIE may alter the utility derived from fish stocks, which in turn can modify the monetary value living aquatic resources provide to society. Quantifying and predicting the evolutionary effects of fishing is therefore important for both ecological and economic reasons. An important reason this is not happening is the lack of an appropriate assessment framework. We therefore describe the evolutionary impact assessment (EvoIA) as a structured approach for assessing the evolutionary consequences of fishing and evaluating the predicted evolutionary outcomes of alternative management options. EvoIA can contribute to EAF by clarifying how evolution may alter stock properties and ecological relations, support the precautionary approach to fisheries management by addressing a previously overlooked source of uncertainty and risk, and thus contribute to sustainable fisheries. PMID:26430388

  18. Recent Developments on Microencapsulation for Autonomous Corrosion Protection (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Fitzpatrick, Lilliana; Jolley, Scott T.; Surma, Jan M.; Pearman, Benjamin P.; Zhang, Xuejun


    This work concerns recent progress in the development of a multifunctional smart coating based on microencapsulation for the autonomous control of corrosion. Microencapsulation allows the incorporation of desired corrosion control functionalities, such as early corrosion detection and inhibition through corrosion controlled release of corrosion indicators and inhibitors, as well as self-healing agent release when mechanical damage occurs.While proof-of-concept results have been reported previously, more recent efforts have been concentrated in technical developments to improve coating compatibility, synthesis procedure scalability, as well as fine tuning the release property of encapsulated active agents.

  19. When development matters: From evolutionary psychology to evolutionary developmental psychology


    Hernández Blasi, Carlos; Gardiner, Amy K.; Bjorklund, David F.


    This article presents evolutionary developmental psychology (EDP) as an emerging field of evolutionary psychology (EP). In describing the core tenets of both approaches and the differences between them, we emphasize the important roles that evolution and development have in understanding human behaviour. We suggest that developmental psychologists should pay more attention to evolutionary issues and, conversely, evolutionary psychologists should take development seriously. Key words: evol...

  20. Evolutionary design assistants for architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Onur Sönmez


    Full Text Available In its parallel pursuit of an increased competitivity for design offices and more pleasurable and easier workflows for designers, artificial design intelligence is a technical, intellectual, and political challenge. While human-machine cooperation has become commonplace through Computer Aided Design (CAD tools, a more improved collaboration and better support appear possible only through an endeavor into a kind of artificial design intelligence, which is more sensitive to the human perception of affairs. Considered as part of the broader Computational Design studies, the research program of this quest can be called Artificial / Autonomous / Automated Design (AD. The current available level of Artificial Intelligence (AI for design is limited and a viable aim for current AD would be to develop design assistants that are capable of producing drafts for various design tasks. Thus, the overall aim of this thesis is the development of approaches, techniques, and tools towards artificial design assistants that offer a capability for generating drafts for sub-tasks within design processes. The main technology explored for this aim is Evolutionary Computation (EC, and the target design domain is architecture. The two connected research questions of the study concern, first, the investigation of the ways to develop an architectural design assistant, and secondly, the utilization of EC for the development of such assistants. While developing approaches, techniques, and computational tools for such an assistant, the study also carries out a broad theoretical investigation into the main problems, challenges, and requirements towards such assistants on a rather overall level. Therefore, the research is shaped as a parallel investigation of three main threads interwoven along several levels, moving from a more general level to specific applications. The three research threads comprise, first, theoretical discussions and speculations with regard to both

  1. Evolutionary design assistants for architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Onur Sönmez


    Full Text Available In its parallel pursuit of an increased competitivity for design offices and more pleasurable and easier workflows for designers, artificial design intelligence is a technical, intellectual, and political challenge. While human-machine cooperation has become commonplace through Computer Aided Design (CAD tools, a more improved collaboration and better support appear possible only through an endeavor into a kind of artificial design intelligence, which is more sensitive to the human perception of affairs.Considered as part of the broader Computational Design studies, the research program of this quest can be called Artificial / Autonomous / Automated Design (AD. The current available level of Artificial Intelligence (AI for design is limited and a viable aim for current AD would be to develop design assistants that are capable of producing drafts for various design tasks. Thus, the overall aim of this thesis is the development of approaches, techniques, and tools towards artificial design assistants that offer a capability for generating drafts for sub-tasks within design processes. The main technology explored for this aim is Evolutionary Computation (EC, and the target design domain is architecture. The two connected research questions of the study concern, first, the investigation of the ways to develop an architectural design assistant, and secondly, the utilization of EC for the development of such assistants.While developing approaches, techniques, and computational tools for such an assistant, the study also carries out a broad theoretical investigation into the main problems, challenges, and requirements towards such assistants on a rather overall level. Therefore, the research is shaped as a parallel investigation of three main threads interwoven along several levels, moving from a more general level to specific applications. The three research threads comprise, first, theoretical discussions and speculations with regard to both existing

  2. Origins of evolutionary transitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Mar 15, 2014 ... I define an evolutionary transition as a shift in the hierarchical level at which heritable fitness variance ... life, for example in eusocial insects, around 150 million years ago. None of these transformations was ...... affecting and heritable trait, and to introduce a mechanism which inhibits them from subsequent ...

  3. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    After Maynard-Smith and Price [1] mathematically derived why a given behaviour or strategy was adopted by a certain proportion of the population at a given time, it was shown that a strategy which is currently stable in a population need not be stable in evolutionary time (across generations). Additionally it was sug-.

  4. Evolutionary trends in Heteroptera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobben, R.H.


    1. This work, the first volume of a series dealing with evolutionary trends in Heteroptera, is concerned with the egg system of about 400 species. The data are presented systematically in chapters 1 and 2 with a critical review of the literature after each family.

    2. Chapter 3 evaluates facts

  5. Towards Adaptive Evolutionary Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Sebastian HOlt; Rask, Nina; Risi, Sebastian


    This paper presents first results from an interdisciplinary project, in which the fields of architecture, philosophy and artificial life are combined to explore possible futures of architecture. Through an interactive evolutionary installation, called EvoCurtain, we investigate aspects of how...

  6. Origins of evolutionary transitions. (United States)

    Clarke, Ellen


    An 'evolutionary transition in individuality' or 'major transition' is a transformation in the hierarchical level at which natural selection operates on a population. In this article I give an abstract (i.e. level-neutral and substrate-neutral) articulation of the transition process in order to precisely understand how such processes can happen, especially how they can get started.

  7. Evolutionary pattern search algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, W.E.


    This paper defines a class of evolutionary algorithms called evolutionary pattern search algorithms (EPSAs) and analyzes their convergence properties. This class of algorithms is closely related to evolutionary programming, evolutionary strategie and real-coded genetic algorithms. EPSAs are self-adapting systems that modify the step size of the mutation operator in response to the success of previous optimization steps. The rule used to adapt the step size can be used to provide a stationary point convergence theory for EPSAs on any continuous function. This convergence theory is based on an extension of the convergence theory for generalized pattern search methods. An experimental analysis of the performance of EPSAs demonstrates that these algorithms can perform a level of global search that is comparable to that of canonical EAs. We also describe a stopping rule for EPSAs, which reliably terminated near stationary points in our experiments. This is the first stopping rule for any class of EAs that can terminate at a given distance from stationary points.

  8. Optimal Mixing Evolutionary Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Thierens (Dirk); P.A.N. Bosman (Peter); N. Krasnogor


    htmlabstractA key search mechanism in Evolutionary Algorithms is the mixing or juxtaposing of partial solutions present in the parent solutions. In this paper we look at the efficiency of mixing in genetic algorithms (GAs) and estimation-of-distribution algorithms (EDAs). We compute the mixing

  9. Learning: An Evolutionary Analysis (United States)

    Swann, Joanna


    This paper draws on the philosophy of Karl Popper to present a descriptive evolutionary epistemology that offers philosophical solutions to the following related problems: "What happens when learning takes place?" and "What happens in human learning?" It provides a detailed analysis of how learning takes place without any direct transfer of…

  10. Evolutionary mysteries in meiosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenormand, Thomas; Engelstädter, Jan; Johnston, Susan E.; Wijnker, Erik; Haag, Christoph R.


    Meiosis is a key event of sexual life cycles in eukaryotes. Its mechanistic details have been uncovered in several model organisms, and most of its essential features have received various and often contradictory evolutionary interpretations. In this perspective, we present an overview of these

  11. Editorial overview: Evolutionary psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gangestad, S.W.; Tybur, J.M.


    Functional approaches in psychology - which ask what behavior is good for - are almost as old as scientific psychology itself. Yet sophisticated, generative functional theories were not possible until developments in evolutionary biology in the mid-20th century. Arising in the last three decades,

  12. Evolutionary Developmental Psychology. (United States)

    Geary, David C.; Bjorklund, David F.


    Describes evolutionary developmental psychology as the study of the genetic and ecological mechanisms that govern the development of social and cognitive competencies common to all human beings and the epigenetic (gene-environment interactions) processes that adapt these competencies to local conditions. Outlines basic assumptions and domains of…

  13. Origins of evolutionary transitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An `evolutionary transition in individuality' or `major transition' is a transformation in the hierarchical level at which natural selection operates on a population. In this article I give an abstract (i.e. level-neutral and substrate-neutral) articulation of the transition process in order to precisely understand how such processes can ...

  14. Evolutionary Theory under Fire. (United States)

    Lewin, Roger


    Summarizes events of a conference on evolutionary biology in Chicago entitled: "Macroevolution." Reviews the theory of modern synthesis, a term used to explain Darwinism in terms of population biology and genetics. Issues presented at the conference are discussed in detail. (CS)

  15. Evolutionary developmental psychology. (United States)

    King, Ashley C; Bjorklund, David F


    The field of evolutionary developmental psychology can potentially broaden the horizons of mainstream evolutionary psychology by combining the principles of Darwinian evolution by natural selection with the study of human development, focusing on the epigenetic effects that occur between humans and their environment in a way that attempts to explain how evolved psychological mechanisms become expressed in the phenotypes of adults. An evolutionary developmental perspective includes an appreciation of comparative research and we, among others, argue that contrasting the cognition of humans with that of nonhuman primates can provide a framework with which to understand how human cognitive abilities and intelligence evolved. Furthermore, we argue that several aspects of childhood (e.g., play and immature cognition) serve both as deferred adaptations as well as imparting immediate benefits. Intense selection pressure was surely exerted on childhood over human evolutionary history and, as a result, neglecting to consider the early developmental period of children when studying their later adulthood produces an incomplete picture of the evolved adaptations expressed through human behavior and cognition.

  16. Evolutionary Theories of Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch, J P


    Current, mid-term and long range technologies for detection of pathogens and toxins are briefly described in the context of performance metrics and operational scenarios. Predictive (evolutionary) and speculative (revolutionary) assessments are given with trade-offs identified, where possible, among competing performance goals.

  17. Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer (United States)

    Paloulian, George K.; Woo, Simon S.; Chow, Edward T.


    Net-centric networking environments are often faced with limited resources and must utilize bandwidth as efficiently as possible. In networking environments that span wide areas, the data transmission has to be efficient without any redundant or exuberant metadata. The Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer software provides an extra level of security on top of existing data encryption methods. Randomizing the data s byte stream adds an extra layer to existing data protection methods, thus making it harder for an attacker to decrypt protected data. Based on a generated crypto-graphically secure random seed, a random sequence of numbers is used to intelligently and efficiently swap the organization of bytes in data using the unbiased and memory-efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Swapping bytes and reorganizing the crucial structure of the byte data renders the data file unreadable and leaves the data in a deconstructed state. This deconstruction adds an extra level of security requiring the byte stream to be reconstructed with the random seed in order to be readable. Once the data byte stream has been randomized, the software enables the data to be distributed to N nodes in an environment. Each piece of the data in randomized and distributed form is a separate entity unreadable on its own right, but when combined with all N pieces, is able to be reconstructed back to one. Reconstruction requires possession of the key used for randomizing the bytes, leading to the generation of the same cryptographically secure random sequence of numbers used to randomize the data. This software is a cornerstone capability possessing the ability to generate the same cryptographically secure sequence on different machines and time intervals, thus allowing this software to be used more heavily in net-centric environments where data transfer bandwidth is limited.

  18. Advances in Autonomous Systems for Missions of Space Exploration (United States)

    Gross, A. R.; Smith, B. D.; Briggs, G. A.; Hieronymus, J.; Clancy, D. J.

    applications. One notable example of such missions are those to explore for the existence of water on planets such as Mars and the moons of Jupiter. It is clear that water does not exist on the surfaces of such bodies, but may well be located at some considerable depth below the surface, thus requiring a subsurface drilling capability. Subsurface drilling on planetary surfaces will require a robust autonomous control and analysis system, currently a major challenge, but within conceivable reach of planned technology developments. This paper will focus on new and innovative software for remote, autonomous, space systems flight operations, including flight test results, lessons learned, and implications for the future. An additional focus will be on technologies for planetary exploration using autonomous systems and astronaut-assistance systems that employ new spoken language technology. Topics to be presented will include a description of key autonomous control concepts, illustrated by the Remote Agent program that commanded the Deep Space 1 spacecraft to new levels of system autonomy, recent advances in distributed autonomous system capabilities, and concepts for autonomous vehicle health management systems. A brief description of teaming spacecraft and rovers for complex exploration missions will also be provided. New software for autonomous science data acquisition for planetary exploration will also be described, as well as advanced systems for safe planetary landings. Current results of autonomous planetary drilling system research will be presented. A key thrust within NASA is to develop technologies that will leverage the capabilities of human astronauts during planetary surface explorations. One such technology is spoken dialogue interfaces, which would allow collaboration with semi-autonomous agents that are engaged in activities that are normally accomplished using language, e.g., astronauts in space suits interacting with groups of semi-autonomous rovers and other

  19. Evolutionary Thinking in Environmental Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.


    Evolutionary and environmental economics have a potentially close relationship. This paper reviews past and identifies potential applications of evolutionary concepts and methods to environmental economics. This covers a number of themes: resource use and ecosystem management; growth and

  20. Using of colleague learning mobile agents for protecting the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the growing use of the internet network, using tools that can help user to transact with the network is inevitable. One of the technologies that has been taken into consideration recently and has been used is the mobile agents technology mobile agent is software that can take an action independently and autonomously ...

  1. Compact autonomous navigation system (CANS) (United States)

    Hao, Y. C.; Ying, L.; Xiong, K.; Cheng, H. Y.; Qiao, G. D.


    Autonomous navigation of Satellite and constellation has series of benefits, such as to reduce operation cost and ground station workload, to avoid the event of crises of war and natural disaster, to increase spacecraft autonomy, and so on. Autonomous navigation satellite is independent of ground station support. Many systems are developed for autonomous navigation of satellite in the past 20 years. Along them American MANS (Microcosm Autonomous Navigation System) [1] of Microcosm Inc. and ERADS [2] [3] (Earth Reference Attitude Determination System) of Honeywell Inc. are well known. The systems anticipate a series of good features of autonomous navigation and aim low cost, integrated structure, low power consumption and compact layout. The ERADS is an integrated small 3-axis attitude sensor system with low cost and small volume. It has the Earth center measurement accuracy higher than the common IR sensor because the detected ultraviolet radiation zone of the atmosphere has a brightness gradient larger than that of the IR zone. But the ERADS is still a complex system because it has to eliminate many problems such as making of the sapphire sphere lens, birefringence effect of sapphire, high precision image transfer optical fiber flattener, ultraviolet intensifier noise, and so on. The marginal sphere FOV of the sphere lens of the ERADS is used to star imaging that may be bring some disadvantages., i.e. , the image energy and attitude measurements accuracy may be reduced due to the tilt image acceptance end of the fiber flattener in the FOV. Besides Japan, Germany and Russia developed visible earth sensor for GEO [4] [5]. Do we have a way to develop a cheaper/easier and more accurate autonomous navigation system that can be used to all LEO spacecraft, especially, to LEO small and micro satellites? To return this problem we provide a new type of the system—CANS (Compact Autonomous Navigation System) [6].

  2. Economic Modeling Using Evolutionary Algorithms: The Effect of a Binary Encoding of Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Waltman (Ludo); N.J.P. van Eck (Nees Jan); R. Dekker (Rommert); U. Kaymak (Uzay)


    textabstractWe are concerned with evolutionary algorithms that are employed for economic modeling purposes. We focus in particular on evolutionary algorithms that use a binary encoding of strategies. These algorithms, commonly referred to as genetic algorithms, are popular in agent-based

  3. Macroevolution simulated with autonomously replicating computer programs. (United States)

    Yedid, Gabriel; Bell, Graham

    The process of adaptation occurs on two timescales. In the short term, natural selection merely sorts the variation already present in a population, whereas in the longer term genotypes quite different from any that were initially present evolve through the cumulation of new mutations. The first process is described by the mathematical theory of population genetics. However, this theory begins by defining a fixed set of genotypes and cannot provide a satisfactory analysis of the second process because it does not permit any genuinely new type to arise. The evolutionary outcome of selection acting on novel variation arising over long periods is therefore difficult to predict. The classical problem of this kind is whether 'replaying the tape of life' would invariably lead to the familiar organisms of the modern biota. Here we study the long-term behaviour of populations of autonomously replicating computer programs and find that the same type, introduced into the same simple environment, evolves on any given occasion along a unique trajectory towards one of many well-adapted end points.

  4. Integrated Motion Planning and Autonomous Control Technology for Autonomous ISR Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSCI and MIT propose to design, implement and test a comprehensive Integrated Mission Planning & Autonomous Control Technology (IMPACT) for Autonomous ISR...

  5. Autonomous Landing on Moving Platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Mendoza Chavez, Gilberto


    This thesis investigates autonomous landing of a micro air vehicle (MAV) on a nonstationary ground platform. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and micro air vehicles (MAVs) are becoming every day more ubiquitous. Nonetheless, many applications still require specialized human pilots or supervisors. Current research is focusing on augmenting the scope of tasks that these vehicles are able to accomplish autonomously. Precise autonomous landing on moving platforms is essential for self-deployment and recovery of MAVs, but it remains a challenging task for both autonomous and piloted vehicles. Model Predictive Control (MPC) is a widely used and effective scheme to control constrained systems. One of its variants, output-feedback tube-based MPC, ensures robust stability for systems with bounded disturbances under system state reconstruction. This thesis proposes a MAV control strategy based on this variant of MPC to perform rapid and precise autonomous landing on moving targets whose nominal (uncommitted) trajectory and velocity are slowly varying. The proposed approach is demonstrated on an experimental setup.

  6. Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Modestowicz


    Full Text Available Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias are a group of primary headache disorders presenting as unilateral pain in the somatic distribution of the trigeminal nerve, associated with ipsilateral cranial autonomic symptoms. This clinicopathologic group includes cluster headache, paroxysmal hemicrania, hemicrania continua and short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing/cranial autonomic features, which differ mainly as regards the duration and frequency of pain as well as response to treatment. These disorders are not as rare as they were thought to be and due to the severity of the pain can substantially affect the patients’ quality of life. Many other forms of primary headaches, such as migraine, trigeminal neuralgia and primary stabbing headache, as well as secondary headaches, particularly those caused by pituitary, posterior fossa, orbital, paranasal sinus and vascular pathology, need to be carefully considered in the diagnosis of trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias. Research in this field, particularly using functional neuroimaging, has resulted in a much better understanding of these disorders. Dysfunction in the nociceptive modulatory pathways in brain’s pain matrix is currently thought to produce a permissive state for the occurrence of a trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia attack, with posterior hypothalamus serving as a terminator rather than the generator of the attack. The current treatment strategies include medical and surgical approaches; of the latter, neuromodulation techniques, particularly deep brain stimulation of posterior hypothalamus, have proven to be particularly effective and promising.

  7. Adaptive Source Localization Based Station Keeping of Autonomous Vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Guler, Samet


    We study the problem of driving a mobile sensory agent to a target whose location is specied only in terms of the distances to a set of sensor stations or beacons. The beacon positions are unknown, but the agent can continuously measure its distances to them as well as its own position. This problem has two particular applications: (1) capturing a target signal source whose distances to the beacons are measured by these beacons and broadcasted to a surveillance agent, (2) merging a single agent to an autonomous multi-agent system so that the new agent is positioned at desired distances from the existing agents. The problem is solved using an adaptive control framework integrating a parameter estimator producing beacon location estimates, and an adaptive motion control law fed by these estimates to steer the agent toward the target. For location estimation, a least-squares adaptive law is used. The motion control law aims to minimize a convex cost function with unique minimizer at the target location, and is further augmented for persistence of excitation. Stability and convergence analysis is provided, as well as simulation results demonstrating performance and transient behavior.

  8. The Bering Autonomous Target Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz; Betto, Maurizio


    An autonomous asteroid target detection and tracking method has been developed. The method features near omnidirectionality and focus on high speed operations and completeness of search of the near space rather than the traditional faint object search methods, employed presently at the larger...... telescopes. The method has proven robust in operation and is well suited for use onboard spacecraft. As development target for the method and the associated instrumentation the asteroid research mission Bering has been used. Onboard a spacecraft, the autonomous detection is centered around the fully...... autonomous star tracker the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC). One feature of this instrument is that potential targets are registered directly in terms of date, right ascension, declination, and intensity, which greatly facilitates both tracking search and registering. Results from ground and inflight tests...

