WorldWideScience

Sample records for evoked glutamate release

  1. Interactions of MK-801 with glutamate-, glutamine- and methamphetamine-evoked release of [3H]dopamine from striatal slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowyer, J.F.; Scallet, A.C.; Holson, R.R.; Lipe, G.W.; Slikker, W. Jr.; Ali, S.F.

    1991-01-01

    The interactions of MK-801 [(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d] cyclohepten-5,10-imine], glutamate and glutamine with methamphetamine (METH)-evoked release of [ 3 H]dopamine were assessed in vitro to determine whether MK-801 inhibition of METH neurotoxicity might be mediated presynaptically, and to evaluate the effects of glutamatergic stimulation on METH-evoked dopamine release. MK-801 inhibition of glutamate- or METH-evoked dopamine release might reduce synaptic dopamine levels during METH exposure and decrease the formation of 6-hydroxydopamine or other related neurotoxins. Without Mg 2+ present, 40 microM and 1 mM glutamate evoked a N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated [ 3 H]dopamine and [ 3 H]metabolite (tritium) release of 3 to 6 and 12 to 16% of total tritium stores, respectively, from striatal slices. With 1.50 mM Mg 2+ present, 10 mM glutamate alone or in combination with the dopamine uptake blocker nomifensine released only 2.1 or 4.2%, respectively, of total tritium stores, and release was only partially dependent on N-methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptors. With or without 1.50 mM Mg 2+ present, 0.5 or 5 microM METH evoked a substantial release of tritium (5-8 or 12-21% of total stores, respectively). METH-evoked dopamine release was not affected by 5 microM MK-801 but METH-evoked release was additive with glutamate-evoked release. Without Mg 2+ present, 1 mM glutamine increased glutamate release and induced the release of [ 3 H]dopamine and metabolites. Both 0.5 and 5 microM METH also increased tritium release with 1 mM glutamine present. When striatal slices were exposed to 5 microM METH this glutamine-evoked release of glutamate was increased more than 50%

  2. Evidence for evoked release of adenosine and glutamate from cultured cerebellar granule cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schousboe, A.; Frandsen, A.; Drejer, J.

    1989-01-01

    Evoked release of [ 3 H]-D-aspartate which labels the neurotransmitter glutamate pool in cultured cerebellar granule cells was compared with evoked release of adenosine from similar cultures. It was found that both adenosine and [3H]-D-aspartate could be released from the neurons in a calcium dependent manner after depolarization of the cells with either 10-100 microM glutamate or 50 mM KCl. Cultures of cerebellar granule cells treated with 50 microM kainate to eliminate GABAergic neurons behaved in the same way. This together with the observation that cultured astrocytes did not exhibit a calcium dependent, potassium stimulated adenosine release strongly suggest that cerebellar granule cells release adenosine in a neurotransmitter-like fashion together with glutamate which is the classical neurotransmitter of these neurons. Studies of the metabolism of adenosine showed that in the granule cells adenosine is rapidly metabolized to ATP, ADP, and AMP, but in spite of this, adenosine was found to be released preferential to ATP

  3. The effect of nucleotides and adenosine on stimulus-evoked glutamate release from rat brain cortical slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, G C; Boarder, M R

    2000-10-01

    Evidence has previously been presented that P1 receptors for adenosine, and P2 receptors for nucleotides such as ATP, regulate stimulus-evoked release of biogenic amines from nerve terminals in the brain. Here we investigated whether adenosine and nucleotides exert presynaptic control over depolarisation-elicited glutamate release. Slices of rat brain cortex were perfused and stimulated with pulses of 46 mM K(+) in the presence of the glutamate uptake inhibitor L-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid (0.2 mM). High K(+) substantially increased efflux of glutamate from the slices. Basal glutamate release was unchanged by the presence of nucleotides or adenosine at concentrations of 300 microM. Adenosine, ATP, ADP and adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphoshate) at 300 microM attenuated depolarisation-evoked release of glutamate. However UTP, 2-methylthio ATP, 2-methylthio ADP, and alpha,beta-methylene ATP at 300 microM had no effect on stimulated glutamate efflux. Adenosine deaminase blocked the effect of adenosine, but left the response to ATP unchanged. The A(1) antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1, 3-dipropylxanthine antagonised the inhibitory effect of both adenosine and ATP. Cibacron blue 3GA inhibited stimulus-evoked glutamate release when applied alone. When cibacron blue 3GA was present with ATP, stimulus-evoked glutamate release was almost eliminated. However, this P2 antagonist had no effect on the inhibition by adenosine. These results show that the release of glutamate from depolarised nerve terminals of the rat cerebral cortex is inhibited by adenosine and ATP. ATP appears to act directly and not through conversion to adenosine.

  4. Acute stress increases depolarization-evoked glutamate release in the rat prefrontal/frontal cortex: the dampening action of antidepressants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Musazzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral stress is recognized as a main risk factor for neuropsychiatric diseases. Converging evidence suggested that acute stress is associated with increase of excitatory transmission in certain forebrain areas. Aim of this work was to investigate the mechanism whereby acute stress increases glutamate release, and if therapeutic drugs prevent the effect of stress on glutamate release.Rats were chronically treated with vehicle or drugs employed for therapy of mood/anxiety disorders (fluoxetine, desipramine, venlafaxine, agomelatine and then subjected to unpredictable footshock stress. Acute stress induced marked increase in depolarization-evoked release of glutamate from synaptosomes of prefrontal/frontal cortex in superfusion, and the chronic drug treatments prevented the increase of glutamate release. Stress induced rapid increase in the circulating levels of corticosterone in all rats (both vehicle- and drug-treated, and glutamate release increase was blocked by previous administration of selective antagonist of glucocorticoid receptor (RU 486. On the molecular level, stress induced accumulation of presynaptic SNARE complexes in synaptic membranes (both in vehicle- and drug-treated rats. Patch-clamp recordings of pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex revealed that stress increased glutamatergic transmission through both pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms, and that antidepressants may normalize it by reducing release probability.Acute footshock stress up-regulated depolarization-evoked release of glutamate from synaptosomes of prefrontal/frontal cortex. Stress-induced increase of glutamate release was dependent on stimulation of glucocorticoid receptor by corticosterone. Because all drugs employed did not block either elevation of corticosterone or accumulation of SNARE complexes, the dampening action of the drugs on glutamate release must be downstream of these processes. This novel effect of antidepressants on the response to stress

  5. The effect of nucleotides and adenosine on stimulus-evoked glutamate release from rat brain cortical slices

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Gillian C; Boarder, Michael R

    2000-01-01

    Evidence has previously been presented that P1 receptors for adenosine, and P2 receptors for nucleotides such as ATP, regulate stimulus-evoked release of biogenic amines from nerve terminals in the brain. Here we investigated whether adenosine and nucleotides exert presynaptic control over depolarisation-elicited glutamate release.Slices of rat brain cortex were perfused and stimulated with pulses of 46 mM K+ in the presence of the glutamate uptake inhibitor L-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxyl...

  6. Localized infusions of the partial alpha 7 nicotinic receptor agonist SSR180711 evoke rapid and transient increases in prefrontal glutamate release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortz, D M; Mikkelsen, J D; Bruno, J P

    2013-01-01

    The ability of local infusions of the alpha 7 nicotinic acetycholine receptor (α7 nAChR) partial agonist SSR180711 to evoke glutamate release in prefrontal cortex was determined in awake rats using a microelectrode array. Infusions of SSR180711 produced dose-dependent increases in glutamate levels...

  7. Subcellular fractionation on Percoll gradient of mossy fiber synaptosomes: evoked release of glutamate, GABA, aspartate and glutamate decarboxylase activity in control and degranulated rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taupin, P; Ben-Ari, Y; Roisin, M P

    1994-05-02

    Using discontinuous density gradient centrifugation in isotonic Percoll sucrose, we have characterized two subcellular fractions (PII and PIII) enriched in mossy fiber synaptosomes and two others (SII and SIII) enriched in small synaptosomes. These synaptosomal fractions were compared with those obtained from adult hippocampus irradiated at neonatal stage to destroy granule cells and their mossy fibers. Synaptosomes were viable as judged by their ability to release aspartate, glutamate and GABA upon K+ depolarization. After irradiation, compared to the control values, the release of glutamate and GABA was decreased by 57 and 74% in the PIII fraction, but not in the other fractions and the content of glutamate, aspartate and GABA was also decreased in PIII fraction by 62, 44 and 52% respectively. These results suggest that mossy fiber (MF) synaptosomes contain and release glutamate and GABA. Measurement of the GABA synthesizing enzyme, glutamate decarboxylase, exhibited no significant difference after irradiation, suggesting that GABA is not synthesized by this enzyme in mossy fibers.

  8. Synaptically evoked glutamate transporter currents in Spinal Dorsal Horn Astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dougherty Patrick M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Removing and sequestering synaptically released glutamate from the extracellular space is carried out by specific plasma membrane transporters that are primarily located in astrocytes. Glial glutamate transporter function can be monitored by recording the currents that are produced by co-transportation of Na+ ions with the uptake of glutamate. The goal of this study was to characterize glutamate transporter function in astrocytes of the spinal cord dorsal horn in real time by recording synaptically evoked glutamate transporter currents. Results Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were obtained from astrocytes in the spinal substantia gelatinosa (SG area in spinal slices of young adult rats. Glutamate transporter currents were evoked in these cells by electrical stimulation at the spinal dorsal root entry zone in the presence of bicuculline, strychnine, DNQX and D-AP5. Transporter currents were abolished when synaptic transmission was blocked by TTX or Cd2+. Pharmacological studies identified two subtypes of glutamate transporters in spinal astrocytes, GLAST and GLT-1. Glutamate transporter currents were graded with stimulus intensity, reaching peak responses at 4 to 5 times activation threshold, but were reduced following low-frequency (0.1 – 1 Hz repetitive stimulation. Conclusion These results suggest that glutamate transporters of spinal astrocytes could be activated by synaptic activation, and recording glutamate transporter currents may provide a means of examining the real time physiological responses of glial cells in spinal sensory processing, sensitization, hyperalgesia and chronic pain.

  9. Metabolic control of vesicular glutamate transport and release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juge, Narinobu; Gray, John A; Omote, Hiroshi; Miyaji, Takaaki; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Hara, Chiaki; Uneyama, Hisayuki; Edwards, Robert H; Nicoll, Roger A; Moriyama, Yoshinori

    2010-10-06

    Fasting has been used to control epilepsy since antiquity, but the mechanism of coupling between metabolic state and excitatory neurotransmission remains unknown. Previous work has shown that the vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) required for exocytotic release of glutamate undergo an unusual form of regulation by Cl(-). Using functional reconstitution of the purified VGLUTs into proteoliposomes, we now show that Cl(-) acts as an allosteric activator, and the ketone bodies that increase with fasting inhibit glutamate release by competing with Cl(-) at the site of allosteric regulation. Consistent with these observations, acetoacetate reduced quantal size at hippocampal synapses and suppresses glutamate release and seizures evoked with 4-aminopyridine in the brain. The results indicate an unsuspected link between metabolic state and excitatory neurotransmission through anion-dependent regulation of VGLUT activity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Fluorescence imaging of glutamate release in neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ziqiang; Yeung, Edward S.

    1999-01-01

    A noninvasive detection scheme based on glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) enzymatic assay combined with microscopy was developed to measure the glutamate release in cultured cells from the central nervous system (CNS). The enzyme reaction is very specific and sensitive. The detection limit with charge-coupled device (CCD) imaging is down to μM levels of glutamate with reasonable response time (∼30 s). The standard glutamate test shows a linear response over 3 orders of magnitude, from μM to 0.1 mM range. The in vitro monitoring of glutamate release from cultured neuron cells demonstrated excellent spatial and temporal resolution. (c) 1999 Society for Applied Spectroscopy

  11. 50 Hz hippocampal stimulation in refractory epilepsy: Higher level of basal glutamate predicts greater release of glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavus, Idil; Widi, Gabriel A; Duckrow, Robert B; Zaveri, Hitten; Kennard, Jeremy T; Krystal, John; Spencer, Dennis D

    2016-02-01

    The effect of electrical stimulation on brain glutamate release in humans is unknown. Glutamate is elevated at baseline in the epileptogenic hippocampus of patients with refractory epilepsy, and increases during spontaneous seizures. We examined the effect of 50 Hz stimulation on glutamate release and its relationship to interictal levels in the hippocampus of patients with epilepsy. In addition, we measured basal and stimulated glutamate levels in a subset of these patients where stimulation elicited a seizure. Subjects (n = 10) were patients with medically refractory epilepsy who were undergoing intracranial electroencephalography (EEG) evaluation in an epilepsy monitoring unit. Electrical stimulation (50 Hz) was delivered through implanted hippocampal electrodes (n = 11), and microdialysate samples were collected every 2 min. Basal glutamate, changes in glutamate efflux with stimulation, and the relationships between peak stimulation-associated glutamate concentrations, basal zero-flow levels, and stimulated seizures were examined. Stimulation of epileptic hippocampi in patients with refractory epilepsy caused increases in glutamate efflux (p = 0.005, n = 10), and 4 of ten patients experienced brief stimulated seizures. Stimulation-induced increases in glutamate were not observed during the evoked seizures, but rather were related to the elevation in interictal basal glutamate (R(2) = 0.81, p = 0.001). The evoked-seizure group had lower basal glutamate levels than the no-seizure group (p = 0.04), with no stimulation-induced change in glutamate efflux (p = 0.47, n = 4). Conversely, increased glutamate was observed following stimulation in the no-seizure group (p = 0.005, n = 7). Subjects with an atrophic hippocampus had higher basal glutamate levels (p = 0.03, n = 7) and higher stimulation-induced glutamate efflux. Electrical stimulation of the epileptic hippocampus either increased extracellular glutamate efflux or induced seizures. The magnitude of stimulated

  12. RANTES modulates the release of glutamate in human neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Veronica; Longordo, Fabio; Neri, Elisa; Pedrazzi, Marco; Kalfas, Fotios; Severi, Paolo; Raiteri, Maurizio; Pittaluga, Anna

    2008-11-19

    The effects of the recombinant chemokine human RANTES (hRANTES) on the release of glutamate from human neocortex glutamatergic nerve endings were investigated. hRANTES facilitated the spontaneous release of d [(3)H]D-aspartate ([(3)H]DASP-) by binding Pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), whose activation caused Ca(2+) mobilization from inositol trisphosphate-sensitive stores and cytosolic tyrosine kinase-mediated phosphorylations. Facilitation of release switched to inhibition when the effects of hRANTES on the 12 mM K(+)-evoked [(3)H]D-ASP exocytosis were studied. Inhibition of exocytosis relied on activation of Pertussis toxin-sensitive GPCRs negatively coupled to adenylyl cyclase. Both hRANTES effects were prevented by met-RANTES, an antagonist at the chemokine receptors (CCRs) of the CCR1, CCR3, and CCR5 subtypes. Interestingly, human neocortex glutamatergic nerve endings seem to possess all three receptor subtypes. Blockade of CCR1 and CCR5 by antibodies against the extracellular domain of CCRs prevented both the hRANTES effect on [(3)H]D-ASP release, whereas blockade of CCR3 prevented inhibition, but not facilitation, of release. The effects of RANTES on the spontaneous and the evoked release of [(3)H]D-ASP were also observed in experiments with mouse cortical synaptosomes, which may therefore represent an appropriate animal model to study RANTES-induced effects on neurotransmission. It is concluded that glutamate transmission can be modulated in opposite directions by RANTES acting at distinct CCR receptor subtypes coupled to different transduction pathways, consistent with the multiple and sometimes contrasting effects of the chemokine.

  13. Hispidulin inhibits the release of glutamate in rat cerebrocortical nerve terminals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Tzu-Yu [Department of Anesthesiology, Far-Eastern Memorial Hospital, Pan-Chiao District, New Taipei, 22060, Taiwan (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yuan Ze University, Taoyuan, 320, Taiwan (China); Lu, Cheng-Wei [Department of Anesthesiology, Far-Eastern Memorial Hospital, Pan-Chiao District, New Taipei, 22060, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chia-Chuan; Lu, Jyh-Feng [School of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, No.510, Zhongzheng Rd., Xinzhuang Dist., New Taipei, 24205, Taiwan (China); Wang, Su-Jane, E-mail: med0003@mail.fju.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Basic Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, No.510, Zhongzheng Rd., Xinzhuang Dist., New Taipei, 24205, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, No.510, Zhongzheng Rd., Xinzhuang Dist., New Taipei, 24205, Taiwan (China)

    2012-09-01

    Hispidulin, a naturally occurring flavone, has been reported to have an antiepileptic profile. An excessive release of glutamate is considered to be related to neuropathology of epilepsy. We investigated whether hispidulin affected endogenous glutamate release in rat cerebral cortex nerve terminals (synaptosomes) and explored the possible mechanism. Hispidulin inhibited the release of glutamate evoked by the K{sup +} channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP). The effects of hispidulin on the evoked glutamate release were prevented by the chelation of extracellular Ca{sup 2+} ions and the vesicular transporter inhibitor bafilomycin A1. However, the glutamate transporter inhibitor DL-threo-beta-benzyl-oxyaspartate did not have any effect on hispidulin action. Hispidulin reduced the depolarization-induced increase in cytosolic free Ca{sup 2+} concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub C}), but did not alter 4-AP-mediated depolarization. Furthermore, the effect of hispidulin on evoked glutamate release was abolished by blocking the Ca{sub v}2.2 (N-type) and Ca{sub v}2.1 (P/Q-type) channels, but not by blocking ryanodine receptors or mitochondrial Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+} exchange. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibition also prevented the inhibitory effect of hispidulin on evoked glutamate release. Western blot analyses showed that hispidulin decreased the 4-AP-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and synaptic vesicle-associated protein synapsin I, a major presynaptic substrate for ERK; this decrease was also blocked by the MEK inhibitor. Moreover, the inhibition of glutamate release by hispidulin was strongly attenuated in mice without synapsin I. These results show that hispidulin inhibits glutamate release from cortical synaptosomes in rats through the suppression of presynaptic voltage-dependent Ca{sup 2+} entry and ERK/synapsin I signaling pathway. -- Highlights: ► Hispidulin inhibited glutamate release from rat

  14. Hispidulin inhibits the release of glutamate in rat cerebrocortical nerve terminals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Tzu-Yu; Lu, Cheng-Wei; Wang, Chia-Chuan; Lu, Jyh-Feng; Wang, Su-Jane

    2012-01-01

    Hispidulin, a naturally occurring flavone, has been reported to have an antiepileptic profile. An excessive release of glutamate is considered to be related to neuropathology of epilepsy. We investigated whether hispidulin affected endogenous glutamate release in rat cerebral cortex nerve terminals (synaptosomes) and explored the possible mechanism. Hispidulin inhibited the release of glutamate evoked by the K + channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP). The effects of hispidulin on the evoked glutamate release were prevented by the chelation of extracellular Ca 2+ ions and the vesicular transporter inhibitor bafilomycin A1. However, the glutamate transporter inhibitor DL-threo-beta-benzyl-oxyaspartate did not have any effect on hispidulin action. Hispidulin reduced the depolarization-induced increase in cytosolic free Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] C ), but did not alter 4-AP-mediated depolarization. Furthermore, the effect of hispidulin on evoked glutamate release was abolished by blocking the Ca v 2.2 (N-type) and Ca v 2.1 (P/Q-type) channels, but not by blocking ryanodine receptors or mitochondrial Na + /Ca 2+ exchange. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibition also prevented the inhibitory effect of hispidulin on evoked glutamate release. Western blot analyses showed that hispidulin decreased the 4-AP-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and synaptic vesicle-associated protein synapsin I, a major presynaptic substrate for ERK; this decrease was also blocked by the MEK inhibitor. Moreover, the inhibition of glutamate release by hispidulin was strongly attenuated in mice without synapsin I. These results show that hispidulin inhibits glutamate release from cortical synaptosomes in rats through the suppression of presynaptic voltage-dependent Ca 2+ entry and ERK/synapsin I signaling pathway. -- Highlights: ► Hispidulin inhibited glutamate release from rat cerebrocortical synaptosomes. ► This action did

  15. Synaptic glutamate release by postnatal rat serotonergic neurons in microculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M D

    1994-02-01

    Serotonergic neurons are thought to play a role in depression and obsessive compulsive disorder. However, their functional transmitter repertoire is incompletely known. To investigate this repertoire, intracellular recordings were obtained from 132 cytochemically identified rat mesopontine serotonergic neurons that had re-established synapses in microcultures. Approximately 60% of the neurons evoked excitatory glutamatergic potentials in themselves or in target neurons. Glutamatergic transmission was frequently observed in microcultures containing a solitary serotonergic neuron. Evidence for co-release of serotonin and glutamate from single raphe neurons was also obtained. However, evidence for gamma-aminobutyric acid release by serotonergic neurons was observed in only two cases. These findings indicate that many cultured serotonergic neurons form glutamatergic synapses and may explain several observations in slices and in vivo.

  16. Deep brain stimulation results in local glutamate and adenosine release: investigation into the role of astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Vivianne L; Chang, Su-Youne; Hitti, Frederick L; Roberts, David W; Leiter, James C; Jovanovic, Svetlana; Lee, Kendall H

    2010-08-01

    Several neurological disorders are treated with deep brain stimulation; however, the mechanism underlying its ability to abolish oscillatory phenomena associated with diseases as diverse as Parkinson's disease and epilepsy remain largely unknown. To investigate the role of specific neurotransmitters in deep brain stimulation and determine the role of non-neuronal cells in its mechanism of action. We used the ferret thalamic slice preparation in vitro, which exhibits spontaneous spindle oscillations, to determine the effect of high-frequency stimulation on neurotransmitter release. We then performed experiments using an in vitro astrocyte culture to investigate the role of glial transmitter release in high-frequency stimulation-mediated abolishment of spindle oscillations. In this series of experiments, we demonstrated that glutamate and adenosine release in ferret slices was able to abolish spontaneous spindle oscillations. The glutamate release was still evoked in the presence of the Na channel blocker tetrodotoxin, but was eliminated with the vesicular H-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin and the calcium chelator 2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis acetoxymethyl ester. Furthermore, electrical stimulation of purified primary astrocytic cultures was able to evoke intracellular calcium transients and glutamate release, and bath application of 2-bis (2-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis acetoxymethyl ester inhibited glutamate release in this setting. Vesicular astrocytic neurotransmitter release may be an important mechanism by which deep brain stimulation is able to achieve clinical benefits.

  17. Intramuscular temperature modulates glutamate-evoked masseter muscle pain intensity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hitoshi; Castrillon, Eduardo E; Cairns, Brian E; Bendixen, Karina H; Wang, Kelun; Nakagawa, Taneaki; Wajima, Koichi; Svensson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether glutamate-evoked jaw muscle pain is altered by the temperature of the solution injected. Sixteen healthy volunteers participated and received injections of hot (48°C), neutral (36°C), or cold (3°C) solutions (0.5 mL) of glutamate or isotonic saline into the masseter muscle. Pain intensity was assessed with an electronic visual analog scale (eVAS). Numeric rating scale (NRS) scores of unpleasantness and temperature perception, pain-drawing areas, and pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were also measured. Participants filled out the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ). Two-way or three-way repeated measures ANOVA were used for data analyses. Injection of hot glutamate and cold glutamate solutions significantly increased and decreased, respectively, the peak pain intensity compared with injection of neutral glutamate solution. The duration of glutamate-evoked pain was significantly longer when hot glutamate was injected than when cold glutamate was injected. No significant effect of temperature on pain intensity was observed when isotonic saline was injected. No effect of solution temperature was detected on unpleasantness, heat perception, cold perception, area of pain drawings, or PPTs. There was a significantly greater use of the "numb" term in the MPQ to describe the injection of cold solutions compared to the injection of both neutral and hot solutions. Glutamate-evoked jaw muscle pain was significantly altered by the temperature of the injection solution. Although temperature perception in the jaw muscle is poor, pain intensity is increased when the muscle tissue temperature is elevated.

  18. Abnormal glutamate release in aged BTBR mouse model of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hongen; Ding, Caiyun; Jin, Guorong; Yin, Haizhen; Liu, Jianrong; Hu, Fengyun

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by abnormal reciprocal social interactions, communication deficits, and repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. Most of the available research on autism is focused on children and young adults and little is known about the pathological alternation of autism in older adults. In order to investigate the neurobiological alternation of autism in old age stage, we compared the morphology and synaptic function of excitatory synapses between the BTBR mice with low level sociability and B6 mice with high level sociability. The results revealed that the number of excitatory synapse colocalized with pre- and post-synaptic marker was not different between aged BTBR and B6 mice. The aged BTBR mice had a normal structure of dendritic spine and the expression of Shank3 protein in the brain as well as that in B6 mice. The baseline and KCl-evoked glutamate release from the cortical synaptoneurosome in aged BTBR mice was lower than that in aged B6 mice. Overall, the data indicate that there is a link between disturbances of the glutamate transmission and autism. These findings provide new evidences for the hypothesis of excitation/inhibition imbalance in autism. Further work is required to determine the cause of this putative abnormality.

  19. Co-release of glutamate and GABA from single vesicles in GABAergic neurons exogenously expressing VGLUT3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eZimmermann

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The identity of the vesicle neurotransmitter transporter expressed by a neuron largely corresponds with the primary neurotransmitter that cell releases. However, the vesicular glutamate transporter subtype 3 (VGLUT3 is mainly expressed in non-glutamatergic neurons, including cholinergic, serotonergic, or GABAergic neurons. Though a functional role for glutamate release from these non-glutamatergic neurons has been demonstrated, the interplay between VGLUT3 and the neuron’s characteristic neurotransmitter transporter, particularly in the case of GABAergic neurons, at the synaptic and vesicular level is less clear. In this study, we explore how exogenous expression of VGLUT3 in striatal GABAergic neurons affects the packaging and release of glutamate and GABA in synaptic vesicles. We found that VGLUT3 expression in isolated, autaptic GABAergic neurons leads to action potential evoked release of glutamate. Under these conditions, glutamate and GABA could be packaged together in single vesicles release either spontaneously or asynchronously. However, the presence of glutamate in GABAergic vesicles did not affect uptake of GABA itself, suggesting a lack of synergy in vesicle filling for these transmitters. Finally, we found postsynaptic detection of glutamate released from GABAergic terminals difficult when bona fide glutamatergic synapses were present, suggesting that co-released glutamate cannot induce postsynaptic glutamate receptor clustering.

  20. Amperometric Microsensors Monitoring Glutamate-Evoked In Situ Responses of Nitric Oxide and Carbon Monoxide from Live Human Neuroblastoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yejin Ha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the brain, nitric oxide (NO and carbon monoxide (CO are important signaling gases which have multifaceted roles, such as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, and vasodilators. Even though it is difficult to measure NO and CO in a living system due to their high diffusibility and extremely low release levels, electrochemical sensors are promising tools to measure in vivo and in vitro NO and CO gases. In this paper, using amperometric dual and septuple NO/CO microsensors, real-time NO and CO changes evoked by glutamate were monitored simultaneously for human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y cells. In cultures, the cells were differentiated and matured into functional neurons by retinoic acid and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. When glutamate was administrated to the cells, both NO and CO increases and subsequent decreases returning to the basal levels were observed with a dual NO/CO microsensor. In order to facilitate sensor’s measurement, a flower-type septuple NO/CO microsensor was newly developed and confirmed in terms of the sensitivity and selectivity. The septuple microsensor was employed for the measurements of NO and CO changes as a function of distances from the position of glutamate injection. Our sensor measurements revealed that only functionally differentiated cells responded to glutamate and released NO and CO.

  1. Acacetin inhibits glutamate release and prevents kainic acid-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Yu Lin

    Full Text Available An excessive release of glutamate is considered to be a molecular mechanism associated with several neurological diseases that causes neuronal damage. Therefore, searching for compounds that reduce glutamate neurotoxicity is necessary. In this study, the possibility that the natural flavone acacetin derived from the traditional Chinese medicine Clerodendrum inerme (L. Gaertn is a neuroprotective agent was investigated. The effect of acacetin on endogenous glutamate release in rat hippocampal nerve terminals (synaptosomes was also investigated. The results indicated that acacetin inhibited depolarization-evoked glutamate release and cytosolic free Ca(2+ concentration ([Ca(2+]C in the hippocampal nerve terminals. However, acacetin did not alter synaptosomal membrane potential. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of acacetin on evoked glutamate release was prevented by the Cav2.2 (N-type and Cav2.1 (P/Q-type channel blocker known as ω-conotoxin MVIIC. In a kainic acid (KA rat model, an animal model used for excitotoxic neurodegeneration experiments, acacetin (10 or 50 mg/kg was administrated intraperitoneally to the rats 30 min before the KA (15 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection, and subsequently induced the attenuation of KA-induced neuronal cell death and microglia activation in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. The present study demonstrates that the natural compound, acacetin, inhibits glutamate release from hippocampal synaptosomes by attenuating voltage-dependent Ca(2+ entry and effectively prevents KA-induced in vivo excitotoxicity. Collectively, these data suggest that acacetin has the therapeutic potential for treating neurological diseases associated with excitotoxicity.

  2. Parabrachial complex glutamate receptors modulate the cardiorespiratory response evoked from hypothalamic defense area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Casares, A; López-González, M V; Peinado-Aragonés, C A; González-Barón, S; Dawid-Milner, M S

    2012-08-16

    To characterize the possible role of glutamate in the interaction between Hypothalamic Defense Area (HDA) and Parabrachial complex (PBc) nuclei, cardiorespiratory changes were analyzed in response to electrical stimulation of the HDA (1 ms pulses, 30-50 μA given at 100 Hz for 5s) before and after the microinjection of the nonspecific glutamate receptor antagonist kynurenic acid (50 nl, 5 nmol), NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (50 nl, 50 nmol), non-NMDA receptor antagonist CNQX (50 nl, 50 nmol) or metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist MCPG (50 nl, 5 nmol) within the PBc. HDA stimulation evoked an inspiratory facilitatory response, consisting of an increase in respiratory rate (pHDA stimulation. Similarly, the magnitude of the tachycardia and the pressor response was decreased after the microinjection of MK-801 (pHDA stimulation but the respiratory response persisted unchanged after MK-801 or CNQX microinjection into the lPB. Kynurenic acid within the medial parabrachial region (mPB) abolished the tachycardia (pHDA stimulation. MK-801 and CNQX microinjection in this region decreased the magnitude of the tachycardia (pHDA stimulation was not changed after the microinjection of kynurenic acid, MK-801 or CNQX within the mPB. No changes were observed in the cardiorespiratory response evoked to HDA stimulation after MCPG microinjection within lPB and mPB. These results indicate that glutamate PBc receptors are involved in the cardiorespiratory response evoked from the HDA. The possible mechanisms involved in these interactions are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Palmitoylethanolamide Inhibits Glutamate Release in Rat Cerebrocortical Nerve Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Yu Lin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA, an endogenous fatty acid amide displaying neuroprotective actions, on glutamate release from rat cerebrocortical nerve terminals (synaptosomes was investigated. PEA inhibited the Ca2+-dependent release of glutamate, which was triggered by exposing synaptosomes to the potassium channel blocker 4-aminopyridine. This release inhibition was concentration dependent, associated with a reduction in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, and not due to a change in synaptosomal membrane potential. The glutamate release-inhibiting effect of PEA was prevented by the Cav2.1 (P/Q-type channel blocker ω-agatoxin IVA or the protein kinase A inhibitor H89, not affected by the intracellular Ca2+ release inhibitors dantrolene and CGP37157, and partially antagonized by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist AM281. Based on these results, we suggest that PEA exerts its presynaptic inhibition, likely through a reduction in the Ca2+ influx mediated by Cav2.1 (P/Q-type channels, thereby inhibiting the release of glutamate from rat cortical nerve terminals. This release inhibition might be linked to the activation of presynaptic cannabinoid CB1 receptors and the suppression of the protein kinase A pathway.

  4. Response of hippocampal mossy fiber zinc to excessive glutamate release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Atsushi; Minami, Akira; Sakurada, Naomi; Nakajima, Satoko; Oku, Naoto

    2007-01-01

    The response of hippocampal mossy fiber zinc to excessive glutamate release was examined to understand the role of the zinc in excessive excitation in the hippocampus. Extracellular zinc and glutamate concentrations during excessive stimulation with high K(+) were compared between the hippocampal CA3 and CA1 by the in vivo microdialysis. Zinc concentration in the CA3 was more increased than that in the CA1, while glutamate concentration in the CA3 was less increased than that in the CA1. It is likely that more increase in extracellular zinc is linked with less increase in extracellular glutamate in the CA3. To see zinc action in mossy fiber synapses during excessive excitation, furthermore, 1mM glutamate was regionally delivered to the stratum lucidum in the presence of zinc or CaEDTA, a membrane-impermeable zinc chelator, and intracellular calcium signal was measured in the CA3 pyramidal cell layer. The persistent increase in calcium signal during stimulation with glutamate was significantly attenuated in the presence of 100 microM zinc, while significantly enhanced in the presence of 1mM CaEDTA. These results suggest that zinc released from mossy fibers attenuates the increase in intracellular calcium signal in mossy fiber synapses and postsynaptic CA3 neurons after excessive inputs to dentate granular cells.

  5. Lycopene depresses glutamate release through inhibition of voltage-dependent Ca2+ entry and protein kinase C in rat cerebrocortical nerve terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng-Wei; Hung, Chi-Feng; Jean, Wei-Horng; Lin, Tzu-Yu; Huang, Shu-Kuei; Wang, Su-Jane

    2018-05-01

    Lycopene is a natural dietary carotenoid that was reported to exhibit a neuroprotective profile. Considering that excitotoxicity and cell death induced by glutamate are involved in many brain disorders, the effect of lycopene on glutamate release in rat cerebrocortical nerve terminals and the possible mechanism involved in such effect was investigated. We observed here that lycopene inhibited 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)-evoked glutamate release and intrasynaptosomal Ca 2+ concentration elevation. The inhibitory effect of lycopene on 4-AP-evoked glutamate release was markedly reduced in the presence of the Ca v 2.2 (N-type) and Ca v 2.1 (P/Q-type) channel blocker ω-conotoxin MVIIC, but was insensitive to the intracellular Ca 2+ -release inhibitors dantrolene and CGP37157. Furthermore, in the presence of the protein kinase C inhibitors GF109203X and Go6976, the action of lycopene on evoked glutamate release was prevented. These results are the first to suggest that lycopene inhibits glutamate release from rat cortical synaptosomes by suppressing presynaptic Ca 2+ entry and protein kinase C activity.

  6. Group I mGlu receptors potentiate synaptosomal [3H]glutamate release independently of exogenously applied arachidonic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, M.E.; Toms, N.J.; Bedingfield, J.S.; Roberts, P.J.

    1999-01-01

    In the current study, we have characterized group I metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor enhancement of 4-aminopyridine (4AP)-evoked [ 3 H]glutamate release from rat cerebrocortical synaptosomes. The broad spectrum mGlu receptor agonist (1S,3R)-1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid ((1S,3R)-ACPD, 10 μM) increased 4AP-evoked [ 3 H]glutamate release (143.32±2.73% control) only in the presence of exogenously applied arachidonic acid; an effect reversed by the inclusion of bovine serum albumin (BSA, fatty acid free). In contrast, the selective group I mGlu receptor agonist (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) potentiated (EC 50 =1.60±0.25 μM; E max =147.61±10.96% control) 4AP-evoked [ 3 H]glutamate release, in the absence of arachidonic acid. This potentiation could be abolished by either the selective mGlu 1 receptor antagonist (R,S)-1-aminoindan-1,5-dicarboxylic acid (AIDA, 1 mM) or the selective PKC inhibitor (Ro 31-8220, 10 μM) and was BSA-insensitive. The selective mGlu 5 receptor agonist (R,S)-2-chloro-5-hydroxyphenylglycine (CHPG, 300μM) was without effect. DHPG (100 μM) also potentiated both 30 mM and 50 mM K + -evoked [ 3 H]glutamate release (121.60±12.77% and 121.50±4.45% control, respectively). DHPG (100 μM) failed to influence both 4AP-stimulated 45 Ca 2+ influx and 50 mM K + -induced changes in synaptosomal membrane potential. Possible group I mGlu receptor suppression of tonic adenosine A 1 receptor, group II/III mGlu receptors or GABA B receptor activity is unlikely since 4AP-evoked [ 3 H]glutamate release was insensitive to the selective inhibitory receptor antagonists 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine, (R,S)-α-cyclopropyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine or CGP55845A, respectively. These data suggest an 'mGlu 1 receptor-like' receptor potentiates [ 3 H]glutamate release from cerebrocortical synaptosomes in the absence of exogenously applied arachidonic acid. This PKC dependent effect is unlikely to be via modulation of synaptosomal membrane

  7. Ciproxifan, a histamine H{sub 3} receptor antagonist and inverse agonist, presynaptically inhibits glutamate release in rat hippocampus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Cheng-Wei; Lin, Tzu-Yu [Department of Anesthesiology, Far-Eastern Memorial Hospital, Pan-Chiao District, New Taipei City 22060, Taiwan (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yuan Ze University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chia-Ying [Department of Anesthesiology, Far-Eastern Memorial Hospital, Pan-Chiao District, New Taipei City 22060, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemistry, Fu Jen Catholic University, No. 510, Chung-Cheng Road, Hsin-Chuang District, New Taipei City 24205, Taiwan (China); Huang, Shu-Kuei [Department of Anesthesiology, Far-Eastern Memorial Hospital, Pan-Chiao District, New Taipei City 22060, Taiwan (China); Wang, Su-Jane, E-mail: med0003@mail.fju.edu.tw [School of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, No. 510, Chung-Cheng Rd., Hsin-Chuang, New Taipei 24205, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Chinese Herbal Medicine, College of Human Ecology, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Taoyuan City, Taiwan (China)

    2017-03-15

    Ciproxifan is an H{sub 3} receptor antagonist and inverse agonist with antipsychotic effects in several preclinical models; its effect on glutamate release has been investigated in the rat hippocampus. In a synaptosomal preparation, ciproxifan reduced 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)-evoked Ca{sup 2+}-dependent glutamate release and cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} concentration elevation but did not affect the membrane potential. The inhibitory effect of ciproxifan on 4-AP-evoked glutamate release was prevented by the Gi/Go-protein inhibitor pertussis toxin and Ca{sub v}2.2 (N-type) and Ca{sub v}2.1 (P/Q-type) channel blocker ω-conotoxin MVIIC, but was not affected by the intracellular Ca{sup 2+}-release inhibitors dantrolene and CGP37157. Furthermore, the phospholipase A{sub 2} (PLA{sub 2}) inhibitor OBAA, prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}), PGE2 subtype 2 (EP{sub 2}) receptor antagonist PF04418948, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor FR180204 eliminated the inhibitory effect of ciproxifan on glutamate release. Ciproxifan reduced the 4-AP-evoked phosphorylation of ERK and synapsin I, a presynaptic target of ERK. The ciproxifan-mediated inhibition of glutamate release was prevented in synaptosomes from synapsin I-deficient mice. Moreover, ciproxifan reduced the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents without affecting their amplitude in hippocampal slices. Our data suggest that ciproxifan, acting through the blockade of Gi/Go protein-coupled H{sub 3} receptors present on hippocampal nerve terminals, reduces voltage-dependent Ca{sup 2+} entry by diminishing PLA{sub 2}/PGE{sub 2}/EP{sub 2} receptor pathway, which subsequently suppresses the ERK/synapsin I cascade to decrease the evoked glutamate release. - Highlights: • Ciproxifan presynaptically reduces glutamate release in the hippocampus in vitro. • Decrease in voltage-dependent Ca{sup 2+} influx is involved. • A role for the PLA{sub 2}/PGE{sub 2}/EP{sub 2} pathway in the action of

  8. Aspects of dopamine and acetylcholine release induced by glutamate receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paes, Paulo Cesar de Arruda

    2002-01-01

    The basal ganglia play an important role in the motor control of rats and humans. This control involves different neurotransmitters and the mutual control of these key elements has been subject to several studies. In this work we determined the role of glutamate on the release of radioactively labelled dopamine and acetylcholine from chopped striatal tissue in vitro. The values of Effective Concentration 50% for glutamate, NMDA, kainic, quisqualic acids and AMPA on the release of dopamine and acetylcholine were obtained. The inhibitory effects of magnesium, tetrodotoxin, MK-801, AP5 and MCPG, as well as the effects of glycin were evaluated. The results suggested that dopamine is influenced by the NMDA type glutamate receptor while acetylcholine seems to be influenced by NMDA, kainate and AMPA receptors. Tetrodotoxin experiments suggested that kainate receptors are both present in cholinergic terminals and cell bodies while AMPA and NMDA receptors are preferentially distributed in cell bodies. Magnesium effectively blocked the NMDA stimulation and unexpectedly also AMPA- and quisqualate-induced acetylcholine release. The latter could not be blocked by MCPG ruling out the participation of methabotropic receptors. MK-801 also blocked NMDA-receptors. Results point out the importance of the glutamic acid control of dopamine and acetylcholine release in striatal tissue. (author)

  9. Atorvastatin and Fluoxetine Prevent Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction Evoked by Glutamate Toxicity in Hippocampal Slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludka, Fabiana K; Dal-Cim, Tharine; Binder, Luisa Bandeira; Constantino, Leandra Celso; Massari, Caio; Tasca, Carla I

    2017-07-01

    Atorvastatin has been shown to exert a neuroprotective action by counteracting glutamatergic toxicity. Recently, we have shown atorvastatin also exerts an antidepressant-like effect that depends on both glutamatergic and serotonergic systems modulation. Excitotoxicity is involved in several brain disorders including depression; thus, it is suggested that antidepressants may target glutamatergic system as a final common pathway. In this study, a comparison of the mechanisms involved in the putative neuroprotective effect of a repetitive atorvastatin or fluoxetine treatment against glutamate toxicity in hippocampal slices was performed. Adult Swiss mice were treated with atorvastatin (10 mg/kg, p.o.) or fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, p.o.), once a day during seven consecutive days. On the eighth day, animals were killed and hippocampal slices were obtained and subjected to an in vitro protocol of glutamate toxicity. An acute treatment of atorvastatin or fluoxetine was not neuroprotective; however, the repeated atorvastatin or fluoxetine treatment prevented the decrease in cellular viability induced by glutamate in hippocampal slices. The loss of cellular viability induced by glutamate was accompanied by increased D-aspartate release, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production, and impaired mitochondrial membrane potential. Atorvastatin or fluoxetine repeated treatment also presented an antidepressant-like effect in the tail suspension test. Atorvastatin or fluoxetine treatment was effective in protecting mice hippocampal slices from glutamate toxicity by preventing the oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction.

  10. A Glutamate Homeostat Controls the Presynaptic Inhibition of Neurotransmitter Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiling Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: We have interrogated the synaptic dialog that enables the bi-directional, homeostatic control of presynaptic efficacy at the glutamatergic Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ. We find that homeostatic depression and potentiation use disparate genetic, induction, and expression mechanisms. Specifically, homeostatic potentiation is achieved through reduced CaMKII activity postsynaptically and increased abundance of active zone material presynaptically at one of the two neuronal subtypes innervating the NMJ, while homeostatic depression occurs without alterations in CaMKII activity and is expressed at both neuronal subtypes. Furthermore, homeostatic depression is only induced through excess presynaptic glutamate release and operates with disregard to the postsynaptic response. We propose that two independent homeostats modulate presynaptic efficacy at the Drosophila NMJ: one is an intercellular signaling system that potentiates synaptic strength following diminished postsynaptic excitability, while the other adaptively modulates presynaptic glutamate release through an autocrine mechanism without feedback from the postsynaptic compartment. : Homeostatic mechanisms stabilize synaptic strength, but the signaling systems remain enigmatic. Li et al. suggest the existence of a homeostat operating at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction that responds to excess glutamate through an autocrine mechanism to adaptively inhibit presynaptic neurotransmitter release. This system parallels forms of plasticity at central synapses. Keywords: homeostatic synaptic plasticity, glutamate homeostasis, synaptic depression, Drosophila neuromuscular junction

  11. Synaptically evoked Ca2+ release from intracellular stores is not influenced by vesicular zinc in CA3 hippocampal pyramidal neurones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evstratova, Alesya; Tóth, Katalin

    2011-12-01

    The co-release of neuromodulatory substances in combination with classic neurotransmitters such as glutamate and GABA from individual presynaptic nerve terminals has the capacity to dramatically influence synaptic efficacy and plasticity. At hippocampal mossy fibre synapses vesicular zinc is suggested to serve as a cotransmitter capable of regulating calcium release from internal stores in postsynaptic CA3 pyramidal cells. Here we investigated this possibility using combined intracellular ratiometric calcium imaging and patch-clamp recording techniques. In acute hippocampal slices a brief train of mossy fibre stimulation produced a large, delayed postsynaptic Ca(2+) wave that was spatially restricted to the proximal apical dendrites of CA3 pyramidal cells within stratum lucidum. This calcium increase was sensitive to intracellularly applied heparin indicating reliance upon release from internal stores and was triggered by activation of both group I metabotropic glutamate and NMDA receptors. Importantly, treatment of slices with the membrane-impermeant zinc chelator CaEDTA did not influence the synaptically evoked postsynaptic Ca(2+) waves. Moreover, mossy fibre stimulus evoked postsynaptic Ca(2+) signals were not significantly different between wild-type and zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3) knock-out animals. Considered together our data do not support a role for vesicular zinc in regulating mossy fibre evoked Ca(2+) release from CA3 pyramidal cell internal stores.

  12. Vesicular glutamate release from central axons contributes to myelin damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Sean; Hansen, Daniel Bloch; Vella, Jasmine; Bond, Peter; Harper, Glenn; Zammit, Christian; Valentino, Mario; Fern, Robert

    2018-03-12

    The axon myelin sheath is prone to injury associated with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor activation but the source of glutamate in this context is unknown. Myelin damage results in permanent action potential loss and severe functional deficit in the white matter of the CNS, for example in ischemic stroke. Here, we show that in rats and mice, ischemic conditions trigger activation of myelinic NMDA receptors incorporating GluN2C/D subunits following release of axonal vesicular glutamate into the peri-axonal space under the myelin sheath. Glial sources of glutamate such as reverse transport did not contribute significantly to this phenomenon. We demonstrate selective myelin uptake and retention of a GluN2C/D NMDA receptor negative allosteric modulator that shields myelin from ischemic injury. The findings potentially support a rational approach toward a low-impact prophylactic therapy to protect patients at risk of stroke and other forms of excitotoxic injury.

  13. Cerebellar Kainate Receptor-Mediated Facilitation of Glutamate Release Requires Ca2+-Calmodulin and PKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Falcón-Moya

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We elucidated the mechanisms underlying the kainate receptor (KAR-mediated facilitatory modulation of synaptic transmission in the cerebellum. In cerebellar slices, KA (3 μM increased the amplitude of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs at synapses between axon terminals of parallel fibers (PF and Purkinje neurons. KA-mediated facilitation was antagonized by NBQX under condition where AMPA receptors were previously antagonized. Inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA suppressed the effect of KA on glutamate release, which was also obviated by the prior stimulation of adenylyl cyclase (AC. KAR-mediated facilitation of synaptic transmission was prevented by blocking Ca2+ permeant KARs using philanthotoxin. Furthermore, depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores by thapsigargin, or inhibition of Ca2+-induced Ca2+-release by ryanodine, abrogated the synaptic facilitation by KA. Thus, the KA-mediated modulation was conditional on extracellular Ca2+ entry through Ca2+-permeable KARs, as well as and mobilization of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Finally, KAR-mediated facilitation was sensitive to calmodulin inhibitors, W-7 and calmidazolium, indicating that the increased cytosolic [Ca2+] sustaining KAR-mediated facilitation of synaptic transmission operates through a downstream Ca2+/calmodulin coupling. We conclude that, at cerebellar parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses, presynaptic KARs mediate glutamate release facilitation, and thereby enhance synaptic transmission through Ca2+-calmodulin dependent activation of adenylyl cyclase/cAMP/protein kinase A signaling.

  14. Pyrethroid insecticides evoke neurotransmitter release from rabbit striatal slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eells, J.T.; Dubocovich, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of the synthetic pyrethroid insecticide fenvalerate ([R,S]-alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl[R,S]-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-3- methylbutyrate) on neurotransmitter release in rabbit brain slices were investigated. Fenvalerate evoked a calcium-dependent release of [ 3 H]dopamine and [ 3 H]acetylcholine from rabbit striatal slices that was concentration-dependent and specific for the toxic stereoisomer of the insecticide. The release of [ 3 H]dopamine and [ 3 H]acetylcholine by fenvalerate was modulated by D2 dopamine receptor activation and antagonized completely by the sodium channel blocker, tetrodotoxin. These findings are consistent with an action of fenvalerate on the voltage-dependent sodium channels of the presynaptic membrane resulting in membrane depolarization, and the release of dopamine and acetylcholine by a calcium-dependent exocytotic process. In contrast to results obtained in striatal slices, fenvalerate did not elicit the release of [ 3 H]norepinephrine or [ 3 H]acetylcholine from rabbit hippocampal slices indicative of regional differences in sensitivity to type II pyrethroid actions

  15. Ebselen increases cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration, stimulates glutamate release and increases GFAP content in rat hippocampal astrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, Miguel; Pariente, Jose Antonio; Salido, Gines Maria; Gonzalez, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of the seleno-organic compound and radical scavenger ebselen on rat hippocampal astrocytes in culture. Throughout our study we carried out determinations of [Ca 2+ ] c in fura-2-loaded cells by single cell imaging, glutamate secretion employing an enzymatic-based assay and GFAP expression, which was monitorized by immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy. Our results show that ebselen (1-20 μM) dose dependently increases [Ca 2+ ] c , stimulates glutamate release and increases GFAP content, a hallmark of astrocyte reactivity. Ebselen did not alter significantly cell viability as assayed by determination of LDH release into the extracellular medium. Ebselen-evoked glutamate release and increase in GFAP content were Ca 2+ -dependent, because incubation of astrocytes in the absence of extracellular Ca 2+ (medium containing 0.5 mM EGTA) and in the presence of the intracellular Ca 2+ chelator BAPTA (10 μM) significantly reduced ebselen-evoked changes in these parameters. The effects of ebselen we have observed may underline various signalling pathways which are important for cell proliferation, differentiation and function. However, aberrations in astroglial physiology could significantly compromise brain function, due to their role as modulators of neuron activity. Therefore, we consider that careful attention should be paid when employing ebselen as a prophylactic agent against brain damage

  16. Group I mGlu receptors potentiate synaptosomal [{sup 3}H]glutamate release independently of exogenously applied arachidonic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, M.E.; Toms, N.J.; Bedingfield, J.S.; Roberts, P.J. [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol, BS8 1TD (United Kingdom)

    1999-04-01

    In the current study, we have characterized group I metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor enhancement of 4-aminopyridine (4AP)-evoked [{sup 3}H]glutamate release from rat cerebrocortical synaptosomes. The broad spectrum mGlu receptor agonist (1S,3R)-1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid ((1S,3R)-ACPD, 10 {mu}M) increased 4AP-evoked [{sup 3}H]glutamate release (143.32{+-}2.73% control) only in the presence of exogenously applied arachidonic acid; an effect reversed by the inclusion of bovine serum albumin (BSA, fatty acid free). In contrast, the selective group I mGlu receptor agonist (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) potentiated (EC{sub 50}=1.60{+-}0.25 {mu}M; E{sub max}=147.61{+-}10.96% control) 4AP-evoked [{sup 3}H]glutamate release, in the absence of arachidonic acid. This potentiation could be abolished by either the selective mGlu{sub 1} receptor antagonist (R,S)-1-aminoindan-1,5-dicarboxylic acid (AIDA, 1 mM) or the selective PKC inhibitor (Ro 31-8220, 10 {mu}M) and was BSA-insensitive. The selective mGlu{sub 5} receptor agonist (R,S)-2-chloro-5-hydroxyphenylglycine (CHPG, 300{mu}M) was without effect. DHPG (100 {mu}M) also potentiated both 30 mM and 50 mM K{sup +}-evoked [{sup 3}H]glutamate release (121.60{+-}12.77% and 121.50{+-}4.45% control, respectively). DHPG (100 {mu}M) failed to influence both 4AP-stimulated {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} influx and 50 mM K{sup +}-induced changes in synaptosomal membrane potential. Possible group I mGlu receptor suppression of tonic adenosine A{sub 1} receptor, group II/III mGlu receptors or GABA{sub B} receptor activity is unlikely since 4AP-evoked [{sup 3}H]glutamate release was insensitive to the selective inhibitory receptor antagonists 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine, (R,S)-{alpha}-cyclopropyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine or CGP55845A, respectively. These data suggest an 'mGlu{sub 1} receptor-like' receptor potentiates [{sup 3}H]glutamate release from cerebrocortical synaptosomes in the absence of

  17. Effects of Ketamine and Ketamine Metabolites on Evoked Striatal Dopamine Release, Dopamine Receptors, and Monoamine Transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Adem; Zanos, Panos; Moaddel, Ruin; Kang, Hye Jin; Dossou, Katinia S. S.; Wainer, Irving W.; Cheer, Joseph F.; Frost, Douglas O.; Huang, Xi-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Following administration at subanesthetic doses, (R,S)-ketamine (ketamine) induces rapid and robust relief from symptoms of depression in treatment-refractory depressed patients. Previous studies suggest that ketamine’s antidepressant properties involve enhancement of dopamine (DA) neurotransmission. Ketamine is rapidly metabolized to (2S,6S)- and (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine (HNK), which have antidepressant actions independent of N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor inhibition. These antidepressant actions of (2S,6S;2R,6R)-HNK, or other metabolites, as well as ketamine’s side effects, including abuse potential, may be related to direct effects on components of the dopaminergic (DAergic) system. Here, brain and blood distribution/clearance and pharmacodynamic analyses at DA receptors (D1–D5) and the DA, norepinephrine, and serotonin transporters were assessed for ketamine and its major metabolites (norketamine, dehydronorketamine, and HNKs). Additionally, we measured electrically evoked mesolimbic DA release and decay using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry following acute administration of subanesthetic doses of ketamine (2, 10, and 50 mg/kg, i.p.). Following ketamine injection, ketamine, norketamine, and multiple hydroxynorketamines were detected in the plasma and brain of mice. Dehydronorketamine was detectable in plasma, but concentrations were below detectable limits in the brain. Ketamine did not alter the magnitude or kinetics of evoked DA release in the nucleus accumbens in anesthetized mice. Neither ketamine’s enantiomers nor its metabolites had affinity for DA receptors or the DA, noradrenaline, and serotonin transporters (up to 10 μM). These results suggest that neither the side effects nor antidepressant actions of ketamine or ketamine metabolites are associated with direct effects on mesolimbic DAergic neurotransmission. Previously observed in vivo changes in DAergic neurotransmission following ketamine administration are likely indirect. PMID

  18. Focal and temporal release of glutamate in the mushroom bodies improves olfactory memory in Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Fernando; Bundrock, Gesine; Müller, Uli

    2005-12-14

    In contrast to vertebrates, the role of the neurotransmitter glutamate in learning and memory in insects has hardly been investigated. The reason is that a pharmacological characterization of insect glutamate receptors is still missing; furthermore, it is difficult to locally restrict pharmacological interventions. In this study, we overcome these problems by using locally and temporally defined photo-uncaging of glutamate to study its role in olfactory learning and memory formation in the honeybee, Apis mellifera. Uncaging glutamate in the mushroom bodies immediately after a weak training protocol induced a higher memory rate 2 d after training, mimicking the effect of a strong training protocol. Glutamate release before training does not facilitate memory formation, suggesting that glutamate mediates processes triggered by training and required for memory formation. Uncaging glutamate in the antennal lobes shows no effect on memory formation. These results provide the first direct evidence for a temporally and locally restricted function of glutamate in memory formation in honeybees and insects.

  19. Loss of Local Astrocyte Support Disrupts Action Potential Propagation and Glutamate Release Synchrony from Unmyelinated Hippocampal Axon Terminals In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieski, Courtney; Jiang, Xiaoping; Crawford, Devon C; Mennerick, Steven

    2015-08-05

    Neuron-astrocyte interactions are critical for proper CNS development and function. Astrocytes secrete factors that are pivotal for synaptic development and function, neuronal metabolism, and neuronal survival. Our understanding of this relationship, however, remains incomplete due to technical hurdles that have prevented the removal of astrocytes from neuronal circuits without changing other important conditions. Here we overcame this obstacle by growing solitary rat hippocampal neurons on microcultures that were comprised of either an astrocyte bed (+astrocyte) or a collagen bed (-astrocyte) within the same culture dish. -Astrocyte autaptic evoked EPSCs, but not IPSCs, displayed an altered temporal profile, which included increased synaptic delay, increased time to peak, and severe glutamate release asynchrony, distinct from previously described quantal asynchrony. Although we observed minimal alteration of the somatically recorded action potential waveform, action potential propagation was altered. We observed a longer latency between somatic initiation and arrival at distal locations, which likely explains asynchronous EPSC peaks, and we observed broadening of the axonal spike, which likely underlies changes to evoked EPSC onset. No apparent changes in axon structure were observed, suggesting altered axonal excitability. In conclusion, we propose that local astrocyte support has an unappreciated role in maintaining glutamate release synchrony by disturbing axonal signal propagation. Certain glial cell types (oligodendrocytes, Schwann cells) facilitate the propagation of neuronal electrical signals, but a role for astrocytes has not been identified despite many other functions of astrocytes in supporting and modulating neuronal signaling. Under identical global conditions, we cultured neurons with or without local astrocyte support. Without local astrocytes, glutamate transmission was desynchronized by an alteration of the waveform and arrival time of axonal

  20. Activation of presynaptic oxytocin receptors enhances glutamate release in the ventral hippocampus of prenatally restraint stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairesse, Jérôme; Gatta, Eleonora; Reynaert, Marie-Line; Marrocco, Jordan; Morley-Fletcher, Sara; Soichot, Marion; Deruyter, Lucie; Camp, Gilles Van; Bouwalerh, Hammou; Fagioli, Francesca; Pittaluga, Anna; Allorge, Delphine; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Maccari, Stefania

    2015-12-01

    Oxytocin receptors are known to modulate synaptic transmission and network activity in the hippocampus, but their precise function has been only partially elucidated. Here, we have found that activation of presynaptic oxytocin receptor with the potent agonist, carbetocin, enhanced depolarization-evoked glutamate release in the ventral hippocampus with no effect on GABA release. This evidence paved the way for examining the effect of carbetocin treatment in "prenatally restraint stressed" (PRS) rats, i.e., the offspring of dams exposed to repeated episodes of restraint stress during pregnancy. Adult PRS rats exhibit an anxious/depressive-like phenotype associated with an abnormal glucocorticoid feedback regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and, remarkably, with a reduced depolarization-evoked glutamate release in the ventral hippocampus. Chronic systemic treatment with carbetocin (1mg/kg, i.p., once a day for 2-3 weeks) in PRS rats corrected the defect in glutamate release, anxiety- and depressive-like behavior, and abnormalities in social behavior, in the HPA response to stress, and in the expression of stress-related genes in the hippocampus and amygdala. Of note, carbetocin treatment had no effect on these behavioral and neuroendocrine parameters in prenatally unstressed (control) rats, with the exception of a reduced expression of the oxytocin receptor gene in the amygdala. These findings disclose a novel function of oxytocin receptors in the hippocampus, and encourage the use of oxytocin receptor agonists in the treatment of stress-related psychiatric disorders in adult life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of glutamate-evoked pain and sustained elevated muscle activity on blood oxygenation in the human masseter muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shunichi; Arima, Taro; Kitagawa, Yoshimasa; Svensson, Peter; Castrillon, Eduardo

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of glutamate-evoked masseter muscle pain on intramuscular oxygenation during rest and sustained elevated muscle activity (SEMA). Seventeen healthy individuals participated in two sessions in which they were injected with glutamate and saline in random order. Each session was divided into three, 10-min periods. During the first (period 1) and the last (period 3) 10-min periods, participants performed five intercalated 1-min bouts of masseter SEMA with 1-min periods of 'rest'. At onset of the second 10-min period, glutamate (0.5 ml, 1 M; Ajinomoto, Tokyo, Japan) or isotonic saline (0.5 ml; 0.9%) was injected into the masseter muscle and the participants kept the muscle relaxed in a resting position for 10 min (period 2). The hemodynamic characteristics of the masseter muscle were recorded simultaneously during the experiment by a laser blood-oxygenation monitor. The results demonstrated that glutamate injections caused significant levels of self-reported pain in the masseter muscle; however, this nociceptive input did not have robust effects on intramuscular oxygenation during rest or SEMA tasks. Interestingly, these findings suggest an uncoupling between acute nociceptive activity and hemodynamic parameters in both resting and low-level active jaw muscles. Further studies are needed to explore the pathophysiological significance of blood-flow changes for persistent jaw-muscle pain conditions. © 2017 Eur J Oral Sci.

  2. The human immunodeficiency virus-1 protein Tat and its discrete fragments evoke selective release of acetylcholine from human and rat cerebrocortical terminals through species-specific mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feligioni, Marco; Raiteri, Luca; Pattarini, Roberto; Grilli, Massimo; Bruzzone, Santina; Cavazzani, Paolo; Raiteri, Maurizio; Pittaluga, Anna

    2003-07-30

    The effect of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 protein Tat was investigated on neurotransmitter release from human and rat cortical nerve endings. Tat failed to affect the release of several neurotransmitters, such as glutamate, GABA, norepinephrine, and others, but it evoked the release of [3H]ACh via increase of cytosolic [Ca2+]. In human nerve terminals, the Tat effect partly depends on Ca2+ entry through voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels, because Cd2+ halved the Tat-evoked release. Activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) and mobilization of Ca2+ from IP3-sensitive intraterminal stores are also involved, because the Tat effect was prevented by mGluR antagonists 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine hydrochloride and 7-(hydroxyimino)cyclopropa[b]chromen-1a-carboxylate ethyl ester and by the IP3 receptor antagonists heparin and xestospongin C. Furthermore, the group I selective mGlu agonist (RS)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine enhanced [3H]ACh release. In rat nerve terminals, the Tat-evoked release neither depends on external Ca2+ ions entry nor on IP3-mediated mechanisms. Tat seems to cause mobilization of Ca2+ from ryanodine-sensitive internal stores because its effect was prevented by both 8-bromo-cyclic adenosine diphosphate-ribose and dantrolene. The Tat-evoked release from human synaptosomes was mimicked by the peptide sequences Tat 32-62, Tat 49-86, and Tat 41-60. In contrast, the Tat 49-86 and Tat 61-80 fragments, but not the Tat 32-62 fragment, were active in rat synaptosomes. In conclusion, Tat elicits Ca2+-dependent [3H]ACh release by species-specific intraterminal mechanisms by binding via discrete amino acid sequences to different receptive sites on human and rat cholinergic terminals.

  3. Glutamate-induced glutamate release: A proposed mechanism for calcium bursting in astrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larter, Raima; Craig, Melissa Glendening

    2005-12-01

    Here we present a new model for the generation of complex calcium-bursting patterns in astrocytes, a type of brain cell recently implicated in a variety of neural functions including memory formation. The model involves two positive feedback processes, in which the key feedback species are calcium ion and glutamate. The latter is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and has been shown to be involved in bidirectional communication between astrocytes and nearby neurons. The glutamate feedback process considered here is shown to be critical for the generation of complex bursting oscillations in the astrocytes and to, perhaps, code for information which may be passed from neuron to neuron via the astrocyte. These processes may be involved in memory storage and formation as well as in mechanisms which lead to dynamical diseases such as epilepsy.

  4. Pharmacological or genetic orexin 1 receptor inhibition attenuates MK-801 induced glutamate release in mouse cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah eAluisio

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The orexin/hypocretin neuropeptides are produced by a cluster of neurons within the lateral posterior hypothalamus and participate in neuronal regulation by activating their receptors (OX1 and OX2 receptors. The orexin system projects widely through the brain and functions as an interface between multiple regulatory systems including wakefulness, energy balance, stress, reward and emotion. Recent studies have demonstrated that orexins and glutamate interact at the synaptic level and that orexins facilitate glutamate actions. We tested the hypothesis that orexins modulate glutamate signaling via OX1 receptors by monitoring levels of glutamate in frontal cortex of freely moving mice using enzyme coated biosensors under inhibited OX1 receptor conditions. MK-801, an NMDA receptor antagonist, was administered subcutaneously (0.178 mg/kg to indirectly disinhibit pyramidal neurons and therefore increase cortical glutamate release. In wild-type mice, pretreatment with the OX1 receptor antagonist GSK-1059865 (10 mg/kg S.C. which had no effect by itself, significantly attenuated the cortical glutamate release elicited by MK-801. OX1 receptor knockout mice had a blunted glutamate release response to MK-801 and exhibited about half of the glutamate release observed in wild-type mice in agreement with the data obtained with transient blockade of OX1 receptors. These results indicate that pharmacological (transient or genetic (permanent inhibition of the OX1 receptor similarly interfere with glutamatergic function in the cortex. Selectively targeting the OX1 receptor with an antagonist may normalize hyperglutamatergic states and thus may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of various psychiatric disorders associated with hyperactive states.

  5. Role of astrocytes in depolarization-coupled release of glutamate in cerebellar cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Lasse K; Waagepetersen, Helle S; Schousboe, Arne

    2004-01-01

    Release of preloaded D-[3H]aspartate in response to depolarization induced by high potassium, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) or the endogenous agonist glutamate was studied using cultured glutamatergic cerebellar granule neurons, cerebell...

  6. Mechanisms of constitutive and ATP-evoked ATP release in neonatal mouse olfactory epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayoz Sébastien

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ATP is an extracellular signaling molecule with many ascribed functions in sensory systems, including the olfactory epithelium. The mechanism(s by which ATP is released in the olfactory epithelium has not been investigated. Quantitative luciferin-luciferase assays were used to monitor ATP release, and confocal imaging of the fluorescent ATP marker quinacrine was used to monitor ATP release via exocytosis in Swiss Webster mouse neonatal olfactory epithelial slices. Results Under control conditions, constitutive release of ATP occurs via exocytosis, hemichannels and ABC transporters and is inhibited by vesicular fusion inhibitor Clostridium difficile toxin A and hemichannel and ABC transporter inhibitor probenecid. Constitutive ATP release is negatively regulated by the ATP breakdown product ADP through activation of P2Y receptors, likely via the cAMP/PKA pathway. In vivo studies indicate that constitutive ATP may play a role in neuronal homeostasis as inhibition of exocytosis inhibited normal proliferation in the OE. ATP-evoked ATP release is also present in mouse neonatal OE, triggered by several ionotropic P2X purinergic receptor agonists (ATP, αβMeATP and Bz-ATP and a G protein-coupled P2Y receptor agonist (UTP. Calcium imaging of P2X2-transfected HEK293 “biosensor” cells confirmed the presence of evoked ATP release. Following purinergic receptor stimulation, ATP is released via calcium-dependent exocytosis, activated P2X1,7 receptors, activated P2X7 receptors that form a complex with pannexin channels, or ABC transporters. The ATP-evoked ATP release is inhibited by the purinergic receptor inhibitor PPADS, Clostridium difficile toxin A and two inhibitors of pannexin channels: probenecid and carbenoxolone. Conclusions The constitutive release of ATP might be involved in normal cell turn-over or modulation of odorant sensitivity in physiological conditions. Given the growth-promoting effects of ATP, ATP-evoked ATP

  7. The glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) mediates L-glutamate-stimulated ascorbate-release via swelling-activated anion channels in cultured neonatal rodent astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Darius J R; Lawen, Alfons

    2013-03-01

    Vitamin C (ascorbate) plays important neuroprotective and neuromodulatory roles in the mammalian brain. Astrocytes are crucially involved in brain ascorbate homeostasis and may assist in regenerating extracellular ascorbate from its oxidised forms. Ascorbate accumulated by astrocytes can be released rapidly by a process that is stimulated by the excitatory amino acid, L-glutamate. This process is thought to be neuroprotective against excitotoxicity. Although of potential clinical interest, the mechanism of this stimulated ascorbate-release remains unknown. Here, we report that primary cultures of mouse and rat astrocytes release ascorbate following initial uptake of dehydroascorbate and accumulation of intracellular ascorbate. Ascorbate-release was not due to cellular lysis, as assessed by cellular release of the cytosolic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase, and was stimulated by L-glutamate and L-aspartate, but not the non-excitatory amino acid L-glutamine. This stimulation was due to glutamate-induced cellular swelling, as it was both attenuated by hypertonic and emulated by hypotonic media. Glutamate-stimulated ascorbate-release was also sensitive to inhibitors of volume-sensitive anion channels, suggesting that the latter may provide the conduit for ascorbate efflux. Glutamate-stimulated ascorbate-release was not recapitulated by selective agonists of either ionotropic or group I metabotropic glutamate receptors, but was completely blocked by either of two compounds, TFB-TBOA and UCPH-101, which non-selectively and selectively inhibit the glial Na(+)-dependent excitatory amino acid transporter, GLAST, respectively. These results suggest that an impairment of astrocytic ascorbate-release may exacerbate neuronal dysfunction in neurodegenerative disorders and acute brain injury in which excitotoxicity and/or GLAST deregulation have been implicated.