  9. Evolutionary Minority Game with searching behavior (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Sun, Yuxin; Feng, Xu; Xiong, Xiong


    In this paper, we determine the impact of searching behavior on the evolutionary minority game (EMG). We introduce searching behavior in two ways: optimal neighbor searching and global searching. Our study investigates the distribution equilibriums of probabilities that agents follow a given strategy and on system performance of the game. The results indicate that the distribution equilibriums of the probabilities are different with searching behavior, as opposed to without searching behavior. The system performance becomes worse after adding the searching behavior. Additionally, we test other variables in a standard EMG with and without searching behavior.

  10. Studies in evolutionary agroecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wille, Wibke

    Darwinian evolution by natural selection is driven primarily by differential survival and reproduction among individuals in a population. When the evolutionary interest of an individual is in conflict with the interests of the population, the genes increasing individual fitness at the cost...... performance are not in conflict, it is unlikely that plant breeding can radically improve the results of millions of years of evolution through natural selection. However, efforts to improve crops can be very successful, when breeding is directed towards goals diverging from natural selection. The potential...... of Evolutionary Agroecology that the highest yielding individuals do not necessarily perform best as a population. The investment of resources into strategies and structures increasing individual competitive ability carries a cost. If a whole population consists of individuals investing resources to compete...

  11. Evolutionary constrained optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Deb, Kalyanmoy


    This book makes available a self-contained collection of modern research addressing the general constrained optimization problems using evolutionary algorithms. Broadly the topics covered include constraint handling for single and multi-objective optimizations; penalty function based methodology; multi-objective based methodology; new constraint handling mechanism; hybrid methodology; scaling issues in constrained optimization; design of scalable test problems; parameter adaptation in constrained optimization; handling of integer, discrete and mix variables in addition to continuous variables; application of constraint handling techniques to real-world problems; and constrained optimization in dynamic environment. There is also a separate chapter on hybrid optimization, which is gaining lots of popularity nowadays due to its capability of bridging the gap between evolutionary and classical optimization. The material in the book is useful to researchers, novice, and experts alike. The book will also be useful...

  12. Pharmacotherapy of Cardiovascular Autonomic Dysfunction in Parkinson Disease. (United States)

    Shibao, Cyndya A; Kaufmann, Horacio


    Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunctions, including neurogenic orthostatic hypotension, supine hypertension and post-prandial hypotension, are relatively common in patients with Parkinson disease. Recent evidence suggests that early autonomic impairment such as cardiac autonomic denervation and even neurogenic orthostatic hypotension occur prior to the appearance of the typical motor deficits associated with the disease. When neurogenic orthostatic hypotension develops, patients with Parkinson disease have an increased risk of mortality, falls, and trauma-related to falls. Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension reduces quality of life and contributes to cognitive decline and physical deconditioning. The co-existence of supine hypertension complicates the treatment of neurogenic orthostatic hypotension because it involves the use of drugs with opposing effects. Furthermore, treatment of neurogenic orthostatic hypotension is challenging because of few therapeutic options; in the past 20 years, the US Food and Drug Administration approved only two drugs for the treatment of this condition. Small, open-label or randomized studies using acute doses of different pharmacologic probes suggest benefit of other drugs as well, which could be used in individual patients under close monitoring. This review describes the pathophysiology of neurogenic orthostatic hypotension and supine hypertension in Parkinson disease. We discuss the mode of action and therapeutic efficacy of different pharmacologic agents used in the treatment of patients with cardiovascular autonomic failure.

  13. Autonomic Dysfunctions in Parkinsonian Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo-Jin Bae


    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Symptoms of autonomic dysfunctions are common in the patients with parkinsonian disorders. Because clinical features of autonomic dysfunctions are diverse, the comprehensive evaluation is essential for the appropriate management. For the appreciation of autonomic dysfunctions and the identification of differences, patients with degenerative parkinsonisms are evaluated using structured questionnaire for autonomic dysfunction (ADQ. Methods: Total 259 patients, including 192 patients with [idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD, age 64.6 ± 9.6 years], 37 with [multiple system atrophy (MSA, 62.8 ± 9.1], 9 with [dementia with Lewy body (DLB, 73.9 ± 4.3], and 21 with [progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP, 69.4 ± 9.6]. The ADQ was structured for evaluation of the presence of symptoms and its severity due to autonomic dysfunction, covering gastrointestinal, urinary, sexual, cardiovascular and thermoregulatory domains. Patients were also evaluated for the orthostatic hypotension. Results: Although dementia with Lewy body (DLB patients were oldest and duration of disease was longest in IPD, total ADQ scores of MSA and PSP (23.9 ± 12.6 and 21.1 ± 7.8 were significantly increased than that of IPD (15.1 ± 10.6. Urinary and cardiovascular symptom scores of MSA and gastrointestinal symptom score of PSP were significantly worse than those of IPD. The ratio of patient with orthostatic hypotension in IPD was 31.2% and not differed between groups (35.1% in MSA, 33.3% in DLB and 33.3% in PSP. But the systolic blood pressure dropped drastically after standing in patients with MSA and DLB than in patients with IPD and PSP. Conclusions: Patients with degenerative parkinsonism showed widespread symptoms of autonomic dysfunctions. The severity of those symptoms in patients with PSP were comparing to that of MSA patients and worse than that of IPD.

  14. Anxiety: an evolutionary approach.


    Bateson, M; Brilot, B; Nettle, D.


    Anxiety disorders are among the most common mental illnesses, with huge attendant suffering. Current treatments are not universally effective, suggesting that a deeper understanding of the causes of anxiety is needed. To understand anxiety disorders better, it is first necessary to understand the normal anxiety response. This entails considering its evolutionary function as well as the mechanisms underlying it. We argue that the function of the human anxiety response, and homologues in other ...

  15. Asymmetric Evolutionary Games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex McAvoy


    Full Text Available Evolutionary game theory is a powerful framework for studying evolution in populations of interacting individuals. A common assumption in evolutionary game theory is that interactions are symmetric, which means that the players are distinguished by only their strategies. In nature, however, the microscopic interactions between players are nearly always asymmetric due to environmental effects, differing baseline characteristics, and other possible sources of heterogeneity. To model these phenomena, we introduce into evolutionary game theory two broad classes of asymmetric interactions: ecological and genotypic. Ecological asymmetry results from variation in the environments of the players, while genotypic asymmetry is a consequence of the players having differing baseline genotypes. We develop a theory of these forms of asymmetry for games in structured populations and use the classical social dilemmas, the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Snowdrift Game, for illustrations. Interestingly, asymmetric games reveal essential differences between models of genetic evolution based on reproduction and models of cultural evolution based on imitation that are not apparent in symmetric games.

  16. Evolutionary theory and teleology. (United States)

    O'Grady, R T


    The order within and among living systems can be explained rationally by postulating a process of descent with modification, effected by factors which are extrinsic or intrinsic to the organisms. Because at the time Darwin proposed his theory of evolution there was no concept of intrinsic factors which could evolve, he postulated a process of extrinsic effects--natural selection. Biological order was thus seen as an imposed, rather than an emergent, property. Evolutionary change was seen as being determined by the functional efficiency (adaptedness) of the organism in its environment, rather than by spontaneous changes in intrinsically generated organizing factors. The initial incompleteness of Darwin's explanatory model, and the axiomatization of its postulates in neo-Darwinism, has resulted in a theory of functionalism, rather than structuralism. As such, it introduces an unnecessary teleology which confounds evolutionary studies and reduces the usefulness of the theory. This problem cannot be detected from within the neo-Darwinian paradigm because the different levels of end-directed activity--teleomatic, teleonomic, and teleological--are not recognized. They are, in fact, considered to influence one another. The theory of nonequilibrium evolution avoids these problems by returning to the basic principles of biological order and developing a structuralist explanation of intrinsically generated change. Extrinsic factors may affect the resultant evolutionary pattern, but they are neither necessary nor sufficient for evolution to occur.

  17. Evolutionary mysteries in meiosis. (United States)

    Lenormand, Thomas; Engelstädter, Jan; Johnston, Susan E; Wijnker, Erik; Haag, Christoph R


    Meiosis is a key event of sexual life cycles in eukaryotes. Its mechanistic details have been uncovered in several model organisms, and most of its essential features have received various and often contradictory evolutionary interpretations. In this perspective, we present an overview of these often 'weird' features. We discuss the origin of meiosis (origin of ploidy reduction and recombination, two-step meiosis), its secondary modifications (in polyploids or asexuals, inverted meiosis), its importance in punctuating life cycles (meiotic arrests, epigenetic resetting, meiotic asymmetry, meiotic fairness) and features associated with recombination (disjunction constraints, heterochiasmy, crossover interference and hotspots). We present the various evolutionary scenarios and selective pressures that have been proposed to account for these features, and we highlight that their evolutionary significance often remains largely mysterious. Resolving these mysteries will likely provide decisive steps towards understanding why sex and recombination are found in the majority of eukaryotes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Weird sex: the underappreciated diversity of sexual reproduction'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. Asymmetric Evolutionary Games. (United States)

    McAvoy, Alex; Hauert, Christoph


    Evolutionary game theory is a powerful framework for studying evolution in populations of interacting individuals. A common assumption in evolutionary game theory is that interactions are symmetric, which means that the players are distinguished by only their strategies. In nature, however, the microscopic interactions between players are nearly always asymmetric due to environmental effects, differing baseline characteristics, and other possible sources of heterogeneity. To model these phenomena, we introduce into evolutionary game theory two broad classes of asymmetric interactions: ecological and genotypic. Ecological asymmetry results from variation in the environments of the players, while genotypic asymmetry is a consequence of the players having differing baseline genotypes. We develop a theory of these forms of asymmetry for games in structured populations and use the classical social dilemmas, the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Snowdrift Game, for illustrations. Interestingly, asymmetric games reveal essential differences between models of genetic evolution based on reproduction and models of cultural evolution based on imitation that are not apparent in symmetric games.

  19. Autonomic Regulation of Splanchnic Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A Fraser


    Full Text Available The role of the autonomic nervous system in circulatory regulation of the splanchnic organs (stomach, small intestine, colon, liver, pancreas and spleen is reviewed. In general, the sympathetic nervous system is primarily involved in vasoconstriction, while the parasympathetic contributes to vasodilation. Vasoconstriction in the splanchnic circulation appears to be mediated by alpha-2 receptors and vasodilation by activation of primary afferent nerves with subsequent release of vasodilatory peptides, or by stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors. As well, an important function of the autonomic nervous system is to provide a mechanism by which splanchnic vascular reserve can be mobilized during stress to maintain overall cardiovascular homeostasis.

  20. Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring (United States)

    Miller, Luke; Edsall, Ashley


    Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring (GHASM) will employ Integrated System Health Monitoring (ISHM) of cryogenic fluids in the High Pressure Gas Facility at Stennis Space Center. The preliminary focus of development incorporates the passive monitoring and eventual commanding of the Nitrogen System. ISHM offers generic system awareness, adept at using concepts rather than specific error cases. As an enabler for autonomy, ISHM provides capabilities inclusive of anomaly detection, diagnosis, and abnormality prediction. Advancing ISHM and Autonomous Operation functional capabilities enhances quality of data, optimizes safety, improves cost effectiveness, and has direct benefits to a wide spectrum of aerospace applications.

  1. Global existence and uniqueness of nonlinear evolutionary fluid equations

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Yuming; Wang, Taige


    This book presents recent results on nonlinear evolutionary fluid equations such as the compressible (radiative) magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations, compressible viscous micropolar fluid equations, the full non-Newtonian fluid equations and non-autonomous compressible Navier-Stokes equations. These types of partial differential equations arise in many fields of mathematics, but also in other branches of science such as physics and fluid dynamics. This book will be a valuable resource for graduate students and researchers interested in partial differential equations, and will also benefit practitioners in physics and engineering.

  2. Connected and autonomous vehicles 2040 vision. (United States)


    The Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT) commissioned a one-year project, Connected and Autonomous : Vehicles 2040 Vision, with researchers at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) to assess the implications of connected and : autonomous ve...

  3. Energy homeostasis, autonomic activity and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheurink, AJW; Balkan, B; Nyakas, C; vanDijk, G; Steffens, AB; Bohus, B


    Obesity is often accompanied by alterations in both sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic functions. The present paper summarizes the results of a number of studies designed to investigate autonomic functioning in normal, genetically, and experimentally obese rats, Particular emphasis is given

  4. A Generic Architecture for Autonomous Uninhabited Vehicles (United States)


    armament procurement agency DGA has been working on autonomy projects for several years. One is devoted to the development of an autonomous system for...existing decision architectures implemented onboard autonomous vehicles: centralised architectures based on Artificial Intelligence (Blackboards

  5. Fault-tolerant and transactional mobile agent execution


    Pleisch, Stefan; Schiper, André


    Mobile agents constitute a computing paradigm of a more general nature than the widely used client/server computing paradigm. A mobile agent is essentially a computer program that acts autonomously on behalf of a user and travels through a network of heterogeneous machines. However, the greater flexibility of the mobile agent paradigm compared to the client/server computing paradigm comes at additional costs. These costs include, among others, the additional complexity of developing and manag...

  6. Maintaining Limited-Range Connectivity Among Second-Order Agents (United States)


    and R. M. Murray, “ Motion planning with wireless network constraints,” in American Control Conference, (Portland, OR), pp. 87–92, June 2005. 15 [7] M...we consider ad-hoc networks of robotic agents with double integrator dynamics. For such networks, the connectivity maintenance problems are: (i) do...hoc networks of mobile autonomous agents. This loose ter- minology refers to groups of robotic agents with limited mobility and communica- tion

  7. On the evolutionary origins of equity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Debove

    Full Text Available Equity, defined as reward according to contribution, is considered a central aspect of human fairness in both philosophical debates and scientific research. Despite large amounts of research on the evolutionary origins of fairness, the evolutionary rationale behind equity is still unknown. Here, we investigate how equity can be understood in the context of the cooperative environment in which humans evolved. We model a population of individuals who cooperate to produce and divide a resource, and choose their cooperative partners based on how they are willing to divide the resource. Agent-based simulations, an analytical model, and extended simulations using neural networks provide converging evidence that equity is the best evolutionary strategy in such an environment: individuals maximize their fitness by dividing benefits in proportion to their own and their partners' relative contribution. The need to be chosen as a cooperative partner thus creates a selection pressure strong enough to explain the evolution of preferences for equity. We discuss the limitations of our model, the discrepancies between its predictions and empirical data, and how interindividual and intercultural variability fit within this framework.

  8. Hazard Map for Autonomous Navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Troels

    This dissertation describes the work performed in the area of using image analysis in the process of landing a spacecraft autonomously and safely on the surface of the Moon. This is suggested to be done using a Hazard Map. The correspondence problem between several Hazard Maps are investigated...

  9. Objects as Temporary Autonomous Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Morton


    Full Text Available From Hakim Bey's instructions on creating temporary autonomous zones we see an oscillation "between performance art and politics, circus clowning and revolution." In this essay Tim Morton discusses anarchist politics as, "the creation of fresh objects in a reality without a top or a bottom object, or for that matter a middle object."

  10. Blunted autonomic response in cluster headache patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barloese, Mads; Brinth, Louise; Mehlsen, Jesper


    BACKGROUND: Cluster headache (CH) is a disabling headache disorder with chronobiological features. The posterior hypothalamus is involved in CH pathophysiology and is a hub for autonomic control. We studied autonomic response to the head-up tilt table test (HUT) including heart rate variability...... be interpreted as dysregulation in the posterior hypothalamus and supports a theory of central autonomic mechanisms involvement in CH....

  11. Cooperation and conflict in cancer: An evolutionary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Featherston


    Full Text Available Evolutionary approaches to carcinogenesis have gained prominence in the literature and enhanced our understanding of cancer. However, an appreciation of neoplasia in the context of evolutionary transitions, particularly the transition from independent genes to a fullyintegrated genome, is largely absent. In the gene–genome evolutionary transition, mobile genetic elements (MGEs can be studied as the extant exemplars of selfish autonomous lowerlevel units that cooperated to form a higher-level, functionally integrated genome. Here,we discuss levels of selection in cancer cells. In particular, we examine the tension between gene and genome units of selection by examining the expression profiles of MGE domains in an array of human cancers. Overall, across diverse cancers, there is an aberrant expression of several families of mobile elements, including the most common MGE in the human genome, retrotransposon LINE 1. These results indicate an alternative life-history strategy for MGEs in the cancers studied. Whether the aberrant expression is the cause or effect oftumourigenesis is unknown, although some evidence suggests that dysregulation of MGEs can play a role in cancer origin and progression. These data are interpreted in combination with phylostratigraphic reports correlating the origin of cancer genes with multicellularity and other potential increases in complexity in cancer cell populations. Cooperation and conflict between individuals at the gene, genome and cell level provide an evolutionary medicineperspective of cancer that enhances our understanding of disease pathogenesis and treatment.

  12. Evolutionary genomics of Entamoeba (United States)

    Weedall, Gareth D.; Hall, Neil


    Entamoeba histolytica is a human pathogen that causes amoebic dysentery and leads to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Understanding the genome and evolution of the parasite will help explain how, when and why it causes disease. Here we review current knowledge about the evolutionary genomics of Entamoeba: how differences between the genomes of different species may help explain different phenotypes, and how variation among E. histolytica parasites reveals patterns of population structure. The imminent expansion of the amount genome data will greatly improve our knowledge of the genus and of pathogenic species within it. PMID:21288488

  13. Social traits, social networks and evolutionary biology. (United States)

    Fisher, D N; McAdam, A G


    The social environment is both an important agent of selection for most organisms, and an emergent property of their interactions. As an aggregation of interactions among members of a population, the social environment is a product of many sets of relationships and so can be represented as a network or matrix. Social network analysis in animals has focused on why these networks possess the structure they do, and whether individuals' network traits, representing some aspect of their social phenotype, relate to their fitness. Meanwhile, quantitative geneticists have demonstrated that traits expressed in a social context can depend on the phenotypes and genotypes of interacting partners, leading to influences of the social environment on the traits and fitness of individuals and the evolutionary trajectories of populations. Therefore, both fields are investigating similar topics, yet have arrived at these points relatively independently. We review how these approaches are diverged, and yet how they retain clear parallelism and so strong potential for complementarity. This demonstrates that, despite separate bodies of theory, advances in one might inform the other. Techniques in network analysis for quantifying social phenotypes, and for identifying community structure, should be useful for those studying the relationship between individual behaviour and group-level phenotypes. Entering social association matrices into quantitative genetic models may also reduce bias in heritability estimates, and allow the estimation of the influence of social connectedness on trait expression. Current methods for measuring natural selection in a social context explicitly account for the fact that a trait is not necessarily the property of a single individual, something the network approaches have not yet considered when relating network metrics to individual fitness. Harnessing evolutionary models that consider traits affected by genes in other individuals (i.e. indirect genetic

  14. Teamwork in Multi-Agent Systems A Formal Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Dunin-Keplicz, Barbara Maria


    What makes teamwork tick?. Cooperation matters, in daily life and in complex applications. After all, many tasks need more than a single agent to be effectively performed. Therefore, teamwork rules!. Teams are social groups of agents dedicated to the fulfilment of particular persistent tasks. In modern multiagent environments, heterogeneous teams often consist of autonomous software agents, various types of robots and human beings. Teamwork in Multi-agent Systems: A Formal Approach explains teamwork rules in terms of agents' attitudes and their complex interplay. It provides the first comprehe

  15. Comparative genomics and evolutionary biology. (United States)

    Kondrashov, A S


    Data of large-scale DNA sequencing are relevant to some of the most fundamental issues in evolutionary biology: suboptimality, homology, hierarchy, ancestry, novelties, the role of natural selection, and the relative importance of directional versus stabilizing selection. Already, these data provided the best available evidence for some evolutionary phenomena, and in several cases led to refinement of old concepts. Still, the Darwinian evolutionary paradigm will successfully accommodate comparative genomics.

  16. Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations Simulation Software: Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer (United States)

    Wehner, Walter S., Jr.


    Working on the ACLO (Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations) project I have had the opportunity to add functionality to the physics simulation software known as KATE (Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer), create a new application allowing WYSIWYG (what-you-see-is-what-you-get) creation of KATE schematic files and begin a preliminary design and implementation of a new subsystem that will provide vision services on the IHM (Integrated Health Management) bus. The functionality I added to KATE over the past few months includes a dynamic visual representation of the fluid height in a pipe based on number of gallons of fluid in the pipe and implementing the IHM bus connection within KATE. I also fixed a broken feature in the system called the Browser Display, implemented many bug fixes and made changes to the GUI (Graphical User Interface).

  17. Autonomic computing enabled cooperative networked design

    CERN Document Server

    Wodczak, Michal


    This book introduces the concept of autonomic computing driven cooperative networked system design from an architectural perspective. As such it leverages and capitalises on the relevant advancements in both the realms of autonomic computing and networking by welding them closely together. In particular, a multi-faceted Autonomic Cooperative System Architectural Model is defined which incorporates the notion of Autonomic Cooperative Behaviour being orchestrated by the Autonomic Cooperative Networking Protocol of a cross-layer nature. The overall proposed solution not only advocates for the inc

  18. Evolutionary status of Polaris (United States)

    Fadeyev, Yu. A.