  8. Effects of glutamate receptor agonists on the P13 auditory evoked potential and startle response in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christen eSimon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The P13 potential is the rodent equivalent of the P50 potential, which is an evoked response recorded at the vertex (Vx 50 msec following an auditory stimulus in humans. Both the P13 and P50 potentials are only present during waking and rapid eye movement (REM sleep, and are considered to be measures of level of arousal. The source of the P13 and P50 potentials appears to be the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN, a brainstem nucleus with indirect ascending projections to the cortex through the intralaminar thalamus (ILT, mediating arousal, and descending inhibitory projections to the caudal pontine reticular formation (CPRF, which mediates the auditory startle response (SR. We tested the hypothesis that intracranial microinjection (ICM of glutamate (GLU or GLU receptor agonists will increase the activity of PPN neurons, resulting in an increased P13 potential response, and decreased SR due to inhibitory projections from the PPN to the CPRF, in freely moving animals. Cannulae were inserted into the PPN to inject neuroactive agents, screws were inserted into the Vx in order to record the P13 potential, and electrodes inserted into the dorsal nuchal muscle to record electromyograms (EMGs and SR amplitude. Our results showed that ICM of GLU into the PPN dose-dependently increased the amplitude of the P13 potential and decreased the amplitude of the SR. Similarly, ICM of NMDA or KA into the PPN increased the amplitude of the P13 potential. These findings indicate that glutamatergic input to the PPN plays a role in arousal control in vivo, and changes in glutamatergic input, or excitability of PPN neurons, could be implicated in a number of neuropsychiatric disorders with the common symptoms of hyperarousal and REM sleep dysregulation.

  9. Ischemic damage in hippocampal CA1 is dependent on glutamate release and intact innervation from CA3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benveniste, H; Jørgensen, M B; Sandberg, M

    1989-01-01

    The removal of glutamatergic afferents to CA1 by destruction of the CA3 region is known to protect CA1 pyramidal cells against 10 min of transient global ischemia. To investigate further the pathogenetic significance of glutamate, we measured the release of glutamate in intact and CA3-lesioned CA...

  10. Cold urticaria. Dissociation of cold-evoked histamine release and urticara following cold challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keahey, T M; Greaves, M W

    1980-02-01

    Nine patients with acquired cold urticaria were studied to assess the effects of beta-adrenergic agents, xanthines, and corticosteroids on cold-evoked histamine release from skin in vivo. The patients, in all of whom an immediate urticarial response developed after cooling of the forearm, demonstrated release of histamine into the venous blood draining that forearm. Following treatment with aminophylline and albuterol in combination or prednisone alone, suppression of histamine release occurred in all but one patient. In some patients, this was accompanied by a subjective diminution in pruritus or buring, but there was no significant improvement in the ensuing edema or erythema. In one patient, total suppression of histamine release was achieved without any effect on whealing and erythema in response to cold challenge. Our results suggest that histamine is not central to the pathogenesis of vascular changes in acquired cold urticaria.

  11. NMDAR-mediated calcium transients elicited by glutamate co-release at developing inhibitory synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Kalmbach

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Before hearing onset, the topographic organization of the inhibitory sound localization pathway from the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB to the lateral superior olive (LSO is refined by means of synaptic silencing and strengthening. During this refinement period MNTB-LSO synapses not only release GABA and glycine but also release glutamate. This co-released glutamate can elicit postsynaptic currents that are predominantly mediated by NMDA receptors (NMDARs. To gain a better understanding of how glutamate contributes to synaptic signaling at developing MNTB-LSO inhibitory synapse, we investigated to what degree and under what conditions NMDARs contribute to postsynaptic calcium responses. Our results demonstrate that MNTB-LSO synapses can elicit compartmentalized calcium responses along aspiny LSO dendrites. These responses are significantly attenuated by the NMDARs antagonist APV. APV, however, has no effect on somatically recorded electrical postsynaptic responses, indicating little, if any, contribution of NMDARs to spike generation. Small NMDAR-mediated calcium responses were also observed under physiological levels of extracellular magnesium concentrations indicating that MNTB-LSO synapses activate magnesium sensitive NMDAR on immature LSO dendrites. In Fura-2 AM loaded neurons, blocking GABAA and glycine receptors decreased NMDAR contribution to somatic calcium responses suggesting that GABA and glycine, perhaps by shunting backpropagating action potentials, decrease the level of NMDAR activation under strong stimulus conditions.

  12. Parallel expression of synaptophysin and evoked neurotransmitter release during development of cultured neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrhart-Bornstein, M; Treiman, M; Hansen, Gert Helge

    1991-01-01

    Primary cultures of GABAergic cerebral cortex neurons and glutamatergic cerebellar granule cells were used to study the expression of synaptophysin, a synaptic vesicle marker protein, along with the ability of each cell type to release neurotransmitter upon stimulation. The synaptophysin expression...... by quantitative immunoblotting and light microscope immunocytochemistry, respectively. In both cell types, a close parallelism was found between the temporal pattern of development in synaptophysin expression and neurotransmitter release. This temporal pattern differed between the two types of neurons....... The cerebral cortex neurons showed a biphasic time course of increase in synaptophysin content, paralleled by a biphasic pattern of development in their ability to release [3H]GABA in response to depolarization by glutamate or elevated K+ concentrations. In contrast, a monophasic, approximately linear increase...

  13. Glutamate and Opioid Antagonists Modulate Dopamine Levels Evoked by Innately Attractive Male Chemosignals in the Nucleus Accumbens of Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Catalán, María-José; Orrico, Alejandro; Hipólito, Lucía; Zornoza, Teodoro; Polache, Ana; Lanuza, Enrique; Martínez-García, Fernando; Granero, Luis; Agustín-Pavón, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Sexual chemosignals detected by vomeronasal and olfactory systems mediate intersexual attraction in rodents, and act as a natural reinforcer to them. The mesolimbic pathway processes natural rewards, and the nucleus accumbens receives olfactory information via glutamatergic projections from the amygdala. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of the mesolimbic pathway in the attraction toward sexual chemosignals. Our data show that female rats with no previous experience with males or their chemosignals display an innate preference for male-soiled bedding. Focal administration of the opioid antagonist β-funaltrexamine into the posterior ventral tegmental area does not affect preference for male chemosignals. Nevertheless, exposure to male-soiled bedding elicits an increase in dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens shell and core, measured by microdialysis. Infusion of the opioid antagonist naltrexone in the accumbens core does not significantly affect dopamine efflux during exposure to male chemosignals, although it enhances dopamine levels 40 min after withdrawal of the stimuli. By contrast, infusion of the glutamate antagonist kynurenic acid in the accumbens shell inhibits the release of dopamine and reduces the time that females spend investigating male-soiled bedding. These data are in agreement with previous reports in male rats showing that exposure to opposite-sex odors elicits dopamine release in the accumbens, and with data in female mice showing that the behavioral preference for male chemosignals is not affected by opioidergic antagonists. We hypothesize that glutamatergic projections from the amygdala into the accumbens might be important to modulate the neurochemical and behavioral responses elicited by sexual chemosignals in rats.

  14. Glutamate acts as a neurotransmitter for gastrin releasing peptide-sensitive and insensitive itch-related synaptic transmission in mammalian spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Jennifer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Itch sensation is one of the major sensory experiences of human and animals. Recent studies have proposed that gastrin releasing peptide (GRP is a key neurotransmitter for itch in spinal cord. However, no direct evidence is available to indicate that GRP actually mediate responses between primary afferent fibers and dorsal horn neurons. Here we performed integrative neurobiological experiments to test this question. We found that a small population of rat dorsal horn neurons responded to GRP application with increases in calcium signaling. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings revealed that a part of superficial dorsal horn neurons responded to GRP application with the increase of action potential firing in adult rats and mice, and these dorsal horn neurons received exclusively primary afferent C-fiber inputs. On the other hands, few Aδ inputs receiving cells were found to be GRP positive. Finally, we found that evoked sensory responses between primary afferent C fibers and GRP positive superficial dorsal horn neurons are mediated by glutamate but not GRP. CNQX, a blocker of AMPA and kainate (KA receptors, completely inhibited evoked EPSCs, including in those Fos-GFP positive dorsal horn cells activated by itching. Our findings provide the direct evidence that glutamate is the principal excitatory transmitter between C fibers and GRP positive dorsal horn neurons. Our results will help to understand the neuronal mechanism of itch and aid future treatment for patients with pruritic disease.

  15. Monte carlo simulation of vesicular release, spatiotemporal distribution of glutamate in synaptic cleft and generation of postsynaptic currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavinovíc, M I

    1999-02-01

    The release of vesicular glutamate, spatiotemporal changes in glutamate concentration in the synaptic cleft and the subsequent generation of fast excitatory postsynaptic currents at a hippocampal synapse were modeled using the Monte Carlo method. It is assumed that glutamate is released from a spherical vesicle through a cylindrical fusion pore into the synaptic cleft and that S-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy -5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors are uniformly distributed postsynaptically. The time course of change in vesicular concentration can be described by a single exponential, but a slow tail is also observed though only following the release of most of the glutamate. The time constant of decay increases with vesicular size and a lower diffusion constant, and is independent of the initial concentration, becoming markedly shorter for wider fusion pores. The cleft concentration at the fusion pore mouth is not negligible compared to vesicular concentration, especially for wider fusion pores. Lateral equilibration of glutamate is rapid, and within approximately 50 micros all AMPA receptors on average see the same concentration of glutamate. Nevertheless the single-channel current and the number of channels estimated from mean-variance plots are unreliable and different when estimated from rise- and decay-current segments. Greater saturation of AMPA receptor channels provides higher but not more accurate estimates. Two factors contribute to the variability of postsynaptic currents and render the mean-variance nonstationary analysis unreliable, even when all receptors see on average the same glutamate concentration. Firstly, the variability of the instantaneous cleft concentration of glutamate, unlike the mean concentration, first rapidly decreases before slowly increasing; the variability is greater for fewer molecules in the cleft and is spatially nonuniform. Secondly, the efficacy with which glutamate produces a response changes with time. Understanding

  16. Potentiation of insulin release in response to amino acid methyl esters correlates to activation of islet glutamate dehydrogenase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Hans; Lernmark, A; Hedeskov, C J

    1986-01-01

    Column perifusion of mouse pancreatic islets was used to study the ability of amino acids and their methyl esters to influence insulin release and activate islet glutamate dehydrogenase activity. In the absence of L-glutamine, L-serine and the methyl ester of L-phenylalanine, but neither L...... glutamate dehydrogenase activity showed that only the two methyl esters of L-phenylalanine and L-serine activated the enzyme. It is concluded that the mechanism by which methyl esters of amino acids potentiate insulin release is most likely to be mediated by the activation of pancreatic beta-cell glutamate...

  17. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass augments the feeding responses evoked by gastrin releasing peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Martha C.; Mhalhal, Thaer R.; Berger, Tanisha Johnson-Rouse Jose; Heath, John; Seeley, Randy; Sayegh, Ayman I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the most effective method for the treatment of obesity and metabolic disease Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) may reduce body weight by altering the feeding responses evoked by the short term satiety peptides. Materials and Methods Here, we measured meal size (MS, chow), intermeal interval (IMI) length and satiety ratio (SR, IMI/MS; food consumed per a unit of time) by the small and the large forms of gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) in rats, GRP-10 and GRP-29 (0, 0.1, 0.5 nmol/kg) infused in the celiac artery (CA, supplies stomach and upper duodenum) and the cranial mesenteric artery (CMA, supplies small and large intestine) in a RYGB rat model. Results GRP-10 reduced MS, prolonged the IMI and increased the SR only in the RYGB group, whereas GRP-29 evoked these responses by both routes and in both groups. Conclusion The RYGB procedure augments the feeding responses evoked by exogenous GRP, possibly by decreasing total food intake, increasing latency to the first meal, decreasing number of meals or altering the sites of action regulating MS and IMI length by the two peptides. PMID:27884350

  18. Stress-evoked opioid release inhibits pain in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, Ashley K; Drummond, Peter D

    2008-10-15

    To determine whether stress-evoked release of endogenous opioids might account for hypoalgesia in major depressive disorder (MDD), the mu-opioid antagonist naltrexone (50mg) or placebo was administered double-blind to 24 participants with MDD and to 31 non-depressed controls. Eighty minutes later participants completed a painful foot cold pressor test and, after a 5-min interval, began a 25-min arithmetic task interspersed with painful electric shocks. Ten minutes later participants completed a second cold pressor test. Negative affect was greater in participants with MDD than in non-depressed controls throughout the experiment, and increased significantly in both groups during mental arithmetic. Before the math task, naltrexone unmasked direct linear relationships between severity of depression, negative affect while resting quietly, and cold-induced pain in participants with MDD. In contrast, facilitatory effects of naltrexone on cold- and shock-induced pain were greatest in controls with the lowest depression scores. Naltrexone strengthened the relationship between negative affect and shock-induced pain during the math task, particularly in the depressed group, and heightened anxiety in both groups toward the end of the task. Thus, mu-opioid activity apparently masked a positive association between negative affect and pain in the most distressed participants. These findings suggest that psychological distress inhibits pain via stress-evoked release of opioid peptides in severe cases of MDD. In addition, tonic endogenous opioid neurotransmission could inhibit depressive symptoms and pain in people with low depression scores.

  19. Nicotinic receptors modulate the onset of reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial dysfunction evoked by glutamate uptake block in the rat hypoglossal nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, Maria; Corsini, Silvia; Nistri, Andrea

    2017-02-03

    In several neurodegenerative diseases, glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity is considered to be a major process to initiate cell degeneration. Indeed, subsequent to excessive glutamate receptor stimulation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and mitochondrial dysfunction are regarded as two major gateways leading to neuron death. These processes are mimicked in an in vitro model of rat brainstem slice when excitotoxicity is induced by DL-threo-β-benzyloxyaspartate (TBOA), a specific glutamate-uptake blocker that increases extracellular glutamate. Our recent study has demonstrated that brainstem hypoglossal motoneurons, which are very vulnerable to this damage, were neuroprotected from excitotoxicity with nicotine application through the activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and subsequent inhibition of ROS and mitochondrial dysfunction. The present study examined if endogenous cholinergic activity exerted any protective effect in this pathophysiological model and how ROS production (estimated with rhodamine fluorescence) and mitochondrial dysfunction (measured as methyltetrazolium reduction) were time-related during the early phase of excitotoxicity (0-4h). nAChR antagonists did not modify TBOA-evoked ROS production (that was nearly doubled over control) or mitochondrial impairment (25% decline), suggesting that intrinsic nAChR activity was insufficient to contrast excitotoxicity and needed further stimulation with nicotine to become effective. ROS production always preceded mitochondrial dysfunction by about 2h. Nicotine prevented both ROS production and mitochondrial metabolic depression with a delayed action that alluded to a complex chain of events targeting these two lesional processes. The present data indicate a relatively wide time frame during which strong nAChR activation can arrest a runaway neurotoxic process leading to cell death. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Isolation of TRPV1 independent mechanisms of spontaneous and asynchronous glutamate release at primary afferent to NTS synapses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel J. Fenwick

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cranial visceral afferents contained within the solitary tract (ST contact second-order neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS and release the excitatory amino acid glutamate via three distinct exocytosis pathways; synchronous, asynchronous, and spontaneous release. The presence of TRPV1 in the central terminals of a majority of ST afferents conveys activity-dependent asynchronous glutamate release and provides a temperature sensitive calcium conductance which largely determines the rate of spontaneous vesicle fusion. TRPV1 is present in unmyelinated C-fiber afferents and these facilitated forms of glutamate release may underlie the relative strength of C-fibers in activating autonomic reflex pathways. However, pharmacological blockade of TRPV1 signaling eliminates only ~50% of the asynchronous profile and attenuates the temperature sensitivity of spontaneous release indicating additional thermosensitive calcium influx pathways may exist which mediate these forms of vesicle release. In the present study we isolate the contribution of TRPV1 independent forms of glutamate release at ST-NTS synapses. We found ST afferent innervation at NTS neurons and synchronous vesicle release from TRPV1 KO mice was not different to control animals; however, only half of TRPV1 KO ST afferents completely lacked asynchronous glutamate release. Further, temperature driven spontaneous rates of vesicle release were not different from 33˚ - 37˚C between control and TRPV1 KO afferents. These findings suggest additional temperature dependent mechanisms controlling asynchronous and thermosensitive spontaneous release at physiological temperatures, possibly mediated by additional thermosensitive TRP channels in primary afferent terminals.

  1. Off-line concomitant release of dopamine and glutamate involvement in taste memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Ramos, Kioko; Osorio-Gómez, Daniel; Moreno-Castilla, Perla; Bermúdez-Rattoni, Federico

    2010-07-01

    It has been postulated that memory consolidation process requires post-learning molecular changes that will support long-term experiences. In the present study, we assessed with in vivo microdialysis and capillary electrophoresis whether such changes involve the release of neurotransmitters at post-acquisition stages. Using conditioned taste aversion paradigm we observed spontaneous off-line (i.e. in absence of stimulation) dopamine and glutamate reactivation within the insular cortex about 45 min after the stimuli association. These increments did not appear in control groups that were unable to acquire the task, and it seems to be dependent on amygdala activity since its reversible inactivation by tetrodotoxin impaired cortical off-line release of both neurotransmitters and memory consolidation. In addition, blockade of dopaminergic D1 and/or NMDA receptors before the off-line activity impaired long- but not short-term memory. These results suggest that off-line extracellular increments of glutamate and dopamine have a significant functional role in consolidation of taste memory.

  2. High-level inhibition of mitochondrial complexes III and IV is required to increase glutamate release from the nerve terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilbride Seán M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The activities of mitochondrial complex III (ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase, EC 1.10.2.2 and complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase EC 1.9.3.1 are reduced by 30-70% in Huntington's disease and Alzheimer's disease, respectively, and are associated with excitotoxic cell death in these disorders. In this study, we investigated the control that complexes III and complex IV exert on glutamate release from the isolated nerve terminal. Results Inhibition of complex III activity by 60-90% was necessary for a major increase in the rate of Ca2+-independent glutamate release to occur from isolated nerve terminals (synaptosomes depolarized with 4-aminopyridine or KCl. Similarly, an 85-90% inhibition of complex IV activity was required before a major increase in the rate of Ca2+-independent glutamate release from depolarized synaptosomes was observed. Inhibition of complex III and IV activities by ~ 60% and above was required before rates of glutamate efflux from polarized synaptosomes were increased. Conclusions These results suggest that nerve terminal mitochondria possess high reserves of complex III and IV activity and that high inhibition thresholds must be reached before excess glutamate is released from the nerve terminal. The implications of the results in the context of the relationship between electron transport chain enzyme deficiencies and excitotoxicity in neurodegenerative disorders are discussed.

  3. High-level inhibition of mitochondrial complexes III and IV is required to increase glutamate release from the nerve terminal

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kilbride, Sean M

    2011-07-26

    Abstract Background The activities of mitochondrial complex III (ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase, EC 1.10.2.2) and complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase EC 1.9.3.1) are reduced by 30-70% in Huntington\\'s disease and Alzheimer\\'s disease, respectively, and are associated with excitotoxic cell death in these disorders. In this study, we investigated the control that complexes III and complex IV exert on glutamate release from the isolated nerve terminal. Results Inhibition of complex III activity by 60-90% was necessary for a major increase in the rate of Ca2+-independent glutamate release to occur from isolated nerve terminals (synaptosomes) depolarized with 4-aminopyridine or KCl. Similarly, an 85-90% inhibition of complex IV activity was required before a major increase in the rate of Ca2+-independent glutamate release from depolarized synaptosomes was observed. Inhibition of complex III and IV activities by ~ 60% and above was required before rates of glutamate efflux from polarized synaptosomes were increased. Conclusions These results suggest that nerve terminal mitochondria possess high reserves of complex III and IV activity and that high inhibition thresholds must be reached before excess glutamate is released from the nerve terminal. The implications of the results in the context of the relationship between electron transport chain enzyme deficiencies and excitotoxicity in neurodegenerative disorders are discussed.

  4. Inhibition of synaptically evoked cortical acetylcholine release by adenosine: an in vivo microdialysis study in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materi, L M; Rasmusson, D D; Semba, K

    2000-01-01

    The release of cortical acetylcholine from the intracortical axonal terminals of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons is closely associated with electroencephalographic activity. One factor which may act to reduce cortical acetylcholine release and promote sleep is adenosine. Using in vivo microdialysis, we examined the effect of adenosine and selective adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists on cortical acetylcholine release evoked by electrical stimulation of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus in urethane anesthetized rats. All drugs were administered locally within the cortex by reverse dialysis. None of the drugs tested altered basal release of acetylcholine in the cortex. Adenosine significantly reduced evoked cortical acetylcholine efflux in a concentration-dependent manner. This was mimicked by the adenosine A(1) receptor selective agonist N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine and blocked by the selective A(1) receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX). The A(2A) receptor agonist 2-[p-(2-carboxyethyl)-phenethylamino]-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosi ne hydrochloride (CGS 21680) did not alter evoked cortical acetylcholine release even in the presence of DPCPX. Administered alone, neither DPCPX nor the non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist caffeine affected evoked cortical acetylcholine efflux. Simultaneous delivery of the adenosine uptake inhibitors dipyridamole and S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine significantly reduced evoked cortical acetylcholine release, and this effect was blocked by the simultaneous administration of caffeine. These data indicate that activation of the A(1) adenosine receptor inhibits acetylcholine release in the cortex in vivo while the A(2A) receptor does not influence acetylcholine efflux. Such inhibition of cortical acetylcholine release by adenosine may contribute to an increased propensity to sleep during prolonged wakefulness.

  5. SNT-1 functions as the Ca2+ sensor for tonic and evoked neurotransmitter release in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Liu, Haowen; Wang, Wei; Chandra, Mintu; Collins, Brett M; Hu, Zhitao

    2018-05-14

    Synaptotagmin-1 (Syt1) binds Ca 2+ through its tandem C2 domains (C2A and C2B) and triggers Ca 2+ -dependent neurotransmitter release. Here we show that snt-1 , the homolog of mammalian Syt1, functions as the Ca 2+ sensor for both tonic and evoked neurotransmitter release at the C. elegans neuromuscular junction. Mutations that disrupt Ca 2+ binding in double C2 domains of SNT-1 significantly impaired tonic release, whereas disrupting Ca 2+ binding in a single C2 domain had no effect, indicating that the Ca 2+ binding of the two C2 domains is functionally redundant for tonic release. Stimulus-evoked release was significantly reduced in snt-1 mutants, with prolonged release latency as well as faster rise and decay kinetics. Unlike tonic release, evoked release was triggered by Ca 2+ binding solely to the C2B domain. Moreover, we showed that SNT-1 plays an essential role in the priming process in different subpopulations of synaptic vesicles with tight or loose coupling to Ca 2+ entry. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We showed that SNT-1 in C. elegans regulates evoked neurotransmitter release through Ca 2+ binding to its C2B domain, a similar way to Syt1 in the mouse CNS and the fly NMJ. However, the largely decreased tonic release in snt-1 mutants argues SNT-1 has a clamping function. Indeed, Ca 2+ -binding mutations in the C2 domains in SNT-1 significantly reduced the frequency of the miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC), indicating that SNT-1 also acts as a Ca 2+ sensor for tonic release. Therefore, revealing the differential mechanisms between invertebrates and vertebrates will provide significant insights into our understanding how synaptic vesicle fusion is regulated. Copyright © 2018 the authors.

  6. Cocaine serves as a peripheral interoceptive conditioned stimulus for central glutamate and dopamine release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy A Wise

    Full Text Available Intravenous injections of cocaine HCl are habit-forming because, among their many actions, they elevate extracellular dopamine levels in the terminal fields of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. This action, thought to be very important for cocaine's strong addiction liability, is believed to have very short latency and is assumed to reflect rapid brain entry and pharmacokinetics of the drug. However, while intravenous cocaine HCl has almost immediate effects on behavior and extracellular dopamine levels, recent evidence suggests that its central pharmacological effects are not evident until 10 or more seconds after IV injection. Thus the immediate effects of a given intravenous cocaine injection on extracellular dopamine concentration and behavior appear to occur before there is sufficient time for cocaine to act centrally as a dopamine uptake inhibitor. To explore the contribution of peripheral effects of cocaine to the early activation of the dopamine system, we used brain microdialysis to measure the effects of cocaine methiodide (MI--a cocaine analogue that does not cross the blood brain barrier--on glutamate (excitatory input to the dopamine cells. IP injections of cocaine MI were ineffective in cocaine-naïve animals but stimulated ventral tegmental glutamate release in rats previously trained to lever-press for cocaine HCl. This peripherally triggered glutamate input was sufficient to reinstate cocaine-seeking in previously trained animals that had undergone extinction of the habit. These findings offer an explanation for short-latency behavioral responses and immediate dopamine elevations seen following cocaine injections in cocaine-experienced but not cocaine-naïve animals.

  7. Glutamate may be an efferent transmitter that elicits inhibition in mouse taste buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijen A Huang

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that l-glutamate may be an efferent transmitter released from axons innervating taste buds. In this report, we determined the types of ionotropic synaptic glutamate receptors present on taste cells and that underlie this postulated efferent transmission. We also studied what effect glutamate exerts on taste bud function. We isolated mouse taste buds and taste cells, conducted functional imaging using Fura 2, and used cellular biosensors to monitor taste-evoked transmitter release. The findings show that a large fraction of Presynaptic (Type III taste bud cells (∼50% respond to 100 µM glutamate, NMDA, or kainic acid (KA with an increase in intracellular Ca(2+. In contrast, Receptor (Type II taste cells rarely (4% responded to 100 µM glutamate. At this concentration and with these compounds, these agonists activate glutamatergic synaptic receptors, not glutamate taste (umami receptors. Moreover, applying glutamate, NMDA, or KA caused taste buds to secrete 5-HT, a Presynaptic taste cell transmitter, but not ATP, a Receptor cell transmitter. Indeed, glutamate-evoked 5-HT release inhibited taste-evoked ATP secretion. The findings are consistent with a role for glutamate in taste buds as an inhibitory efferent transmitter that acts via ionotropic synaptic glutamate receptors.

  8. Glutamate may be an efferent transmitter that elicits inhibition in mouse taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yijen A; Grant, Jeff; Roper, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that l-glutamate may be an efferent transmitter released from axons innervating taste buds. In this report, we determined the types of ionotropic synaptic glutamate receptors present on taste cells and that underlie this postulated efferent transmission. We also studied what effect glutamate exerts on taste bud function. We isolated mouse taste buds and taste cells, conducted functional imaging using Fura 2, and used cellular biosensors to monitor taste-evoked transmitter release. The findings show that a large fraction of Presynaptic (Type III) taste bud cells (∼50%) respond to 100 µM glutamate, NMDA, or kainic acid (KA) with an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). In contrast, Receptor (Type II) taste cells rarely (4%) responded to 100 µM glutamate. At this concentration and with these compounds, these agonists activate glutamatergic synaptic receptors, not glutamate taste (umami) receptors. Moreover, applying glutamate, NMDA, or KA caused taste buds to secrete 5-HT, a Presynaptic taste cell transmitter, but not ATP, a Receptor cell transmitter. Indeed, glutamate-evoked 5-HT release inhibited taste-evoked ATP secretion. The findings are consistent with a role for glutamate in taste buds as an inhibitory efferent transmitter that acts via ionotropic synaptic glutamate receptors.

  9. TRPA1 activation by lidocaine in nerve terminals results in glutamate release increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piao, L.-H.; Fujita, Tsugumi; Jiang, C.-Y.; Liu Tao; Yue, H.-Y.; Nakatsuka, Terumasa; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effects of local anesthetics lidocaine and procaine on glutamatergic spontaneous excitatory transmission in substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons in adult rat spinal cord slices with whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. Bath-applied lidocaine (1-5 mM) dose-dependently and reversibly increased the frequency but not the amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current (sEPSC) in SG neurons. Lidocaine activity was unaffected by the Na + -channel blocker, tetrodotoxin, and the TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine, but was inhibited by the TRP antagonist, ruthenium red. In the same neuron, the TRPA1 agonist, allyl isothiocyanate, and lidocaine both increased sEPSC frequency. In contrast, procaine did not produce presynaptic enhancement. These results indicate that lidocaine activates TRPA1 in nerve terminals presynaptic to SG neurons to increase the spontaneous release of L-glutamate.

  10. Nicotinic receptor activation contrasts pathophysiological bursting and neurodegeneration evoked by glutamate uptake block on rat hypoglossal motoneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsini, Silvia; Tortora, Maria; Nistri, Andrea

    2016-11-15

    Impaired uptake of glutamate builds up the extracellular level of this excitatory transmitter to trigger rhythmic neuronal bursting and delayed cell death in the brainstem motor nucleus hypoglossus. This process is the expression of the excitotoxicity that underlies motoneuron degeneration in diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis affecting bulbar motoneurons. In a model of motoneuron excitotoxicity produced by pharmacological block of glutamate uptake in vitro, rhythmic bursting is suppressed by activation of neuronal nicotinic receptors with their conventional agonist nicotine. Emergence of bursting is facilitated by nicotinic receptor antagonists. Following excitotoxicity, nicotinic receptor activity decreases mitochondrial energy dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress and production of toxic radicals. Globally, these phenomena synergize to provide motoneuron protection. Nicotinic receptors may represent a novel target to contrast pathological overactivity of brainstem motoneurons and therefore to prevent their metabolic distress and death. Excitotoxicity is thought to be one of the early processes in the onset of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) because high levels of glutamate have been detected in the cerebrospinal fluid of such patients due to dysfunctional uptake of this transmitter that gradually damages brainstem and spinal motoneurons. To explore potential mechanisms to arrest ALS onset, we used an established in vitro model of rat brainstem slice preparation in which excitotoxicity is induced by the glutamate uptake blocker dl-threo-β-benzyloxyaspartate (TBOA). Because certain brain neurons may be neuroprotected via activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) by nicotine, we investigated if nicotine could arrest excitotoxic damage to highly ALS-vulnerable hypoglossal motoneurons (HMs). On 50% of patch-clamped HMs, TBOA induced intense network bursts that were inhibited by 1-10 μm nicotine, whereas nAChR antagonists

  11. Depolarization by K+ and glutamate activates different neurotransmitter release mechanisms in GABAergic neurons: vesicular versus non-vesicular release of GABA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belhage, B; Hansen, Gert Helge; Schousboe, A

    1993-01-01

    differences in the mode of action of the two depolarizing stimuli were reflected in the properties of the increase in [Ca++]i elicited by 55 mM K+ and 100 microM glutamate, respectively. The K(+)-induced increase in [Ca++]i was reduced by both verapamil and Ca(++)-free media whereas the corresponding...... neurotransmitter glutamate (100 microM). Both depolarizing stimuli exerted prompt increases in the release of preloaded [3H]GABA as well as in [Ca++]i. However, the basic properties of transmitter release and the increase in [Ca++]i under a variety of conditions were different during stimulation with K...... was also reduced by organic (verapamil) and inorganic (Co++) Ca++ channel blockers but was insensitive to the GABA transport inhibitor SKF 89976A. In contrast, the second phase was less sensitive to nocodazole and Ca++ channel antagonists but could be inhibited by SKF 89976A. The glutamate-induced [3H...

  12. Objective measures of binaural masking level differences and comodulation masking release based on late auditory evoked potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epp, Bastian; Yasin, Ifat; Verhey, Jesko L.

    2013-01-01

    at a fixed physical intensity is varied by introducing auditory cues of (i) interaural target signal phase disparity and (ii) coherent masker level fluctuations in different frequency regions. In agreement with previous studies, psychoacoustical experiments showed that both stimulus manipulations result......The audibility of important sounds is often hampered due to the presence of other masking sounds. The present study investigates if a correlate of the audibility of a tone masked by noise is found in late auditory evoked potentials measured from human listeners. The audibility of the target sound...... in a masking release (i: binaural masking level difference; ii: comodulation masking release) compared to a condition where those cues are not present. Late auditory evoked potentials (N1, P2) were recorded for the stimuli at a constant masker level, but different signal levels within the same set of listeners...

  13. Depolarization-induced release of [(3)H]D-aspartate from GABAergic neurons caused by reversal of glutamate transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J B; Pickering, D S; Schousboe, A

    2000-01-01

    if glutamate in addition to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) could be released from these cultures. The neurons were preloaded with [(3)H]D-aspartate and subsequently its release was followed during depolarization induced by a high potassium concentration or the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4......-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor agonists, AMPA and kainate. Depolarization of the neurons with 55 mM potassium increased the release of [(3)H]D-aspartate by more than 10-fold. When the non-specific calcium-channel blockers cobalt or lanthanum were included in the stimulation buffer with potassium......, the release of [(3)H]D-aspartate was decreased by about 40%. These results indicated that some of the released [(3)H]D-aspartate might originate from a vesicular pool. When AMPA was applied to the neurons, the release of [(3)H]D-aspartate was increased 2-fold and could not be prevented or decreased...

  14. Real-time monitoring of extracellular l-glutamate levels released by high-frequency stimulation at region CA1 of hippocampal slices with a glass capillary-based l-glutamate sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Ikegami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Real-time monitoring of l-glutamate released by high-frequency stimulation in region CA1 of mouse hippocampal slices was performed with a glass capillary-based sensor, in combination with the recoding of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs. A method for extracting l-glutamate currents from the recorded ones was described and applied for determining the level of extracellular l-glutamate released by 100 Hz stimulation. Recording of an l-glutamate current with a current sampling interval of 1 Hz was found to be useful for acquiring a Faradaic current that reflects l-glutamate level released by the high-frequency stimulation of 7 trains, each 20 stimuli at 100 Hz and inter-train interval of 3 s. The l-glutamate level was obtained as 15 ± 6 μM (n = 8 for the persistent enhancement of fEPSPs, i.e., the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP, and 3 ± 1 μM (n = 5 for the case of no LTP induction. Based on these observations, the level of the extracellular l-glutamate was shown to play a crucial role in the induction of LTP.

  15. Action potential-evoked calcium release is impaired in single skeletal muscle fibers from heart failure patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marino DiFranco

    Full Text Available Exercise intolerance in chronic heart failure (HF has been attributed to abnormalities of the skeletal muscles. Muscle function depends on intact excitation-contraction coupling (ECC, but ECC studies in HF models have been inconclusive, due to deficiencies in the animal models and tools used to measure calcium (Ca2+ release, mandating investigations in skeletal muscle from HF patients. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that Ca2+ release is significantly impaired in the skeletal muscle of HF patients in whom exercise capacity is severely diminished compared to age-matched healthy volunteers.Using state-of-the-art electrophysiological and optical techniques in single muscle fibers from biopsies of the locomotive vastus lateralis muscle, we measured the action potential (AP-evoked Ca2+ release in 4 HF patients and 4 age-matched healthy controls. The mean peak Ca2+ release flux in fibers obtained from HF patients (10±1.2 µM/ms was markedly (2.6-fold and significantly (p<0.05 smaller than in fibers from healthy volunteers (28±3.3 µM/ms. This impairment in AP-evoked Ca2+ release was ubiquitous and was not explained by differences in the excitability mechanisms since single APs were indistinguishable between HF patients and healthy volunteers.These findings prove the feasibility of performing electrophysiological experiments in single fibers from human skeletal muscle, and offer a new approach for investigations of myopathies due to HF and other diseases. Importantly, we have demonstrated that one step in the ECC process, AP-evoked Ca2+ release, is impaired in single muscle fibers in HF patients.

  16. A comparison of N-methyl-D-aspartate-evoked release of adenosine and [3H]norepinephrine from rat cortical slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehn, K.; Craig, C.G.; White, T.D.

    1990-01-01

    Tetrodotoxin reduced N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-evoked release of adenosine by 35% but virtually abolished [3H]norepinephrine release. Although [3H]norepinephrine release from rat cortical slices evoked by 500 microM NMDA was abolished by 1.2 mM Mg++, which produces a voltage-sensitive, uncompetitive block of NMDA-channels, adenosine release was increased in the presence of Mg++. Partial depolarization with 12 mM K+ relieved the Mg++ block of 500 microM NMDA-evoked [3H]norepinephrine release but did not affect adenosine release, indicating that a Mg++ requirement for the adenosine release process per se cannot account for this discrepancy. NMDA was 33 times more potent in releasing adenosine than [3H]norepinephrine. At submaximal concentrations of NMDA (10 and 20 microM), adenosine release was augmented in Mg+(+)-free medium. Although a high concentration of the uncompetitive NMDA antagonist MK-801 [(+)-5-methyl-10,11,dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5-10-imine maleate] (3 microM) blocked NMDA-evoked release of [3H]norepinephrine and adenosine, a lower concentration (300 nM) decreased NMDA-evoked [3H]norepinephrine release by 66% without affecting adenosine release. These findings suggest that maximal adenosine release occurs when relatively few NMDA receptors are activated, raising the possibility that spare receptors exist for NMDA-evoked adenosine release. Rather than acting as a protectant against excessive NMDA excitation, released adenosine might provide an inhibitory threshold which must be overcome for NMDA-mediated neurotransmission to proceed

  17. Objective measures of binaural masking level differences and comodulation masking release based on late auditory evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Bastian; Yasin, Ifat; Verhey, Jesko L

    2013-12-01

    The audibility of important sounds is often hampered due to the presence of other masking sounds. The present study investigates if a correlate of the audibility of a tone masked by noise is found in late auditory evoked potentials measured from human listeners. The audibility of the target sound at a fixed physical intensity is varied by introducing auditory cues of (i) interaural target signal phase disparity and (ii) coherent masker level fluctuations in different frequency regions. In agreement with previous studies, psychoacoustical experiments showed that both stimulus manipulations result in a masking release (i: binaural masking level difference; ii: comodulation masking release) compared to a condition where those cues are not present. Late auditory evoked potentials (N1, P2) were recorded for the stimuli at a constant masker level, but different signal levels within the same set of listeners who participated in the psychoacoustical experiment. The data indicate differences in N1 and P2 between stimuli with and without interaural phase disparities. However, differences for stimuli with and without coherent masker modulation were only found for P2, i.e., only P2 is sensitive to the increase in audibility, irrespective of the cue that caused the masking release. The amplitude of P2 is consistent with the psychoacoustical finding of an addition of the masking releases when both cues are present. Even though it cannot be concluded where along the auditory pathway the audibility is represented, the P2 component of auditory evoked potentials is a candidate for an objective measure of audibility in the human auditory system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Nanofiber mat spinal cord dressing-released glutamate impairs blood-spinal cord barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Sulejczak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An excessive glutamate level can result in excitotoxic damage and death of central nervous system (CNS cells, and is involved in the pathogenesis of many CNS diseases. It may also be related to a failure of the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB. This study was aimed at examining the effects of extended administration of monosodium glutamate on the BSCB and spinal cord cells in adult male Wistar rats. The glutamate was delivered by subarachnoidal application of glutamate-carrying electrospun nanofiber mat dressing at the lumbar enlargement level. Half of the rats with the glutamate-loaded mat application were treated systemically with the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid. A group of intact rats and a rat group with subarachnoidal application of an ‘empty’ (i.e., carrying no glutamate nanofiber mat dressing served as controls. All the rats were euthanized three weeks later and lumbar fragments of their spinal cords were harvested for histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies. The samples from controls revealed normal parenchyma and BSCB morphology, whereas those from rats with the glutamate-loaded nanofiber mat dressing showed many intraparenchymal microhemorrhages of variable sizes. The capillaries in the vicinity of the glutamate-carrying dressing (in the meninges and white matter alike were edematous and leaky, and their endothelial cells showed degenerative changes: extensive swelling, enhanced vacuo­lization and the presence of vascular intraluminal projections. However, endothelial tight junctions were generally well preserved. Some endothelial cells were dying by necrosis or apoptosis. The adjacent parenchyma showed astrogliosis with astrocytic hypertrophy and swelling of perivascular astrocytic feet. Neurons in the parenchyma revealed multiple symptoms of degeneration, including, inter alia, perikaryal, dendritic and axonal swelling, and destruction of organelles. All the damage symptoms were slightly less

  19. Neuroprotective effects of the novel glutamate transporter inhibitor (-)-3-hydroxy-4,5,6,6a-tetrahydro-3aH-pyrrolo[3,4-d]-isoxazole-4-carboxylic acid, which preferentially inhibits reverse transport (glutamate release) compared with glutamate reuptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colleoni, Simona; Jensen, Anders Asbjørn; Landucci, Elisa

    2008-01-01

    on the three hEAAT subtypes. (-)-HIP-A maintained the remarkable property, previously reported with the racemates, of inhibiting synaptosomal glutamate-induced [3H]D-aspartate release (reverse transport) at concentrations significantly lower than those inhibiting [3H]L-glutamate uptake. New data suggest...

  20. Estradiol induces dendritic spines by enhancing glutamate release independent of transcription: A mechanism for organizational sex differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Jaclyn M.; Liang, Shu-Ling; Thompson, Scott M.; McCarthy, Margaret M.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY The naturally occurring sex difference in dendritic spine number on hypothalamic neurons offers a unique opportunity to investigate mechanisms establishing synaptic patterning during perinatal sensitive periods. A major advantage of the model is the ability to treat neonatal females with estradiol to permanently induce the male phenotype. During the development of other systems, exuberant innervation is followed by activity-dependent pruning necessary for elimination of spurious synapses. In contrast, we demonstrate that estradiol-induced organization in the hypothalamus involves the induction of new synapses on dendritic spines. Activation of estrogen receptors by estradiol triggers a non-genomic activation of PI3 kinase that results in enhanced glutamate release from presynaptic neurons. Subsequent activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors activates MAP kinases inducing dendritic spine formation. These results reveal a trans-neuronal mechanism by which estradiol acts during a sensitive period to establish a profound and lasting sex difference in hypothalamic synaptic patterning. PMID:18498739

  1. Glutamate signalling and secretory phospholipase A2 modulate the release of arachidonic acid from neuronal membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez De Turco, Elena B; Jackson, Fannie R; DeCoster, Mark A

    2002-01-01

    The lipid mediators generated by phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)), free arachidonic acid (AA), eicosanoids, and platelet-activating factor, modulate neuronal activity; when overproduced, some of them become potent neurotoxins. We have shown, using primary cortical neuron cultures, that glutamate...... and secretory PLA(2) (sPLA(2)) from bee venom (bv sPLA(2)) and Taipan snake venom (OS2) elicit synergy in inducing neuronal cell death. Low concentrations of sPLA(2) are selective ligands of cell-surface sPLA(2) receptors. We investigated which neuronal arachidonoyl phospholipids are targeted by glutamate......) and in minor changes in other phospholipids. A similar profile, although of greater magnitude, was observed 20 hr posttreatment. Glutamate (80 microM) induced much less mobilization of (3)H-AA than did sPLA(2) and resulted in a threefold greater degradation of (3)H-AA PE than of (3)H-AA PC by 20 hr...

  2. Membrane permeable C-terminal dopamine transporter peptides attenuate amphetamine-evoked dopamine release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rickhag, Karl Mattias; Owens, WA; Winkler, Marie-Therese

    2013-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) is responsible for sequestration of extracellular dopamine (DA). The psychostimulant amphetamine (AMPH) is a DAT substrate, which is actively transported into the nerve terminal, eliciting vesicular depletion and reversal of DA transport via DAT. Here, we investigate......-terminal protein-protein interactions are critical for AMPH-evoked DA efflux and suggest that it may be possible to target protein-protein interactions to modulate transporter function and interfere with psychostimulant effects....

  3. Electrogenic glutamate uptake is a major current carrier in the membrane of axolotl retinal glial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brew, Helen; Attwell, David

    1987-06-01

    Glutamate is taken up avidly by glial cells in the central nervous system1. Glutamate uptake may terminate the transmitter action of glutamate released from neurons1, and keep extracellular glutamate at concentrations below those which are neurotoxic. We report here that glutamate evokes a large inward current in retinal glial cells which have their membrane potential and intracellular ion concentrations controlled by the whole-cell patch-clamp technique2. This current seems to be due to an electrogenic glutamate uptake carrier, which transports at least two sodium ions with every glutamate anion carried into the cell. Glutamate uptake is strongly voltage-dependent, decreasing at depolarized potentials: when fully activated, it contributes almost half of the conductance in the part of the glial cell membrane facing the retinal neurons. The spatial localization, glutamate affinity and magnitude of the uptake are appropriate for terminating the synaptic action of glutamate released from photoreceptors and bipolar cells. These data challenge present explanations of how the b-wave of the electroretinogram is generated, and suggest a mechanism for non-vesicular voltage-dependent release of glutamate from neurons.

  4. Potentiation by choline of basal and electrically evoked acetylcholine release, as studied using a novel device which both stimulates and perfuses rat corpus striatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, S. A.; Kischka, U.; Marshall, D. L.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    We examined the release of acetylcholine (ACh) and dopamine (DA) using a novel probe through which striatal neurons could be both superfused and stimulated electrically in both anesthetized and freely moving awake animals. Optimal stimulation parameters for eliciting ACh release from cholinergic neurons differed from those required for eliciting DA release from dopaminergic terminals: at 0.6 ms pulse duration, 20 Hz and 200 microA, ACh release increased to 357 +/- 30% (P basal release rose from 117 +/- 7% to 141 +/- 5% of initial baseline levels (P basal or evoked DA release although neostigmine (10 microM) significantly elevated basal DA release (from 36.7 fmol/10 min to 71.5 fmol/10 min; P basal (from 106 +/- 7% to 154 +/- 17%; P < 0.05) and electrically evoked (from 146 +/- 13 to 262 +/- 16%; P < 0.01) ACh release.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  5. Release of [3H]GABA formed from [3H]glutamate in rat hippocampal slices: comparison with endogenous and exogenous labeled GABA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szerb, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    To compare the storage and release of endogenous GABA, of [ 3 H]GABA formed endogenously from glutamate, and of exogenous [ 14 C]GABA, hippocampal slices were incubated with 5 microCi/ml [3,4- 3 H]1-glutamate and 0.5 microCi/ml [U- 14 C]GABA and then were superfused in the presence or absence of Ca + with either 50 mM K + or 50 microM veratridine. Exogenous [ 14 C]GABA content of the slices declined spontaneously while endogenous GABA and endogenously formed [ 3 H]GABA stayed constant over a 48 min period. In the presence of Ca + 50 mM K + and in the presence or absence of Ca2 + veratridine released exogenous [ 14 C]GABA more rapidly than endogenous or endogenously formed [ 3 H]GABA, the release of the latter two occurring always in parallel. The initial specific activity of released exogenous [ 14 C]GABA was three times, while that of endogenously formed [ 3 H]GABA was only 50% higher than that in the slices. The observation that endogenous GABA and [ 3 H]GABA formed endogenously from glutamate are stored and released in parallel but differently from exogenous labelled GABA, suggests that exogenous [ 3 H] glutamate can enter a glutamate pool that normally serves as precursor of GABA

  6. Postnatal Administration of Allopregnanolone Modifies Glutamate Release but Not BDNF Content in Striatum Samples of Rats Prenatally Exposed to Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Yunes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol consumption during pregnancy may induce profound changes in fetal CNS development. We postulate that some of the effects of ethanol on striatal glutamatergic transmission and neurotrophin expression could be modulated by allopregnanolone, a neurosteroid modulator of GABAA receptor activity. We describe the acute pharmacological effect of allopregnanolone (65 μg/kg, s.c. administered to juvenile male rats (day 21 of age on the corticostriatal glutamatergic pathway, in both control and prenatally ethanol-exposed rats (two ip injections of 2.9 g/kg in 24% v/v saline solution on gestational day 8. Prenatal ethanol administration decreased the K+-induced release of glutamate regarding the control group. Interestingly, this effect was reverted by allopregnanolone. Regarding BDNF, allopregnanolone decreases the content of this neurotrophic factor in the striatum of control groups. However, both ethanol alone and ethanol plus allopregnanolone treated animals did not show any change regarding control values. We suggest that prenatal ethanol exposure may produce an alteration of GABAA receptors which blocks the GABA agonist-like effect of allopregnanolone on rapid glutamate release, thus disturbing normal neural transmission. Furthermore, the reciprocal interactions found between GABAergic neurosteroids and BDNF could underlie mechanisms operating during the neuronal plasticity of fetal development.

  7. Low dietary protein is associated with an increase in food intake and a decrease in the in vitro release of radiolabeled glutamate and GABA from the lateral hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, B D; Du, F; Higginbotham, D A

    2003-12-01

    Moderately low-protein diets lead to a rapid increase in food intake and body fat. The increase in feeding is associated with a decrease in the concentration of serum urea nitrogen, suggesting that the low-protein-induced increase in food intake may be related to the decreased metabolism of nitrogen from amino acids. We hypothesized that low dietary protein would be associated with a decrease in the synaptic release of two nitrogen-containing neurotransmitters, GABA and glutamate, whose nitrogen can be derived from amino acids. In this study, we examined the effects of a low-protein diet (10% casein) in Sprague-Dawley rats on the in vitro release of 3H-GABA and 14C-glutamate from the lateral and medial hypothalamus. The low-protein diet increased food intake by about 25% after one day. After four days, the in vitro release of radiolabeled GABA and glutamate was assessed. The calcium-dependent, potassium-stimulated release of radiolabeled GABA and glutamate from the lateral hypothalamus was decreased in rats fed the low-protein diet. The magnitude of neurotransmitter release from the lateral hypothalamus inversely correlated with food intake. No dietary differences in the release of neurotransmitters from the medial hypothalamus were observed. These results support the contention that alterations in nitrogen metabolism are associated with low-protein-induced feeding.

  8. Exogenous glutamate induces short and long-term potentiation in the rat medial vestibular nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, S; Frondaroli, A; Pessia, M; Pettorossi, V E

    2001-08-08

    In rat brain stem slices, high concentrations of exogenous glutamate induce long-term potentiation (LTP) of the field potentials evoked in the medial vestibular nuclei (MVN) by vestibular afferent stimulation. At low concentrations, glutamate can also induce short-term potentiation (STP), indicating that LTP and STP are separate events depending on the level of glutamatergic synapse activation. LTP and STP are prevented by blocking NMDA receptors and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. Conversely, blocking platelet-activating factor (PAF) and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors only prevents the full development of LTP. Moreover, in the presence of blocking agents, glutamate causes transient inhibition, suggesting that when potentiation is impeded, exogenous glutamate can activate presynaptic mechanisms that reduce glutamate release.

  9. Apolipoprotein E4 reduces evoked hippocampal acetylcholine release in adult mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dolejší, Eva; Liraz, O.; Rudajev, Vladimír; Zimčík, Pavel; Doležal, Vladimír; Michaelson, D. M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 136, č. 3 (2016), s. 503-509 ISSN 0022-3042 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH13269 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : acetylcholine release * Alzheimer's disease (AD) * apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4) * hippocampus Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.083, year: 2016

  10. Cyclic ADP ribose-dependent Ca2+ release by group I metabotropic glutamate receptors in acutely dissociated rat hippocampal neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Woo Sohn

    Full Text Available Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (group I mGluRs; mGluR1 and mGluR5 exert diverse effects on neuronal and synaptic functions, many of which are regulated by intracellular Ca(2+. In this study, we characterized the cellular mechanisms underlying Ca(2+ mobilization induced by (RS-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG; a specific group I mGluR agonist in the somata of acutely dissociated rat hippocampal neurons using microfluorometry. We found that DHPG activates mGluR5 to mobilize intracellular Ca(2+ from ryanodine-sensitive stores via cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose (cADPR, while the PLC/IP(3 signaling pathway was not involved in Ca(2+ mobilization. The application of glutamate, which depolarized the membrane potential by 28.5±4.9 mV (n = 4, led to transient Ca(2+ mobilization by mGluR5 and Ca(2+ influx through L-type Ca(2+ channels. We found no evidence that mGluR5-mediated Ca(2+ release and Ca(2+ influx through L-type Ca(2+ channels interact to generate supralinear Ca(2+ transients. Our study provides novel insights into the mechanisms of intracellular Ca(2+ mobilization by mGluR5 in the somata of hippocampal neurons.

  11. Glutamate-induced apoptosis in primary cortical neurons is inhibited by equine estrogens via down-regulation of caspase-3 and prevention of mitochondrial cytochrome c release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang YueMei

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apoptosis plays a key role in cell death observed in neurodegenerative diseases marked by a progressive loss of neurons as seen in Alzheimer's disease. Although the exact cause of apoptosis is not known, a number of factors such as free radicals, insufficient levels of nerve growth factors and excessive levels of glutamate have been implicated. We and others, have previously reported that in a stable HT22 neuronal cell line, glutamate induces apoptosis as indicated by DNA fragmentation and up- and down-regulation of Bax (pro-apoptotic, and Bcl-2 (anti-apoptotic genes respectively. Furthermore, these changes were reversed/inhibited by estrogens. Several lines of evidence also indicate that a family of cysteine proteases (caspases appear to play a critical role in neuronal apoptosis. The purpose of the present study is to determine in primary cultures of cortical cells, if glutamate-induced neuronal apoptosis and its inhibition by estrogens involve changes in caspase-3 protease and whether this process is mediated by Fas receptor and/or mitochondrial signal transduction pathways involving release of cytochrome c. Results In primary cultures of rat cortical cells, glutamate induced apoptosis that was associated with enhanced DNA fragmentation, morphological changes, and up-regulation of pro-caspase-3. Exposure of cortical cells to glutamate resulted in a time-dependent cell death and an increase in caspase-3 protein levels. Although the increase in caspase-3 levels was evident after 3 h, cell death was only significantly increased after 6 h. Treatment of cells for 6 h with 1 to 20 mM glutamate resulted in a 35 to 45% cell death that was associated with a 45 to 65% increase in the expression of caspase-3 protein. Pretreatment with caspase-3-protease inhibitor z-DEVD or pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD significantly decreased glutamate-induced cell death of cortical cells. Exposure of cells to glutamate for 6 h in the presence or

  12. The effects of inorganic lead on the spontaneous and potassium-evoked release of 3H-5-HT from rat cortical synaptosome interaction with calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudar, P.; Caillard, L.; Fillion, G.

    1989-01-01

    Interaction of lead with the serotonergic system has been studied in vitro in rat brain synaptosomal fraction prepared from cortical tissue. Synaptosomes were loaded with 3 H-5-HT and spontaneous and K + -evoked release of the amine was examined in the presence and the absence of calcium. It was shown that lead itself induced the release of 3 H-5-HT (EC50=27 μM). This effect decreased (40%) in the presence of calcium without modification of the EC50. Moreover, lead markedly inhibited the K + -evoked release of 3 H-5-HT observed in the presence of calcium. This effect was obtained either in the presence of lead or using synaptosomes pretreated with lead and washed. These results indicate that lead interferes with neuronal 5-HT release by mechanism(s) involving calcium. (author)

  13. Characterization of depolarization-coupled release of glutamate from cultured mouse cerebellar granule cells using DL-threo-beta-benzyloxyaspartate (DL-TBOA) to distinguish between the vesicular and cytoplasmic pools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Lasse K; Schousboe, Arne; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2003-01-01

    Release of preloaded [3H]D-aspartate in response to depolarization induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) or the endogenous agonist glutamate was characterized using cultured glutamatergic cerebellar granule neurons. Release from the vesicular and the cytoplasmic glutamate pools, respectively, wa...

  14. Aspects of dopamine and acetylcholine release induced by glutamate receptors; Aspectos das liberacoes de dopamina e acetilcolina mediadas por receptores de glutamato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paes, Paulo Cesar de Arruda

    2002-07-01

    The basal ganglia play an important role in the motor control of rats and humans. This control involves different neurotransmitters and the mutual control of these key elements has been subject to several studies. In this work we determined the role of glutamate on the release of radioactively labelled dopamine and acetylcholine from chopped striatal tissue in vitro. The values of Effective Concentration 50% for glutamate, NMDA, kainic, quisqualic acids and AMPA on the release of dopamine and acetylcholine were obtained. The inhibitory effects of magnesium, tetrodotoxin, MK-801, AP5 and MCPG, as well as the effects of glycin were evaluated. The results suggested that dopamine is influenced by the NMDA type glutamate receptor while acetylcholine seems to be influenced by NMDA, kainate and AMPA receptors. Tetrodotoxin experiments suggested that kainate receptors are both present in cholinergic terminals and cell bodies while AMPA and NMDA receptors are preferentially distributed in cell bodies. Magnesium effectively blocked the NMDA stimulation and unexpectedly also AMPA- and quisqualate-induced acetylcholine release. The latter could not be blocked by MCPG ruling out the participation of methabotropic receptors. MK-801 also blocked NMDA-receptors. Results point out the importance of the glutamic acid control of dopamine and acetylcholine release in striatal tissue. (author)

  15. Effect of elevated potassium ion concentrations on electrically evoked release of (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine in slices of rat hippocampus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szerb, J C; Hadhazy, P; Dudar, J D [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada). Dept. of Physiology and Biophysics

    1978-01-01

    To establish the effect of raising the concentration of extracellular potassium ions on axonal conduction and transmitter release in a mammalian central pathway, the septohippocampal cholinergic tract, the rate of (/sup 3/H) acetylcholine release evoked by electrical stimulation was measured in rat hippocampal slices superfused with Krebs' solution containing 3-15 mM K/sup +/. The evoked release of (/sup 3/H) acetylcholine was abolished by the presence of tetrodotoxin or by the omission of Ca/sup 2 +/ in the superfusion medium, indicating that it originated from terminals depolarized by conducted action potentials. Potassium concentrations between 3 and 8 mM had no effect but 10-15 mM K/sup +/ reduced the rate of evoked release and decreased the size of the releasable pool of (/sup 3/H) acetylcholine. Decreasing the sodium content of the Krebs' solution to 97 mM or less had effects similar to those of elevated (K/sup +/). Elevated K/sup +/ (10-15 mM) reversibly reduced the size of compound action potentials in the fimbria and the alveus. The results suggest that extracellular potassium concentrations occurring under physiological conditions do not affect axonal conduction and transmitter release but that both are reduced in pathological states when extracellular (K/sup +/) above 8 mM occur.

  16. The Relevance of AgRP Neuron-Derived GABA Inputs to POMC Neurons Differs for Spontaneous and Evoked Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Andrew R; Hentges, Shane T

    2017-08-02

    Hypothalamic agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons potently stimulate food intake, whereas proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons inhibit feeding. Whether AgRP neurons exert their orexigenic actions, at least in part, by inhibiting anorexigenic POMC neurons remains unclear. Here, the connectivity between GABA-releasing AgRP neurons and POMC neurons was examined in brain slices from male and female mice. GABA-mediated spontaneous IPSCs (sIPSCs) in POMC neurons were unaffected by disturbing GABA release from AgRP neurons either by cell type-specific deletion of the vesicular GABA transporter or by expression of botulinum toxin in AgRP neurons to prevent vesicle-associated membrane protein 2-dependent vesicle fusion. Additionally, there was no difference in the ability of μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonists to inhibit sIPSCs in POMC neurons when MORs were deleted from AgRP neurons, and activation of the inhibitory designer receptor hM4Di on AgRP neurons did not affect sIPSCs recorded from POMC neurons. These approaches collectively indicate that AgRP neurons do not significantly contribute to the strong spontaneous GABA input to POMC neurons. Despite these observations, optogenetic stimulation of AgRP neurons reliably produced evoked IPSCs in POMC neurons, leading to the inhibition of POMC neuron firing. Thus, AgRP neurons can potently affect POMC neuron function without contributing a significant source of spontaneous GABA input to POMC neurons. Together, these results indicate that the relevance of GABAergic inputs from AgRP to POMC neurons is state dependent and highlight the need to consider different types of transmitter release in circuit mapping and physiologic regulation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons play an important role in driving food intake, while proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons inhibit feeding. Despite the importance of these two well characterized neuron types in maintaining metabolic homeostasis, communication between these

  17. Peripheral Glutamate Receptors Are Required for Hyperalgesia Induced by Capsaicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Hong Jin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential vanilloid1 (TRPV1 and glutamate receptors (GluRs are located in small diameter primary afferent neurons (nociceptors, and it was speculated that glutamate released in the peripheral tissue in response to activation of TRPV1 might activate nociceptors retrogradely. But, it was not clear which types of GluRs are functioning in the nociceptive sensory transmission. In the present study, we examined the c-Fos expression in spinal cord dorsal horn following injection of drugs associated with glutamate receptors with/without capsaicin into the hindpaw. The subcutaneous injection of capsaicin or glutamate remarkably evoked c-Fos expression in ipsilateral sides of spinal cord dorsal horn. This capsaicin evoked increase of c-Fos expression was significantly prevented by concomitant administration of MK801, CNQX, and CPCCOEt. On the other hand, there were not any significant changes in coinjection of capsaicin and MCCG or MSOP. These results reveal that the activation of iGluRs and group I mGluR in peripheral afferent nerves play an important role in mechanisms whereby capsaicin evokes/maintains nociceptive responses.

  18. Effects of Chronic Alcohol Exposure on the Modulation of Ischemia-Induced Glutamate Release via Cannabinoid Receptors in the Dorsal Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lei; Wu, Xiaoda; Dong, Xiao; Ding, Xinli; Song, Cunfeng

    2015-10-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption is a critical contributing factor to ischemic stroke, as it enhances ischemia-induced glutamate release, leading to more severe excitotoxicity and brain damage. But the neural mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are poorly understood. We evaluated the effects of chronic alcohol exposure on the modulation of ischemia-induced glutamate release via CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors during middle cerebral artery occlusion, using in vivo microdialysis coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography, in alcohol-naïve rats or rats after 1 or 30 days of withdrawal from chronic ethanol intake (6% v/v for 14 days). Intra-dorsal hippocampus (DH) infusions of ACEA or JWH133, selective CB1 or CB2 receptor agonists, respectively, decreased glutamate release in the DH in alcohol-naïve rats in a dose-dependent manner. Such an effect was reversed by co-infusions of SR141716A or AM630, selective CB1 or CB2 receptor antagonists, respectively. After 30 days, but not 1 day of withdrawal, ischemia induced an enhancement in glutamate release in the DH, as compared with non-alcohol-treated control group. Intra-DH infusions of JWH133, but not ACEA, inhibited ischemia-induced glutamate release in the DH after 30 days of withdrawal. Finally, 1 day of withdrawal did not alter the protein level of CB1 or CB2 receptors in the DH, as compared to non-alcohol-treated control rats. Whereas 30 days of withdrawal robustly decreased the protein level of CB1 receptors, but failed to alter the protein level of CB2 receptors, in the DH, as compared to non-alcohol-treated control rats. Together, these findings suggest that loss of expression/function of CB1 receptors, but not CB2 receptors in the DH, is correlated with the enhancement of ischemia-induced glutamate release after prolonged alcohol withdrawal. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  19. Adrenaline release evokes hyperpnoea and an increase in ventilatory CO2 sensitivity during hypoglycaemia: a role for the carotid body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Emma L; Ray, Clare J; Holmes, Andrew P; Pye, Richard L; Wyatt, Christopher N; Coney, Andrew M; Kumar, Prem

    2016-08-01

    Hypoglycaemia is counteracted by release of hormones and an increase in ventilation and CO2 sensitivity to restore blood glucose levels and prevent a fall in blood pH. The full counter-regulatory response and an appropriate increase in ventilation is dependent on carotid body stimulation. We show that the hypoglycaemia-induced increase in ventilation and CO2 sensitivity is abolished by preventing adrenaline release or blocking its receptors. Physiological levels of adrenaline mimicked the effect of hypoglycaemia on ventilation and CO2 sensitivity. These results suggest that adrenaline, rather than low glucose, is an adequate stimulus for the carotid body-mediated changes in ventilation and CO2 sensitivity during hypoglycaemia to prevent a serious acidosis in poorly controlled diabetes. Hypoglycaemia in vivo induces a counter-regulatory response that involves the release of hormones to restore blood glucose levels. Concomitantly, hypoglycaemia evokes a carotid body-mediated hyperpnoea that maintains arterial CO2 levels and prevents respiratory acidosis in the face of increased metabolism. It is unclear whether the carotid body is directly stimulated by low glucose or by a counter-regulatory hormone such as adrenaline. Minute ventilation was recorded during infusion of insulin-induced hypoglycaemia (8-17 mIU kg(-1)  min(-1) ) in Alfaxan-anaesthetised male Wistar rats. Hypoglycaemia significantly augmented minute ventilation (123 ± 4 to 143 ± 7 ml min(-1) ) and CO2 sensitivity (3.3 ± 0.3 to 4.4 ± 0.4 ml min(-1)  mmHg(-1) ). These effects were abolished by either β-adrenoreceptor blockade with propranolol or adrenalectomy. In this hypermetabolic, hypoglycaemic state, propranolol stimulated a rise in P aC O2, suggestive of a ventilation-metabolism mismatch. Infusion of adrenaline (1 μg kg(-1)  min(-1) ) increased minute ventilation (145 ± 4 to 173 ± 5 ml min(-1) ) without altering P aC O2 or pH and enhanced ventilatory CO2 sensitivity (3

  20. Cortical Regulation of Striatal Medium Spiny Neuron Dendritic Remodeling in Parkinsonism: Modulation of Glutamate Release Reverses Dopamine Depletion–Induced Dendritic Spine Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Bonnie G.; Neely, M. Diana; Deutch, Ariel Y.

    2010-01-01

    Striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) receive glutamatergic afferents from the cerebral cortex and dopaminergic inputs from the substantia nigra (SN). Striatal dopamine loss decreases the number of MSN dendritic spines. This loss of spines has been suggested to reflect the removal of tonic dopamine inhibitory control over corticostriatal glutamatergic drive, with increased glutamate release culminating in MSN spine loss. We tested this hypothesis in two ways. We first determined in vivo if dec...

  1. Blood Glutamate Scavenging: Insight into Neuroprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Zlotnik

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain insults are characterized by a multitude of complex processes, of which glutamate release plays a major role. Deleterious excess of glutamate in the brain’s extracellular fluids stimulates glutamate receptors, which in turn lead to cell swelling, apoptosis, and neuronal death. These exacerbate neurological outcome. Approaches aimed at antagonizing the astrocytic and glial glutamate receptors have failed to demonstrate clinical benefit. Alternatively, eliminating excess glutamate from brain interstitial fluids by making use of the naturally occurring brain-to-blood glutamate efflux has been shown to be effective in various animal studies. This is facilitated by gradient driven transport across brain capillary endothelial glutamate transporters. Blood glutamate scavengers enhance this naturally occurring mechanism by reducing the blood glutamate concentration, thus increasing the rate at which excess glutamate is cleared. Blood glutamate scavenging is achieved by several mechanisms including: catalyzation of the enzymatic process involved in glutamate metabolism, redistribution of glutamate into tissue, and acute stress response. Regardless of the mechanism involved, decreased blood glutamate concentration is associated with improved neurological outcome. This review focuses on the physiological, mechanistic and clinical roles of blood glutamate scavenging, particularly in the context of acute and chronic CNS injury. We discuss the details of brain-to-blood glutamate efflux, auto-regulation mechanisms of blood glutamate, natural and exogenous blood glutamate scavenging systems, and redistribution of glutamate. We then propose different applied methodologies to reduce blood and brain glutamate concentrations and discuss the neuroprotective role of blood glutamate scavenging.

  2. Excitatory effect of the A2A adenosine receptor agonist CGS-21680 on spontaneous and K+-evoked acetylcholine release at the mouse neuromuscular junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, A G; Muchnik, S; Losavio, A S

    2011-01-13

    The mechanism of action of the A2A adenosine receptor agonist 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl) phenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine hydrochloride (CGS-21680) in the facilitation of spontaneous (isotonic and hypertonic condition) and K+-evoked acetylcholine (ACh) release was investigated in the mouse diaphragm muscles. At isotonic condition, the CGS-21680-induced excitatory effect on miniature end-plate potential (MEPP) frequency was not modified in the presence of CdCl2 and in a medium free of Ca2+ (0Ca2+-EGTA), but it was abolished after buffering the rise of intracellular Ca2+ with 1,2-bis-(2-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetra(acetoxy-methyl) (BAPTA-AM) and when the Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin was used to deplete intracellular Ca2+ stores. CGS-21680 did not have a direct effect on the Ca2+-independent neurotransmitter-releasing machinery, since the modulatory effect on the hypertonic response was also occluded by BAPTA-AM and thapsigargin. CGS-21680 facilitation on K+-evoked ACh release was not altered by the P/Q-type voltage-dependent calcium channel (VDCC) blocker ω-Agatoxin IVA, but it was completely prevented by both, the L-type VDCC blocker nitrendipine (which is known to immobilize their gating charges), or thapsigargin, suggesting that the effects of CGS-21680 on L-type VDCC and thapsigargin-sensitive internal stores are associated. We found that the VDCC pore blocker Cd2+ (2 mM Ca2+ or 0Ca2+-EGTA) failed to affect the CGS-21680 effect in high K+ whereas nitrendipine in 0Ca2+-EGTA+Cd2+ occluded its action. The blockade of Ca2+ release from endoplasmic reticulum with ryanodine antagonized the facilitating effect of CGS-21680 in control and high K+ concentration. It is concluded that, at the mouse neuromuscular junction, activation of A2A receptors facilitates spontaneous and K+-evoked ACh release by an external Ca2+-independent mechanism but that involves mobilization of Ca2+ from internal stores: during spontaneous ACh release

  3. The neuroprotective properties of the superoxide dismutase mimetic tempol correlate with its ability to reduce pathological glutamate release in a rodent model of stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohare, Preeti; Hyzinski-García, María C.; Vipani, Aarshi; Bowens, Nicole H.; Nalwalk, Julia W.; Feustel, Paul J.; Keller, Richard W.; Jourd’heuil, David; Mongin, Alexander A.