    Hydrodynamic models of short-period Cepheids were computed to determine the pulsation period as a function of evolutionary time during the first and third crossings of the instability strip. The equations of radiation hydrodynamics and turbulent convection for radial stellar pulsations were solved with the initial conditions obtained from the evolutionary models of Population I stars (X = 0.7, Z = 0.02) with masses from 5.2 to 6.5 M⊙ and the convective core overshooting parameter 0.1 ≤ αov ≤ 0.3. In Cepheids with period of 4 d the rate of pulsation period change during the first crossing of the instability strip is over 50 times larger than that during the third crossing. Polaris is shown to cross the instability strip for the first time and to be the fundamental mode pulsator. The best agreement between the predicted and observed rates of period change was obtained for the model with mass of 5.4 M⊙ and the overshooting parameter αov = 0.25. The bolometric luminosity and radius are L = 1.26 × 103 L⊙ and R = 37.5 R⊙, respectively. In the HR diagram, Polaris is located at the red edge of the instability strip.

  19. Coordinated Control of Multi-Agent Systems in Rapidly Varying Environments Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of this Phase II STTR project is to develop advanced control algorithms that enable multiple autonomous agents to perform complex tasks in rapidly...

  20. Culturally adaptive mobile agent dialogue to communicate with people in crisis recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, V.; Winterboer, A.; Pavlin, G.; Groen, F.


    We present ongoing research concerning the interaction between users and environmental agencies through autonomous mobile agents in the environmental monitoring domain. The overarching EU FP7 project DIADEM, concerns the development of a system that detects potentially hazardous situations in

  1. 'Do you smell rotten eggs?' Evaluating interactions with mobile agents in crisis response situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winterboer, A.; Cramer, H.S.M.; Pavlin, G.; Groen, F.C.A.; Evers, V.; Oppermann, R.; Eisenhauer, M.; Jarke, M.; Wulf, V.


    In this paper, we present ongoing research concerning the interaction between users and autonomous mobile agents in the environmental monitoring domain. The overarching project, DIADEM, deals with developing a system that detects potentially hazardous situations in populated industrial areas using

  2. Insights into the background of autonomic medicine. (United States)

    Laranjo, Sérgio; Geraldes, Vera; Oliveira, Mário; Rocha, Isabel


    Knowledge of the physiology underlying the autonomic nervous system is pivotal for understanding autonomic dysfunction in clinical practice. Autonomic dysfunction may result from primary modifications of the autonomic nervous system or be secondary to a wide range of diseases that cause severe morbidity and mortality. Together with a detailed history and physical examination, laboratory assessment of autonomic function is essential for the analysis of various clinical conditions and the establishment of effective, personalized and precise therapeutic schemes. This review summarizes the main aspects of autonomic medicine that constitute the background of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Delivering the smart grid: Challenges for autonomous agents and multi-agent systems research


    Rogers, A.; Ramchurn, S; Jennings, NR


    Restructuring electricity grids to meet the increased demand caused by the electrification of transport and heating, while making greater use of intermittent renewable energy sources, represents one of the greatest engineering challenges of our day. This modern electricity grid, in which both electricity and information flow in two directions between large numbers of widely distributed suppliers and generators - commonly termed the smart grid - represents a radical reengineering of infrastruc...

  4. Evolutionary explanations for natural language: criteria from evolutionary biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidema, W.; de Boer, B.


    Theories of the evolutionary origins of language must be informed by empirical and theoretical results from a variety of different fields. Complementing recent surveys of relevant work from linguistics, animal behaviour and genetics, this paper surveys the requirements on evolutionary scenarios that


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Zikratov


    Full Text Available We propose a traffic management system for autonomous vehicles that are agents at the intersection. In contrast to the known solutions based on the usage of semiautonomous control systems in assembly with the control unit, this algorithm is based on the principles of decentralized multiagent control. The best travel plan for intersection passage is produced by means of optimization methods jointly by all agents belonging to a dynamic collaboration of autonomous vehicles. The order of road intersection optimal for a given criterion is determined by the agents in the process of information exchange about themselves and environment. Our experiments show that this protocol can reduce significantly the traffic density as compared to the traditional systems of traffic management. Moreover, the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm increases with increasing density of road traffic. In addition, the absence of the critical object, that is the control unit, in the control system, reduces significantly the effectiveness of possible failures and hacker attacks on the intersection control system.

  6. Health, autonomic financing and transferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cantarero Prieto


    Full Text Available The present paper has as objective to study the whole relative problem to the autonomous communities and regional heath care expenditure financing in Spain. This article has a dual purpose. First, the financing of the current health care attendance is approached in the Spanish regions passing magazine to its possible variants and we observe that the balance of our system is clearly inclined towards the side of the integration in the general pattern of financing («Fiscal Room» with specific conditions («Mixed System». Secondly, we examine the new situation in the mark of health care and its corresponding financing in the new model approved in 2001, in terms of the effects of tax assignment on autonomous communities.

  7. Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilshøj, Mads; Bøgh, Simon; Nielsen, Oluf Skov


    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the interdisciplinary research field Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM), with an emphasis on physical implementations and applications. Design/methodology/approach - Following an introduction to AIMM, this paper investiga......Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the interdisciplinary research field Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM), with an emphasis on physical implementations and applications. Design/methodology/approach - Following an introduction to AIMM, this paper......; sustainability, configuration, adaptation, autonomy, positioning, manipulation and grasping, robot-robot interaction, human-robot interaction, process quality, dependability, and physical properties. Findings - The concise yet comprehensive review provides both researchers (academia) and practitioners (industry...... Manipulation (AIMM)....

  8. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spallone, Vincenza; Ziegler, Dan; Freeman, Roy


    Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy (CAN) Subcommittee of Toronto Consensus Panel on Diabetic Neuropathy worked to update CAN guidelines, with regard to epidemiology, clinical impact, diagnosis, usefulness of CAN testing, and management. CAN is the impairment of cardiovascular autonomic control...... in type 2 diabetes. CAN is a risk marker of mortality and cardiovascular morbidity, and possibly a progression promoter of diabetic nephropathy. Criteria for CAN diagnosis and staging are: 1. one abnormal cardio-vagal test identifies possible or early CAN; 2. at least two abnormal cardio-vagal tests....... diagnosis of CAN clinical forms, 2. detection and tailored treatment of CAN clinical correlates (e.g. tachycardia, OH, nondipping, QT interval prolongation), 3. risk stratification for diabetic complications and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and 4. modulation of targets of diabetes therapy...

  9. 9th KES Conference on Agent and Multi-Agent Systems : Technologies and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Howlett, Robert; Jain, Lakhmi


    Agents and multi-agent systems are related to a modern software paradigm which has long been recognized as a promising technology for constructing autonomous, complex and intelligent systems. The topics covered in this volume include agent-oriented software engineering, agent co-operation, co-ordination, negotiation, organization and communication, distributed problem solving, specification of agent communication languages, agent privacy, safety and security, formalization of ontologies and conversational agents. The volume highlights new trends and challenges in agent and multi-agent research and includes 38 papers classified in the following specific topics: learning paradigms, agent-based modeling and simulation, business model innovation and disruptive technologies, anthropic-oriented computing, serious games and business intelligence, design and implementation of intelligent agents and multi-agent systems, digital economy, and advances in networked virtual enterprises. Published p...

  10. Advancing Autonomous Structural Health Monitoring


    Grisso, Benjamin Luke


    The focus of this dissertation is aimed at advancing autonomous structural health monitoring. All the research is based on developing the impedance method for monitoring structural health. The impedance technique utilizes piezoelectric patches to interrogate structures of interested with high frequency excitations. These patches are bonded directly to the structure, so information about the health of the structure can be seen in the electrical impedance of the piezoelectric patch. However, tr...

  11. Evaluating Autonomous Ground-Robots (United States)


    the paths taken by the multiple robots . The outer dimensions of the maze are about 25m x 25m. At the level of resolution shown in the main image...square meters). The system was also used to track the robots through the plywood walls of the maze , achieving similar accuracies. The system could not...Evaluating Autonomous Ground- Robots Anthony Finn 1 , Adam Jacoff 2 , Mike Del Rose 3 , Bob Kania 3 , Udam Silva 4 and Jon Bornstein 5

  12. Searching with an Autonomous Robot


    Fekete, Sándor; Klein, Rolf; Nüchter, Andreas


    We discuss online strategies for visibility-based searching for an object hidden behind a corner, using Kurt3D, a real autonomous mobile robot. This task is closely related to a number of well-studied problems. Our robot uses a three-dimensional laser scanner in a stop, scan, plan, go fashion for building a virtual three-dimensional environment. Besides planning trajectories and avoiding obstacles, Kurt3D is capable of identifying objects like a chair. We derive a prac...

  13. Autonomous Adaptive Acoustic Relay Positioning (United States)


    and Brooks Reed. An autonomous kayak takes many people to launch and it has been an equally collaborative experience at Hovergroup. Finally, I thank my...present at the MIT Sailing Pavilion and a fixed desti- nation node is another kayak station-keeping across the river. . . . . . 24 2-1 Illustration of multi... Kayaks Components and Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . 71 B.2 Micro-Modem Transmission Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 15 16 Chapter 1

  14. Autonomic neuropathy in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eVerrotti


    Full Text Available Diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN is a serious and common complication of diabetes, often overlooked and misdiagnosed. It is a systemic-wide disorder that may be asymptomatic in the early stages. The most studied and clinically important form of DAN is cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN defined as the impairment of autonomic control of the cardiovascular system in patients with diabetes after exclusion of other causes. The reported prevalence of DAN varies widely depending on inconsistent definition, different diagnostic method, different patient cohorts studied. The pathogenesis is still unclear and probably multifactorial. Once DAN becomes clinically evident, no form of therapy has been identified which can effectively stop or reverse it. Prevention strategies are based on strict glycemic control with intensive insulin treatment, multifactorial intervention and lifestyle modification including control of hypertension, dyslipidemia, stop smoking, weight loss and adequate physical exercise. The present review summarizes the latest knowledge regarding clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathogenesis and management of DAN, with some mention to childhood and adolescent population.

  15. Semi autonomous mine detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas Few; Roelof Versteeg; Herman Herman


    CMMAD is a risk reduction effort for the AMDS program. As part of CMMAD, multiple instances of semi autonomous robotic mine detection systems were created. Each instance consists of a robotic vehicle equipped with sensors required for navigation and marking, a countermine sensors and a number of integrated software packages which provide for real time processing of the countermine sensor data as well as integrated control of the robotic vehicle, the sensor actuator and the sensor. These systems were used to investigate critical interest functions (CIF) related to countermine robotic systems. To address the autonomy CIF, the INL developed RIK was extended to allow for interaction with a mine sensor processing code (MSPC). In limited field testing this system performed well in detecting, marking and avoiding both AT and AP mines. Based on the results of the CMMAD investigation we conclude that autonomous robotic mine detection is feasible. In addition, CMMAD contributed critical technical advances with regard to sensing, data processing and sensor manipulation, which will advance the performance of future fieldable systems. As a result, no substantial technical barriers exist which preclude – from an autonomous robotic perspective – the rapid development and deployment of fieldable systems.

  16. Photonic Microhand with Autonomous Action. (United States)

    Martella, Daniele; Nocentini, Sara; Nuzhdin, Dmitry; Parmeggiani, Camilla; Wiersma, Diederik S


    Grabbing and holding objects at the microscale is a complex function, even for microscopic living animals. Inspired by the hominid-type hand, a microscopic equivalent able to catch microelements is engineered. This microhand is light sensitive and can be either remotely controlled by optical illumination or can act autonomously and grab small particles on the basis of their optical properties. Since the energy is delivered optically, without the need for wires or batteries, the artificial hand can be shrunk down to the micrometer scale. Soft material is used, in particular, a custom-made liquid-crystal network that is patterned by a photolithographic technique. The elastic reshaping properties of this material allow finger movement, using environmental light as the only energy source. The hand can be either controlled externally (via the light field), or else the conditions in which it autonomously grabs a particle in its vicinity can be created. This microrobot has the unique feature that it can distinguish between particles of different colors and gray levels. The realization of this autonomous hand constitutes a crucial element in the development of microscopic creatures that can perform tasks without human intervention and self-organized automation at the micrometer scale. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Simulation Framework for Rebalancing of Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marczuk Katarzyna A.


    This study is built upon our previous work on Autonomous Mobility on Demand (AMOD systems. Our methodology is simulation-based and we make use of SimMobility, an agent-based microscopic simulation platform. In the current work we focus on the framework for testing different rebalancing policies for the AMOD systems. We compare three different rebalancing methods: (i no rebalancing, (ii offline rebalancing, and (iii online rebalancing. Simulation results indicate that rebalancing reduces the required fleet size and shortens the customers’ wait time.

  18. Materials and methods for autonomous restoration of electrical conductivity (United States)

    Blaiszik, Benjamin J; Odom, Susan A; Caruso, Mary M; Jackson, Aaron C; Baginska, Marta B; Ritchey, Joshua A; Finke, Aaron D; White, Scott R; Moore, Jeffrey S; Sottos, Nancy R; Braun, Paul V; Amine, Khalil


    An autonomic conductivity restoration system includes a solid conductor and a plurality of particles. The particles include a conductive fluid, a plurality of conductive microparticles, and/or a conductive material forming agent. The solid conductor has a first end, a second end, and a first conductivity between the first and second ends. When a crack forms between the first and second ends of the conductor, the contents of at least a portion of the particles are released into the crack. The cracked conductor and the released contents of the particles form a restored conductor having a second conductivity, which may be at least 90% of the first conductivity.

  19. Autonomous Evolution of Dynamic Gaits with Two Quadruped Robots (United States)

    Hornby, Gregory S.; Takamura, Seichi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Fujita, Masahiro


    A challenging task that must be accomplished for every legged robot is creating the walking and running behaviors needed for it to move. In this paper we describe our system for autonomously evolving dynamic gaits on two of Sony's quadruped robots. Our evolutionary algorithm runs on board the robot and uses the robot's sensors to compute the quality of a gait without assistance from the experimenter. First we show the evolution of a pace and trot gait on the OPEN-R prototype robot. With the fastest gait, the robot moves at over 10/min/min., which is more than forty body-lengths/min. While these first gaits are somewhat sensitive to the robot and environment in which they are evolved, we then show the evolution of robust dynamic gaits, one of which is used on the ERS-110, the first consumer version of AIBO.

  20. Anxiety: an evolutionary approach. (United States)

    Bateson, Melissa; Brilot, Ben; Nettle, Daniel


    Anxiety disorders are among the most common mental illnesses, with huge attendant suffering. Current treatments are not universally effective, suggesting that a deeper understanding of the causes of anxiety is needed. To understand anxiety disorders better, it is first necessary to understand the normal anxiety response. This entails considering its evolutionary function as well as the mechanisms underlying it. We argue that the function of the human anxiety response, and homologues in other species, is to prepare the individual to detect and deal with threats. We use a signal detection framework to show that the threshold for expressing the anxiety response ought to vary with the probability of threats occurring, and the individual's vulnerability to them if they do occur. These predictions are consistent with major patterns in the epidemiology of anxiety. Implications for research and treatment are discussed.

  1. Towards Adaptive Evolutionary Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Sebastian HOlt; Rask, Nina; Risi, Sebastian


    This paper presents first results from an interdisciplinary project, in which the fields of architecture, philosophy and artificial life are combined to explore possible futures of architecture. Through an interactive evolutionary installation, called EvoCurtain, we investigate aspects of how...... living in the future could occur, if built spaces could evolve and adapt alongside inhabitants. As such, present study explores the interdisciplinary possibilities in utilizing computational power to co-create with users and generate designs based on human input. We argue that this could lead...... to the development of designs tailored to the individual preferences of inhabitants, changing the roles of architects and designers entirely. Architecture-as-it-could-be is a philosophical approach conducted through artistic methods to anticipate the technological futures of human-centered development within...

  2. Topics of Evolutionary Computation 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursem, Rasmus Kjær

    This booklet contains the student reports from the course: Topics of Evolutionary Computation, Fall 2001, given by Thiemo Krink, Rene Thomsen and Rasmus K. Ursem......This booklet contains the student reports from the course: Topics of Evolutionary Computation, Fall 2001, given by Thiemo Krink, Rene Thomsen and Rasmus K. Ursem...

  3. Conceptual foundations of evolutionary thought

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Jul 4, 2017 ... This article seeks to explore the conceptual foundations of evolutionary thought in the physical, biological, and human sciences. Viewing evolution as symmetry breaking, it explores the concepts of change, history, and evolutionary history, and outlines a concept of biological macroevolution.

  4. Evolutionary dynamics in structured populations (United States)

    Nowak, Martin A.; Tarnita, Corina E.; Antal, Tibor


    Evolutionary dynamics shape the living world around us. At the centre of every evolutionary process is a population of reproducing individuals. The structure of that population affects evolutionary dynamics. The individuals can be molecules, cells, viruses, multicellular organisms or humans. Whenever the fitness of individuals depends on the relative abundance of phenotypes in the population, we are in the realm of evolutionary game theory. Evolutionary game theory is a general approach that can describe the competition of species in an ecosystem, the interaction between hosts and parasites, between viruses and cells, and also the spread of ideas and behaviours in the human population. In this perspective, we review the recent advances in evolutionary game dynamics with a particular emphasis on stochastic approaches in finite sized and structured populations. We give simple, fundamental laws that determine how natural selection chooses between competing strategies. We study the well-mixed population, evolutionary graph theory, games in phenotype space and evolutionary set theory. We apply these results to the evolution of cooperation. The mechanism that leads to the evolution of cooperation in these settings could be called ‘spatial selection’: cooperators prevail against defectors by clustering in physical or other spaces. PMID:20008382

  5. Child Development and Evolutionary Psychology. (United States)

    Bjorklund, David F.; Pellegrini, Anthony D.


    Argues that an evolutionary account provides insight into developmental function and individual differences. Outlines some assumptions of evolutionary psychology related to development. Introduces the developmental systems approach, differential influence of natural selection at different points in ontogeny, and development of evolved…

  6. Evolutionary Explanations of Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Kardum


    Full Text Available This article reviews several most important evolutionary mechanisms that underlie eating disorders. The first part clarifies evolutionary foundations of mental disorders and various mechanisms leading to their development. In the second part selective pressures and evolved adaptations causing contemporary epidemic of obesity as well as differences in dietary regimes and life-style between modern humans and their ancestors are described. Concerning eating disorders, a number of current evolutionary explanations of anorexia nervosa are presented together with their main weaknesses. Evolutionary explanations of eating disorders based on the reproductive suppression hypothesis and its variants derived from kin selection theory and the model of parental manipulation were elaborated. The sexual competition hypothesis of eating disorder, adapted to flee famine hypothesis as well as explanation based on the concept of social attention holding power and the need to belonging were also explained. The importance of evolutionary theory in modern conceptualization and research of eating disorders is emphasized.

  7. Autonomic neural functions in space. (United States)

    Mano, T


    Autonomic neural functions are important to regulate vital functions in the living body. There are different methods to evaluate indirectly and directly autonomic, sympathetic and parasympathetic, neural functions of human body. Among various methods, microneurography is a technique to evaluate directly sympathetic neural functions in humans. Using this technique sympathetic neural traffic leading to skeletal muscles (muscle sympathetic nerve activity; MSNA) can be recorded from human peripheral nerves in situ. MSNA plays essentially important roles to maintain blood pressure homeostasis against gravity. Orthostatic intolerance is an important problem as an autonomic dysfunction encountered after exposure of human beings to microgravity. There exist at least two different types of sympathetic neural responses, low and high responders to orthostatic stress in orthostatic hypotension seen in neurological disorders. To answer the question if post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance is induced by low or high MSNA responses to orthostatic stress, MSNA was microneurographically recorded for the first time before, during and after spaceflight in 1998 under Neurolab international research project. The same activity has been recorded during and/or after ground-based short- and long-term simulations of microgravity. MSNA was rather enhanced on the 12(th) and 13(th) day of spaceflight and just after landing day. Postflight MSNA response to head-up tilt was well preserved in astronauts who were orthostatically well tolerant. MSNA was suppressed during short-term simulation of microgravity less than 2 hours but was enhanced after long-term simulation of microgravity more than 3 days. Orthostatic intolerance after exposure to long-term simulation of microgravity was associated with reduced MSNA response to orthostatic stress with impaired baroreflex functions. These findings obtained from MSNA recordings in subjects exposed to space as well as short- and long-term simulations of

  8. Information Sharing Mechanism among Mobile Agents In Ad-hoc Network Environment and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Umetsuji


    Full Text Available Mobile agents are programs that can move from one site to another in a network with their data and states. Mobile agents are expected to be an essential tool in pervasive computing. In multi platform environment, it is important to communicate with mobile agents only using their universal or logical name not using their physical locations. More, in an ad-hoc network environment, an agent can migrate autonomously and communicate with other agents on demand. It is difficult that mobile agent grasps the position information on other agents correctly each other, because mobile agent processes a task while moving a network successively. In order to realize on-demand mutual communication among mobile agents without any centralized servers, we propose a new information sharing mechanism within mobile agents. In this paper, we present a new information sharing mechanism within mobile agents. The method is a complete peer based and requires no agent servers to manage mobile agent locations. Therefore, a mobile agent can get another mobile agent, communicate with it and shares information stored in the agent without any knowledge of the location of the target mobile agent. The basic idea of the mechanism is an introduction of Agent Ring, Agent Chain and Shadow Agent. With this mechanism, each agent can communicate with other agents in a server-less environment, which is suitable for ad-hoc agent network and an agent system can manage agents search and communications efficiently.

  9. APDS: The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindson, B; Makarewicz, A; Setlur, U; Henderer, B; McBride, M; Dzenitis, J


    We have developed and tested a fully autonomous pathogen detection system (APDS) capable of continuously monitoring the environment for airborne biological threat agents. The system was developed to provide early warning to civilians in the event of a bioterrorism incident and can be used at high profile events for short-term, intensive monitoring or in major public buildings or transportation nodes for long-term monitoring. The APDS is completely automated, offering continuous aerosol sampling, in-line sample preparation fluidics, multiplexed detection and identification immunoassays, and nucleic-acid based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and detection. Highly multiplexed antibody-based and duplex nucleic acid-based assays are combined to reduce false positives to a very low level, lower reagent costs, and significantly expand the detection capabilities of this biosensor. This article provides an overview of the current design and operation of the APDS. Certain sub-components of the ADPS are described in detail, including the aerosol collector, the automated sample preparation module that performs multiplexed immunoassays with confirmatory PCR, and the data monitoring and communications system. Data obtained from an APDS that operated continuously for seven days in a major U.S. transportation hub is reported.

  10. Software agents in surgery: an update. (United States)

    Mohr, Markus T J


    Intelligent and, thus, autonomously reacting software programs are capable of handling a lot of different tasks as has been realized in economics and network administration. The same so-called software agents can be used for a variety of organizational tasks in medicine. Some software agents already manage an individual patient's health care record from documentation to ambulant or stationary admission, surgical planning, and many other tasks which currently consume more than half of a physician's daily working time. Hence, not only a large potential of time, but also of economical savings result to the physicians' new disposition.

  11. Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations: KSC Autonomous Test Engineer (United States)

    Shrading, Nicholas J.


    The KSC Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20+ years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in. the system, As part.of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display ofthe entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledgebase, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.

  12. Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations: Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer (United States)

    Schrading, J. Nicolas


    The Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20 years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in the system. As part of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display of the entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledge base, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.

  13. From Autonomous Systems to Sociotechnical Systems: Designing Effective Collaborations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle J. Behymer

    Full Text Available Effectiveness in sociotechnical systems often depends on coordination among multiple agents (including both humans and autonomous technologies. This means that autonomous technologies must be designed to function as collaborative systems, or team players. In many complex work domains, success is beyond the capabilities of humans unaided by technologies. However, at the same time, human capabilities are often critical to ultimate success, as all automated control systems will eventually face problems their designers did not anticipate. Unfortunately, there is often an either/or attitude with respect to humans and technology that tends to focus on optimizing the separate human and autonomous components, with the design of interfaces and team processes as an afterthought. The current paper discusses the limitations of this approach and proposes an alternative where the goal of design is a seamless integration of human and technological capabilities into a well-functioning sociotechnical system. Drawing lessons from both the academic (SRK Framework and commercial (IBM’s Watson, video games worlds, suggestions for enriching the coupling between the human and automated systems by considering both technical and social aspects are discussed.

  14. Autonomous navigation strategy for robot swarms using local communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy Hernán Martínez Sarmiento


    Full Text Available Our motivation focuses on answering a simple question: What is the minimum robotic structure necessary to solve a navigation problem? Our research deals with environments that are unknown, dynamic, and denied to sensors. In particular, the paper addresses problems concerning how to coordinate the navigation of multi-ple autonomous mobile robots without requiring system identification, geometric map building, localization or state estimation. The proposed navigation algorithm uses the gradient of the environment to set the navigation control. This gradient is continuously modified by all the robots in the form of local communication. The design scheme, both for the algorithm and for its implementation on robots, searches for a minimal approximation, in which it minimizes the requirements of the robot (processing power, communication and kind of sensors. Besides, our research finds autonomous navigation for each robot, and also scales the system to any number of agents. The navigation algorithm is formulated for a grouping task, where the robots form autonomous groups without any external interaction or prior information of the environment or information from other robots. Finally, task performance is verified through simulation for the laboratory prototypes of the group.

  15. Mobile agents basic concepts, mobility models, and the tracy toolkit

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Peter


    Mobile agents are software nomads that act as your personal representative, working autonomously through networks. They are able to visit network nodes directly using available computing power and are not limited by platform. This emerging field is now poised to become a cornerstone for new Web-based ubiquitous computing environments. Mobile Agents provides a practical introduction to mobile agent technology and surveys the state of the art in mobile agent research. Students and researchers can use the book as an introduction to the concepts and possibilities of this field and as an overview of ongoing research. Developers can use it to identify the capabilities of the technology to decide if mobile agents are the right solution for them. Practioners can also gain hands-on experience in programming mobile agents through exploration of the source code for a complete mobile agent environment available through the companion website.*Summarizes the state of the art in mobile agent research*Identifies the benefits...

  16. Self-organization of nodes in mobile ad hoc networks using evolutionary games and genetic algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Kusyk


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a distributed and scalable evolutionary game played by autonomous mobile ad hoc network (MANET nodes to place themselves uniformly over a dynamically changing environment without a centralized controller. A node spreading evolutionary game, called NSEG, runs at each mobile node, autonomously makes movement decisions based on localized data while the movement probabilities of possible next locations are assigned by a forced-based genetic algorithm (FGA. Because FGA takes only into account the current position of the neighboring nodes, our NSEG, combining FGA with game theory, can find better locations. In NSEG, autonomous node movement decisions are based on the outcome of the locally run FGA and the spatial game set up among it and the nodes in its neighborhood. NSEG is a good candidate for the node spreading class of applications used in both military tasks and commercial applications. We present a formal analysis of our NSEG to prove that an evolutionary stable state is its convergence point. Simulation experiments demonstrate that NSEG performs well with respect to network area coverage, uniform distribution of mobile nodes, and convergence speed.

  17. AORTA: Adding Organizational Reasoning to Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Dignum, Virginia


    the expected behavior of the agents. Agents need to be able to reason about the regulations, so that they can act within the expected boundaries and work towards the objectives of the organization. This extended abstract introduces AORTA, a component that can be integrated into agents’ reasoning mechanism......Open systems are characterized by a diversity of heterogeneous and autonomous agents that act according to private goals, and with a behavior that is hard to predict. They can be regulated through organizations similar to human organizations, which regulate the agents’ behavior space and describe......, allowing them to reason about (and act upon) regulations specified by an organizational model using simple reasoning rules. The added value is that the organizational model is independent of that of the agents, and that the approach is not tied to a specific organizational model....

  18. The evolutionary and ecological benefits of asteroid and comet impacts. (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S; Bland, Philip A


    Commonly viewed solely as agents of destruction, asteroid and comet impact events can also have a beneficial influence on processes from the molecular to the evolutionary scale. On the heavily bombarded early Earth, impacts might have delivered and caused the synthesis of prebiotic compounds that eventually led to life. At the organismal and ecosystem level, impact events can provide new habitats through the shock processing of target materials and by enhancing water availability, such as within intracrater lakes. At the evolutionary level, by destroying entire groups of organisms, impacts might have been instrumental in enabling the rise of new groups, such as the dinosaurs and mammals. Here, we synthesize the emerging literature on the beneficial effects of impacts to provide a novel perspective on these extraterrestrial agents of biological change.

  19. GPS Enabled Semi-Autonomous Robot (United States)


    AUTONOMOUS ROBOT by Connor F. Bench September 2017 Thesis Advisor: Xiaoping Yun Second Reader: James Calusdian THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY...AND SUBTITLE GPS ENABLED SEMI-AUTONOMOUS ROBOT 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Connor F. Bench 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...objective of this research is to integrate GPS and local sensory data to allow a robot to operate semi-autonomously outside of a laboratory environment

  20. The treatment of autonomic dysfunction in tetanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T van den Heever


    Full Text Available We report a case of generalised tetanus in a 50-year-old female patient after sustaining a wound to her right lower leg. She developed autonomic dysfunction, which included labile hypertension alternating with hypotension and sweating. The autonomic dysfunction was treated successfully with a combination of morphine sulphate infusion, magnesium sulphate, and clonidine. She also received adrenaline and phenylephrine infusions as needed for hypotension. We then discuss the pathophysiology, clinical features and treatment options of autonomic dysfunction.

  1. Attainability of Carnot efficiency with autonomous engines. (United States)

    Shiraishi, Naoto


    The maximum efficiency of autonomous engines with a finite chemical potential difference is investigated. We show that, without a particular type of singularity, autonomous engines cannot attain the Carnot efficiency. This singularity is realized in two ways: single particle transports and the thermodynamic limit. We demonstrate that both of these ways actually lead to the Carnot efficiency in concrete setups. Our results clearly illustrate that the singularity plays a crucial role in the maximum efficiency of autonomous engines.

  2. Autonomous Duffing-Holmes Type Chaotic Oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamaševičius, A.; Bumelienė, S.; Kirvaitis, R.


    We have designed and built a novel Duffing type autonomous 3rd-order chaotic oscillator. In comparison with the common non-autonomous DuffingHolmes type oscillator the autonomous circuit has an internal positive feedback loop instead of an external periodic drive source. In addition......, it is supplemented with an RC inertial damping loop providing negative feedback. The circuit has been investigated both numerically and experimentally....

  3. Towards social autonomous vehicles: Efficient collision avoidance scheme using Richardson's arms race model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Riaz

    Full Text Available This paper presents the concept of a social autonomous agent to conceptualize such Autonomous Vehicles (AVs, which interacts with other AVs using social manners similar to human behavior. The presented AVs also have the capability of predicting intentions, i.e. mentalizing and copying the actions of each other, i.e. mirroring. Exploratory Agent Based Modeling (EABM level of the Cognitive Agent Based Computing (CABC framework has been utilized to design the proposed social agent. Furthermore, to emulate the functionality of mentalizing and mirroring modules of proposed social agent, a tailored mathematical model of the Richardson's arms race model has also been presented. The performance of the proposed social agent has been validated at two levels-firstly it has been simulated using NetLogo, a standard agent-based modeling tool and also, at a practical level using a prototype AV. The simulation results have confirmed that the proposed social agent-based collision avoidance strategy is 78.52% more efficient than Random walk based collision avoidance strategy in congested flock-like topologies. Whereas practical results have confirmed that the proposed scheme can avoid rear end and lateral collisions with the efficiency of 99.876% as compared with the IEEE 802.11n-based existing state of the art mirroring neuron-based collision avoidance scheme.

  4. Towards social autonomous vehicles: Efficient collision avoidance scheme using Richardson's arms race model. (United States)

    Riaz, Faisal; Niazi, Muaz A


    This paper presents the concept of a social autonomous agent to conceptualize such Autonomous Vehicles (AVs), which interacts with other AVs using social manners similar to human behavior. The presented AVs also have the capability of predicting intentions, i.e. mentalizing and copying the actions of each other, i.e. mirroring. Exploratory Agent Based Modeling (EABM) level of the Cognitive Agent Based Computing (CABC) framework has been utilized to design the proposed social agent. Furthermore, to emulate the functionality of mentalizing and mirroring modules of proposed social agent, a tailored mathematical model of the Richardson's arms race model has also been presented. The performance of the proposed social agent has been validated at two levels-firstly it has been simulated using NetLogo, a standard agent-based modeling tool and also, at a practical level using a prototype AV. The simulation results have confirmed that the proposed social agent-based collision avoidance strategy is 78.52% more efficient than Random walk based collision avoidance strategy in congested flock-like topologies. Whereas practical results have confirmed that the proposed scheme can avoid rear end and lateral collisions with the efficiency of 99.876% as compared with the IEEE 802.11n-based existing state of the art mirroring neuron-based collision avoidance scheme.

  5. Towards social autonomous vehicles: Efficient collision avoidance scheme using Richardson’s arms race model (United States)

    Niazi, Muaz A.


    This paper presents the concept of a social autonomous agent to conceptualize such Autonomous Vehicles (AVs), which interacts with other AVs using social manners similar to human behavior. The presented AVs also have the capability of predicting intentions, i.e. mentalizing and copying the actions of each other, i.e. mirroring. Exploratory Agent Based Modeling (EABM) level of the Cognitive Agent Based Computing (CABC) framework has been utilized to design the proposed social agent. Furthermore, to emulate the functionality of mentalizing and mirroring modules of proposed social agent, a tailored mathematical model of the Richardson’s arms race model has also been presented. The performance of the proposed social agent has been validated at two levels–firstly it has been simulated using NetLogo, a standard agent-based modeling tool and also, at a practical level using a prototype AV. The simulation results have confirmed that the proposed social agent-based collision avoidance strategy is 78.52% more efficient than Random walk based collision avoidance strategy in congested flock-like topologies. Whereas practical results have confirmed that the proposed scheme can avoid rear end and lateral collisions with the efficiency of 99.876% as compared with the IEEE 802.11n-based existing state of the art mirroring neuron-based collision avoidance scheme. PMID:29040294

  6. Adaptive Remote-Sensing Techniques Implementing Swarms of Mobile Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, S.M.; Loubriel, G.M.; Rbinett, R.D. III; Stantz, K.M.; Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.


    This paper focuses on our recent work at Sandia National Laboratories toward engineering a physics-based swarm of mobile vehicles for distributed sensing applications. Our goal is to coordinate a sensor array that optimizes sensor coverage and multivariate signal analysis by implementing artificial intelligence and evolutionary computational techniques. These intelligent control systems integrate both globally operating decision-making systems and locally cooperative information-sharing modes using genetically-trained neural networks. Once trained, neural networks have the ability to enhance real-time operational responses to dynamical environments, such as obstacle avoidance, responding to prevailing wind patterns, and overcoming other natural obscurants or interferences (jammers). The swarm realizes a collective set of sensor neurons with simple properties incorporating interactions based on basic community rules (potential fields) and complex interconnecting functions based on various neural network architectures, Therefore, the swarm is capable of redundant heterogeneous measurements which furnishes an additional degree of robustness and fault tolerance not afforded by conventional systems, while accomplishing such cognitive tasks as generalization, error correction, pattern recognition, and sensor fission. The robotic platforms could be equipped with specialized sensor devices including transmit/receive dipole antennas, chemical or biological sniffers in combination with recognition analysis tools, communication modulators, and laser diodes. Our group has been studying the collective behavior of an autonomous, multi-agent system applied to emerging threat applications. To accomplish such tasks, research in the fields of robotics, sensor technology, and swarms are being conducted within an integrated program. Mission scenarios under consideration include ground penetrating impulse radar (GPR) for detection of under-ground structures, airborne systems, and plume

  7. Public Health, Ethics, and Autonomous Vehicles. (United States)

    Fleetwood, Janet


    With the potential to save nearly 30 000 lives per year in the United States, autonomous vehicles portend the most significant advance in auto safety history by shifting the focus from minimization of postcrash injury to collision prevention. I have delineated the important public health implications of autonomous vehicles and provided a brief analysis of a critically important ethical issue inherent in autonomous vehicle design. The broad expertise, ethical principles, and values of public health should be brought to bear on a wide range of issues pertaining to autonomous vehicles.

  8. Evolutionary Developmental Robotics: Improving Morphology and Control of Physical Robots. (United States)

    Vujovic, Vuk; Rosendo, Andre; Brodbeck, Luzius; Iida, Fumiya


    Evolutionary algorithms have previously been applied to the design of morphology and control of robots. The design space for such tasks can be very complex, which can prevent evolution from efficiently discovering fit solutions. In this article we introduce an evolutionary-developmental (evo-devo) experiment with real-world robots. It allows robots to grow their leg size to simulate ontogenetic morphological changes, and this is the first time that such an experiment has been performed in the physical world. To test diverse robot morphologies, robot legs of variable shapes were generated during the evolutionary process and autonomously built using additive fabrication. We present two cases with evo-devo experiments and one with evolution, and we hypothesize that the addition of a developmental stage can be used within robotics to improve performance. Moreover, our results show that a nonlinear system-environment interaction exists, which explains the nontrivial locomotion patterns observed. In the future, robots will be present in our daily lives, and this work introduces for the first time physical robots that evolve and grow while interacting with the environment.

  9. The mobile agent rendezvous problem in the ring

    CERN Document Server

    Kranakis, Evangelos; Marcou, Euripides


    Mobile agent computing is being used in fields as diverse as artificial intelligence, computational economics and robotics. Agents' ability to adapt dynamically and execute asynchronously and autonomously brings potential advantages in terms of fault-tolerance, flexibility and simplicity. This monograph focuses on studying mobile agents as modelled in distributed systems research and in particular within the framework of research performed in the distributed algorithms community. It studies the fundamental question of how to achieve rendezvous, the gathering of two or more agents at the same n

  10. Industrial Applications of Evolutionary Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, Ernesto; Tonda, Alberto


    This book is intended as a reference both for experienced users of evolutionary algorithms and for researchers that are beginning to approach these fascinating optimization techniques. Experienced users will find interesting details of real-world problems, and advice on solving issues related to fitness computation, modeling and setting appropriate parameters to reach optimal solutions. Beginners will find a thorough introduction to evolutionary computation, and a complete presentation of all evolutionary algorithms exploited to solve different problems. The book could fill the gap between the

  11. Changes of behavior tendency in the evolutionary minority game (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Xia; Liang, Wen-Yao; Liu, Xue-Mei


    It is by now well established that the agents change from extreme behavior to confusion when the situation changed from easy time to depression in the evolutionary minority game. However in this letter we explore the dynamics of evolving population with negative values of the reward, and demonstrate that the one-time phase change is a little part. In particular, we show the changes of behavior tendency and reveal the underlying dynamics of the changes.

  12. Autonomous Electrical Vehicles’ Charging Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Paska


    Full Text Available This paper presents a model of an autonomous electrical vehicles’ charging station. It consists of renewable energy sources: wind turbine system, photovoltaic cells, as well as an energy storage, load, and EV charging station. In order to optimise the operating conditions, power electronic converters were added to the system. The model was implemented in the Homer Energy programme. The first part of the paper presents the design assumptions and technological solutions. Further in the paper simulation results are discussed and analysed, and then problems observed in the simulation and possible solutions.

  13. Autonomously managed electrical power systems (United States)

    Callis, Charles P.


    The electric power systems for future spacecraft such as the Space Station will necessarily be more sophisticated and will exhibit more nearly autonomous operation than earlier spacecraft. These new power systems will be more reliable and flexible than their predecessors offering greater utility to the users. Automation approaches implemented on various power system breadboards are investigated. These breadboards include the Hubble Space Telescope power system test bed, the Common Module Power Management and Distribution system breadboard, the Autonomusly Managed Power System (AMPS) breadboard, and the 20 kilohertz power system breadboard. Particular attention is given to the AMPS breadboard. Future plans for these breadboards including the employment of artificial intelligence techniques are addressed.

  14. Topological entropy of autonomous flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badii, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    When studying fluid dynamics, especially in a turbulent regime, it is crucial to estimate the number of active degrees of freedom or of localized structures in the system. The topological entropy quantifies the exponential growth of the number of `distinct` orbits in a dynamical system as a function of their length, in the infinite spatial resolution limit. Here, I illustrate a novel method for its evaluation, which extends beyond maps and is applicable to any system, including autonomous flows: these are characterized by lack of a definite absolute time scale for the orbit lengths. (author) 8 refs.

  15. Knowledge acquisition for autonomous systems (United States)

    Lum, Henry; Heer, Ewald


    Knowledge-based capabilities for autonomous aerospace systems, such as the NASA Space Station, must encompass conflict-resolution functions comparable to those of human operators, with all elements of the system working toward system goals in a concurrent, asynchronous-but-coordinated fashion. Knowledge extracted from a design database will support robotic systems by furnishing geometric, structural, and causal descriptions required for repair, disassembly, and assembly. The factual knowledge for these databases will be obtained from a master database through a technical management information system, and it will in many cases have to be augmented by domain-specific heuristic knowledge acquired from domain experts.

  16. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing (United States)

    Plattsmier, George; Stetson, Howard


    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto- Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the

  17. Evolutionary biology redux. (United States)

    Torday, John S


    This article offers a novel, enlightened concept for determining the mechanism of evolution. It is based on homeostasis, which distinguishes life from non-life and as such is the universal mechanism for the evolution of all living organisms. This view of evolution is logical, mechanistic, non-scalar, predictive, testable, and falsifiable, and it illuminates the epistemological relationships between physics and biology, ontogeny and phylogeny, development and aging, ultimate and proximate causation, health and disease. In addition to validating Haeckel's biogenetic law and Lamarckian epigenetics, reflecting the enabling value of the cellular approach, this perspective also expresses the evolutionary process at the cell-molecular level, since the mechanism of cell communication itself is universal in biology, in keeping with a Kuhnian paradigm shift. This approach may even elucidate the nature and evolution of consciousness as a manifestation of the cellular continuum from unicellular to multicellular life. We need such a functional genomic mechanism for the process of evolution if we are to make progress in biology and medicine. Like Copernican heliocentrism, a cellular approach to evolution may fundamentally change humankind's perceptions about our place in the universe.