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of oxidative stress to ischemic brain damage is well established. Nevertheless, for unknown reasons, several clinically tested antioxidant therapies failed to show benefits in human stroke. Based on our previous in vitro work, we hypothesized that the neuroprotective potency of antioxidants is related to their ability to limit release of the excitotoxic amino acids, glutamate and aspartate. We explored the effects of two antioxidants, tempol and edaravone, on amino acid release in the brain cortex, in a rat model of transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAo). Amino acid levels were quantified using a microdialysis approach, with the probe positioned in the ischemic penumbra as verified by a laser Doppler technique. Two-hour MCAo triggered a dramatic increase in the levels of glutamate, aspartate, taurine and alanine. Microdialysate delivery of 10 mM tempol reduced the amino acid release by 60–80%, while matching levels of edaravone had no effect. In line with these latter data, an intracerebroventri-cular injection of tempol but not edaravone (500 nmols each, 15 minutes prior to MCAo) reduced infarction volumes by ~50% and improved neurobehavioral outcomes. In vitro assays showed that tempol was superior in removing superoxide anion, whereas edaravone was more potent in scavenging hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, and peroxynitrite. Overall, our data suggests that the neuroprotective properties of tempol are likely related to its ability to reduce tissue levels of the superoxide anion and pathological glutamate release, and, in such a way, limit progression of brain infarction within ischemic penumbra. These new findings may be instrumental in developing new antioxidant therapies for treatment of stroke. PMID:25224033

  4. Lysosomes shape Ins(1,4,5)P3-evoked Ca2+ signals by selectively sequestering Ca2+ released from the endoplasmic reticulum

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sanjurjo, Cristina I.; Tovey, Stephen C.; Prole, David L.; Taylor, Colin W.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Most intracellular Ca2+ signals result from opening of Ca2+ channels in the plasma membrane or endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and they are reversed by active transport across these membranes or by shuttling Ca2+ into mitochondria. Ca2+ channels in lysosomes contribute to endo-lysosomal trafficking and Ca2+ signalling, but the role of lysosomal Ca2+ uptake in Ca2+ signalling is unexplored. Inhibition of lysosomal Ca2+ uptake by dissipating the H+ gradient (using bafilomycin A1), perforating lysosomal membranes (using glycyl-L-phenylalanine 2-naphthylamide) or lysosome fusion (using vacuolin) increased the Ca2+ signals evoked by receptors that stimulate inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3] formation. Bafilomycin A1 amplified the Ca2+ signals evoked by photolysis of caged Ins(1,4,5)P3 or by inhibition of ER Ca2+ pumps, and it slowed recovery from them. Ca2+ signals evoked by store-operated Ca2+ entry were unaffected by bafilomycin A1. Video-imaging with total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy revealed that lysosomes were motile and remained intimately associated with the ER. Close association of lysosomes with the ER allows them selectively to accumulate Ca2+ released by Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptors. PMID:23097044

  5. Glutamate oxidation in astrocytes: Roles of glutamate dehydrogenase and aminotransferases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenna, Mary C; Stridh, Malin H; McNair, Laura Frendrup

    2016-01-01

    to the presynaptic neurons as the nonexcitatory amino acid glutamine. The cycle was initially thought to function with a 1:1 ratio between glutamate released and glutamine taken up by neurons. However, studies of glutamate metabolism in astrocytes have shown that a considerable proportion of glutamate undergoes...... the enzymes that mediate this conversion. Methods include pharmacological tools such as the transaminase inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid, studies using GDH knockout mice, and siRNA-mediated knockdown of GDH in astrocytes. Studies in brain slices incubated with [15N]glutamate demonstrated activity of GDH......The cellular distribution of transporters and enzymes related to glutamate metabolism led to the concept of the glutamate–glutamine cycle. Glutamate is released as a neurotransmitter and taken up primarily by astrocytes ensheathing the synapses. The glutamate carbon skeleton is transferred back...

  6. DDPH ameliorated oxygen and glucose deprivation-induced injury in rat hippocampal neurons via interrupting Ca2+ overload and glutamate release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhi; Lu, Qing; Xu, Xulin; Huang, Lin; Chen, Jianguo; Guo, Lianjun

    2009-01-28

    Our previous work has demonstrated that DDPH (1-(2, 6-dimethylphenoxy)-2-(3, 4-dimethoxyphenylethylamino) propane hydrochloride), a competitive alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist, could improve cognitive deficits, reduce histopathological damage and facilitate synaptic plasticity in vivo possibly via increasing NR2B (NMDA receptor 2B) expression and antioxidation of DDPH itself. The present study further evaluated effects of DDPH on OGD (Oxygen and glucose deprivation)-induced neuronal damage in rat primary hippocampal cells. The addition of DDPH to the cultured cells 12 h before OGD for 4 h significantly reduced neuronal damage as determined by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) release experiments. The effects of DDPH on intracellular calcium concentration were explored by Fura-2 based calcium imaging techniques and results showed that DDPH at the dosages of 5 microM and 10 microM suppressed the increase of intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) stimulated by 50 mM KCl in Ca(2+)-containing extracellular solutions. However, DDPH couldn't suppress the increase of [Ca(2+)](i) induced by both 50 microM glutamate in Ca(2+)-containing extracellular solutions and 20 microM ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) in Ca(2+)-free solution. These results indicated that DDPH prevented [Ca(2+)](i) overload in hippocampal neurons by blocking Ca(2+) influx (voltage-dependent calcium channel) but not Ca(2+) mobilization from the intracellular Ca(2+) store in endoplasm reticulum (ER). We also demonstrated that DDPH could decrease glutamate release when hippocampal cells were subjected to OGD. These observations demonstrated that DDPH protected hippocampal neurons against OGD-induced damage by preventing the Ca(2+) influx and decreasing glutamate release.

  7. Increased cerebral (R-[11C]PK11195 uptake and glutamate release in a rat model of traumatic brain injury: a longitudinal pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lammertsma Adriaan A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to investigate microglia activation over time following traumatic brain injury (TBI and to relate these findings to glutamate release. Procedures Sequential dynamic (R-[11C]PK11195 PET scans were performed in rats 24 hours before (baseline, and one and ten days after TBI using controlled cortical impact, or a sham procedure. Extracellular fluid (ECF glutamate concentrations were measured using cerebral microdialysis. Brains were processed for histopathology and (immuno-histochemistry. Results Ten days after TBI, (R-[11C]PK11195 binding was significantly increased in TBI rats compared with both baseline values and sham controls (p -1 as compared with the sham procedure (6.4 ± 3.6 μmol·L-1. Significant differences were found between TBI and sham for ED-1, OX-6, GFAP, Perl's, and Fluoro-Jade B. Conclusions Increased cerebral uptake of (R-[11C]PK11195 ten days after TBI points to prolonged and ongoing activation of microglia. This activation followed a significant acute posttraumatic increase in ECF glutamate levels.

  8. Enhanced pre-synaptic glutamate release in deep-dorsal horn contributes to calcium channel alpha-2-delta-1 protein-mediated spinal sensitization and behavioral hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickenson Anthony H

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nerve injury-induced expression of the spinal calcium channel alpha-2-delta-1 subunit (Cavα2δ1 has been shown to mediate behavioral hypersensitivity through a yet identified mechanism. We examined if this neuroplasticity modulates behavioral hypersensitivity by regulating spinal glutamatergic neurotransmission in injury-free transgenic mice overexpressing the Cavα2δ1 proteins in neuronal tissues. The transgenic mice exhibited hypersensitivity to mechanical stimulation (allodynia similar to the spinal nerve ligation injury model. Intrathecally delivered antagonists for N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA and α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA/kainate receptors, but not for the metabotropic glutamate receptors, caused a dose-dependent allodynia reversal in the transgenic mice without changing the behavioral sensitivity in wild-type mice. This suggests that elevated spinal Cavα2δ1 mediates allodynia through a pathway involving activation of selective glutamate receptors. To determine if this is mediated by enhanced spinal neuronal excitability or pre-synaptic glutamate release in deep-dorsal horn, we examined wide-dynamic-range (WDR neuron excitability with extracellular recording and glutamate-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents with whole-cell patch recording in deep-dorsal horn of the Cavα2δ1 transgenic mice. Our data indicated that overexpression of Cavα2δ1 in neuronal tissues led to increased frequency, but not amplitude, of miniature excitatory post synaptic currents mediated mainly by AMPA/kainate receptors at physiological membrane potentials, and also by NMDA receptors upon depolarization, without changing the excitability of WDR neurons to high intensity stimulation. Together, these findings support a mechanism of Cavα2δ1-mediated spinal sensitization in which elevated Cavα2δ1 causes increased pre-synaptic glutamate release that leads to reduced excitation thresholds of post-synaptic dorsal

  9. Enhanced pre-synaptic glutamate release in deep-dorsal horn contributes to calcium channel alpha-2-delta-1 protein-mediated spinal sensitization and behavioral hypersensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, David; Deng, Ping; Matthews, Elizabeth A; Kim, Doo-Sik; Feng, Guoping; Dickenson, Anthony H; Xu, Zao C; Luo, Z David

    2009-01-01

    Nerve injury-induced expression of the spinal calcium channel alpha-2-delta-1 subunit (Cavα2δ1) has been shown to mediate behavioral hypersensitivity through a yet identified mechanism. We examined if this neuroplasticity modulates behavioral hypersensitivity by regulating spinal glutamatergic neurotransmission in injury-free transgenic mice overexpressing the Cavα2δ1 proteins in neuronal tissues. The transgenic mice exhibited hypersensitivity to mechanical stimulation (allodynia) similar to the spinal nerve ligation injury model. Intrathecally delivered antagonists for N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA)/kainate receptors, but not for the metabotropic glutamate receptors, caused a dose-dependent allodynia reversal in the transgenic mice without changing the behavioral sensitivity in wild-type mice. This suggests that elevated spinal Cavα2δ1 mediates allodynia through a pathway involving activation of selective glutamate receptors. To determine if this is mediated by enhanced spinal neuronal excitability or pre-synaptic glutamate release in deep-dorsal horn, we examined wide-dynamic-range (WDR) neuron excitability with extracellular recording and glutamate-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents with whole-cell patch recording in deep-dorsal horn of the Cavα2δ1 transgenic mice. Our data indicated that overexpression of Cavα2δ1 in neuronal tissues led to increased frequency, but not amplitude, of miniature excitatory post synaptic currents mediated mainly by AMPA/kainate receptors at physiological membrane potentials, and also by NMDA receptors upon depolarization, without changing the excitability of WDR neurons to high intensity stimulation. Together, these findings support a mechanism of Cavα2δ1-mediated spinal sensitization in which elevated Cavα2δ1 causes increased pre-synaptic glutamate release that leads to reduced excitation thresholds of post-synaptic dorsal horn neurons to innocuous

  10. Depolarization by K+ and glutamate activates different neurotransmitter release mechanisms in GABAergic neurons: vesicular versus non-vesicular release of GABA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belhage, B; Hansen, G H; Schousboe, A

    1993-01-01

    was also reduced by organic (verapamil) and inorganic (Co++) Ca++ channel blockers but was insensitive to the GABA transport inhibitor SKF 89976A. In contrast, the second phase was less sensitive to nocodazole and Ca++ channel antagonists but could be inhibited by SKF 89976A. The glutamate-induced [3H...

  11. Silicon Wafer-Based Platinum Microelectrode Array Biosensor for Near Real-Time Measurement of Glutamate in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel T. Maidment

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Using Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS technologies, we have developed silicon wafer-based platinum microelectrode arrays (MEAs modified with glutamate oxidase (GluOx for electroenzymatic detection of glutamate in vivo. These MEAs were designed to have optimal spatial resolution for in vivo recordings. Selective detection of glutamate in the presence of the electroactive interferents, dopamine and ascorbic acid, was attained by deposition of polypyrrole and Nafion. The sensors responded to glutamate with a limit of detection under 1μM and a sub-1-second response time in solution. In addition to extensive in vitro characterization, the utility of these MEA glutamate biosensors was also established in vivo. In the anesthetized rat, these MEA glutamate biosensors were used for detection of cortically-evoked glutamate release in the ventral striatum. The MEA biosensors also were applied to the detection of stress-induced glutamate release in the dorsal striatum of the freely-moving rat.

  12. Neuromodulatory properties of fluorescent carbon dots: effect on exocytotic release, uptake and ambient level of glutamate and GABA in brain nerve terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Tatiana; Nazarova, Anastasia; Dekaliuk, Mariia; Krisanova, Natalia; Pozdnyakova, Natalia; Borysov, Arsenii; Sivko, Roman; Demchenko, Alexander P

    2015-02-01

    Carbon dots (C-dots), a recently discovered class of fluorescent nano-sized particles with pure carbon core, have great bioanalytical potential. Neuroactive properties of fluorescent C-dots obtained from β-alanine by microwave heating were assessed based on the analysis of their effects on the key characteristics of GABA- and glutamatergic neurotransmission in isolated rat brain nerve terminals. It was found that C-dots (40-800 μg/ml) in dose-dependent manner: (1) decreased exocytotic release of [(3)H]GABA and L-[(14)C]glutamate; (2) reduced acidification of synaptic vesicles; (3) attenuated the initial velocity of Na(+)-dependent transporter-mediated uptake of [(3)H]GABA and L-[(14)C]glutamate; (4) increased the ambient level of the neurotransmitters, nevertheless (5) did not change significantly the potential of the plasma membrane of nerve terminals. Almost complete suppression of exocytotic release of the neurotransmitters was caused by C-dots at a concentration of 800 μg/ml. Fluorescent and neuromodulatory features combined in C-dots create base for their potential usage for labeling and visualization of key processes in nerve terminals, and also in theranostics. In addition, natural presence of carbon-containing nanoparticles in the human food chain and in the air may provoke the development of neurologic consequences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Control of Amygdala Circuits by 5-HT Neurons via 5-HT and Glutamate Cotransmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Ayesha; Bocchio, Marco; Bannerman, David M; Sharp, Trevor; Capogna, Marco

    2017-02-15

    The serotonin (5-HT) system and the amygdala are key regulators of emotional behavior. Several lines of evidence suggest that 5-HT transmission in the amygdala is implicated in the susceptibility and drug treatment of mood disorders. Therefore, elucidating the physiological mechanisms through which midbrain 5-HT neurons modulate amygdala circuits could be pivotal in understanding emotional regulation in health and disease. To shed light on these mechanisms, we performed patch-clamp recordings from basal amygdala (BA) neurons in brain slices from mice with channelrhodopsin genetically targeted to 5-HT neurons. Optical stimulation of 5-HT terminals at low frequencies (≤1 Hz) evoked a short-latency excitation of BA interneurons (INs) that was depressed at higher frequencies. Pharmacological analysis revealed that this effect was mediated by glutamate and not 5-HT because it was abolished by ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists. Optical stimulation of 5-HT terminals at higher frequencies (10-20 Hz) evoked both slow excitation and slow inhibition of INs. These effects were mediated by 5-HT because they were blocked by antagonists of 5-HT 2A and 5-HT 1A receptors, respectively. These fast glutamate- and slow 5-HT-mediated responses often coexisted in the same neuron. Interestingly, fast-spiking and non-fast-spiking INs displayed differential modulation by glutamate and 5-HT. Furthermore, optical stimulation of 5-HT terminals did not evoke glutamate release onto BA principal neurons, but inhibited these cells directly via activation of 5-HT 1A receptors and indirectly via enhanced GABA release. Collectively, these findings suggest that 5-HT neurons exert a frequency-dependent, cell-type-specific control over BA circuitry via 5-HT and glutamate co-release to inhibit the BA output. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The modulation of the amygdala by serotonin (5-HT) is important for emotional regulation and is implicated in the pathogenesis and treatment of affective disorders

  14. Prostaglandin E(2) stimulates glutamate receptor-dependent astrocyte neuromodulation in cultured hippocampal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzgiri, R P; Araque, A; Haydon, P G

    1999-11-05

    Recent Ca(2+) imaging studies in cell culture and in situ have shown that Ca(2+) elevations in astrocytes stimulate glutamate release and increase neuronal Ca(2+) levels, and that this astrocyte-neuron signaling can be stimulated by prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). We investigated the electrophysiological consequences of the PGE(2)-mediated astrocyte-neuron signaling using whole-cell recordings on cultured rat hippocampal cells. Focal application of PGE(2) to astrocytes evoked a Ca(2+) elevation in the stimulated cell by mobilizing internal Ca(2+) stores, which further propagated as a Ca(2+) wave to neighboring astrocytes. Whole-cell recordings from neurons revealed that PGE(2) evoked a slow inward current in neurons adjacent to astrocytes. This neuronal response required the presence of an astrocyte Ca(2+) wave and was mediated through both N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA glutamate receptors. Taken together with previous studies, these data demonstrate that PGE(2)-evoked Ca(2+) elevations in astrocyte cause the release of glutamate which activates neuronal ionotropic receptors. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  15. The Relevance of AgRP Neuron-Derived GABA Inputs to POMC Neurons Differs for Spontaneous and Evoked Release

    OpenAIRE

    Rau, Andrew R.; Hentges, Shane T.

    2017-01-01

    Hypothalamic agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons potently stimulate food intake, whereas proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons inhibit feeding. Whether AgRP neurons exert their orexigenic actions, at least in part, by inhibiting anorexigenic POMC neurons remains unclear. Here, the connectivity between GABA-releasing AgRP neurons and POMC neurons was examined in brain slices from male and female mice. GABA-mediated spontaneous IPSCs (sIPSCs) in POMC neurons were unaffected by disturbing GABA re...

  16. Vinpocetine inhibits glutamate release induced by the convulsive agent 4-aminopyridine more potently than several antiepileptic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitges, M; Sanchez-Tafolla, B M; Chiu, L M; Aldana, B I; Guarneros, A

    2011-10-01

    4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) is a convulsing agent that in vivo preferentially releases Glu, the most important excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter in the brain. Here the ionic dependence of 4-AP-induced Glu release and the effects of several of the most common antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and of the new potential AED, vinpocetine on 4-AP-induced Glu release were characterized in hippocampus isolated nerve endings pre-loaded with labelled Glu ([3H]Glu). 4-AP-induced [3H]Glu release was composed by a tetrodotoxin (TTX) sensitive and external Ca2+ dependent fraction and a TTX insensitive fraction that was sensitive to the excitatory amino acid transporter inhibitor, TBOA. The AEDs: carbamazepine, phenytoin, lamotrigine and oxcarbazepine at the highest dose tested only reduced [3H]Glu release to 4-AP between 50-60%, and topiramate was ineffective. Vinpocetine at a much lower concentration than the above AEDs, abolished [3H]Glu release to 4-AP. We conclude that the decrease in [3H]Glu release linked to the direct blockade of presynaptic Na+ channels, may importantly contribute to the anticonvulsant actions of all the drugs tested here (except topiramate); and that the significantly greater vinpocetine effect in magnitude and potency on [3H]Glu release when excitability is exacerbated like during seizures, may involve the increase additionally exerted by vinpocetine in some K+ channels permeability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Synaptic function is modulated by LRRK2 and glutamate release is increased in cortical neurons of G2019S LRRK2 knock-in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccano-Kelly, Dayne A; Kuhlmann, Naila; Tatarnikov, Igor; Volta, Mattia; Munsie, Lise N; Chou, Patrick; Cao, Li-Ping; Han, Heather; Tapia, Lucia; Farrer, Matthew J; Milnerwood, Austen J

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase-2 (LRRK2) result in familial Parkinson's disease and the G2019S mutation alone accounts for up to 30% in some ethnicities. Despite this, the function of LRRK2 is largely undetermined although evidence suggests roles in phosphorylation, protein interactions, autophagy and endocytosis. Emerging reports link loss of LRRK2 to altered synaptic transmission, but the effects of the G2019S mutation upon synaptic release in mammalian neurons are unknown. To assess wild type and mutant LRRK2 in established neuronal networks, we conducted immunocytochemical, electrophysiological and biochemical characterization of >3 week old cortical cultures of LRRK2 knock-out, wild-type overexpressing and G2019S knock-in mice. Synaptic release and synapse numbers were grossly normal in LRRK2 knock-out cells, but discretely reduced glutamatergic activity and reduced synaptic protein levels were observed. Conversely, synapse density was modestly but significantly increased in wild-type LRRK2 overexpressing cultures although event frequency was not. In knock-in cultures, glutamate release was markedly elevated, in the absence of any change to synapse density, indicating that physiological levels of G2019S LRRK2 elevate probability of release. Several pre-synaptic regulatory proteins shown by others to interact with LRRK2 were expressed at normal levels in knock-in cultures; however, synapsin 1 phosphorylation was significantly reduced. Thus, perturbations to the pre-synaptic release machinery and elevated synaptic transmission are early neuronal effects of LRRK2 G2019S. Furthermore, the comparison of knock-in and overexpressing cultures suggests that one copy of the G2019S mutation has a more pronounced effect than an ~3-fold increase in LRRK2 protein. Mutant-induced increases in transmission may convey additional stressors to neuronal physiology that may eventually contribute to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease.

  18. Both exogenous 5-HT and endogenous 5-HT, released by fluoxetine, enhance distension evoked propulsion in guinea-pig ileum in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M Gwynne

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The roles of 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors in the modulation of intestinal propulsion by luminal application of 5-HT and augmentation of endogenous 5-HT effects were studied in segments of guinea-pig ileum in vitro. Persistent propulsive contractions evoked by saline distension were examined using a modified Trendelenburg method. When 5-HT (30 nM, fluoxetine (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor; 1 nM, 2-methyl-5-HT (5-HT3 receptor agonist; 1 mM or RS 67506 (5-HT4 receptor agonist, 1 µM was infused into the lumen, the pressure needed to initiate persistent propulsive activity fell significantly. A specific 5-HT4 receptor antagonist, SB 207266 (10 nM in lumen, abolished the effects of 5-HT, fluoxetine, and RS 67506, but not those of 2-methyl-5-HT. Granisetron (5-HT3 receptor antagonist; 1 µM in lumen abolished the effect of 5-HT, fluoxetine, RS 67506 and 2-methyl-5-HT. The NK3 receptor antagonist SR 142801 (100 nM in lumen blocked the effects of 5-HT, fluoxetine and 2-methyl-5-HT. SB 207266, granisetron and SR 142801 had no effect by themselves. Higher concentrations of fluoxetine (100 nM and 300 nM and RS 67506 (3 µM and 10 µM had no effect on the distension threshold for propulsive contractions. These results indicate that luminal application of exogenous 5-HT, or increased release of endogenous mucosal 5-HT above basal levels, acts to lower the threshold for propulsive contractions in the guinea-pig ileum via activation of 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors and the release of tachykinins. The results further indicate that basal release of 5-HT is insufficient to alter the threshold for propulsive motor activity.

  19. The glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Lasse K; Schousboe, Arne; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2006-01-01

    Neurons are metabolically handicapped in the sense that they are not able to perform de novo synthesis of neurotransmitter glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from glucose. A metabolite shuttle known as the glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle describes the release of neurotransmitter glutamate...... or GABA from neurons and subsequent uptake into astrocytes. In return, astrocytes release glutamine to be taken up into neurons for use as neurotransmitter precursor. In this review, the basic properties of the glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle will be discussed, including aspects of transport and metabolism...... of intercellular transfer of ammonia produced in neurons (when glutamine is deamidated to glutamate) and utilized in astrocytes (for amidation of glutamate) when the glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle is operating. A main objective of this review is to endorse the view that the glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle must...

  20. Role of glutamate receptors and nitric oxide on the effects of glufosinate ammonium, an organophosphate pesticide, on in vivo dopamine release in rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faro, Lilian R F; Ferreira Nunes, Brenda V; Alfonso, Miguel; Ferreira, Vania M; Durán, Rafael

    2013-09-15

    The purpose of the present work was to assess the possible role of glutamatergic receptors and nitric oxide (NO) production on effects of glufosinate ammonium (GLA), an organophosphate pesticide structurally related to glutamate, on in vivo striatal dopamine release in awake and freely moving rats. For this, we used antagonists of NMDA (MK-801 and AP5) or AMPA/kainate (CNQX) receptors, or nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors (l-NAME and 7-NI), to study the effects of GLA on release of dopamine from rat striatum. So, intrastriatal infusion of 10mM GLA significantly increased dopamine levels (1035±140%, compared with basal levels) and administration of GLA to MK-801 (250μM) or AP5 (650μM) pretreated animals, produced increases in dopamine overflow that were ∼40% and ∼90% smaller than those observed in animals not pretreated with MK-801 or AP5. Administration of GLA to CNQX (500μM) pretreated animals produced an effect that was not significantly different from the one produced in animals not pretreated with CNQX. On the other hand, administration of GLA to l-NAME (100μM) or 7-NI (100μM) pretreated animals, produced increases in dopamine overflow that were ∼80% and ∼75% smaller than those observed in animals not pretreated with these inhibitors. In summary, GLA appears to act, at least in part, through an overstimulation of NMDA (and not AMPA/kainate) receptors with possible NO production to induce in vivo dopamine release. Administration of NMDA receptor antagonists and NOS inhibitors partially blocks the release of dopamine from rat striatum. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Backpropagating Action Potentials Enable Detection of Extrasynaptic Glutamate by NMDA Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Wei Wu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic NMDA receptors (NMDARs are crucial for neural coding and plasticity. However, little is known about the adaptive function of extrasynaptic NMDARs occurring mainly on dendritic shafts. Here, we find that in CA1 pyramidal neurons, backpropagating action potentials (bAPs recruit shaft NMDARs exposed to ambient glutamate. In contrast, spine NMDARs are “protected,” under baseline conditions, from such glutamate influences by perisynaptic transporters: we detect bAP-evoked Ca2+ entry through these receptors upon local synaptic or photolytic glutamate release. During theta-burst firing, NMDAR-dependent Ca2+ entry either downregulates or upregulates an h-channel conductance (Gh of the cell depending on whether synaptic glutamate release is intact or blocked. Thus, the balance between activation of synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDARs can determine the sign of Gh plasticity. Gh plasticity in turn regulates dendritic input probed by local glutamate uncaging. These results uncover a metaplasticity mechanism potentially important for neural coding and memory formation.

  2. Mechanistic study of competitive releases of H2O, NH3 and CO2 from deprotonated aspartic and glutamic acids: Role of conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier Saint Hilaire, Pierre; Warnet, Anna; Gimbert, Yves; Hohenester, Ulli Martin; Giorgi, Gianluca; Olivier, Marie-Françoise; Fenaille, François; Colsch, Benoît; Junot, Christophe; Tabet, Jean-Claude

    2017-03-15

    The aims of this study were to highlight the impact of minor structural differences (e.g. an aminoacid side chain enlargement by one methylene group), on ion dissociation under collision-induced dissociation conditions, and to determine the underlying chemical mechanisms. Therefore, we compared fragmentations of deprotonated aspartic and glutamic acids generated in negative electrospray ionization. Energy-resolved mass spectrometry breakdown curves were recorded and MS 3 experiments performed on an Orbitrap Fusion for high-resolution and high-mass accuracy measurements. Activated fragmentations were performed using both the resonant and non-resonant excitation modes (i.e., CID and HCD, respectively) in order to get complementary information on the competitive and consecutive dissociative pathways. These experiments showed a specific loss of ammonia from the activated aspartate but not from the activated glutamate. We mainly focused on this specific observed loss from aspartate. Two different mechanisms based on intramolecular reactions (similar to those occurring in organic chemistry) were proposed, such as intramolecular elimination (i.e. Ei-like) and nucleophilic substitution (i.e. SNi-like) reactions, respectively, yielding anions as fumarate and α lactone from a particular conformation with the lowest steric hindrance (i.e. with antiperiplanar carboxyl groups). The detected deaminated aspartate anion can then release CO 2 as observed in the MS 3 experimental spectra. However, quantum calculations did not indicate the formation of such a deaminated aspartate product ion without loss of carbon dioxide. Actually, calculations displayed the double neutral (NH 3 +CO 2 ) loss as a concomitant pathway (from a particular conformation) with relative high activation energy instead of a consecutive process. This disagreement is apparent since the concomitant pathway may be changed into consecutive dissociations according to the collision energy i.e., at higher collision

  3. Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System-based amperometric detection of dopamine, adenosine, and glutamate for intraoperative neurochemical monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnesi, Filippo; Tye, Susannah J; Bledsoe, Jonathan M; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Kimble, Christopher J; Sieck, Gary C; Bennet, Kevin E; Garris, Paul A; Blaha, Charles D; Lee, Kendall H

    2009-10-01

    In a companion study, the authors describe the development of a new instrument named the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System (WINCS), which couples digital telemetry with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) to measure extracellular concentrations of dopamine. In the present study, the authors describe the extended capability of the WINCS to use fixed potential amperometry (FPA) to measure extracellular concentrations of dopamine, as well as glutamate and adenosine. Compared with other electrochemical techniques such as FSCV or high-speed chronoamperometry, FPA offers superior temporal resolution and, in combination with enzyme-linked biosensors, the potential to monitor nonelectroactive analytes in real time. The WINCS design incorporated a transimpedance amplifier with associated analog circuitry for FPA; a microprocessor; a Bluetooth transceiver; and a single, battery-powered, multilayer, printed circuit board. The WINCS was tested with 3 distinct recording electrodes: 1) a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) to measure dopamine; 2) a glutamate oxidase enzyme-linked electrode to measure glutamate; and 3) a multiple enzyme-linked electrode (adenosine deaminase, nucleoside phosphorylase, and xanthine oxidase) to measure adenosine. Proof-of-principle analyses included noise assessments and in vitro and in vivo measurements that were compared with similar analyses by using a commercial hardwired electrochemical system (EA161 Picostat, eDAQ; Pty Ltd). In urethane-anesthetized rats, dopamine release was monitored in the striatum following deep brain stimulation (DBS) of ascending dopaminergic fibers in the medial forebrain bundle (MFB). In separate rat experiments, DBS-evoked adenosine release was monitored in the ventrolateral thalamus. To test the WINCS in an operating room setting resembling human neurosurgery, cortical glutamate release in response to motor cortex stimulation (MCS) was monitored using a large-mammal animal model, the pig. The

  4. Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System–based amperometric detection of dopamine, adenosine, and glutamate for intraoperative neurochemical monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnesi, Filippo; Tye, Susannah J.; Bledsoe, Jonathan M.; Griessenauer, Christoph J.; Kimble, Christopher J.; Sieck, Gary C.; Bennet, Kevin E.; Garris, Paul A.; Blaha, Charles D.; Lee, Kendall H.

    2009-01-01

    Object In a companion study, the authors describe the development of a new instrument named the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System (WINCS), which couples digital telemetry with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) to measure extracellular concentrations of dopamine. In the present study, the authors describe the extended capability of the WINCS to use fixed potential amperometry (FPA) to measure extracellular concentrations of dopamine, as well as glutamate and adenosine. Compared with other electrochemical techniques such as FSCV or high-speed chronoamperometry, FPA offers superior temporal resolution and, in combination with enzyme-linked biosensors, the potential to monitor nonelectroactive analytes in real time. Methods The WINCS design incorporated a transimpedance amplifier with associated analog circuitry for FPA; a microprocessor; a Bluetooth transceiver; and a single, battery-powered, multilayer, printed circuit board. The WINCS was tested with 3 distinct recording electrodes: 1) a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) to measure dopamine; 2) a glutamate oxidase enzyme-linked electrode to measure glutamate; and 3) a multiple enzyme-linked electrode (adenosine deaminase, nucleoside phosphorylase, and xanthine oxidase) to measure adenosine. Proof-of-principle analyses included noise assessments and in vitro and in vivo measurements that were compared with similar analyses by using a commercial hardwired electrochemical system (EA161 Picostat, eDAQ; Pty Ltd). In urethane-anesthetized rats, dopamine release was monitored in the striatum following deep brain stimulation (DBS) of ascending dopaminergic fibers in the medial forebrain bundle (MFB). In separate rat experiments, DBS-evoked adenosine release was monitored in the ventrolateral thalamus. To test the WINCS in an operating room setting resembling human neurosurgery, cortical glutamate release in response to motor cortex stimulation (MCS) was monitored using a large-mammal animal

  5. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 and corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor-1 gene expression is differently regulated by BDNF in rat primary cortical neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christinna V; Klein, Anders B; El-Sayed, Mona

    2013-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is important for neuronal survival and plasticity. Incorporation of matured receptor proteins is an integral part of synapse formation. However, whether BDNF increases synthesis and integration of receptors in functional synapses directly is unclear. We...... are particularly interested in the regulation of the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A (5-HT2A R). This receptor form a functional complex with the metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGluR2) and is recruited to the cell membrane by the corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF-R1). The effect of BDNF on gene...... expression for all these receptors, as well as a number of immediate-early genes, was pharmacologically characterized in primary neurons from rat frontal cortex. BDNF increased CRF-R1 mRNA levels up to fivefold, whereas mGluR2 mRNA levels were proportionally downregulated. No effect on 5-HT2A R mRNA was seen...

  6. Rosiglitazone Suppresses In Vitro Seizures in Hippocampal Slice by Inhibiting Presynaptic Glutamate Release in a Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Bing Wong

    Full Text Available Peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ is a nuclear hormone receptor whose agonist, rosiglitazone has a neuroprotective effect to hippocampal neurons in pilocarpine-induced seizures. Hippocampal slice preparations treated in Mg2+ free medium can induce ictal and interictal-like epileptiform discharges, which is regarded as an in vitro model of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor-mediated temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. We applied rosiglitazone in hippocampal slices treated in Mg2+ free medium. The effects of rosiglitazone on hippocampal CA1-Schaffer collateral synaptic transmission were tested. We also examined the neuroprotective effect of rosiglitazone toward NMDA excitotoxicity on cultured hippocampal slices. Application of 10 μM rosiglitazone significantly suppressed amplitude and frequency of epileptiform discharges in CA1 neurons. Pretreatment with the PPARγ antagonist GW9662 did not block the effect of rosiglitazone on suppressing discharge frequency, but reverse the effect on suppressing discharge amplitude. Application of rosiglitazone suppressed synaptic transmission in the CA1-Schaffer collateral pathway. By miniature excitatory-potential synaptic current (mEPSC analysis, rosiglitazone significantly suppressed presynaptic neurotransmitter release. This phenomenon can be reversed by pretreating PPARγ antagonist GW9662. Also, rosiglitazone protected cultured hippocampal slices from NMDA-induced excitotoxicity. The protective effect of 10 μM rosiglitazone was partially antagonized by concomitant high dose GW9662 treatment, indicating that this effect is partially mediated by PPARγ receptors. In conclusion, rosiglitazone suppressed NMDA receptor-mediated epileptiform discharges by inhibition of presynaptic neurotransmitter release. Rosiglitazone protected hippocampal slice from NMDA excitotoxicity partially by PPARγ activation. We suggest that rosiglitazone could be a potential agent to treat patients with TLE.

  7. The area postrema (AP) and the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) are important sites for salmon calcitonin (sCT) to decrease evoked phasic dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Lynda; McCutcheon, James E; Boyle, Christina N; Roitman, Mitchell F; Lutz, Thomas A

    2017-07-01

    The pancreatic hormone amylin and its agonist salmon calcitonin (sCT) act via the area postrema (AP) and the lateral parabrachial nucleus (PBN) to reduce food intake. Investigations of amylin and sCT signaling in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) suggest that the eating inhibitory effect of amylin is, in part, mediated through the mesolimbic 'reward' pathway. Indeed, administration of the sCT directly to the VTA decreased phasic dopamine release (DA) in the NAc. However, it is not known if peripheral amylin modulates the mesolimbic system directly or whether this occurs via the AP and PBN. To determine whether and how peripheral amylin or sCT affect mesolimbic reward circuitry we utilized fast scan cyclic voltammetry under anesthesia to measure phasic DA release in the NAc evoked by electrical stimulation of the VTA in intact, AP lesioned and bilaterally PBN lesioned rats. Amylin (50μg/kg i.p.) did not change phasic DA responses compared to saline control rats. However, sCT (50μg/kg i.p.) decreased evoked DA release to VTA-stimulation over 1h compared to saline treated control rats. Further investigations determined that AP and bilateral PBN lesions abolished the ability of sCT to suppress evoked phasic DA responses to VTA-stimulation. These findings implicate the AP and the PBN as important sites for peripheral sCT to decrease evoked DA release in the NAc and suggest that these nuclei may influence hedonic and motivational processes to modulate food intake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dynamic changes in extracellular release of GABA and glutamate in the lateral septum during social play behavior in juvenile rats: Implications for sex-specific regulation of social play behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredewold, Remco; Schiavo, Jennifer K.; van der Hart, Marieke; Verreij, Michelle; Veenema, Alexa H.

    2015-01-01

    Social play is a motivated and rewarding behavior that is displayed by nearly all mammals and peaks in the juvenile period. Moreover, social play is essential for the development of social skills and is impaired in social disorders like autism. We recently showed that the lateral septum (LS) is involved in the regulation of social play behavior in juvenile male and female rats. The LS is largely modulated by GABA and glutamate neurotransmission, but their role in social play behavior is unknown. Here, we determined whether social play behavior is associated with changes in the extracellular release of GABA and glutamate in the LS and to what extent such changes modulate social play behavior in male and female juvenile rats. Using intracerebral microdialysis in freely behaving rats, we found no sex difference in extracellular GABA concentrations, but extracellular glutamate concentrations are higher in males than in females under baseline condition and during social play. This resulted in a higher glutamate/GABA concentration ratio in males versus females and thus, an excitatory predominance in the LS of males. Furthermore, social play behavior in both sexes is associated with significant increases in extracellular release of GABA and glutamate in the LS. Pharmacological blockade of GABA-A receptors in the LS with bicuculline (100 ng/0.5 µl, 250 ng/0.5 µl) dose-dependently decreased the duration of social play behavior in both sexes. In contrast, pharmacological blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors (NMDA and AMPA/kainate receptors) in the LS with AP-5 + CNQX (2 mM+0.4 mM/0.5 µl, 30 mM+3 mM/0.5 µl) dose-dependently decreased the duration of social play behavior in females, but did not alter social play behavior in males. Together, these data suggest a role for GABA neurotransmission in the LS in the regulation of juvenile social play behavior in both sexes, while glutamate neurotransmission in the LS is involved in the sex-specific regulation of juvenile

  9. Feedback-induced glutamate spillover enhances negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroman, Rozan; Kamermans, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    In the retina, horizontal cells feed back negatively to cone photoreceptors. Glutamate released from cones can spill over to neighbouring cones. Here we show that cone glutamate release induced by negative feedback can also spill over to neighbouring cones. This glutamate activates the glutamate

  10. Cocaine modulates allosteric D2-σ1 receptor-receptor interactions on dopamine and glutamate nerve terminals from rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggiato, Sarah; Borelli, Andrea Celeste; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel; Corbucci, Ilaria; Tomasini, Maria Cristina; Marti, Matteo; Antonelli, Tiziana; Tanganelli, Sergio; Fuxe, Kjell; Ferraro, Luca

    2017-12-01

    The effects of nanomolar cocaine concentrations, possibly not blocking the dopamine transporter activity, on striatal D 2 -σ 1 heteroreceptor complexes and their inhibitory signaling over Gi/o, have been tested in rat striatal synaptosomes and HEK293T cells. Furthermore, the possible role of σ 1 receptors (σ 1 Rs) in the cocaine-provoked amplification of D 2 receptor (D 2 R)-induced reduction of K + -evoked [ 3 H]-DA and glutamate release from rat striatal synaptosomes, has also been investigated. The dopamine D 2 -likeR agonist quinpirole (10nM-1μM), concentration-dependently reduced K + -evoked [ 3 H]-DA and glutamate release from rat striatal synaptosomes. The σ 1 R antagonist BD1063 (100nM), amplified the effects of quinpirole (10 and 100nM) on K + -evoked [ 3 H]-DA, but not glutamate, release. Nanomolar cocaine concentrations significantly enhanced the quinpirole (100nM)-induced decrease of K + -evoked [ 3 H]-DA and glutamate release from rat striatal synaptosomes. In the presence of BD1063 (10nM), cocaine failed to amplify the quinpirole (100nM)-induced effects. In cotransfected σ 1 R and D 2L R HEK293T cells, quinpirole had a reduced potency to inhibit the CREB signal versus D 2L R singly transfected cells. In the presence of cocaine (100nM), the potency of quinpirole to inhibit the CREB signal was restored. In D 2L singly transfected cells cocaine (100nM and 10μM) exerted no modulatory effects on the inhibitory potency of quinpirole to bring down the CREB signal. These results led us to hypothesize the existence of functional D 2 -σ 1 R complexes on the rat striatal DA and glutamate nerve terminals and functional D 2 -σ 1 R-DA transporter complexes on the striatal DA terminals. Nanomolar cocaine concentrations appear to alter the allosteric receptor-receptor interactions in such complexes leading to enhancement of Gi/o mediated D 2 R signaling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Intercellular signal communication among odontoblasts and trigeminal ganglion neurons via glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, A; Sato, M; Kimura, M; Katakura, A; Tazaki, M; Shibukawa, Y

    2016-11-01

    Various stimuli to the exposed surface of dentin induce changes in the hydrodynamic force inside the dentinal tubules resulting in dentinal pain. Recent evidences indicate that mechano-sensor channels, such as the transient receptor potential channels, in odontoblasts receive these hydrodynamic forces and trigger the release of ATP to the pulpal neurons, to generate dentinal pain. A recent study, however, has shown that odontoblasts also express glutamate receptors (GluRs). This implies that cells in the dental pulp tissue have the ability to release glutamate, which acts as a functional intercellular mediator to establish inter-odontoblast and odontoblast-trigeminal ganglion (TG) neuron signal communication. To investigate the intercellular signal communication, we applied mechanical stimulation to odontoblasts and measured the intracellular free Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ). During mechanical stimulation in the presence of extracellular Ca 2+ , we observed a transient [Ca 2+ ] i increase not only in single stimulated odontoblasts, but also in adjacent odontoblasts. We could not observe these responses in the absence of extracellular Ca 2+ . [Ca 2+ ] i increases in the neighboring odontoblasts during mechanical stimulation of single odontoblasts were inhibited by antagonists of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) as well as glutamate-permeable anion channels. In the odontoblast-TG neuron coculture, we observed an increase in [Ca 2+ ] i in the stimulated odontoblasts and TG neurons, in response to direct mechanical stimulation of single odontoblasts. These [Ca 2+ ] i increases in the neighboring TG neurons were inhibited by antagonists for mGluRs. The [Ca 2+ ] i increases in the stimulated odontoblasts were also inhibited by mGluRs antagonists. We further confirmed that the odontoblasts express group I, II, and III mGluRs. However, we could not record any currents evoked from odontoblasts near the mechanically stimulated odontoblast, with or without

  12. Platelet-activating factor and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors interact for full development and maintenance of long-term potentiation in the rat medial vestibular nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, S; Francescangeli, E; Goracci, G; Pettorossi, V E

    1999-01-01

    In rat brainstem slices, we investigated the interaction between platelet-activating factor and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors in mediating long-term potentiation within the medial vestibular nuclei. We analysed the N1 field potential wave evoked in the ventral portion of the medial vestibular nuclei by primary vestibular afferent stimulation. The group I metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist, (R,S)-1-aminoindan-1,5-dicarboxylic acid, prevented long-term potentiation induced by a platelet-activating factor analogue [1-O-hexadecyl-2-O-(methylcarbamyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine], as well as the full development of potentiation, induced by high-frequency stimulation under the blocking agent for synaptosomal platelet-activating factor receptors (ginkolide B), at drug washout. However, potentiation directly induced by the group I glutamate metabotropic receptor agonist, (R,S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine, was reduced by ginkolide B. These findings suggest that platelet-activating factor, whether exogenous or released following potentiation induction, exerts its effect through presynaptic group I metabotropic glutamate receptors, mediating the increase of glutamate release. In addition, we found that this mechanism, which led to full potentiation through presynaptic group I metabotropic glutamate receptor activation, was inactivated soon after application of potentiation-inducing stimulus. In fact, the long-lasting block of the platelet-activating factor and metabotropic glutamate receptors prevented the full potentiation development and the induced potentiation progressively declined to null. Moreover, ginkolide B, given when high-frequency-dependent potentiation was established, only reduced it within 5 min after potentiation induction. We conclude that to fully develop vestibular long-term potentiation requires presynaptic events. Platelet-activating factor, released after the activation of postsynaptic mechanisms which induce potentiation, is necessary

  13. The Influence of Glutamate on Axonal Compound Action Potential In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelela, Ahmed; Wieraszko, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Background  Our previous experiments demonstrated modulation of the amplitude of the axonal compound action potential (CAP) by electrical stimulation. To verify assumption that glutamate released from axons could be involved in this phenomenon, the modification of the axonal CAP induced by glutamate was investigated. Objectives  The major objective of this research is to verify the hypothesis that axonal activity would trigger the release of glutamate, which in turn would interact with specific axonal receptors modifying the amplitude of the action potential. Methods  Segments of the sciatic nerve were exposed to exogenous glutamate in vitro, and CAP was recorded before and after glutamate application. In some experiments, the release of radioactive glutamate analog from the sciatic nerve exposed to exogenous glutamate was also evaluated. Results  The glutamate-induced increase in CAP was blocked by different glutamate receptor antagonists. The effect of glutamate was not observed in Ca-free medium, and was blocked by antagonists of calcium channels. Exogenous glutamate, applied to the segments of sciatic nerve, induced the release of radioactive glutamate analog, demonstrating glutamate-induced glutamate release. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that axolemma contains components necessary for glutamatergic neurotransmission. Conclusion  The proteins of the axonal membrane can under the influence of electrical stimulation or exogenous glutamate change membrane permeability and ionic conductance, leading to a change in the amplitude of CAP. We suggest that increased axonal activity leads to the release of glutamate that results in changes in the amplitude of CAPs.

  14. Introduction to the Glutamate-Glutamine Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnewald, Ursula; Schousboe, Arne

    2016-01-01

    . This is metabolically impossible unless it is assumed that at least two distinct pools of these amino acids exist. This combined with the finding that the enzyme synthesizing glutamine from glutamate was expressed in astrocytes but not in neurons formed the basis of the notion that a cycle must exist in which glutamate......The term 'glutamate-glutamine cycle' was coined several decades ago based on the observation that using certain (14)C-labeled precursors for studies of brain metabolism the specific radioactivity of glutamine generated from glutamate was higher than that of glutamate, its immediate precursor...... released from neurons is transported into astrocytes, converted to glutamine which is subsequently returned to neurons and converted to glutamate by an enzyme the activity of which is much higher in neurons than in astrocytes. Originally this cycle was supposed to function in a stoichiometric fashion...

  15. AMPK Activation Affects Glutamate Metabolism in Astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Caroline Marie; Pajęcka, Kamilla; Stridh, Malin H

    2015-01-01

    acid (TCA) cycle was studied using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis supplemented with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technology. It was found that AMPK activation had profound effects on the pathways involved in glutamate metabolism since the entrance of the glutamate carbon...... on glutamate metabolism in astrocytes was studied using primary cultures of these cells from mouse cerebral cortex during incubation in media containing 2.5 mM glucose and 100 µM [U-(13)C]glutamate. The metabolism of glutamate including a detailed analysis of its metabolic pathways involving the tricarboxylic...... skeleton into the TCA cycle was reduced. On the other hand, glutamate uptake into the astrocytes as well as its conversion to glutamine catalyzed by glutamine synthetase was not affected by AMPK activation. Interestingly, synthesis and release of citrate, which are hallmarks of astrocytic function, were...

  16. Introduction to the Glutamate-Glutamine Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnewald, Ursula; Schousboe, Arne

    2016-01-01

    released from neurons is transported into astrocytes, converted to glutamine which is subsequently returned to neurons and converted to glutamate by an enzyme the activity of which is much higher in neurons than in astrocytes. Originally this cycle was supposed to function in a stoichiometric fashion......The term 'glutamate-glutamine cycle' was coined several decades ago based on the observation that using certain (14)C-labeled precursors for studies of brain metabolism the specific radioactivity of glutamine generated from glutamate was higher than that of glutamate, its immediate precursor....... This is metabolically impossible unless it is assumed that at least two distinct pools of these amino acids exist. This combined with the finding that the enzyme synthesizing glutamine from glutamate was expressed in astrocytes but not in neurons formed the basis of the notion that a cycle must exist in which glutamate...

  17. Intracellular Na+ concentration influences short-term plasticity of glutamate transporter-mediated currents in neocortical astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unichenko, Petr; Myakhar, Olga; Kirischuk, Sergei

    2012-04-01

    Fast synaptic transmission requires a rapid clearance of the released neurotransmitter from the extracellular space. Glial glutamate transporters (excitatory amino acid transporters, EAATs) strongly contribute to glutamate removal. In this work, we investigated the paired-pulse plasticity of synaptically activated, glutamate transporter-mediated currents (STCs) in cortical layer 2/3 astrocytes. STCs were elicited by local electrical stimulation in layer 4 in the presence of ionotropic glutamate (AMPA and NMDA), GABAA, and GABAB receptor antagonists. In experiments with low [Na(+)]i (5 mM) intrapipette solution, STCs elicited by paired-pulse stimulation demonstrated paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) at short (astrocytic [Na(+)]i, reduced the mean STC amplitude, decreased PPF at short ISIs, and slowed STC kinetics. All GABA-induced changes were blocked by NO-711 and SNAP-5114, GABA transporter (GATs) antagonists. In experiments with the low intrapipette solution, GAT blockade under control conditions decreased PPF at short ISIs both at room and at near physiological temperatures. Dialysis of single astrocyte with low [Na(+)]i solution increased the amplitude and reduced PPR of evoked field potentials recorded in the vicinity of the astrocyte. We conclude that (1) endogenous GABA via GATs may influence EAAT functioning and (2) astrocytic [Na(+)]i modulates the short-term plasticity of STCs and in turn the efficacy of glutamate removal. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Effect of α-bungarotoxin and etorphine on acetylcholine-evoked release of endogenous and radiolabeled catecholamines from primary culture of adrenal chromaffin cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kageyama, H.; Guidotti, A.

    1984-01-01

    Cell cultures of adrenal medulla have become an important research tool to study basic processes that regulate catecholamine storage, release and synthesis. Release has been studied either by labeling with [ 3 H]norepinephrine and measuring release of radioactivity or by measuring the endogenous catecholamines released with HPLC. Acetylcholine (5X10 -6 -10 -4 M) appears to release preferentially norepinephrine, although the cells store more epinephrine than norepinephrine. Etorphine and α-bungarotoxin antagonize the release of catecholamines elicited by acetylcholine. This inhibitory action appears to be greater when the measurement of endogenous catecholamines rather than radioactive norepinephrine is used to monitor the action of acetylcholine. The data suggest that the measurement of endogenous catecholamines by HPLC is preferable to the [ 3 H]NE loading and release technique, especially when analyzing the effects of low concentrations of drugs that are thought to affect nicotinic receptor function. (Auth.)

  19. Gating characteristics control glutamate receptor distribution and trafficking in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzoldt, Astrid G; Lee, Yü-Hien; Khorramshahi, Omid; Reynolds, Eric; Plested, Andrew J R; Herzel, Hanspeter; Sigrist, Stephan J

    2014-09-08

    Glutamate-releasing synapses dominate excitatory release in the brain. Mechanisms governing their assembly are of major importance for circuit development and long-term plasticity underlying learning and memory. AMPA/Kainate-type glutamate receptors (GluRs) are tetrameric ligand-gated ion channels that open their ion-conducting pores in response to binding of the neurotransmitter. Changes in subunit composition of postsynaptic GluRs are highly relevant for plasticity and development of glutamatergic synapses [1-4]. To date, posttranslational modifications, mostly operating via the intracellular C-terminal domains (CTDs) of GluRs, are presumed to be the major regulator of trafficking [5]. In recent years, structural and electrophysiological analyses have improved our understanding of GluR gating mechanism [6-11]. However, whether conformational changes subsequent to glutamate binding may per se be able to influence GluR trafficking has remained an unaddressed question. Using a Drosophila system allowing for extended visualization of GluR trafficking in vivo, we here provide evidence that mutations changing the gating behavior alter GluR distribution and trafficking. GluR mutants associated with reduced charge transfer segregated from coexpressed wild-type GluRs on the level of individual postsynaptic densities. Segregation was lost upon blocking of evoked glutamate release. Photobleaching experiments suggested increased mobility of mutants with reduced charge transfer, which accumulated prematurely during early steps of synapse assembly, but failed to further increase their level in accordance with assembly of the presynaptic scaffold. In summary, gating characteristics seem to be a new variable for the understanding of GluR trafficking relevant to both development and plasticity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Chronic restraint stress causes anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, downregulates glucocorticoid receptor expression, and attenuates glutamate release induced by brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Shuichi; Numakawa, Tadahiro; Ninomiya, Midori; Richards, Misty C; Wakabayashi, Chisato; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2012-10-01

    Stress and the resulting increase in glucocorticoid levels have been implicated in the pathophysiology of depressive disorders. We investigated the effects of chronic restraint stress (CRS: 6 hours × 28 days) on anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in rats and on the possible changes in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-dependent neural function in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). We observed significant reductions in body weight gain, food intake and sucrose preference from 1 week after the onset of CRS. In the 5th week of CRS, we conducted open-field (OFT), elevated plus-maze (EPM) and forced swim tests (FST). We observed a decrease in the number of entries into open arms during the EPM (anxiety-like behavior) and increased immobility during the FST (depression-like behavior). When the PFC was removed after CRS and subject to western blot analysis, the GR expression reduced compared with control, while the levels of BDNF and its receptors remained unchanged. Basal glutamate concentrations in PFC acute slice which were measured by high performance liquid chromatography were not influenced by CRS. However, BDNF-induced glutamate release was attenuated after CRS. These results suggest that reduced GR expression and altered BDNF function may be involved in chronic stress-induced anxiety--and depression-like behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Feedback-induced glutamate spillover enhances negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroman, Rozan; Kamermans, M.

    2015-01-01

    KEY POINTS: In the retina, horizontal cells feed back negatively to cone photoreceptors. Glutamate released from cones can spill over to neighbouring cones. Here we show that cone glutamate release induced by negative feedback can also spill over to neighbouring cones. This glutamate activates the

  2. Glutamate: Tastant and Neuromodulator in Taste Buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Kinnamon, Sue C

    2016-07-01

    In taste buds, glutamate plays a double role as a gustatory stimulus and neuromodulator. The detection of glutamate as a tastant involves several G protein-coupled receptors, including the heterodimer taste receptor type 1, member 1 and 3 as well as metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1 and mGluR4). Both receptor types participate in the detection of glutamate as shown with knockout animals and selective antagonists. At the basal part of taste buds, ionotropic glutamate receptors [N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA] are expressed and participate in the modulation of the taste signal before its transmission to the brain. Evidence suggests that glutamate has an efferent function on taste cells and modulates the release of other neurotransmitters such as serotonin and ATP. This short article reviews the recent developments in the field with regard to glutamate receptors involved in both functions as well as the influence of glutamate on the taste signal. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Kainate-enhanced release of D-(3H)aspartate from cerebral cortex and striatum: reversal by baclofen and pentobarbital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potashner, S.J.; Gerard, D.

    1983-06-01

    A study was made of the actions of the excitant neurotoxin, kainic acid, on the uptake and the release of D-(2,3-3H)aspartate (D-ASP) in slices of guinea pig cerebral neocortex and striatum. The slices took up D-ASP, reaching concentrations of the amino acid in the tissue which were 14-23 times that in the medium. Subsequently, electrical stimulation of the slices evoked a Ca2+-dependent release of a portion of the D-ASP. Kainic acid (10(-5)-10(-3) M) produced a dose-dependent inhibition of D-ASP uptake. The electrically evoked release of D-ASP was increased 1.6-2.0 fold by 10(-5) and 10(-4)M kainic acid. The kainate-enlarged release was Ca2+-dependent. Dihydrokainic acid, an analogue of kainic acid with little excitatory or toxic action, did not increase D-ASP release but depressed D-ASP uptake. Attempts were made to block the action of kainic acid with baclofen and pentobarbital, compounds which depress the electrically evoked release of L-glutamate (L-GLU) and L-aspartate (L-ASP). Baclofen (4 X 10(-6)M), an antispastic drug, and pentobarbital (10(-4)M), an anesthetic agent, each inhibited the electrically evoked release of D-ASP and prevented the enhancement of the release above control levels usually produced by 10(-4)M kainic acid. It is proposed that 10(-5) and 10(-4)M kainic acid may enhance the synaptic release of L-GLU and L-ASP from neurons which use these amino acids as transmitters. This action is prevented by baclofen and pentobarbital. In view of the possibility that cell death in Huntington's disease could involve excessive depolarization of striatal and other cells by glutamate, baclofen might be effective in delaying the loss of neurons associated with this condition.

  4. Glutamate. Its applications in food and contribution to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinap, S; Hajeb, P

    2010-08-01

    This article reviews application of glutamate in food and its benefits and role as one of the common food ingredients used. Monosodium glutamate is one of the most abundant naturally occurring amino acids which frequently added as a flavor enhancer. It produced a unique taste that cannot be provided by other basic taste (saltiness, sourness, sweetness and bitterness), referred to as a fifth taste (umami). Glutamate serves some functions in the body as well, serving as an energy source for certain tissues and as a substrate for glutathione synthesis. Glutamate has the potential to enhance food intake in older individuals and dietary free glutamate evoked a visceral sensation from the stomach, intestine and portal vein. Small quantities of glutamate used in combination with a reduced amount of table salt during food preparation allow for far less salt to be used during and after cooking. Because glutamate is one of the most intensely studied food ingredients in the food supply and has been found safe, the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization placed it in the safest category for food additives. Despite a widespread belief that glutamate can elicit asthma, migraine headache and Chinese Restaurant Syndrome (CRS), there are no consistent clinical data to support this claim. In addition, findings from the literature indicate that there is no consistent evidence to suggest that individuals may be uniquely sensitive to glutamate. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. pH modulation of glial glutamate transporters regulates synaptic transmission in the nucleus of the solitary tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrimmon, Donald R.; Martina, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) is the major site for termination of visceral sensory afferents contributing to homeostatic regulation of, for example, arterial pressure, gastric motility, and breathing. Whereas much is known about how different neuronal populations influence these functions, information about the role of glia remains scant. In this article, we propose that glia may contribute to NTS functions by modulating excitatory neurotransmission. We found that acidification (pH 7.0) depolarizes NTS glia by inhibiting K+-selective membrane currents. NTS glia also showed functional expression of voltage-sensitive glutamate transporters, suggesting that extracellular acidification regulates synaptic transmission by compromising glial glutamate uptake. To test this hypothesis, we evoked glutamatergic slow excitatory potentials (SEPs) in NTS neurons with repetitive stimulation (20 pulses at 10 Hz) of the solitary tract. This SEP depends on accumulation of glutamate following repetitive stimulation, since it was potentiated by blocking glutamate uptake with dl-threo-β-benzyloxyaspartic acid (TBOA) or a glia-specific glutamate transport blocker, dihydrokainate (DHK). Importantly, extracellular acidification (pH 7.0) also potentiated the SEP. This effect appeared to be mediated through a depolarization-induced inhibition of glial transporter activity, because it was occluded by TBOA and DHK. In agreement, pH 7.0 did not directly alter d-aspartate-induced responses in NTS glia or properties of presynaptic glutamate release. Thus acidification-dependent regulation of glial function affects synaptic transmission within the NTS. These results suggest that glia play a modulatory role in the NTS by integrating local tissue signals (such as pH) with synaptic inputs from peripheral afferents. PMID:23615553

  6. Single versus multiple impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease: an ¹¹C-raclopride positron emission tomography study of reward cue-evoked striatal dopamine release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kit; Politis, Marios; O'Sullivan, Sean S; Lawrence, Andrew D; Warsi, Sarah; Bose, Subrata; Lees, Andrew J; Piccini, Paola

    2015-06-01

    Impulse control disorders (ICDs) are reported in Parkinson's disease (PD) in association with dopaminergic treatment. Approximately 25 % of patients with ICDs have multiple co-occurring ICDs (i.e. more than one diagnosed ICD). The extent to which dopaminergic neurotransmission in PD patients with multiple ICDs differs from those with only one diagnosed ICD is unknown. The aims of this study are: (1) to investigate dopamine neurotransmission in PD patients diagnosed with multiple ICDs, single ICDs and non-ICD controls in response to reward-related visual cues using positron emission tomography with (11)C-raclopride. (2) to compare clinical features of the above three groups. PD individuals with mulitple ICDs (n = 10), single ICD (n = 7) and no ICDs (n = 9) were recruited and underwent two positron emission tomography (PET) scans with (11)C-raclopride: one where they viewed neutral visual cues and the other where they viewed a range of visual cues related to different rewards. Individuals with both multiple ICDs and single ICDs showed significantly greater ventral striatal dopamine release compared to non-ICD PD individuals in response to reward cues, but the two ICD groups did not differ from each other in the extent of dopamine release. Subjects with multiple ICDs were, however, significantly more depressed, and had higher levels of impulsive sensation-seeking compared to subjects with single ICDs and without ICDs. This is the first study to compare dopamine neurotransmission using PET neuroimaging in PD subjects with multiple vs. single ICDs. Our results suggest that striatal dopamine neurotransmission is not directly related to the co-occurrence of ICDs in PD, potentially implicating non-dopaminergic mechanisms linked to depression; and suggest that physicians should be vigilant in managing depression in PD patients with ICDs.

  7. The HIV-1 viral protein Tat increases glutamate and decreases GABA exocytosis from human and mouse neocortical nerve endings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Veronica; Summa, Maria; Neri, Elisa; Puliti, Aldamaria; Godowicz, Tomasz T; Severi, Paolo; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Raiteri, Maurizio; Pittaluga, Anna

    2010-08-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1)-encoded transactivator of transcription (Tat) potentiated the depolarization-evoked exocytosis of [(3)H]D-aspartate ([(3)H]D-ASP) from human neocortical terminals. The metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) 1 receptor antagonist 7-(hydroxyimino)cyclopropa[b]chromen-1a-carboxylate ethyl ester (CPCCOEt) prevented this effect, whereas the mGlu5 receptor antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl) pyridine hydrochloride (MPEP) was ineffective. Western blot analysis showed that human neocortex synaptosomes possess mGlu1 and mGlu5 receptors. Tat potentiated the K(+)-evoked release of [(3)H]D-ASP or of endogenous glutamate from mouse neocortical synaptosomes in a CPCCOEt-sensitive and MPEP-insensitive manner. Deletion of mGlu1 receptors (crv4/crv4 mice) or mGlu5 receptors (mGlu5(-/-)mouse) silenced Tat effects. Tat enhanced inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production in human and mouse neocortical synaptosomes, consistent with the involvement of group I mGlu receptors. Tat inhibited the K(+)-evoked release of [(3)H]gamma-aminobutyric acid ([(3)H]GABA) from human synaptosomes and that of endogenous GABA or [(3)H]GABA from mouse nerve terminals; the inhibition was insensitive to CPCCOEt or MPEP. Tat-induced effects were retained by Tat(37-72) but not by Tat(48-85). In mouse neocortical slices, Tat facilitated the K(+)- and the veratridine-induced release of [(3)H]D-ASP in a CPCCOEt-sensitive manner and was ineffective in crv4/crv4 mouse slices. These observations are relevant to the comprehension of the pathophysiological effects of Tat in central nervous system and may suggest new potential therapeutic approaches to the cure of HIV-1-associated dementia.

  8. Scent-evoked nostalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Chelsea A; Green, Jeffrey D; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine

    2015-01-01

    Can scents evoke nostalgia; what might be the psychological implications of such an evocation? Participants sampled 12 scents and rated the extent to which each scent was familiar, arousing and autobiographically relevant, as well as the extent to which each scent elicited nostalgia. Participants who were high (compared to low) in nostalgia proneness reported more scent-evoked nostalgia, and scents elicited greater nostalgia to the extent that they were arousing, familiar and autobiographically relevant. Scent-evoked nostalgia predicted higher levels of positive affect, self-esteem, self-continuity, optimism, social connectedness and meaning in life. In addition, scent-evoked nostalgia was characterised by more positive emotions than either non-nostalgic autobiographical memories or non-nostalgic non-autobiographical memories. Finally, scent-evoked nostalgia predicted in-the-moment feelings of personal (general or object-specific) nostalgia. The findings represent a foray into understanding the triggers and affective signature of scent-evoked nostalgia.

  9. Brain microdialysis of GABA and glutamate : What does it signify?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, W; Westerink, B.H.C.

    1997-01-01

    Microdialysis has become a frequently used method to study extracellular levels of GABA and glutamate in the central nervous system. However, the fact that the major part of GABA and glutamate as measured by microdialysis does not fulfill the classical criteria for exocytotic release questions the

  10. Some Properties of Glutamate Dehydrogenase from the Marine Red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: ammonia assimilation, glutamate dehydrogenase, GDH, Gracilaria sordida, red alga, enzyme activity. Glutamate dehydrogenases (GDH, EC ... Anabolic functions could be assimilation of ammonia released during photorespiration and synthesis of N-rich transport compounds. Western Indian Ocean Journal of ...

  11. Interaction of medullary P2 and glutamate receptors mediates the vasodilation in the hindlimb of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korim, Willian Seiji; Ferreira-Neto, Marcos L; Pedrino, Gustavo R; Pilowsky, Paul M; Cravo, Sergio L

    2012-12-01

    In the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) of rats, blockade of extracellular ATP breakdown to adenosine reduces arterial blood pressure (AP) increases that follow stimulation of the hypothalamic defense area (HDA). The effects of ATP on NTS P2 receptors, during stimulation of the HDA, are still unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether activation of P2 receptors in the NTS mediates cardiovascular responses to HDA stimulation. Further investigation was taken to establish if changes in hindlimb vascular conductance (HVC) elicited by electrical stimulation of the HDA, or activation of P2 receptors in the NTS, are relayed in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM); and if those responses depend on glutamate release by ATP acting on presynaptic terminals. In anesthetized and paralyzed rats, electrical stimulation of the HDA increased AP and HVC. Blockade of P2 or glutamate receptors in the NTS, with bilateral microinjections of suramin (10 mM) or kynurenate (50 mM) reduced only the evoked increase in HVC by 75 % or more. Similar results were obtained with the blockade combining both antagonists. Blockade of P2 and glutamate receptors in the RVLM also reduced the increases in HVC to stimulation of the HDA by up to 75 %. Bilateral microinjections of kynurenate in the RVLM abolished changes in AP and HVC to injections of the P2 receptor agonist α,β-methylene ATP (20 mM) into the NTS. The findings suggest that HDA-NTS-RVLM pathways in control of HVC are mediated by activation of P2 and glutamate receptors in the brainstem in alerting-defense reactions.

  12. Effect of acute and chronic MK-801 administration on extracellular glutamate and ascorbic acid release in the prefrontal cortex of freely moving mice on line with open-field behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Dai-Ying; Zhang, Ya-Hong; Cao, Yue; Wu, Chun-Fu; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Wu, Ying-Liang

    2006-04-04

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of acute and chronic administration of MK-801 (0.6 mg/kg), a noncompetitive NMDA-receptor antagonist on extracellular glutamate (Glu) and ascorbic acid (AA) release in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of freely moving mice using in vivo microdialysis with open-field behavior. In line with earlier studies, acute administration of MK-801 induced an increase of Glu in the PFC. We also observed single MK-801 treatment increased AA release in the PFC. In addition, our results indicated that the basal AA levels in the PFC after MK-801 administration for 7 consecutive days were significantly decreased, and basal Glu levels also had a decreased tendency. After chronic administration (0.6 mg/kg, 7 days), MK-801 (0.6 mg/kg) challenge significantly decreased dialysate levels of AA and Glu. Our study also found that both acute and chronic administration of MK-801 induced hyperactivity in mice, but the intensity of acute administration was more than that of chronic administration. Furthermore, in all acute treatment mice, individual changes in Glu dialysate concentrations and the numbers of locomotion were positively correlated. In conclusion, this study may provide new evidence that a single MK-801 administration induces increases of dialysate AA and Glu concentrations in the PFC of freely moving mice, which are opposite to those induced by repeated MK-801 administration, with an unknown mechanism. Our results suggested that redox-response might play an important role in the model of schizophrenic symptoms induced by MK-801.

  13. Effects of metabotropic glutamate receptor block on the synaptic transmission and plasticity in the rat medial vestibular nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, S; Malfagia, C; Pettorossi, V E

    1998-11-01

    In rat brainstem slices, we investigated the possible role of metabotropic glutamate receptors in modulating the synaptic transmission within the medial vestibular nuclei, under basal and plasticity inducing conditions. We analysed the effect of the metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist (R,S)-alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine on the amplitude of the field potentials and latency of unitary potentials evoked in the ventral portion of the medial vestibular nuclei by primary vestibular afferent stimulation, and on the induction and maintenance of long-term potentiation, after high-frequency stimulation. Two effects were observed, consisting of a slight increase of the field potentials and reduction of unit latency during the drug infusion, and a further long-lasting development of these modifications after the drug wash-out. The long-term effect depended on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation, as D,L-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid prevented its development. We suggest that (R,S)-alpha-methyl-4carboxyphenylglycine enhances the vestibular responses and induces N-methyl-D-aspartate-dependent long-term potentiation by increasing glutamate release, through the block of presynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors which actively inhibit it. The block of these receptors was indirectly supported by the fact that the agonist (1S,3R)-1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid reduced the vestibular responses and blocked the induction of long-term potentiation by high-frequency stimulation. The simultaneous block of metabotropic glutamate receptors facilitating synaptic plasticity, impedes the full expression of the long-term effect throughout the (R,S)-alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine infusion. The involvement of such a facilitatory mechanism in the potentiation is supported by its reversible reduction following a second (R,S)-alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine infusion. The drug also reduced the expression of potentiation induced by high-frequency stimulation

  14. Long-term culture of astrocytes attenuates the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Kawano

    Full Text Available The astrocyte is a major glial cell type of the brain, and plays key roles in the formation, maturation, stabilization and elimination of synapses. Thus, changes in astrocyte condition and age can influence information processing at synapses. However, whether and how aging astrocytes affect synaptic function and maturation have not yet been thoroughly investigated. Here, we show the effects of prolonged culture on the ability of astrocytes to induce synapse formation and to modify synaptic transmission, using cultured autaptic neurons. By 9 weeks in culture, astrocytes derived from the mouse cerebral cortex demonstrated increases in β-galactosidase activity and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP expression, both of which are characteristic of aging and glial activation in vitro. Autaptic hippocampal neurons plated on these aging astrocytes showed a smaller amount of evoked release of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, and a lower frequency of miniature release of glutamate, both of which were attributable to a reduction in the pool of readily releasable synaptic vesicles. Other features of synaptogenesis and synaptic transmission were retained, for example the ability to induce structural synapses, the presynaptic release probability, the fraction of functional presynaptic nerve terminals, and the ability to recruit functional AMPA and NMDA glutamate receptors to synapses. Thus the presence of aging astrocytes affects the efficiency of synaptic transmission. Given that the pool of readily releasable vesicles is also small at immature synapses, our results are consistent with astrocytic aging leading to retarded synapse maturation.