  18. Preferential partner selection in an evolutionary study of prisoner's dilemma

    CERN Document Server

    Ashlock, D; Stanley, E A; Tesfatsion, L; Ashlock, Dan; Smucker, Mark D; Stanley, E Ann; Tesfatsion, Leigh


    Partner selection is an important process in many social interactions, permitting individuals to decrease the risks associated with cooperation. In large populations, defectors may escape punishment by roving from partner to partner, but defectors in smaller populations risk social isolation. We investigate these possibilities for an evolutionary prisoner's dilemma in which agents use expected payoffs to choose and refuse partners. In comparison to random or round-robin partner matching, we find that the average payoffs attained with preferential partner selection tend to be more narrowly confined to a few isolated payoff regions. Most ecologies evolve to essentially full cooperative behavior, but when agents are intolerant of defections, or when the costs of refusal and social isolation are small, we also see the emergence of wallflower ecologies in which all agents are socially isolated. In between these two extremes, we see the emergence of ecologies whose agents tend to engage in a small number of defecti...

  19. Toward an evolutionary definition of cheating. (United States)

    Ghoul, Melanie; Griffin, Ashleigh S; West, Stuart A


    The term "cheating" is used in the evolutionary and ecological literature to describe a wide range of exploitative or deceitful traits. Although many find this a useful short hand, others have suggested that it implies cognitive intent in a misleading way, and is used inconsistently. We provide a formal justification of the use of the term "cheat" from the perspective of an individual as a maximizing agent. We provide a definition for cheating that can be applied widely, and show that cheats can be broadly classified on the basis of four distinctions: (i) whether cooperation is an option; (ii) whether deception is involved; (iii) whether members of the same or different species are cheated; and (iv) whether the cheat is facultative or obligate. Our formal definition and classification provide a framework that allow us to resolve and clarify a number of issues, regarding the detection and evolutionary consequences of cheating, as well as illuminating common principles and similarities in the underlying selection pressures. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Environmentally Friendly Coating Technology for Autonomous Corrosion Control (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Johnsey, Marissa N.; Jolley, Scott T.; Pearman, Benjamin P.; Zhang, Xuejun; Fitzpatrick, Lilliana; Gillis, Mathew; Blanton, Michael; hide


    This work concerns the development of environmentally friendly encapsulation technology, specifically designed to incorporate corrosion indicators, inhibitors, and self-healing agents into a coating, in such a way that the delivery of the indicators and inhibitors is triggered by the corrosion process, and the delivery of self-healing agents is triggered by mechanical damage to the coating. Encapsulation of the active corrosion control ingredients allows the incorporation of desired autonomous corrosion control functions such as: early corrosion detection, hidden corrosion detection, corrosion inhibition, and self-healing of mechanical damage into a coating. The technology offers the versatility needed to include one or several corrosion control functions into the same coating.The development of the encapsulation technology has progressed from the initial proof-of-concept work, in which a corrosion indicator was encapsulated into an oil-core (hydrophobic) microcapsule and shown to be delivered autonomously, under simulated corrosion conditions, to a sophisticated portfolio of micro carriers (organic, inorganic, and hybrid) that can be used to deliver a wide range of active corrosion ingredients at a rate that can be adjusted to offer immediate as well as long-term corrosion control. The micro carriers have been incorporated into different coating formulas to test and optimize the autonomous corrosion detection, inhibition, and self-healing functions of the coatings. This paper provides an overview of progress made to date and highlights recent technical developments, such as improved corrosion detection sensitivity, inhibitor test results in various types of coatings, and highly effective self-healing coatings based on green chemistry.

  1. [Evolutionary medicine: an introduction. Evolutionary biology, a missing element in medical teaching]. (United States)

    Swynghedauw, Bernard


    The aim of this brief review article is to help to reconcile medicine with evolutionary biology, a subject that should be taught in medical school. Evolutionary medicine takes the view that contemporary ills are related to an incompatibility between the environment in which humans currently live and their genomes, which have been shaped by diferent environmental conditions during biological evolution. Human activity has recently induced acute environmental modifications that have profoundly changed the medical landscape. Evolutionary biology is an irreversible, ongoing and discontinuous process characterized by periods of stasis followed by accelerations. Evolutionary biology is determined by genetic mutations, which are selected either by Darwinian selective pressure or randomly by genetic drift. Most medical events result from a genome/environment conflict. Some may be purely genetic, as in monogenic diseases, and others purely environmental, such as traffic accidents. Nevertheless, in most common diseases the clinical landscape is determined by the conflict between these two factors, the genetic elements of which are gradually being unraveled Three examples are examined in depth:--The medical consequences of the greenhouse effect. The absence of excess mortality during recent heat waves suggests that the main determinant of mortality in the 2003 heatwave was heatstroke and old age. The projected long-term effects of global warming call for research on thermolysis, a forgotten branch of physiology.--The hygiene hypothesis postulates that the exponential rise in autoimmune and allergic diseases is linked to lesser exposure to infectious agents, possibly involving counter-regulatory factors such as IL-10.--The recent rise in the incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes in rich countries can be considered to result from a conflict between a calorie-rich environment and gene variants that control appetite. These variants are currently being identified by genome

  2. Evolutionary computation for reinforcement learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whiteson, S.; Wiering, M.; van Otterlo, M.


    Algorithms for evolutionary computation, which simulate the process of natural selection to solve optimization problems, are an effective tool for discovering high-performing reinforcement-learning policies. Because they can automatically find good representations, handle continuous action spaces,

  3. Integrating genomics into evolutionary medicine. (United States)

    Rodríguez, Juan Antonio; Marigorta, Urko M; Navarro, Arcadi


    The application of the principles of evolutionary biology into medicine was suggested long ago and is already providing insight into the ultimate causes of disease. However, a full systematic integration of medical genomics and evolutionary medicine is still missing. Here, we briefly review some cases where the combination of the two fields has proven profitable and highlight two of the main issues hindering the development of evolutionary genomic medicine as a mature field, namely the dissociation between fitness and health and the still considerable difficulties in predicting phenotypes from genotypes. We use publicly available data to illustrate both problems and conclude that new approaches are needed for evolutionary genomic medicine to overcome these obstacles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Negotiation and argumentation in multi-agent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, Fernando


    Multi-agent systems (MAS) composed of autonomous agents representing individuals or organizations and capable of reaching mutually beneficial agreements through negotiation and argumentation are becoming increasingly important and pervasive.Research on both automated negotiation and argumentation in MAS has a vigorous, exciting tradition. However, efforts to integrate both areas have received only selective attention in the academia and the practitioner literature. A symbiotic relationship could significantly strengthen each area's progress and trigger new R&D challenges and prospects toward t

  5. Plant Watering Autonomous Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Nagaraja


    Full Text Available Now days, due to busy routine life, people forget to water their plants. In this paper, we present a completely autonomous and a cost-effective system for watering indoor potted plants placed on an even surface. The system comprises of a mobile robot and a temperature-humidity sensing module. The system is fully adaptive to any environment and takes into account the watering needs of the plants using the temperature-humidity sensing module. The paper describes the hardware architecture of the fully automated watering system, which uses wireless communication to communicate between the mobile robot and the sensing module. This gardening robot is completely portable and is equipped with a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID module, a microcontroller, an on-board water reservoir and an attached water pump. It is capable of sensing the watering needs of the plants, locating them and finally watering them autonomously without any human intervention. Mobilization of the robot to the potted plant is achieved by using a predefined path. For identification, an RFID tag is attached to each potted plant. The paper also discusses the detailed implementation of the system supported with complete circuitry. Finally, the paper concludes with system performance including the analysis of the water carrying capacity and time requirements to water a set of plants.

  6. Autonomous Robotic Inspection in Tunnels (United States)

    Protopapadakis, E.; Stentoumis, C.; Doulamis, N.; Doulamis, A.; Loupos, K.; Makantasis, K.; Kopsiaftis, G.; Amditis, A.


    In this paper, an automatic robotic inspector for tunnel assessment is presented. The proposed platform is able to autonomously navigate within the civil infrastructures, grab stereo images and process/analyse them, in order to identify defect types. At first, there is the crack detection via deep learning approaches. Then, a detailed 3D model of the cracked area is created, utilizing photogrammetric methods. Finally, a laser profiling of the tunnel's lining, for a narrow region close to detected crack is performed; allowing for the deduction of potential deformations. The robotic platform consists of an autonomous mobile vehicle; a crane arm, guided by the computer vision-based crack detector, carrying ultrasound sensors, the stereo cameras and the laser scanner. Visual inspection is based on convolutional neural networks, which support the creation of high-level discriminative features for complex non-linear pattern classification. Then, real-time 3D information is accurately calculated and the crack position and orientation is passed to the robotic platform. The entire system has been evaluated in railway and road tunnels, i.e. in Egnatia Highway and London underground infrastructure.

  7. Autonomous Lawnmower using FPGA implementation. (United States)

    Ahmad, Nabihah; Lokman, Nabill bin; Helmy Abd Wahab, Mohd


    Nowadays, there are various types of robot have been invented for multiple purposes. The robots have the special characteristic that surpass the human ability and could operate in extreme environment which human cannot endure. In this paper, an autonomous robot is built to imitate the characteristic of a human cutting grass. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used to control the movements where all data and information would be processed. Very High Speed Integrated Circuit (VHSIC) Hardware Description Language (VHDL) is used to describe the hardware using Quartus II software. This robot has the ability of avoiding obstacle using ultrasonic sensor. This robot used two DC motors for its movement. It could include moving forward, backward, and turning left and right. The movement or the path of the automatic lawn mower is based on a path planning technique. Four Global Positioning System (GPS) plot are set to create a boundary. This to ensure that the lawn mower operates within the area given by user. Every action of the lawn mower is controlled by the FPGA DE' Board Cyclone II with the help of the sensor. Furthermore, Sketch Up software was used to design the structure of the lawn mower. The autonomous lawn mower was able to operate efficiently and smoothly return to coordinated paths after passing the obstacle. It uses 25% of total pins available on the board and 31% of total Digital Signal Processing (DSP) blocks.

  8. Phenotypical Behavior and Evolutionary Slavery


    Martins, Andre C. R.


    A new evolutionary solution to Prisoner Dilemma situations is proposed in this paper. A specific genetic code may have different phenotypes, meaning different strategies for different individuals carrying that gene. This means that, under the right parameters, it is a good evolutionary solution to create two types of phenotypes with different strategies, here called as leaders and servants. In this solution, servants always cooperate with the leaders and leaders never do with the servants. In...

  9. Optimal Control of Evolutionary Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, Raj; McLendon, George


    Elucidating the fitness measures optimized during the evolution of complex biological systems is a major challenge in evolutionary theory. We present experimental evidence and an analytical framework demonstrating how biochemical networks exploit optimal control strategies in their evolutionary dynamics. Optimal control theory explains a striking pattern of extremization in the redox potentials of electron transport proteins, assuming only that their fitness measure is a control objective functional with bounded controls.

  10. Tick-borne agents in rodents, China, 2004-2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Zhan (Lin); W.C. Cao (Wu Chun); C.Y. Chu (Chen); B.G. Jiang; F. Zhang (Fang); L.J. Liu (Wei); J.S. Dumler (Stephen); X-M. Wu (Xiao-Ming); S-Q. Zuo (Shu-Qing); H.N. Huang; Q.M. Zhao; N. Jia (Na); H. Yang (Hong); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik)


    textabstractA total of 705 rodents from 6 provinces and autonomous regions of mainland People's Republic of China were tested by PCRs for tick-borne agents (Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, spotted fever group rickettsiae, and Francisella tularensis). Infection rates were

  11. Intelligent Agents under Collaborative Control in Emerging Power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the DECENT0F 1 R&D initiative we developed a multi-level, bottom-up solution where autonomous collaborative software agents negotiate available energy quantities and needs on behalf of consumer and producer groups (the DEZENT algorithm). We operate within very short time intervals of assumedly constant ...

  12. Knowledge exchange between agents in real-time environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Falster, Peter; Møller, Gert Lykke


    To obtain unpredictable social interaction between autonomous agents in real-time environments, we present a simple method for logic-based knowledge exchange. A method which is able to form new knowledge rather than do simple exchange of particular rules found in predetermined rule sets. The appl...

  13. Radioprotective Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Kelle


    Full Text Available Since1949, a great deal of research has been carried out on the radioprotective activity of various chemical substances. Thiol compounds, compounds which contain –SH radical, different classes of pharmacological agents and other compounds such as vitamine C and WR-2721 have been shown to reduce mortality when administered prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. Recently, honey bee venom as well as that of its components melittin and histamine have shown to be valuable in reduction of radiation-induced damage and also provide prophylactic alternative treatment for serious side effects related with radiotherapy. It has been suggested that the radioprotective activity of bee venom components is related with the stimulation of the hematopoetic system.

  14. Evolutionary Origin of Euglena. (United States)

    Zakryś, Bożena; Milanowski, Rafał; Karnkowska, Anna


    Euglenids (Excavata, Discoba, Euglenozoa, Euglenida) is a group of free-living, single-celled flagellates living in the aquatic environments. The uniting and unique morphological feature of euglenids is the presence of a cell covering called the pellicle. The morphology and organization of the pellicle correlate well with the mode of nutrition and cell movement. Euglenids exhibit diverse modes of nutrition, including phagotrophy and photosynthesis. Photosynthetic species (Euglenophyceae) constitute a single subclade within euglenids. Their plastids embedded by three membranes arose as the result of a secondary endosymbiosis between phagotrophic eukaryovorous euglenid and the Pyramimonas-related green alga. Within photosynthetic euglenids three evolutionary lineages can be distinguished. The most basal lineage is formed by one mixotrophic species, Rapaza viridis. Other photosynthetic euglenids are split into two groups: predominantly marine Eutreptiales and freshwater Euglenales. Euglenales are divided into two families: Phacaceae, comprising three monophyletic genera (Discoplastis, Lepocinclis, Phacus) and Euglenaceae with seven monophyletic genera (Euglenaformis, Euglenaria, Colacium, Cryptoglena, Strombomonas, Trachelomonas, Monomorphina) and polyphyletic genus Euglena. For 150 years researchers have been studying Euglena based solely on morphological features what resulted in hundreds of descriptions of new taxa and many artificial intra-generic classification systems. In spite of the progress towards defining Euglena, it still remains polyphyletic and morphologically almost undistinguishable from members of the recently described genus Euglenaria; members of both genera have cells undergoing metaboly (dynamic changes in cell shape), large chloroplasts with pyrenoids and monomorphic paramylon grains. Model organisms Euglena gracilis Klebs, the species of choice for addressing fundamental questions in eukaryotic biochemistry, cell and molecular biology, is a

  15. Molluscan Evolutionary Genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simison, W. Brian; Boore, Jeffrey L.


    In the last 20 years there have been dramatic advances in techniques of high-throughput DNA sequencing, most recently accelerated by the Human Genome Project, a program that has determined the three billion base pair code on which we are based. Now this tremendous capability is being directed at other genome targets that are being sampled across the broad range of life. This opens up opportunities as never before for evolutionary and organismal biologists to address questions of both processes and patterns of organismal change. We stand at the dawn of a new 'modern synthesis' period, paralleling that of the early 20th century when the fledgling field of genetics first identified the underlying basis for Darwin's theory. We must now unite the efforts of systematists, paleontologists, mathematicians, computer programmers, molecular biologists, developmental biologists, and others in the pursuit of discovering what genomics can teach us about the diversity of life. Genome-level sampling for mollusks to date has mostly been limited to mitochondrial genomes and it is likely that these will continue to provide the best targets for broad phylogenetic sampling in the near future. However, we are just beginning to see an inroad into complete nuclear genome sequencing, with several mollusks and other eutrochozoans having been selected for work about to begin. Here, we provide an overview of the state of molluscan mitochondrial genomics, highlight a few of the discoveries from this research, outline the promise of broadening this dataset, describe upcoming projects to sequence whole mollusk nuclear genomes, and challenge the community to prepare for making the best use of these data.

  16. Novel insights in agent-based complex automated negotiation

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Carmona, Miguel; Ito, Takayuki; Zhang, Minjie; Bai, Quan; Fujita, Katsuhide


    This book focuses on all aspects of complex automated negotiations, which are studied in the field of autonomous agents and multi-agent systems. This book consists of two parts. I: Agent-Based Complex Automated Negotiations, and II: Automated Negotiation Agents Competition. The chapters in Part I are extended versions of papers presented at the 2012 international workshop on Agent-Based Complex Automated Negotiation (ACAN), after peer reviews by three Program Committee members. Part II examines in detail ANAC 2012 (The Third Automated Negotiating Agents Competition), in which automated agents that have different negotiation strategies and are implemented by different developers are automatically negotiated in the several negotiation domains. ANAC is an international competition in which automated negotiation strategies, submitted by a number of universities and research institutes across the world, are evaluated in tournament style. The purpose of the competition is to steer the research in the area of bilate...

  17. A mission planner for an autonomous tractor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochtis, Dionysis; Vougioukas, S.G.; Griepentrog, Hans W.


    In this article, a mission planner of field coverage operations for an autonomous agricultural tractor is presented. Missions for a particular autonomous tractor are defined using an XML (extendible markup language) formatted file that can be uploaded to the tractor through the user interface...

  18. Safe and Autonomous Drones for Urban Flight (United States)

    Krishnakumar, Kalmanje


    Autonomous vehicles are no longer futuristic technology; in fact, there are already cars with self-driving features on the road. Over the next five years, the connected vehicles will disrupt the entire automotive and UAS ecosystems. The industry will undergo fundamental change as semi-autonomous driving and flying emerges, followed by an eventual shift to full autonomy.

  19. DEGAS: A Database of Autonomous Objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F.P. van den Akker; A.P.J.M. Siebes (Arno)


    textabstractIn this paper we introduce DEGAS (Dynamic Entities Get Autonomous Status), an active temporal data model based on autonomous objects. The natural combination of active and temporal databases is discussed. The active dimension of DEGAS means that we define the behaviour of objects in

  20. Autonomous Control of Space Reactor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belle R. Upadhyaya; K. Zhao; S.R.P. Perillo; Xiaojia Xu; M.G. Na


    Autonomous and semi-autonomous control is a key element of space reactor design in order to meet the mission requirements of safety, reliability, survivability, and life expectancy. Interrestrial nuclear power plants, human operators are avilable to perform intelligent control functions that are necessary for both normal and abnormal operational conditions.

  1. An autonomous weeding robot for organic farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, T.; Asselt, van C.J.; Bontsema, J.; Müller, J.; Straten, van G.


    The objective of this research is the replacement of hand weeding in organic farming by a device working autonomously at ¯eld level. The autonomous weeding robot was designed using a structured design approach, giving a good overview of the total design. A vehicle was developed with a diesel engine,

  2. Technologies for highly miniaturized autonomous sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baert, K.; Gyselinckx, B.; Torfs, T.; Leonov, V.; Yazicioglu, F.; Brebels, S.; Donnay, S.; Vanfleteren, J.; Beyne, E.; Hoof, C. van


    Recent results of the autonomous sensor research program HUMAN++ will be summarized in this paper. The research program aims to achieve highly miniaturized and (nearly) autonomous sensor systems that assist our health and comfort. Although the application examples are dedicated to human

  3. Autonomic dysfunction in cirrhosis and portal hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dümcke, Christine Winkler; Møller, Søren


    Liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension are frequently associated with signs of circulatory dysfunction and peripheral polyneuropathy, which includes defects of the autonomic nervous system. Autonomic dysfunction, which is seen in both alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis and increases wit...... liver disease. A description is given of its aetiology and the typical circulatory dysfunction with characteristic hyperdynamic and hyporeactive circulation and heart failure, and the most important tests of the autonomic nervous system.......Liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension are frequently associated with signs of circulatory dysfunction and peripheral polyneuropathy, which includes defects of the autonomic nervous system. Autonomic dysfunction, which is seen in both alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis and increases...

  4. Current challenges in autonomous driving (United States)

    Barabás, I.; Todoruţ, A.; Cordoş, N.; Molea, A.


    Nowadays the automotive industry makes a quantum shift to a future, where the driver will have smaller and smaller role in driving his or her vehicle ending up being totally excluded. In this paper, we have investigated the different levels of driving automatization, the prospective effects of these new technologies on the environment and traffic safety, the importance of regulations and their current state, the moral aspects of introducing these technologies and the possible scenarios of deploying the autonomous vehicles. We have found that the self-driving technologies are facing many challenges: a) They must make decisions faster in very diverse conditions which can include many moral dilemmas as well; b) They have an important potential in reducing the environmental pollution by optimizing their routes, driving styles by communicating with other vehicles, infrastructures and their environment; c) There is a considerable gap between the self-drive technology level and the current regulations; fortunately, this gap shows a continuously decreasing trend; d) In case of many types of imminent accidents management there are many concerns about the ability of making the right decision. Considering that this field has an extraordinary speed of development, our study is up to date at the submission deadline. Self-driving technologies become increasingly sophisticated and technically accessible, and in some cases, they can be deployed for commercial vehicles as well. According to the current stage of research and development, it is still unclear how the self-driving technologies will be able to handle extreme and unexpected events including their moral aspects. Since most of the traffic accidents are caused by human error or omission, it is expected that the emergence of the autonomous technologies will reduce these accidents in their number and gravity, but the very few currently available test results have not been able to scientifically underpin this issue yet. The

  5. Human-Vehicle Interface for Semi-Autonomous Operation of Uninhabited Aero Vehicles (United States)

    Jones, Henry L.; Frew, Eric W.; Woodley, Bruce R.; Rock, Stephen M.


    The robustness of autonomous robotic systems to unanticipated circumstances is typically insufficient for use in the field. The many skills of human user often fill this gap in robotic capability. To incorporate the human into the system, a useful interaction between man and machine must exist. This interaction should enable useful communication to be exchanged in a natural way between human and robot on a variety of levels. This report describes the current human-robot interaction for the Stanford HUMMINGBIRD autonomous helicopter. In particular, the report discusses the elements of the system that enable multiple levels of communication. An intelligent system agent manages the different inputs given to the helicopter. An advanced user interface gives the user and helicopter a method for exchanging useful information. Using this human-robot interaction, the HUMMINGBIRD has carried out various autonomous search, tracking, and retrieval missions.

  6. Wireless autonomous device data transmission (United States)

    Sammel, Jr., David W. (Inventor); Cain, James T. (Inventor); Mickle, Marlin H. (Inventor); Mi, Minhong (Inventor)


    A method of communicating information from a wireless autonomous device (WAD) to a base station. The WAD has a data element having a predetermined profile having a total number of sequenced possible data element combinations. The method includes receiving at the WAD an RF profile transmitted by the base station that includes a triggering portion having a number of pulses, wherein the number is at least equal to the total number of possible data element combinations. The method further includes keeping a count of received pulses and wirelessly transmitting a piece of data, preferably one bit, to the base station when the count reaches a value equal to the stored data element's particular number in the sequence. Finally, the method includes receiving the piece of data at the base station and using the receipt thereof to determine which of the possible data element combinations the stored data element is.

  7. Autonomic cardiac nerves: literature review. (United States)

    Kuder, T; Nowak, E


    The aim of this paper was to summarise the knowledge about the autonomic cardiac innervation. It is generally known, that the cardiac nervous system consists of nerve plexoganglionic structures located mostly around the strategic regions of the heart. They consist of two main types of components: parasympathetic neurons, which exert an inhibitory effect, and sympathetic postganglionic nerve fibres, which stimulate the cardiac conduction system, and myocardial cells. However, many authors describe that cardiac ganglia contain various populations of neurons. The largest group are classical cholinergic neurons. The second group of cardiac neurons are cells of dual, cholinergic-adrenergic character. There is also subpopulation of small intensely fluoroscent cells of typically adrenergic phenotype. Moreover, many authors indicated the presence of various neurotransmitters in various combinations. In this way, the neurons in cardiac ganglia are a neurochemical complex beyond the classical vision of parasympathetic ganglia.

  8. Design of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiro Hyakudome


    Full Text Available There are concerns about the impact that global warming will have on our environment, and which will inevitably result in expanding deserts and rising water levels. While a lot of underwater vehicles are utilized, AUVs (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle were considered and chosen, as the most suitable tool for conduction survey concerning these global environmental problems. AUVs can comprehensive survey because the vehicle does not have to be connected to the support vessel by tether cable. When such underwater vehicles are made, it is necessary to consider about the following things. 1 Seawater and Water Pressure Environment, 2 Sink, 3 There are no Gas or Battery Charge Stations, 4 Global Positioning System cannot use, 5 Radio waves cannot use. In the paper, outline of above and how deal about it are explained.

  9. Autonomous Infrastructure for Observatory Operations (United States)

    Seaman, R.

    This is an era of rapid change from ancient human-mediated modes of astronomical practice to a vision of ever larger time domain surveys, ever bigger "big data", to increasing numbers of robotic telescopes and astronomical automation on every mountaintop. Over the past decades, facets of a new autonomous astronomical toolkit have been prototyped and deployed in support of numerous space missions. Remote and queue observing modes have gained significant market share on the ground. Archives and data-mining are becoming ubiquitous; astroinformatic techniques and virtual observatory standards and protocols are areas of active development. Astronomers and engineers, planetary and solar scientists, and researchers from communities as diverse as particle physics and exobiology are collaborating on a vast range of "multi-messenger" science. What then is missing?

  10. A Multifunctional Coating for Autonomous Corrosion Control (United States)

    Calle, L. M.; Hintze, P. E.; Li, W.; Buhrow, J. W.; Jolley, S. T.


    This slide presentation reviews the effects of corrosion on various structures at the Kennedy Space Center, and the work to discover a corrosion control coating that will be autonomous and will indicate corrosion at an early point in the process. Kennedy Space Center has many environmental conditions that are corrosive: ocean salt spray, heat, humidity, sunlight and acidic exhaust from the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs). Presented is a chart which shows the corrosion rates of carbon steel at various locations. KSC has the highest corrosion rates with 42.0 mils/yr, leading the next highest Galeta Point Beach, in the Panama Canal Zone with 27 mils/yr corrosion. A chart shows the changes in corrosion rate with the distance from the ocean. The three types of corrosion protective coatings are described: barrier (passive), Barrier plus active corrosion inhibiting components, and smart. A smart coating will detect and respond actively to changes in its environment in a functional and predictable manner and is capable of adapting its properties dynamically. The smart coating uses microcapsules, particles or liquid drops coated in polymers, that can detect and control the corrosion caused by the environment. The mechanism for a pH sensitive microcapsule and the hydrophobic core microcapsule are demonstrated and the chemistry is reviewed. When corrosion begins, the microcapsule will release the contents of the core (indicator, inhibitor, and self healing agent) in close proximity to the corrosion. The response to a pH increase is demonstrated by a series of pictures that show the breakdown of the microcapsule and the contents release. An example of bolt corrosion is used, as an example of corrosion in places that are difficult to ascertain. A comparison of various coating systems is shown.

  11. Agent Building Software (United States)


    AgentBuilder is a software component developed under an SBIR contract between Reticular Systems, Inc., and Goddard Space Flight Center. AgentBuilder allows software developers without experience in intelligent agent technologies to easily build software applications using intelligent agents. Agents are components of software that will perform tasks automatically, with no intervention or command from a user. AgentBuilder reduces the time and cost of developing agent systems and provides a simple mechanism for implementing high-performance agent systems.

  12. Radar based autonomous sensor module (United States)

    Styles, Tim


    Most surveillance systems combine camera sensors with other detection sensors that trigger an alert to a human operator when an object is detected. The detection sensors typically require careful installation and configuration for each application and there is a significant burden on the operator to react to each alert by viewing camera video feeds. A demonstration system known as Sensing for Asset Protection with Integrated Electronic Networked Technology (SAPIENT) has been developed to address these issues using Autonomous Sensor Modules (ASM) and a central High Level Decision Making Module (HLDMM) that can fuse the detections from multiple sensors. This paper describes the 24 GHz radar based ASM, which provides an all-weather, low power and license exempt solution to the problem of wide area surveillance. The radar module autonomously configures itself in response to tasks provided by the HLDMM, steering the transmit beam and setting range resolution and power levels for optimum performance. The results show the detection and classification performance for pedestrians and vehicles in an area of interest, which can be modified by the HLDMM without physical adjustment. The module uses range-Doppler processing for reliable detection of moving objects and combines Radar Cross Section and micro-Doppler characteristics for object classification. Objects are classified as pedestrian or vehicle, with vehicle sub classes based on size. Detections are reported only if the object is detected in a task coverage area and it is classified as an object of interest. The system was shown in a perimeter protection scenario using multiple radar ASMs, laser scanners, thermal cameras and visible band cameras. This combination of sensors enabled the HLDMM to generate reliable alerts with improved discrimination of objects and behaviours of interest.

  13. Autonomous caregiver following robotic wheelchair (United States)

    Ratnam, E. Venkata; Sivaramalingam, Sethurajan; Vignesh, A. Sri; Vasanth, Elanthendral; Joans, S. Mary


    In the last decade, a variety of robotic/intelligent wheelchairs have been proposed to meet the need in aging society. Their main research topics are autonomous functions such as moving toward some goals while avoiding obstacles, or user-friendly interfaces. Although it is desirable for wheelchair users to go out alone, caregivers often accompany them. Therefore we have to consider not only autonomous functions and user interfaces but also how to reduce caregivers' load and support their activities in a communication aspect. From this point of view, we have proposed a robotic wheelchair moving with a caregiver side by side based on the MATLAB process. In this project we discussing about robotic wheel chair to follow a caregiver by using a microcontroller, Ultrasonic sensor, keypad, Motor drivers to operate robot. Using camera interfaced with the DM6437 (Davinci Code Processor) image is captured. The captured image are then processed by using image processing technique, the processed image are then converted into voltage levels through MAX 232 level converter and given it to the microcontroller unit serially and ultrasonic sensor to detect the obstacle in front of robot. In this robot we have mode selection switch Automatic and Manual control of robot, we use ultrasonic sensor in automatic mode to find obstacle, in Manual mode to use the keypad to operate wheel chair. In the microcontroller unit, c language coding is predefined, according to this coding the robot which connected to it was controlled. Robot which has several motors is activated by using the motor drivers. Motor drivers are nothing but a switch which ON/OFF the motor according to the control given by the microcontroller unit.

  14. Fairness emergence from zero-intelligence agents. (United States)

    Duan, Wen-Qi; Stanley, H Eugene


    Fairness plays a key role in explaining the emergence and maintenance of cooperation. Opponent-oriented social utility models were often proposed to explain the origins of fairness preferences in which agents take into account not only their own outcomes but are also concerned with the outcomes of their opponents. Here, we propose a payoff-oriented mechanism in which agents update their beliefs only based on the payoff signals of the previous ultimatum game, regardless of the behaviors and outcomes of the opponents themselves. Employing adaptive ultimatum game, we show that (1) fairness behaviors can emerge out even under such minimalist assumptions, provided that agents are capable of responding to their payoff signals, (2) the average game payoff per agent per round decreases with the increasing discrepancy rate between the average giving rate and the average asking rate, and (3) the belief update process will lead to 50%-50% fair split provided that there is no mutation in the evolutionary dynamics.

  15. Berthing control with multi-agent system; Multi agent system ni yoru chakusan seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, H. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)


    The berthing of a ship is a kind of control operations of position, speed and direction of a ship in order to bring a ship alongside a quay. Berthing control is accompanied with a hard problem in which the 6 freedoms of position and speed in 3 directions such as fore and behind, right and left and a revolution must be controlled. In this study, a concept of the agent was introduced as a means of berthing. The agent is a computer program which can be worked in a person`s place. If an autonomous intelligence is carried on each element such as a tugboat or a propeller of ship, the element is able to act based on judgement decided by itself without an instruction from a control center. Thereby, the berthing control system as a multi-agent system having an adaptability and a cooperativeness will be realized. Then the multi-agent system to help berthing was constructed by applying the Muller`s three phase model as a cooperative autonomous agent and by sharing the role of each phase. 8 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Law-Abiding & Integrity on the Internet: a Case for Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oskamp, A.; Brazier, F.M.; Prins, J.E.J.; Schellekens, M.H.M.; Wijngaards, N.J.E.


    Software agents extend the current, information-based Internet to include autonomous mobile processing. In most countries such processes, i.e., software agents are, however, without an explicit legal status. Many of the legal implications of their actions (e.g., gathering information, negotiating

  17. A Buyer Behaviour Framework for the Development and Design of Software Agents in E-Commerce. (United States)

    Sproule, Susan; Archer, Norm


    Software agents are computer programs that run in the background and perform tasks autonomously as delegated by the user. This paper blends models from marketing research and findings from the field of decision support systems to build a framework for the design of software agents to support in e-commerce buying applications. (Contains 35…

  18. Model Driven Development of Semantic Web Enabled Multi-Agent Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papazoglou, M.P.; Kardas, G.; Huhns, M.N.; Göknil, Arda; Dikenelli, O.; Topaloglu, N.Y.

    Semantic Web evolution brought a new vision into agent research. The interpretation of this second generation web will be realized by autonomous computational entities, called agents, to handle the semantic content on behalf of their human users. Surely, Semantic Web environment has specific

  19. Cloud-based multi-agent architecture for effective planning and scheduling of distributed manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishra, Nishikant; Singh, Akshit; Kumari, Sushma


    . In this article, a self-reactive cloud-based multi-agent architecture for distributed manufacturing system is developed. The proposed architecture will assist manufacturing industry to establish real-time information exchange between the autonomous agents, clients, suppliers and manufacturing unit. The mechanism...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirghi Nicoleta


    Full Text Available The neoclassical theory of the firm deals with the pattern of perfect competition, within which the perfect information available to economic agents provides instant allocation of production factors and access to economic goods. The Austrian School (C. Menger, L. von Mises, Hayek, etc. supported the idea of minimal state intervention on the markets, bringing important conceptual developments on the theory of the firm. Hirschleifer (1982 put forward the model of social and institutional functioning, arguing that the game theory is able to predict the outcome of the collective behavior and the human characteristics necessary for building the respective institutions.The evolutionary theory provides the firm and the entrepreneur the recognition of the functions of innovation, of generating and exploiting information and of organizing and coordinating production. The evolutionary perspective of the firm assumes the existence of a body of knowledge that is acquired through and builds up the organizational memory, subsequently found in routines, all choices being made based on these routines (Nelson and Winter, 2002. The evolution of the firm is considered to be similar to natural selection, but unlike the classic market selection, the evolutionists suggest the existence of a plurality of selection media. The present research is structured as follows: a brief introduction into the theories of the firm, the second part of the paper analyzes the theories of the firm from an institutional, neo-institutional and evolutionary perspective. In the third part of the paper the evolutionary games are described and analyzed from the evolutionary perspective of the firm. The last part of the paper represents a study of the “hawk-dove” game dynamic replicator. The final conclusions of the paper show that the evolutionary theory brings valuable contributions to the foundation of explanations regarding economic phenomena, indicating new directions for advanced

  1. Evolutionary foundations for cancer biology. (United States)

    Aktipis, C Athena; Nesse, Randolph M


    New applications of evolutionary biology are transforming our understanding of cancer. The articles in this special issue provide many specific examples, such as microorganisms inducing cancers, the significance of within-tumor heterogeneity, and the possibility that lower dose chemotherapy may sometimes promote longer survival. Underlying these specific advances is a large-scale transformation, as cancer research incorporates evolutionary methods into its toolkit, and asks new evolutionary questions about why we are vulnerable to cancer. Evolution explains why cancer exists at all, how neoplasms grow, why cancer is remarkably rare, and why it occurs despite powerful cancer suppression mechanisms. Cancer exists because of somatic selection; mutations in somatic cells result in some dividing faster than others, in some cases generating neoplasms. Neoplasms grow, or do not, in complex cellular ecosystems. Cancer is relatively rare because of natural selection; our genomes were derived disproportionally from individuals with effective mechanisms for suppressing cancer. Cancer occurs nonetheless for the same six evolutionary reasons that explain why we remain vulnerable to other diseases. These four principles-cancers evolve by somatic selection, neoplasms grow in complex ecosystems, natural selection has shaped powerful cancer defenses, and the limitations of those defenses have evolutionary explanations-provide a foundation for understanding, preventing, and treating cancer.

  2. Structural symmetry in evolutionary games (United States)

    McAvoy, Alex; Hauert, Christoph


    In evolutionary game theory, an important measure of a mutant trait (strategy) is its ability to invade and take over an otherwise-monomorphic population. Typically, one quantifies the success of a mutant strategy via the probability that a randomly occurring mutant will fixate in the population. However, in a structured population, this fixation probability may depend on where the mutant arises. Moreover, the fixation probability is just one quantity by which one can measure the success of a mutant; fixation time, for instance, is another. We define a notion of homogeneity for evolutionary games that captures what it means for two single-mutant states, i.e. two configurations of a single mutant in an otherwise-monomorphic population, to be ‘evolutionarily equivalent’ in the sense that all measures of evolutionary success are the same for both configurations. Using asymmetric games, we argue that the term ‘homogeneous’ should apply to the evolutionary process as a whole rather than to just the population structure. For evolutionary matrix games in graph-structured populations, we give precise conditions under which the resulting process is homogeneous. Finally, we show that asymmetric matrix games can be reduced to symmetric games if the population structure possesses a sufficient degree of symmetry. PMID:26423436

  3. Evolutionary genomics of environmental pollution. (United States)

    Whitehead, Andrew


    Chemical toxins have been a persistent source of evolutionary challenges throughout the history of life, and deep within the genomic storehouse of evolutionary history lay ancient adaptations to diverse chemical poisons. However, the rate of change of contemporary environments mediated by human-introduced pollutants is rapidly screening this storehouse and severely testing the adaptive potential of many species. In this chapter, we briefly review the deep history of evolutionary adaptation to environmental toxins, and then proceed to describe the attributes of stressors and populations that may facilitate contemporary adaptation to pollutants introduced by humans. We highlight that phenotypes derived to enable persistence in polluted habitats may be multi-dimensional, requiring global genome-scale tools and approaches to uncover their mechanistic basis, and include examples of recent progress in the field. The modern tools of genomics offer promise for discovering how pollutants interact with genomes on physiological timescales, and also for discovering what genomic attributes of populations may enable resistance to pollutants over evolutionary timescales. Through integration of these sophisticated genomics tools and approaches with an understanding of the deep historical forces that shaped current populations, a more mature understanding of the mechanistic basis of contemporary ecological-evolutionary dynamics should emerge.

  4. Agents That Negotiate Proficiently with People (United States)

    Kraus, Sarit

    Negotiation is a process by which interested parties confer with the aim of reaching agreements. The dissemination of technologies such as the Internet has created opportunities for computer agents to negotiate with people, despite being distributed geographically and in time. The inclusion of people presents novel problems for the design of autonomous agent negotiation strategies. People do not adhere to the optimal, monolithic strategies that can be derived analytically, as is the case in settings comprising computer agents alone. Their negotiation behavior is affected by a multitude of social and psychological factors, such as social attributes that influence negotiation deals (e.g., social welfare, inequity aversion) and traits of individual negotiators (e.g., altruism, trustworthiness, helpfulness). Furthermore, culture plays an important role in their decision making and people of varying cultures differ in the way they make offers and fulfill their commitments in negotiation.

  5. Wiener-Hammerstein system identification - an evolutionary approach (United States)

    Naitali, Abdessamad; Giri, Fouad


    The problem of identifying parametric Wiener-Hammerstein (WH) systems is addressed within the evolutionary optimisation context. Specifically, a hybrid culture identification method is developed that involves model structure adaptation using genetic recombination and model parameter learning using particle swarm optimisation. The method enjoys three interesting features: (1) the risk of premature convergence of model parameter estimates to local optima is significantly reduced, due to the constantly maintained diversity of model candidates; (2) no prior knowledge is needed except for upper bounds on the system structure indices; (3) the method is fully autonomous as no interaction is needed with the user during the optimum search process. The performances of the proposed method will be illustrated and compared to alternative methods using a well-established WH benchmark.

  6. Evolutionary Computation for Sensor Planning: The Task Distribution Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunn Enrique


    Full Text Available Autonomous sensor planning is a problem of interest to scientists in the fields of computer vision, robotics, and photogrammetry. In automated visual tasks, a sensing planner must make complex and critical decisions involving sensor placement and the sensing task specification. This paper addresses the problem of specifying sensing tasks for a multiple manipulator workcell given an optimal sensor placement configuration. The problem is conceptually divided in two different phases: activity assignment and tour planning. To solve such problems, an optimization methodology based on evolutionary computation is developed. Operational limitations originated from the workcell configuration are considered using specialized heuristics as well as a floating-point representation based on the random keys approach. Experiments and performance results are presented.

  7. Autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and goal progress. (United States)

    Koestner, Richard; Otis, Nancy; Powers, Theodore A; Pelletier, Luc; Gagnon, Hugo


    Although the self-concordance of goals has been repeatedly shown to predict better goal progress, recent research suggests potential problems with aggregating autonomous and controlled motivations to form a summary index of self-concordance (Judge, Bono, Erez, & Locke, 2005). The purpose of the present investigation was to further examine the relations among autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and goal progress to determine the relative importance of autonomous motivation and controlled motivation in the pursuit of personal goals. The results of three studies and a meta-analysis indicated that autonomous motivation was substantially related to goal progress whereas controlled motivation was not. Additionally, the relation of autonomous motivation to goal progress was shown to involve implementation planning. Together, the three studies highlight the importance for goal setters of having autonomous motivation and developing implementation plans, especially ones formulated in terms of approach strategies rather than avoidance strategies. The present research suggests that individuals pursuing goals should focus relatively greater attention on enhancing their autonomous motivation rather than reducing their controlled motivation.

  8. Reinforcement Learning with Autonomous Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Cluttered Environments (United States)

    Tran, Loc; Cross, Charles; Montague, Gilbert; Motter, Mark; Neilan, James; Qualls, Garry; Rothhaar, Paul; Trujillo, Anna; Allen, B. Danette


    We present ongoing work in the Autonomy Incubator at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) exploring the efficacy of a data set aggregation approach to reinforcement learning for small unmanned aerial vehicle (sUAV) flight in dense and cluttered environments with reactive obstacle avoidance. The goal is to learn an autonomous flight model using training experiences from a human piloting a sUAV around static obstacles. The training approach uses video data from a forward-facing camera that records the human pilot's flight. Various computer vision based features are extracted from the video relating to edge and gradient information. The recorded human-controlled inputs are used to train an autonomous control model that correlates the extracted feature vector to a yaw command. As part of the reinforcement learning approach, the autonomous control model is iteratively updated with feedback from a human agent who corrects undesired model output. This data driven approach to autonomous obstacle avoidance is explored for simulated forest environments furthering autonomous flight under the tree canopy research. This enables flight in previously inaccessible environments which are of interest to NASA researchers in Earth and Atmospheric sciences.