  15. Proprioceptive evoked gamma oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, S.M.; Hansen, Lars Kai; Parnas, J.

    2007-01-01

    A proprioceptive stimulus consisting of a weight change of a handheld load has recently been shown to elicit an evoked potential. Previously, somatosensory gamma oscillations have only been evoked by electrical stimuli. We conjectured that a natural proprioceptive stimulus also would be able...... to evoke gamma oscillations. EEG was recorded using 64 channels in 14 healthy subjects. In each of three runs a stimulus of 100 g load increment in each hand was presented in 120 trials. Data were wavelet transformed and runs collapsed. Inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC) was computed as the best measure...

  16. Glutamate and Neurodegenerative Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Eric; Duplantier, Allen

    As the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, glutamate is critically involved in most aspects of CNS function. Given this critical role, it is not surprising that glutamatergic dysfunction is associated with many CNS disorders. In this chapter, we review the literature that links aberrant glutamate neurotransmission with CNS pathology, with a focus on neurodegenerative diseases. The biology and pharmacology of the various glutamate receptor families are discussed, along with data which links these receptors with neurodegenerative conditions. In addition, we review progress that has been made in developing small molecule modulators of glutamate receptors and transporters, and describe how these compounds have helped us understand the complex pharmacology of glutamate in normal CNS function, as well as their potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  17. Adverse Weather Evokes Nostalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilburg, Wijnand A P; Sedikides, Constantine; Wildschut, Tim

    2018-03-01

    Four studies examined the link between adverse weather and the palliative role of nostalgia. We proposed and tested that (a) adverse weather evokes nostalgia (Hypothesis 1); (b) adverse weather causes distress, which predicts elevated nostalgia (Hypothesis 2); (c) preventing nostalgia exacerbates weather-induced distress (Hypothesis 3); and (d) weather-evoked nostalgia confers psychological benefits (Hypothesis 4). In Study 1, participants listened to recordings of wind, thunder, rain, and neutral sounds. Adverse weather evoked nostalgia. In Study 2, participants kept a 10-day diary recording weather conditions, distress, and nostalgia. We also obtained meteorological data. Adverse weather perceptions were positively correlated with distress, which predicted higher nostalgia. Also, adverse natural weather was associated with corresponding weather perceptions, which predicted elevated nostalgia. (Results were mixed for rain.) In Study 3, preventing nostalgia (via cognitive load) increased weather-evoked distress. In Study 4, weather-evoked nostalgia was positively associated with psychological benefits. The findings pioneer the relevance of nostalgia as source of comfort in adverse weather.

  18. Introduction to the Glutamate-Glutamine Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnewald, Ursula; Schousboe, Arne

    2016-01-01

    The term 'glutamate-glutamine cycle' was coined several decades ago based on the observation that using certain 14 C-labeled precursors for studies of brain metabolism the specific radioactivity of glutamine generated from glutamate was higher than that of glutamate, its immediate precursor. This is metabolically impossible unless it is assumed that at least two distinct pools of these amino acids exist. This combined with the finding that the enzyme synthesizing glutamine from glutamate was expressed in astrocytes but not in neurons formed the basis of the notion that a cycle must exist in which glutamate released from neurons is transported into astrocytes, converted to glutamine which is subsequently returned to neurons and converted to glutamate by an enzyme the activity of which is much higher in neurons than in astrocytes. Originally this cycle was supposed to function in a stoichiometric fashion but more recent research has seriously questioned this.This volume of Advances in Neurobiology is intended to provide a detailed discussion of recent developments in research aimed at delineating the functional roles of the cycle taking into account that in order for this system to work there must be a tight coupling between metabolism of glutamate in astrocytes, transfer of glutamine to neurons and de novo synthesis of glutamine in astrocytes. To understand this, knowledge about the activity and regulation of the enzymes and transporters involved in these processes is required and as can be seen from the table of contents these issues will be dealt with in detail in the individual chapters of the book.

  19. Different metabotropic glutamate receptors play opposite roles in synaptic plasticity of the rat medial vestibular nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Silvarosa; Frondaroli, Adele; Pettorossi, Vito Enrico

    2002-09-15

    In the medial vestibular nuclei (MVN) of rat brainstem slices, the role of group II and III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) and of the subtypes of group I mGluRs: mGluR1, mGluR5, was investigated in basal synaptic transmission and in the induction and maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP). We used selective antagonists and agonists for mGluRs and we analysed the field potentials evoked by vestibular afferent stimulation before and after high-frequency stimulation (HFS) to induce LTP. The group II and III mGluR antagonist, (R,S)-alpha-2-methyl-4sulphonophenylglycine (MSPG), induced LTP per se and caused a reduction of the paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) ratio indicating an enhancement of glutamate release. This suggests that group II and III mGluRs are activated under basal conditions to limit glutamate release. Both the group II and III mGluR selective antagonists, 2S-2-amino-2-(1S,2S-2-carboxycycloprop-1-yl)-3-(xanth-9-yl)propanoate (LY341495) and (R,S)-alpha-methylserine-O-phosphate (MSOP), induced LTP, and the selective agonists, (2R,4R)-4-aminopyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylate (APDC) and L(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (L-AP4) depressed the field potentials and prevented HFS-LTP, with a prevailing contribution of group II mGluRs over that of group III mGluRs. The mGluR1 antagonist, 7-(hydroxyimino)cyclopropa[b]chromen-1a-carboxylate ethyl ester (CPCCOEt) prevented the full development and maintenance of HFS-LTP. By contrast, the mGluR5 antagonist, 2-methyl-6-phenylethynylpyridine (MPEP) induced LTP per se, which was impeded by CPCCOEt, and it had no effect on LTP once induced by HFS. The PPF analysis showed an enhancement of glutamate release during MPEP potentiation. The group I mGluR agonist, (R,S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) induced LTP per se, which was blocked by CPCCOEt. By contrast the mGluR5 agonist, (R,S)-2-chloro-5-hydroxypheylglycine (CHPG) prevented LTP elicited by HFS and DHPG as well. In conclusion vestibular LTP is

  20. Glutamate receptor agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogensen, Stine Byskov; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Bunch, Lennart

    2011-01-01

    The neurotransmitter (S)-glutamate [(S)-Glu] is responsible for most of the excitatory neurotransmission in the central nervous system. The effect of (S)-Glu is mediated by both ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. Glutamate receptor agonists are generally a-amino acids with one or more...... stereogenic centers due to strict requirements in the agonist binding pocket of the activated state of the receptor. By contrast, there are many examples of achiral competitive antagonists. The present review addresses how stereochemistry affects the activity of glutamate receptor ligands. The review focuses...... mainly on agonists and discusses stereochemical and conformational considerations as well as biostructural knowledge of the agonist binding pockets, which is useful in the design of glutamate receptor agonists. Examples are chosen to demonstrate how stereochemistry not only determines how the agonist...

  1. Hebbian Plasticity Guides Maturation of Glutamate Receptor Fields In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrij Ljaschenko

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic plasticity shapes the development of functional neural circuits and provides a basis for cellular models of learning and memory. Hebbian plasticity describes an activity-dependent change in synaptic strength that is input-specific and depends on correlated pre- and postsynaptic activity. Although it is recognized that synaptic activity and synapse development are intimately linked, our mechanistic understanding of the coupling is far from complete. Using Channelrhodopsin-2 to evoke activity in vivo, we investigated synaptic plasticity at the glutamatergic Drosophila neuromuscular junction. Remarkably, correlated pre- and postsynaptic stimulation increased postsynaptic sensitivity by promoting synapse-specific recruitment of GluR-IIA-type glutamate receptor subunits into postsynaptic receptor fields. Conversely, GluR-IIA was rapidly removed from synapses whose activity failed to evoke substantial postsynaptic depolarization. Uniting these results with developmental GluR-IIA dynamics provides a comprehensive physiological concept of how Hebbian plasticity guides synaptic maturation and sparse transmitter release controls the stabilization of the molecular composition of individual synapses.

  2. Evoked acoustic emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, C; Parbo, J; Johnsen, N J

    1985-01-01

    Stimulated acoustic emissions were recorded in response to tonal stimuli at 60 dB p.e. SPL in a small group of normal-hearing adults. Power spectral analysis reveals that the evoked activity from each ear contains energy in preferential frequency bands and the change of stimulus frequency has only...

  3. Transient increase in neuronal chloride concentration by neuroactive amino acids released from glioma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eBertollini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal chloride concentration ([Cl-]i is known to be dynamically modulated and alterations in Cl- homeostasis may occur in the brain at physiological and pathological conditions, being also likely involved in glioma-related seizures. However, the mechanism leading to changes in neuronal [Cl-]i during glioma invasion are still unclear. To characterize the potential effect of glioma released soluble factors on neuronal [Cl-]i, we used genetically encoded CFP/YFP-based ratiometric Cl-Sensor transiently expressed in cultured hippocampal neurons. Exposition of neurons to glioma conditioned medium (GCM caused rapid and transient elevation of [Cl-]i, resulting in the increase of fluorescence ratio, which was strongly reduced by blockers of ionotropic glutamate receptors APV and NBQX. Furthermore, in HEK cells expressing GluR1-AMPA receptors, GCM activated ionic current with efficacy similar to those caused by glutamate, supporting the notion that GCM contains glutamate or glutamatergic agonists, which cause neuronal depolarization, activation of NMDA and AMPA/KA receptors leading to elevation of [Cl-]i. Chromatographic analysis of the GCM showed that it contained several aminoacids, including glutamate, whose release from glioma cells did not occur via the most common glial mechanisms of transport, or in response to hypoosmotic stress. GCM also contained glycine, whose action contrasted the glutamate effect. Indeed, strychnine application significantly increased GCM-induced depolarization and [Cl-]i rise. GCM-evoked [Cl-]i elevation was not inhibited by antagonists of Cl- transporters and significantly reduced in the presence of anion channels blocker NPPB, suggesting that Cl-selective channels are a major route for GCM-induced Cl- influx. Altogether, these data show that glioma released aminoacids may dynamically alter Cl- equilibrium in surrounding neurons, deeply interfering with their inhibitory balance, likely leading to physiological and

  4. Cell-specific gain modulation by synaptically released zinc in cortical circuits of audition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Charles T; Kumar, Manoj; Xiong, Shanshan; Tzounopoulos, Thanos

    2017-09-09

    In many excitatory synapses, mobile zinc is found within glutamatergic vesicles and is coreleased with glutamate. Ex vivo studies established that synaptically released (synaptic) zinc inhibits excitatory neurotransmission at lower frequencies of synaptic activity but enhances steady state synaptic responses during higher frequencies of activity. However, it remains unknown how synaptic zinc affects neuronal processing in vivo. Here, we imaged the sound-evoked neuronal activity of the primary auditory cortex in awake mice. We discovered that synaptic zinc enhanced the gain of sound-evoked responses in CaMKII-expressing principal neurons, but it reduced the gain of parvalbumin- and somatostatin-expressing interneurons. This modulation was sound intensity-dependent and, in part, NMDA receptor-independent. By establishing a previously unknown link between synaptic zinc and gain control of auditory cortical processing, our findings advance understanding about cortical synaptic mechanisms and create a new framework for approaching and interpreting the role of the auditory cortex in sound processing.

  5. ATP secretion from nerve trunks and Schwann cells mediated by glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo Jun; Bennett, Max R

    2003-11-14

    ATP release from rat sciatic nerves and from cultured Schwann cells isolated from the nerves was investigated using an online bioluminescence technique. ATP was released in relatively large amounts from rat sciatic nerve trunks during electrical stimulation. This release was blocked by the sodium channel inhibitor tetrodotoxin and the non-NMDA glutamate receptor blocker 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX). Schwann cells isolated from the nerve trunks did not release ATP when electrically stimulated but did in response to glutamate in a concentration-dependent manner. Glutamate-stimulated ATP release was inhibited by specific non-competitive AMPA receptor antagonist GYKI 52466 and competitive non-NMDA receptor antagonist CNQX. Glutamate-stimulated ATP release was decreased by inhibition of anion transporter inhibitors by furosemide, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator by glibenclamide and exocytosis by botulinum toxin A, indicating that anion transporters and exocytosis provide the main secretion mechanisms for ATP release from the Schwann cells.

  6. Morphine Protects Spinal Cord Astrocytes from Glutamate-Induced Apoptosis via Reducing Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate is not only a neurotransmitter but also an important neurotoxin in central nervous system (CNS. Chronic elevation of glutamate induces both neuronal and glial cell apoptosis. However, its effect on astrocytes is complex and still remains unclear. In this study, we investigated whether morphine, a common opioid ligand, could affect glutamate-induced apoptosis in astrocytes. Primary cultured astrocytes were incubated with glutamate in the presence/absence of morphine. It was found that morphine could reduce glutamate-induced apoptosis of astrocytes. Furthermore, glutamate activated Ca2+ release, thereby inducing endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress in astrocytes, while morphine attenuated this deleterious effect. Using siRNA to reduce the expression of κ-opioid receptor, morphine could not effectively inhibit glutamate-stimulated Ca2+ release in astrocytes, the protective effect of morphine on glutamate-injured astrocytes was also suppressed. These results suggested that morphine could protect astrocytes from glutamate-induced apoptosis via reducing Ca2+ overload and ER stress pathways. In conclusion, this study indicated that excitotoxicity participated in the glutamate mediated apoptosis in astrocytes, while morphine attenuated this deleterious effect via regulating Ca2+ release and ER stress.

  7. Glutamate receptor ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldbrandt, Mette; Johansen, Tommy N; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea

    2002-01-01

    Homologation and substitution on the carbon backbone of (S)-glutamic acid [(S)-Glu, 1], as well as absolute stereochemistry, are structural parameters of key importance for the pharmacological profile of (S)-Glu receptor ligands. We describe a series of methyl-substituted 2-aminoadipic acid (AA...

  8. Monosodium Glutamate Toxicity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    The brain is reportedly sensitive to monosodium glutamate (MSG) toxicity via oxidative stress. Sida acuta leaf ethanolic .... wherein the right hemisphere, was preserved for histology and fixed in 10% ... Biochemical Assays: The left hemisphere of the brain samples was ...... development in male and female rats. Exp Physiol.

  9. Glutamate/glutamine metabolism coupling between astrocytes and glioma cells: neuroprotection and inhibition of glioma growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Pei-Sen; Kang, De-Zhi; Lin, Ru-Ying; Ye, Bing; Wang, Wei; Ye, Zu-Cheng

    2014-07-18

    Glioma glutamate release has been shown to promote the growth of glioma cells and induce neuronal injuries from epilepsy to neuronal death. However, potential counteractions from normal astrocytes against glioma glutamate release have not been fully evaluated. In this study, we investigated the glutamate/glutamine cycling between glioma cells and astrocytes and their impact on neuronal function. Co-cultures of glioma cells with astrocytes (CGA) in direct contact were established under different mix ratio of astrocyte/glioma. Culture medium conditioned in these CGAs were sampled for HPLC measurement, for neuronal ratiometric calcium imaging, and for neuronal survival assay. We found: (1) High levels of glutaminase expression in glioma cells, but not in astrocytes, glutaminase enables glioma cells to release large amount of glutamate in the presence of glutamine. (2) Glutamate levels in CGAs were directly determined by the astrocyte/glioma ratios, indicating a balance between glioma glutamate release and astrocyte glutamate uptake. (3) Culture media from CGAs of higher glioma/astrocyte ratios induced stronger neuronal Ca(2+) response and more severe neuronal death. (4) Co-culturing with astrocytes significantly reduced the growth rate of glioma cells. These results indicate that normal astrocytes in the brain play pivotal roles in glioma growth inhibition and in reducing neuronal injuries from glioma glutamate release. However, as tumor growth, the protective role of astrocytes gradually succumb to glioma cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Synaptic glutamate spillover increases NMDA receptor reliability at the cerebellar glomerulus

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Cassie S.; Lee, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Glutamate spillover in the mossy fiber to granule cell cerebellar glomeruli has been hypothesized to increase neurotransmission reliability. In this study, we evaluate this hypothesis using an experimentally-based quantitative model of glutamate spillover on the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDA-Rs) at the cerebellar glomerulus. The transient and steady-state responses of NMDA-Rs were examined over a physiological range of firing rates. Examined cases included direct glutamate release acti...

  11. Neonatal Nicotine Exposure Increases Excitatory Synaptic Transmission and Attenuates Nicotine-stimulated GABA release in the Adult Rat Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damborsky, Joanne C.; Griffith, William H.; Winzer-Serhan, Ursula H.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental exposure to nicotine has been linked to long-lasting changes in synaptic transmission which may contribute to behavioral abnormalities seen in offspring of women who smoke during pregnancy. Here, we examined the long-lasting effects of developmental nicotine exposure on glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission, and on acute nicotine-induced glutamate and GABA release in the adult hippocampus, a structure important in cognitive and emotional behaviors. We utilized a chronic neonatal nicotine treatment model to administer nicotine (6 mg/kg/day) to rat pups from postnatal day (P) 1–7, a period that falls developmentally into the third human trimester. Using whole-cell voltage clamp recordings from CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slices, we measured excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents in neonatally control- and nicotine-treated young adult males. Neonatal nicotine exposure significantly increased AMPA receptor-mediated spontaneous and evoked excitatory signaling, with no change in glutamate release probability in adults. Conversely, there was no increase in spontaneous GABAergic neurotransmission in nicotine-males. Chronic neonatal nicotine treatment had no effect on acute nicotine-stimulated glutamate release in adults, but acute nicotine-stimulated GABA release was significantly attenuated. Thus, neonatal nicotine exposure results in a persistent net increase in excitation and a concurrent loss of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-mediated regulation of presynaptic GABA but not glutamate release, which would exacerbate excitation following endogenous or exogenous nAChR activation. Our data underscore an important role for nAChRs in hippocampal excitatory synapse development, and suggest selective long-term changes at specific presynaptic nAChRs which together could explain some of the behavioral abnormalities associated with maternal smoking. PMID:24950455

  12. International Evoked Potentials Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    1980-01-01

    The past decade has seen great progress in the measurement of evoked potentials in man; a steady increase in our understanding of their charac­ teristics, their origins and their usefulness; and a growing application in the field of clinical diagnosis. The topic is a truly multidisciplinary one. Important research contributions have been made by workers of many different backgrounds and clinical applications span the specialities. This book represents a revised and updated version of the work originally presented at the international evoked potential symposium held in Nottingham 4-6 1978. The Nottingham Symposium provided a forum for a state-of-the-art discussion amongst workers from many different disciplines and from many different countries. For each major topic in the field an expert review set the scene for discussion of current research presentations. This format is retained in the book: the chapters in Part A provide the context in which the research presented in Part B is set. The task of selecting m...

  13. Fabrication of Implantable, Enzyme-Immobilized Glutamate Sensors for the Monitoring of Glutamate Concentration Changes in Vitro and in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina T.-C. Tseng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate sensors based on the immobilization of glutamate oxidase (GlutOx were prepared by adsorption on electrodeposited chitosan (Method 1 and by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde (Method 2 on micromachined platinum microelectrodes. It was observed that glutamate sensors prepared by Method 1 have faster response time (<2 s and lower detection limit (2.5 ± 1.1 μM compared to that prepared by Method 2 (response time: <5 sec and detection limit: 6.5 ± 1.7 μM; glutamate sensors prepared by Method 2 have a larger linear detection range (20–352 μM and higher sensitivity (86.8 ± 8.8 nA·μM−1·cm−2, N = 12 compared to those prepared by Method 1 (linear detection range: 20–217 μM and sensitivity: 34.9 ± 4.8 nA·μM−1·cm−2, N = 8. The applicability of the glutamate sensors in vivo was also demonstrated. The glutamate sensors were implanted into the rat brain to monitor the stress-induced extracellular glutamate release in the hypothalamus of the awake, freely moving rat.

  14. A computational study of astrocytic glutamate influence on post-synaptic neuronal excitability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronac Flanagan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability of astrocytes to rapidly clear synaptic glutamate and purposefully release the excitatory transmitter is critical in the functioning of synapses and neuronal circuits. Dysfunctions of these homeostatic functions have been implicated in the pathology of brain disorders such as mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. However, the reasons for these dysfunctions are not clear from experimental data and computational models have been developed to provide further understanding of the implications of glutamate clearance from the extracellular space, as a result of EAAT2 downregulation: although they only partially account for the glutamate clearance process. In this work, we develop an explicit model of the astrocytic glutamate transporters, providing a more complete description of the glutamate chemical potential across the astrocytic membrane and its contribution to glutamate transporter driving force based on thermodynamic principles and experimental data. Analysis of our model demonstrates that increased astrocytic glutamate content due to glutamine synthetase downregulation also results in increased postsynaptic quantal size due to gliotransmission. Moreover, the proposed model demonstrates that increased astrocytic glutamate could prolong the time course of glutamate in the synaptic cleft and enhances astrocyte-induced slow inward currents, causing a disruption to the clarity of synaptic signalling and the occurrence of intervals of higher frequency postsynaptic firing. Overall, our work distilled the necessity of a low astrocytic glutamate concentration for reliable synaptic transmission of information and the possible implications of enhanced glutamate levels as in epilepsy.

  15. Oral glutamate intake reduces acute and chronic effects of ethanol in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treatment, male Wistar rats were trained to consume ethanol-sucrose solution during a 2-h period daily, ... Oral treatment with 2.5 g/kg of glutamate reversed the acute motor effects of ethanol. ..... glutamate release in the prefrontal cortex-NAc.

  16. Effects of 17beta-estradiol on glutamate synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability in the rat medial vestibular nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, S; Frondaroli, A; Scarduzio, M; Dutia, M B; Dieni, C; Pettorossi, V E

    2010-02-17

    We investigated the effects of the neurosteroid 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) on the evoked and spontaneous activity of rat medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) neurons in brainstem slices. E(2) enhances the synaptic response to vestibular nerve stimulation in type B neurons and depresses the spontaneous discharge in both type A and B neurons. The amplitude of the field potential, as well as the excitatory post-synaptic potential (EPSP) and current (EPSC), in type B neurons, are enhanced by E(2). Both effects are long-term phenomena since they outlast the drug washout. The enhancement of synaptic response is mainly due to facilitation of glutamate release mediated by pre-synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), since the reduction of paired pulse ratio (PPR) and the increase of miniature EPSC frequency after E(2) are abolished under D-(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP-5). E(2) also facilitates post-synaptic NMDARs, but it does not affect directly alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) and group I-metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs-I). In contrast, the depression of the spontaneous discharge of type A and type B neurons appears to depend on E(2) modulation of intrinsic ion conductances, as the effect remains after blockade of glutamate, GABA and glycine receptors (GlyRs). The net effect of E(2) is to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of the synaptic response in type B neurons, relative to resting activity of all MVN neurons. These findings provide evidence for a novel potential mechanism to modulate the responsiveness of vestibular neurons to afferent inputs, and so regulate vestibular function in vivo.

  17. Music evokes vivid autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfi, Amy M; Karlan, Brett; Tranel, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Music is strongly intertwined with memories-for example, hearing a song from the past can transport you back in time, triggering the sights, sounds, and feelings of a specific event. This association between music and vivid autobiographical memory is intuitively apparent, but the idea that music is intimately tied with memories, seemingly more so than other potent memory cues (e.g., familiar faces), has not been empirically tested. Here, we compared memories evoked by music to those evoked by famous faces, predicting that music-evoked autobiographical memories (MEAMs) would be more vivid. Participants listened to 30 songs, viewed 30 faces, and reported on memories that were evoked. Memories were transcribed and coded for vividness as in Levine, B., Svoboda, E., Hay, J. F., Winocur, G., & Moscovitch, M. [2002. Aging and autobiographical memory: Dissociating episodic from semantic retrieval. Psychology and Aging, 17, 677-689]. In support of our hypothesis, MEAMs were more vivid than autobiographical memories evoked by faces. MEAMs contained a greater proportion of internal details and a greater number of perceptual details, while face-evoked memories contained a greater number of external details. Additionally, we identified sex differences in memory vividness: for both stimulus categories, women retrieved more vivid memories than men. The results show that music not only effectively evokes autobiographical memories, but that these memories are more vivid than those evoked by famous faces.

  18. Distinct presynaptic regulation of dopamine release through NMDA receptors in striosome- and matrix-enriched areas of the rat striatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, M.O.; Trovero, F.; Desban, M.; Gauchy, C.; Glowinski, J.; Kemel, M.L. (College de France, Paris (France))

    1991-05-01

    Striosome- and matrix-enriched striatal zones were defined in coronal and sagittal brain sections of the rat, on the basis of {sup 3}H-naloxone binding to mu-opiate receptors (a striosome-specific marker). Then, using a new in vitro microsuperfusion device, the NMDA (50 microM)-evoked release of newly synthesized {sup 3}H-dopamine ({sup 3}H-DA) was examined in these four striatal areas under Mg(2+)-free conditions. The amplitudes of the responses were different in striosomal (171 +/- 6% and 161 +/- 5% of the spontaneous release) than in matrix areas (223 +/- 6% and 248 +/- 12%), even when glycine (1 or 100 microM) was coapplied (in the presence of 1 microM strychnine). In the four areas, the NMDA-evoked release of {sup 3}H-DA was blocked completely by Mg{sup 2}{sup +} (1 mM) or (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo(a,d)cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate (MK-801; 1 microM) and almost totally abolished by kynurenate (100 microM). Because the tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant NMDA-evoked release of {sup 3}H-DA was similar in striosome- (148 +/- 5% and 152 +/- 6%) or matrix-enriched (161 +/- 5% and 156 +/- 7%) areas, the indirect (TTX-sensitive) component of NMDA-evoked responses, which involves striatal neurons and/or afferent fibers, seems more important in the matrix- than in the striosome-enriched areas. The modulation of DA release by cortical glutamate and/or aspartate-containing inputs through NMDA receptors in the matrix appears thus to be partly distinct from that observed in the striosomes, providing some functional basis for the histochemical striatal heterogeneity.

  19. Glutamic acid as anticancer agent: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, Satyajit; Ray, Supratim; Nagarajan, K.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the article is to highlight various roles of glutamic acid like endogenic anticancer agent, conjugates to anticancer agents, and derivatives of glutamic acid as possible anticancer agents. Besides these emphases are given especially for two endogenous derivatives of glutamic acid such as glutamine and glutamate. Glutamine is a derivative of glutamic acid and is formed in the body from glutamic acid and ammonia in an energy requiring reaction catalyzed by glutamine synthase. I...

  20. Immunochemical characterization of the brain glutamate binding protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S.

    1986-01-01

    A glutamate binding protein (GBP) was purified from bovine and rat brain to near homogeneity. Polyclonal antibodies were raised against this protein. An enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay was used to quantify and determine the specificity of the antibody response. The antibodies were shown to strongly react with bovine brain GBP and the analogous protein from rat brain. The antibodies did not show any crossreactivity with the glutamate metabolizing enzymes, glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase and glutamyl transpeptidase, however it crossreacted moderately with glutamate decarboxylase. The antibodies were also used to define the possible physiologic activity of GBP in synaptic membranes. The antibodies were shown: (i) to inhibit the excitatory amino-acid stimulation of thiocyanate (SCN)flux, (ii) had no effect on transport of L-Glutamic acid across the synaptic membrane, and (iii) had no effect on the depolarization-induced release of L-glutamate. When the anti-GBP antibodies were used to localize and quantify the GBP distribution in various subcellular fractions and in brain tissue samples, it was found that the hippocampus had the highest immunoreactivity followed by the cerebral cortex, cerebellar cortex and caudate-putamen. The distribution of immunoreactivity in the subcellular fraction were as follows: synaptic membranes > crude mitochondrial fraction > homogenate > myelin. In conclusion these studies suggest that: (a) the rat brain GBP and the bovine brain GBP are immunologically homologous protein, (b) there are no structural similarities between the GBP and the glutamate metabolizing enzymes with the exception of glutamate decarboxylase and (c) the subcellular and regional distribution of the GBP immunoreactivity followed a similar pattern as observed for L-[ 3 H]-binding

  1. Glutamate mechanisms underlying opiate memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, J.; de Vries, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    As the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, glutamate plays an undisputable integral role in opiate addiction. This relates, in part, to the fact that addiction is a disorder of learning and memory, and glutamate is required for most types of memory formation. As opiate addiction

  2. Effects of pentylenetetrazole and glutamate on metabolism of [U-(13)C]glucose in cultured cerebellar granule neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloqayli, Haytham; Qu, Hong; Unsgård, Geirmund; Sletvold, Olav; Hadidi, Hakam; Sonnewald, Ursula

    2002-02-01

    This study was performed to analyze the effects of glutamate and the epileptogenic agent pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) on neuronal glucose metabolism. Cerebellar granule neurons were incubated for 2 h in medium containing 3 mM [U-(13)C]glucose, with and without 0.25 mM glutamate and/or 10 mM PTZ. In the presence of PTZ, decreased glucose consumption with unchanged lactate release was observed, indicating decreased glucose oxidation. PTZ also slowed down tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activity as evidenced by the decreased amounts of labeled aspartate and [1,2-(13)C]glutamate. When glutamate was present, glucose consumption was also decreased. However, the amount of glutamate, derived from [U-(13)C]glucose via the first turn of the TCA cycle, was increased. The decreased amount of [1,2-(13)C]glutamate, derived from the second turn in the TCA cycle, and increased amount of aspartate indicated the dilution of label due to the entrance of unlabeled glutamate into TCA cycle. In the presence of glutamate plus PTZ, the effect of PTZ was enhanced by glutamate. Labeled alanine was detected only in the presence of glutamate plus PTZ, which indicated that oxaloacetate was a better amino acid acceptor than pyruvate. Furthermore, there was also evidence for intracellular compartmentation of oxaloacetate metabolism. Glutamate and PTZ caused similar metabolic changes, however, via different mechanisms. Glutamate substituted for glucose as energy substrate in the TCA cycle, whereas, PTZ appeared to decrease mitochondrial activity.

  3. Ciguatoxins Evoke Potent CGRP Release by Activation of Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Subtypes NaV1.9, NaV1.7 and NaV1.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Touska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ciguatoxins (CTXs are marine toxins that cause ciguatera fish poisoning, a debilitating disease dominated by sensory and neurological disturbances that include cold allodynia and various painful symptoms as well as long-lasting pruritus. Although CTXs are known as the most potent mammalian sodium channel activator toxins, the etiology of many of its neurosensory symptoms remains unresolved. We recently described that local application of 1 nM Pacific Ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1 into the skin of human subjects induces a long-lasting, painful axon reflex flare and that CTXs are particularly effective in releasing calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP from nerve terminals. In this study, we used mouse and rat skin preparations and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA to study the molecular mechanism by which P-CTX-1 induces CGRP release. We show that P-CTX-1 induces CGRP release more effectively in mouse as compared to rat skin, exhibiting EC50 concentrations in the low nanomolar range. P-CTX-1-induced CGRP release from skin is dependent on extracellular calcium and sodium, but independent from the activation of various thermosensory transient receptor potential (TRP ion channels. In contrast, lidocaine and tetrodotoxin (TTX reduce CGRP release by 53–75%, with the remaining fraction involving L-type and T-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC. Using transgenic mice, we revealed that the TTX-resistant voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC NaV1.9, but not NaV1.8 or NaV1.7 alone and the combined activation of the TTX-sensitive VGSC subtypes NaV1.7 and NaV1.1 carry the largest part of the P-CTX-1-caused CGRP release of 42% and 34%, respectively. Given the contribution of CGRP to nociceptive and itch sensing pathways, our findings contribute to a better understanding of sensory symptoms of acute and chronic ciguatera that may help in the identification of potential therapeutics.

  4. Ciguatoxins Evoke Potent CGRP Release by Activation of Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Subtypes NaV1.9, NaV1.7 and NaV1.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touska, Filip; Sattler, Simon; Malsch, Philipp; Lewis, Richard J.; Zimmermann, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    Ciguatoxins (CTXs) are marine toxins that cause ciguatera fish poisoning, a debilitating disease dominated by sensory and neurological disturbances that include cold allodynia and various painful symptoms as well as long-lasting pruritus. Although CTXs are known as the most potent mammalian sodium channel activator toxins, the etiology of many of its neurosensory symptoms remains unresolved. We recently described that local application of 1 nM Pacific Ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1) into the skin of human subjects induces a long-lasting, painful axon reflex flare and that CTXs are particularly effective in releasing calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) from nerve terminals. In this study, we used mouse and rat skin preparations and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) to study the molecular mechanism by which P-CTX-1 induces CGRP release. We show that P-CTX-1 induces CGRP release more effectively in mouse as compared to rat skin, exhibiting EC50 concentrations in the low nanomolar range. P-CTX-1-induced CGRP release from skin is dependent on extracellular calcium and sodium, but independent from the activation of various thermosensory transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels. In contrast, lidocaine and tetrodotoxin (TTX) reduce CGRP release by 53–75%, with the remaining fraction involving L-type and T-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC). Using transgenic mice, we revealed that the TTX-resistant voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) NaV1.9, but not NaV1.8 or NaV1.7 alone and the combined activation of the TTX-sensitive VGSC subtypes NaV1.7 and NaV1.1 carry the largest part of the P-CTX-1-caused CGRP release of 42% and 34%, respectively. Given the contribution of CGRP to nociceptive and itch sensing pathways, our findings contribute to a better understanding of sensory symptoms of acute and chronic ciguatera that may help in the identification of potential therapeutics. PMID:28867800

  5. Evoked emotions predict food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalenberg, Jelle R; Gutjar, Swetlana; Ter Horst, Gert J; de Graaf, Kees; Renken, Remco J; Jager, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well scores from emotion-profiling methods predict actual food choice and/or consumption. To test this, we proposed to decompose emotion scores into valence and arousal scores using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and apply Multinomial Logit Models (MLM) to estimate food choice using liking, valence, and arousal as possible predictors. For this analysis, we used an existing data set comprised of liking and food-evoked emotions scores from 123 participants, who rated 7 unlabeled breakfast drinks. Liking scores were measured using a 100-mm visual analogue scale, while food-evoked emotions were measured using 2 existing emotion-profiling methods: a verbal and a non-verbal method (EsSense Profile and PrEmo, respectively). After 7 days, participants were asked to choose 1 breakfast drink from the experiment to consume during breakfast in a simulated restaurant environment. Cross validation showed that we were able to correctly predict individualized food choice (1 out of 7 products) for over 50% of the participants. This number increased to nearly 80% when looking at the top 2 candidates. Model comparisons showed that evoked emotions better predict food choice than perceived liking alone. However, the strongest predictive strength was achieved by the combination of evoked emotions and liking. Furthermore we showed that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores more accurately predict food choice than verbal food-evoked emotions scores.

  6. Agmatine reduces extracellular glutamate during pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in rat brain: A potential mechanism for the anticonvulsive effects

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Yangzheng; LeBlanc, Michael H.; Regunathan, Soundar

    2005-01-01

    Glutamate has been implicated in the initiation and spread of seizure activity. Agmatine, an endogenous neuromodulator, is an antagonist of NMDA receptors and has anticonvulsive effects. Whether agmatine regulate glutamate release, as measured by in vivo microdialysis, is not known. In this study, we used pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure model to determine the effect of agmatine on extracellular glutamate in rat brain. We also determined the time course and the amount of agmatine that...

  7. Agmatine Prevents Adaptation of the Hippocampal Glutamate System in Chronic Morphine-Treated Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Fei; Zhao, Tai-Yun; Su, Rui-Bin; Wu, Ning; Li, Jin

    2016-12-01

    Chronic exposure to opioids induces adaptation of glutamate neurotransmission, which plays a crucial role in addiction. Our previous studies revealed that agmatine attenuates opioid addiction and prevents the adaptation of glutamate neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens of chronic morphine-treated rats. The hippocampus is important for drug addiction; however, whether adaptation of glutamate neurotransmission is modulated by agmatine in the hippocampus remains unknown. Here, we found that continuous pretreatment of rats with ascending doses of morphine for 5 days resulted in an increase in the hippocampal extracellular glutamate level induced by naloxone (2 mg/kg, i.p.) precipitation. Agmatine (20 mg/kg, s.c.) administered concurrently with morphine for 5 days attenuated the elevation of extracellular glutamate levels induced by naloxone precipitation. Furthermore, in the hippocampal synaptosome model, agmatine decreased the release and increased the uptake of glutamate in synaptosomes from chronic morphine-treated rats, which might contribute to the reduced elevation of glutamate levels induced by agmatine. We also found that expression of the hippocampal NR2B subunit, rather than the NR1 subunit, of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) was down-regulated after chronic morphine treatment, and agmatine inhibited this reduction. Taken together, agmatine prevented the adaptation of the hippocampal glutamate system caused by chronic exposure to morphine, including modulating extracellular glutamate concentration and NMDAR expression, which might be one of the mechanisms underlying the attenuation of opioid addiction by agmatine.

  8. MDMA decreases glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 67-immunoreactive neurons in the hippocampus and increases seizure susceptibility: Role for glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Courtney L; Morano, Rachel L; Herman, James P; Yamamoto, Bryan K; Gudelsky, Gary A

    2016-12-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) is a unique psychostimulant that continues to be a popular drug of abuse. It has been well documented that MDMA reduces markers of 5-HT axon terminals in rodents, as well as humans. A loss of parvalbumin-immunoreactive (IR) interneurons in the hippocampus following MDMA treatment has only been documented recently. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that MDMA reduces glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 67-IR, another biochemical marker of GABA neurons, in the hippocampus and that this reduction in GAD67-IR neurons and an accompanying increase in seizure susceptibility involve glutamate receptor activation. Repeated exposure to MDMA (3×10mg/kg, ip) resulted in a reduction of 37-58% of GAD67-IR cells in the dentate gyrus (DG), CA1, and CA3 regions, as well as an increased susceptibility to kainic acid-induced seizures, both of which persisted for at least 30days following MDMA treatment. Administration of the NMDA antagonist MK-801 or the glutamate transporter type 1 (GLT-1) inducer ceftriaxone prevented both the MDMA-induced loss of GAD67-IR neurons and the increased vulnerability to kainic acid-induced seizures. The MDMA-induced increase in the extracellular concentration of glutamate in the hippocampus was significantly diminished in rats treated with ceftriaxone, thereby implicating a glutamatergic mechanism in the neuroprotective effects of ceftriaxone. In summary, the present findings support a role for increased extracellular glutamate and NMDA receptor activation in the MDMA-induced loss of hippocampal GAD67-IR neurons and the subsequent increased susceptibility to evoked seizures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Glutamic acid as anticancer agent: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Satyajit; Ray, Supratim; Nagarajan, K

    2013-10-01

    The objective of the article is to highlight various roles of glutamic acid like endogenic anticancer agent, conjugates to anticancer agents, and derivatives of glutamic acid as possible anticancer agents. Besides these emphases are given especially for two endogenous derivatives of glutamic acid such as glutamine and glutamate. Glutamine is a derivative of glutamic acid and is formed in the body from glutamic acid and ammonia in an energy requiring reaction catalyzed by glutamine synthase. It also possesses anticancer activity. So the transportation and metabolism of glutamine are also discussed for better understanding the role of glutamic acid. Glutamates are the carboxylate anions and salts of glutamic acid. Here the roles of various enzymes required for the metabolism of glutamates are also discussed.

  10. Glucose replaces glutamate as energy substrate to fuel glutamate uptake in glutamate dehydrogenase-deficient astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pajęcka, Kamilla; Nissen, Jakob D; Stridh, Malin H

    2015-01-01

    -500 µM) in the presence or in the absence of glucose, the metabolism of these substrates was studied by using tritiated glutamate or 2-deoxyglucose as tracers. In addition, the cellular contents of glutamate and ATP were determined. The astrocytes were able to maintain physiological levels of ATP...... regardless of the expression level of GDH and the incubation condition, indicating a high degree of flexibility with regard to regulatory mechanisms involved in maintaining an adequate energy level in the cells. Glutamate uptake was found to be increased in these cells when exposed to increasing levels...

  11. Circadian Regulation of Glutamate Transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donají Chi-Castañeda

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available L-glutamate is the major excitatory amino acid in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS. This neurotransmitter is essential for higher brain functions such as learning, cognition and memory. A tight regulation of extra-synaptic glutamate levels is needed to prevent a neurotoxic insult. Glutamate removal from the synaptic cleft is carried out by a family of sodium-dependent high-affinity transporters, collectively known as excitatory amino acid transporters. Dysfunction of glutamate transporters is generally involved in acute neuronal injury and neurodegenerative diseases, so characterizing and understanding the mechanisms that lead to the development of these disorders is an important goal in the design of novel treatments for the neurodegenerative diseases. Increasing evidence indicates glutamate transporters are controlled by the circadian system in direct and indirect manners, so in this contribution we focus on the mechanisms of circadian regulation (transcriptional, translational, post-translational and post-transcriptional regulation of glutamate transport in neuronal and glial cells, and their consequence in brain function.

  12. Evidence for a role of glutamate as an efferent transmitter in taste buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Catherine B

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutamate has been proposed as a transmitter in the peripheral taste system in addition to its well-documented role as an umami taste stimulus. Evidence for a role as a transmitter includes the presence of ionotropic glutamate receptors in nerve fibers and taste cells, as well as the expression of the glutamate transporter GLAST in Type I taste cells. However, the source and targets of glutamate in lingual tissue are unclear. In the present study, we used molecular, physiological and immunohistochemical methods to investigate the origin of glutamate as well as the targeted receptors in taste buds. Results Using molecular and immunohistochemical techniques, we show that the vesicular transporters for glutamate, VGLUT 1 and 2, but not VGLUT3, are expressed in the nerve fibers surrounding taste buds but likely not in taste cells themselves. Further, we show that P2X2, a specific marker for gustatory but not trigeminal fibers, co-localizes with VGLUT2, suggesting the VGLUT-expressing nerve fibers are of gustatory origin. Calcium imaging indicates that GAD67-GFP Type III taste cells, but not T1R3-GFP Type II cells, respond to glutamate at concentrations expected for a glutamate transmitter, and further, that these responses are partially blocked by NBQX, a specific AMPA/Kainate receptor antagonist. RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry confirm the presence of the Kainate receptor GluR7 in Type III taste cells, suggesting it may be a target of glutamate released from gustatory nerve fibers. Conclusions Taken together, the results suggest that glutamate may be released from gustatory nerve fibers using a vesicular mechanism to modulate Type III taste cells via GluR7.

  13. Evoked Emotions Predict Food Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalenberg, Jelle R.; Gutjar, Swetlana; ter Horst, Gert J.; de Graaf, Kees; Renken, Remco J.; Jager, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments.

  14. Inhibitory mechanism of l-glutamic acid on spawning of the starfish Patiria (Asterina) pectinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Masatoshi

    2017-03-01

    l-Glutamic acid was previously identified as an inhibitor of spawning in the starfish Patiria (Asterina) pectinifera; this study examined how l-glutamic acid works. Oocyte release from ovaries of P. pectinifera occurred after germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and follicular envelope breakdown (FEBD) when gonads were incubated ex vivo with either relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide (RGP) or 1-methyladenine (1-MeAde). l-Glutamic acid blocked this spawning phenotype, causing the mature oocytes to remain within the ovaries. Neither RGP-induced 1-MeAde production in ovarian follicle cells nor 1-MeAde-induced GVBD and FEBD was affected by l-glutamic acid. l-Glutamic acid may act through metabotropic receptors in the ovaries to inhibit spawning, as l-(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid, an agonist for metabotropic glutamate receptors, also inhibited spawning induced by 1-MeAde. Application of acetylcholine (ACH) to ovaries under inhibitory conditions with l-glutamic acid, however, brought about spawning, possibly by inducing contraction of the ovarian wall to discharge mature oocytes from the ovaries concurrently with GVBD and FEBD. Thus, l-glutamic acid may inhibit ACH secretion from gonadal nerve cells in the ovary. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 84: 246-256, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Availability of neurotransmitter glutamate is diminished when beta-hydroxybutyrate replaces glucose in cultured neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Trine M; Risa, Oystein; Sonnewald, Ursula; Schousboe, Arne; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2009-07-01

    Ketone bodies serve as alternative energy substrates for the brain in cases of low glucose availability such as during starvation or in patients treated with a ketogenic diet. The ketone bodies are metabolized via a distinct pathway confined to the mitochondria. We have compared metabolism of [2,4-(13)C]beta-hydroxybutyrate to that of [1,6-(13)C]glucose in cultured glutamatergic neurons and investigated the effect of neuronal activity focusing on the aspartate-glutamate homeostasis, an essential component of the excitatory activity in the brain. The amount of (13)C incorporation and cellular content was lower for glutamate and higher for aspartate in the presence of [2,4-(13)C]beta-hydroxybutyrate as opposed to [1,6-(13)C]glucose. Our results suggest that the change in aspartate-glutamate homeostasis is due to a decreased availability of NADH for cytosolic malate dehydrogenase and thus reduced malate-aspartate shuttle activity in neurons using beta-hydroxybutyrate. In the presence of glucose, the glutamate content decreased significantly upon activation of neurotransmitter release, whereas in the presence of only beta-hydroxybutyrate, no decrease in the glutamate content was observed. Thus, the fraction of the glutamate pool available for transmitter release was diminished when metabolizing beta-hydroxybutyrate, which is in line with the hypothesis of formation of transmitter glutamate via an obligatory involvement of the malate-aspartate shuttle.

  16. Curcumin-Protected PC12 Cells Against Glutamate-Induced Oxidative Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Huang Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter present in the central nervous system. The glutamate/cystine antiporter system xc– connects the antioxidant defense with neurotransmission and behaviour. Overactivation of ionotropic glutamate receptors induces neuronal death, a pathway called excitotoxicity. Glutamate-induced oxidative stress is a major contributor to neurodegenerative diseases including cerebral ischemia, Alzheimer’s and Huntington’s disease. Curcuma has a wide spectrum of biological activities regarding neuroprotection and neurocognition. By reducing the oxidative damage, curcumin attenuates a spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury, seizures and hippocampal neuronal loss. The rat pheochromocytoma (PC12 cell line exhibits many characteristics useful for the study of the neuroprotection and neurocognition. This investigation was carried out to determine whether the neuroprotective effects of curcumin can be observed via the glutamate-PC12 cell model. Results indicate that glutamate (20 mM upregulated glutathione peroxidase 1, glutathione disulphide, Ca2+ influx, nitric oxide production, cytochrome c release, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, caspase-3 activity, lactate dehydrogenase release, reactive oxygen species, H2O2, and malondialdehyde; and downregulated glutathione, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase, resulting in enhanced cell apoptosis. Curcumin alleviates all these adverse effects. Conclusively, curcumin can effectively protect PC12 cells against the glutamate-induced oxidative toxicity. Its mode of action involves two pathways: the glutathione-dependent nitric oxide-reactive oxygen species pathway and the mitochondria-dependent nitric oxide-reactive oxygen species pathway.

  17. High-frequency stimulation-induced peptide release synchronizes arcuate kisspeptin neurons and excites GnRH neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jian; Nestor, Casey C; Zhang, Chunguang; Padilla, Stephanie L; Palmiter, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Kisspeptin (Kiss1) and neurokinin B (NKB) neurocircuits are essential for pubertal development and fertility. Kisspeptin neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (Kiss1ARH) co-express Kiss1, NKB, dynorphin and glutamate and are postulated to provide an episodic, excitatory drive to gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH) neurons, the synaptic mechanisms of which are unknown. We characterized the cellular basis for synchronized Kiss1ARH neuronal activity using optogenetics, whole-cell electrophysiology, molecular pharmacology and single cell RT-PCR in mice. High-frequency photostimulation of Kiss1ARH neurons evoked local release of excitatory (NKB) and inhibitory (dynorphin) neuropeptides, which were found to synchronize the Kiss1ARH neuronal firing. The light-evoked synchronous activity caused robust excitation of GnRH neurons by a synaptic mechanism that also involved glutamatergic input to preoptic Kiss1 neurons from Kiss1ARH neurons. We propose that Kiss1ARH neurons play a dual role of driving episodic secretion of GnRH through the differential release of peptide and amino acid neurotransmitters to coordinate reproductive function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16246.001 PMID:27549338

  18. Glucose, Lactate, β-Hydroxybutyrate, Acetate, GABA, and Succinate as Substrates for Synthesis of Glutamate and GABA in the Glutamine-Glutamate/GABA Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Leif; Rothman, Douglas L

    2016-01-01

    The glutamine-glutamate/GABA cycle is an astrocytic-neuronal pathway transferring precursors for transmitter glutamate and GABA from astrocytes to neurons. In addition, the cycle carries released transmitter back to astrocytes, where a minor fraction (~25 %) is degraded (requiring a similar amount of resynthesis) and the remainder returned to the neurons for reuse. The flux in the cycle is intense, amounting to the same value as neuronal glucose utilization rate or 75-80 % of total cortical glucose consumption. This glucose:glutamate ratio is reduced when high amounts of β-hydroxybutyrate are present, but β-hydroxybutyrate can at most replace 60 % of glucose during awake brain function. The cycle is initiated by α-ketoglutarate production in astrocytes and its conversion via glutamate to glutamine which is released. A crucial reaction in the cycle is metabolism of glutamine after its accumulation in neurons. In glutamatergic neurons all generated glutamate enters the mitochondria and its exit to the cytosol occurs in a process resembling the malate-aspartate shuttle and therefore requiring concomitant pyruvate metabolism. In GABAergic neurons one half enters the mitochondria, whereas the other one half is released directly from the cytosol. A revised concept is proposed for the synthesis and metabolism of vesicular and nonvesicular GABA. It includes the well-established neuronal GABA reuptake, its metabolism, and use for resynthesis of vesicular GABA. In contrast, mitochondrial glutamate is by transamination to α-ketoglutarate and subsequent retransamination to releasable glutamate essential for the transaminations occurring during metabolism of accumulated GABA and subsequent resynthesis of vesicular GABA.

  19. Exposure to high glutamate concentration activates aerobic glycolysis but inhibits ATP-linked respiration in cultured cortical astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yao; Tian, Yueyang; Shi, Xiaojie; Yang, Jianbo; Ouyang, Li; Gao, Jieqiong; Lu, Jianxin

    2014-08-01

    Astrocytes play a key role in removing the synaptically released glutamate from the extracellular space and maintaining the glutamate below neurotoxic level in the brain. However, high concentration of glutamate leads to toxicity in astrocytes, and the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether energy metabolism disorder, especially impairment of mitochondrial respiration, is involved in the glutamate-induced gliotoxicity. Exposure to 10-mM glutamate for 48 h stimulated glycolysis and respiration in astrocytes. However, the increased oxygen consumption was used for proton leak and non-mitochondrial respiration, but not for oxidative phosphorylation and ATP generation. When the exposure time extended to 72 h, glycolysis was still activated for ATP generation, but the mitochondrial ATP-linked respiration of astrocytes was reduced. The glutamate-induced astrocyte damage can be mimicked by the non-metabolized substrate d-aspartate but reversed by the non-selective glutamate transporter inhibitor TBOA. In addition, the glutamate toxicity can be partially reversed by vitamin E. These findings demonstrate that changes of bioenergetic profile occur in cultured cortical astrocytes exposed to high concentration of glutamate and highlight the role of mitochondria respiration in glutamate-induced gliotoxicity in cortical astrocytes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Noise-evoked otoacoustic emissions in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, B; Wit, HP; van Dijk, P

    2000-01-01

    Click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs) and acoustical responses evoked by bandlimited Gaussian noise (noise-evoked otoacoustic emissions; NEOAEs) were measured in three normal-hearing subjects. For the NEOAEs the first- and second-order Wiener kernel and polynomial correlation functions up to

  1. Modeling of glutamate-induced dynamical patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurby-Bentzen, Christian Krefeld; Zhabotinsky, A.M.; Laugesen, Jakob Lund

    2009-01-01

    Based on established physiological mechanisms, the paper presents a detailed computer model, which supports the hypothesis that temporal lobe epilepsy may be caused by failure of glutamate reuptake from the extracellular space. The elevated glutamate concentration causes an increased activation...

  2. Evoked Emotions Predict Food Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Dalenberg, Jelle R.; Gutjar, Swetlana; ter Horst, Gert J.; de Graaf, Kees; Renken, Remco J.; Jager, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well ...

  3. 21 CFR 182.1045 - Glutamic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Glutamic acid. 182.1045 Section 182.1045 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN....1045 Glutamic acid. (a) Product. Glutamic acid. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations, restrictions, or...

  4. Paraventricular Stimulation with Glutamate Elicits Bradycardia and Pituitary Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Daniel N.; Miyamoto, Michael; Keil, Lanny C.; Dallman, Mary F.

    1989-01-01

    The excitatory neurotransmitter, L-glutamate (0.5 M, pH 7.4), or the organic acid, acetate (0.5 M, pH 7.4), was microinjected (50 nl over 2 min) directly into the paraventricular nuclei (PVN) of pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized rats while arterial blood pressure and heart rate and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), vasopressin, and oxytocin were measured. Activation of PVN neurons with L-glutamate led to increases in plasma ACTH, vasopressin, and oxytocin and a profound bradycardia (-80 beats/min) with little change in arterial blood pressure. Microinjection of acetate had no effect on the above variables. The decrease in heart rate was shown to be dependent on the concentration of glutamate injected and the volume of injectate. The bradycardia was mediated through the autonomic nervous system because ganglionic blockade (pentolinium tartrate) eliminated the response; atropine and propranolol severely attenuated the bradycardia. The bradycardia was greatest when L-glutamate was microinjected into the caudal PVN. Injections into the rostral PVN or into nuclei surrounding the PVN led to small or nonsignificant decreases in heart rate. Focal electric stimulation (2-50 pA) of the PVN also led to decreases in heart rate and arterial blood pressure. These data suggest that activation of PVN neurons leads to the release of ACTH, vasopressin, and oxytocin from the pituitary and a bradycardia that is mediated by the autonomic nervous system.

  5. A2A-D2 receptor-receptor interaction modulates gliotransmitter release from striatal astrocyte processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervetto, Chiara; Venturini, Arianna; Passalacqua, Mario; Guidolin, Diego; Genedani, Susanna; Fuxe, Kjell; Borroto-Esquela, Dasiel O; Cortelli, Pietro; Woods, Amina; Maura, Guido; Marcoli, Manuela; Agnati, Luigi F

    2017-01-01

    Evidence for striatal A2A-D2 heterodimers has led to a new perspective on molecular mechanisms involved in schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. Despite the increasing recognition of astrocytes' participation in neuropsychiatric disease vulnerability, involvement of striatal astrocytes in A2A and D2 receptor signal transmission has never been explored. Here, we investigated the presence of D2 and A2A receptors in isolated astrocyte processes prepared from adult rat striatum by confocal imaging; the effects of receptor activation were measured on the 4-aminopyridine-evoked release of glutamate from the processes. Confocal analysis showed that A2A and D2 receptors were co-expressed on the same astrocyte processes. Evidence for A2A-D2 receptor-receptor interactions was obtained by measuring the release of the gliotransmitter glutamate: D2 receptors inhibited the glutamate release, while activation of A2A receptors, per se ineffective, abolished the effect of D2 receptor activation. The synthetic D2 peptide VLRRRRKRVN corresponding to the receptor region involved in electrostatic interaction underlying A2A-D2 heteromerization abolished the ability of the A2A receptor to antagonize the D2 receptor-mediated effect. Together, the findings are consistent with heteromerization of native striatal astrocytic A2A-D2 receptors that via allosteric receptor-receptor interactions could play a role in the control of striatal glutamatergic transmission. These new findings suggest possible new pathogenic mechanisms and/or therapeutic approaches to neuropsychiatric disorders. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  6. Traumatic Brain Injury Increases Cortical Glutamate Network Activity by Compromising GABAergic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, David; Walker, Kendall; Andresen, Lauren; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Hampton, David; Tesco, Giuseppina; Dulla, Chris G

    2015-08-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major risk factor for developing pharmaco-resistant epilepsy. Although disruptions in brain circuitry are associated with TBI, the precise mechanisms by which brain injury leads to epileptiform network activity is unknown. Using controlled cortical impact (CCI) as a model of TBI, we examined how cortical excitability and glutamatergic signaling was altered following injury. We optically mapped cortical glutamate signaling using FRET-based glutamate biosensors, while simultaneously recording cortical field potentials in acute brain slices 2-4 weeks following CCI. Cortical electrical stimulation evoked polyphasic, epileptiform field potentials and disrupted the input-output relationship in deep layers of CCI-injured cortex. High-speed glutamate biosensor imaging showed that glutamate signaling was significantly increased in the injured cortex. Elevated glutamate responses correlated with epileptiform activity, were highest directly adjacent to the injury, and spread via deep cortical layers. Immunoreactivity for markers of GABAergic interneurons were significantly decreased throughout CCI cortex. Lastly, spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic current frequency decreased and spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current increased after CCI injury. Our results suggest that specific cortical neuronal microcircuits may initiate and facilitate the spread of epileptiform activity following TBI. Increased glutamatergic signaling due to loss of GABAergic control may provide a mechanism by which TBI can give rise to post-traumatic epilepsy. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Altered astrocyte glutamate transporter regulation of hypothalamic neurosecretory neurons in heart failure rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapenko, Evgeniy S; Biancardi, Vinicia C; Zhou, Yiqiang; Stern, Javier E

    2012-08-01

    Neurohumoral activation, which includes augmented plasma levels of the neurohormone vasopressin (VP), is a common finding in heart failure (HF) that contributes to morbidity and mortality in this disease. While an increased activation of magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) and enhanced glutamate function in HF is well documented, the precise underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here, we combined electrophysiology and protein measurements to determine whether altered glial glutamate transporter function and/or expression occurs in the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus (SON) during HF. Patch-clamp recordings obtained from MNCs in brain slices show that pharmacological blockade of astrocyte glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1) function [500 μM dihydrokainate (DHK)], resulted in a persistent N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated inward current (tonic I(NMDA)) in sham rats, an effect that was significantly smaller in MNCs from HF rats. In addition, we found a diminished GLT1 protein content in plasma membrane (but not cytosolic) fractions of SON punches in HF rats. Conversely, astrocyte GLAST expression was significantly higher in the SON of HF rats, while nonselective blockade of glutamate transport activity (100 μM TBOA) evoked an enhanced tonic I(NMDA) activation in HF rats. Steady-state activation of NMDARs by extracellular glutamate levels was diminished during HF. Taken together, these results support a shift in the relative expression and function of two major glial glutamate transporters (from GLT1 to GLAST predominance) during HF. This shift may act as a compensatory mechanism to preserve an adequate basal glutamate uptake level in the face of an enhanced glutamatergic afferent activity in HF rats.

  8. Effects of the mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 on ketamine-evoked behaviours and neurochemical changes in the dentate gyrus of the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imre, Gabor; Salomons, Amber; Jongsma, Minke; Fokkema, Dirk S.; Den Boer, Johan A.; Ter Horst, Gert J.

    One of the functions of group 11 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2/3) is to modulate glutamate release. Thus, targeting mGluR2/3s might be a novel treatment for several psychiatric disorders associated with inappropriate glutamatergic neurotransmission, such as schizophrenia. In an effort to

  9. Effects of Bee Venom on Glutamate-Induced Toxicity in Neuronal and Glial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Min Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bee venom (BV, which is extracted from honeybees, is used in traditional Korean medical therapy. Several groups have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effects of BV in osteoarthritis both in vivo and in vitro. Glutamate is the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS. Changes in glutamate release and uptake due to alterations in the activity of glutamate transporters have been reported in many neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. To assess if BV can prevent glutamate-mediated neurotoxicity, we examined cell viability and signal transduction in glutamate-treated neuronal and microglial cells in the presence and absence of BV. We induced glutamatergic toxicity in neuronal cells and microglial cells and found that BV protected against cell death. Furthermore, BV significantly inhibited the cellular toxicity of glutamate, and pretreatment with BV altered MAP kinase activation (e.g., JNK, ERK, and p38 following exposure to glutamate. These findings suggest that treatment with BV may be helpful in reducing glutamatergic cell toxicity in neurodegenerative diseases.

  10. Excretion and intestinal absorption of tritiated glutamic acid by carp, Cyprinus Carpio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Terushia; Kistner, G.

    1986-01-01

    Excretion and intestinal absorption of tritiated glutamic acid by carp was investigated. Approximately 80% of orally administered tritium was excreted at a half life value of 1.4 h and an observed slower excretion of 7 days for the remainder. Tritium incorporated in glutamic acid was efficiently retained at the site of absorption, i.e. intestine, liver, gill, kidney, blood and muscle. A dual marking experiment using tritiated glutamic acid and 14 C-market glutamic acid showed higher excretion of tritium by factors 2.0 to 4.9 than that of 14 C. Tritiated glutamic acid is considered to be mainly incorporated in the citric acid cycle soon after administration and the release of tritium in tritiated water through the cycle is assumed as causing the initial rapid excretion of tritium in carp. The intestinal absorption of glutamic acid was likely to depend on its concentration in the administered solution. The maximum level of absorption is estimated to be 0.1 m mol/0.5 h for one year old carp. The results obtained here would make it possible to estimate the tritium contamination of fish due to tritiated glutamic acid entering the food chain. (orig.)

  11. Proprioceptive evoked potentials in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, S; Chen, A C; Eder, Derek N

    2000-01-01

    We studied cerebral evoked potentials on the scalp to the stimulation of the right hand from a change in weight of 400-480 g in ten subjects. Rise-time was 20g/10 ms, Inter Stimulus Interval 2s and stimulus duration was 100 ms. The cerebral activations were a double positive contralateral C3'/P70......). Further studies of the PEP are needed to assess the influence of load manipulations and of muscle contraction and to explore the effect of attentional manipulation....

  12. Disease-specific monoclonal antibodies targeting glutamate decarboxylase impair GABAergic neurotransmission and affect motor learning and behavioral functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario U Manto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Autoantibodies to the smaller isoform of glutamate decarboxylase can be found in patients with type 1 diabetes and a number of neurological disorders, including stiff-person syndrome, cerebellar ataxia and limbic encephalitis. The detection of disease-specific autoantibody epitopes led to the hypothesis that distinct glutamate decarboxylase autoantibodies may elicit specific neurological phenotypes. We explored the in vitro/in vivo effects of well-characterized monoclonal glutamate decarboxylase antibodies. We found that glutamate decarboxylase autoantibodies present in patients with stiff person syndrome (n = 7 and cerebellar ataxia (n = 15 recognized an epitope distinct from that recognized by glutamate decarboxylase autoantibodies present in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (n = 10 or limbic encephalitis (n = 4. We demonstrated that the administration of a monoclonal glutamate decarboxylase antibody representing this epitope specificity (1 disrupted in vitro the association of glutamate decarboxylase with γ-Aminobutyric acid containing synaptic vesicles, (2 depressed the inhibitory synaptic transmission in cerebellar slices with a gradual time course and a lasting suppressive effect, (3 significantly decreased conditioned eyelid responses evoked in mice, with no modification of learning curves in the classical eyeblink-conditioning task, (4 markedly impaired the facilitatory effect exerted by the premotor cortex over the motor cortex in a paired-pulse stimulation paradigm, and (5 induced decreased exploratory behavior and impaired locomotor function in rats. These findings support the specific targeting of glutamate decarboxylase by its autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of stiff-person syndrome and cerebellar ataxia. Therapies of these disorders based on selective removal of such glutamate decarboxylase antibodies could be envisioned.

  13. Bacterial cytolysin during meningitis disrupts the regulation of glutamate in the brain, leading to synaptic damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Wippel

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcal meningitis is a common bacterial infection of the brain. The cholesterol-dependent cytolysin pneumolysin represents a key factor, determining the neuropathogenic potential of the pneumococci. Here, we demonstrate selective synaptic loss within the superficial layers of the frontal neocortex of post-mortem brain samples from individuals with pneumococcal meningitis. A similar effect was observed in mice with pneumococcal meningitis only when the bacteria expressed the pore-forming cholesterol-dependent cytolysin pneumolysin. Exposure of acute mouse brain slices to only pore-competent pneumolysin at disease-relevant, non-lytic concentrations caused permanent dendritic swelling, dendritic spine elimination and synaptic loss. The NMDA glutamate receptor antagonists MK801 and D-AP5 reduced this pathology. Pneumolysin increased glutamate levels within the mouse brain slices. In mouse astrocytes, pneumolysin initiated the release of glutamate in a calcium-dependent manner. We propose that pneumolysin plays a significant synapto- and dendritotoxic role in pneumococcal meningitis by initiating glutamate release from astrocytes, leading to subsequent glutamate-dependent synaptic damage. We outline for the first time the occurrence of synaptic pathology in pneumococcal meningitis and demonstrate that a bacterial cytolysin can dysregulate the control of glutamate in the brain, inducing excitotoxic damage.

  14. Fast inhibition of glutamate-activated currents by caffeine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas P Vyleta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Caffeine stimulates calcium-induced calcium release (CICR in many cell types. In neurons, caffeine stimulates CICR presynaptically and thus modulates neurotransmitter release. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique we found that caffeine (20 mM reversibly increased the frequency and decreased the amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs in neocortical neurons. The increase in mEPSC frequency is consistent with a presynaptic mechanism. Caffeine also reduced exogenously applied glutamate-activated currents, confirming a separate postsynaptic action. This inhibition developed in tens of milliseconds, consistent with block of channel currents. Caffeine (20 mM did not reduce currents activated by exogenous NMDA, indicating that caffeine block is specific to non-NMDA type glutamate receptors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Caffeine-induced inhibition of mEPSC amplitude occurs through postsynaptic block of non-NMDA type ionotropic glutamate receptors. Caffeine thus has both pre and postsynaptic sites of action at excitatory synapses.

  15. Glutamate transporter activity promotes enhanced Na+/K+-ATPase -mediated extracellular K+ management during neuronal activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Brian R; Holm, Rikke; Vilsen, Bente

    2016-01-01

    , in addition, Na+ /K+ -ATPase-mediated K+ clearance could be governed by astrocytic [Na+ ]i . During most neuronal activity, glutamate is released in the synaptic cleft and is re-absorbed by astrocytic Na+ -coupled glutamate transporters, thereby elevating [Na+ ]i . It thus remains unresolved whether...... the different Na+ /K+ -ATPase isoforms are controlled by [K+ ]o or [Na+ ]i during neuronal activity. Hippocampal slice recordings of stimulus-induced [K+ ]o transients with ion-sensitive microelectrodes revealed reduced Na+ /K+ -ATPase-mediated K+ management upon parallel inhibition of the glutamate transporter......+ affinity to the α1 and α2 isoforms than the β2 isoform. In summary, enhanced astrocytic Na+ /K+ -ATPase-dependent K+ clearance was obtained with parallel glutamate transport activity. The astrocytic Na+ /K+ -ATPase isoform constellation α2β1 appeared to be specifically geared to respond to the [Na+ ]i...

  16. Evoked Electromyographically Controlled Electrical Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiro Hayashibe

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Time-variant muscle responses under electrical stimulation (ES are often problematic for all the applications of neuroprosthetic muscle control. This situation limits the range of ES usage in relevant areas, mainly due to muscle fatigue and also to changes in stimulation electrode contact conditions, especially in transcutaneous ES. Surface electrodes are still the most widely used in noninvasive applications.Electrical field variations caused by changes in the stimulation contact condition markedly affect the resulting total muscle activation levels. Fatigue phenomena under functional electrical stimulation (FES are also well known source of time-varying characteristics coming from muscle response under ES. Therefore it is essential to monitor the actual muscle state and assess the expected muscle response by ES so as to improve the current ES system in favour of adaptive muscle-response-aware FES control. To deal with this issue, we have been studying a novel control technique using evoked electromyography (eEMG signals to compensate for these muscle time-variances under ES for stable neuroprosthetic muscle control. In this perspective article, I overview the background of this topic and highlight important points to be aware of when using ES to induce the desired muscle activation regardless of the time-variance. I also demonstrate how to deal with the common critical problem of ES to move toward robust neuroprosthetic muscle control with the Evoked Electromyographically Controlled Electrical Stimulation paradigm.