  9. Neuronal boost to evolutionary dynamics. (United States)

    de Vladar, Harold P; Szathmáry, Eörs


    Standard evolutionary dynamics is limited by the constraints of the genetic system. A central message of evolutionary neurodynamics is that evolutionary dynamics in the brain can happen in a neuronal niche in real time, despite the fact that neurons do not reproduce. We show that Hebbian learning and structural synaptic plasticity broaden the capacity for informational replication and guided variability provided a neuronally plausible mechanism of replication is in place. The synergy between learning and selection is more efficient than the equivalent search by mutation selection. We also consider asymmetric landscapes and show that the learning weights become correlated with the fitness gradient. That is, the neuronal complexes learn the local properties of the fitness landscape, resulting in the generation of variability directed towards the direction of fitness increase, as if mutations in a genetic pool were drawn such that they would increase reproductive success. Evolution might thus be more efficient within evolved brains than among organisms out in the wild.

  10. Evolutionary psychology and intelligence research. (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi


    This article seeks to unify two subfields of psychology that have hitherto stood separately: evolutionary psychology and intelligence research/differential psychology. I suggest that general intelligence may simultaneously be an evolved adaptation and an individual-difference variable. Tooby and Cosmides's (1990a) notion of random quantitative variation on a monomorphic design allows us to incorporate heritable individual differences in evolved adaptations. The Savanna-IQ Interaction Hypothesis, which is one consequence of the integration of evolutionary psychology and intelligence research, can potentially explain why less intelligent individuals enjoy TV more, why liberals are more intelligent than conservatives, and why night owls are more intelligent than morning larks, among many other findings. The general approach proposed here will allow us to integrate evolutionary psychology with any other aspect of differential psychology. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. PHM Enabled Autonomous Propellant Loading Operations (United States)

    Walker, Mark; Figueroa, Fernando


    The utility of Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) software capability applied to Autonomous Operations (AO) remains an active research area within aerospace applications. The ability to gain insight into which assets and subsystems are functioning properly, along with the derivation of confident predictions concerning future ability, reliability, and availability, are important enablers for making sound mission planning decisions. When coupled with software that fully supports mission planning and execution, an integrated solution can be developed that leverages state assessment and estimation for the purposes of delivering autonomous operations. The authors have been applying this integrated, model-based approach to the autonomous loading of cryogenic spacecraft propellants at Kennedy Space Center.

  12. Irresponsibilities, inequalities and injustice for autonomous vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hin-Yan


    With their prospect for causing both novel and known forms of damage, harm and injury, the issue of responsibility has been a recurring theme in the debate concerning autonomous vehicles. Yet, the discussion of responsibility has obscured the finer details both between the underlying concepts...... of responsibility. Two different approaches are offered to the question of responsibility and autonomous vehicles: targeting and risk distribution. The article then introduces a thought experiment which situates autonomous vehicles within the context of crash optimisation impulses and coordinated or networked...

  13. Studying Collective Human Decision Making and Creativity with Evolutionary Computation. (United States)

    Sayama, Hiroki; Dionne, Shelley D


    We report a summary of our interdisciplinary research project "Evolutionary Perspective on Collective Decision Making" that was conducted through close collaboration between computational, organizational, and social scientists at Binghamton University. We redefined collective human decision making and creativity as evolution of ecologies of ideas, where populations of ideas evolve via continual applications of evolutionary operators such as reproduction, recombination, mutation, selection, and migration of ideas, each conducted by participating humans. Based on this evolutionary perspective, we generated hypotheses about collective human decision making, using agent-based computer simulations. The hypotheses were then tested through several experiments with real human subjects. Throughout this project, we utilized evolutionary computation (EC) in non-traditional ways-(1) as a theoretical framework for reinterpreting the dynamics of idea generation and selection, (2) as a computational simulation model of collective human decision-making processes, and (3) as a research tool for collecting high-resolution experimental data on actual collaborative design and decision making from human subjects. We believe our work demonstrates untapped potential of EC for interdisciplinary research involving human and social dynamics.

  14. Diversity-Guided Evolutionary Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursem, Rasmus Kjær


    Population diversity is undoubtably a key issue in the performance of evolutionary algorithms. A common hypothesis is that high diversity is important to avoid premature convergence and to escape local optima. Various diversity measures have been used to analyze algorithms, but so far few...... algorithms have used a measure to guide the search. The diversity-guided evolutionary algorithm (DGEA) uses the wellknown distance-to-average-point measure to alternate between phases of exploration (mutation) and phases of exploitation (recombination and selection). The DGEA showed remarkable results...

  15. Exponential Expansion in Evolutionary Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Peter; Jagtfelt, Tue


    of Thomas Kuhn’s notion of scientific paradigms and criteria for a good theory (1977, 1996). The paper thus aims to augment and assimilate the fragmented and scattered body of concepts presently residing within the field of evolutionary economics, by presenting an intuitive framework, applicable within...... concepts are described in detail. Taken together it provides the rudimentary aspects of an economic system within an analytical perspective. It is argued that the main dynamic processes of the evolutionary perspective can be reduced to these four concepts. The model and concepts are evaluated in the light...

  16. Evolutionary Aesthetics and Print Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Luczaj


    Full Text Available The article analyzes the extent to which predictions based on the theory of evolutionary aesthetics are utilized by the advertising industry. The purpose of a comprehensive content analysis of print advertising is to determine whether the items indicated by evolutionists such as animals, flowers, certain types of landscapes, beautiful humans, and some colors are part of real advertising strategies. This article has shown that many evolutionary hypotheses (although not all of them are supported by empirical data. Along with these hypotheses, some inferences from Bourdieu’s cultural capital theory were tested. It turned out that advertising uses both biological schemata and cultural patterns to make an image more likable.

  17. The evolutionary psychology of violence. (United States)

    Goetz, Aaron T


    This paper reviews theory and research on the evolutionary psychology of violence. First, I examine evidence suggesting that humans have experienced an evolutionary history of violence. Next, I discuss violence as a context-sensitive strategy that might have provided benefits to our ancestors under certain circumstances. I then focus on the two most common forms of violence that plague humans -violence over status contests and intimate partner violence- outlining psychological mechanisms involved in each. Finally, I suggest that greater progress will be made by shifting the study from contexts to mechanisms.

  18. The evolutionary psychology of hunger. (United States)

    Al-Shawaf, Laith


    An evolutionary psychological perspective suggests that emotions can be understood as coordinating mechanisms whose job is to regulate various psychological and physiological programs in the service of solving an adaptive problem. This paper suggests that it may also be fruitful to approach hunger from this coordinating mechanism perspective. To this end, I put forward an evolutionary task analysis of hunger, generating novel a priori hypotheses about the coordinating effects of hunger on psychological processes such as perception, attention, categorization, and memory. This approach appears empirically fruitful in that it yields a bounty of testable new hypotheses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evolutionary Dynamics of Biological Games (United States)

    Nowak, Martin A.; Sigmund, Karl


    Darwinian dynamics based on mutation and selection form the core of mathematical models for adaptation and coevolution of biological populations. The evolutionary outcome is often not a fitness-maximizing equilibrium but can include oscillations and chaos. For studying frequency-dependent selection, game-theoretic arguments are more appropriate than optimization algorithms. Replicator and adaptive dynamics describe short- and long-term evolution in phenotype space and have found applications ranging from animal behavior and ecology to speciation, macroevolution, and human language. Evolutionary game theory is an essential component of a mathematical and computational approach to biology.

  20. Virtual agents in a simulated virtual training environment (United States)

    Achorn, Brett; Badler, Norman L.


    A drawback to live-action training simulations is the need to gather a large group of participants in order to train a few individuals. One solution to this difficulty is the use of computer-controlled agents in a virtual training environment. This allows a human participant to be replaced by a virtual, or simulated, agent when only limited responses are needed. Each agent possesses a specified set of behaviors and is capable of limited autonomous action in response to its environment or the direction of a human trainee. The paper describes these agents in the context of a simulated hostage rescue training session, involving two human rescuers assisted by three virtual (computer-controlled) agents and opposed by three other virtual agents.

  1. Quantum-enhanced deliberation of learning agents using trapped ions (United States)

    Dunjko, V.; Friis, N.; Briegel, H. J.


    A scheme that successfully employs quantum mechanics in the design of autonomous learning agents has recently been reported in the context of the projective simulation (PS) model for artificial intelligence. In that approach, the key feature of a PS agent, a specific type of memory which is explored via random walks, was shown to be amenable to quantization, allowing for a speed-up. In this work we propose an implementation of such classical and quantum agents in systems of trapped ions. We employ a generic construction by which the classical agents are ‘upgraded’ to their quantum counterparts by a nested process of adding coherent control, and we outline how this construction can be realized in ion traps. Our results provide a flexible modular architecture for the design of PS agents. Furthermore, we present numerical simulations of simple PS agents which analyze the robustness of our proposal under certain noise models.

  2. Agent Control for Reconfigurable Open Kinematic Chain Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Sluga


    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for the autonomous control of differently structured open kinematic chains based on multi-agent system technology. The appropriate level of distributing local autonomy (agents to a manipulative structure is defined, which makes it possible to dynamically change the number, type and structure of manipulative components without modifying their behavioural logic. To achieve fast reconfigurable and scalable manipulative systems, a new multi-agent method is developed for controlling the manipulator kinematics. The new method enables independent manipulator structure from the control system because of its structural and system modularity. The proposed method consists of kinematic equations for use in an agent environment, agent motion-planning algorithms, evaluation functions, agent control logic and kinematic algorithms. The results of simulations and real-world experiments demonstrate the usefulness of the approach for different non-redundant and redundant manipulation structures.

  3. Development of a Commercially Viable, Modular Autonomous Robotic Systems for Converting any Vehicle to Autonomous Control (United States)

    Parish, David W.; Grabbe, Robert D.; Marzwell, Neville I.


    A Modular Autonomous Robotic System (MARS), consisting of a modular autonomous vehicle control system that can be retrofit on to any vehicle to convert it to autonomous control and support a modular payload for multiple applications is being developed. The MARS design is scalable, reconfigurable, and cost effective due to the use of modern open system architecture design methodologies, including serial control bus technology to simplify system wiring and enhance scalability. The design is augmented with modular, object oriented (C++) software implementing a hierarchy of five levels of control including teleoperated, continuous guidepath following, periodic guidepath following, absolute position autonomous navigation, and relative position autonomous navigation. The present effort is focused on producing a system that is commercially viable for routine autonomous patrolling of known, semistructured environments, like environmental monitoring of chemical and petroleum refineries, exterior physical security and surveillance, perimeter patrolling, and intrafacility transport applications.

  4. [Emotional labour of nursing care: an evolutionary concept analysis]. (United States)

    Truc, Huynh; Alderson, Marie; Thompson, Mary


    Caring is considered as the essence of nursing. Underpinning caring, the internal regulation of emotions or the emotional labour of nurses is invisible. The concept of emotional labour is relatively underdeveloped in nursing. A literature search using keywords 'emotional labour', 'emotional work' and 'emotions' was performed in CINAHL, psycINFO and REPERE from 1990 to January 2008. We analysed 72 papers whose main focus of inquiry was on emotional labour. We followed Rodgers' evolutionary method of concept analysis. Emotional labour is a process whereby nurse adopt a 'work persona' to express their autonomous, surface or deep emotions during patient encounters. Antecedents to this adoption of a work persona are events occurring during patient-nurse encounters, and which consist of three elements : organization ( norms, social support), nurse (i.e.role identification, professional commitment, work experience and interpersonal skills) and job (i.e.autonomy, task routine, degree of emotional demand, interaction frequency and work complexity). The attributes of emotional labour have two dimensions : nurses' autonomous response and their work persona strategies (i.e. surface or deep acts). The consequences of emotional labour include organizational (i.e.productivity, 'cheerful environment') and nurse aspects (i.e. negative or positive) the concept of emotional labour should be introduced into preregistration programmes. Nurses also need to have time and a supportive environment to reflect, understand and discuss their emotional labour in caring for 'difficult' patients to deflate the dominant discourse about 'problem' patients.

  5. University Student and Teacher Perceptions of Teacher Roles in Promoting Autonomous Language Learning with Technology outside the Classroom (United States)

    Lai, Chun; Yeung, Yuk; Hu, Jingjing


    Helping students to become autonomous learners, who actively utilize technologies for learning outside the classroom, is important for successful language learning. Teachers, as significant social agents who shape students' intellectual and social experiences, have a critical role to play. This study examined students' and teachers' perceptions of…

  6. Autonomic Dysfunction in Patients with Mild to Moderate Alzheimer's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Dahm, Christina; Waldemar, Gunhild; Staehelin Jensen, Troels


    BACKGROUND: Autonomic function has received little attention in Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD pathology has an impact on brain regions which are important for central autonomic control, but it is unclear if AD is associated with disturbance of autonomic function. OBJECTIVE: To investigate autonomic...

  7. The social dilemma of autonomous vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bonnefon, Jean-François; Shariff, Azim; Rahwan, Iyad


    Autonomous vehicles (AVs) should reduce traffic accidents, but they will sometimes have to choose between two evils, such as running over pedestrians or sacrificing themselves and their passenger to save the pedestrians...

  8. The evitability of autonomous robot warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Noel E Sharkey


    .... This article will first point out the three main international humanitarian law (IHL)/ethical issues with armed autonomous robots and then move on to discuss a major stumbling block to their evitability...

  9. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design. (United States)

    Coppejans, Hugo H G; Myburgh, Herman C


    There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV), such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers.

  10. Computer vision for an autonomous mobile robot

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Withey, Daniel J


    Full Text Available Computer vision systems are essential for practical, autonomous, mobile robots – machines that employ artificial intelligence and control their own motion within an environment. As with biological systems, computer vision systems include the vision...

  11. Acupuncture Effect and Central Autonomic Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-Qian Li


    Full Text Available Acupuncture is a therapeutic technique and part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. Acupuncture has clinical efficacy on various autonomic nerve-related disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases, epilepsy, anxiety and nervousness, circadian rhythm disorders, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and subfertility. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that acupuncture can control autonomic nerve system (ANS functions including blood pressure, pupil size, skin conductance, skin temperature, muscle sympathetic nerve activities, heart rate and/or pulse rate, and heart rate variability. Emerging evidence indicates that acupuncture treatment not only activates distinct brain regions in different kinds of diseases caused by imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic activities, but also modulates adaptive neurotransmitter in related brain regions to alleviate autonomic response. This review focused on the central mechanism of acupuncture in modulating various autonomic responses, which might provide neurobiological foundations for acupuncture effects.

  12. Acupuncture effect and central autonomic regulation. (United States)

    Li, Qian-Qian; Shi, Guang-Xia; Xu, Qian; Wang, Jing; Liu, Cun-Zhi; Wang, Lin-Peng


    Acupuncture is a therapeutic technique and part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Acupuncture has clinical efficacy on various autonomic nerve-related disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases, epilepsy, anxiety and nervousness, circadian rhythm disorders, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and subfertility. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that acupuncture can control autonomic nerve system (ANS) functions including blood pressure, pupil size, skin conductance, skin temperature, muscle sympathetic nerve activities, heart rate and/or pulse rate, and heart rate variability. Emerging evidence indicates that acupuncture treatment not only activates distinct brain regions in different kinds of diseases caused by imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic activities, but also modulates adaptive neurotransmitter in related brain regions to alleviate autonomic response. This review focused on the central mechanism of acupuncture in modulating various autonomic responses, which might provide neurobiological foundations for acupuncture effects.

  13. Tracked robot controllers for climbing obstacles autonomously (United States)

    Vincent, Isabelle


    Research in mobile robot navigation has demonstrated some success in navigating flat indoor environments while avoiding obstacles. However, the challenge of analyzing complex environments to climb obstacles autonomously has had very little success due to the complexity of the task. Unmanned ground vehicles currently exhibit simple autonomous behaviours compared to the human ability to move in the world. This paper presents the control algorithms designed for a tracked mobile robot to autonomously climb obstacles by varying its tracks configuration. Two control algorithms are proposed to solve the autonomous locomotion problem for climbing obstacles. First, a reactive controller evaluates the appropriate geometric configuration based on terrain and vehicle geometric considerations. Then, a reinforcement learning algorithm finds alternative solutions when the reactive controller gets stuck while climbing an obstacle. The methodology combines reactivity to learning. The controllers have been demonstrated in box and stair climbing simulations. The experiments illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach for crossing obstacles.

  14. AGATE: Autonomous Go and Touch Exploration Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation (AGATE, for Autonomous Go And Touch Exploration) will enable single-sol "go and touch" instrument placement from distances of up to five meters for...

  15. Overview of the Autonomic Nervous System (United States)

    ... tears) Urination Defecation Sexual response Many organs are controlled primarily by either the sympathetic or the parasympathetic ... help relieve some symptoms of autonomic disorders: Orthostatic hypotension: People are advised to elevate the head of ...

  16. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo H. G. Coppejans


    Full Text Available There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV, such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers.

  17. Advisory and autonomous cooperative driving systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T.H.A. van den; Ploeg, J.; Netten, B.D.


    In this paper, the traffic efficiency of an advisory cooperative driving system, Advisory Acceleration Control is examined and compared to the efficiency of an autonomous cooperative driving system, Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control. The algorithms and implementation thereof are explained. The

  18. Interpersonal communication and issues for autonomous vehicles. (United States)


    Interpersonal roadway communication is a vital component of the transportation system. Road users communicate to coordinate movement and increase roadway safety. Future autonomous vehicle research needs to account for the role of interpersonal roadwa...

  19. 3D Maps Registration and Path Planning for Autonomous Robot Navigation


    Charalampous, Konstantinos; Kostavelis, Ioannis; Chrysostomou, Dimitrios; Amanatiadis, Angelos; Gasteratos, Antonios


    Mobile robots dedicated in security tasks should be capable of clearly perceiving their environment to competently navigate within cluttered areas, so as to accomplish their assigned mission. The paper in hand describes such an autonomous agent designed to deploy competently in hazardous environments equipped with a laser scanner sensor. During the robot's motion, consecutive scans are obtained to produce dense 3D maps of the area. A 3D point cloud registration technique is exploited to merge...

  20. Autonomous gliding entry guidance with

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Jie


    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel three-dimensional autonomous entry guidance for relatively high lift-to-drag ratio vehicles satisfying geographic constraints and other path constraints. The guidance is composed of onboard trajectory planning and robust trajectory tracking. For trajectory planning, a longitudinal sub-planner is introduced to generate a feasible drag-versus-energy profile by using the interpolation between upper boundary and lower boundary of entry corridor to get the desired trajectory length. The associated magnitude of the bank angle can be specified by drag profile, while the sign of bank angle is determined by lateral sub-planner. Two-reverse mode is utilized to satisfy waypoint constraints and dynamic heading error corridor is utilized to satisfy no-fly zone constraints. The longitudinal and lateral sub-planners are iteratively employed until all of the path constraints are satisfied. For trajectory tracking, a novel tracking law based on the active disturbance rejection control is introduced. Finally, adaptability tests and Monte Carlo simulations of the entry guidance approach are performed. Results show that the proposed entry guidance approach can adapt to different entry missions and is able to make the vehicle reach the prescribed target point precisely in spite of geographic constraints.

  1. Mechanical Autonomous Stochastic Heat Engine. (United States)

    Serra-Garcia, Marc; Foehr, André; Molerón, Miguel; Lydon, Joseph; Chong, Christopher; Daraio, Chiara


    Stochastic heat engines are devices that generate work from random thermal motion using a small number of highly fluctuating degrees of freedom. Proposals for such devices have existed for more than a century and include the Maxwell demon and the Feynman ratchet. Only recently have they been demonstrated experimentally, using, e.g., thermal cycles implemented in optical traps. However, recent experimental demonstrations of classical stochastic heat engines are nonautonomous, since they require an external control system that prescribes a heating and cooling cycle and consume more energy than they produce. We present a heat engine consisting of three coupled mechanical resonators (two ribbons and a cantilever) subject to a stochastic drive. The engine uses geometric nonlinearities in the resonating ribbons to autonomously convert a random excitation into a low-entropy, nonpassive oscillation of the cantilever. The engine presents the anomalous heat transport property of negative thermal conductivity, consisting in the ability to passively transfer energy from a cold reservoir to a hot reservoir.

  2. Autonomous Systems Developments and Trends

    CERN Document Server

    Kyamaky, Kyandoghere; Kacprzyk, Janusz


    The Workshops on Autonomous Systems emanated from a gathering with the doctoral students of just three chairs at Fernuniversität in Hagen, which we organise twice per year for a number of years now. Their purpose is to discuss on-going research and to create a community spirit. Furthermore, they serve as a means of structuring the students' research processes. The workshop has grown and matured in several respects. The doctoral students presenting their work do not come from a single university anymore, but from three. Besides them and their supervisors, also other scientists became interested in the event and contribute to its programme. Following the model of Advanced Study Institutes, they are available on the premises for relaxed, informal discussions outside the formal sessions. Finally, with the co-sponsorship of Gesellschaft für Informatik, the German Computer Society, and this surprisingly comprehensive volume of contributions published by Springer-Verlag the workshop turned into a visible scientifi...