  17. High Concentrations of Tranexamic Acid Inhibit Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecker, Irene; Wang, Dian-Shi; Kaneshwaran, Kirusanthy; Mazer, C David; Orser, Beverley A

    2017-07-01

    The antifibrinolytic drug tranexamic acid is structurally similar to the amino acid glycine and may cause seizures and myoclonus by acting as a competitive antagonist of glycine receptors. Glycine is an obligatory co-agonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptors. Thus, it is plausible that tranexamic acid inhibits NMDA receptors by acting as a competitive antagonist at the glycine binding site. The aim of this study was to determine whether tranexamic acid inhibits NMDA receptors, as well as α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid and kainate subtypes of ionotropic glutamate receptors. Tranexamic acid modulation of NMDA, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid, and kainate receptors was studied using whole cell voltage-clamp recordings of current from cultured mouse hippocampal neurons. Tranexamic acid rapidly and reversibly inhibited NMDA receptors (half maximal inhibitory concentration = 241 ± 45 mM, mean ± SD; 95% CI, 200 to 281; n = 5) and shifted the glycine concentration-response curve for NMDA-evoked current to the right. Tranexamic acid also inhibited α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (half maximal inhibitory concentration = 231 ± 91 mM; 95% CI, 148 to 314; n = 5 to 6) and kainate receptors (half maximal inhibitory concentration = 90 ± 24 mM; 95% CI, 68 to 112; n = 5). Tranexamic acid inhibits NMDA receptors likely by reducing the binding of the co-agonist glycine and also inhibits α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid and kainate receptors. Receptor blockade occurs at high millimolar concentrations of tranexamic acid, similar to the concentrations that occur after topical application to peripheral tissues. Glutamate receptors in tissues including bone, heart, and nerves play various physiologic roles, and tranexamic acid inhibition of these receptors may contribute to adverse drug effects.

  18. Sexual attraction enhances glutamate transmission in mammalian anterior cingulate cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Long-Jun

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Functional human brain imaging studies have indicated the essential role of cortical regions, such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, in romantic love and sex. However, the neurobiological basis of how the ACC neurons are activated and engaged in sexual attraction remains unknown. Using transgenic mice in which the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP is controlled by the promoter of the activity-dependent gene c-fos, we found that ACC pyramidal neurons are activated by sexual attraction. The presynaptic glutamate release to the activated neurons is increased and pharmacological inhibition of neuronal activities in the ACC reduced the interest of male mice to female mice. Our results present direct evidence of the critical role of the ACC in sexual attraction, and long-term increases in glutamate mediated excitatory transmission may contribute to sexual attraction between male and female mice.

  19. Group I Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Julie Ladeby; Blaabjerg, Morten; Bogetofte Thomasen, Helle

    2015-01-01

    differentiated an immortalized, forebrain-derived stem cell line in the presence or absence of glutamate and with addition of either the group I mGluR agonist DHPG or the selective antagonists; MPEP (mGluR5) and LY367385 (mGluR1). Characterization of differentiated cells revealed that both mGluR1 and mGluR5 were...

  20. GABA release in the zona incerta of the sheep in response to the sight and ingestion of food and salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, K M; Hinton, M R; Baldwin, B A

    1991-05-31

    In order to establish which neurotransmitters may influence the activity of zona incerta neurones in the sheep which respond selectively to the sight or ingestion of food, we have measured the release of amino acid and monoamine neurotransmitters from this region using microdialysis sampling. Co-ordinates for the placement of microdialysis probes in regions of the zona incerta where cells respond to the sight or ingestion of food were first established by making single-unit extracellular recordings. When animals were food-deprived results showed that release of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was increased in response to the sight and ingestion of food but not of aspartate, glutamate, taurine, noradrenaline, dopamine or serotonin. This release of GABA was absent when the animals were shown non-food objects or saw or ingested salt solutions. When the same animals were physiologically sodium-depleted GABA release was evoked by the sight and ingestion of salt solutions and release following the sight and ingestion of food was significantly reduced. These results provide further evidence that GABA is an important neurotransmitter in neural circuits controlling the regulation of food intake.

  1. Gender-specific desensitization of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors after maternal l-glutamate intake during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Zapata, Antonio; León-Navarro, David Agustín; Crespo, María; Martín, Mairena

    2018-04-22

    In the present work we have studied the effect of maternal intake of l-Glutamate (l-Glu) (1 g/L) during lactation on group I mGluR transduction pathway in brain plasma membrane from 15 days-old neonates. Results obtained have shown that maternal l-glutamate intake did not significantly affect neither weights of pups nor negative geotaxis reflex, an index of neurobehavioral development, but increased l-Glu plasma level in both male and female neonates. In male neonates, maternal l-Glu intake evoked a loss of mGluR 1 whereas no variation on mGluR 5 was observed as revealed by Western-blotting assay. The loss of mGlu 1 R was accompanied by a decrease on l-Glu-stimulated phospholipase C activity suggesting, therefore, a loss of group I mGluR functionality. Concerning female neonates, no variations were detected neither mGluR 1 nor mGluR 5 and group I mGluR functionality was also preserved. Copyright © 2018 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of monomethylarsonic and monomethylarsonous acid on evoked synaptic potentials in hippocampal slices of adult and young rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, Katharina; Straub, Heidrun; Hirner, Alfred V.; Hippler, Joerg; Binding, Norbert; Musshoff, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Arsenite and its metabolites, dimethylarsinic or dimethylarsinous acid, have previously been shown to disturb synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices of rats (Krueger, K., Gruner, J., Madeja, M., Hartmann, L.M., Hirner, A.V., Binding, N., Muβhoff, U., 2006a. Blockade and enhancement of glutamate receptor responses in Xenopus oocytes by methylated arsenicals. Arch. Toxicol. 80, 492-501, Krueger, K., Straub, H., Binding, N., Muβhoff, U., 2006b. Effects of arsenite on long-term potentiation in hippocampal slices from adult and young rats. Toxicol. Lett. 165, 167-173, Krueger, K., Repges, H., Hippler, J., Hartmann, L.M., Hirner, A.V., Straub, H., Binding, N., Muβhoff, U., 2007. Effects of dimethylarsinic and dimethylarsinous acid on evoked synaptic potentials in hippocampal slices of young and adult rats. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 225, 40-46). The present experiments investigate, whether the important arsenic metabolites monomethylarsonic acid (MMA V ) and monomethylarsonous acid (MMA III ) also influence the synaptic functions of the hippocampus. In hippocampal slices of young (14-21 days-old) and adult (2-4 months-old) rats, evoked synaptic field potentials from the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse were measured under control conditions and during and after 30 and 60 min of application of the arsenic compounds. MMA V had no effect on the synapse functions neither in slices of adult nor in those from young rats. However, MMA III strongly influenced the synaptic transmission: it totally depressed the amplitudes of fEPSPs at concentrations of 50 μmol/l (adult rats) and 25 μmol/l (young rats) and LTP amplitudes at concentrations of 25 μmol/l (adult rats) and 10 μmol/l (young rats), respectively. In contrast, application of 1 μmol/l MMA III led to an enhancement of the LTP amplitude in young rats, which is interpretable by an enhancing effect on NMDA receptors and a lack of the blocking effect on AMPA receptors at this concentration (Krueger, K., Gruner, J

  3. In vivo microdialysis studies on the effects of decortication and excitotoxic lesions on kainic acid-induced calcium fluxes, and endogenous amino acid release, in the rat striatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, S.P.; Lazarewicz, J.W.; Hamberger, A.

    1987-11-01

    The in vivo effects of kainate (1 mM) on fluxes of /sup 45/Ca2+, and endogenous amino acids, were examined in the rat striatum using the brain microdialysis technique. Kainate evoked a rapid decrease in dialysate /sup 45/Ca2+, and an increase in the concentration of amino acids in dialysates in Ca2+-free dialysates. Taurine was elevated six- to 10-fold, glutamate two- to threefold, and aspartate 1.5- to twofold. There was also a delayed increase in phosphoethanolamine, whereas nonneuroactive amino acids were increased only slightly. The kainic acid-evoked reduction in dialysate /sup 45/Ca2+ activity was attenuated in striata lesioned previously with kainate, suggesting the involvement of intrinsic striatal neurons in this response. The increase in taurine concentration induced by kainate was slightly smaller under these conditions. Decortication did not affect the kainate-evoked alterations in either dialysate /sup 45/Ca2+ or amino acids. These data suggest that kainate does not release acidic amino acids from their transmitter pools located in corticostriatal terminals.

  4. A5 region modulation of the cardiorespiratory responses evoked from parabrachial cell bodies in the anaesthetised rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawid Milner, M S; Lara, J P; López de Miguel, M P; López-González, M V; Spyer, K M; González-Barón, S

    2003-08-22

    We have examined the importance of the A5 region modulating cardiorespiratory responses evoked from the parabrachial complex (PB) in spontaneously breathing rats. Cardiorespiratory changes were analyzed in response to electrical stimulation and glutamate microinjections into the PB (10-20 nl, 1-2 nmol) before and after ipsilateral microinjection of muscimol (50 nl, 0.25 nmol) or lidocaine (50 nl, 0.5 nmol) within the A5 region. Stimulation of medial parabrachial and Kölliker-Fuse nuclei (mPB-KF) evoked a decrease in respiratory rate (Pinteractions between A5 and PB, extracellular recordings of putative A5 neurones were obtained during PB stimulation. Eighty-three A5 cells were recorded, 35 were activated from the mPB-KF (42%). The results indicate that neurones of the A5 region participate in the cardiorespiratory response evoked from the different regions of the PB complex. The possible mechanisms involved in these interactions are discussed.

  5. alpha7 and non-alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors modulate dopamine release in vitro and in vivo in the rat prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Phil D; Srinivasan, Jayaraman; Kew, James N C; Dawson, Lee A; Gotti, Cecilia; Moretti, Milena; Shoaib, Mohammed; Wonnacott, Susan

    2009-02-01

    Nicotine enhances attentional and working memory aspects of executive function in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) where dopamine plays a major role. Here, we have determined the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes that can modulate dopamine release in rat PFC using subtype-selective drugs. Nicotine and 5-Iodo-A-85380 (beta2* selective) elicited [(3)H]dopamine release from both PFC and striatal prisms in vitro and dopamine overflow from medial PFC in vivo. Blockade by dihydro-beta-erythroidine supports the participation of beta2* nAChRs. However, insensitivity of nicotine-evoked [(3)H]dopamine release to alpha-conotoxin-MII in PFC prisms suggests no involvement of alpha6beta2* nAChRs, in contrast to the striatum, and this distinction is supported by immunoprecipitation of nAChR subunits from these tissues. The alpha7 nAChR-selective agonists choline and Compound A also promoted dopamine release from PFC in vitro and in vivo, and their effects were enhanced by the alpha7 nAChR-selective allosteric potentiator PNU-120596 and blocked by specific antagonists. DNQX and MK801 inhibited [(3)H]dopamine release evoked by choline and PNU-120596, suggesting crosstalk between alpha7 nAChRs, glutamate and dopamine in the PFC. In vivo, systemic (but not local) administration of PNU-120596, in the absence of agonist, facilitated dopamine overflow in the medial PFC, consistent with the activation of extracortical alpha7 nAChRs by endogenous acetylcholine or choline. These data establish that both beta2* and alpha7 nAChRs can modulate dopamine release in the PFC in vitro and in vivo. Through their distinct actions on dopamine release, these nAChR subtypes could contribute to executive function, making them specific therapeutic targets for conditions such as schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  6. Abnormal glutamate release in aged BTBR mouse model of autism

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Hongen; Ding, Caiyun; Jin, Guorong; Yin, Haizhen; Liu, Jianrong; Hu, Fengyun

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by abnormal reciprocal social interactions, communication deficits, and repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. Most of the available research on autism is focused on children and young adults and little is known about the pathological alternation of autism in older adults. In order to investigate the neurobiological alternation of autism in old age stage, we compared the morphology and synaptic function of excitatory synapses betw...

  7. Prefrontal changes in the glutamate-glutamine cycle and neuronal/glial glutamate transporters in depression with and without suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, J.; Verwer, R.W.H.; van Wamelen, D.J.; Qi, X.R.; Gao, S.F.; Lucassen, P.J.; Swaab, D.F.

    2016-01-01

    There are indications for changes in glutamate metabolism in relation to depression or suicide. The glutamate-glutamine cycle and neuronal/glial glutamate transporters mediate the uptake of the glutamate and glutamine. The expression of various components of the glutamate-glutamine cycle and the

  8. Interactions between entorhinal axons and target hippocampal neurons: a role for glutamate in the development of hippocampal circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, M P; Lee, R E; Adams, M E; Guthrie, P B; Kater, S B

    1988-11-01

    A coculture system consisting of input axons from entorhinal cortex explants and target hippocampal pyramidal neurons was used to demonstrate that glutamate, released spontaneously from afferent axons, can influence both dendritic geometry of target neurons and formation of presumptive synaptic sites. Dendritic outgrowth was reduced in hippocampal neurons growing on entorhinal axons when compared with neurons growing off the axons. Presumptive presynaptic sites were observed in association with hippocampal neuron dendrites and somas. HPLC analysis showed that glutamate was released from the explants in an activity- and Ca2(+)-dependent manner. The general glutamate receptor antagonist D-glutamylglycine significantly increased dendritic outgrowth in pyramidal neurons associated with entorhinal axons and reduced presumptive presynaptic sites. Tetrodotoxin and reduction of extracellular Ca2+ also promoted dendritic outgrowth and reduced the formation of presumptive synaptic sites. The results suggest that the neurotransmitter glutamate may play important roles in the development of hippocampal circuitry.

  9. Neuroprotective effects of α-iso-cubebenol on glutamate-induced neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun Young; Choi, Yung Hyun; Park, Geuntae; Choi, Young-Whan

    2015-09-01

    α-Iso-cubebenol is a natural compound isolated from Schisandra chinensis, and is reported to have beneficial bioactivity including anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities. Glutamate-induced oxidative neuronal damage has been implicated in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders. Here we investigated the mechanisms of α-iso-cubebenol protection of mouse hippocampus-derived neuronal cells (HT22 cells) from apoptotic cell death induced by the major excitatory neurotransmitter, glutamate. Pretreatment with α-iso-cubebenol markedly attenuated glutamate-induced loss of cell viability and release of lactate dehydrogenase), in a dose-dependent manner. α-Iso-cubebenol significantly reduced glutamate-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species and calcium accumulation. Strikingly, α-iso-cubebenol inhibited glutamate-induced mitochondrial depolarization, which releases apoptosis-inducing factor from mitochondria. α-Iso-cubebenol also suppressed glutamate-induced phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases. Furthermore, α-iso-cubebenol induced CREB phosphorylation and Nrf-2 nuclear accumulation and increased the promoter activity of ARE and CREB in HT22 cells. α-Iso-cubebenol also upregulated the expression of phase-II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes such as HO-1 and NQO1. Subsequent studies revealed that the inhibitory effects of α-iso-cubebenol on glutamate-induced apoptosis were abolished by small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of CREB and Nrf-2. These findings suggest that α-iso-cubebenol prevents excitotoxin-induced oxidative damage to neurons by inhibiting apoptotic cell death, and might be a potential preventive or therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. GLT-1 Transport Stoichiometry Is Constant at Low and High Glutamate Concentrations when Chloride Is Substituted by Gluconate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoli Y Kabakov

    Full Text Available Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter, but prolonged exposure even at micromolar concentrations causes neuronal death. Extracellular glutamate is maintained at nanomolar level by glutamate transporters, which, however, may reverse transport and release glutamate. If and when the reverse occurs depends on glutamate transport stoichiometry (GTS. Previously we found that in the presence of chloride, the coupled GLT-1 glutamate transporter current and its relationship to radiolabeled glutamate flux significantly decreased when extracellular glutamate concentration increased above 0.2 mM, which implies a change in GTS. Such high concentrations are feasible near GLT-1 expressed close to synaptic release site during excitatory neurotransmission. The aim of this study was to determine GLT-1 GTS at both low (19-75 μM and high (300-1200 μM glutamate concentration ranges. GTS experiments were conducted in the absence of chloride to avoid contributions by the GLT-1 uncoupled chloride conductance. Mathematical analysis of the transporter thermodynamic equilibrium allowed us to derive equations revealing the number of a particular type of ion transported per elementary charge based on the measurements of the transporter reversal potential. We found that GLT-1a expressed in COS-7 cells co-transports 1.5 Na+, 0.5 Glu-, 0.5 H+ and counter-transports 0.6 K+ per elementary charge in both glutamate concentration ranges, and at both 37°C and 26°C temperatures. The thermodynamic parameter Q10 = 2.4 for GLT-1 turnover rate of 19 s-1 (37°C, -50 mV remained constant in the 10 μM-10 mM glutamate concentration range. Importantly, the previously reported decrease in the current/flux ratio at high glutamate concentration was not seen in the absence of chloride in both COS-7 cells and cultured rat neurons. Therefore, only in the absence of chloride, GLT-1 GTS remains constant at all glutamate concentrations. Possible explanations for why apparent GTS might

  11. Distribution of radiolabeled L-glutamate and D-aspartate from blood into peripheral tissues in naive rats: Significance for brain neuroprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klin, Yael; Zlotnik, Alexander; Boyko, Matthew; Ohayon, Sharon; Shapira, Yoram; Teichberg, Vivian I.

    2010-01-01

    and serves as an origin for glutamate metabolites that redistribute into skeletal muscle and gut. The findings of this study suggest now that pharmacological manipulations that reduce the liver glutamate release rate or cause a boosting of the skeletal muscle glutamate pumping rate are likely to cause brain neuroprotection.

  12. Distribution of radiolabeled L-glutamate and D-aspartate from blood into peripheral tissues in naive rats: Significance for brain neuroprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klin, Yael [Department of Neurobiology, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Zlotnik, Alexander; Boyko, Matthew; Ohayon, Sharon; Shapira, Yoram [The Division of Anesthesiology, Soroka Medical Center and Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Teichberg, Vivian I., E-mail: Vivian.teichberg@weizmann.ac.il [Department of Neurobiology, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2010-09-03

    , mainly in non-metabolized form. The liver plays a central role in glutamate metabolism and serves as an origin for glutamate metabolites that redistribute into skeletal muscle and gut. The findings of this study suggest now that pharmacological manipulations that reduce the liver glutamate release rate or cause a boosting of the skeletal muscle glutamate pumping rate are likely to cause brain neuroprotection.

  13. Glutamate and Brain Glutaminases in Drug Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Javier; Campos-Sandoval, José A; Peñalver, Ana; Matés, José M; Segura, Juan A; Blanco, Eduardo; Alonso, Francisco J; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez

    2017-03-01

    Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and its actions are related to the behavioral effects of psychostimulant drugs. In the last two decades, basic neuroscience research and preclinical studies with animal models are suggesting a critical role for glutamate transmission in drug reward, reinforcement, and relapse. Although most of the interest has been centered in post-synaptic glutamate receptors, the presynaptic synthesis of glutamate through brain glutaminases may also contribute to imbalances in glutamate homeostasis, a key feature of the glutamatergic hypothesis of addiction. Glutaminases are the main glutamate-producing enzymes in brain and dysregulation of their function have been associated with neurodegenerative diseases and neurological disorders; however, the possible implication of these enzymes in drug addiction remains largely unknown. This mini-review focuses on brain glutaminase isozymes and their alterations by in vivo exposure to drugs of abuse, which are discussed in the context of the glutamate homeostasis theory of addiction. Recent findings from mouse models have shown that drugs induce changes in the expression profiles of key glutamatergic transmission genes, although the molecular mechanisms that regulate drug-induced neuronal sensitization and behavioral plasticity are not clear.

  14. A radiometric microassay for glutamic acid decarboxylase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maderdrut, J.L.; North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill

    1979-01-01

    A simple method for purifying L-[ 3 H] glutamic acid and incubation conditions suitable for estimating L-glutamic acid decarboxylase activity are described. Routine and recycled cation-exchange procedure for separating γ-aminobutyric acid from L-glutamate are outlined and compared. Recycling increases the sensitivity of the cation-exchange method by 6-7 fold. L-Glutamate decarboxylase activity can be measured reliably in samples of embryonic neural tissue having wet-weights of approximately 1 μg. The cation-exchange method is compared with the anion-exchange and CO 2 -trapping methods. L-Glutamate decarboxylase activity has been detected in the lumbar spinal cord of the chick embryo at Day 21/4 (stage 14) using the cation-exchange method. This is 5-6 days earlier than L-glutamate decarboxylase activity has been detected in embryonic neural tissue by previous investigators. L-Glutamate decarboxylase is present in the lumbar spinal cord at least as early as the birth of the first lumbar spinal cord neurons and at least 1-2 days before the initiation of synaptogenesis. (author)

  15. Radiometric microassay for glutamic acid decarboxylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maderdrut, J L [North Carolina Dept. of Mental Health, Raleigh (USA); North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill (USA). School of Medicine)

    1979-01-01

    A simple method for purifying L-(/sup 3/H) glutamic acid and incubation conditions suitable for estimating L-glutamic acid decarboxylase activity are described. Routine and recycled cation-exchange procedure for separating ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid from L-glutamate are outlined and compared. Recycling increases the sensitivity of the cation-exchange method by 6-7 fold. L-Glutamate decarboxylase activity can be measured reliably in samples of embryonic neural tissue having wet-weights of approximately 1 ..mu..g. The cation-exchange method is compared with the anion-exchange and CO/sub 2/-trapping methods. L-Glutamate decarboxylase activity has been detected in the lumbar spinal cord of the chick embryo at Day 21/4 (stage 14) using the cation-exchange method. This is 5-6 days earlier than L-glutamate decarboxylase activity has been detected in embryonic neural tissue by previous investigators. L-Glutamate decarboxylase is present in the lumbar spinal cord at least as early as the birth of the first lumbar spinal cord neurons and at least 1-2 days before the initiation of synaptogenesis.

  16. Mitochondrial dysfunction associated with nitric oxide pathways in glutamate neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manucha, Walter

    Multiple mechanisms underlying glutamate-induced neurotoxicity have recently been discussed. Likewise, a clear deregulation of the mitochondrial respiratory mechanism has been described in patients with neurodegeneration, oxidative stress, and inflammation. This article highlights nitric oxide, an atypical neurotransmitter synthesized and released on demand by the post-synaptic neurons, and has many important implications for nerve cell survival and differentiation. Consequently, synaptogenesis, synapse elimination, and neurotransmitter release, are nitric oxide-modulated. Interesting, an emergent role of nitric oxide pathways has been discussed as regards neurotoxicity from glutamate-induced apoptosis. These findings suggest that nitric oxide pathways modulation could prevent oxidative damage to neurons through apoptosis inhibition. This review aims to highlight the emergent aspects of nitric oxide-mediated signaling in the brain, and how they can be related to neurotoxicity, as well as the development of neurodegenerative diseases development. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Activity of the lactate-alanine shuttle is independent of glutamate-glutamine cycle activity in cerebellar neuronal-astrocytic cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Lasse K; Sickmann, Helle M; Schousboe, Arne

    2004-01-01

    The glutamate-glutamine cycle describes the neuronal release of glutamate into the synaptic cleft, astrocytic uptake, and conversion into glutamine, followed by release for use as a neuronal glutamate precursor. This only explains the fate of the carbon atoms, however, and not that of the ammonia....... Recently, a role for alanine has been proposed in transfer of ammonia between glutamatergic neurons and astrocytes, denoted the lactate-alanine shuttle (Waagepetersen et al. [ 2000] J. Neurochem. 75:471-479). The role of alanine in this context has been studied further using cerebellar neuronal cultures...... and corresponding neuronal-astrocytic cocultures. A superfusion paradigm was used to induce repetitively vesicular glutamate release by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) in the neurons, allowing the relative activity dependency of the lactate-alanine shuttle to be assessed. [(15)N]Alanine (0.2 mM), [2-(15)N]/[5-(15)N...

  18. Interactions Between SNAP-25 and Synaptotagmin-1 Are Involved in Vesicle Priming, Clamping Spontaneous and Stimulating Evoked Neurotransmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schupp, Melanie; Malsam, Jörg; Ruiter, Marvin

    2016-01-01

    between region I (vesicle priming) and region II (evoked release). Spontaneous release was disinhibited by region I mutations and found to correlate with defective complexin (Cpx) clamping in an in vitro fusion assay, pointing to an interdependent role of synaptotagmin and Cpx in release clamping...... triggering, depend on direct SNARE complex interaction. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: The function of synaptotagmin-1 (syt-1):soluble NSF attachment protein receptor (SNARE) interactions during neurotransmission remains unclear. We mutated SNAP-25 within the recently identified region I and region II...... was disinhibited by region I mutation and found to correlate with defective complexin (Cpx) clamping in vitro, pointing to an interdependent role of synaptotagmin and Cpx in release clamping. Therefore, vesicle priming, clamping spontaneous release, and eliciting evoked release are three different functions of syt...

  19. Effect of 8-bromo-cAMP and dexamethasone on glutamate metabolism in rat astrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielke, H.R.; Tildon, J.T.; Landry, M.E.; Max, S.R.

    1990-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) activity in cultured rat astrocytes was measured in extracts and compared to the intracellular rate of glutamine synthesis by intact control astrocytes or astrocytes exposed to 1 mM 8-bromo-cAMP (8Br-cAMP) + 1 microM dexamethasone (DEX) for 4 days. GS activity in extracts of astrocytes treated with 8Br-cAMP + DEX was 7.5 times greater than the activity in extracts of control astrocytes. In contrast, the intracellular rate of glutamine synthesis by intact cells increased only 2-fold, suggesting that additional intracellular effectors regulate the expression of GS activity inside the intact cell. The rate of glutamine synthesis by astrocytes was 4.3 times greater in MEM than in HEPES buffered Hank's salts. Synthesis of glutamine by intact astrocytes cultured in MEM was independent of the external glutamine or ammonia concentrations but was increased by higher extracellular glutamate concentrations. In studies with intact astrocytes 80% of the original [U- 14 C]glutamate was recovered in the medium as radioactive glutamine, 2-3% as aspartate, and 7% as glutamate after 2 hours for both control and treated astrocytes. The results suggest: (1) astrocytes are highly efficient in the conversion of glutamate to glutamine; (2) induction of GS activity increases the rate of glutamate conversion to glutamine by astrocytes and the rate of glutamine release into the medium; (3) endogenous intracellular regulators of GS activity control the flux of glutamate through this enzymatic reaction; and (4) the composition of the medium alters the rate of glutamine synthesis from external glutamate

  20. Biobased synthesis of acrylonitrile from glutamic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notre, le J.E.L.; Scott, E.L.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Glutamic acid was transformed into acrylonitrile in a two step procedure involving an oxidative decarboxylation in water to 3-cyanopropanoic acid followed by a decarbonylation-elimination reaction using a palladium catalyst

  1. Functional Comparison of the Two Bacillus anthracis Glutamate Racemases▿

    OpenAIRE

    Dodd, Dylan; Reese, Joseph G.; Louer, Craig R.; Ballard, Jimmy D.; Spies, M. Ashley; Blanke, Steven R.

    2007-01-01

    Glutamate racemase activity in Bacillus anthracis is of significant interest with respect to chemotherapeutic drug design, because l-glutamate stereoisomerization to d-glutamate is predicted to be closely associated with peptidoglycan and capsule biosynthesis, which are important for growth and virulence, respectively. In contrast to most bacteria, which harbor a single glutamate racemase gene, the genomic sequence of B. anthracis predicts two genes encoding glutamate racemases, racE1 and rac...

  2. Intracellular synthesis of glutamic acid in Bacillus methylotrophicus SK19.001, a glutamate-independent poly(γ-glutamic acid)-producing strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yingyun; Zhang, Tao; Mu, Wanmeng; Miao, Ming; Jiang, Bo

    2016-01-15

    Bacillus methylotrophicus SK19.001 is a glutamate-independent strain that produces poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA), a polymer of D- and L-glutamic acids that possesses applications in food, the environment, agriculture, etc. This study was undertaken to explore the synthetic pathway of intracellular L- and D-glutamic acid in SK19.001 by investigating the effects of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and different amino acids as metabolic precursors on the production of γ-PGA and analyzing the activities of the enzymes involved in the synthesis of L- and D-glutamate. Tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and amino acids could participate in the synthesis of γ-PGA via independent pathways in SK19.001. L-Aspartate aminotransferase, L-glutaminase and L-glutamate synthase were the enzymatic sources of L-glutamate. Glutamate racemase was responsible for the formation of D-glutamate for the synthesis of γ-PGA, and the synthetase had stereoselectivity for glutamate substrate. The enzymatic sources of L-glutamate were investigated for the first time in the glutamate-independent γ-PGA-producing strain, and multiple enzymatic sources of L-glutamate were verified in SK19.001, which will benefit efforts to improve production of γ-PGA with metabolic engineering strategies. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Characterization of music-evoked autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janata, Petr; Tomic, Stefan T; Rakowski, Sonja K

    2007-11-01

    Despite music's prominence in Western society and its importance to individuals in their daily lives, very little is known about the memories and emotions that are often evoked when hearing a piece of music from one's past. We examined the content of music-evoked autobiographical memories (MEAMs) using a novel approach for selecting stimuli from a large corpus of popular music, in both laboratory and online settings. A set of questionnaires probed the cognitive and affective properties of the evoked memories. On average, 30% of the song presentations evoked autobiographical memories, and the majority of songs also evoked various emotions, primarily positive, that were felt strongly. The third most common emotion was nostalgia. Analyses of written memory reports found both general and specific levels of autobiographical knowledge to be represented, and several social and situational contexts for memory formation were common across many memories. The findings indicate that excerpts of popular music serve as potent stimuli for studying the structure of autobiographical memories.

  4. Role of Na,K-ATPase α1 and α2 isoforms in the support of astrocyte glutamate uptake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina B Illarionova

    Full Text Available Glutamate released during neuronal activity is cleared from the synaptic space via the astrocytic glutamate/Na(+ co-transporters. This transport is driven by the transmembrane Na(+ gradient mediated by Na,K-ATPase. Astrocytes express two isoforms of the catalytic Na,K-ATPase α subunits; the ubiquitously expressed α1 subunit and the α2 subunit that has a more specific expression profile. In the brain α2 is predominantly expressed in astrocytes. The isoforms differ with regard to Na+ affinity, which is lower for α2. The relative roles of the α1 and α2 isoforms in astrocytes are not well understood. Here we present evidence that the presence of the α2 isoform may contribute to a more efficient restoration of glutamate triggered increases in intracellular sodium concentration [Na(+]i. Studies were performed on primary astrocytes derived from E17 rat striatum expressing Na,K-ATPase α1 and α2 and the glutamate/Na(+ co-transporter GLAST. Selective inhibition of α2 resulted in a modest increase of [Na(+]i accompanied by a disproportionately large decrease in uptake of aspartate, an indicator of glutamate uptake. To compare the capacity of α1 and α2 to handle increases in [Na(+]i triggered by glutamate, primary astrocytes overexpressing either α1 or α2 were used. Exposure to glutamate 200 µM caused a significantly larger increase in [Na(+]i in α1 than in α2 overexpressing cells, and as a consequence restoration of [Na(+]i, after glutamate exposure was discontinued, took longer time in α1 than in α2 overexpressing cells. Both α1 and α2 interacted with astrocyte glutamate/Na(+ co-transporters via the 1st intracellular loop.

  5. A novel reagentless glutamate microband biosensor for real-time cell toxicity monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, G.; Pemberton, R.M. [Centre for Research in Biosciences, Faculty of Health and Applied Sciences, University of the West of England, Bristol, Coldharbour Lane, Bristol, BS16 1QY (United Kingdom); Fielden, P.R. [Department of Chemistry, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Hart, J.P., E-mail: john.hart@uwe.ac.uk [Centre for Research in Biosciences, Faculty of Health and Applied Sciences, University of the West of England, Bristol, Coldharbour Lane, Bristol, BS16 1QY (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-24

    A reagentless glutamate biosensor was applied to the determination of glutamate released from liver hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) in response to toxic challenge from various concentrations of paracetamol. A screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) containing the electrocatalyst Meldola's Blue (MB-SPCE) served as the electron mediator for the oxidation of NADH. A mixture of the enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +}) and the biopolymer chitosan (CHIT) were drop-coated onto the surface of the transducer (MB-SPCE) in a simple one step fabrication process. The reagentless biosensor was used with amperometry in stirred solution at an applied potential of +0.1 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). All experiments were carried out at the following conditions: pH 7, temperature 37 °C, atmosphere 5% CO{sub 2}. The linear range of the device was found to be 25–125 μM in phosphate buffer (75 mM, containing 0.05 M NaCl) and 25–150 μM in cell culture medium. The limits of detection (LOD) were found to be 1.2 μM and 4.2 μM based on three times signal to noise, using PBS and culture medium respectively. The sensitivity was calculated to be 106 nA μM{sup −1} cm{sup −2} and 210 nA μM{sup −1} cm{sup −2} in PBS and cell medium respectively. The response time was ∼60 s in an agitated solution. HepG2 cells were exposed to various concentrations of paracetamol (1 mM, 5 mM and 10 mM) in order to investigate the drug-induced release of glutamate into the culture medium in real time. Two toxicity studies were investigated using different methods of exposure and analysis. The first method consisted of a single measurement of the glutamate concentration, using the method of standard addition, after 24 h incubation. The concentrations of glutamate were found to be 52 μM, 93 μM and 177 μM, released on exposure to 1 mM, 5 mM and 10 mM paracetamol respectively. The second method involved the

  6. A novel reagentless glutamate microband biosensor for real-time cell toxicity monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, G.; Pemberton, R.M.; Fielden, P.R.; Hart, J.P.

    2016-01-01

    A reagentless glutamate biosensor was applied to the determination of glutamate released from liver hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) in response to toxic challenge from various concentrations of paracetamol. A screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) containing the electrocatalyst Meldola's Blue (MB-SPCE) served as the electron mediator for the oxidation of NADH. A mixture of the enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD"+) and the biopolymer chitosan (CHIT) were drop-coated onto the surface of the transducer (MB-SPCE) in a simple one step fabrication process. The reagentless biosensor was used with amperometry in stirred solution at an applied potential of +0.1 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). All experiments were carried out at the following conditions: pH 7, temperature 37 °C, atmosphere 5% CO_2. The linear range of the device was found to be 25–125 μM in phosphate buffer (75 mM, containing 0.05 M NaCl) and 25–150 μM in cell culture medium. The limits of detection (LOD) were found to be 1.2 μM and 4.2 μM based on three times signal to noise, using PBS and culture medium respectively. The sensitivity was calculated to be 106 nA μM"−"1 cm"−"2 and 210 nA μM"−"1 cm"−"2 in PBS and cell medium respectively. The response time was ∼60 s in an agitated solution. HepG2 cells were exposed to various concentrations of paracetamol (1 mM, 5 mM and 10 mM) in order to investigate the drug-induced release of glutamate into the culture medium in real time. Two toxicity studies were investigated using different methods of exposure and analysis. The first method consisted of a single measurement of the glutamate concentration, using the method of standard addition, after 24 h incubation. The concentrations of glutamate were found to be 52 μM, 93 μM and 177 μM, released on exposure to 1 mM, 5 mM and 10 mM paracetamol respectively. The second method involved the continuous monitoring of glutamate

  7. Arctigenin reduces neuronal responses in the somatosensory cortex via the inhibition of non-NMDA glutamate receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borbély, Sándor; Jócsák, Gergely; Moldován, Kinga; Sedlák, Éva; Preininger, Éva; Boldizsár, Imre; Tóth, Attila; Atlason, Palmi T; Molnár, Elek; Világi, Ildikó

    2016-07-01

    Lignans are biologically active phenolic compounds related to lignin, produced in different plants. Arctigenin, a dibenzylbutyrolactone-type lignan, has been used as a neuroprotective agent for the treatment of encephalitis. Previous studies of cultured rat cerebral cortical neurones raised the possibility that arctigenin inhibits kainate-induced excitotoxicity. The aims of the present study were: 1) to analyse the effect of arctigenin on normal synaptic activity in ex vivo brain slices, 2) to determine its receptor binding properties and test the effect of arctigenin on AMPA/kainate receptor activation and 3) to establish its effects on neuronal activity in vivo. Arctigenin inhibited glutamatergic transmission and reduced the evoked field responses. The inhibitory effect of arctigenin on the evoked field responses proved to be substantially dose dependent. Our results indicate that arctigenin exerts its effects under physiological conditions and not only on hyper-excited neurons. Furthermore, arctigenin can cross the blood-brain barrier and in the brain it interacts with kainate sensitive ionotropic glutamate receptors. These results indicate that arctigenin is a potentially useful new pharmacological tool for the inhibition of glutamate-evoked responses in the central nervous system in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Specificity of exogenous acetate and glutamate as astrocyte substrates examined in acute brain slices from female mice using methionine sulfoximine (MSO) to inhibit glutamine synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Velde; McNair, Laura Frendrup; Schousboe, Arne

    2017-01-01

    Removal of endogenously released glutamate is mediated primarily by astrocytes and exogenous (13) C-labeled glutamate has been applied to study glutamate metabolism in astrocytes. Likewise, studies have clearly established the relevance of (13) C-labeled acetate as an astrocyte specific metabolic...... cortical slices from female NMRI mice were incubated in media containing [1,2-(13) C]acetate or [U-(13) C]glutamate, with or without methionine sulfoximine (MSO) to inhibit glutamine synthetase (GS). Tissue extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Blocking GS abolished the majority...... of glutamine (13) C-labeling from [1,2-(13) C]acetate as intended. However, (13) C-labeling of GABA was only 40-50% reduced by MSO, suggesting considerable neuronal uptake of acetate. Moreover, labeling of glutamate from [1,2-(13) C]acetate in the presence of MSO exceeded the level probable from exclusive...

  9. Brainstem evoked potentials in infantile spasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Masahito; Hashimoto, Toshiaki; Murakawa, Kazuyoshi; Tayama, Masanobu; Kuroda, Yasuhiro

    1992-01-01

    In ten patients with infantile spasms, brainstem evoked potentials and MRI examinations were performed to evaluate the brainstem involvement. The result of short latency somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) following the right median nerve stimulation revealed abnormal findings including the absence or low amplitudes of the waves below wave P3 and delayed central conduction time in 7 of the ten patients. The result of auditory brainstem responses (ABR) revealed abnormal findings including low amplitudes of wave V, prolonged interpeak latency of waves I-V and absence of the waves below wave IV in 5 of the ten patients. The result of the MRI examinations revealed various degrees of the brainstem atrophy in 6 of the ten patients, all of whom showed abnormal brainstem evoked potentials. The result of this study demonstrates that patients with infantile spasms are frequently associated with brainstem dysfunction and raises the possibility that brainstem atrophy might be a cause of infantile spasms. (author)

  10. Slow cortical evoked potentials after noise exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Wedel, H; Opitz, H J

    1979-07-01

    Human cortical evoked potentials under conditions of stimuation are registrated in the post-stimulatory phase of a five minutes lasting equally masking white noise (90 dB HL). Changes of the evoked potentials during adaptation, possible analogy with high tone losses after noise representation and the origin of tinnitus are examined. Stimulation was started 3 sec after the off-effect of the noise. For five minutes periodically tone bursts were represented. Each train of stimulation consists of tone bursts of three frequencies: 2 kcs, 4 kcs, 8 kcs. The 0.5 sec lasting tones were separated by pauses of 2 sec. During the experiment stimulation and analysis were controlled by a computer. Changes in latency and amplitudes of the cortical evoked potentials were registered. Changes of the adaptation patterns as a function of the poststimulatory time are discussed.

  11. The oxidative stress-inducible cystine/glutamate antiporter, system x (c) (-) : cystine supplier and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Marcus; Sato, Hideyo

    2012-01-01

    The oxidative stress-inducible cystine/glutamate exchange system, system x (c) (-) , transports one molecule of cystine, the oxidized form of cysteine, into cells and thereby releases one molecule of glutamate into the extracellular space. It consists of two protein components, the 4F2 heavy chain, necessary for membrane location of the heterodimer, and the xCT protein, responsible for transport activity. Previously, system x (c) (-) has been regarded to be a mere supplier of cysteine to cells for the synthesis of proteins and the antioxidant glutathione (GSH). In that sense, oxygen, electrophilic agents, and bacterial lipopolysaccharide trigger xCT expression to accommodate with increased oxidative stress by stimulating GSH biosynthesis. However, emerging evidence established that system x (c) (-) may act on its own as a GSH-independent redox system by sustaining a redox cycle over the plasma membrane. Hallmarks of this cycle are cystine uptake, intracellular reduction to cysteine and secretion of the surplus of cysteine into the extracellular space. Consequently, increased levels of extracellular cysteine provide a reducing microenvironment required for proper cell signaling and communication, e.g. as already shown for the mechanism of T cell activation. By contrast, the enhanced release of glutamate in exchange with cystine may trigger neurodegeneration due to glutamate-induced cytotoxic processes. This review aims to provide a comprehensive picture from the early days of system x (c) (-) research up to now.

  12. Evoking prescribed spike times in stochastic neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doose, Jens; Lindner, Benjamin

    2017-09-01

    Single cell stimulation in vivo is a powerful tool to investigate the properties of single neurons and their functionality in neural networks. We present a method to determine a cell-specific stimulus that reliably evokes a prescribed spike train with high temporal precision of action potentials. We test the performance of this stimulus in simulations for two different stochastic neuron models. For a broad range of parameters and a neuron firing with intermediate firing rates (20-40 Hz) the reliability in evoking the prescribed spike train is close to its theoretical maximum that is mainly determined by the level of intrinsic noise.

  13. Brain correlates of music-evoked emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    Music is a universal feature of human societies, partly owing to its power to evoke strong emotions and influence moods. During the past decade, the investigation of the neural correlates of music-evoked emotions has been invaluable for the understanding of human emotion. Functional neuroimaging studies on music and emotion show that music can modulate activity in brain structures that are known to be crucially involved in emotion, such as the amygdala, nucleus accumbens, hypothalamus, hippocampus, insula, cingulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex. The potential of music to modulate activity in these structures has important implications for the use of music in the treatment of psychiatric and neurological disorders.

  14. Development of paradigm for the study of amino acid neurotransmitter release in human autopsy brain samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, K.-W.; Dodd, P.R.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: This study attempted to establish a release protocol to characterize both the vesicular and cytoplasmic components of amino acid transmitter release in human synaptosomes. Experiments with rat synaptosomes showed that, with depolarizing concentrations of K + ions, vesicular release could be successfully differentiated from cytoplasmic release for preloaded L-[ 3 H ]glutamate and [ 14 C ]GABA. However, human tissue studies did not give clear-cut results. Experiments were carried out to optimize the release paradigm as well as to improve the vesicular uptake of labeled transmitters. A 'pulse- chase' protocol, with an unlabelled D-aspartate chase, was performed in human tissue samples in order to enhance the L-[ 3 H ] glutamate release signal derived from exocytosis by removing the cytoplasmic pool of L-[ 3 H ] glutamate first. However, the results showed that total release was not enhanced effectively in comparison with the non-pulse-chase protocol. In brief, the pulse-chase protocol did not build up the vesicular pool of L-[ 3 H ]glutamate, though the cytoplasmic L- [ 3 H ] glutamate pool was effectively depressed by D-aspartate. Further studies applied 4- aminopyridine (4-AP) to trigger release, to circumvent the problem of the reversal of plasma membrane transporters caused by raised K + ion concentrations. The results showed that the application of 4-AP elicited the release of amino acid transmitters from rat synaptosomes, but failed to produce successful release signals in the human tissue experiments. Our findings suggest that the vesicular compartment may be impaired by freezing and affected by post-mortem delay (PMD). Rat studies showed that the freezing step had a major effect on Ca 2+-dependent release, as less L- [3 H ]glutamate and [ 14 C ]GABA were released from the frozen rat tissue preparations. Moreover, there was an indication of a decline in L-[ 3 H ]glutamate release with increasing PMD. Copyright (2001) Australian Neuroscience Society

  15. The Degradation of 14C-Glutamic Acid by L-Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Charles M; Dayan, Jean

    1982-01-01

    Describes procedures and semi-micro reaction apparatus (carbon dioxide trap) to demonstrate how a particular enzyme (L-Glutamic acid decarboxylase) may be used to determine the site or sites of labeling in its substrate (carbon-14 labeled glutamic acid). Includes calculations, solutions, and reagents used. (Author/SK)

  16. The application of glutamic acid alpha-decarboxylase for the valorization of glutamic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammens, T.M.; Biase, De Daniela; Franssen, M.C.R.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Glutamic acid is an important constituent of waste streams from biofuels production. It is an interesting starting material for the synthesis of nitrogen containing bulk chemicals, thereby decreasing the dependency on fossil fuels. On the pathway from glutamic acid to a range of molecules, the

  17. Classification of H2O2 as a Neuromodulator that Regulates Striatal Dopamine Release on a Subsecond Time Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Here we review evidence that the reactive oxygen species, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), meets the criteria for classification as a neuromodulator through its effects on striatal dopamine (DA) release. This evidence was obtained using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to detect evoked DA release in striatal slices, along with whole-cell and fluorescence imaging to monitor cellular activity and H2O2 generation in striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs). The data show that (1) exogenous H2O2 suppresses DA release in dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens shell and the same effect is seen with elevation of endogenous H2O2 levels; (2) H2O2 is generated downstream from glutamatergic AMPA receptor activation in MSNs, but not DA axons; (3) generation of modulatory H2O2 is activity dependent; (4) H2O2 generated in MSNs diffuses to DA axons to cause transient DA release suppression by activating ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels on DA axons; and (5) the amplitude of H2O2-dependent inhibition of DA release is attenuated by enzymatic degradation of H2O2, but the subsecond time course is determined by H2O2 diffusion rate and/or KATP-channel kinetics. In the dorsal striatum, neuromodulatory H2O2 is an intermediate in the regulation of DA release by the classical neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA, as well as other neuromodulators, including cannabinoids. However, modulatory actions of H2O2 occur in other regions and cell types, as well, consistent with the widespread expression of KATP and other H2O2-sensitive channels throughout the CNS. PMID:23259034

  18. Disturbed mitochondrial function restricts glutamate uptake in the human Müller glia cell line, MIO-M1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vohra, Rupali; Gurubaran, Iswariyaraja Sridevi; Henriksen, Ulrik

    2017-01-01

    Using the human Müller cell line, MIO-M1, the aim was to study the impact of mitochondrial inhibition in Müller glia through antimycin A treatment. MIO-M1 cell survival, levels of released lactate, mitochondrial function, and glutamate uptake were studied in response to mitochondrial inhibition...... and glucose restriction. Lactate release decreased in response to glucose restriction. Combined glucose restriction and blocked mitochondrial activity decreased survival and caused collapse of the respiratory chain measured by oxygen consumption rate and extracellular acidification rate. Mitochondrial...... inhibition caused impaired glutamate uptake and decreased mRNA expression of the glutamate transporter, EAAT1. Over all, we show important roles of mitochondrial activity in MIO-M1 cell function and survival....

  19. Synaptosomal transport of radiolabel from N-acetyl-aspartyl-(/sup 3/H)glutamate suggests a mechanism of inactivation of an excitatory neuropeptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakely, R D; Ory-Lavollee, L; Thompson, R C; Coyle, J T

    1986-10-01

    This study was undertaken to explore in synaptosomal preparations the disposition of N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG), an endogenous acidic dipeptide neurotransmitter candidate. Radiolabel from N-acetyl-aspartyl(/sup 3/H)glutamate was taken up rapidly into an osmotically sensitive compartment by rat brain synaptosomal preparations in a sodium-, temperature-, and time-dependent manner. HPLC analysis of the accumulated radiolabel indicated that the bulk of the tritium cochromatographed with glutamic acid and not with NAAG. In contrast, (/sup 14/C)NAAG, labeled on the N-terminal acetate, was not taken up by the synaptosomal preparation. All effective inhibitors of synaptosomal, Na+-dependent (/sup 3/H)glutamate uptake were found to exhibit similar potency in inhibiting uptake of tritium derived from (/sup 3/H)NAAG. However, certain alpha-linked acidic dipeptides, structurally similar to NAAG, as well as the potent convulsant quisqualic acid inhibited synaptosomal transport of (/sup 3/H)NAAG but were ineffective as inhibitors of (/sup 3/H)glutamate transport. Together with a demonstration of disparities between the regional accumulation of radiolabel from (/sup 3/H)NAAG and high-affinity (/sup 3/H)glutamate uptake, these data suggest the presence in brain of a specific peptidase targeting carboxy-terminal glutamate-containing dipeptides that may be coupled to the Na+-dependent glutamate transporter. These findings provide a possible mechanism for NAAG inactivation subsequent to its release from nerve endings.

  20. Evoked Brain Activity and Personnel Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    Shucard and Horn (1972), Galbraith, Gliddon, and Busk (1970), and Callaway (1975), the latter using Navy recruits. Callaway’s own work was reported at...G.C., Gliddon, J.B., & Busk , J. (1970). Visual evoked responses in mentally retarded and nonretarded subjects. American Journal of Mental Deficiency

  1. Is Urgent Evoke a Digital Ba?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wichmand, Mette

    2018-01-01

    of such a platform, the World Bank’s online game Urgent Evoke, which has been designed with the pur- pose of engaging citizens in developing innovative solutions for sociopolitical problems like poverty. The analysis is based on Nonaka’s concept of Ba, which means “place” and is described as a platform for advancing...

  2. Auditory and visual evoked potentials during hyperoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. B. D.; Strawbridge, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental study of the auditory and visual averaged evoked potentials (AEPs) recorded during hyperoxia, and investigation of the effect of hyperoxia on the so-called contingent negative variation (CNV). No effect of hyperoxia was found on the auditory AEP, the visual AEP, or the CNV. Comparisons with previous studies are discussed.

  3. Interhemispheric Asymmetries in Visual Evoked Potential Amplitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-12

    Layne, 1965) and of patients with Korsakoff’s syndrome (Malerstein and Callaway, 1969) . In the schizophrenics, the high variability is related to poor...communication. Malerstein, A. J., Callaway, E. Two-tone average evoked response in Korsakoff patients. J. Psychiatr. Res. 6: 253-260, 1969. Marsh, G

  4. Pre-Ischemic Treadmill Training for Prevention of Ischemic Brain Injury via Regulation of Glutamate and Its Transporter GLT-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingchun Guo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Pre-ischemic treadmill training exerts cerebral protection in the prevention of cerebral ischemia by alleviating neurotoxicity induced by excessive glutamate release following ischemic stroke. However, the underlying mechanism of this process remains unclear. Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury was observed in a rat model after 2 weeks of pre-ischemic treadmill training. Cerebrospinal fluid was collected using the microdialysis sampling method, and the concentration of glutamate was determined every 40 min from the beginning of ischemia to 4 h after reperfusion with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-fluorescence detection. At 3, 12, 24, and 48 h after ischemia, the expression of the glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1 protein in brain tissues was determined by Western blot respectively. The effect of pre-ischemic treadmill training on glutamate concentration and GLT-1 expression after cerebral ischemia in rats along with changes in neurobehavioral score and cerebral infarct volume after 24 h ischemia yields critical information necessary to understand the protection mechanism exhibited by pre-ischemic treadmill training. The results demonstrated that pre-ischemic treadmill training up-regulates GLT-1 expression, decreases extracellular glutamate concentration, reduces cerebral infarct volume, and improves neurobehavioral score. Pre-ischemic treadmill training is likely to induce neuroprotection after cerebral ischemia by regulating GLT-1 expression, which results in re-uptake of excessive glutamate.

  5. Green Tea Polyphenols Attenuated Glutamate Excitotoxicity via Antioxidative and Antiapoptotic Pathway in the Primary Cultured Cortical Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Cong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Green tea polyphenols are a natural product which has antioxidative and antiapoptotic effects. It has been shown that glutamate excitotoxicity induced oxidative stress is linked to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. In this study we explored the neuroprotective effect of green teen polyphenols against glutamate excitotoxicity in the primary cultured cortical neurons. We found that green tea polyphenols protected against glutamate induced neurotoxicity in the cortical neurons as measured by MTT and TUNEL assays. Green tea polyphenols were then showed to inhibit the glutamate induced ROS release and SOD activity reduction in the neurons. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that green tea polyphenols restored the dysfunction of mitochondrial pro- or antiapoptotic proteins Bax, Bcl-2, and caspase-3 caused by glutamate. Interestingly, the neuroprotective effect of green tea polyphenols was abrogated when the neurons were incubated with siBcl-2. Taken together, these results demonstrated that green tea polyphenols protected against glutamate excitotoxicity through antioxidative and antiapoptotic pathways.

  6. Towards a glutamate hypothesis of depression: an emerging frontier of neuropsychopharmacology for mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanacora, Gerard; Treccani, Giulia; Popoli, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    Half a century after the first formulation of the monoamine hypothesis, compelling evidence implies that long-term changes in an array of brain areas and circuits mediating complex cognitive-emotional behaviors represent the biological underpinnings of mood/anxiety disorders. A large number of clinical studies suggest that pathophysiology is associated with dysfunction of the predominant glutamatergic system, malfunction in the mechanisms regulating clearance and metabolism of glutamate, and cytoarchitectural/morphological maladaptive changes in a number of brain areas mediating cognitive-emotional behaviors. Concurrently, a wealth of data from animal models have shown that different types of environmental stress enhance glutamate release/transmission in limbic/cortical areas and exert powerful structural effects, inducing dendritic remodeling, reduction of synapses and possibly volumetric reductions resembling those observed in depressed patients. Because a vast majority of neurons and synapses in these areas and circuits use glutamate as neurotransmitter, it would be limiting to maintain that glutamate is in some way 'involved' in mood/anxiety disorders; rather it should be recognized that the glutamatergic system is a primary mediator of psychiatric pathology and, potentially, also a final common pathway for the therapeutic action of antidepressant agents. A paradigm shift from a monoamine hypothesis of depression to a neuroplasticity hypothesis focused on glutamate may represent a substantial advancement in the working hypothesis that drives research for new drugs and therapies. Importantly, despite the availability of multiple classes of drugs with monoamine-based mechanisms of action, there remains a large percentage of patients who fail to achieve a sustained remission of depressive symptoms. The unmet need for improved pharmacotherapies for treatment-resistant depression means there is a large space for the development of new compounds with novel mechanisms

  7. Effect of in vitro inorganic lead on dopamine release from superfused rat striatal synaptosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minnema, D.J.; Greenland, R.D.; Michaelson, I.A.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of inorganic lead in vitro in several aspects of [ 3 H]dopamine release from superfused rat striatal synaptosomes was examined. Under conditions of spontaneous release, lead (1-30 microM) induced dopamine release in a concentration-dependent manner. The onset of the lead-induced release was delayed by approximately 15-30 sec. The magnitude of dopamine release induced by lead was increased when calcium was removed from the superfusing buffer. Lead-induced release was unaffected in the presence of putative calcium, sodium, and/or potassium channel blockers (nickel, tetrodotoxin, tetraethylammonium, respectively). Depolarization-evoked dopamine release, produced by a 1-sec exposure to 61 mM potassium, was diminished at calcium concentrations below 0.254 mM. The onset of depolarization-evoked release was essentially immediate following exposure of the synaptosomes to high potassium. The combination of lead (3 or 10 microM) with high potassium reduced the magnitude of depolarization-evoked dopamine release. This depression of depolarization-evoked release by lead was greater in the presence of 0.25 mM than 2.54 mM calcium in the superfusing buffer. These findings demonstrate multiple actions of lead on synaptosomal dopamine release. Lead can induce dopamine release by yet unidentified neuronal mechanisms independent of external calcium. Lead can also reduce depolarization-evoked dopamine release by apparent competition with calcium influx at the neuronal membrane calcium channel

  8. Anorexigenic Lipopeptides Ameliorate Central Insulin Signaling and Attenuate Tau Phosphorylation in Hippocampi of Mice with Monosodium Glutamate-Induced Obesity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špolcová, Andrea; Mikulášková, Barbora; Holubová, Martina; Nagelová, Veronika; Pirník, Zdenko; Zemenová, Jana; Haluzík, M.; Železná, Blanka; Galas, M. C.; Maletínská, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 3 (2015), s. 823-835 ISSN 1387-2877 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP303/12/0576 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Alzheimer's disease * insulin signaling * liraglutide * monosodium glutamate-obese mice * obesity * pre- diabetes * prolactin-releasing peptide Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.920, year: 2015

  9. A neuroprotective role for microRNA miR-1000 mediated by limiting glutamate excitotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verma, Pushpa; Augustine, George J; Ammar, Mohamed-Raafet

    2015-01-01

    Evidence has begun to emerge for microRNAs as regulators of synaptic signaling, specifically acting to control postsynaptic responsiveness during synaptic transmission. In this report, we provide evidence that Drosophila melanogaster miR-1000 acts presynaptically to regulate glutamate release at ...... a neuroprotective function in the brains of flies and mice. Drosophila miR-1000 showed activity-dependent expression, which might serve as a mechanism to allow neuronal activity to fine-tune the strength of excitatory synaptic transmission....

  10. Normalization of auditory evoked potential and visual evoked potential in patients with idiot savant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Zhang, M; Wang, J; Lou, F; Liang, J

    1999-03-01

    To investigate the variations of auditory evoked potentials (AEP) and visual evoked potentials (VEP) of patients with idiot savant (IS) syndrome. Both AEP and VEP were recorded from 7 patients with IS syndrome, 21 mentally retarded (MR) children without the syndrome and 21 normally age-matched controls, using a Dantec concerto SEEG-16 BEAM instrument. Both AEP and VEP of MR group showed significantly longer latencies (P1 and P2 latencies of AEP, P savant syndrome presented normalized AEP and VEP.

  11. Genetic influence demonstrated for MEG-recorded somatosensory evoked responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van 't Ent, D.; van Soelen, I.L.C.; Stam, K.J.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2010-01-01

    We tested for a genetic influence on magnetoencephalogram (MEG)-recorded somatosensory evoked fields (SEFs) in 20 monozygotic (MZ) and 14 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs. Previous electroencephalogram (EEG) studies that demonstrated a genetic contribution to evoked responses generally focused on

  12. Visually Evoked Spiking Evolves While Spontaneous Ongoing Dynamics Persist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huys, Raoul; Jirsa, Viktor K; Darokhan, Ziauddin

    2016-01-01

    attractor. Its existence guarantees that evoked spiking return to the spontaneous state. However, the spontaneous ongoing spiking state and the visual evoked spiking states are qualitatively different and are separated by a threshold (separatrix). The functional advantage of this organization...

  13. Habituation of evoked responses is greater in patients with familial hemiplegic migraine than in controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Møller; Bolla, M; Magis, D

    2011-01-01

    have associated with disturbed ion homeostasis, altered cellular excitability, neurotransmitter release, and decreased threshold for cortical spreading depression. The common forms of migraine are characterized interictally by a habituation deficit of cortical and subcortical evoked responses that has...... been attributed to neuronal dysexcitability. FHM and the common forms of migraine are thought to belong to a spectrum of migraine phenotypes with similar pathophysiology, and we therefore examined whether an abnormal habituation pattern would also be found in FHM patients....

  14. Agmatine reduces extracellular glutamate during pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in rat brain: A potential mechanism for the anticonvulsive effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yangzheng; LeBlanc, Michael H.; Regunathan, Soundar

    2010-01-01

    Glutamate has been implicated in the initiation and spread of seizure activity. Agmatine, an endogenous neuromodulator, is an antagonist of NMDA receptors and has anticonvulsive effects. Whether agmatine regulate glutamate release, as measured by in vivo microdialysis, is not known. In this study, we used pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure model to determine the effect of agmatine on extracellular glutamate in rat brain. We also determined the time course and the amount of agmatine that reached brain after peripheral injection. After i.p. injection of agmatine (50 mg/kg), increase of agmatine in rat cortex and hippocampus was observed in 15 min with levels returning to baseline in one hour. Rats, naïve and implanted with microdialysis cannula into the cortex, were administered PTZ (60 mg/kg, i.p.) with prior injection of agmatine (100 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline. Seizure grades were recorded and microdialysis samples were collected every 15 min for 75 min. Agmatine pre-treatment significantly reduced the seizure grade and increased the onset time. The levels of extracellular glutamate in frontal cortex rose two- to three-fold after PTZ injection and agmatine significantly inhibited this increase. In conclusion, the present data suggest that the anticonvulsant activity of agmatine, in part, could be related to the inhibition glutamate release. PMID:16125317

  15. Glutamate Efflux at the Blood-Brain Barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederberg-Helms, Hans Christian; Uhd-Nielsen, Carsten; Brodin, Birger

    2014-01-01

    is well known, however endothelial cells may also play an important role through mediating brain-to-blood L-glutamate efflux. Expression of excitatory amino acid transporters has been demonstrated in brain endothelial cells of bovine, human, murine, rat and porcine origin. These can account for high...... affinity concentrative uptake of L-glutamate from the brain interstitial fluid into the capillary endothelial cells. The mechanisms in between L-glutamate uptake in the endothelial cells and L-glutamate appearing in the blood are still unclear and may involve a luminal transporter for L......-glutamate, metabolism of L-glutamate and transport of metabolites or a combination of the two. However, both in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated blood-to-brain transport of L-glutamate, at least during pathological events. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the brain-to-blood L-glutamate efflux...

  16. 21 CFR 182.1047 - Glutamic acid hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Glutamic acid hydrochloride. 182.1047 Section 182.1047 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1047 Glutamic acid hydrochloride. (a) Product. Glutamic acid hydrochloride. (b...

  17. Thought-evoking approaches in engineering problems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    In creating the value-added product in not distant future, it is necessary and inevitable to establish a holistic and though-evoking approach to the engineering problem, which should be at least associated with the inter-disciplinary knowledge and thought processes across the whole engineering spheres. It is furthermore desirable to integrate it with trans-disciplinary aspects ranging from manufacturing culture, through liberal-arts engineering, and industrial sociology.   The thought-evoking approach can be exemplified and typified by representative engineering problems: unveiling essential features in ‘Tangential Force Ratio and Interface Pressure’, prototype development for ‘Bio-mimetic Needle’ and application of ‘Water-jet Machining to Artificial Hip Joint’, product innovation in ‘Heat Sink for Computer’, application of ‘Graph Theory’ to similarity evaluation of production systems, leverage among reciprocity attributes in ‘Industrial and Engineering Designs for Machine Enclosure’,...

  18. Stereoselectivity of presynaptic autoreceptors modulating dopamine release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbilla, S.; Langer, S.Z.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of the (R)- and (S)-enantiomers of sulpiride and butaclamol were studied on the spontaneous and field stimulation-evoked release of total radioactivity from slices of rabbit caudate nucleus prelabelled with [ 3 H]dopamine. (S)-Sulpiride in concentrations ranging from 0.01-1μM enhanced the electrically evoked release of [ 3 H]dopamine while (R)-sulpiride was 10 times less potent than (S)-sulpiride. Exposure to (S)-butaclamol (0.1-1 μM) but not to (R)-butaclamol (0.1-10μM) enhanced the field-stimulated release of [ 3 H]dopamine. The facilitatory effects of (S)- and (R)-sulpiride and (S)-butaclamol on the stimulated release of the labelled neurotransmitter were observed under conditions in which these drugs did not modify the spontaneous outflow of radioactivity. Only the active enantiomers of sulpiride and butaclamol antagonized the inhibition by apomorphine (1μM) of the stimulated release of [ 3 H]dopamine. Our results indicate that the presynaptic inhibitory dopamine autoreceptors modulating the stimulation-evoked release of [ 3 H]dopamine in the caudate nucleus are, like the classical postsynaptic dopamine receptors, chemically stereoselective. (Auth.)

  19. Microglia PACAP and glutamate: Friends or foes in seizure-induced autonomic dysfunction and SUDEP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandare, Amol M; Kapoor, Komal; Farnham, Melissa M J; Pilowsky, Paul M

    2016-06-01

    Seizure-induced cardiorespiratory autonomic dysfunction is a major cause of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), and the underlying mechanism is unclear. Seizures lead to increased synthesis, and release of glutamate, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP), and other neurotransmitters, and cause extensive activation of microglia at multiple regions in the brain including central autonomic cardiorespiratory brainstem nuclei. Glutamate contributes to neurodegeneration, and inflammation in epilepsy. PACAP has neuroprotective, and anti-inflammatory properties, whereas microglia are key players in inflammatory responses in CNS. Seizure-induced increase in PACAP is neuroprotective. PACAP produces neuroprotective effects acting on microglial PAC1 and VPAC1 receptors. Microglia also express glutamate transporters, and their expression can be increased by PACAP in response to harmful or stressful situations such as seizures. Here we discuss the mechanism of autonomic cardiorespiratory dysfunction in seizure, and the role of PACAP, glutamate and microglia in regulating cardiorespiratory brainstem neurons in their physiological state that could provide future therapeutic options for SUDEP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Lipoic acid effects on glutamate and taurine concentrations in rat hippocampus after pilocarpine-induced seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pilocarpine-induced seizures can be mediated by increases in oxidative stress and by cerebral amino acid changes. The present research suggests that antioxidant compounds may afford some level of neuroprotection against the neurotoxicity of seizures in cellular level. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the lipoic acid (LA effects in glutamate and taurine contents in rat hippocampus after pilocarpine-induced seizures. Wistar rats were treated intraperitoneally (i.p. with 0.9% saline (Control, pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, Pilocarpine, LA (10 mg/kg, LA, and the association of LA (10 mg/kg plus pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, that was injected 30 min before of administration of LA (LA plus pilocarpine. Animals were observed during 24 h. The amino acid concentrations were measured using high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC. In pilocarpine group, it was observed a significant increase in glutamate content (37% and a decrease in taurine level (18% in rat hippocampus, when compared to control group. Antioxidant pretreatment significantly reduced the glutamate level (28% and augmented taurine content (32% in rat hippocampus, when compared to pilocarpine group. Our findings strongly support amino acid changes in hippocampus during seizures induced by pilocarpine, and suggest that glutamate-induced brain damage plays a crucial role in pathogenic consequences of seizures, and imply that strong protective effect could be achieved using lipoic acid through the release or decrease in metabolization rate of taurine amino acid during seizures.

  1. Influence of Glutamic Acid on the Properties of Poly(xylitol glutamate sebacate Bioelastomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weifu Dong

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to further improve the biocompatibility of xylitol based poly(xylitol sebacate (PXS bioelastomer, a novel kind of amino acid based poly(xylitol glutamate sebacate (PXGS has been successfully prepared in this work by melt polycondensation of xylitol, N-Boc glutamic acid and sebacic acid. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC results indicated the glass-transition temperatures could be decreased by feeding N-Boc glutamic acid. In comparison to PXS, PXGS exhibited comparable tensile strength and much higher elongation at break at the same ratio of acid/xylitol. The introduction of glutamic acid increased the hydrophilicity and in vitro degradation rate of the bioelastomer. It was found that PXGS exhibited excellent properties, such as tensile properties, biodegradability and hydrophilicity, which could be easily tuned by altering the feeding monomer ratios. The amino groups in the PXGS polyester side chains are readily functionalized, thus the biomelastomers can be considered as potential biomaterials for biomedical application.

  2. L-glutamate Receptor In Paramecium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Martínez, Juan; Ortega-Soto, Arturo

    2004-09-01

    Behavioral, electrophysiological and biochemical experiments were performed in order to establish the presence of a glutamate receptor in the ciliate Paramecium. It was found that an AMPA/KA receptor is functionally expressed in Paramecium and that this receptor is immunologically and fillogenetically related to the AMPA/KA receptor present in vertebrates.

  3. Glutamate mediated astrocytic filtering of neuronal activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilad Wallach

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuron-astrocyte communication is an important regulatory mechanism in various brain functions but its complexity and role are yet to be fully understood. In particular, the temporal pattern of astrocyte response to neuronal firing has not been fully characterized. Here, we used neuron-astrocyte cultures on multi-electrode arrays coupled to Ca2+ imaging and explored the range of neuronal stimulation frequencies while keeping constant the amount of stimulation. Our results reveal that astrocytes specifically respond to the frequency of neuronal stimulation by intracellular Ca2+ transients, with a clear onset of astrocytic activation at neuron firing rates around 3-5 Hz. The cell-to-cell heterogeneity of the astrocyte Ca2+ response was however large and increasing with stimulation frequency. Astrocytic activation by neurons was abolished with antagonists of type I metabotropic glutamate receptor, validating the glutamate-dependence of this neuron-to-astrocyte pathway. Using a realistic biophysical model of glutamate-based intracellular calcium signaling in astrocytes, we suggest that the stepwise response is due to the supralinear dynamics of intracellular IP3 and that the heterogeneity of the responses may be due to the heterogeneity of the astrocyte-to-astrocyte couplings via gap junction channels. Therefore our results present astrocyte intracellular Ca2+ activity as a nonlinear integrator of glutamate-dependent neuronal activity.

  4. Glutamate Mediated Astrocytic Filtering of Neuronal Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Nitzan; De Pittà, Maurizio; Jacob, Eshel Ben; Berry, Hugues; Hanein, Yael

    2014-01-01

    Neuron-astrocyte communication is an important regulatory mechanism in various brain functions but its complexity and role are yet to be fully understood. In particular, the temporal pattern of astrocyte response to neuronal firing has not been fully characterized. Here, we used neuron-astrocyte cultures on multi-electrode arrays coupled to Ca2+ imaging and explored the range of neuronal stimulation frequencies while keeping constant the amount of stimulation. Our results reveal that astrocytes specifically respond to the frequency of neuronal stimulation by intracellular Ca2+ transients, with a clear onset of astrocytic activation at neuron firing rates around 3-5 Hz. The cell-to-cell heterogeneity of the astrocyte Ca2+ response was however large and increasing with stimulation frequency. Astrocytic activation by neurons was abolished with antagonists of type I metabotropic glutamate receptor, validating the glutamate-dependence of this neuron-to-astrocyte pathway. Using a realistic biophysical model of glutamate-based intracellular calcium signaling in astrocytes, we suggest that the stepwise response is due to the supralinear dynamics of intracellular IP3 and that the heterogeneity of the responses may be due to the heterogeneity of the astrocyte-to-astrocyte couplings via gap junction channels. Therefore our results present astrocyte intracellular Ca2+ activity as a nonlinear integrator of glutamate-dependent neuronal activity. PMID:25521344

  5. Removal of urothelium affects bladder contractility and release of ATP but not release of NO in rat urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boone Timothy B

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of our work was to investigate both the contractile function and the release of ATP and NO from strips of bladder tissue after removal of the urothelium. Methods The method of removal was a gentle swabbing motion rather than a sharp surgical cutting to separate the urothelium from the smooth muscle. The contractile response and ATP and NO release were measured in intact as well as on swabbed preparations. The removal of the urothelial layer was affirmed microscopically. Results After the swabbing, the smaller contractions were evoked by electrical as well as by chemical stimulation (50 μM carbachol or 50 μM α, β meATP. Electrical stimulation, carbachol and substance P (5 μM evoked lower release of ATP in the swabbed strips than in intact strips. Although release of NO evoked by electrical stimulation or substance P was not changed, release of NO evoked by carbachol was significantly less in the swabbed preparations. Conclusion Since swabbing removes only the urothelium, the presence of the suburothelial layer may explain the difference between our findings and those of others who found an increase in contractility. Evoked release of ATP is reduced in swabbed strips, indicating that ATP derives solely from the urothelium. On the other hand, electrical stimulation and substance P evoke identical degrees of NO release in both intact and swabbed preparations, suggesting that NO can be released from the suburothelium. Conversely, carbachol-induced release of NO is lower in swabbed strips, implying that the cholinergic receptors (muscarinic or nicotinic are located in the upper layer of the urothelium.

  6. Amperometric L-glutamate biosensor based on bacterial cell-surface displayed glutamate dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Bo [Laboratory for Biosensing, Key Laboratory of Biofuels, and Shandong Provinicial Key Laboratory of Energy Genetics, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy & Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Shu [Laboratory for Biosensing, Key Laboratory of Biofuels, and Shandong Provinicial Key Laboratory of Energy Genetics, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy & Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology of Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, 238 Songling Road, Qingdao 266100 (China); Lang, Qiaolin [Laboratory for Biosensing, Key Laboratory of Biofuels, and Shandong Provinicial Key Laboratory of Energy Genetics, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy & Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); Song, Jianxia; Han, Lihui [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology of Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, 238 Songling Road, Qingdao 266100 (China); Liu, Aihua, E-mail: liuah@qibebt.ac.cn [Laboratory for Biosensing, Key Laboratory of Biofuels, and Shandong Provinicial Key Laboratory of Energy Genetics, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy & Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2015-07-16

    Highlights: • E. coli surface-dispalyed Gldh exhibiting excellent enzyme activity and stability. • Sensitive amperometric biosensor for glutamate using Gldh-bacteria and MWNTs. • The glutamate biosensor exhibited high specificity and stability. - Abstract: A novel L-glutamate biosensor was fabricated using bacteria surface-displayed glutamate dehydrogenase (Gldh-bacteria). Here the cofactor NADP{sup +}-specific dependent Gldh was expressed on the surface of Escherichia coli using N-terminal region of ice nucleation protein (INP) as the anchoring motif. The cell fractionation assay and SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the majority of INP-Gldh fusion proteins were located on the surface of cells. The biosensor was fabricated by successively casting polyethyleneimine (PEI)-dispersed multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), Gldh-bacteria and Nafion onto the glassy carbon electrode (Nafion/Gldh-bacteria/PEI-MWNTs/GCE). The MWNTs could not only significantly lower the oxidation overpotential towards NAPDH, which was the product of NADP{sup +} involving in the oxidation of glutamate by Gldh, but also enhanced the current response. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the current–time curve of the Nafion/Gldh-bacteria/PEI-MWNTs/GCE was performed at +0.52 V (vs. SCE) by amperometry varying glutamate concentration. The current response was linear with glutamate concentration in two ranges (10 μM–1 mM and 2–10 mM). The low limit of detection was estimated to be 2 μM glutamate (S/N = 3). Moreover, the proposed biosensor is stable, specific, reproducible and simple, which can be applied to real samples detection.

  7. Strontium D-Glutamate Hexahydrate and Strontium Di(hydrogen L-glutamate) Pentahydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christgau, Stephan; Odderhede, Jette; Stahl, Kenny

    2005-01-01

    Sr(C5H7NO4)] center dot 6H(2)O, ( I), and [Sr(C5H8NO4)(2)] center dot 5H(2)O, (II), both crystallize with similar strontium - glutamate - water layers. In ( I), the neutral layers are connected through hydrogen bonds by water molecules, while in ( II), the positively charged layers are connected...... through hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions by interleaving layers of hydrogen glutamate anions and water molecules....

  8. Activation of Phosphatidylinositol-Linked Dopamine Receptors Induces a Facilitation of Glutamate-Mediated Synaptic Transmission in the Lateral Entorhinal Cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Glovaci

    Full Text Available The lateral entorhinal cortex receives strong inputs from midbrain dopamine neurons that can modulate its sensory and mnemonic function. We have previously demonstrated that 1 µM dopamine facilitates synaptic transmission in layer II entorhinal cortex cells via activation of D1-like receptors, increased cAMP-PKA activity, and a resulting enhancement of AMPA-receptor mediated currents. The present study assessed the contribution of phosphatidylinositol (PI-linked D1 receptors to the dopaminergic facilitation of transmission in layer II of the rat entorhinal cortex, and the involvement of phospholipase C activity and release of calcium from internal stores. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of glutamate-mediated evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents were obtained from pyramidal and fan cells. Activation of D1-like receptors using SKF38393, SKF83959, or 1 µM dopamine induced a reversible facilitation of EPSCs which was abolished by loading cells with either the phospholipase C inhibitor U-73122 or the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA. Neither the L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine, nor the L/N-type channel blocker cilnidipine, blocked the facilitation of synaptic currents. However, the facilitation was blocked by blocking Ca2+ release from internal stores via inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3 receptors or ryanodine receptors. Follow-up studies demonstrated that inhibiting CaMKII activity with KN-93 failed to block the facilitation, but that application of the protein kinase C inhibitor PKC(19-36 completely blocked the dopamine-induced facilitation. Overall, in addition to our previous report indicating a role for the cAMP-PKA pathway in dopamine-induced facilitation of synaptic transmission, we demonstrate here that the dopaminergic facilitation of synaptic responses in layer II entorhinal neurons also relies on a signaling cascade dependent on PI-linked D1 receptors, PLC, release of Ca2+ from internal stores, and PKC activation which is

  9. Amperometric L-glutamate biosensor based on bacterial cell-surface displayed glutamate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bo; Zhang, Shu; Lang, Qiaolin; Song, Jianxia; Han, Lihui; Liu, Aihua

    2015-07-16

    A novel L-glutamate biosensor was fabricated using bacteria surface-displayed glutamate dehydrogenase (Gldh-bacteria). Here the cofactor NADP(+)-specific dependent Gldh was expressed on the surface of Escherichia coli using N-terminal region of ice nucleation protein (INP) as the anchoring motif. The cell fractionation assay and SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the majority of INP-Gldh fusion proteins were located on the surface of cells. The biosensor was fabricated by successively casting polyethyleneimine (PEI)-dispersed multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), Gldh-bacteria and Nafion onto the glassy carbon electrode (Nafion/Gldh-bacteria/PEI-MWNTs/GCE). The MWNTs could not only significantly lower the oxidation overpotential towards NAPDH, which was the product of NADP(+) involving in the oxidation of glutamate by Gldh, but also enhanced the current response. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the current-time curve of the Nafion/Gldh-bacteria/PEI-MWNTs/GCE was performed at +0.52 V (vs. SCE) by amperometry varying glutamate concentration. The current response was linear with glutamate concentration in two ranges (10 μM-1 mM and 2-10 mM). The low limit of detection was estimated to be 2 μM glutamate (S/N=3). Moreover, the proposed biosensor is stable, specific, reproducible and simple, which can be applied to real samples detection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. MDMA Decreases Gluatamic Acid Decarboxylase (GAD) 67-Immunoreactive Neurons in the Hippocampus and Increases Seizure Susceptibility: Role for Glutamate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Courtney L.; Morano, Rachel L.; Herman, James P.; Yamamoto, Bryan K.; Gudelsky, Gary A.

    2016-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) is a unique psychostimulant that continues to be a popular drug of abuse. It has been well documented that MDMA reduces markers of 5-HT axon terminals in rodents, as well as humans. A loss of parvalbumin-immunoreactive (IR) interneurons in the hippocampus following MDMA treatment has only been documented recently. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that MDMA reduces glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 67-IR, another biochemical marker of GABA neurons, in the hippocampus and that this reduction in GAD67-IR neurons and an accompanying increase in seizure susceptibility involve glutamate receptor activation. Repeated exposure to MDMA (3×10mg/kg, ip) resulted in a reduction of 37–58% of GAD67-IR cells in the dentate gyrus (DG), CA1, and CA3 regions, as well as an increased susceptibility to kainic acid-induced seizures, both of which persisted for at least 30 days following MDMA treatment. Administration of the NMDA antagonist MK-801 or the glutamate transporter type 1 (GLT-1) inducer ceftriaxone prevented both the MDMA-induced loss of GAD67-IR neurons and the increased vulnerability to kainic acid-induced seizures. The MDMA-induced increase in the extracellular concentration of glutamate in the hippocampus was significantly diminished in rats treated with ceftriaxone, thereby implicating a glutamatergic mechanism in the neuroprotective effects of ceftriaxone. In summary, the present findings support a role for increased extracellular glutamate and NMDA receptor activation in the MDMA-induced loss of hippocampal GAD67-IR neurons and the subsequent increased susceptibility to evoked seizures. PMID:27773601

  11. Microbial production of poly-γ-glutamic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirisansaneeyakul, Sarote; Cao, Mingfeng; Kongklom, Nuttawut; Chuensangjun, Chaniga; Shi, Zhongping; Chisti, Yusuf

    2017-09-05

    Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) is a natural, biodegradable and water-soluble biopolymer of glutamic acid. This review is focused on nonrecombinant microbial production of γ-PGA via fermentation processes. In view of its commercial importance, the emphasis is on L-glutamic acid independent producers (i.e. microorganisms that do not require feeding with the relatively expensive amino acid L-glutamic acid to produce γ-PGA), but glutamic acid dependent production is discussed for comparison. Strategies for improving production, reducing costs and using renewable feedstocks are discussed.

  12. Glutamate-Mediated Primary Somatosensory Cortex Excitability Correlated with Circulating Copper and Ceruloplasmin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franca Tecchio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To verify whether markers of metal homeostasis are related to a magnetoencephalographic index representative of glutamate-mediated excitability of the primary somatosensory cortex. The index is identified as the source strength of the earliest component (M20 of the somatosensory magnetic fields (SEFs evoked by right median nerve stimulation at wrist. Method. Thirty healthy right-handed subjects (51±22 years were enrolled in the study. A source reconstruction algorithm was applied to assess the amount of synchronously activated neurons subtending the M20 and the following SEF component (M30, which is generated by two independent contributions of gabaergic and glutamatergic transmission. Serum copper, ceruloplasmin, iron, transferrin, transferrin saturation, and zinc levels were measured. Results. Total copper and ceruloplasmin negatively correlated with the M20 source strength. Conclusion. This pilot study suggests that higher level of body copper reserve, as marked by ceruloplasmin variations, parallels lower cortical glutamatergic responsiveness.

  13. Inhibitors of glutamate dehydrogenase block sodium-dependent glutamate uptake in rat brain membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan S Whitelaw

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We recently found evidence for anatomic and physical linkages between the astroglial Na+-dependent glutamate transporters (GLT-1/EAAT2 and GLAST/EAAT1 and mitochondria. In these same studies, we found that the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH inhibitor, epigallocatechin-monogallate (EGCG, inhibits both glutamate oxidation and Na+-dependent glutamate uptake in astrocytes. In the present study, we extend this finding by exploring the effects of EGCG on Na+-dependent L-[3H]-glutamate (Glu uptake in crude membranes (P2 prepared from rat brain cortex. In this preparation, uptake is almost exclusively mediated by GLT-1. EGCG inhibited L-[3H]-Glu uptake in cortical membranes with an IC50 value of 230 µM. We also studied the effects of two additional inhibitors of GDH, hexachlorophene (HCP and bithionol (BTH. Both of these compounds also caused concentration-dependent inhibition of glutamate uptake in cortical membranes. Pre-incubating with HCP for up to 15 min had no greater effect than that observed with no pre-incubation, showing that the effects occur rapidly. HCP decreased the Vmax for glutamate uptake without changing the Km, consistent with a non-competitive mechanism of action. EGCG, HCP, and BTH also inhibited Na+-dependent transport of D-[3H]-aspartate (Asp, a non-metabolizable substrate, and [3H]-γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA. In contrast to the forebrain, glutamate uptake in crude cerebellar membranes (P2 is likely mediated by GLAST (EAAT1. Therefore, the effects of these compounds were examined in cerebellar membranes. In this region, none of these compounds had any effect on uptake of either L-[3H]-Glu or D-[3H]-Asp, but they all inhibited [3H]-GABA uptake. Together these studies suggest that GDH is preferentially required for glutamate uptake in forebrain as compared to cerebellum, and GDH may be required for GABA uptake as well. They also provide further evidence for a functional linkage between glutamate transport and mitochondria.

  14. Glutamate Transporters in the Blood-Brain Barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Hans Christian Cederberg; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2017-01-01

    concentration of L-glutamate causes excitotoxicity. A tight control of the brain interstitial fluid L-glutamate levels is therefore imperative, in order to maintain optimal neurotransmission and to avoid such excitotoxicity. The blood-brain barrier, i.e., the endothelial lining of the brain capillaries...... cells. The mechanisms underlying transendothelial L-glutamate transport are however still not well understood. The present chapter summarizes the current knowledge on blood-brain barrier L-glutamate transporters and the suggested pathways for the brain-to-blood L-glutamate efflux......., regulates the exchange of nutrients, gases, and metabolic waste products between plasma and brain interstitial fluid. It has been suggested that brain capillary endothelial cells could play an important role in L-glutamate homeostasis by mediating brain-to-blood L-glutamate efflux. Both in vitro and in vivo...

  15. ERKs and mitochondria-related pathways are essential for glycyrrhizic acid-mediated neuroprotection against glutamate-induced toxicity in differentiated PC12 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.; Guo, T.Q.; Wang, Z.Y.; Lu, J.H.; Liu, D.P.; Meng, Q.F.; Xie, J.; Zhang, X.L.; Liu, Y.; Teng, L.S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study focuses on the neuroprotective effect of glycyrrhizic acid (GA, a major compound separated from Glycyrrhiza Radix, which is a crude Chinese traditional drug) against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in differentiated PC12 (DPC12) cells. The results showed that GA treatment improved cell viability and ameliorated abnormal glutamate-induced alterations in mitochondria in DPC12 cells. GA reversed glutamate-suppressed B-cell lymphoma 2 levels, inhibited glutamate-enhanced expressions of Bax and cleaved caspase 3, and reduced cytochrome C (Cyto C) release. Exposure to glutamate strongly inhibited phosphorylation of AKT (protein kinase B) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs); however, GA pretreatment enhanced activation of ERKs but not AKT. The presence of PD98059 (a mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase [MEK] inhibitor) but not LY294002 (a phosphoinositide 3-kinase [PI3K] inhibitor) diminished the potency of GA for improving viability of glutamate-exposed DPC12 cells. These results indicated that ERKs and mitochondria-related pathways are essential for the neuroprotective effect of GA against glutamate-induced toxicity in DPC12 cells. The present study provides experimental evidence supporting GA as a potential therapeutic agent for use in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases

  16. ERKs and mitochondria-related pathways are essential for glycyrrhizic acid-mediated neuroprotection against glutamate-induced toxicity in differentiated PC12 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D. [School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun (China); The State Engineering Laboratory of AIDS Vaccine, Jilin University, Changchun (China); Guo, T.Q. [School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun (China); Wang, Z.Y. [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun (China); Lu, J.H.; Liu, D.P.; Meng, Q.F.; Xie, J. [School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun (China); Zhang, X.L. [Faculty of ScienceNational University of Singapore (Singapore); Liu, Y. [School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun (China); Teng, L.S. [School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun (China); The State Engineering Laboratory of AIDS Vaccine, Jilin University, Changchun (China)

    2014-07-25

    The present study focuses on the neuroprotective effect of glycyrrhizic acid (GA, a major compound separated from Glycyrrhiza Radix, which is a crude Chinese traditional drug) against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in differentiated PC12 (DPC12) cells. The results showed that GA treatment improved cell viability and ameliorated abnormal glutamate-induced alterations in mitochondria in DPC12 cells. GA reversed glutamate-suppressed B-cell lymphoma 2 levels, inhibited glutamate-enhanced expressions of Bax and cleaved caspase 3, and reduced cytochrome C (Cyto C) release. Exposure to glutamate strongly inhibited phosphorylation of AKT (protein kinase B) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs); however, GA pretreatment enhanced activation of ERKs but not AKT. The presence of PD98059 (a mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase [MEK] inhibitor) but not LY294002 (a phosphoinositide 3-kinase [PI3K] inhibitor) diminished the potency of GA for improving viability of glutamate-exposed DPC12 cells. These results indicated that ERKs and mitochondria-related pathways are essential for the neuroprotective effect of GA against glutamate-induced toxicity in DPC12 cells. The present study provides experimental evidence supporting GA as a potential therapeutic agent for use in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  17. Activation of β-adrenoceptor facilitates active avoidance learning through enhancement of glutamate levels in the hippocampal dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jing; Feng, Hao; Chen, Ling; Wang, Wei-Yao; Yue, Xue-Ling; Jin, Qing-Hua

    2017-10-18

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) is widely accepted as the best studied model for neurophysiological mechanisms that could underlie learning and memory formation. Despite a number of studies indicating that β-adrenoceptors in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) is involved in the modulation of learning and memory as well as LTP, few studies have used glutamate release as a visual indicator in awake animals to explore the role of β-adrenoceptors in learning-dependent LTP. Therefore, in the present study, the effects of propranolol (an antagonist of β-adrenoceptor) and isoproterenol (an agonist of β-adrenoceptor) on extracellular concentrations of glutamate and amplitudes of field excitatory postsynaptic potential were measured in the DG region during active avoidance learning in freely moving conscious rats. In the control group, the glutamate level in the DG was significantly increased during the acquisition of active avoidance behavior and returned to basal level following extinction training. In propranolol group, antagonism of β-adrenoceptors in the DG significantly reduced the change in glutamate level, and the acquisition of the active avoidance behavior was significantly inhibited. In contrast, the change in glutamate level was significantly enhanced by isoproterenol, and the acquisition of the active avoidance behavior was significantly accelerated. Furthermore, in all groups, the changes in glutamate level were accompanied by corresponding changes in field excitatory postsynaptic potential amplitude and active avoidance behavior. Our results suggest that activation of β-adrenoceptors in the hippocampal DG facilitates active avoidance learning by modulations of glutamate level and synaptic efficiency in rats.

  18. Neuroprotective effects of α-iso-cubebene against glutamate-induced damage in the HT22 hippocampal neuronal cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun Young; Jung, Won Jung; Kang, Jum Soon; Kim, Cheol-Min; Park, Geuntae; Choi, Young-Whan

    2015-02-01

    Since oxidative stress is critically involved in excitotoxic damage, we sought to determine whether the activation of the transcription factors, cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2, also known as NFE2L2), by α-iso-cubebene is involved in its protective effects against glutamate-induced neuronal cell death. Pre-treatment with α-iso-cubebene significantly attenuated glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in mouse hippocampus-derived neuronal cells. α-iso-cubebene also reduced the glutamate-induced generation of reactive oxygen species and calcium influx, thus preventing apoptotic cell death. α-iso-cubebene inhibited glutamate-induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization and, consequently, inhibited the release of the apoptosis-inducing factor from the mitochondria. Immunoblot anlaysis revealed that the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) by glutamate was reduced in the presence of α-iso-cubebene. α-iso-cubebene activated protein kinase A (PKA), CREB and Nrf2, which mediate the expression of the antioxidant enzymes, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase [quinone] 1 (NQO1), involved in neuroprotection. In addition, α-iso-cubebene induced the expression of antioxidant responsive element and CRE transcriptional activity, thus conferring neuroprotection against glutamate-induced oxidative injury. α-iso-cubebene also induced the expression of Nrf2-dependent genes encoding HO-1 and NQO1. Furthermore, the knockdown of CREB and Nrf2 by small interfering RNA attenuated the neuroprotective effects of α-iso-cubebene. Taken together, our results indicate that α-iso-cubebene protects HT22 cells from glutamate-induced oxidative damage through the activation of Nrf2/HO-1/NQO-1, as well as through the PKA and CREB signaling pathways.

  19. Agmatine protects against cell damage induced by NMDA and glutamate in cultured hippocampal neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Ping; Iyo, Abiye H.; Miguel-Hidalgo, Javier; Regunathan, Soundar; Zhu, Meng-Yang

    2010-01-01

    Agmatine is a polyamine and has been considered as a novel neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the central nervous system. In the present study, the neuroprotective effect of agmatine against cell damage caused by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and glutamate was investigated in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity assay, β-tubulin III immunocytochemical staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay were conducted to detect cell damage. Exposure of 12-day neuronal cultures of rat hippocampus to NMDA or glutamate for 1 h caused a concentration-dependent neurotoxicity, as indicated by the significant increase in released LDH activities. Addition of 100 µM agmatine into media ablated the neurotoxicity induced by NMDA or glutamate, an effect also produced by the specific NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine hydrogen maleate (MK801). Arcaine, an analog of agmatine with similar structure as agmatine, fully prevented the NMDA- or glutamate-induced neuronal damage. Spermine and putrescine, the endogenous polyamine and metabolic products of agmatine without the guanidine moiety of agmatine, failed to show this effect, indicating a structural relevance for this neuroprotection. Immunocytochemical staining and TUNEL assay confirmed the findings in the LDH measurement. That is, agmatine and MK801 markedly attenuated NMDA-induced neuronal death and significantly reduced TUNEL-positive cell numbers induced by exposure of cultured hippocampal neurons to NMDA. Taken together, these results demonstrate that agmatine can protect cultured hippocampal neurons from NMDA- or glutamate-induced excitotoxicity, through a possible blockade of the NMDA receptor channels or a potential anti-apoptotic property. PMID:16546145

  20. Glutamate monitoring in vitro and in vivo: recent progress in the field of glutamate biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieben, Nathalie Ines; Rose, Nadia Cherouati; Martinez, Karen Laurence

    2009-01-01

    is currently the most common method for in vivo glutamate sampling. However, the recent development and improvement of enzyme-based amperometric glutamate biosensors makes them a promising alternative to microdialysis for in vivo applications, as well as valuable devices for in vitro applications in basic......, and different techniques have been developed to this end. This review presents and discusses these techniques, especially the recent progress in the field of glutamate biosensors, as well as the great potential of nanotechnology in glutamate sensing. Microdialysis coupled to analytical detection techniques...... neurobiological research. Another interesting group of biosensors for glutamate are fluorescence-based glutamate biosensors, which have unsurpassed spatio-temporal resolution and are therefore important tools for investigating glutamate dynamics during signaling. Adding to this list are biosensors based on nano...

  1. Glutamate and GABA as rapid effectors of hypothalamic peptidergic neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia eSchöne

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Vital hypothalamic neurons regulating hunger, wakefulness, reward-seeking, and body weight are often defined by unique expression of hypothalamus-specific neuropeptides. Gene-ablation studies show that some of these peptides, notably orexin/hypocretin (hcrt/orx, are themselves critical for stable states of consciousness and metabolic health. However, neuron-ablation studies often reveal more severe phenotypes, suggesting key roles for co-expressed transmitters. Indeed, most hypothalamic neurons, including hcrt/orx cells, contain fast transmitters glutamate and GABA, as well as several neuropeptides. What are the roles and relations between different transmitters expressed by the same neuron? Here, we consider signaling codes for releasing different transmitters in relation to transmitter and receptor diversity in behaviorally-defined, widely-projecting peptidergic neurons, such as hcrt/orx cells. We then discuss latest optogenetic studies of endogenous transmitter release from defined sets of axons in situ, which suggest that recently-characterized vital peptidergic neurons (e.g. hcrt/orx, proopiomelanocortin , and agouti-related peptide cells, as well as classical modulatory neurons (e.g. dopamine and acetylcholine cells, all use fast transmitters to control their postsynaptic targets. These optogenetic insights are complemented by recent observations of behavioral deficiencies caused by genetic ablation of fast transmission from specific neuropeptidergic and aminergic neurons. Powerful and fast (millisecond-scale GABAergic and glutamatergic signaling from neurons previously considered to be primarily modulatory raises new questions about the roles of slower co-transmitters they co-express.

  2. Music-Evoked Emotions—Current Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Hans-Eckhardt

    2017-01-01

    The present study is focused on a review of the current state of investigating music-evoked emotions experimentally, theoretically and with respect to their therapeutic potentials. After a concise historical overview and a schematic of the hearing mechanisms, experimental studies on music listeners and on music performers are discussed, starting with the presentation of characteristic musical stimuli and the basic features of tomographic imaging of emotional activation in the brain, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET), which offer high spatial resolution in the millimeter range. The progress in correlating activation imaging in the brain to the psychological understanding of music-evoked emotion is demonstrated and some prospects for future research are outlined. Research in psychoneuroendocrinology and molecular markers is reviewed in the context of music-evoked emotions and the results indicate that the research in this area should be intensified. An assessment of studies involving measuring techniques with high temporal resolution down to the 10 ms range, as, e.g., electroencephalography (EEG), event-related brain potentials (ERP), magnetoencephalography (MEG), skin conductance response (SCR), finger temperature, and goose bump development (piloerection) can yield information on the dynamics and kinetics of emotion. Genetic investigations reviewed suggest the heredity transmission of a predilection for music. Theoretical approaches to musical emotion are directed to a unified model for experimental neurological evidence and aesthetic judgment. Finally, the reports on musical therapy are briefly outlined. The study concludes with an outlook on emerging technologies and future research fields. PMID:29225563

  3. Do ambient urban odors evoke basic emotions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Theresia Weber-Glass

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fragrances, such as plant odors, have been shown to evoke autonomic response patterns associated with Ekman’s (Ekman et al., 1983 basic emotions happiness, surprise, anger, fear, sadness and disgust. Inducing positive emotions by odors in highly frequented public spaces could serve to improve the quality of life in urban environments. Thus, the present study evaluated the potency of ambient odors connoted with an urban environment to evoke basic emotions on an autonomic and cognitive response level. Synthetic mixtures representing the odors of disinfectant, candles / bees wax, summer air, burnt smell, vomit and musty smell as well as odorless water as a control were presented five times in random order to 30 healthy, non-smoking human subjects with intact sense of smell. Skin temperature, skin conductance, breathing rate, forearm muscle activity, blink rate and heart rate were recorded simultaneously. Subjects rated the odors in terms of pleasantness, intensity and familiarity and gave verbal labels to each odor as well as cognitive associations with the basic emotions. The results showed that the amplitude of the skin conductance response varied as a function of odor presentation. Burnt smell and vomit elicited significantly higher electrodermal responses than summer air. Also, a negative correlation was revealed between the amplitude of the skin conductance response and hedonic odor valence indicating that the magnitude of the electrodermal response increased with odor unpleasantness. The analysis of the cognitive associations between odors and basic emotions showed that candles / bees wax and summer air were specifically associated with happiness whereas burnt smell and vomit were uniquely associated with disgust. Our findings suggest that city odors may evoke specific cognitive associations of basic emotions and that autonomic activity elicited by such odors is related to odor hedonics.

  4. Picosecond dynamics of the glutamate receptor in response to agonist-induced vibrational excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Minoru; Shiomitsu, Eiji; Odai, Kei; Sugimoto, Tohru; Suzuki, Hideo; Ito, Etsuro

    2004-02-01

    Conformational changes of proteins are dominated by the excitation and relaxation processes of their vibrational states. To elucidate the mechanism of receptor activation, the conformation dynamics of receptors must be analyzed in response to agonist-induced vibrational excitation. In this study, we chose the bending vibrational mode of the guanidinium group of Arg485 of the glutamate receptor subunit GluR2 based on our previous studies, and we investigated picosecond dynamics of the glutamate receptor caused by the vibrational excitation of Arg485 via molecular dynamics simulations. The vibrational excitation energy in Arg485 in the ligand-binding site initially flowed into Lys730, and then into the J-helix at the subunit interface of the ligand-binding domain. Consequently, the atomic displacement in the subunit interface around an intersubunit hydrogen bond was evoked in about 3 ps. This atomic displacement may perturb the subunit packing of the receptor, triggering receptor activation. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Glutamate in schizophrenia: clinical and research implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, D C; Wine, L

    1997-10-30

    The excitatory amino acids, glutamate and aspartate, are of interest to schizophrenia research because of their roles in neurodevelopment, neurotoxicity and neurotransmission. Recent evidence suggests that densities of glutamatergic receptors and the ratios of subunits composing these receptors may be altered in schizophrenia, although it is unclear whether these changes are primary or compensatory. Agents acting at the phencyclidine binding site of the NMDA receptor produce symptoms of schizophrenia in normal subjects, and precipitate relapse in patients with schizophrenia. The improvement of negative symptoms with agents acting at the glycine modulatory site of the NMDA receptor, as well as preliminary evidence that clozapine may differ from conventional neuroleptic agents in its effects on glutamatergic systems, suggest that clinical implications may follow from this model. While geriatric patients may be at increased risk for glutamate-mediated neurotoxicity, very little is known about the specific relevance of this model to geriatric patients with schizophrenia.

  6. Glutamate dehydrogenase (RocG) in Bacillus licheniformis WX-02: Enzymatic properties and specific functions in glutamic acid synthesis for poly-γ-glutamic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Guangming; Wang, Qin; Wei, Xuetuan; Ma, Xin; Chen, Shouwen

    2017-04-01

    Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA), a natural biopolymer, is widely used in cosmetics, medicine, food, water treatment, and agriculture owing to its features of moisture sequestration, cation chelation, non-toxicity and biodegradability. Intracellular glutamic acid, the substrate of γ-PGA, is a limiting factor for high yield in γ-PGA production. Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis are both important γ-PGA producing strains, and B. subtilis synthesizes glutamic acid in vivo using the unique GOGAT/GS pathway. However, little is known about the glutamate synthesis pathway in B. licheniformis. The aim of this work was to characterize the glutamate dehydrogenase (RocG) in glutamic acid synthesis from B. licheniformis with both in vivo and in vitro experiments. By re-directing the carbon flux distribution, the rocG gene deletion mutant WX-02ΔrocG produced intracellular glutamic acid with a concentration of 90ng/log(CFU), which was only 23.7% that of the wild-type WX-02 (380ng/log(CFU)). Furthermore, the γ-PGA yield of mutant WX-02ΔrocG was 5.37g/L, a decrease of 45.3% compared to the wild type (9.82g/L). In vitro enzymatic assays of RocG showed that RocG has higher affinity for 2-oxoglutarate than glutamate, and the glutamate synthesis rate was far above degradation. This is probably the first study to reveal the glutamic acid synthesis pathway and the specific functions of RocG in B. licheniformis. The results indicate that γ-PGA production can be enhanced through improving intracellular glutamic acid synthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Glutamine and glutamate as vital metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newsholme P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose is widely accepted as the primary nutrient for the maintenance and promotion of cell function. This metabolite leads to production of ATP, NADPH and precursors for the synthesis of macromolecules such as nucleic acids and phospholipids. We propose that, in addition to glucose, the 5-carbon amino acids glutamine and glutamate should be considered to be equally important for maintenance and promotion of cell function. The functions of glutamine/glutamate are many, i.e., they are substrates for protein synthesis, anabolic precursors for muscle growth, they regulate acid-base balance in the kidney, they are substrates for ureagenesis in the liver and for hepatic and renal gluconeogenesis, they act as an oxidative fuel for the intestine and cells of the immune system, provide inter-organ nitrogen transport, and act as precursors of neurotransmitter synthesis, of nucleotide and nucleic acid synthesis and of glutathione production. Many of these functions are interrelated with glucose metabolism. The specialized aspects of glutamine/glutamate metabolism of different glutamine-utilizing cells are discussed in the context of glucose requirements and cell function.

  8. Sensory-Evoked Intrinsic Imaging Signals in the Olfactory Bulb Are Independent of Neurovascular Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Vincis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Functional brain-imaging techniques used in humans and animals, such as functional MRI and intrinsic optical signal (IOS imaging, are thought to largely rely on neurovascular coupling and hemodynamic responses. Here, taking advantage of the well-described micro-architecture of the mouse olfactory bulb, we dissected the nature of odor-evoked IOSs. Using in vivo pharmacology in transgenic mouse lines reporting activity in different cell types, we show that parenchymal IOSs are largely independent of neurotransmitter release and neurovascular coupling. Furthermore, our results suggest that odor-evoked parenchymal IOSs originate from changes in light scattering of olfactory sensory neuron axons, mostly due to water movement following action potential propagation. Our study sheds light on a direct correlate of neuronal activity, which may be used for large-scale functional brain imaging.

  9. Potentiation of lead-induced cell death in PC12 cells by glutamate: Protection by N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA), a novel thiol antioxidant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penugonda, Suman; Mare, Suneetha; Lutz, P.; Banks, William A.; Ercal, Nuran

    2006-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated as an important factor in many neurological diseases. Oxidative toxicity in a number of these conditions is induced by excessive glutamate release and subsequent glutamatergic neuronal stimulation. This, in turn, causes increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, and neuronal damage. Recent studies indicate that the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system is involved in lead-induced neurotoxicity. Therefore, this study aimed to (1) investigate the potential effects of glutamate on lead-induced PC12 cell death and (2) elucidate whether the novel thiol antioxidant N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA) had any protective abilities against such cytotoxicity. Our results suggest that glutamate (1 mM) potentiates lead-induced cytotoxicity by increased generation of ROS, decreased proliferation (MTS), decreased glutathione (GSH) levels, and depletion of cellular adenosine-triphosphate (ATP). Consistent with its ability to decrease ATP levels and induce cell death, lead also increased caspase-3 activity, an effect potentiated by glutamate. Exposure to glutamate and lead elevated the cellular malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and phospholipase-A 2 (PLA 2 ) activity and diminished the glutamine synthetase (GS) activity. NACA protected PC12 cells from the cytotoxic effects of glutamate plus lead, as evaluated by MTS assay. NACA reduced the decrease in the cellular ATP levels and restored the intracellular GSH levels. The increased levels of ROS and MDA in glutamate-lead treated cells were significantly decreased by NACA. In conclusion, our data showed that glutamate potentiated the effects of lead-induced PC12 cell death by a mechanism involving mitochondrial dysfunction (ATP depletion) and oxidative stress. NACA had a protective role against the combined toxic effects of glutamate and lead by inhibiting lipid peroxidation and scavenging ROS, thus preserving intracellular GSH

  10. Speech Evoked Auditory Brainstem Response in Stuttering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Tahaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory processing deficits have been hypothesized as an underlying mechanism for stuttering. Previous studies have demonstrated abnormal responses in subjects with persistent developmental stuttering (PDS at the higher level of the central auditory system using speech stimuli. Recently, the potential usefulness of speech evoked auditory brainstem responses in central auditory processing disorders has been emphasized. The current study used the speech evoked ABR to investigate the hypothesis that subjects with PDS have specific auditory perceptual dysfunction. Objectives. To determine whether brainstem responses to speech stimuli differ between PDS subjects and normal fluent speakers. Methods. Twenty-five subjects with PDS participated in this study. The speech-ABRs were elicited by the 5-formant synthesized syllable/da/, with duration of 40 ms. Results. There were significant group differences for the onset and offset transient peaks. Subjects with PDS had longer latencies for the onset and offset peaks relative to the control group. Conclusions. Subjects with PDS showed a deficient neural timing in the early stages of the auditory pathway consistent with temporal processing deficits and their abnormal timing may underlie to their disfluency.

  11. Interaural difference values of vestibular evoked myogenic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziyeh Moallemi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Migraine is a neurologic disease, which often is associated with a unilateral headache. Vestibular abnormalities are common in migraine. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs assess otolith function in particular functional integrity of the saccule and the inferior vestibular nerve. We used VEMP to evaluate if the migraine headache can affect VEMP asymmetry parameters. A total of 25 patients with migraine (22 females and 3 males who were diagnosed according to the criteria of IHS-1988 were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Control group consisted of 26 healthy participants (18 female and 8 male, without neurotological symptoms and history of migraine. The short tone burst (95 dB nHL, 500 Hz was presented to ears. VEMP was recorded with surface electromyography over the contracted ipsilateral sternocleidomastoid (SCM muscle. Although current results showed that the amplitude ratio is greater in migraine patients than normal group, there was no statistical difference between two groups in mean asymmetry parameters of VEMP. Asymmetry measurements in vestibular evoked myogenic potentials probably are not indicators of unilateral deficient in saccular pathways of migraine patients.

  12. Laser-evoked coloration in polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, H.Y.; Rosseinsky, David; Lim, G.C.

    2005-01-01

    Laser-evoked coloration in polymers has long been a major aim of polymer technology for potential applications in product surface decoration, marking personalised images and logos. However, the coloration results reported so far were mostly attributed to laser-induced thermal-chemical reactions. The laser-irradiated areas are characterized with grooves due to material removal. Furthermore, only single color was laser-induced in any given polymer matrix. To induce multiple colors in a given polymer matrix with no apparent surface material removal is most desirable and challenging and may be achieved through laser-induced photo-chemical reactions. However, little public information is available at present. We report that two colors of red and green have been produced on an initially transparent CPV/PVA samples through UV laser-induced photo-chemical reactions. This is believed the first observation of laser-induced multiple-colors in the given polymer matrix. It is believed that the colorants underwent photo-effected electron transfer with suitable electron donors from the polymers to change from colorless bipyridilium Bipm 2+ to the colored Bipm + species. The discovery may lead to new approaches to the development of laser-evoked multiple coloration in polymers

  13. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Almeida Nogueira da Gama

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP evaluates the integrity of the auditory pathways to the brainstem. The aim of this study was to evoke BAEPs in 21 clinically normal horses. The animals were sedated with detomidine hydrochloride (0.013mg.kg-1 BW. Earphones were inserted and rarefaction clicks at 90 dB and noise masking at 40 dB were used. After performing the test, the latencies of waves (I, II, III, IV, and V and interpeaks(I-III, III-V, and I-V were identified. The mean latencies of the waves were as follows: wave I, 2.4 ms; wave II, 2.24 ms; wave III, 3.61ms; wave IV, 4.61ms; and wave V, 5.49ms. The mean latencies of the interpeaks were as follows: I-III, 1.37ms; III-V, 1.88ms; and I-V, 3.26ms. This is the first study using BAEPs in horses in Brazil, and the observed latencies will be used as normative data for the interpretation of tests performed on horses with changes related to auditory system or neurologic abnormalities.

  14. Pattern visual evoked potentials in malingering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, A; Akio, T; Matsuda, E; Wakami, Y

    2001-03-01

    We previously developed a new method for estimating objective visual acuity by means of pattern visual evoked potentials (PVEP). In this study, this method was applied to the diagnosis of malingering. Six patients ranging in age from 40 to 54 years (mean 47 years) with suspected malingering were evaluated by means of the visual evoked potential test, optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) inhibition test, and the visual field test. In the PVEP study, the stimulus consisted of black and white checkerboards (39', 26', 15', and 9') with a visual angle of 8 degrees, contrast level of 15%, and a frequency of 0.7 Hz. One hundred PVEP responses were averaged per session. Routine ophthalmic examinations were normal in all patients. Five patients had a tubularly constricted visual field, and the remaining patient had a normal visual field. The objective visual acuities of the six patients estimated from PVEP were better than their subjective visual acuities estimated with Landolt rings. Among a variety of psychophysical and electrophysiologic ancillary tests, we consider our PVEP method a useful method for objectively determining visual acuity in a patient with signs of ocular malingering.

  15. Evoked potentials in pediatric cerebral malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minal Bhanushali

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cortical evoked potentials (EP provide localized data regarding brain function and may offer prognostic information and insights into the pathologic mechanisms of malariamediated cerebral injury. As part of a prospective cohort study, we obtained somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs and brainstem auditory EPs (AEPs within 24 hours of admission on 27 consecutive children admitted with cerebral malaria (CM. Children underwent follow-up for 12 months to determine if they had any long term neurologic sequelae. EPs were obtained in 27 pediatric CM admissions. Two children died. Among survivors followed an average of 514 days, 7/25 (28.0% had at least one adverse neurologic outcome. Only a single subject had absent cortical EPs on admission and this child had a good neurologic outcome. Among pediatric CM survivors, cortical EPs are generally intact and do not predict adverse neurologic outcomes. Further study is needed to determine if alterations in cortical EPs can be used to predict a fatal outcome in CM.

  16. Music-evoked emotions in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Daijyu; Arai, Makoto; Itokawa, Masanari

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies have reported that people with schizophrenia have impaired musical abilities. Here we developed a simple music-based assay to assess patient's ability to associate a minor chord with sadness. We further characterize correlations between impaired musical responses and psychiatric symptoms. We exposed participants sequentially to two sets of sound stimuli, first a C-major progression and chord, and second a C-minor progression and chord. Participants were asked which stimulus they associated with sadness, the first set, the second set, or neither. The severity of psychiatric symptoms was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Study participants were 29 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 29 healthy volunteers matched in age, gender and musical background. 37.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]:19.1-56.7) of patients with schizophrenia associated the minor chord set as sad, compared with 97.9% (95%CI: 89.5-103.6) of controls. Four patients were diagnosed with treatment-resistant schizophrenia, and all four failed to associate the minor chord with sadness. Patients who did not recognize minor chords as sad had significantly higher scores on all PANSS subscales. A simple test allows music-evoked emotions to be assessed in schizophrenia patient, and may show potential relationships between music-evoked emotions and psychiatric symptoms. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Measuring endogenous 5-HT release by emission tomography: promises and pitfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paterson, Louise M; Tyacke, Robin J; Nutt, David J

    2010-01-01

    Molecular in vivo neuroimaging techniques can be used to measure regional changes in endogenous neurotransmitters, evoked by challenges that alter synaptic neurotransmitter concentration. This technique has most successfully been applied to the study of endogenous dopamine release using positron ...

  18. Cholinergic activation of neurons in the medulla oblongata changes urinary bladder activity by plasma vasopressin release in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafarchio, Eduardo M; da Silva, Luiz A; Auresco, Luciana C; Ogihara, Cristiana A; Almeida, Roberto L; Giannocco, Gisele; Luz, Maria C B; Fonseca, Fernando L A; Sato, Monica A

    2016-04-05

    The central control of the micturition is dependent on cortical areas and other ascending and descending pathways in the brain stem. The descendent pathways from the pons to the urinary bladder (UB) can be direct or indirect through medullary neurons (MN). Chemical stimulation with l-glutamate of MN known for their involvement in cardiovascular regulation evokes changes in pelvic nerves activities, which innervate the urinary bladder. Different neurotransmitters have been found in medullary areas; nevertheless, their involvement in UB control is few understood. We focused to investigate if cholinergic activation of neurons in the medulla oblongata changes the urinary bladder activity. Carbachol (cholinergic agonist) or atropine (cholinergic antagonist) was injected into the 4thV in anesthetized female Wistar rats and the intravesical pressure (IP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and renal conductance (RC) were recorded for 30 min. Carbachol injection into the 4thV increased IP with peak response at 30 min after carbachol and yielded no changes in MAP, HR and RC. Atropine injection into the 4thV decreased IP and elicited no changes in MAP, HR and RC. Plasma vasopressin levels evaluated by ELISA kit assay increased after carbachol into the 4th V. Intravenous blockade of V1 receptors prior to carbachol into the 4thV abolished the increase in IP evoked by carbachol. Therefore, our findings suggest that cholinergic activation of neurons in the medulla oblongata by carbachol injections into the 4thV increases IP due to plasma vasopressin release, which acts in V1 receptors in the UB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Determination of glutamic acid in biological material by capillary electrophoresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narezhnaya, E; Krukier, I; Avrutskaya, V; Degtyareva, A; Igumnova, E A

    2015-01-01

    The conditions for the identification and determination of Glutamic acid by capillary zone electrophoresis without their preliminary derivatization have been optimized. The effect of concentration of buffer electrolyte and pH on determination of Glutamic acid has been investigated. It is shown that the 5 Mm borate buffer concentration and a pH 9.15 are optimal. Quantitative determination of glutamic acid has been carried out using a linear dependence between the concentration of the analyte and the area of the peak. The accuracy and reproducibility of the determination are confirmed by the method "introduced - found". Glutamic acid has been determined in the placenta homogenate. The duration of analysis doesn't exceed 30 minutes. The results showed a decrease in the level of glutamic acid in cases of pregnancy complicated by placental insufficiency compared with the physiological, and this fact allows to consider the level of glutamic acid as a possible marker of complicated pregnancy.

  20. Tolerance to LSD and DOB induced shaking behaviour: differential adaptations of frontocortical 5-HT(2A) and glutamate receptor binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchborn, Tobias; Schröder, Helmut; Dieterich, Daniela C; Grecksch, Gisela; Höllt, Volker

    2015-03-15

    Serotonergic hallucinogens, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and dimethoxy-bromoamphetamine (DOB), provoke stereotype-like shaking behaviour in rodents, which is hypothesised to engage frontocortical glutamate receptor activation secondary to serotonin2A (5-HT2A) related glutamate release. Challenging this hypothesis, we here investigate whether tolerance to LSD and DOB correlates with frontocortical adaptations of 5-HT2A and/or overall-glutamate binding sites. LSD and DOB (0.025 and 0.25 mg/kg, i.p.) induce a ketanserin-sensitive (0.5 mg/kg, i.p., 30-min pretreatment) increase in shaking behaviour (including head twitches and wet dog shakes), which with repeated application (7× in 4 ds) is undermined by tolerance. Tolerance to DOB, as indexed by DOB-sensitive [(3)H]spiroperidol and DOB induced [(35)S]GTP-gamma-S binding, is accompanied by a frontocortical decrease in 5-HT2A binding sites and 5-HT2 signalling, respectively; glutamate-sensitive [(3)H]glutamate binding sites, in contrast, remain unchanged. As to LSD, 5-HT2 signalling and 5-HT2A binding, respectively, are not or only marginally affected, yet [(3)H]glutamate binding is significantly decreased. Correlation analysis interrelates tolerance to DOB to the reduced 5-HT2A (r=.80) as well as the unchanged [(3)H]glutamate binding sites (r=.84); tolerance to LSD, as opposed, shares variance with the reduction in [(3)H]glutamate binding sites only (r=.86). Given that DOB and LSD both induce tolerance, one correlating with 5-HT2A, the other with glutamate receptor adaptations, it might be inferred that tolerance can arise at either level. That is, if a hallucinogen (like LSD in our study) fails to induce 5-HT2A (down-)regulation, glutamate receptors (activated postsynaptic to 5-HT2A related glutamate release) might instead adapt and thus prevent further overstimulation of the cortex. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Synergy by secretory phospholipase A2 and glutamate on inducing cell death and sustained arachidonic acid metabolic changes in primary cortical neuronal cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolko, M; DeCoster, M A; de Turco, E B

    1996-01-01

    glutamate and sPLA2 from bee venom. sPLA2, at concentrations eliciting low neurotoxicity (acid into triacylglycerols. Free [3H]arachidonic acid accumulated at higher enzyme concentrations......, from Taipan snake venom. The NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 blocked glutamate effects and partially inhibited sPLA2 OS2 but not sPLA2 from bee venom-induced arachidonic acid release. Thus, the synergy with glutamate and very low concentrations of exogenously added sPLA2 suggests a potential role......Secretory and cytosolic phospholipases A2 (sPLA2 and cPLA2) may contribute to the release of arachidonic acid and other bioactive lipids, which are modulators of synaptic function. In primary cortical neuron cultures, neurotoxic cell death and [3H]arachidonate metabolism was studied after adding...

  2. Alleviation of glutamate mediated neuronal insult by piroxicam in rodent model of focal cerebral ischemia: a possible mechanism of GABA agonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Pallab; Pandey, Anand Kumar; Paul, Sudip; Patnaik, Ranjana

    2014-12-01

    Neurotransmitter imbalance is an inevitable outcome in cerebral ischemia that leads to neuronal death. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of piroxicam, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), on extracellular brain glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release, survival time, and neuronal cell death. Transient focal cerebral ischemia in male Charles Foster rat led to neuronal infarction and compromised intrinsic antioxidant status. Thirty-minute preadministration of piroxicam (10 mg/kg b.w.) showed a significant (P piroxicam administration in stroke rat significantly reduced (P piroxicam attenuates extracellular glutamate release and also reduces neuronal cell death due to reduction in oxidative stress in cerebral ischemia. Our results also indicate a consequent increase of extracellular GABA in brain regions administered with piroxicam, which hints that piroxicam alleviates glutamate excitotoxicity possibly by GABA agonism.

  3. Deletion of glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (Glud1) in the central nervous system affects glutamate handling without altering synaptic transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigerio, Francesca; Karaca, Melis; De Roo, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), encoded by GLUD1, participates in the breakdown and synthesis of glutamate, the main excitatory neurotransmitter. In the CNS, besides its primary signaling function, glutamate is also at the crossroad of metabolic and neurotransmitter pathways. Importance of brain GDH...... was questioned here by generation of CNS-specific GDH-null mice (CnsGlud1(-/-)); which were viable, fertile and without apparent behavioral problems. GDH immunoreactivity as well as enzymatic activity were absent in Cns-Glud1(-/-) brains. Immunohistochemical analyses on brain sections revealed that the pyramidal...... oxidative catabolism of glutamate in astrocytes, showing that GDH is required for Krebs cycle pathway. As revealed by NMR studies, brain glutamate levels remained unchanged, whereas glutamine levels were increased. This pattern was favored by up-regulation of astrocyte-type glutamate and glutamine...

  4. Music evokes vicarious emotions in listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Ai; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Why do we listen to sad music? We seek to answer this question using a psychological approach. It is possible to distinguish perceived emotions from those that are experienced. Therefore, we hypothesized that, although sad music is perceived as sad, listeners actually feel (experience) pleasant emotions concurrent with sadness. This hypothesis was supported, which led us to question whether sadness in the context of art is truly an unpleasant emotion. While experiencing sadness may be unpleasant, it may also be somewhat pleasant when experienced in the context of art, for example, when listening to sad music. We consider musically evoked emotion vicarious, as we are not threatened when we experience it, in the way that we can be during the course of experiencing emotion in daily life. When we listen to sad music, we experience vicarious sadness. In this review, we propose two sides to sadness by suggesting vicarious emotion.

  5. Glutamate Water Gates in the Ion Binding Pocket of Na(+) Bound Na(+), K(+)-ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Minwoo; Kopec, Wojciech; Solov'yov, Ilia A

    2017-01-01

    III is always protonated. Glutamic acid residues in the three binding sites act as water gates, and their deprotonation triggers water entry to the binding sites. From DFT calculations of Na(+) binding energies, we conclude that three protons in the binding site are needed to effectively bind Na......The dynamically changing protonation states of the six acidic amino acid residues in the ion binding pocket of the Na(+), K(+) -ATPase (NKA) during the ion transport cycle are proposed to drive ion binding, release and possibly determine Na(+) or K(+) selectivity. We use molecular dynamics (MD......(+) from water and four are needed to release them in the next step. Protonation of Asp926 in site III will induce Na(+) release, and Glu327, Glu954 and Glu779 are all likely to be protonated in the Na(+) bound occluded conformation. Our data provides key insights into the role of protons in the Na...

  6. Running Reduces Uncontrollable Stress-Evoked Serotonin and Potentiates Stress-Evoked Dopamine Concentrations in the Rat Dorsal Striatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Clark

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence from both the human and animal literature indicates that exercise reduces the negative consequences of stress. The neurobiological etiology for this stress protection, however, is not completely understood. Our lab reported that voluntary wheel running protects rats from expressing depression-like instrumental learning deficits on the shuttle box escape task after exposure to unpredictable and inescapable tail shocks (uncontrollable stress. Impaired escape behavior is a result of stress-sensitized serotonin (5-HT neuron activity in the dorsal raphe (DRN and subsequent excessive release of 5-HT into the dorsal striatum following exposure to a comparatively mild stressor. However, the possible mechanisms by which exercise prevents stress-induced escape deficits are not well characterized. The purpose of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that exercise blunts the stress-evoked release of 5-HT in the dorsal striatum. Changes to dopamine (DA levels were also examined, since striatal DA signaling is critical for instrumental learning and can be influenced by changes to 5-HT activity. Adult male F344 rats, housed with or without running wheels for 6 weeks, were either exposed to tail shock or remained undisturbed in laboratory cages. Twenty-four hours later, microdialysis was performed in the medial (DMS and lateral (DLS dorsal striatum to collect extracellular 5-HT and DA before, during, and following 2 mild foot shocks. We report wheel running prevents foot shock-induced elevation of extracellular 5-HT and potentiates DA concentrations in both the DMS and DLS approximately 24 h following exposure to uncontrollable stress. These data may provide a possible mechanism by which exercise prevents depression-like instrumental learning deficits following exposure to acute stress.

  7. Influence of the glutamic acid content of the diet on the catabolic rate of labelled glutamic acid in rats. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilke, A.; Simon, O.; Bergner, H.

    1984-01-01

    40 rats with a body weight of 100 g received 7 semisynthetic diets with different contents of glutamic acid and one diet contained whole-egg. A L-amino acid mixture corresponding to the pattern of egg protein was the protein source of the semisynthetic diets. Glutamic acid was supplemented succesively from 0 to 58 mol-% of the total amino acid content. On the 8th day of the experimental feeding the animals were labelled by subcutaneous injection of 14 C-glutamic acid. Subsequently the CO 2 and the 14 CO 2 excretion were measured for 24 hours. In this period 64 to 68 % of the injected radioactivity were recovered as 14 CO 2 . The curve pattern of 14 CO 2 excretion indicates two different processes of 14 CO 2 formation. One characterizing the direct degradation of glutamic acid to CO 2 with a high rate constant and a second one with a lower rate constant characterizing the 14 CO 2 formation via metabolites of glutamic acid. 77 % of the total 14 CO 2 excretion in 24 hours resulted from the direct oxidation of glutamic acid and 23 % from the oxidation of intermediates. When 14 CO 2 formation was measured 10 to 24 hours after injection of 14 C-glutamic acid a positive correlation to the content of glutamic acid in the diet was observed. The intestinal tissue contributes considerably to the catabolization of glutamic acid, however, there seems to exist an upper limit for this capacity. (author)

  8. Effect of Low Level Laser Irradiation at Wavelengths 488 and 515 nm on Glutamate Neurotransmitter in Mitochondria of Visual Brain Cortex in Albino Rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omran, M.F.; El-Ahdal, M.A.; El-Kady, M.H.; Yousri, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    The presence of glutamate in the visual cortex and mitochondria could be used as a measure for the argon laser effect having wavelengths 488 and 515 nm, on the mitochondria. A comparative response for the bound and free glutamate was found. Irradiation with different energies 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 J for both wavelengths were accomplished. This study makes us to recommend the advantage of using argon laser having wavelength 515 nm to enhance the blocking of glutamate and hence the reduction of brain toxicity. Most of the energy required for cellular functions comes from mitochondria (Shepherd, 1994). Glutamate, which is present in central nervous system at very high level is essential for brain intermediary metabolism (Frazer et al., 1994; Meldrum et al., 2000 and Blumcke et al., 2000). Glutamate is enriched in synaptic vesicles, the subcellular organelles, which are associated with the storage and release of neurotransmitters. Also, biochemical evidence for glutamate as neurotransmitter in fibers from the visual cortex to the subcortical visual relay nuclei has been indicated (Fose and Fonnum, 1987 and George, 1998)

  9. Glutamic Acid Residues in HIV-1 p6 Regulate Virus Budding and Membrane Association of Gag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Melanie; Setz, Christian; Hahn, Friedrich; Matthaei, Alina; Fraedrich, Kirsten; Rauch, Pia; Henklein, Petra; Traxdorf, Maximilian; Fossen, Torgils; Schubert, Ulrich

    2016-04-25

    The HIV-1 Gag p6 protein regulates the final abscission step of nascent virions from the cell membrane by the action of its two late (L-) domains, which recruit Tsg101 and ALIX, components of the ESCRT system. Even though p6 consists of only 52 amino acids, it is encoded by one of the most polymorphic regions of the HIV-1 gag gene and undergoes various posttranslational modifications including sumoylation, ubiquitination, and phosphorylation. In addition, it mediates the incorporation of the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr into budding virions. Despite its small size, p6 exhibits an unusually high charge density. In this study, we show that mutation of the conserved glutamic acids within p6 increases the membrane association of Pr55 Gag followed by enhanced polyubiquitination and MHC-I antigen presentation of Gag-derived epitopes, possibly due to prolonged exposure to membrane bound E3 ligases. The replication capacity of the total glutamic acid mutant E0A was almost completely impaired, which was accompanied by defective virus release that could not be rescued by ALIX overexpression. Altogether, our data indicate that the glutamic acids within p6 contribute to the late steps of viral replication and may contribute to the interaction of Gag with the plasma membrane.

  10. Protective effect of cinnamaldehyde against glutamate-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Chao; Yuan, Xing; Zeng, Hua-Wu; Liu, Run-Hui; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2017-11-15

    Cinnamaldehyde is a main ingredient of cinnamon oils from the stem bark of Cinnamomum cassia, which has been widely used in food and traditional herbal medicine in Asia. In the present study, the neuroprotective effects and the potential mechanisms of cinnamaldehyde against glutamate-induced oxidative stress in PC12 cells were investigated. Exposure to 4mM glutamate altered the GSH, MDA levels and SOD activity, caused the generation of reactive oxygen species, resulted in the induction of oxidative stress in PC12 cell, ultimately induced cell death. However, pretreatment with cinnamaldehyde at 5, 10 and 20μM significantly attenuated cell viability loss, reduced the generation of reactive oxygen species, stabilised mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), decreased the release of cytochrome c and limited the activities of caspase-9 and -3. In addition, cinnamaldehyde also markedly increased Bcl-2 while inhibiting Bax expression,and decreased the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio. These results indicate that cinnamaldehyde exists a potential protective effect against glutamate-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in PC12 cells. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Inducible nitric oxide inhibitors block NMDA antagonist-stimulated motoric behaviors and medial prefrontal cortical glutamate efflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadley C Bergstrom

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO plays a critical role in the motoric and glutamate releasing action of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA-antagonist stimulants. Earlier studies utilized neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors (nNOS for studying the neurobehavioral effects of noncompetitive NMDA-antagonist stimulants such as dizocilpine (MK-801 and phencyclidine (PCP. This study explores the role of the inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors (iNOS aminoguanidine (AG and (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG in NMDA-antagonist induced motoric behavior and prefrontal cortical glutamate efflux. Adult male rats were administered a dose range of AG, EGCG or vehicle prior to receiving NMDA antagonists MK-801, PCP or a conventional psychostimulant (cocaine and tested for motoric behavior in an open arena. Glutamate in the medial prefrontal cortex was measured using in vivo microdialysis after a combination of AG or EGCG prior to MK-801. Acute administration of AG or EGCG dose-dependently attenuated the locomotor and ataxic properties of MK-801 and PCP. Both AG and EGCG were unable to block the motoric effects of cocaine, indicating the acute pharmacologic action of AG and EGCG is specific to NMDA antagonism and not generalizable to all stimulant class drugs. AG and EGCG normalized MK-801-stimulated medial prefrontal cortical glutamate efflux. These data demonstrate that AG and EGCG attenuates NMDA antagonist-stimulated motoric behavior and cortical glutamate efflux. Our results suggest that EGCG-like polyphenol nutraceuticals (contained in green tea and chocolate may be clinically useful in protecting against the adverse behavioral dissociative and cortical glutamate stimulating effects of NMDA antagonists. Medications that interfere with NMDA antagonists such as MK-801 and PCP have been proposed as treatments for schizophrenia.

  12. Effect of biotin on transcription levels of key enzymes and glutamate efflux in glutamate fermentation by Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yan; Duan, Zuoying; Shi, Zhongping

    2014-02-01

    Biotin is an important factor affecting the performance of glutamate fermentation by biotin auxotrophic Corynebacterium glutamicum and glutamate is over-produced only when initial biotin content is controlled at suitable levels or initial biotin is excessive but with Tween 40 addition during fermentation. The transcription levels of key enzymes at pyruvate, isocitrate and α-ketoglutarate metabolic nodes, as well as transport protein (TP) of glutamate were investigated under the conditions of varied biotin contents and Tween 40 supplementation. When biotin was insufficient, the genes encoding key enzymes and TP were down-regulated in the early production phase, in particular, the transcription level of isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) which was only 2% of that of control. Although the cells' morphology transformation and TP level were not affected, low transcription level of ICDH led to lower final glutamate concentration (64 g/L). When biotin was excessive, the transcription levels of key enzymes were at comparable levels as those of control with ICDH as an exception, which was only 3-22% of control level throughout production phase. In this case, little intracellular glutamate accumulation (1.5 mg/g DCW) and impermeable membrane resulted in non glutamate secretion into broth, even though the quantity of TP was more than 10-folds of control level. Addition of Tween 40 when biotin was excessive stimulated the expression of all key enzymes and TP, intracellular glutamate content was much higher (10-12 mg/g DCW), and final glutamate concentration reached control level (75-80 g/L). Hence, the membrane alteration and TP were indispensable in glutamate secretion. Biotin and Tween 40 influenced the expression level of ICDH and glutamate efflux, thereby influencing glutamate production.

  13. Influence of the glutamic acid content of the diet on the catabolic rate of labelled glutamic acid in rats. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, O.; Wilke, A.; Bergner, H.

    1984-01-01

    Mal rats received during a 8 days experimental feeding period diets with different contents in glutamic acid. The daily feed intake was restricted to the energy maintenance level of 460 kJ/kg/sup 0.75/. The diet contained a mixture of L-amino acids corresponding to the pattern of egg protein except glutamic acid. Glutamic acid was added successively at 10 levels (0 to 14.8 % of dry matter) and the resulting diets were fed to groups of 4 animals each. At the end of the experimental feeding period 14 C- and 15 N-labelled glutamic acid were applied by intragastric infusion. CO 2 and 14 CO 2 excretion was measured during the following 4 hours and the urinary N and 15 N excretion during the following 24 hours. The CO 2 excretion decreased from 53 to 44 mmol CO 2 /100g body weight with increasing levels of dietary glutamic acid. This change seems to result from the increasing proportion of amino acids as an energetic fuel. While the amount of oxidized glutamic acid increased with increasing supplements of glutamic acid the relative 14 CO 2 excretion decreased from 57 to 48 % of the applied radioactivity. The urinary 15 N excretion during 24 hours was 31 % of the given amount of 15 N if no glutamic acid was included in the diet. This proportion increased successively up to 52 % in the case of the highest supply of glutamic acid. Because the total N excretion increased at the same extent as the 15 N excretion a complete mixing of the NH 2 groups resulting from glutamic acid due to desamination with the ammonia pool was assumed. No correlation between glutamic acid content of the diet and specific radioactivity of CO 2 or atom-% 15 N excess of urinary N was observed. (author)

  14. 78 FR 76321 - Monosodium Glutamate From China and Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... (Preliminary)] Monosodium Glutamate From China and Indonesia Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... injured by reason of imports from China and Indonesia of monosodium glutamate, provided for in subheading... United States at less than fair value (LTFV) and subsidized by the Governments of China and Indonesia. \\1...

  15. Surface grafting of poly(L-glutamates). 3. Block copolymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, RH; Siesling, EA; Werkman, PJ; Vorenkamp, EJ; Schouten, AJ

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes for the first time the synthesis of surface-grafted AB-block copolypeptides, consisting of poly(gamma -benzyl L-glutamate) (PBLG) as the A-block and poly(gamma -methyl L-glutamate) (PMLG) as the B-block. Immobilized primary amine groups of (,gamma -aminopropyl)triethoxysilane

  16. Microscopic picture of the aqueous solvation of glutamic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, E.J.M.; Bolhuis, P.G.; Meijer, E.J.

    2008-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics simulations of glutamic acid and glutamate solvated in water, using both density functional theory (DFT) and the Gromos96 force field. We focus on the microscopic aspects of the solvation−particularly on the hydrogen bond structures and dynamics−and investigate the

  17. probing the cob(ii)alamin conductor hypothesis with glutamate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    Glutamate mutase activity was also demonstrated upon incubation of GlmS and E with 3',5'- ... overproduced in E.coli (Huhta et al. 2001,. Huhta et ..... Biochemistry. 37: 9704-9715. Buckel W 2001 Unusual enzymes involved in five pathways of glutamate fermentation. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 57: 263-273. Buckel W and ...

  18. Is glutamate involved in transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirsch, D. P.; Tytgat, G. N. J.; Boeckxstaens, G. E. E.

    2002-01-01

    Glutamate is an important excitatory amino acid and plays a major role in brain stem neurotransmission. Although the effect of glutamate on esophaoreal motility is well studied, its role in the triggering of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs) remains to be determined.

  19. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13...

  20. Role of the autonomic nervous system and baroreflex in stress-evoked cardiovascular responses in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Daniel Gustavo; Fortaleza, Eduardo Albino Trindade; Tavares, Rodrigo Fiacadori; Corrêa, Fernando Morgan Aguiar

    2014-07-01

    Restraint stress (RS) is an experimental model to study stress-related cardiovascular responses, characterized by sustained pressor and tachycardiac responses. We used pharmacologic and surgical procedures to investigate the role played by sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) in the mediation of stress-evoked cardiovascular responses. Ganglionic blockade with pentolinium significantly reduced RS-evoked pressor and tachycardiac responses. Intravenous treatment with homatropine methyl bromide did not affect the pressor response but increased tachycardia. Pretreatment with prazosin reduced the pressor and increased the tachycardiac response. Pretreatment with atenolol did not affect the pressor response but reduced tachycardia. The combined treatment with atenolol and prazosin reduced both pressor and tachycardiac responses. Adrenal demedullation reduced the pressor response without affecting tachycardia. Sinoaortic denervation increased pressor and tachycardiac responses. The results indicate that: (1) the RS-evoked cardiovascular response is mediated by the autonomic nervous system without an important involvement of humoral factors; (2) hypertension results primarily from sympathovascular and sympathoadrenal activation, without a significant involvement of the cardiac sympathetic component (CSNS); (3) the abrupt initial peak in the hypertensive response to restraint is sympathovascular-mediated, whereas the less intense but sustained hypertensive response observed throughout the remaining restraint session is mainly mediated by sympathoadrenal activation and epinephrine release; (4) tachycardia results from CSNS activation, and not from PSNS inhibition; (5) RS evokes simultaneous CSNS and PSNS activation, and heart rate changes are a vector of both influences; (6) the baroreflex is functional during restraint, and modulates both the vascular and cardiac responses to restraint.

  1. Serum Glutamic-Oxaloacetic Transaminase (GOT) and Glutamic-Pyruvic Transaminase (GPT) Levels in Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Pei-Ying; Chen, Li-Mei; Fang, Wen-Hui; Lin, Lan-Ping; Loh, Ching-Hui

    2010-01-01

    The elevated serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) rate among people with intellectual disabilities (ID) is unknown and have not been sufficiently studies. The present paper aims to provide the profile of GOT and GPT, and their associated relationship with other biochemical levels of children or…

  2. Psychological and physiological responses to odor-evoked autobiographic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Isowa, Tokiko; Yamakawa, Kaori; Kawanishi, Yoko; Tsuboi, Hirohito; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Sadato, Norihiro; Oshida, Akiko; Katayama, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Mitsuyoshi; Ohira, Hideki

    2011-01-01

    The "Proust phenomenon" occurs when a certain smell evokes a specific memory. Recent studies have demonstrated that odor-evoked autobiographic memories are more emotional than those elicited by other sensory stimuli because of the direct neural communication between the olfactory system and the amygdala. The amygdala is known to regulate various physiological activities including the endocrine and immune systems; therefore, odor-evoked autobiographic memory may trigger various psychological and physiological responses; however, the responses elicited by this memory remains obscure. In this study, we aimed to investigate the psychological and physiological responses accompanying odor-evoked autobiographic memory. We recruited healthy male and female volunteers and investigated changes in their mood states and autonomic nervous, endocrine, and immune activities when autobiographic memory was evoked in the participants by asking them to smell an odor(s) that was nostalgic to them. The autobiographic memories associated with positive emotion resulted in increased positive mood states, such as comfort and happiness, and decreased negative mood states, such as anxiety. Furthermore, heart rate was decreased, skin-conductance level was increased, and peripheral interleukin-2 level was decreased after smelling the nostalgic odor. These psychological and physiological responses were significantly correlated. The present study suggests that odor-evoked autobiographic memory along with a positive feeling induce various physiological responses, including the autonomic nervous and immune activities. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to observe an interaction between odor-evoked autobiographic memories and immune function.

  3. Visually Evoked Spiking Evolves While Spontaneous Ongoing Dynamics Persist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huys, Raoul; Jirsa, Viktor K.; Darokhan, Ziauddin; Valentiniene, Sonata; Roland, Per E.