  3. Semi-Autonomous Vehicle Project (United States)

    Stewart, Christopher


    The primary objective this summer is "evaluating standards for wireless architecture for the internet of things". The Internet of Things is the network of physical objects or "things" embedded with electronics, software, sensors and network connectivity which enables these objects to collect and exchange data and make decisions based on said data. This was accomplished by creating a semi-autonomous vehicle that takes advantage of multiple sensors, cameras, and onboard computers and combined them with a mesh network which enabled communication across large distances with little to no interruption. The mesh network took advantage of what is known as DTN - Disruption Tolerant Networking which according to NASA is the new communications protocol that is "the first step towards interplanetary internet." The use of DTN comes from the fact that it will store information if an interruption in communications is detected and even forward that information via other relays within range so that the data is not lost. This translates well into the project because as the car moves further away from whatever is sending it commands (in this case a joystick), the information can still be forwarded to the car with little to no loss of information thanks to the mesh nodes around the driving area.

  4. Acupuncture Effect and Central Autonomic Regulation


    Qian-Qian Li; Guang-Xia Shi; Qian Xu; Jing Wang; Cun-Zhi Liu; Lin-Peng Wang


    Acupuncture is a therapeutic technique and part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Acupuncture has clinical efficacy on various autonomic nerve-related disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases, epilepsy, anxiety and nervousness, circadian rhythm disorders, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and subfertility. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that acupuncture can control autonomic nerve system (ANS) functions including blood pressure, pupil size, skin conductance, skin temp...

  5. Autonomous Preservation Tools in Minimal Effort Ingest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurik, Bolette Ammitzbøll; Blekinge, Asger Askov; Andersen, Thorbjørn Ravn


    This poster presents the concept of Autonomous Preservation Tools, as developed by the State and University Library, Denmark. The work expands the idea of Minimal Effort Ingest, where most preservation actions such as Quality Assurance and enrichment of the digital objects are performed after...... content is ingested for preservation, rather than before. We present our Newspaper Digitisation Project as a case-study of real-world implementations of Autonomous Preservation Tools....

  6. PID Controllers for Autonomous Vehicle Path Following


    Norrsjö, Viktor; Stenberg, Viktor


    Autonomous vehicles are set to create a paradigmshift. Everyone could relax on their way to work and no accidentsdue to falling asleep behind the wheel would occur. For this tohappen the autonomous vehicle requires among many differentcomponents, a lane following system. In this paper such asystem is developed. First a mathematical model that describea vehicles behaviour is derived. Then a regulator structure withcontrollers and other components is developed. Finally the systemis implemented ...

  7. JOMAR: Joint Operations with Mobile Autonomous Robots (United States)


    agricultural robots , which gener- ally have unobstructed satellite line-of-sight, can rely heavily upon GPS sensors for positioning. In environments...AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2015-0009 JOMAR: Joint Operations with Mobile Autonomous Robots Edwin Olson UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN Final Report 12/21/2015...SUBTITLE JOMAR: Joint Operations with Mobile Autonomous Robots 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA23861114024 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  8. Autonomous robot navigation: appearance based topological SLAM


    Lui, Wen Lik Dennis


    The main focus of this research is to develop an autonomous robot capable of self-navigation in an unknown environment. The proposed system performs autonomous navigation primarily based on the following visually perceived information: 1) Range Estimation: A novel variable single/multi baseline omnidirectional stereovision system with an option to automatically select the baseline that is adjusted to the environment with the establishment of stereo correspondences and triangulation offloa...

  9. Evolutionary robotics – A review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    MS received 26 June 2001; revised 9 May 2003. Abstract. In evolutionary robotics, a suitable robot control system is developed automatically through evolution due to the interactions between the robot and its environment. It is a complicated task, as the robot and the environment constitute a highly dynamical system.

  10. Evolutionary genetics: the Drosophila model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Evolutionary genetics straddles the two fundamental processes of life, development (the transition from egg to adult) and reproduction (the generation of eggs from adults), and scrutinizes, from an evolu- tionary perspective, the nature .... script profiles in aging and calorically restricted Drosophila melanogaster. Curr. Biol.

  11. Current Issues in Evolutionary Paleontology. (United States)

    Scully, Erik Paul


    Describes some of the contributions made by the field of paleontology to theories in geology and biology. Suggests that the two best examples of modern evolutionary paleontology relate to the theory of punctuated equilibria, and the possibility that mass extinctions may be cyclic. (TW)

  12. Conceptual foundations of evolutionary thought

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jul 4, 2017 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 96; Issue 3. Conceptual foundations of evolutionary thought. K. P. MOHANAN. Perspectives Volume 96 Issue 3 July 2017 pp 401-412. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Abstract ...

  13. Evolutionary Biology Research in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 10. Evolutionary Biology Research in India. Information and Announcements Volume 5 Issue 10 October 2000 pp 102-104. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  14. Haldane and modern evolutionary genetics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 96; Issue 5. Haldane and modern evolutionary genetics. BRIAN CHARLESWORTH. HALDANE AT 125 Volume 96 Issue 5 November 2017 pp 773-782. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Keywords.

  15. Evolutionary trends in directional hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carr, Catherine E; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob


    Tympanic hearing is a true evolutionary novelty that arose in parallel within early tetrapods. We propose that in these tetrapods, selection for sound localization in air acted upon pre-existing directionally sensitive brainstem circuits, similar to those in fishes. Auditory circuits in birds...

  16. Is evolutionary biology strategic science? (United States)

    Meagher, Thomas R


    There is a profound need for the scientific community to be better aware of the policy context in which it operates. To address this need, Evolution has established a new Outlook feature section to include papers that explore the interface between society and evolutionary biology. This first paper in the series considers the strategic relevance of evolutionary biology. Support for scientific research in general is based on governmental or institutional expenditure that is an investment, and such investment is based on strategies designed to achieve particular outcomes, such as advance in particular areas of basic science or application. The scientific community can engage in the development of scientific strategies on a variety of levels, including workshops to explicitly develop research priorities and targeted funding initiatives to help define emerging scientific areas. Better understanding and communication of the scientific achievements of evolutionary biology, emphasizing immediate and potential societal relevance, are effective counters to challenges presented by the creationist agenda. Future papers in the Outlook feature section should assist the evolutionary biology community in achieving a better collective understanding of the societal relevance of their field.

  17. The Evolutionary Ecology of Mutualism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivens, A.B.F.


    Mutualism, cooperation between different species, is wide-spread in nature. From bees pollinating plants to bacteria aiding digestion in the human gut: mutualism is essential for life on earth. But how does mutualism evolve? And what mechanisms keep mutualisms stable over evolutionary time and

  18. Evolutionary dynamics of mammalian karyotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Alberto Redi


    Full Text Available This special volume of Cytogenetic and Genome Research (edited by Roscoe Stanyon, University of Florence and Alexander Graphodatsky, Siberian division of the Russian Academy of Sciences is dedicated to the fascinating long search of the forces behind the evolutionary dynamics of mammalian karyotypes, revealed after the hypotonic miracle of the 1950s....

  19. Defining fitness in evolutionary models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The analysis of evolutionary models requires an appropriate definition for fitness. In this paper, I review such definitions in relation to the five major dimensions by which models may be described, namely. finite versus infinite (or very large) population size,; type of environment (constant, fixed length, temporally stochastic, ...

  20. Euryhalinity in an evolutionary context (United States)

    Schultz, Eric T.; McCormick, Stephen D.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Farrell, Anthony Peter; Brauner, Colin J.


    This chapter focuses on the evolutionary importance and taxonomic distribution of euryhalinity. Euryhalinity refers to broad halotolerance and broad halohabitat distribution. Salinity exposure experiments have demonstrated that species vary tenfold in their range of tolerable salinity levels, primarily because of differences in upper limits. Halotolerance breadth varies with the species’ evolutionary history, as represented by its ordinal classification, and with the species’ halohabitat. Freshwater and seawater species tolerate brackish water; their empirically-determined fundamental haloniche is broader than their realized haloniche, as revealed by the halohabitats they occupy. With respect to halohabitat distribution, a minority of species (<10%) are euryhaline. Habitat-euryhalinity is prevalent among basal actinopterygian fishes, is largely absent from orders arising from intermediate nodes, and reappears in the most derived taxa. There is pronounced family-level variability in the tendency to be halohabitat-euryhaline, which may have arisen during a burst of diversification following the Cretaceous-Palaeogene extinction. Low prevalence notwithstanding, euryhaline species are potent sources of evolutionary diversity. Euryhalinity is regarded as a key innovation trait whose evolution enables exploitation of new adaptive zone, triggering cladogenesis. We review phylogenetically-informed studies that demonstrate freshwater species diversifying from euryhaline ancestors through processes such as landlocking. These studies indicate that some euryhaline taxa are particularly susceptible to changes in halohabitat and subsequent diversification, and some geographic regions have been hotspots for transitions to freshwater. Comparative studies on mechanisms among multiple taxa and at multiple levels of biological integration are needed to clarify evolutionary pathways to, and from, euryhalinity.

  1. Realism, Relativism, and Evolutionary Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, M.

    Against recent attempts to forge a reconciliation between constructionism and realism, I contend that, in psychology at least, stirring up conflict is a more fruitful strategy. To illustrate this thesis, I confront a school of psychology with strong realist leanings, evolutionary psychology, with

  2. Evolutionary Psychology and Intelligence Research (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi


    This article seeks to unify two subfields of psychology that have hitherto stood separately: evolutionary psychology and intelligence research/differential psychology. I suggest that general intelligence may simultaneously be an evolved adaptation and an individual-difference variable. Tooby and Cosmides's (1990a) notion of random quantitative…

  3. Major evolutionary transitions in individuality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    West, S.A.; Fisher, R.M.; Gardner, A.; Kiers, E.T.


    The evolution of life on earth has been driven by a small number of major evolutionary transitions. These transitions have been characterized by individuals that could previously replicate independently, cooperating to form a new, more complex life form. For example, archaea and eubacteria formed

  4. Autonomic Wireless Sensor Networks: A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús M. T. Portocarrero


    Full Text Available Autonomic computing (AC is a promising approach to meet basic requirements in the design of wireless sensor networks (WSNs, and its principles can be applied to efficiently manage nodes operation and optimize network resources. Middleware for WSNs supports the implementation and basic operation of such networks. In this systematic literature review (SLR we aim to provide an overview of existing WSN middleware systems that address autonomic properties. The main goal is to identify which development approaches of AC are used for designing WSN middleware system, which allow the self-management of WSN. Another goal is finding out which interactions and behavior can be automated in WSN components. We drew the following main conclusions from the SLR results: (i the selected studies address WSN concerns according to the self-* properties of AC, namely, self-configuration, self-healing, self-optimization, and self-protection; (ii the selected studies use different approaches for managing the dynamic behavior of middleware systems for WSN, such as policy-based reasoning, context-based reasoning, feedback control loops, mobile agents, model transformations, and code generation. Finally, we identified a lack of comprehensive system architecture designs that support the autonomy of sensor networking.

  5. Target Trailing With Safe Navigation for Maritime Autonomous Surface Vehicles (United States)

    Wolf, Michael; Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Zarzhitsky, Dimitri V.


    This software implements a motion-planning module for a maritime autonomous surface vehicle (ASV). The module trails a given target while also avoiding static and dynamic surface hazards. When surface hazards are other moving boats, the motion planner must apply International Regulations for Avoiding Collisions at Sea (COLREGS). A key subset of these rules has been implemented in the software. In case contact with the target is lost, the software can receive and follow a "reacquisition route," provided by a complementary system, until the target is reacquired. The programmatic intention is that the trailed target is a submarine, although any mobile naval platform could serve as the target. The algorithmic approach to combining motion with a (possibly moving) goal location, while avoiding local hazards, may be applicable to robotic rovers, automated landing systems, and autonomous airships. The software operates in JPL s CARACaS (Control Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing) software architecture and relies on other modules for environmental perception data and information on the predicted detectability of the target, as well as the low-level interface to the boat controls.

  6. Decentralized autonomous planning of cluster reconfiguration for fractionated spacecraft (United States)

    Chu, Jing; Guo, Jian; Gill, Eberhard


    Autonomous cluster operation such as cluster reconfiguration is one of the enabling technologies for fractionated spacecraft. By virtue of the multi-agent system theory, this paper presents an organizational architecture for fractionated spacecraft, which not only enables autonomous cluster operations but also facilitates its non-traditional attributes. Within this organizational architecture, a decentralized framework is proposed to solve cluster reconfiguration problems based on primal and dual decomposition, where subgradient methods are adopted to include reconfiguration cases with non-differentiable objectives. Two typical constraints are considered: final configuration constraints representing coupling variables and collision avoidance constraints representing coupling constraints, both of which are non-convex. General schemes are proposed to convexify those constraints via the linearization and convex restriction technology. Then final configuration constraints are tackled by primal decomposition, while collision avoidance constraints by dual decomposition. To the end, multi-level primal and dual decompositions are employed to solve reconfiguration problems with both coupling variables and coupling constraints. For illustration an example of in-plane cluster reconfiguration is solved and compared with the centralized approach the solution is optimal.

  7. Statistical physics and computational methods for evolutionary game theory

    CERN Document Server

    Javarone, Marco Alberto


    This book presents an introduction to Evolutionary Game Theory (EGT) which is an emerging field in the area of complex systems attracting the attention of researchers from disparate scientific communities. EGT allows one to represent and study several complex phenomena, such as the emergence of cooperation in social systems, the role of conformity in shaping the equilibrium of a population, and the dynamics in biological and ecological systems. Since EGT models belong to the area of complex systems, statistical physics constitutes a fundamental ingredient for investigating their behavior. At the same time, the complexity of some EGT models, such as those realized by means of agent-based methods, often require the implementation of numerical simulations. Therefore, beyond providing an introduction to EGT, this book gives a brief overview of the main statistical physics tools (such as phase transitions and the Ising model) and computational strategies for simulating evolutionary games (such as Monte Carlo algor...

  8. Advancing Autonomous Operations for Deep Space Vehicles (United States)

    Haddock, Angie T.; Stetson, Howard K.


    Starting in Jan 2012, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) Project began to investigate the ability to create and execute "single button" crew initiated autonomous activities [1]. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) designed and built a fluid transfer hardware test-bed to use as a sub-system target for the investigations of intelligent procedures that would command and control a fluid transfer test-bed, would perform self-monitoring during fluid transfers, detect anomalies and faults, isolate the fault and recover the procedures function that was being executed, all without operator intervention. In addition to the development of intelligent procedures, the team is also exploring various methods for autonomous activity execution where a planned timeline of activities are executed autonomously and also the initial analysis of crew procedure development. This paper will detail the development of intelligent procedures for the NASA MSFC Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) as well as the autonomous plan execution capabilities being investigated. Manned deep space missions, with extreme communication delays with Earth based assets, presents significant challenges for what the on-board procedure content will encompass as well as the planned execution of the procedures.

  9. Evolutionary biology of bacterial and fungal pathogens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baquero, F


    ... and Evolutionary Dynamics of Pathogens * 21 Keith A. Crandall and Marcos Pérez-Losada II. Evolutionary Genetics of Microbial Pathogens 4. Environmental and Social Influences on Infectious Disea...

  10. Towards a mechanistic foundation of evolutionary theory. (United States)

    Doebeli, Michael; Ispolatov, Yaroslav; Simon, Burt


    Most evolutionary thinking is based on the notion of fitness and related ideas such as fitness landscapes and evolutionary optima. Nevertheless, it is often unclear what fitness actually is, and its meaning often depends on the context. Here we argue that fitness should not be a basal ingredient in verbal or mathematical descriptions of evolution. Instead, we propose that evolutionary birth-death processes, in which individuals give birth and die at ever-changing rates, should be the basis of evolutionary theory, because such processes capture the fundamental events that generate evolutionary dynamics. In evolutionary birth-death processes, fitness is at best a derived quantity, and owing to the potential complexity of such processes, there is no guarantee that there is a simple scalar, such as fitness, that would describe long-term evolutionary outcomes. We discuss how evolutionary birth-death processes can provide useful perspectives on a number of central issues in evolution.

  11. Dobzhansky and Evolutionary Cytogenetics-Pioneering ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 10. Dobzhansky and Evolutionary Cytogenetics - Pioneering Evolutionary Studies with Chromosomes. Bimalendu B Nath. General Article Volume 5 Issue 10 October 2000 pp 61-65 ...

  12. Recent Developments on Autonomous Corrosion Protection Through Encapsulation (United States)

    Li, W.; Buhrow, J. W.; Calle, L. M.; Gillis, M.; Blanton, M.; Hanna, J.; Rawlins, J.


    This paper concerns recent progress in the development of a multifunctional smart coating, based on microencapsulation, for the autonomous detection and control of corrosion. Microencapsulation has been validated and optimized to incorporate desired corrosion control functionalities, such as early corrosion detection and inhibition, through corrosion-initiated release of corrosion indicators and inhibitors, as well as self-healing agent release triggered by mechanical damage. While proof-of-concept results have been previously reported, more recent research and development efforts have concentrated on improving coating compatibility and synthesis procedure scalability, with a targeted goal of obtaining easily dispersible pigment-grade type microencapsulated materials. The recent progress has resulted in the development of pH-sensitive microparticles as a corrosion-triggered delivery system for corrosion indicators and inhibitors. The synthesis and early corrosion indication results obtained with coating formulations that incorporate these microparticles are reported. The early corrosion indicating results were obtained with color changing and with fluorescent indicators.

  13. Evolutionary impact assessment: Accounting for the evolutionary consequences of fishing in an ecosystem approach to fisheries management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugen, Ane T.; Engelhard, Georg H.; Whitlock, Rebecca


    modify the monetary value living aquatic resources provide to society. Quantifying and predicting the evolutionary effects of fishing is therefore important for both ecological and economic reasons. An important reason this is not happening is the lack of an appropriate assessment framework. We therefore...... substantial scientific attention recently is fisheries-induced evolution (FIE). Increasing evidence indicates that intensive fishing has the potential to exert strong directional selection on life-history traits, behaviour, physiology, and morphology of exploited fish. Of particular concern is that reversing...... evolutionary responses to fishing can be much more difficult than reversing demographic or phenotypically plastic responses. Furthermore, like climate change, multiple agents cause FIE, with effects accumulating over time. Consequently, FIE may alter the utility derived from fish stocks, which in turn can...

  14. Agility: Agent - Ility Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Craig


    ...., object and web technologies). The objective of the Agility project is to develop an open agent grid architecture populated with scalable, deployable, industrial strength agent grid components, targeting the theme 'agents for the masses...

  15. Riot Control Agents (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Facts About Riot Control Agents Interim document Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir FACT SHEET What riot control agents are Riot control agents (sometimes referred to ...

  16. Interacting agents in finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.


    Interacting agents in finance represent a behavioural, agent-based approach in which financial markets are viewed as complex adaptive systems consisting of many boundedly rational agents interacting through simple heterogeneous investment strategies, constantly adapting their behaviour in response

  17. Bidirectional Dynamic Diversity Evolutionary Algorithm for Constrained Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weishang Gao


    Full Text Available Evolutionary algorithms (EAs were shown to be effective for complex constrained optimization problems. However, inflexible exploration-exploitation and improper penalty in EAs with penalty function would lead to losing the global optimum nearby or on the constrained boundary. To determine an appropriate penalty coefficient is also difficult in most studies. In this paper, we propose a bidirectional dynamic diversity evolutionary algorithm (Bi-DDEA with multiagents guiding exploration-exploitation through local extrema to the global optimum in suitable steps. In Bi-DDEA potential advantage is detected by three kinds of agents. The scale and the density of agents will change dynamically according to the emerging of potential optimal area, which play an important role of flexible exploration-exploitation. Meanwhile, a novel double optimum estimation strategy with objective fitness and penalty fitness is suggested to compute, respectively, the dominance trend of agents in feasible region and forbidden region. This bidirectional evolving with multiagents can not only effectively avoid the problem of determining penalty coefficient but also quickly converge to the global optimum nearby or on the constrained boundary. By examining the rapidity and veracity of Bi-DDEA across benchmark functions, the proposed method is shown to be effective.

  18. Essays on nonlinear evolutionary game dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ochea, M.I.


    Evolutionary game theory has been viewed as an evolutionary repair of rational actor game theory in the hope that a population of boundedly rational players may attain convergence to classic rational solutions, such as the Nash Equilibrium, via some learning or evolutionary process. In this thesis

  19. The citation field of evolutionary economics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfsma, W.; Leydesdorff, L.


    Evolutionary economics has developed into an academic field of its own, institutionalized around, amongst others, the Journal of Evolutionary Economics (JEE). This paper analyzes the way and extent to which evolutionary economics has become an interdisciplinary journal, as its aim was: a journal

  20. The citation field of evolutionary economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfsma, Wilfred; Leydesdorff, Loet


    Evolutionary economics has developed into an academic field of its own, institutionalized around, amongst others, the Journal of Evolutionary Economics (JEE). This paper analyzes the way and extent to which evolutionary economics has become an interdisciplinary journal, as its aim was: a journal