    2016-01-01

    Neurons in the primary visual cortex spontaneously spike even when there are no visual stimuli. It is unknown whether the spiking evoked by visual stimuli is just a modification of the spontaneous ongoing cortical spiking dynamics or whether the spontaneous spiking state disappears and is replaced by evoked spiking. This study of laminar recordings of spontaneous spiking and visually evoked spiking of neurons in the ferret primary visual cortex shows that the spiking dynamics does not change: the spontaneous spiking as well as evoked spiking is controlled by a stable and persisting fixed point attractor. Its existence guarantees that evoked spiking return to the spontaneous state. However, the spontaneous ongoing spiking state and the visual evoked spiking states are qualitatively different and are separated by a threshold (separatrix). The functional advantage of this organization is that it avoids the need for a system reorganization following visual stimulation, and impedes the transition of spontaneous spiking to evoked spiking and the propagation of spontaneous spiking from layer 4 to layers 2–3. PMID:26778982

  4. Auditory evoked potential measurements in elasmobranchs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Brandon; Mann, David

    2005-04-01

    Auditory evoked potentials (AEP) were first used to examine hearing in elasmobranchs by Corwin and Bullock in the late 1970s and early 1980s, marking the first time AEPs had been measured in fishes. Results of these experiments identified the regions of the ear and brain in which sound is processed, though no actual hearing thresholds were measured. Those initial experiments provided the ground work for future AEP experiments to measure fish hearing abilities in a manner that is much faster and more convenient than classical conditioning. Data will be presented on recent experiments in which AEPs were used to measure the hearing thresholds of two species of elasmobranchs: the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum, and the yellow stingray, Urobatis jamaicencis. Audiograms were analyzed and compared to previously published audiograms obtained using classical conditioning with results indicating that hearing thresholds were similar for the two methods. These data suggest that AEP testing is a viable option when measuring hearing in elasmobranchs and can increase the speed in which future hearing measurements can be obtained.

  5. Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions in rock musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høydal, Erik Harry; Lein Størmer, Carl Christian; Laukli, Einar; Stenklev, Niels Christian

    2017-09-01

    Our focus in this study was the assessment of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) in a large group of rock musicians. A further objective was to analyse tinnitus among rock musicians as related to TEOAEs. The study was a cross-sectional survey of rock musicians selected at random. A control group was included at random for comparison. We recruited 111 musicians and a control group of 40 non-musicians. Testing was conducted by using clinical examination, pure tone audiometry, TEOAEs and a questionnaire. TEOAE SNR in the half-octave frequency band centred on 4 kHz was significantly lower bilaterally in musicians than controls. This effect was strongly predicted by age and pure-tone hearing threshold levels in the 3-6 kHz range. Bilateral hearing thresholds were significantly higher at 6 kHz in musicians. Twenty percent of the musicians had permanent tinnitus. There was no association between the TEOAE parameters and permanent tinnitus. Our results suggest an incipient hearing loss at 6 kHz in rock musicians. Loss of TEOAE SNR in the 4 kHz half-octave frequency band was observed, but it was related to higher mean 3-6 kHz hearing thresholds and age. A large proportion of rock musicians have permanent tinnitus.

  6. Deconvolution of the vestibular evoked myogenic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lütkenhöner, Bernd; Basel, Türker

    2012-02-07

    The vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) and the associated variance modulation can be understood by a convolution model. Two functions of time are incorporated into the model: the motor unit action potential (MUAP) of an average motor unit, and the temporal modulation of the MUAP rate of all contributing motor units, briefly called rate modulation. The latter is the function of interest, whereas the MUAP acts as a filter that distorts the information contained in the measured data. Here, it is shown how to recover the rate modulation by undoing the filtering using a deconvolution approach. The key aspects of our deconvolution algorithm are as follows: (1) the rate modulation is described in terms of just a few parameters; (2) the MUAP is calculated by Wiener deconvolution of the VEMP with the rate modulation; (3) the model parameters are optimized using a figure-of-merit function where the most important term quantifies the difference between measured and model-predicted variance modulation. The effectiveness of the algorithm is demonstrated with simulated data. An analysis of real data confirms the view that there are basically two components, which roughly correspond to the waves p13-n23 and n34-p44 of the VEMP. The rate modulation corresponding to the first, inhibitory component is much stronger than that corresponding to the second, excitatory component. But the latter is more extended so that the two modulations have almost the same equivalent rectangular duration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Surface electrical stimulation to evoke referred sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forst, Johanna C; Blok, Derek C; Slopsema, Julia P; Boss, John M; Heyboer, Lane A; Tobias, Carson M; Polasek, Katharine H

    2015-01-01

    Surface electrical stimulation (SES) is being investigated as a noninvasive method to evoke natural sensations distal to electrode location. This may improve treatment for phantom limb pain as well as provide an alternative method to deliver sensory feedback. The median and/or ulnar nerves of 35 subjects were stimulated at the elbow using surface electrodes. Strength-duration curves of hand sensation were found for each subject. All subjects experienced sensation in their hand, which was mostly described as a paresthesia-like sensation. The rheobase and chronaxie values were found to be lower for the median nerve than the ulnar nerve, with no significant difference between sexes. Repeated sessions with the same subject resulted in sufficient variability to suggest that recalculating the strength-duration curve for each electrode placement is necessary. Most of the recruitment curves in this study were generated with 28 to 36 data points. To quickly reproduce these curves with limited increase in error, we recommend 10 data points. Future studies will focus on obtaining different sensations using SES with the strength-duration curve defining the threshold of the effective parameter space.

  8. Delineation of glutamate pathways and secretory responses in pancreatic islets with ß-cell-specific abrogation of the glutamate dehydrogenase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vetterli, Laurene; Carobbio, Stefania; Pournourmohammadi, Shirin

    2012-01-01

    isolated from βGlud1(-/-) mice exhibited half of the response measured in control islets. The amplifying pathway, tested at stimulatory glucose concentrations in the presence of KCl and diazoxide, was markedly inhibited in βGlud1(-/-) islets. On glucose stimulation, net synthesis of glutamate from α......-ketoglutarate was impaired in GDH-deficient islets. Accordingly, glucose-induced elevation of glutamate levels observed in control islets was absent in βGlud1(-/-) islets. Parallel biochemical pathways, namely alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, could not compensate for the lack of GDH. However, the secretory response...... to glucose was fully restored by the provision of cellular glutamate when βGlud1(-/-) islets were exposed to dimethyl glutamate. This shows that permissive levels of glutamate are required for the full development of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and that GDH plays an indispensable role...

  9. The role of glutamate and its receptors in autism and the use of glutamate receptor antagonists in treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Donald C.

    2014-01-01

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and may be a key neurotransmitter involved in autism. Literature pertaining to glutamate and autism or related disorders (e.g., Fragile X syndrome) is reviewed in this article. Interest in glutamatergic dysfunction in autism is high due to increasing convergent evidence implicating the system in the disorder from peripheral biomarkers, neuroimaging, protein expression, genetics and animal models. Currently, there are no pharmaceutical interventions approved for autism that address glutamate deficits in the disorder. New treatments related to glutamatergic neurotransmission, however, are emerging. In addition, older glutamate-modulating medications with approved indications for use in other disorders are being investigated for re-tasking as treatments for autism. This review presents evidence in support of glutamate abnormalities in autism and the potential for translation into new treatments for the disorder. PMID:24752754

  10. BDNF regulates the expression and distribution of vesicular glutamate transporters in cultured hippocampal neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos V Melo

    Full Text Available BDNF is a pro-survival protein involved in neuronal development and synaptic plasticity. BDNF strengthens excitatory synapses and contributes to LTP, presynaptically, through enhancement of glutamate release, and postsynaptically, via phosphorylation of neurotransmitter receptors, modulation of receptor traffic and activation of the translation machinery. We examined whether BDNF upregulated vesicular glutamate receptor (VGLUT 1 and 2 expression, which would partly account for the increased glutamate release in LTP. Cultured rat hippocampal neurons were incubated with 100 ng/ml BDNF, for different periods of time, and VGLUT gene and protein expression were assessed by real-time PCR and immunoblotting, respectively. At DIV7, exogenous application of BDNF rapidly increased VGLUT2 mRNA and protein levels, in a dose-dependent manner. VGLUT1 expression also increased but only transiently. However, at DIV14, BDNF stably increased VGLUT1 expression, whilst VGLUT2 levels remained low. Transcription inhibition with actinomycin-D or α-amanitine, and translation inhibition with emetine or anisomycin, fully blocked BDNF-induced VGLUT upregulation. Fluorescence microscopy imaging showed that BDNF stimulation upregulates the number, integrated density and intensity of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 puncta in neurites of cultured hippocampal neurons (DIV7, indicating that the neurotrophin also affects the subcellular distribution of the transporter in developing neurons. Increased VGLUT1 somatic signals were also found 3 h after stimulation with BDNF, further suggesting an increased de novo transcription and translation. BDNF regulation of VGLUT expression was specifically mediated by BDNF, as no effect was found upon application of IGF-1 or bFGF, which activate other receptor tyrosine kinases. Moreover, inhibition of TrkB receptors with K252a and PLCγ signaling with U-73122 precluded BDNF-induced VGLUT upregulation. Hippocampal neurons express both isoforms during

  11. Depolarization-induced release of amino acids from the vestibular nuclear complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Donald A; Sun, Yizhe; Frisch, Christopher; Godfrey, Matthew A; Rubin, Allan M

    2012-04-01

    There is evidence from immunohistochemistry, quantitative microchemistry, and pharmacology for several amino acids as neurotransmitters in the vestibular nuclear complex (VNC), including glutamate, γ-aminobutyrate (GABA), and glycine. However, evidence from measurements of release has been limited. The purpose of this study was to measure depolarization-stimulated calcium-dependent release of amino acids from the VNC in brain slices. Coronal slices containing predominantly the VNC were prepared from rats and perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) in an interface chamber. Fluid was collected from the chamber just downstream from the VNC using a microsiphon. Depolarization was induced by 50 mM potassium in either control calcium and magnesium concentrations or reduced calcium and elevated magnesium. Amino acid concentrations in effluent fluid were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Glutamate release increased fivefold during depolarization in control calcium concentration and twofold in low calcium/high magnesium. These same ratios were 6 and 1.5 for GABA, 2 and 1.3 for glycine, and 2 and 1.5 for aspartate. Differences between release in control and low calcium/high magnesium ACSF were statistically significant for glutamate, GABA, and glycine. Glutamine release decreased during and after depolarization, and taurine release slowly increased. No evidence for calcium-dependent release was found for serine, glutamine, alanine, threonine, arginine, taurine, or tyrosine. Our results support glutamate and GABA as major neurotransmitters in the VNC. They also support glycine as a neurotransmitter and some function for taurine.

  12. Central amygdalar nucleus treated with orexin neuropeptides evoke differing feeding and grooming responses in the hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alò, Raffaella; Avolio, Ennio; Mele, Maria; Di Vito, Anna; Canonaco, Marcello

    2015-04-15

    Interaction of the orexinergic (ORXergic) neuronal system with the excitatory (glutamate, l-Glu) or the inhibitory (GABA) neurosignaling complexes evokes major homeostatic physiological events. In this study, effects of the two ORXergic neuropeptides (ORX-A/B) on their receptor (ORX-2R) expression changes were correlated to feeding and grooming actions of the hibernating hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). Infusion of the central amygdala nucleus (CeA) with ORX-A caused hamsters to consume notable quantities of food, while ORX-B accounted for a moderate increase. Interestingly the latter neuropeptide was responsible for greater frequencies of grooming with respect to both controls and the hamsters treated with ORX-A. These distinct behavioral changes turned out to be even greater in the presence of l-Glu agonist (NMDA) while the α1 GABAA receptor agonist (zolpidem, Zol) greatly reduced ORX-A-dependent feeding bouts. Moreover, ORX-A+NMDA mainly promoted greater ORX-2R expression levels with respect to ORX-A-treated hamsters while ORX-B+Zol was instead largely responsible for a down-regulatory trend. Overall, these features point to CeA ORX-2R sites as key sensory limbic elements capable of regulating eating and grooming responses, which may provide useful insights regarding the type of molecular mechanism(s) operating during feeding bouts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Glutamate and GABA in appetite regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cardoso Delgado

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Appetite is regulated by a coordinated interplay between gut, adipose tissue and brain. A primary site for the regulation of appetite is the hypothalamus where interaction between orexigenic neurons, expressing Neuropeptide Y/Agouti-related protein, and anorexigenic neurons, expressing Pro-opiomelanocortin cocaine/Amphetamine-related transcript, controls energy homeostasis. Within the hypothalamus, several peripheral signals have been shown to modulate the activity of these neurons, including the orexigenic peptide ghrelin and the anorexigenic hormones insulin and leptin. In addition to the accumulated knowledge on neuropeptide signaling, presence and function of amino acid neurotransmitters in key hypothalamic neurons brought a new light into appetite regulation. Therefore, the principal aim of this review will be to describe the current knowledge of the role of amino acid neurotransmitters in the mechanism of neuronal activation during appetite regulation and the associated neuronal-astrocytic metabolic coupling mechanisms.Glutamate and GABA dominate synaptic transmission in the hypothalamus and administration of their receptors agonists into hypothalamic nuclei stimulates feeding. By using 13C High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy based analysis, the Cerdán group has shown that increased neuronal firing in mice hypothalamus, as triggered by appetite during the feeding-fasting paradigm, may stimulate the use of lactate as neuronal fuel leading to increased astrocytic glucose consumption and glycolysis. Moreover, fasted mice showed increased hypothalamic [2-13C]GABA content, which may be explained by the existence of GABAergic neurons in key appetite regulation hypothalamic nuclei. Interestingly, increased [2-13C]GABA concentration in the hypothalamus of fasted animals appears to result mainly from reduction in GABA metabolizing pathways, rather than increased GABA synthesis by augmented activity of the

  14. Mechanisms underlying the neurotoxicity induced by glyphosate-based herbicide in immature rat hippocampus: Involvement of glutamate excitotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattani, Daiane; Oliveira Cavalli, Liz Vera Lúcia de; Heinz Rieg, Carla Elise; Domingues, Juliana Tonietto; Dal-Cim, Tharine; Tasca, Carla Inês; Mena Barreto Silva, Fátima Regina; Zamoner, Ariane

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Roundup ® induces Ca 2+ influx through L-VDCC and NMDA receptor activation. • The mechanisms underlying Roundup ® neurotoxicity involve glutamatergic excitotoxicity. • Kinase pathways participate in Roundup ® -induced neural toxicity. • Roundup ® alters glutamate uptake, release and metabolism in hippocampal cells. - Abstract: Previous studies demonstrate that glyphosate exposure is associated with oxidative damage and neurotoxicity. Therefore, the mechanism of glyphosate-induced neurotoxic effects needs to be determined. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Roundup ® (a glyphosate-based herbicide) leads to neurotoxicity in hippocampus of immature rats following acute (30 min) and chronic (pregnancy and lactation) pesticide exposure. Maternal exposure to pesticide was undertaken by treating dams orally with 1% Roundup ® (0.38% glyphosate) during pregnancy and lactation (till 15-day-old). Hippocampal slices from 15 day old rats were acutely exposed to Roundup ® (0.00005–0.1%) during 30 min and experiments were carried out to determine whether glyphosate affects 45 Ca 2+ influx and cell viability. Moreover, we investigated the pesticide effects on oxidative stress parameters, 14 C-α-methyl-amino-isobutyric acid ( 14 C-MeAIB) accumulation, as well as glutamate uptake, release and metabolism. Results showed that acute exposure to Roundup ® (30 min) increases 45 Ca 2+ influx by activating NMDA receptors and voltage-dependent Ca 2+ channels, leading to oxidative stress and neural cell death. The mechanisms underlying Roundup ® -induced neurotoxicity also involve the activation of CaMKII and ERK. Moreover, acute exposure to Roundup ® increased 3 H-glutamate released into the synaptic cleft, decreased GSH content and increased the lipoperoxidation, characterizing excitotoxicity and oxidative damage. We also observed that both acute and chronic exposure to Roundup ® decreased 3 H-glutamate uptake and

  15. IGF-1 Receptor Differentially Regulates Spontaneous and Evoked Transmission via Mitochondria at Hippocampal Synapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazit, Neta; Vertkin, Irena; Shapira, Ilana; Helm, Martin; Slomowitz, Edden; Sheiba, Maayan; Mor, Yael; Rizzoli, Silvio; Slutsky, Inna

    2016-01-01

    Summary The insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling is a key regulator of lifespan, growth, and development. While reduced IGF-1R signaling delays aging and Alzheimer’s disease progression, whether and how it regulates information processing at central synapses remains elusive. Here, we show that presynaptic IGF-1Rs are basally active, regulating synaptic vesicle release and short-term plasticity in excitatory hippocampal neurons. Acute IGF-1R blockade or transient knockdown suppresses spike-evoked synaptic transmission and presynaptic cytosolic Ca2+ transients, while promoting spontaneous transmission and resting Ca2+ level. This dual effect on transmitter release is mediated by mitochondria that attenuate Ca2+ buffering in the absence of spikes and decrease ATP production during spiking activity. We conclude that the mitochondria, activated by IGF-1R signaling, constitute a critical regulator of information processing in hippocampal neurons by maintaining evoked-to-spontaneous transmission ratio, while constraining synaptic facilitation at high frequencies. Excessive IGF-1R tone may contribute to hippocampal hyperactivity associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Video Abstract PMID:26804996

  16. Posttranslational Modification Biology of Glutamate Receptors and Drug Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Min eMao

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Posttranslational covalent modifications of glutamate receptors remain a hot topic. Early studies have established that this family of receptors, including almost all ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes, undergoes active phosphorylation at serine, threonine, or tyrosine residues on their intracellular domains. Recent evidence identifies several glutamate receptor subtypes to be direct substrates for palmitoylation at cysteine residues. Other modifications such as ubiquitination and sumoylation at lysine residues also occur to certain glutamate receptors. These modifications are dynamic and reversible in nature and are regulatable by changing synaptic inputs. The regulated modifications significantly impact the receptor in many ways, including interrelated changes in biochemistry (synthesis, subunit assembling and protein-protein interactions, subcellular redistribution (trafficking, endocytosis, synaptic delivery and clustering, and physiology, usually associated with changes in synaptic plasticity. Glutamate receptors are enriched in the striatum and cooperate closely with dopamine to regulate striatal signaling. Emerging evidence shows that modification processes of striatal glutamate receptors are sensitive to addictive drugs, such as psychostimulants (cocaine and amphetamines. Altered modifications are believed to be directly linked to enduring receptor/synaptic plasticity and drug-seeking. This review summarizes several major types of modifications of glutamate receptors and analyzes the role of these modifications in striatal signaling and in the pathogenesis of psychostimulant addiction.

  17. Food Application of Newly Developed Handy-type Glutamate Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Yuuka; Oikawa, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Tests on physiological functions of umami have been actively conducted and a need recognized for a high-performance quantification device that is simple and cost-effective, and whose use is not limited to a particular location or user. To address this need, Ajinomoto Co. and Tanita Corp. have jointly been researching and developing a simple device for glutamate measurement. The device uses L-glutamate oxidase immobilized on a hydrogen peroxide electrode. L-glutamate in the sample is converted to α-ketoglutaric acid, which produces hydrogen peroxide. Subsequently, the electrical current from the electrochemical reaction of hydrogen peroxide is measured to determine the L-glutamate concentration. In order to evaluate its basic performance, we used this device to measure the concentration of L-glutamate standard solutions. In a concentration range of 0-1.0%, the difference from the theoretical value was minimal. The coefficient of variation (CV) value of 3 measurements was 4% or less. This shows that the device has a reasonable level of precision and accuracy. The device was also used in trial measurements of L-glutamate concentrations in food. There was a good correlation between the results obtained using the developed device and those obtained with an amino acid analyzer; the correlation coefficient was R=0.997 (n=24). In this review, we demonstrate the use of our device to measure the glutamate concentration in miso soup served daily at a home for elderly people, and other foods and ingredients.

  18. Role of aminotransferases in glutamate metabolism of human erythrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellinger, James J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Biochemistry (United States); Lewis, Ian A. [Princeton University, Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics (United States); Markley, John L., E-mail: markley@nmrfam.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Biochemistry (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Human erythrocytes require a continual supply of glutamate to support glutathione synthesis, but are unable to transport this amino acid across their cell membrane. Consequently, erythrocytes rely on de novo glutamate biosynthesis from {alpha}-ketoglutarate and glutamine to maintain intracellular levels of glutamate. Erythrocytic glutamate biosynthesis is catalyzed by three enzymes, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and glutamine aminohydrolase (GA). Although the presence of these enzymes in RBCs has been well documented, the relative contributions of each pathway have not been established. Understanding the relative contributions of each biosynthetic pathway is critical for designing effective therapies for sickle cell disease, hemolytic anemia, pulmonary hypertension, and other glutathione-related disorders. In this study, we use multidimensional {sup 1}H-{sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and multiple reaction mode mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) to measure the kinetics of de novo glutamate biosynthesis via AST, ALT, and GA in intact cells and RBC lysates. We show that up to 89% of the erythrocyte glutamate pool can be derived from ALT and that ALT-derived glutamate is subsequently used for glutathione synthesis.

  19. [Maturation of cerebral somatosensory evoked potentials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadilhac, J; Zhu, Y; Georgesco, M; Echenne, B; Rodiere, M

    1985-07-01

    Cerebral somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were elicited by stimulation of the median nerve and/or posterior tibial nerve in 117 children of 1 day to 16 years old. A major negative wave (N) was consistently recorded from the parietal region of the scalp when the arm was stimulated. The peak latency, the onset latency, the rising time and the duration of H wave are closely correlated with age and body length. The latencies are shortest in the subjects of 1-3 years old. SEPs to lower extremity stimulation were inconstant in the infants before the age of one. The major positive wave (P) has a variable topographic distribution along the middle line, over the scalp. The latencies are also very variable in the different subjects of the same age as well as in the same subject with different locations of active electrode. Among the parameters studied as for N wave, only the rising time of P wave is significantly correlated with age. The latencies of P wave have the shortest value in the subjects of 1-3 years old. The comparison of SEPs to upper and to lower limb stimulations shows that there is no relationship between them in respect to their morphology and amplitude. The minimum value of the latencies of N and P waves was observed at the same age but the difference between the peak latencies of P and N waves in the same subject increases considerably after 2 years of age and reaches the adult value after 5 years of age. These resultats indicate that the maturation of the peripheral somatosensory pathways proceeds at a higher rate than that of the central somatosensory pathways, that the maturation of the somatosensory pathways of the upper limb precedes that of the lower limb, and that the rising time of N or P waves is a good index of cortical maturation. The clinical utility of these SEPs in pediatrics is discussed.

  20. Pudendal somatosensory evoked potentials in normal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo A. Cavalcanti

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP is an electrophysiological test used to evaluate sensory innervations in peripheral and central neuropathies. Pudendal SSEP has been studied in dysfunctions related to the lower urinary tract and pelvic floor. Although some authors have already described technical details pertaining to the method, the standardization and the influence of physiological variables in normative values have not yet been established, especially for women. The aim of the study was to describe normal values of the pudendal SSEP and to compare technical details with those described by other authors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The clitoral sensory threshold and pudendal SSEP latency was accomplished in 38 normal volunteers. The results obtained from stimulation performed on each side of the clitoris were compared to ages, body mass index (BMI and number of pregnancies. RESULTS: The values of clitoral sensory threshold and P1 latency with clitoral left stimulation were respectively, 3.64 ± 1.01 mA and 37.68 ± 2.60 ms. Results obtained with clitoral right stimulation were 3.84 ± 1.53 mA and 37.42 ± 3.12 ms, respectively. There were no correlations between clitoral sensory threshold and P1 latency with age, BMI or height of the volunteers. A significant difference was found in P1 latency between nulliparous women and volunteers who had been previously submitted to cesarean section. CONCLUSIONS: The SSEP latency represents an accessible and reproducible method to investigate the afferent pathways from the genitourinary tract. These results could be used as normative values in studies involving genitourinary neuropathies in order to better clarify voiding and sexual dysfunctions in females.

  1. Dysfunctional TCA-Cycle Metabolism in Glutamate Dehydrogenase Deficient Astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Jakob D; Pajęcka, Kamilla; Stridh, Malin H; Skytt, Dorte M; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2015-12-01

    Astrocytes take up glutamate in the synaptic area subsequent to glutamatergic transmission by the aid of high affinity glutamate transporters. Glutamate is converted to glutamine or metabolized to support intermediary metabolism and energy production. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) catalyze the reversible reaction between glutamate and α-ketoglutarate, which is the initial step for glutamate to enter TCA cycle metabolism. In contrast to GDH, AAT requires a concomitant interconversion of oxaloacetate and aspartate. We have investigated the role of GDH in astrocyte glutamate and glucose metabolism employing siRNA mediated knock down (KD) of GDH in cultured astrocytes using stable and radioactive isotopes for metabolic mapping. An increased level of aspartate was observed upon exposure to [U-(13) C]glutamate in astrocytes exhibiting reduced GDH activity. (13) C Labeling of aspartate and TCA cycle intermediates confirmed that the increased amount of aspartate is associated with elevated TCA cycle flux from α-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate, i.e. truncated TCA cycle. (13) C Glucose metabolism was elevated in GDH deficient astrocytes as observed by increased de novo synthesis of aspartate via pyruvate carboxylation. In the absence of glucose, lactate production from glutamate via malic enzyme was lower in GDH deficient astrocytes. In conclusions, our studies reveal that metabolism via GDH serves an important anaplerotic role by adding net carbon to the TCA cycle. A reduction in GDH activity seems to cause the astrocytes to up-regulate activity in pathways involved in maintaining the amount of TCA cycle intermediates such as pyruvate carboxylation as well as utilization of alternate substrates such as branched chain amino acids. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Visual Evoked Response in Children Subjected to Prenatal Maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    neural conduction, or arousal level. S. Afr. Med. J., 48 ... pression treatment in either development or IQ, whether ... children in brain function at an electrophysiological level, ..... Perry, N. W. and Childers, D. G. (1969): The Human Visual Evoked.

  3. Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potential in HIV-Positive Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matas, Carla Gentile; Samelli, Alessandra Giannella; Angrisani, Rosanna Giaffredo; Magliaro, Fernanda Cristina Leite; Segurado, Aluísio C

    2015-10-20

    To characterize the findings of brainstem auditory evoked potential in HIV-positive individuals exposed and not exposed to antiretroviral treatment. This research was a cross-sectional, observational, and descriptive study. Forty-five HIV-positive individuals (18 not exposed and 27 exposed to the antiretroviral treatment - research groups I and II, respectively - and 30 control group individuals) were assessed through brainstem auditory evoked potential. There were no significant between-group differences regarding wave latencies. A higher percentage of altered brainstem auditory evoked potential was observed in the HIV-positive groups when compared to the control group. The most common alteration was in the low brainstem. HIV-positive individuals have a higher percentage of altered brainstem auditory evoked potential that suggests central auditory pathway impairment when compared to HIV-negative individuals. There was no significant difference between individuals exposed and not exposed to antiretroviral treatment.

  4. Can visual evoked potentials be used in biometric identification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Alan J; Lalor, Edmund C; Reilly, Richard B

    2006-01-01

    Due to known differences in the anatomical structure of the visual pathways and generators in different individuals, the use of visual evoked potentials offers the possibility of an alternative to existing biometrics methods. A study based on visual evoked potentials from 13 individuals was carried out to assess the best combination of temporal, spectral and AR modeling features to realize a robust biometric. From the results it can be concluded that visual evoked potentials show considerable biometric qualities, with classification accuracies reaching a high of 86.54% and that a specific temporal and spectral combination was found to be optimal. Based on these results the visual evoked potential may be a useful tool in biometric identification when used in conjunction with more established biometric methods.

  5. Methodologic aspects of acetylcholine-evoked relaxation of rabbit aorta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kirsten Vendelbo; Nedergaard, Ove A.

    1999-01-01

    The acetylcholine-evoked relaxation of rabbit isolated thoracic aorta precontracted by phenylephrine was studied. Phenylephrine caused a steady contraction that was maintained for 6 h. In the presence of calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) and ascorbic acid the contraction decreased...

  6. Towards a neural basis of music-evoked emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan

    2010-03-01

    Music is capable of evoking exceptionally strong emotions and of reliably affecting the mood of individuals. Functional neuroimaging and lesion studies show that music-evoked emotions can modulate activity in virtually all limbic and paralimbic brain structures. These structures are crucially involved in the initiation, generation, detection, maintenance, regulation and termination of emotions that have survival value for the individual and the species. Therefore, at least some music-evoked emotions involve the very core of evolutionarily adaptive neuroaffective mechanisms. Because dysfunctions in these structures are related to emotional disorders, a better understanding of music-evoked emotions and their neural correlates can lead to a more systematic and effective use of music in therapy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Role of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors 2/3 and group I metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 in developing rat medial vestibular nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Silvarosa; Frondaroli, Adele; Pettorossi, Vito Enrico

    2005-08-22

    In brainstem slices from developing rats, metabotropic glutamate receptors mGluR2/3 and mGluR5 play different inhibitory roles in synaptic transmission and plasticity of the medial vestibular nuclei. The mGluR2/3 block (LY341495) reduces the occurrence of long-term depression after vestibular afferent high frequency stimulation at P8-P10, and increases that of long-term potentiation, while the mGluR5 block prevents high frequency stimulation long-term depression. Later on, the receptor block does not influence high frequency stimulation effects. In addition, while mGluR2/3 agonist (APDC) always provokes a transient reduction of synaptic responses, that of mGluR5 (CHPG) induces long-term depression per se at P8-P10. These results show a key role of mGluR5 in inducing high frequency stimulation long-term depression in developing medial vestibular nuclei, while mGluR2/3 modulate synaptic transmission, probably through presynaptic control of glutamate release.

  8. A Telehealth System for Remote Auditory Evoked Potential Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Millan, Jorge; Yunda, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    A portable, Internet-based EEG/Auditory Evoked Potential (AEP) monitoring system was developed for remote electrophysiological studies during sleep. The system records EEG/AEP simultaneously at the subject?s home for increased comfort and flexibility. The system provides simultaneous recording and remote viewing of EEG, EMG and EOG waves and allows on-line averaging of auditory evoked potentials. The design allows the recording of all major AEP components (brainstem, middle and late latency E...

  9. Vibration and muscle contraction affect somatosensory evoked potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, LG; Starr, A

    1985-01-01

    We recorded potentials evoked by specific somatosensory stimuli over peripheral nerve, spinal cord, and cerebral cortex. Vibration attenuated spinal and cerebral potentials evoked by mixed nerve and muscle spindle stimulation; in one subject that was tested, there was no effect on cutaneous input. Presynaptic inhibition of Ia input in the spinal cord and muscle spindle receptor occupancy are probably the responsible mechanisms. In contrast, muscle contraction attenuated cerebral potentials to...

  10. Brain-immune interaction accompanying odor-evoked autobiographic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Bai, Yu; Yamakawa, Kaori; Toyama, Asako; Kashiwagi, Mitsuyoshi; Fukuda, Kazuyuki; Oshida, Akiko; Sanada, Kazue; Fukuyama, Seisuke; Shinoda, Jun; Yamada, Jitsuhiro; Sadato, Norihiro; Ohira, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon in which a certain smell evokes a specific memory is known as the Proust phenomenon. Odor-evoked autobiographic memories are more emotional than those elicited by other sensory stimuli. The results of our previous study indicated that odor-evoked autobiographic memory accompanied by positive emotions has remarkable effects on various psychological and physiological activities, including the secretion of cytokines, which are immune-signaling molecules that modulate systemic inflammation. In this study, we aimed to clarify the neural substrates associated with the interaction between odor-evoked autobiographic memory and peripheral circulating cytokines. We recruited healthy male and female volunteers and investigated the association between brain responses and the concentration of several cytokines in the plasma by using positron emission tomography (PET) recordings when an autographic memory was evoked in participants by asking them to smell an odor that was nostalgic to them. Participants experienced positive emotions and autobiographic memories when nostalgic odors were presented to them. The levels of peripheral proinflammatory cytokines, such as the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), were significantly reduced after experiencing odor-evoked autobiographic memory. Subtraction analysis of PET images indicated that the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) and precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) were significantly activated during experiences of odor-evoked autobiographic memory. Furthermore, a correlation analysis indicated that activities of the mOFC and precuneus/PCC were negatively correlated with IFN-γ concentration. These results indicate that the neural networks including the precuneus/PCC and mOFC might regulate the secretion of peripheral proinflammatory cytokines during the experience of odor-evoked autobiographic memories accompanied with positive emotions.

  11. Brain–Immune Interaction Accompanying Odor-Evoked Autobiographic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Bai, Yu; Yamakawa, Kaori; Toyama, Asako; Kashiwagi, Mitsuyoshi; Fukuda, Kazuyuki; Oshida, Akiko; Sanada, Kazue; Fukuyama, Seisuke; Shinoda, Jun; Yamada, Jitsuhiro; Sadato, Norihiro; Ohira, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon in which a certain smell evokes a specific memory is known as the Proust phenomenon. Odor-evoked autobiographic memories are more emotional than those elicited by other sensory stimuli. The results of our previous study indicated that odor-evoked autobiographic memory accompanied by positive emotions has remarkable effects on various psychological and physiological activities, including the secretion of cytokines, which are immune-signaling molecules that modulate systemic inflammation. In this study, we aimed to clarify the neural substrates associated with the interaction between odor-evoked autobiographic memory and peripheral circulating cytokines. We recruited healthy male and female volunteers and investigated the association between brain responses and the concentration of several cytokines in the plasma by using positron emission tomography (PET) recordings when an autographic memory was evoked in participants by asking them to smell an odor that was nostalgic to them. Participants experienced positive emotions and autobiographic memories when nostalgic odors were presented to them. The levels of peripheral proinflammatory cytokines, such as the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), were significantly reduced after experiencing odor-evoked autobiographic memory. Subtraction analysis of PET images indicated that the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) and precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) were significantly activated during experiences of odor-evoked autobiographic memory. Furthermore, a correlation analysis indicated that activities of the mOFC and precuneus/PCC were negatively correlated with IFN-γ concentration. These results indicate that the neural networks including the precuneus/PCC and mOFC might regulate the secretion of peripheral proinflammatory cytokines during the experience of odor-evoked autobiographic memories accompanied with positive emotions. PMID:23977312

  12. Brain-immune interaction accompanying odor-evoked autobiographic memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Matsunaga

    Full Text Available The phenomenon in which a certain smell evokes a specific memory is known as the Proust phenomenon. Odor-evoked autobiographic memories are more emotional than those elicited by other sensory stimuli. The results of our previous study indicated that odor-evoked autobiographic memory accompanied by positive emotions has remarkable effects on various psychological and physiological activities, including the secretion of cytokines, which are immune-signaling molecules that modulate systemic inflammation. In this study, we aimed to clarify the neural substrates associated with the interaction between odor-evoked autobiographic memory and peripheral circulating cytokines. We recruited healthy male and female volunteers and investigated the association between brain responses and the concentration of several cytokines in the plasma by using positron emission tomography (PET recordings when an autographic memory was evoked in participants by asking them to smell an odor that was nostalgic to them. Participants experienced positive emotions and autobiographic memories when nostalgic odors were presented to them. The levels of peripheral proinflammatory cytokines, such as the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interferon-γ (IFN-γ, were significantly reduced after experiencing odor-evoked autobiographic memory. Subtraction analysis of PET images indicated that the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC and precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC were significantly activated during experiences of odor-evoked autobiographic memory. Furthermore, a correlation analysis indicated that activities of the mOFC and precuneus/PCC were negatively correlated with IFN-γ concentration. These results indicate that the neural networks including the precuneus/PCC and mOFC might regulate the secretion of peripheral proinflammatory cytokines during the experience of odor-evoked autobiographic memories accompanied with positive emotions.

  13. Dual inhibitory action of enadoline (CI977) on release of amino acids in the rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan, M H; Chapman, A G; Meldrum, B S

    1995-06-06

    The effect of the kappa-opioid receptor agonist enadoline (CI977, (5R)-(5 alpha,7 alpha,8 beta)-N-methyl-N-[7-(1-pyrrilidinyl)-1-oxaspiro [4,5]dec-8-yl-4-benzofuranacetamide monohydrochloride), on the release of amino acids was studied in the hippocampus of freely moving rats. K+, 100 mM, or veratrine, 100 microM, were applied for 10 min via the dialysis probe, either alone (control groups) or together with CI977 (after a 10 min pretreatment with CI977 in the perfusion medium). To test the specificity of the response to CI977, nor-binaltorphimine, a selective kappa-opioid receptor antagonist, was delivered together with CI977 in two groups of animals. To test the effect of systemic injection, CI977 was given subcutaneously 30 min prior to either stimulus. K(+)-induced release of glutamate and aspartate was significantly reduced by CI977, 2.5 mM; release of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was reduced by 250 microM CI977 in the probe. The effect of CI977 on release of glutamate and aspartate, but not of GABA, was reversed by nor-binaltorphimine (45 microM). Systemic treatment with CI977, 1 or 10 mg/kg, did not reduce K(+)-induced release of glutamate. Veratrine-induced release of aspartate and glutamate was significantly inhibited by 25 microM and release of GABA by 250 microM CI977 in the probe, and this effect was not modified by nor-binaltorphimine (58 microM). Systemic injection of CI977 1 mg/kg significantly reduced veratrine-induced release of glutamate. These results indicate that CI977 regulates release of amino acids by two independent mechanisms.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Beyond the evoked/intrinsic neural process dichotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Bolt

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary functional neuroimaging research has increasingly focused on characterization of intrinsic or “spontaneous” brain activity. Analysis of intrinsic activity is often contrasted with analysis of task-evoked activity that has traditionally been the focus of cognitive neuroscience. But does this evoked/intrinsic dichotomy adequately characterize human brain function? Based on empirical data demonstrating a close functional interdependence between intrinsic and task-evoked activity, we argue that the dichotomy between intrinsic and task-evoked activity as unobserved contributions to brain activity is artificial. We present an alternative picture of brain function in which the brain’s spatiotemporal dynamics do not consist of separable intrinsic and task-evoked components, but reflect the enaction of a system of mutual constraints to move the brain into and out of task-appropriate functional configurations. According to this alternative picture, cognitive neuroscientists are tasked with describing both the temporal trajectory of brain activity patterns across time, and the modulation of this trajectory by task states, without separating this process into intrinsic and task-evoked components. We argue that this alternative picture of brain function is best captured in a novel explanatory framework called enabling constraint. Overall, these insights call for a reconceptualization of functional brain activity, and should drive future methodological and empirical efforts.

  15. Muscle synergies evoked by microstimulation are preferentially encoded during behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Alexander Overduin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrical microstimulation studies provide some of the most direct evidence for the neural representation of muscle synergies. These synergies, i.e. coordinated activations of groups of muscles, have been proposed as building blocks for the construction of motor behaviors by the nervous system. Intraspinal or intracortical microstimulation has been shown to evoke muscle patterns that can be resolved into a small set of synergies similar to those seen in natural behavior. However, questions remain about the validity of microstimulation as a probe of neural function, particularly given the relatively long trains of supratheshold stimuli used in these studies. Here, we examined whether muscle synergies evoked during intracortical microstimulation in two rhesus macaques were similarly encoded by nearby motor cortical units during a purely voluntary behavior involving object reach, grasp, and carry movements. At each microstimulation site we identified the synergy most strongly evoked among those extracted from muscle patterns evoked over all microstimulation sites. For each cortical unit recorded at the same microstimulation site, we then identified the synergy most strongly encoded among those extracted from muscle patterns recorded during the voluntary behavior. We found that the synergy most strongly evoked at an intracortical microstimulation site matched the synergy most strongly encoded by proximal units more often than expected by chance. These results suggest a common neural substrate for microstimulation-evoked motor responses and for the generation of muscle patterns during natural behaviors.

  16. Inhibition of the Mitochondrial Glutamate Carrier SLC25A22 in Astrocytes Leads to Intracellular Glutamate Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Goubert

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The solute carrier family 25 (SLC25 drives the import of a large diversity of metabolites into mitochondria, a key cellular structure involved in many metabolic functions. Mutations of the mitochondrial glutamate carrier SLC25A22 (also named GC1 have been identified in early epileptic encephalopathy (EEE and migrating partial seizures in infancy (MPSI but the pathophysiological mechanism of GC1 deficiency is still unknown, hampered by the absence of an in vivo model. This carrier is mainly expressed in astrocytes and is the principal gate for glutamate entry into mitochondria. A sufficient supply of energy is essential for the proper function of the brain and mitochondria have a pivotal role in maintaining energy homeostasis. In this work, we wanted to study the consequences of GC1 absence in an in vitro model in order to understand if glutamate catabolism and/or mitochondrial function could be affected. First, short hairpin RNA (shRNA designed to specifically silence GC1 were validated in rat C6 glioma cells. Silencing GC1 in C6 resulted in a reduction of the GC1 mRNA combined with a decrease of the mitochondrial glutamate carrier activity. Then, primary astrocyte cultures were prepared and transfected with shRNA-GC1 or mismatch-RNA (mmRNA constructs using the Neon® Transfection System in order to target a high number of primary astrocytes, more than 64%. Silencing GC1 in primary astrocytes resulted in a reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (Phosphate (NAD(PH formation upon glutamate stimulation. We also observed that the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC was functional after glucose stimulation but not activated by glutamate, resulting in a lower level of cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP in silenced astrocytes compared to control cells. Moreover, GC1 inactivation resulted in an intracellular glutamate accumulation. Our results show that mitochondrial glutamate transport via GC1 is important in sustaining glutamate homeostasis in

  17. Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Reduces Taste-Evoked ATP Secretion from Mouse Taste Buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Anthony Y; Wu, Sandy Y

    2015-09-16

    Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that peripheral afferent nerve fibers innervating taste buds contain calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), which may be as an efferent transmitter released from peripheral axon terminals. In this report, we determined the targets of CGRP within taste buds and studied what effect CGRP exerts on taste bud function. We isolated mouse taste buds and taste cells, conducted functional imaging using Fura-2, and used cellular biosensors to monitor taste-evoked transmitter release. The findings showed that a subset of Presynaptic (Type III) taste cells (53%) responded to 0.1 μm CGRP with an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). In contrast, Receptor (Type II) taste cells rarely (4%) responded to 0.1 μm CGRP. Using pharmacological tools, the actions of CGRP were probed and elucidated by the CGRP receptor antagonist CGRP(8-37). We demonstrated that this effect of CGRP was dependent on phospholipase C activation and was prevented by the inhibitor U73122. Moreover, applying CGRP caused taste buds to secrete serotonin (5-HT), a Presynaptic (Type III) cell transmitter, but not ATP, a Receptor (Type II) cell transmitter. Further, our previous studies showed that 5-HT released from Presynaptic (Type III) cells provides negative paracrine feedback onto Receptor (Type II) cells by activating 5-HT1A receptors, and reducing ATP secretion. Our data showed that CGRP-evoked 5-HT release reduced taste-evoked ATP secretion. The findings are consistent with a role for CGRP as an inhibitory transmitter that shapes peripheral taste signals via serotonergic signaling during processing gustatory information in taste buds. The taste sensation is initiated with a highly complex set of interactions between a variety of cells located within the taste buds before signal propagation to the brain. Afferent signals from the oral cavity are carried to the brain in chemosensory fibers that contribute to chemesthesis, the general chemical sensitivity of the mucus

  18. Long-term activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors increases functional TRPV1-expressing neurons in mouse dorsal root ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayoshi eMasuoka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Damaged tissues release glutamate and other chemical mediators for several hours. These chemical mediators contribute to modulation of pruritus and pain. Herein, we investigated the effects of long-term activation of excitatory glutamate receptors on functional expression of transient receptor potential vaniloid type 1 (TRPV1 in dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons and then on thermal pain behavior. In order to detect the TRPV1-mediated responses in cultured DRG neurons, we monitored intracellular calcium responses to capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist, with Fura-2. Long-term (4 h treatment with glutamate receptor agonists (glutamate, quisqualate or DHPG increased the proportion of neurons responding to capsaicin through activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR1, and only partially through the activation of mGluR5; engagement of these receptors was evident in neurons responding to allylisothiocyanate (AITC, a transient receptor potential ankyrin type 1 (TRPA1 agonist. Increase in the proportion was suppressed by phospholipase C, protein kinase C, mitogen/extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase or transcription inhibitors. Whole-cell recording was performed to record TRPV1-mediated membrane current; TRPV1 current density significantly increased in the AITC-sensitive neurons after the quisqualate treatment. To elucidate the physiological significance of this phenomenon, a hot plate test was performed. Intraplantar injection of quisqualate or DHPG induced heat hyperalgesia that lasted for 4 h post injection. This chronic hyperalgesia was attenuated by treatment with either mGluR1 or mGluR5 antagonists. These results suggest that long-term activation of mGluR1/5 by peripherally released glutamate may increase the number of neurons expressing functional TRPV1 in DRG, which may be strongly associated with chronic hyperalgesia.

  19. Expression of the capacity to release [3H]norepinephrine by neural crest cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, G.D.; Sietz, P.D.

    1983-01-01

    Cultures of trunk neural crest cells from quail embryos were tested for their ability to release [ 3 H]norepinephrine [( 3 H]NE) in response to depolarization. After 7 days in vitro, exposure of the cultures to either the alkaloid veratridine or 40 mM K+ results in the evoked release of [ 3 H]NE. The release evoked by veratridine is blocked in the presence of tetrodotoxin. The release evoked by increased K+ is blocked by the calcium antagonist cobalt. Release in response to the nicotinic cholinergic agonist 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazine was also observed. The amount of evoked release is highly correlated with the number of histochemically demonstrable catecholamine-containing cells in a given culture. Autoradiography reveals that the radioactivity taken up by these cultures is located in a subpopulation of cells whose morphology resembles that of the histochemically detectable catecholamine-containing cell population. Whereas capacity for the release of [ 3 H] NE is readily detectable after 7 days in vitro, it is detectable only with difficulty after 4 days in vitro. There is a greater than 6-fold increase in uptake capacity over the period of 4 to 7 days in vitro. These results demonstrate that neural crest cultures grown without their normal synaptic inputs or targets can exhibit the capacity for stimulus secretion coupling characteristic of synaptic neurotransmitter release

  20. In vitro evidence for the brain glutamate efflux hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Hans Christian; Madelung, Rasmus; Waagepetersen, Helle Sønderby

    2012-01-01

    resistance values of 1014 ± 70 O cm(2) , and (14) C-D-mannitol permeability values of 0.88 ± 0.13 × 10(-6) cm s(-1) . Unidirectional flux studies showed that L-aspartate and L-glutamate, but not D-aspartate, displayed polarized transport in the brain-to-blood direction, however, all three amino acids......The concentration of the excitotoxic amino acid, L-glutamate, in brain interstitial fluid is tightly regulated by uptake transporters and metabolism in astrocytes and neurons. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of the blood-brain barrier endothelium in brain L......-glutamate homeostasis. Transendothelial transport- and accumulation studies of (3) H-L-glutamate, (3) H-L-aspartate, and (3) H-D-aspartate in an electrically tight bovine endothelial/rat astrocyte blood-brain barrier coculture model were performed. After 6 days in culture, the endothelium displayed transendothelial...

  1. Histochemical Studies of the Effects of Monosodium Glutamate on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uche

    Key words: Monosodium glutamate; histochemical effect; liver enzymes; hepatocytes; atrophic and degenerative changes;. Wistar rats. ... disease, Huntington‟s disease, and amyotrophic ... ascending grade of alcohol (ethanol), cleared in.

  2. Cyanidin-3-glucoside inhibits glutamate-induced Zn2+ signaling and neuronal cell death in cultured rat hippocampal neurons by inhibiting Ca2+-induced mitochondrial depolarization and formation of reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji Seon; Perveen, Shazia; Ha, Tae Joung; Kim, Seong Yun; Yoon, Shin Hee

    2015-05-05

    Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), a member of the anthocyanin family, is a potent natural antioxidant. However, effects of C3G on glutamate-induced [Zn(2+)]i increase and neuronal cell death remain unknown. We studied the effects of C3G on glutamate-induced [Zn(2+)]i increase and cell death in cultured rat hippocampal neurons from embryonic day 17 maternal Sprague-Dawley rats using digital imaging methods for Zn(2+), Ca(2+), reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential and a MTT assay for cell survival. Treatment with glutamate (100 µM) for 7 min induces reproducible [Zn(2+)]i increase at 35 min interval in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. The intracellular Zn(2+)-chelator TPEN markedly blocked glutamate-induced [Zn(2+)]i increase, but the extracellular Zn(2+) chelator CaEDTA did not affect glutamate-induced [Zn(2+)]i increase. C3G inhibited the glutamate-induced [Zn(2+)]i response in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 of 14.1 ± 1.1 µg/ml). C3G also significantly inhibited glutamate-induced [Ca(2+)]i increase. Two antioxidants such as Trolox and DTT significantly inhibited the glutamate-induced [Zn(2+)]i response, but they did not affect the [Ca(2+)]i responses. C3G blocked glutamate-induced formation of ROS. Trolox and DTT also inhibited the formation of ROS. C3G significantly inhibited glutamate-induced mitochondrial depolarization. However, TPEN, Trolox and DTT did not affect the mitochondrial depolarization. C3G, Trolox and DTT attenuated glutamate-induced neuronal cell death in cultured rat hippocampal neurons, respectively. Taken together, all these results suggest that cyanidin-3-glucoside inhibits glutamate-induced [Zn(2+)]i increase through a release of Zn(2+) from intracellular sources in cultured rat hippocampal neurons by inhibiting Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial depolarization and formation of ROS, which is involved in neuroprotection against glutamate-induced cell death. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Lysine and arginine reduce the effects of cerebral ischemic insults and inhibit glutamate-induced neuronal activity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kondoh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous administration of arginine was shown to be protective against cerebral ischemic insults via nitric oxide production and possibly via additional mechanisms. The present study aimed at evaluating the neuroprotective effects of oral administration of lysine (a basic amino acid, arginine, and their combination on ischemic insults (cerebral edema and infarction and hemispheric brain swelling induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion in rats. Magnetic resonance imaging and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining were performed two days after ischemia induction. In control animals, the major edematous areas were observed in the cerebral cortex and striatum. The volumes associated with cortical edema were significantly reduced by lysine (2.0 g/kg, arginine (0.6 g/kg, or their combined administration (0.6 g/kg each. Protective effects of these amino acids on infarction were comparable to the inhibitory effects on edema formation. Interestingly, these amino acids, even at low dose (0.6 g/kg, were effective to reduce hemispheric brain swelling. Additionally, the effects of in vivo microiontophoretic (juxtaneuronal applications of these amino acids on glutamate-evoked neuronal activity in the ventromedial hypothalamus were investigated in awake rats. Glutamate-induced neuronal activity was robustly inhibited by microiontophoretic applications of lysine or arginine onto neuronal membranes. Taken together, our results demonstrate the neuroprotective effects of oral ingestion of lysine and arginine against ischemic insults (cerebral edema and infarction, especially in the cerebral cortex, and suggest that suppression of glutamate-induced neuronal activity might be the primary mechanism associated with these neuroprotective effects.

  4. Detection and quantitation of glutamate carboxypeptidase II in human blood

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knedlík, Tomáš; Navrátil, Václav; Vik, V.; Pacík, D.; Šácha, Pavel; Konvalinka, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 7 (2014), s. 768-780 ISSN 0270-4137 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP304/12/0847 Grant - others:OPPC(CZ) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : serum marker * glutamate carboxypeptidase II * plasma glutamate carboxypeptidase * prostate cancer * prostate -specific membrane antigen Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.565, year: 2014

  5. Glutamic Acid Selective Chemical Cleavage of Peptide Bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbone, Joseph M; Lahankar, Neelam; Buissereth, Lyssa; Raj, Monika

    2016-03-04

    Site-specific hydrolysis of peptide bonds at glutamic acid under neutral aqueous conditions is reported. The method relies on the activation of the backbone amide chain at glutamic acid by the formation of a pyroglutamyl (pGlu) imide moiety. This activation increases the susceptibility of a peptide bond toward hydrolysis. The method is highly specific and demonstrates broad substrate scope including cleavage of various bioactive peptides with unnatural amino acid residues, which are unsuitable substrates for enzymatic hydrolysis.

  6. In Vivo Measurements of Glutamate, GABA, and NAAG in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Rowland, Laura M.; Kontson, Kimberly; West, Jeffrey; Edden, Richard A.; Zhu, He; Wijtenburg, S. Andrea; Holcomb, Henry H.; Barker, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    The major excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters, glutamate (Glu) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), respectively, are implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG), a neuropeptide that modulates the Glu system, may also be altered in schizophrenia. This study investigated GABA, Glu + glutamine (Glx), and NAAG levels in younger and older subjects with schizophrenia. Forty-one subjects, 21 with chronic schizophrenia and 20 healthy controls, partic...

  7. The paradox of music-evoked sadness: an online survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liila Taruffi

    Full Text Available This study explores listeners' experience of music-evoked sadness. Sadness is typically assumed to be undesirable and is therefore usually avoided in everyday life. Yet the question remains: Why do people seek and appreciate sadness in music? We present findings from an online survey with both Western and Eastern participants (N = 772. The survey investigates the rewarding aspects of music-evoked sadness, as well as the relative contribution of listener characteristics and situational factors to the appreciation of sad music. The survey also examines the different principles through which sadness is evoked by music, and their interaction with personality traits. Results show 4 different rewards of music-evoked sadness: reward of imagination, emotion regulation, empathy, and no "real-life" implications. Moreover, appreciation of sad music follows a mood-congruent fashion and is greater among individuals with high empathy and low emotional stability. Surprisingly, nostalgia rather than sadness is the most frequent emotion evoked by sad music. Correspondingly, memory was rated as the most important principle through which sadness is evoked. Finally, the trait empathy contributes to the evocation of sadness via contagion, appraisal, and by engaging social functions. The present findings indicate that emotional responses to sad music are multifaceted, are modulated by empathy, and are linked with a multidimensional experience of pleasure. These results were corroborated by a follow-up survey on happy music, which indicated differences between the emotional experiences resulting from listening to sad versus happy music. This is the first comprehensive survey of music-evoked sadness, revealing that listening to sad music can lead to beneficial emotional effects such as regulation of negative emotion and mood as well as consolation. Such beneficial emotional effects constitute the prime motivations for engaging with sad music in everyday life.

  8. The Paradox of Music-Evoked Sadness: An Online Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taruffi, Liila; Koelsch, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This study explores listeners’ experience of music-evoked sadness. Sadness is typically assumed to be undesirable and is therefore usually avoided in everyday life. Yet the question remains: Why do people seek and appreciate sadness in music? We present findings from an online survey with both Western and Eastern participants (N = 772). The survey investigates the rewarding aspects of music-evoked sadness, as well as the relative contribution of listener characteristics and situational factors to the appreciation of sad music. The survey also examines the different principles through which sadness is evoked by music, and their interaction with personality traits. Results show 4 different rewards of music-evoked sadness: reward of imagination, emotion regulation, empathy, and no “real-life” implications. Moreover, appreciation of sad music follows a mood-congruent fashion and is greater among individuals with high empathy and low emotional stability. Surprisingly, nostalgia rather than sadness is the most frequent emotion evoked by sad music. Correspondingly, memory was rated as the most important principle through which sadness is evoked. Finally, the trait empathy contributes to the evocation of sadness via contagion, appraisal, and by engaging social functions. The present findings indicate that emotional responses to sad music are multifaceted, are modulated by empathy, and are linked with a multidimensional experience of pleasure. These results were corroborated by a follow-up survey on happy music, which indicated differences between the emotional experiences resulting from listening to sad versus happy music. This is the first comprehensive survey of music-evoked sadness, revealing that listening to sad music can lead to beneficial emotional effects such as regulation of negative emotion and mood as well as consolation. Such beneficial emotional effects constitute the prime motivations for engaging with sad music in everyday life. PMID:25330315

  9. The paradox of music-evoked sadness: an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taruffi, Liila; Koelsch, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This study explores listeners' experience of music-evoked sadness. Sadness is typically assumed to be undesirable and is therefore usually avoided in everyday life. Yet the question remains: Why do people seek and appreciate sadness in music? We present findings from an online survey with both Western and Eastern participants (N = 772). The survey investigates the rewarding aspects of music-evoked sadness, as well as the relative contribution of listener characteristics and situational factors to the appreciation of sad music. The survey also examines the different principles through which sadness is evoked by music, and their interaction with personality traits. Results show 4 different rewards of music-evoked sadness: reward of imagination, emotion regulation, empathy, and no "real-life" implications. Moreover, appreciation of sad music follows a mood-congruent fashion and is greater among individuals with high empathy and low emotional stability. Surprisingly, nostalgia rather than sadness is the most frequent emotion evoked by sad music. Correspondingly, memory was rated as the most important principle through which sadness is evoked. Finally, the trait empathy contributes to the evocation of sadness via contagion, appraisal, and by engaging social functions. The present findings indicate that emotional responses to sad music are multifaceted, are modulated by empathy, and are linked with a multidimensional experience of pleasure. These results were corroborated by a follow-up survey on happy music, which indicated differences between the emotional experiences resulting from listening to sad versus happy music. This is the first comprehensive survey of music-evoked sadness, revealing that listening to sad music can lead to beneficial emotional effects such as regulation of negative emotion and mood as well as consolation. Such beneficial emotional effects constitute the prime motivations for engaging with sad music in everyday life.

  10. Cortical evoked potentials to an auditory illusion: binaural beats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Hillel; Starr, Arnold; Michalewski, Henry J; Dimitrijevic, Andrew; Bleich, Naomi; Mittelman, Nomi

    2009-08-01

    To define brain activity corresponding to an auditory illusion of 3 and 6Hz binaural beats in 250Hz or 1000Hz base frequencies, and compare it to the sound onset response. Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded in response to unmodulated tones of 250 or 1000Hz to one ear and 3 or 6Hz higher to the other, creating an illusion of amplitude modulations (beats) of 3Hz and 6Hz, in base frequencies of 250Hz and 1000Hz. Tones were 2000ms in duration and presented with approximately 1s intervals. Latency, amplitude and source current density estimates of ERP components to tone onset and subsequent beats-evoked oscillations were determined and compared across beat frequencies with both base frequencies. All stimuli evoked tone-onset P(50), N(100) and P(200) components followed by oscillations corresponding to the beat frequency, and a subsequent tone-offset complex. Beats-evoked oscillations were higher in amplitude with the low base frequency and to the low beat frequency. Sources of the beats-evoked oscillations across all stimulus conditions located mostly to left lateral and inferior temporal lobe areas in all stimulus conditions. Onset-evoked components were not different across stimulus conditions; P(50) had significantly different sources than the beats-evoked oscillations; and N(100) and P(200) sources located to the same temporal lobe regions as beats-evoked oscillations, but were bilateral and also included frontal and parietal contributions. Neural activity with slightly different volley frequencies from left and right ear converges and interacts in the central auditory brainstem pathways to generate beats of neural activity to modulate activities in the left temporal lobe, giving rise to the illusion of binaural beats. Cortical potentials recorded to binaural beats are distinct from onset responses. Brain activity corresponding to an auditory illusion of low frequency beats can be recorded from the scalp.

  11. Glutamate synapses in human cognitive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Lenora; Chiu, Shu-Ling; Sharma, Kamal; Huganir, Richard L

    2015-07-08

    Accumulating data, including those from large genetic association studies, indicate that alterations in glutamatergic synapse structure and function represent a common underlying pathology in many symptomatically distinct cognitive disorders. In this review, we discuss evidence from human genetic studies and data from animal models supporting a role for aberrant glutamatergic synapse function in the etiology of intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and schizophrenia (SCZ), neurodevelopmental disorders that comprise a significant proportion of human cognitive disease and exact a substantial financial and social burden. The varied manifestations of impaired perceptual processing, executive function, social interaction, communication, and/or intellectual ability in ID, ASD, and SCZ appear to emerge from altered neural microstructure, function, and/or wiring rather than gross changes in neuron number or morphology. Here, we review evidence that these disorders may share a common underlying neuropathy: altered excitatory synapse function. We focus on the most promising candidate genes affecting glutamatergic synapse function, highlighting the likely disease-relevant functional consequences of each. We first present a brief overview of glutamatergic synapses and then explore the genetic and phenotypic evidence for altered glutamate signaling in ID, ASD, and SCZ.

  12. Monosodium Glutamate Analysis in Meatballs Soup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlina, D.; Amran, A.; Ulianas, A.

    2018-04-01

    The analysis of monosodium glutamate (MSG) in meatball soup using Cu2+ ion as a MSG complex by UV-Vis spectrophotometry has carried out. Reaction of MSG with Cu2+ ions have formed complex compounds [Cu(C5H8NO4)2]2+ characterized by the color change of Cu2+ ion solution from light blue to dark blue. Maximum of complex absorbance [Cu(C5H8NO4)2]2+ is at 621 nm wavelength. The results showed that, the greatest condition of complex [Cu(C5H8NO4)2]2+ was at pH 10, concentration of Cu2+ 0.01 M, complex time is a 30 minute and stable for 170 minutes. Linear response and detection limit of MSG analysis with Cu2+ ions are 0.0005-0.025 M (R2 = 0.994) and (LOD) 0.0003 M. repeatability and recovery method is quite good (% RSD = 0.89% and %recovery = 93%). The analysis of MSG content in meatball soup with MSG complex method was 0.00372 M in sample A and 0.00370 M in sample B.

  13. Enhancing poly-γ-glutamic acid production in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by introducing the glutamate synthesis features from Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jun; Quan, Yufen; Gu, Yanyan; Liu, Fenghong; Huang, Xiaozhong; Shen, Haosheng; Dang, Yulei; Cao, Mingfeng; Gao, Weixia; Lu, Xiaoyun; Wang, Yi; Song, Cunjiang; Wang, Shufang

    2017-05-22

    Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) is a valuable polymer with glutamate as its sole precursor. Enhancement of the intracellular glutamate synthesis is a very important strategy for the improvement of γ-PGA production, especially for those glutamate-independent γ-PGA producing strains. Corynebacterium glutamicum has long been used for industrial glutamate production and it exhibits some unique features for glutamate synthesis; therefore introduction of these metabolic characters into the γ-PGA producing strain might lead to increased intracellular glutamate availability, and thus ultimate γ-PGA production. In this study, the unique glutamate synthesis features from C. glutamicum was introduced into the glutamate-independent γ-PGA producing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NK-1 strain. After introducing the energy-saving NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (NADPH-GDH) pathway, the NK-1 (pHT315-gdh) strain showed slightly increase (by 9.1%) in γ-PGA production. Moreover, an optimized metabolic toggle switch for controlling the expression of ɑ-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (ODHC) was introduced into the NK-1 strain, because it was previously shown that the ODHC in C. glutamicum was completely inhibited when glutamate was actively produced. The obtained NK-PO1 (pHT01-xylR) strain showed 66.2% higher γ-PGA production than the NK-1 strain. However, the further combination of these two strategies (introducing both NADPH-GDH pathway and the metabolic toggle switch) did not lead to further increase of γ-PGA production but rather the resultant γ-PGA production was even lower than that in the NK-1 strain. We proposed new metabolic engineering strategies to improve the γ-PGA production in B. amyloliquefaciens. The NK-1 (pHT315-gdh) strain with the introduction of NADPH-GDH pathway showed 9.1% improvement in γ-PGA production. The NK-PO1 (pHT01-xylR) strain with the introduction of a metabolic toggle switch for controlling the expression of ODHC showed 66.2% higher

  14. Influence of the glutamic acid content of the diet on the catabolisc rate of labelled glutamic acid in rats. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergner, H.; Wilke, A.; Simon, O.; Wolf, E.

    1984-01-01

    Male rats received in 8 groups of 10 animals each for a period of 7 days 7 synthetic diets and one semisynthetic diet on maintenance requirement level. A L-amino acid mixture corresponding to the pattern of egg protein without glutamic acid was the protein source of the synthetic diets. Glutamic acid was supplemented successively from 0 to 58 mol-% of the total amino acid content. The crude protein source of diet 8 was whole-egg powder. On the 8th day of experiment 5 animals per group were labelled by intragastric infusion with 14 C-glutamic acid. During the following 24 hours the excretion of CO 2 and 14 CO 2 was measured. Throughout the experimental feeding body weight was relative constant, however, when the synthetic diets were fed it was necessary to increase the daily amount of energy from 460 to 480 kJ/kg/sup 0.67/. The relative 14 CO 2 excretion within 24 hours was 68-75 % of the dose. However, the main part of the amount of radioactivity excreted during 24 hours was already found after 4 to 6 hours. Exponential functions calculated from the data of cumulative 14 CO 2 excretion suggest the existence of a fast process of 14 CO 2 formation directly from 14 C-glutamic acid, reaching a plateau within 2 hours and a slow process of oxidation of intermediates of glutamic acid metabolism, causing a continued 14 CO 2 formation even after 24 hours. The oxidation of 14 C-glutamic acid to CO 2 decreased 2 to 14 hours after labelling if the glutamic acid content of the diet increased. The same was found for the specific radioactivity of 14 CO 2 . A storage of intermediates of glutamic acid before degradation was assumed. (author)

  15. Astrocytic glutamate transport regulates a Drosophila CNS synapse that lacks astrocyte ensheathment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNamee, Sarah E; Liu, Kendra E; Gerhard, Stephan; Tran, Cathy T; Fetter, Richard D; Cardona, Albert; Tolbert, Leslie P; Oland, Lynne A

    2016-07-01

    Anatomical, molecular, and physiological interactions between astrocytes and neuronal synapses regulate information processing in the brain. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has become a valuable experimental system for genetic manipulation of the nervous system and has enormous potential for elucidating mechanisms that mediate neuron-glia interactions. Here, we show the first electrophysiological recordings from Drosophila astrocytes and characterize their spatial and physiological relationship with particular synapses. Astrocyte intrinsic properties were found to be strongly analogous to those of vertebrate astrocytes, including a passive current-voltage relationship, low membrane resistance, high capacitance, and dye-coupling to local astrocytes. Responses to optogenetic stimulation of glutamatergic premotor neurons were correlated directly with anatomy using serial electron microscopy reconstructions of homologous identified neurons and surrounding astrocytic processes. Robust bidirectional communication was present: neuronal activation triggered astrocytic glutamate transport via excitatory amino acid transporter 1 (Eaat1), and blocking Eaat1 extended glutamatergic interneuron-evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents in motor neurons. The neuronal synapses were always located within 1 μm of an astrocytic process, but none were ensheathed by those processes. Thus, fly astrocytes can modulate fast synaptic transmission via neurotransmitter transport within these anatomical parameters. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1979-1998, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Peptide-evoked release of amylase from isolated acini of the rat parotid gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goll, R; Poulsen, J H; Schmidt, P

    1994-01-01

    on isolated acini of the rat parotid gland. Furthermore, the occurrence and location of the peptides in the gland was studied. Finally, binding of 125I-BH-SP to isolated acini were studied in order to characterize their tachykinin receptor(s) and their binding kinetics. Only SP, NKA, NPK and VIP stimulated...... of NK1-receptors. Thus, the results of the present study support previous suggestions that the tachykinins and VIP are likely to be involved in amylase secretion in the rat parotid gland....

  17. Cholinergic regulation of the evoked quantal release at frog neuromuscular junction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nikolsky, E. E.; Vyskočil, František; Bukharaeva, E. A.; Samigullin, D.; Magazanik, L. G.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 560, č. 1 (2004), s. 77-88 ISSN 0022-3751 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5011411; GA ČR GA305/02/1333 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : acetylcholine * quantal * synapse Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.346, year: 2004

  18. Impact of substance P on the correlation of spike train evoked by electro acupuncture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Chen; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Jiang; Guo, Yi; Zhao, Xue; Guo, Yong-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyze spike trains induced by EA before and after inhibiting SP in PC6 area. • Inhibiting SP leads to an increase of spiking rate of median nerve. • SP may modulate membrane potential to affect the spiking rate. • SP has an influence on long-range correlation of spike train evoked by EA. • SP play an important role in EA-induced neural spiking and encoding. - Abstract: Substance P (SP) participates in the neural signal transmission evoked by electro-acupuncture (EA). This paper investigates the impact of SP on the correlation of spike train in the median nerve evoked by EA at 'Neiguan' acupoint (PC6). It shows that the spiking rate and interspike interval (ISI) distribution change obviously after inhibiting SP. This variation of spiking activity indicates that SP affects the temporal structure of spike train through modulating the action potential on median nerve filaments. Furtherly, the correlation coefficient and scaling exponent are considered to measure the correlation of spike train. Scaled Windowed Variance (SWV) method is applied to calculate scaling exponent which quantifies the long-range correlation of the neural electrical signals. It is found that the correlation coefficients of ISI increase after inhibiting SP released. In addition, the scaling exponents of neuronal spike train have significant differences between before and after inhibiting SP. These findings demonstrate that SP has an influence on the long-range correlation of spike train. Our results indicate that SP may play an important role in EA-induced neural spiking and encoding.

  19. Cholinergic basal forebrain structures are not essential for mediation of the arousing action of glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelkes, Zoltán; Abdurakhmanova, Shamsiiat; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja

    2017-09-18

    The cholinergic basal forebrain contributes to cortical activation and receives rich innervations from the ascending activating system. It is involved in the mediation of the arousing actions of noradrenaline and histamine. Glutamatergic stimulation in the basal forebrain results in cortical acetylcholine release and suppression of sleep. However, it is not known to what extent the cholinergic versus non-cholinergic basal forebrain projection neurones contribute to the arousing action of glutamate. To clarify this question, we administered N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), a glutamate agonist, into the basal forebrain in intact rats and after destruction of the cholinergic cells in the basal forebrain with 192 immunoglobulin (Ig)G-saporin. In eight Han-Wistar rats with implanted electroencephalogram/electromyogram (EEG/EMG) electrodes and guide cannulas for microdialysis probes, 0.23 μg 192 IgG-saporin was administered into the basal forebrain, while the eight control animals received artificial cerebrospinal fluid. Two weeks later, a microdialysis probe targeted into the basal forebrain was perfused with cerebrospinal fluid on the baseline day and for 3 h with 0.3 mmNMDA on the subsequent day. Sleep-wake activity was recorded for 24 h on both days. NMDA exhibited a robust arousing effect in both the intact and the lesioned rats. Wakefulness was increased and both non-REM and REM sleep were decreased significantly during the 3-h NMDA perfusion. Destruction of the basal forebrain cholinergic neurones did not abolish the wake-enhancing action of NMDA. Thus, the cholinergic basal forebrain structures are not essential for the mediation of the arousing action of glutamate. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  20. Upregulation of transmitter release probability improves a conversion of synaptic analogue signals into neuronal digital spikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Action potentials at the neurons and graded signals at the synapses are primary codes in the brain. In terms of their functional interaction, the studies were focused on the influence of presynaptic spike patterns on synaptic activities. How the synapse dynamics quantitatively regulates the encoding of postsynaptic digital spikes remains unclear. We investigated this question at unitary glutamatergic synapses on cortical GABAergic neurons, especially the quantitative influences of release probability on synapse dynamics and neuronal encoding. Glutamate release probability and synaptic strength are proportionally upregulated by presynaptic sequential spikes. The upregulation of release probability and the efficiency of probability-driven synaptic facilitation are strengthened by elevating presynaptic spike frequency and Ca2+. The upregulation of release probability improves spike capacity and timing precision at postsynaptic neuron. These results suggest that the upregulation of presynaptic glutamate release facilitates a conversion of synaptic analogue signals into digital spikes in postsynaptic neurons, i.e., a functional compatibility between presynaptic and postsynaptic partners. PMID:22852823

  1. Methane release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Swiss Gas Industry has carried out a systematic, technical estimate of methane release from the complete supply chain from production to consumption for the years 1992/1993. The result of this survey provided a conservative value, amounting to 0.9% of the Swiss domestic output. A continuation of the study taking into account new findings with regard to emission factors and the effect of the climate is now available, which provides a value of 0.8% for the target year of 1996. These results show that the renovation of the network has brought about lower losses in the local gas supplies, particularly for the grey cast iron pipelines. (author)

  2. VGLUT3 does not synergize GABA/glycine release during functional refinement of an inhibitory auditory circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T Case

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The vesicular glutamate transporter VGLUT3 is expressed at several locations not normally associated with glutamate release. Although the function of this protein remains generally elusive, when expressed in non-glutamatergic synaptic terminals, VGLUT3 can not only allow glutamate co-transmission but also synergize the action of non-glutamate vesicular transporters. Interestingly, in the immature glycinergic projection between the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB and the lateral superior olive (LSO of auditory brainstem, the transient early expression of VGLUT3 is required for normal developmental refinement. It has however been unknown whether the primary function of VGLUT3 in development of these inhibitory synapses is to enable glutamate release or to promote loading of inhibitory neurotransmitter through vesicular synergy. Using tissue from young mice in which Vglut3 had been genetically deleted, we evaluated inhibitory neurotransmission in the MNTB-LSO pathway. Our results show, in contrast to what has been seen at adult synapses, that VGLUT3 expression has little or no effect on vesicular synergy at the immature glycinergic synapse of brainstem. This finding supports the model that the primary function of increased VGLUT3 expression in the immature auditory brainstem is to enable glutamate release in a developing inhibitory circuit.

  3. The effects of curiosity-evoking events on activity enjoyment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isikman, Elif; MacInnis, Deborah J; Ülkümen, Gülden; Cavanaugh, Lisa A

    2016-09-01

    Whereas prior literature has studied the positive effects of curiosity-evoking events that are integral to focal activities, we explore whether and how a curiosity-evoking event that is incidental to a focal activity induces negative outcomes for enjoyment. Four experiments and 1 field study demonstrate that curiosity about an event that is incidental to an activity in which individuals are engaged, significantly affects enjoyment of a concurrent activity. The reason why is that curiosity diverts attention away from the concurrent activity and focuses attention on the curiosity-evoking event. Thus, curiosity regarding an incidental event decreases enjoyment of a positive focal activity but increases enjoyment of a negative focal activity. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved

  4. Do video games evoke specific types of epileptic seizures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccioli, Marta; Vigevano, Federico; Buttinelli, Carla; Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, Dorothée G A

    2005-11-01

    We determined whether epileptic clinical manifestations evoked by playing video games (VG) differ from those evoked by intermittent photic stimulation (IPS) or striped patterns (P). We exposed nine children who had TV- and VG-evoked seizures in daily life to 12 VG after standardized photic stimulation and pattern stimulation. Their EEGs were recorded continuously, analyzed, and then correlated with a video of their behavior. Similar types of clinical signs were seen during VG, P, and IPS, but the signs we observed were more subtle during the VG. Eight patients showed a clear lateralization. A new observation was the lowering of the eyelids to a state of half-closed. Our study suggests that the type of visual stimulus provoking a photoparoxysmal response or seizure is not particularly relevant. The children belonged to different epilepsy groups, and our findings add to the discussion on the boundaries of the epilepsy types.

  5. Stimulator with arbitrary waveform for auditory evoked potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, H R; Romao, M; Placido, D; Provenzano, F; Tierra-Criollo, C J

    2007-01-01

    The technological improvement helps many medical areas. The audiometric exams involving the auditory evoked potentials can make better diagnoses of auditory disorders. This paper proposes the development of a stimulator based on Digital Signal Processor. This stimulator is the first step of an auditory evoked potential system based on the ADSP-BF533 EZ KIT LITE (Analog Devices Company - USA). The stimulator can generate arbitrary waveform like Sine Waves, Modulated Amplitude, Pulses, Bursts and Pips. The waveforms are generated through a graphical interface programmed in C++ in which the user can define the parameters of the waveform. Furthermore, the user can set the exam parameters as number of stimuli, time with stimulation (Time ON) and time without stimulus (Time OFF). In future works will be implemented another parts of the system that includes the acquirement of electroencephalogram and signal processing to estimate and analyze the evoked potential

  6. Stimulator with arbitrary waveform for auditory evoked potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, H R; Romao, M; Placido, D; Provenzano, F; Tierra-Criollo, C J [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Departamento de Engenharia Eletrica (DEE), Nucleo de Estudos e Pesquisa em Engenharia Biomedica NEPEB, Av. Ant. Carlos, 6627, sala 2206, Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31.270-901 (Brazil)

    2007-11-15

    The technological improvement helps many medical areas. The audiometric exams involving the auditory evoked potentials can make better diagnoses of auditory disorders. This paper proposes the development of a stimulator based on Digital Signal Processor. This stimulator is the first step of an auditory evoked potential system based on the ADSP-BF533 EZ KIT LITE (Analog Devices Company - USA). The stimulator can generate arbitrary waveform like Sine Waves, Modulated Amplitude, Pulses, Bursts and Pips. The waveforms are generated through a graphical interface programmed in C++ in which the user can define the parameters of the waveform. Furthermore, the user can set the exam parameters as number of stimuli, time with stimulation (Time ON) and time without stimulus (Time OFF). In future works will be implemented another parts of the system that includes the acquirement of electroencephalogram and signal processing to estimate and analyze the evoked potential.

  7. Glutamate metabotropic receptors as targets for drug therapy in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldrich, Randal X; Chapman, Astrid G; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Meldrum, Brian S

    2003-08-22

    Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors have multiple actions on neuronal excitability through G-protein-linked modifications of enzymes and ion channels. They act presynaptically to modify glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic transmission and can contribute to long-term changes in synaptic function. The recent identification of subtype-selective agonists and antagonists has permitted evaluation of mGlu receptors as potential targets in the treatment of epilepsy. Agonists acting on group I mGlu receptors (mGlu1 and mGlu5) are convulsant. Antagonists acting on mGlu1 or mGlu5 receptors are anticonvulsant against 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG)-induced seizures and in mouse models of generalized motor seizures and absence seizures. The competitive, phenylglycine mGlu1/5 receptor antagonists generally require intracerebroventricular administration for potent anticonvulsant efficacy but noncompetitive antagonists, e.g., (3aS,6aS)-6a-naphthalen-2-ylmethyl-5-methyliden-hexahydrocyclopenta[c]furan-1-on (BAY36-7620), 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine hydrochloride (MPEP), and 2-methyl-6-(2-phenylethenyl)pyridine (SIB-1893) block generalized seizures with systemic administration. Agonists acting on group II mGlu receptors (mGlu2, mGlu3) to reduce glutamate release are anticonvulsant, e.g., 2R,4R-aminopyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylate [(2R,4R)-APDC], (+)-2-aminobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (LY354740), and (-)-2-oxa-4-aminobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-4,6-dicarboxylate (LY379268). The classical agonists acting on group III mGlu receptors such as L-(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid, and L-serine-O-phosphate are acutely proconvulsant with some anticonvulsant activity. The more recently identified agonists (R,S)-4-phosphonophenylglycine [(R,S)-PPG] and (S)-3,4-dicarboxyphenylglycine [(S)-3,4-DCPG] and (1S,3R,4S)-1-aminocyclopentane-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid [ACPT-1] are all anticonvulsant without proconvulsant effects. Studies in animal models of kindling

  8. Metabotropic glutamate receptor type 1 autoimmunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Chiriboga, A. Sebastian; Komorowski, Lars; Kümpfel, Tania; Probst, Christian; Hinson, Shannon R.; Pittock, Sean J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe retrospectively the clinical associations of immunoglobulin G (IgG) targeting metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1-IgG). Methods: Specimens of 9 patients evaluated on a service basis in the Mayo Clinic Neuroimmunology Laboratory by tissue-based immunofluorescence assay (IFA) yielded a robust, synaptic immunostaining pattern consistent with mGluR1-IgG (serum, 9; CSF, 2 available). Transfected HEK293 cell-based assay (CBA) confirmed mGluR1 specificity in all 11 specimens. A further 2 patients were detected in Germany primarily by CBA. Results: The median symptom onset age for the 11 patients was 58 years (range 33–81 years); 6 were male. All 9 Mayo Clinic patients had subacute onset of cerebellar ataxia, 4 had dysgeusia, 1 had psychiatric symptoms, and 1 had cognitive impairment. All were evaluated for malignancy, but only 1 was affected (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma). One developed ataxia post–herpes zoster infection. Head MRIs were generally atrophic or normal-appearing, and CSF was inflammatory in just 1 of 5 tested, though mGluR1-IgG was detected in both specimens submitted. Five patients improved (attributable to immunotherapy in 4, spontaneously in 1), 3 stabilized (attributable to immunotherapy in 2, cancer therapy in 1), and 1 progressively declined (untreated). The 2 German patients had ataxia, but fulfilled multiple sclerosis diagnostic criteria (1 relapsing-remitting, 1 progressive). However, both had histories of hematologic malignancy (acute lymphocytic leukemia and mantle cell lymphoma), and had mGluR1-IgG detected in serum by CBA (weakly positive on tissue-based IFA). Conclusions: mGluR1 autoimmunity represents a treatable form of cerebellar ataxia. Dysgeusia may be a diagnostic clue. Paraneoplastic, parainfectious, or idiopathic causes may occur. PMID:26888994

  9. Thirst is associated with suppression of LHB outputs and active stress coping: Is there a role for a non-canonical vasopressin-glutamate pathway?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei eZhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Water-homeostasis is a fundamental physiological process for terrestrial life. In vertebrates, thirst drives water intake, but the neuronal circuits that connect the physiology of water regulation with emotional context are poorly understood. Vasopressin (VP is a prominent messenger in this circuit, as well as L-glutamate. We have investigated the role of a VP circuit and interaction between thirst and motivational behaviors evoked by life-threatening stimuli in rats. We demonstrate a direct pathway from hypothalamic paraventricular VP-expressing, glutamatergic magnocellular neurons to the medial division of lateral habenula (LHbM, a region containing GABAergic neurons. In vivo recording and juxtacellular labeling revealed that GABAergic neurons in the LHbM had locally branching axons, and received VP-positive axon terminal contacts on their dendrites. Water deprivation significantly reduced freezing and immobility behaviors evoked by innate fear and behavioral despair respectively, accompanied by decreased Fos expression in the lateral habenula. Our results reveal a novel VP-expressing hypothalamus to the LHbM circuit that is likely to evoke GABA-mediated inhibition in the LHbM, which promotes escape behavior during stress coping.

  10. pH-jump induced α-helix folding of poly-L-glutamic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donten, Mateusz L.; Hamm, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► pH-jump as truly biomimetic tool to initiate non-equilibrium dynamics of biomolecules. ► Design criteria to widen the applicability of pH-jumps are developed. ► Folding of poly-L-Glu in dependence of starting pH, pH jump size and helix length. ► Length dependence provides strong evidence for a nucleation–propagation scenario. - Abstract: pH jumps are a truly biomimetic technique to initiate non-equilibrium dynamics of biomolecules. In this work, the pH jump induced α-helix folding of poly-L-glutamic acid is investigated upon proton release from o-nitrobenzaldehyde. The aim of this work is twofold: On the one hand, design criteria of pH jump experiments are discussed, on the other hand, the folding mechanism of poly-L-glutamic acid is clarified by probing the IR response of the amide I band. Its folding kinetics is studied in dependence of the starting pD, the size of the pD jump and the length of the helix. While no dependence on the first two parameters could be detected, the folding time varies from 0.6 μs to 1.8 μs for helix lengths of 20 residue to 440 residue, respectively. It converges to a long-length limit at about 50 residue, a result which is attributed to a nucleation–propagation mechanism

  11. Poly (γ-glutamic acid)/beta-TCP nanocomposites via in situ copolymerization: Preparation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xiu-Lin; Shi, Qing-Shan; Feng, Jin; Yang, Yun-Hua; Zhou, Gang; Li, Wen-Ru

    2016-07-01

    A series biodegradable poly (γ-glutamic acid)/beta-tricalcium phosphate (γ-PGA/TCP) nanocomposites were prepared which were composed of poly-γ-glutamic acid polymerized in situ with β-tricalcium phosphate and physiochemically characterized as bone graft substitutes. The particle size via dynamic light scattering, the direct morphological characterization via transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscope, which showed that γ-PGA and β-TCP were combined compactly at 80℃, and the γ-PGA/TCP nanocomposites had homogenous and nano-sized grains with narrow particle size distributions. The water uptake and retention abilities, in vitro degradation properties, cytotoxicity in the simulated medium, and protein release of these novel γ-PGA/TCP composites were investigated. Cell proliferation in composites was nearly twice than β-TCP when checked in vitro using MC3T3 cell line. We also envision the potential use of γ-PGA/TCP systems in bone growth factor or orthopedic drug delivery applications in future bone tissue engineering applications. These observations suggest that the γ-PGA/TCP are novel nanocomposites with great potential for application in the field of bone tissue engineering. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. A Novel Corynebacterium glutamicum l-Glutamate Exporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Cao, Guoqiang; Xu, Deyu; Fan, Liwen; Wu, Xinyang; Ni, Xiaomeng; Zhao, Shuxin; Zheng, Ping; Sun, Jibin; Ma, Yanhe

    2018-03-15

    Besides metabolic pathways and regulatory networks, transport systems are also pivotal for cellular metabolism and hyperproduction of biochemicals using microbial cell factories. The identification and characterization of transporters are therefore of great significance for the understanding and engineering of transport reactions. Herein, a novel l-glutamate exporter, MscCG2, which exists extensively in Corynebacterium glutamicum strains but is distinct from the only known l-glutamate exporter, MscCG, was discovered in an industrial l-glutamate-producing C. glutamicum strain. MscCG2 was predicted to possess three transmembrane helices in the N-terminal region and located in the cytoplasmic membrane, which are typical structural characteristics of the mechanosensitive channel of small conductance. MscCG2 has a low amino acid sequence identity (23%) to MscCG and evolved separately from MscCG with four transmembrane helices. Despite the considerable differences between MscCG2 and MscCG in sequence and structure, gene deletion and complementation confirmed that MscCG2 also functioned as an l-glutamate exporter and an osmotic safety valve in C. glutamicum Besides, transcriptional analysis showed that MscCG2 and MscCG genes were transcribed in similar patterns and not induced by l-glutamate-producing conditions. It was also demonstrated that MscCG2-mediated l-glutamate excretion was activated by biotin limitation or penicillin treatment and that constitutive l-glutamate excretion was triggered by a gain-of-function mutation of MscCG2 (A151V). Discovery of MscCG2 will enrich the understanding of bacterial amino acid transport and provide additional targets for exporter engineering. IMPORTANCE The exchange of matter, energy, and information with surroundings is fundamental for cellular metabolism. Therefore, studying transport systems that are essential for these processes is of great significance. Besides, transport systems of bacterial cells are usually related to

  13. High glutamate attenuates S100B and LDH outputs from rat cortical slices enhanced by either oxygen-glucose deprivation or menadione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demircan, Celaleddin; Gül, Zülfiye; Büyükuysal, R Levent

    2014-07-01

    One hour incubation of rat cortical slices in a medium without oxygen and glucose (oxygen-glucose deprivation, OGD) increased S100B release to 6.53 ± 0.3 ng/ml/mg protein from its control value of 3.61 ± 0.2 ng/ml/mg protein. When these slices were then transferred to a medium containing oxygen and glucose (reoxygenation, REO), S100B release rose to 344 % of its control value. REO also caused 192 % increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage. Glutamate added at millimolar concentration into the medium decreased OGD or REO-induced S100B release and REO-induced LDH leakage. Alpha-ketoglutarate, a metabolic product of glutamate, was found to be as effective as glutamate in decreasing the S100B and LDH outputs. Similarly lactate, 2-ketobutyrate and ethyl pyruvate, a lipophilic derivative of pyruvate, also exerted a glutamate-like effect on S100B and LDH outputs. Preincubation with menadione, which produces H2O2 intracellularly, significantly increased S100B and LDH levels in normoxic medium. All drugs tested in the present study, with the exception of pyruvate, showed a complete protection against menadione preincubation. Additionally, each OGD-REO, menadione or H2O2-induced mitochondrial energy impairments determined by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and OGD-REO or menadione-induced increases in reactive oxygen substances (ROS) determined by 2,7-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) were also recovered by glutamate. Interestingly, H2O2-induced increase in fluorescence intensity derived from DCFH-DA in a slice-free physiological medium was attenuated significantly by glutamate and alpha-keto acids. All these drug actions support the conclusion that high glutamate, such as alpha-ketoglutarate and other keto acids, protects the slices against OGD- and REO-induced S100B and LDH outputs probably by scavenging ROS in addition to its energy substrate metabolite property.

  14. Glutamate abnormalities in obsessive compulsive disorder: neurobiology, pathophysiology, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittenger, Christopher; Bloch, Michael H; Williams, Kyle

    2011-12-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder is prevalent, disabling, incompletely understood, and often resistant to current therapies. Established treatments consist of specialized cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy with medications targeting serotonergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission. However, remission is rare, and more than a quarter of OCD sufferers receive little or no benefit from these approaches, even when they are optimally delivered. New insights into the disorder, and new treatment strategies, are urgently needed. Recent evidence suggests that the ubiquitous excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate is dysregulated in OCD, and that this dysregulation may contribute to the pathophysiology of the disorder. Here we review the current state of this evidence, including neuroimaging studies, genetics, neurochemical investigations, and insights from animal models. Finally, we review recent findings from small clinical trials of glutamate-modulating medications in treatment-refractory OCD. The precise role of glutamate dysregulation in OCD remains unclear, and we lack blinded, well-controlled studies demonstrating therapeutic benefit from glutamate-modulating agents. Nevertheless, the evidence supporting some important perturbation of glutamate in the disorder is increasingly strong. This new perspective on the pathophysiology of OCD, which complements the older focus on monoaminergic neurotransmission, constitutes an important focus of current research and a promising area for the ongoing development of new therapeutics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Distribution of vesicular glutamate transporters in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika eVigneault

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate is the major excitatory transmitter in the brain. Vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1-3 are responsible for uploading glutamate into synaptic vesicles. VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 are considered as specific markers of canonical glutamatergic neurons, while VGLUT3 is found in neurons previously shown to use other neurotransmitters than glutamate. Although there exists a rich literature on the localization of these glutamatergic markers in the rodent brain, little is currently known about the distribution of VGLUT1-3 in the human brain. In the present study, using subtype specific probes and antisera, we examined the localization of the three vesicular glutamate transporters in the human brain by in situ hybridization, immunoautoradiography and immunohistochemistry. We found that the VGLUT1 transcript was highly expressed in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum, whereas VGLUT2 mRNA was mainly found in the thalamus and brainstem. VGLUT3 mRNA was localized in scarce neurons within the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum and raphe nuclei. Following immunoautoradiographic labeling, intense VGLUT1- and VGLUT2-immunoreactivities were observed in all regions investigated (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, caudate-putamen, cerebellum, thalamus, amygdala, substantia nigra, raphe while VGLUT3 was absent from the thalamus and cerebellum. This extensive mapping of VGLUT1-3 in human brain reveals distributions that correspond for the most part to those previously described in rodent brains.

  16. Influence of glutamic acid enantiomers on C-mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formánek, Pavel; Vranová, Valerie; Lojková, Lea

    2015-02-01

    Seasonal dynamics in the mineralization of glutamic acid enantiomers in soils from selected ecosystems was determined and subjected to a range of treatments: ambient x elevated CO2 level and meadow x dense x thinned forest environment. Mineralization of glutamic acid was determined by incubation of the soil with 2 mg L- or D-glutamic acid g(-1) of dry soil to induce the maximum respiration rate. Mineralization of glutamic acid enantiomers in soils fluctuates over the course of a vegetation season, following a similar trend across a range of ecosystems. Mineralization is affected by environmental changes and management practices, including elevated CO2 level and thinning intensity. L-glutamic acid metabolism is more dependent on soil type as compared to metabolism of its D-enantiomer. The results support the hypothesis that the slower rate of D- compared to L- amino acid mineralization is due to different roles in anabolism and catabolism of the soil microbial community. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Frontal glutamate and reward processing in adolescence and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleich, Tobias; Lorenz, Robert C; Pöhland, Lydia; Raufelder, Diana; Deserno, Lorenz; Beck, Anne; Heinz, Andreas; Kühn, Simone; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2015-11-01

    The fronto-limbic network interaction, driven by glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission, represents a core mechanism of motivated behavior and personality traits. Reward seeking behavior undergoes tremendous changes in adolescence paralleled by neurobiological changes of this network including the prefrontal cortex, striatum and amygdala. Since fronto-limbic dysfunctions also underlie major psychiatric diseases beginning in adolescence, this investigation focuses on network characteristics separating adolescents from adults. To investigate differences in network interactions, the brain reward system activity (slot machine task) together with frontal glutamate concentration (anterior cingulate cortex, ACC) was measured in 28 adolescents and 26 adults employing functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. An inverse coupling of glutamate concentrations in the ACC and activation of the ventral striatum was observed in adolescents. Further, amygdala response in adolescents was negatively correlated with the personality trait impulsivity. For adults, no significant associations of network components or correlations with impulsivity were found. The inverse association between frontal glutamate concentration and striatal activation in adolescents is in line with the triadic model of motivated behavior stressing the important role of frontal top-down inhibition on limbic structures. Our data identified glutamate as the mediating neurotransmitter of this inhibitory process and demonstrates the relevance of glutamate on the reward system and related behavioral traits like impulsivity. This fronto-limbic coupling may represent a vulnerability factor for psychiatric disorders starting in adolescence but not in adulthood.

  18. Glutamine and glutamate: Nonessential or essential amino acids?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm Watford

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Glutamine and glutamate are not considered essential amino acids but they play important roles in maintaining growth and health in both neonates and adults. Although glutamine and glutamate are highly abundant in most feedstuffs there is increasing evidence that they may be limiting during pregnancy, lactation and neonatal growth, particularly when relatively low protein diets are fed. Supplementation of diets with glutamine, glutamate or both at 0.5 to 1.0% to both suckling and recently weaned piglets improves intestinal and immune function and results in better growth. In addition such supplementation to the sow prevents some of the loss of lean body mass during lactation, and increases milk glutamine content. However, a number of important questions related to physiological condition, species under study and the form and amount of the supplements need to be addressed before the full benefits of glutamine and glutamate supplementation in domestic animal production can be realized. Keywords: Amino acid, Glutamate, Glutamine, Lactation, Pregnancy, Growth

  19. Recording visual evoked potentials and auditory evoked P300 at 9.4T static magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrubla, Jorge; Neuner, Irene; Hahn, David; Boers, Frank; Shah, N Jon

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous recording of electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has shown a number of advantages that make this multimodal technique superior to fMRI alone. The feasibility of recording EEG at ultra-high static magnetic field up to 9.4 T was recently demonstrated and promises to be implemented soon in fMRI studies at ultra high magnetic fields. Recording visual evoked potentials are expected to be amongst the most simple for simultaneous EEG/fMRI at ultra-high magnetic field due to the easy assessment of the visual cortex. Auditory evoked P300 measurements are of interest since it is believed that they represent the earliest stage of cognitive processing. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of recording visual evoked potentials and auditory evoked P300 in a 9.4 T static magnetic field. For this purpose, EEG data were recorded from 26 healthy volunteers inside a 9.4 T MR scanner using a 32-channel MR compatible EEG system. Visual stimulation and auditory oddball paradigm were presented in order to elicit evoked related potentials (ERP). Recordings made outside the scanner were performed using the same stimuli and EEG system for comparison purposes. We were able to retrieve visual P100 and auditory P300 evoked potentials at 9.4 T static magnetic field after correction of the ballistocardiogram artefact using independent component analysis. The latencies of the ERPs recorded at 9.4 T were not different from those recorded at 0 T. The amplitudes of ERPs were higher at 9.4 T when compared to recordings at 0 T. Nevertheless, it seems that the increased amplitudes of the ERPs are due to the effect of the ultra-high field on the EEG recording system rather than alteration in the intrinsic processes that generate the electrophysiological responses.

  20. Extracting the basal extracellular dopamine concentrations from the evoked responses: re-analysis of the dopamine kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kevin C; Budygin, Evgeny A

    2007-08-15

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in conjunction with carbon fiber microelectrode has been used to study dopamine (DA) release and uptake mechanisms in rat brains because of the smaller size of the electrode and the subsecond resolution. Current voltammetry data were analyzed by a DA kinetic model assuming a zero baseline, which is in conflict with existing microdialysis findings and a recent claim of the striatal extracellular DA concentration at micromolar levels. This work applied a new analysis approach based on a modified DA kinetic model to analyze the kinetics of electrically evoked DA overflow in the caudate-putamen of anesthetized rats. The DA uptake parameters were fitted from the electrical stimulation phase, and subsequently used to calculate theoretical DA uptake rates. Comparison of the theoretical uptake rates with experimental clearance rates allows for the study of the tonic DA release process following electrical stimulations. Analyses of DA voltammetry data suggest that the locally averaged basal level of extracellular DA in the rat striatum might be confined between 95 and 220 nM. The disparate time scales in the clearance kinetics of endogenous and exogenous DA were investigated. Long-distance diffusion could only partially explain the slow clearance time course of exogenous DA. Model simulations and parameter analyses on evoked DA responses indicate that suppression of the nonevoked DA release process immediately following electrical stimulation cannot completely account for the rapid clearance of the electrically evoked DA. Inconsistency in the measured uptake strengths in the literature studying endogenous and exogenous DA remains to be investigated in the future.

  1. Chronic glutamate toxicity in neurodegenerative diseases-what is the evidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela eMaher

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Together with aspartate, glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Glutamate binds and activates both ligand-gated ion channels (ionotropic glutamate receptors and a class of G-protein coupled receptors (metabotropic glutamate receptors. Although the intracellular glutamate concentration in the brain is in the millimolar range, the extracellular glutamate concentration is kept in the low micromolar range by the action of excitatory amino acid transporters that import glutamate and aspartate into astrocytes and neurons. Excess extracellular glutamate may lead to excitotoxicity in vitro and in vivo in acute insults like ischemic stroke via the overactivation of ionotropic glutamate receptors. In addition, chronic excitotoxicity has been hypothesized to play a role in numerous neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease and Huntington’s disease. Based on this hypothesis, a good deal of effort has been devoted to develop and test drugs that either inhibit glutamate receptors or decrease extracellular glutamate. In this review, we provide an overview of the different pathways that are thought to lead to an over-activation of the glutamatergic system and glutamate toxicity in neurodegeneration. In addition, we summarize the available experimental evidence for glutamate toxicity in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases.

  2. High frequency oscillations evoked by peripheral magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biller, S; Simon, L; Fiedler, P; Strohmeier, D; Haueisen, J

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) and / or fields (SEF) is a well-established and important tool for investigating the functioning of the peripheral and central human nervous system. A standard technique to evoke SEPs / SEFs is the stimulation of the median nerve by using a bipolar electrical stimulus. We aim at an alternative stimulation technique enabling stimulation of deep nerve structures while reducing patient stress and error susceptibility. In the current study, we apply a commercial transcranial magnetic stimulation system for peripheral magnetic stimulation of the median nerve. We compare the results of simultaneously recorded EEG signals to prove applicability of our technique to evoke SEPs including low frequency components (LFC) as well as high frequency oscillations (HFO). Therefore, we compare amplitude, latency and time-frequency characteristics of the SEP of 14 healthy volunteers after electric and magnetic stimulation. Both low frequency components and high frequency oscillations were detected. The HFOs were superimposed onto the primary cortical response N20. Statistical analysis revealed significantly lower amplitudes and increased latencies for LFC and HFO components after magnetic stimulation. The differences indicate the inability of magnetic stimulation to elicit supramaximal responses. A psycho-perceptual evaluation showed that magnetic stimulation was less unpleasant for 12 out of the 14 volunteers. In conclusion, we showed that LFC and HFO components related to median nerve stimulation can be evoked by peripheral magnetic stimulation.

  3. Evoked responses to sinusoidally modulated sound in unanaesthetized dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielen, A.M.; Kamp, A.; Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Reneau, J.P.; Storm van Leeuwen, W.

    1. 1. Responses evoked by sinusoidally amplitude-modulated sound in unanaesthetized dogs have been recorded from inferior colliculus and from auditory cortex structures by means of chronically indwelling stainless steel wire electrodes. 2. 2. Harmonic analysis of the average responses demonstrated

  4. Prior Expectations Evoke Stimulus Templates in the Primary Visual Cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, P.; Failing, F.M.; de Lange, F.P.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to rhythmic stimulation results in facilitated responses to events that appear in-phase with the rhythm and modulation of anticipatory and target-evoked brain activity, presumably reflecting "exogenous," unintentional temporal expectations. However, the extent to which this effect is

  5. The role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Visual Evoked ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: To report our experience in management of patients with optic neuritis. The effects of brain magnetic resonance imaging and visual evoked potential on management were investigated. Methods: This is a four years clinical trial that included patients presenting with first attack of optic neuritis older than 16 years ...

  6. Complex formation between glutamic acid and molybdenum (VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, Farrokh; Khorrami, S.A.; Sharifi, Sasan

    1997-01-01

    Equilibria of the reaction of molybdenum (VI) with L-glutamic acid have been studied in aqueous solution in the pH range 2.5 to 9.5, using spectrophotometric and optical rotation methods at constant ionic strength (0.15 mol dm -3 sodium perchlorate) and temperature 25 ± 0.1 degC. Our studies have shown that glutamic acid forms a mononuclear complex with Mo(VI) of the type MoO 3 L 2- at pH 5.5. The stability constant of this complexation and the dissociation constants of L-glutamic acid have been determined. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Dysfunctional TCA-Cycle Metabolism in Glutamate Dehydrogenase Deficient Astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Jakob D; Pajęcka, Kamilla; Stridh, Malin H

    2015-01-01

    aminotransferase (AAT) catalyze the reversible reaction between glutamate and α-ketoglutarate, which is the initial step for glutamate to enter TCA cycle metabolism. In contrast to GDH, AAT requires a concomitant interconversion of oxaloacetate and aspartate. We have investigated the role of GDH in astrocyte...... Labeling of aspartate and TCA cycle intermediates confirmed that the increased amount of aspartate is associated with elevated TCA cycle flux from α-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate, i.e. truncated TCA cycle. (13) C Glucose metabolism was elevated in GDH deficient astrocytes as observed by increased de novo...... synthesis of aspartate via pyruvate carboxylation. In the absence of glucose, lactate production from glutamate via malic enzyme was lower in GDH deficient astrocytes. In conclusions, our studies reveal that metabolism via GDH serves an important anaplerotic role by adding net carbon to the TCA cycle...

  8. Aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities in lactobacilli and streptococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Hugo Peralta

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aminotransferases and glutamate dehydrogenase are two main types of enzymes involved in the initial steps of amino acid catabolism, which plays a key role in the cheese flavor development. In the present work, glutamate dehydrogenase and aminotransferase activities were screened in twenty one strains of lactic acid bacteria of dairy interest, either cheese-isolated or commercial starters, including fifteen mesophilic lactobacilli, four thermophilic lactobacilli, and two streptococci. The strains of Streptococcus thermophilus showed the highest glutamate dehydrogenase activity, which was significantly elevated compared with the lactobacilli. Aspartate aminotransferase prevailed in most strains tested, while the levels and specificity of other aminotransferases were highly strain- and species-dependent. The knowledge of enzymatic profiles of these starter and cheese-isolated cultures is helpful in proposing appropriate combinations of strains for improved or increased cheese flavor.

  9. Zinc and glutamate dehydrogenase in putative glutamatergic brain structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, G; Schmidt, W

    1983-01-01

    A certain topographic parallelism between the distribution of histochemically (TIMM staining) identified zinc and putative glutamatergic structures in the rat brain was demonstrated. Glutamate dehydrogenase as a zinc containing protein is in consideration to be an enzyme synthesizing transmitter glutamate. In a low concentration range externally added zinc ions (10(-9) to 10(-7) M) induced an increase in the activity of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) originating from rat hippocampal formation, neocortex, and cerebellum up to 142.4%. With rising molarity of Zn(II) in the incubation medium, the enzyme of hippocampal formation and cerebellum showed a biphasic course of activation. Zinc ions of a concentration higher than 10(-6) M caused a strong inhibition of GDH. The effect of Zn(II) on GDH originating from spinal ganglia and liver led only to a decrease of enzyme activity. These results are discussed in connection with a functional correlation between zinc and putatively glutamatergic system.

  10. Enzymatic production of α-ketoglutaric acid from l-glutamic acid via l-glutamate oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Panqing; Dong, Xiaoxiang; Wang, Yuancai; Liu, Liming

    2014-06-10

    In this study, a novel strategy for α-ketoglutaric acid (α-KG) production from l-glutamic acid using recombinant l-glutamate oxidase (LGOX) was developed. First, by analyzing the molecular structure characteristics of l-glutamic acid and α-KG, LGOX was found to be the best catalyst for oxidizing the amino group of l-glutamic acid to a ketonic group without the need for exogenous cofactor. Then the LGOX gene was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) in a soluble and active form, and the recombinant LGOX activity reached to a maximum value of 0.59U/mL at pH 6.5, 30°C. Finally, the maximum α-KG concentration reached 104.7g/L from 110g/L l-glutamic acid in 24h, under the following optimum conditions: 1.5U/mL LGOX, 250U/mL catalase, 3mM MnCl2, 30°C, and pH 6.5. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Therapeutic effects of glutamic acid in piglets challenged with deoxynivalenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Miaomiao; Xiao, Hao; Ren, Wenkai; Yin, Jie; Tan, Bie; Liu, Gang; Li, Lili; Nyachoti, Charles Martin; Xiong, Xia; Wu, Guoyao

    2014-01-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), one of the most common food contaminants, primarily targets the gastrointestinal tract to affect animal and human health. This study was conducted to examine the protective function of glutamic acid on intestinal injury and oxidative stress caused by DON in piglets. Twenty-eight piglets were assigned randomly into 4 dietary treatments (7 pigs/treatment): 1) uncontaminated control diet (NC), 2) NC+DON at 4 mg/kg (DON), 3) NC+2% glutamic acid (GLU), and 4) NC+2% glutamic acid + DON at 4 mg/kg (DG). At day 15, 30 and 37, blood samples were collected to determine serum concentrations of CAT (catalase), T-AOC (total antioxidant capacity), H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide), NO (nitric oxide), MDA (maleic dialdehyde), DAO (diamine oxidase) and D-lactate. Intestinal morphology, and the activation of Akt/mTOR/4EBP1 signal pathway, as well as the concentrations of H2O2, MDA, and DAO in kidney, liver and small intestine, were analyzed at day 37. Results showed that DON significantly (Pglutamic acid supplementation according to the change of oxidative parameters in blood and tissues. Meanwhile, DON caused obvious intestinal injury from microscopic observations and permeability indicators, which was alleviated by glutamic acid supplementation. Moreover, the inhibition of DON on Akt/mTOR/4EBP1 signal pathway was reduced by glutamic acid supplementation. Collectively, these data suggest that glutamic acid may be a useful nutritional regulator for DON-induced damage manifested as oxidative stress, intestinal injury and signaling inhibition.

  12. Stress-restress evokes sustained iNOS activity and altered GABA levels and NMDA receptors in rat hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvey, Brian H; Oosthuizen, Frasia; Brand, Linda

    2004-01-01

    . The NOS isoform involved, and the role of stress-mediated corticosterone release in NOS activation, was verified with the administration of selective iNOS and nNOS inhibitors, aminoguanidine (50 mg/kg/day i.p.) and 7-nitroindazole (12.5 mg/kg/day i.p.), and the steroid synthesis inhibitor, ketoconazole...... (24 mg/kg/day i.p.), administered for 21 days prior to and during the stress procedure. RESULTS: Stress evoked a sustained increase in NOS activity, but reduced NMDA receptor density and total GABA levels. Aminoguanidine or ketoconazole, but not 7-nitroindazole or saline, blocked stress-induced NOS...

  13. Visual evoked potentials in patients after methanol poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Pavel; Zakharov, Sergey; Diblík, Pavel; Pelclová, Daniela; Ridzoň, Petr

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of the visual evoked potentials (VEP) examination in patients after severe poisoning by methanol. The group of 47 patients (38 males and 9 females) was assembled out of persons who survived an outbreak of poisoning by the methanol adulterated alcohol beverages, which happened in the Czech Republic in 2012-2013. The visual evoked potentials examination was performed using monocular checkerboard pattern-reversal stimulation. Two criteria of abnormality were chosen: missing evoked response, and wave P1 latency > 117 ms. Non-parametric statistical methods (median, range, and the median test) were used to analyze factors influencing the VEP abnormality. The visual evoked potential was abnormal in 20 patients (43%), 5 of them had normal visual acuity on the Snellen chart. The VEP abnormality did not correlate significantly with initial serum concentrations of methanol, formic acid or lactate; however, it showed statistically significant inverse relation to the initial serum pH: the subgroup with the abnormal VEP had significantly lower median pH in comparison with the subgroup with the normal VEP (7.16 vs. 7.34, p = 0.04). The abnormality was not related to chronic alcohol abuse. The visual evoked potentials examination appeared sensitive enough to detected even subclinical impairment of the optic system. Metabolic acidosis is likely to be the key factor related to the development of visual damage induced by methanol. The examination performed with a delay of 1-9 months after the poisoning documented the situation relatively early after the event. It is considered as a baseline for the planned long-term follow-up of the patients, which will make it possible to assess the dynamics of the observed changes, their reversibility, and the occurrence of potential late sequelae. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  14. CCL5–Glutamate Cross-Talk in Astrocyte-Neuron Communication in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pittaluga

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The immune system (IS and the central nervous system (CNS are functionally coupled, and a large number of endogenous molecules (i.e., the chemokines for the IS and the classic neurotransmitters for the CNS are shared in common between the two systems. These interactions are key elements for the elucidation of the pathogenesis of central inflammatory diseases. In recent years, evidence has been provided supporting the role of chemokines as modulators of central neurotransmission. It is the case of the chemokines CCL2 and CXCL12 that control pre- and/or post-synaptically the chemical transmission. This article aims to review the functional cross-talk linking another endogenous pro-inflammatory factor released by glial cells, i.e., the chemokine Regulated upon Activation Normal T-cell Expressed and Secreted (CCL5 and the principal neurotransmitter in CNS (i.e., glutamate in physiological and pathological conditions. In particular, the review discusses preclinical data concerning the role of CCL5 as a modulator of central glutamatergic transmission in healthy and demyelinating disorders. The CCL5-mediated control of glutamate release at chemical synapses could be relevant either to the onset of psychiatric symptoms that often accompany the development of multiple sclerosis (MS, but also it might indirectly give a rationale for the progression of inflammation and demyelination. The impact of disease-modifying therapies for the cure of MS on the endogenous availability of CCL5 in CNS will be also summarized. We apologize in advance for omission in our coverage of the existing literature.

  15. Synthesis of edatrexate (2-13C-glutamate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGraw, J.I.; Colwell, W.T.; Jue, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    The experimental antitumor drug Edatrexate, labeled with 99% 13 C at the 2-position of the glutamate acid group was required for 13 C-magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies in biological media. Coupling of 2,4-diamino-4-deoxy-10-ethyl-10-deazapteroic acid with diethyl L-2- 13 C-glutamate as promoted by BOP reagent afforded Edatrexate (2- 13 C-glu) diethyl ester in 60% yield following purification by column chromatography. Saponification by aqueous NaOH in 2-methoxyethanol gave the target molecule in 44% yield or 26% overall. (author)

  16. Activity-dependent volume transmission by transgene NPY attenuates glutamate release and LTP in the subiculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Andreas T; Kanter-Schlifke, Irene; Lin, En-Ju D

    2008-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene transduction of the brain using viral vectors in epileptogenic regions can effectively suppress seizures in animals, and is being considered as a promising alternative treatment strategy for epilepsy. Therefore, it is fundamental to understand the detailed mechanisms...

  17. Interaction of glutamate- and adenosine-induced decrease of acetylcholine quantal release at frog neuromuscular junction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adámek, S.; Shakirzyanova, V.; Malomouzh, A. I.; Naumenko, N. V.; Vyskočil, František

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 5 (2010), s. 803-810 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110905; GA ČR GA202/09/0806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Endplate potentials * Guanylyl cyclase Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.646, year: 2010

  18. Glutamate regulation of non-quantal release of acetylcholine in the rat neuromuscular junction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malomouzh, A. I.; Mukhtarov, M. R.; Nikolsky, E. E.; Vyskočil, František; Lieberman, E. M.; Urazaev, A. K.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 1 (2003), s. 206-213 ISSN 0022-3042 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA7011902; GA ČR GA305/02/1333; GA ČR GA202/02/1213 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922; CEZ:MSM 113100003 Keywords : muscle endplate * nitric oxide * N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 4.825, year: 2003

  19. Lack of cardioprotection from metabolic support with glutamine or glutamate in a porcine coronary occlusion model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jens; Mæng, Michael; Mortensen, Ulrik

    2005-01-01

    vascular resistance, while glutamate preserved cardiac output during infusion. CONCLUSION: Substrate supplementation with the anaplerotic precursors glutamine and glutamate is ineffective as adjunctive therapy for severe myocardial ischemia. Beneficial effects documented in less complex experimental...

  20. Multifunctional antitumor magnetite/chitosan-l-glutamic acid (core/shell) nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Daniela P.; Ruiz, M. Adolfina; Gallardo, Visitación; Zanoni, Maria Valnice B.; Arias, José L.

    2011-01-01

    The development of anticancer drug delivery systems based on biodegradable nanoparticles has been intended to maximize the localization of chemotherapy agents within tumor interstitium, along with negligible drug distribution into healthy tissues. Interestingly, passive and active drug targeting strategies to cancer have led to improved nanomedicines with great tumor specificity and efficient chemotherapy effect. One of the most promising areas in the formulation of such nanoplatforms is the engineering of magnetically responsive nanoparticles. In this way, we have followed a chemical modification method for the synthesis of magnetite/chitosan-l-glutamic acid (core/shell) nanostructures. These magnetic nanocomposites (average size ≈340 nm) exhibited multifunctional properties based on its capability to load the antitumor drug doxorubicin (along with an adequate sustained release) and its potential for hyperthermia applications. Compared to drug surface adsorption, doxorubicin entrapment into the nanocomposites matrix yielded a higher drug loading and a slower drug release profile. Heating characteristics of the magnetic nanocomposites were investigated in a high-frequency alternating magnetic gradient: a stable maximum temperature of 46 °C was successfully achieved within 40 min. To our knowledge, this is the first time that such kind of stimuli-sensitive nanoformulation with very important properties (i.e., magnetic targeting capabilities, hyperthermia, high drug loading, and little burst drug release) has been formulated for combined antitumor therapy against cancer.

  1. Multifunctional antitumor magnetite/chitosan- l-glutamic acid (core/shell) nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Daniela P.; Ruiz, M. Adolfina; Gallardo, Visitación; Zanoni, Maria Valnice B.; Arias, José L.

    2011-09-01

    The development of anticancer drug delivery systems based on biodegradable nanoparticles has been intended to maximize the localization of chemotherapy agents within tumor interstitium, along with negligible drug distribution into healthy tissues. Interestingly, passive and active drug targeting strategies to cancer have led to improved nanomedicines with great tumor specificity and efficient chemotherapy effect. One of the most promising areas in the formulation of such nanoplatforms is the engineering of magnetically responsive nanoparticles. In this way, we have followed a chemical modification method for the synthesis of magnetite/chitosan- l-glutamic acid (core/shell) nanostructures. These magnetic nanocomposites (average size ≈340 nm) exhibited multifunctional properties based on its capability to load the antitumor drug doxorubicin (along with an adequate sustained release) and its potential for hyperthermia applications. Compared to drug surface adsorption, doxorubicin entrapment into the nanocomposites matrix yielded a higher drug loading and a slower drug release profile. Heating characteristics of the magnetic nanocomposites were investigated in a high-frequency alternating magnetic gradient: a stable maximum temperature of 46 °C was successfully achieved within 40 min. To our knowledge, this is the first time that such kind of stimuli-sensitive nanoformulation with very important properties (i.e., magnetic targeting capabilities, hyperthermia, high drug loading, and little burst drug release) has been formulated for combined antitumor therapy against cancer.

  2. Conformational Studies on γ - Benzyl- L- Glutamate and L- Valine Containing Block Copolypeptides

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Ajay

    2010-01-01

    Conformational studies on γ - benzyl-L- glutamate and L- valine containing block copolypeptides are reported using IR and CD spectra. The block copolypeptides contain valine block in the center and on both sides of the valine are γ - benzyl- L- glutamate blocks. The changes in conformation with increase in chain length of γ - benzyl- L- glutamate blocks are observed. When the chain length of γ - benzyl-L- glutamate block is 13, the block copolypeptide crystallized into beta conformation. With...

  3. Coupled ion binding and structural transitions along the transport cycle of glutamate transporters

    OpenAIRE

    Verdon, Grégory; Oh, SeCheol; Serio, Ryan N; Boudker, Olga

    2014-01-01

    eLife digest Molecules of glutamate can carry messages between cells in the brain, and these signals are essential for thought and memory. Glutamate molecules can also act as signals to build new connections between brain cells and to prune away unnecessary ones. However, too much glutamate outside of the cells kills the brain tissue and can lead to devastating brain diseases. In a healthy brain, special pumps called glutamate transporters move these molecules back into the brain cells, where...

  4. Zinc release from Schaffer collaterals and its significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Atsushi; Nakajima, Satoko; Fuke, Sayuri; Sakurada, Naomi; Minami, Akira; Oku, Naoto

    2006-02-15

    On the basis of the evidence that approximately 45% of Schaffer collateral boutons are zinc-positive, zinc release from Schaffer collaterals and its action were examined in hippocampal slices. When zinc release from Schaffer collaterals was examined using ZnAF-2, a membrane-impermeable zinc indicator, ZnAF-2 signal in the stratum radiatum of the CA1 was increased by tetanic stimuli at 100 Hz for 1s, suggesting that zinc is released from Schaffer collaterals in a calcium- and impulse-dependent manner. An in vivo microdialysis experiment indicated that the perfusion with 10 microM zinc significantly decreases extracellular glutamate concentration in the CA1. When tetanic stimuli at 100 Hz for 5s were delivered to the dentate granule cells, the increase in calcium signal in the stratum radiatum of the CA1, as well as in the stratum lucidum of the CA3, was attenuated by addition of 10 microM zinc, while enhanced by addition of 1mM CaEDTA, a membrane-impermeable zinc chelator. The increase in calcium signal in the CA1, in which Schaffer collateral synapses exist, during delivery of tetanic stimuli at 100 Hz for 1s to the Schaffer collateral-commissural pathway was also significantly enhanced by addition of 1mM CaEDTA. These results suggest that zinc released from Schaffer collaterals suppressively modulates presynaptic and postsynaptic calcium signaling in the CA1, followed by the suppression of glutamate release.

  5. Glutamate metabolism is down-regulated in astrocytes during experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardin-Pouzet, H; Krakowski, M; Bourbonnière, L

    1997-01-01

    dehydrogenase (GDH) expression were dramatically reduced. These two astrocytic enzymes are responsible for degradation of glutamate, the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Since elevated levels of glutamate may be neurotoxic, we propose that the decreased capacity of astrocytes...... to metabolize glutamate may contribute to EAE pathology....

  6. Synthesis and distribution of L-glutamic acid with three different labels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.B.; Spolter, Leonard; Chia Chin Chang; MacDonald, N.S.

    1982-01-01

    A study was performed to compare the distribution of C-11 L-glutamic acid, labeled on the carboxyl group of either the alpha or gamma carbon with that of N-13 L-glutamic acid in order to determine if the position of the label is of importance in the study of the distribution of glutamic acid

  7. 40 CFR 721.3820 - L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl)-, disodium salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3820 L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl)-, disodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as L-Glutamic...

  8. 40 CFR 180.1187 - L-glutamic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false L-glutamic acid; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1187 L-glutamic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. L-glutamic acid is exempt from the requirement of a tolerance on all food commodities when used in accordance...

  9. 40 CFR 721.3821 - L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl)-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl... Substances § 721.3821 L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl)-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl)- (PMN P...

  10. Immunocytochemical localization of the glutamate transporter GLT-1 in goldfish (Carassius auratus) retina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenbranden, C. A.; Yazulla, S.; Studholme, K. M.; Kamphuis, W.; Kamermans, M.

    2000-01-01

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the retina of vertebrates. Electrophysiological experiments in goldfish and salamander have shown that neuronal glutamate transporters play an important role in the clearance of glutamate from cone synaptic clefts. In this study, the localization

  11. GRP1 PH Domain, Like AKT1 PH Domain, Possesses a Sentry Glutamate Residue Essential for Specific Targeting to Plasma Membrane PI(3,4,5)P3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, Carissa; Landgraf, Kyle E.; Falke, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    During the appearance of the signaling lipid PI(3,4,5)P3, an important subset of pleckstrin homology (PH) domains target signaling proteins to the plasma membrane. To ensure proper pathway regulation, such PI(3,4,5)P3-specific PH domains must exclude the more prevalant, constitutive plasma membrane lipid PI(4,5)P2 and bind the rare PI(3,4,5)P3 target lipid with sufficiently high affinity. Our previous study of the E17K mutant of protein kinase B (AKT1) PH domain, together with evidence from Carpten et al (1), revealed that the native AKT1 E17 residue serves as a sentry glutamate that excludes PI(4,5)P2, thereby playing an essential role in specific PI(3,4,5)P3 targeting (2). The sentry glutamate hypothesis proposes that an analogous sentry glutamate residue is a widespread feature of PI(3,4,5)P3-specific PH domains, and that charge reversal mutation at the sentry glutamate position will yield both increased PI(4,5)P2 affinity and constitutive plasma membrane targeting. To test this hypothesis the present study investigates the E345 residue, a putative sentry glutamate, of General Receptor for Phosphoinositides 1 (GRP1) PH domain. The results show that incorporation of the E345K charge reversal mutation into GRP1 PH domain enhances PI(4,5)P2 affinity 8-fold and yields constitutive plasma membrane targeting in cells, reminiscent of the effects of the E17K mutation in AKT1 PH domain. Hydrolysis of plasma membrane PI(4,5)P2 releases E345K GRP1 PH domain into the cytoplasm and the efficiency of this release increases when target Arf6 binding is disrupted. Overall, the findings provide strong support for the sentry glutamate hypothesis and suggest that the GRP1 E345K mutation will be linked to changes in cell physiology and human pathologies, as demonstrated for AKT1 E17K (1, 3). Analysis of available PH domain structures suggests that a lone glutamate residue (or, in some cases an aspartate) is a common, perhaps ubiquitous, feature of PI(3,4,5)P3-specific binding

  12. An inventory and update of jealousy-evoking partner behaviours in modern society.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P. H.; Groothof, Hinke A. K.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to identify the most important jealousy-evoking partner behaviours and to examine the extent to which these behaviours evoke jealousy. Based on the literature, a questionnaire was constructed containing 42 jealousy-evoking partner behaviours, including a partner's

  13. Blood and Brain Glutamate Levels in Children with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Tamer H.; Abdelrahman, Hadeel M.; Fattah, Nelly R. Abdel; El-Masry, Nagda M.; Hashim, Haitham M.; El-Gerby, Khaled M.; Fattah, Nermin R. Abdel

    2013-01-01

    Despite of the great efforts that move forward to clarify the pathophysiologic mechanisms in autism, the cause of this disorder, however, remains largely unknown. There is an increasing body of literature concerning neurochemical contributions to the pathophysiology of autism. We aimed to determine blood and brain levels of glutamate in children…

  14. Monosodium glutamate toxicity: Sida acuta leaf extract ameliorated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The brain is reportedly sensitive to monosodium glutamate (MSG) toxicity via oxidative stress. Sida acuta leaf ethanolic extract (SALEE) possesses antioxidant activity which can mitigate this neurotoxicity. The present study investigated the possible protective effect of SALEE on MSG-induced toxicity in rats. Twenty-six ...

  15. Synthesis of Biobased Succinonitrile from Glutamic Acid and Glutamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammens, T.M.; Nôtre, Le J.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Succinonitrile is the precursor of 1,4-diaminobutane, which is used for the industrial production of polyamides. This paper describes the synthesis of biobased succinonitrile from glutamic acid and glutamine, amino acids that are abundantly present in many plant proteins. Synthesis of the

  16. Examining the role of glutamic acid 183 in chloroperoxidase catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yi, X.; Conesa, A.; Punt, P.J.; Hager, L.P.

    2003-01-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis has been used to investigate the role of glutamic acid 183 in chloroperoxidase catalysis. Based on the x-ray crystallographic structure of chloroperoxidase, Glu-183 is postulated to function on distal side of the heme prosthetic group as an acid-base catalyst in

  17. Assay of partially purified glutamate dehydrogenase isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (E C 1.4.1.1) isolated from the seeds of asparagus beans was partially purified to a factor of 22 by dialysis after fractional precipitation with solid ammonium sulphate at 40 and 60% saturation. A specific activity of 11.78μmol min-1 mg-1 protein was calculated for the partially purified enzyme when ...

  18. Glutamate neurotransmission is affected in prenatally stressed offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrover, Ezequiela; Pallarés, Maria Eugenia; Baier, Carlos Javier

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that male adult offspring of stressed mothers exhibited higher levels of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors than control rats. These offspring also showed long-lasting astroglial hypertrophy and a reduced dendritic arborization with syn......Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that male adult offspring of stressed mothers exhibited higher levels of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors than control rats. These offspring also showed long-lasting astroglial hypertrophy and a reduced dendritic arborization...... with synaptic loss. Since metabolism of glutamate is dependent on interactions between neurons and surrounding astroglia, our results suggest that glutamate neurotransmitter pathways might be impaired in the brain of prenatally stressed rats. To study the effect of prenatal stress on the metabolism...... was not affected it was found that prenatal stress (PS) changed the expression of the transporters, thus, producing a higher level of vesicular vGluT-1 in the frontal cortex (FCx) and elevated levels of GLT1 protein and messenger RNA in the hippocampus (HPC) of adult male PS offspring. We also observed increased...

  19. Evolution and expression analysis of the soybean glutamate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Evolution and expression analysis of the soybean glutamate decarboxylase gene family. TAE KYUNG HYUN, SEUNG HEE EOM, XIAO HAN and JU-SUNG KIM http://www.ias.ac.in/jbiosci. J. Biosci. 39(5), December 2014, 899–907, © Indian Academy of Sciences. Supplementary material. Supplementary figure 1.

  20. Anaplerosis for Glutamate Synthesis in the Neonate and in Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brekke, Eva; Morken, Tora Sund; Walls, Anne B

    2016-01-01

    A central task of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA, Krebs, citric acid) cycle in brain is to provide precursors for biosynthesis of glutamate, GABA, aspartate and glutamine. Three of these amino acids are the partners in the intricate interaction between astrocytes and neurons and form the so-called g...

  1. Behavioral deficits in adult rats treated neonatally with glutamate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hliňák, Zdeněk; Gandalovičová, D.; Krejčí, I.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 3 (2005), s. 465-473 ISSN 0892-0362 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NF6474 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : neonatal treatment * monosodium glutamate * long-term effect Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.940, year: 2005

  2. On the potential role of glutamate transport in mental fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansson Elisabeth

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mental fatigue, with decreased concentration capacity, is common in neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases, often appearing prior to other major mental or physical neurological symptoms. Mental fatigue also makes rehabilitation more difficult after a stroke, brain trauma, meningitis or encephalitis. As increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines are reported in these disorders, we wanted to explore whether or not proinflammatory cytokines could induce mental fatigue, and if so, by what mechanisms. It is well known that proinflammatory cytokines are increased in major depression, "sickness behavior" and sleep deprivation, which are all disorders associated with mental fatigue. Furthermore, an influence by specific proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL-1, on learning and memory capacities has been observed in several experimental systems. As glutamate signaling is crucial for information intake and processing within the brain, and due to the pivotal role for glutamate in brain metabolism, dynamic alterations in glutamate transmission could be of pathophysiological importance in mental fatigue. Based on this literature and observations from our own laboratory and others on the role of astroglial cells in the fine-tuning of glutamate neurotransmission we present the hypothesis that the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β and IL-6 could be involved in the pathophysiology of mental fatigue through their ability to attenuate the astroglial clearance of extracellular glutamate, their disintegration of the blood brain barrier, and effects on astroglial metabolism and metabolic supply for the neurons, thereby attenuating glutamate transmission. To test whether our hypothesis is valid or not, brain imaging techniques should be applied with the ability to register, over time and with increasing cognitive loading, the extracellular concentrations of glutamate and potassium (K+ in humans suffering from

  3. The metabotropic glutamate receptors: structure, activation mechanism and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pin, Jean-Philippe; Acher, Francine

    2002-06-01

    The metabotropic glutamate receptors are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) involved in the regulation of many synapses, including most glutamatergic fast excitatory synapses. Eight subtypes have been identified that can be classified into three groups. The molecular characterization of these receptors revealed proteins much more complex than any other GPCRs. They are composed of a Venus Flytrap (VFT) module where glutamate binds, connected to a heptahelical domain responsible for G-protein coupling. Recent data including the structure of the VFT module determined with and without glutamate, indicate that these receptors function as dimers. Moreover a number of intracellular proteins can regulate their targeting and transduction mechanism. Such structural features of mGlu receptors offer multiple possibilities for synthetic compounds to modulate their activity. In addition to agonists and competitive antagonists acting at the glutamate binding site, a number of non-competitive antagonists with inverse agonist activity, and positive allosteric modulators have been discovered. These later compounds share specific properties that make them good candidates for therapeutic applications. First, their non-amino acid structure makes them pass more easily the blood brain barrier. Second, they are much more selective than any other compound identified so far, being the first subtype selective molecules. Third, for the negative modulators, their non competitive mechanism of action makes them relatively unaffected by high concentrations of glutamate that may be present in disease states (e.g. stroke, epilepsy, neuropathic pain, etc.). Fourth, like the benzodiazepines acting at the GABA(A) receptors, the positive modulators offer a new way to increase the activity of these receptors in vivo, with a low risk of inducing their desensitization. The present review article focuses on the specific structural features of these receptors and highlights the various possibilities these

  4. Prefrontal cortex glutamate correlates with mental perspective-taking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Montag

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dysfunctions in theory of mind and empathic abilities have been suggested as core symptoms in major psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and autism. Since self monitoring, perspective taking and empathy have been linked to prefrontal (PFC and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC function, neurotransmitter variations in these areas may account for normal and pathological variations of these functions. Converging evidence indicates an essential role of glutamatergic neurotransmission in psychiatric diseases with pronounced deficits in empathy. However, the role of the glutamate system for different dimensions of empathy has not been investigated so far. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Absolute concentrations of cerebral glutamate in the ACC, left dorsolateral PFC and left hippocampus were determined by 3-tesla proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS in 17 healthy individuals. Three dimensions of empathy were estimated by a self-rating questionnaire, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI. Linear regression analysis showed that dorsolateral PFC glutamate concentration was predicted by IRI factor "perspective taking" (T = -2.710, p = 0.018; adjusted alpha-level of 0.017, Bonferroni but not by "empathic concern" or "personal distress". No significant relationship between IRI subscores and the glutamate levels in the ACC or left hippocampus was detected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study to investigate the role of the glutamate system for dimensions of theory of mind and empathy. Results are in line with recent concepts that executive top-down control of behavior is mediated by prefrontal glutamatergic projections. This is a preliminary finding that needs a replication in an independent sample.

  5. Glutamate and GABA in vestibulo-sympathetic pathway neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gay R Holstein

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The vestibulo-sympathetic reflex actively modulates blood pressure during changes in posture. This reflex allows humans to stand up and quadrupeds to rear or climb without a precipitous decline in cerebral perfusion. The vestibulo-sympathetic reflex pathway conveys signals from the vestibular end organs to the caudal vestibular nuclei. These cells, in turn, project to pre-sympathetic neurons in the rostral and caudal ventrolateral medulla (RVLM and CVLM, respectively. The present study assessed glutamate- and GABA-related immunofluorescence associated with central vestibular neurons of the vestibulo-sympathetic reflex pathway in rats. Retrograde FluoroGold tract tracing was used to label vestibular neurons with projections to RVLM or CVLM, and sinusoidal galvanic vestibular stimulation was employed to activate these pathways. Central vestibular neurons of the vestibulo-sympathetic reflex were identified by co-localization of FluoroGold and cFos protein, which accumulates in some vestibular neurons following galvanic stimulation. Triple-label immunofluorescence was used to co-localize glutamate- or GABA- labeling in the identified vestibulo-sympathetic reflex pathway neurons. Most activated projection neurons displayed intense glutamate immunofluorescence, suggestive of glutamatergic neurotransmission. To support this, anterograde tracer was injected into the caudal vestibular nuclei. Vestibular axons and terminals in RVLM and CVLM co-localized the anterograde tracer and vesicular glutamate transporter-2 signals. Other retrogradely-labeled cFos-positive neurons displayed intense GABA immunofluorescence. Vestibulo-sympathetic reflex pathway neurons of both phenotypes were present in the caudal medial and spinal vestibular nuclei, and projected to both RVLM and CVLM. As a group, however, triple-labeled vestibular cells with intense glutamate immunofluorescence were located more rostrally in the vestibular nuclei than the GABAergic neurons. Only the

  6. Abdominal acupuncture reduces laser-evoked potentials in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazzaglia, C.; Liguori, S.; Minciotti, I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Acupuncture is known to reduce clinical pain, although the exact mechanism is unknown. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of acupuncture on laser-evoked potential amplitudes and laser pain perception. Methods: In order to evaluate whether abdominal acupuncture...... is able to modify pain perception, 10 healthy subjects underwent a protocol in which laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) and laser pain perception were collected before the test (baseline), during abdominal acupuncture, and 15. min after needle removal. The same subjects also underwent a similar protocol...... in which, however, sham acupuncture without any needle penetration was used. Results: During real acupuncture, both N1 and N2/P2 amplitudes were reduced, as compared to baseline (p . < 0.01). The reduction lasted up to 15. min after needle removal. Furthermore, laser pain perception was reduced during...

  7. Automatic classification of visual evoked potentials based on wavelet decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiakiewicz, Paweł; Dobrowolski, Andrzej P.; Tomczykiewicz, Kazimierz

    2017-04-01

    Diagnosis of part of the visual system, that is responsible for conducting compound action potential, is generally based on visual evoked potentials generated as a result of stimulation of the eye by external light source. The condition of patient's visual path is assessed by set of parameters that describe the time domain characteristic extremes called waves. The decision process is compound therefore diagnosis significantly depends on experience of a doctor. The authors developed a procedure - based on wavelet decomposition and linear discriminant analysis - that ensures automatic classification of visual evoked potentials. The algorithm enables to assign individual case to normal or pathological class. The proposed classifier has a 96,4% sensitivity at 10,4% probability of false alarm in a group of 220 cases and area under curve ROC equals to 0,96 which, from the medical point of view, is a very good result.

  8. Single-sweep spectral analysis of contact heat evoked potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine M; Graversen, Carina; Frøkjaer, Jens B

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: The cortical response to nociceptive thermal stimuli recorded as contact heat evoked potentials (CHEPs) may be altered by morphine. However, previous studies have averaged CHEPs over multiple stimuli, which are confounded by jitter between sweeps. Thus, the aim was to assess single-sweep ch......AIMS: The cortical response to nociceptive thermal stimuli recorded as contact heat evoked potentials (CHEPs) may be altered by morphine. However, previous studies have averaged CHEPs over multiple stimuli, which are confounded by jitter between sweeps. Thus, the aim was to assess single...... by 13% (P = 0.04) and 9% (P = 0.007), while the beta and gamma bands were increased by 10% (P = 0.006) and 24% (P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: The decreases in the delta and theta band are suggested to represent a decrease in the pain specific morphology of the CHEPs, which indicates a diminished pain response...

  9. Laser-scanning astrocyte mapping reveals increased glutamate-responsive domain size and disrupted maturation of glutamate uptake following neonatal cortical freeze-lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortiz eArmbruster

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytic uptake of glutamate shapes extracellular neurotransmitter dynamics, receptor activation, and synaptogenesis. During development, glutamate transport becomes more robust. How neonatal brain insult affects the functional maturation of glutamate transport remains unanswered. Neonatal brain insult can lead to developmental delays, cognitive losses, and epilepsy; the disruption of glutamate transport is known to cause changes in synaptogenesis, receptor activation, and seizure. Using the neonatal freeze-lesion (FL model, we have investigated how insult affects the maturation of astrocytic glutamate transport. As lesioning occurs on the day of birth, a time when astrocytes are still functionally immature, this model is ideal for identifying changes in astrocyte maturation following insult. Reactive astrocytosis, astrocyte proliferation, and in vitro hyperexcitability are known to occur in this model. To probe astrocyte glutamate transport with better spatial precision we have developed a novel technique, Laser Scanning Astrocyte Mapping (LSAM, which combines glutamate transport current (TC recording from astrocytes with laser scanning glutamate photolysis. LSAM allows us to identify the area from which a single astrocyte can transport glutamate and to quantify spatial heterogeneity in the rate of glutamate clearance kinetics within that domain. Using LSAM, we report that cortical astrocytes have an increased glutamate-responsive area following FL and that TCs have faster decay times in distal, as compared to proximal processes. Furthermore, the developmental shift from GLAST- to GLT-1-dominated clearance is disrupted following FL. These findings introduce a novel method to probe astrocyte glutamate uptake and show that neonatal cortical FL disrupts the functional maturation of cortical astrocytes.

  10. Pharmacology of Bradykinin-Evoked Coughing in Guinea Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Hewitt, Matthew M.; Adams, Gregory; Mazzone, Stuart B.; Mori, Nanako; Yu, Li; Canning, Brendan J.

    2016-01-01

    Bradykinin has been implicated as a mediator of the acute pathophysiological and inflammatory consequences of respiratory tract infections and in exacerbations of chronic diseases such as asthma. Bradykinin may also be a trigger for the coughing associated with these and other conditions. We have thus set out to evaluate the pharmacology of bradykinin-evoked coughing in guinea pigs. When inhaled, bradykinin induced paroxysmal coughing that was abolished by the bradykinin B2 receptor antagonis...

  11. Pharmacology of Bradykinin-Evoked Coughing in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Matthew M; Adams, Gregory; Mazzone, Stuart B; Mori, Nanako; Yu, Li; Canning, Brendan J

    2016-06-01

    Bradykinin has been implicated as a mediator of the acute pathophysiological and inflammatory consequences of respiratory tract infections and in exacerbations of chronic diseases such as asthma. Bradykinin may also be a trigger for the coughing associated with these and other conditions. We have thus set out to evaluate the pharmacology of bradykinin-evoked coughing in guinea pigs. When inhaled, bradykinin induced paroxysmal coughing that was abolished by the bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist HOE 140. These cough responses rapidly desensitized, consistent with reports of B2 receptor desensitization. Bradykinin-evoked cough was potentiated by inhibition of both neutral endopeptidase and angiotensin-converting enzyme (with thiorphan and captopril, respectively), but was largely unaffected by muscarinic or thromboxane receptor blockade (atropine and ICI 192605), cyclooxygenase, or nitric oxide synthase inhibition (meclofenamic acid and N(G)-nitro-L-arginine). Calcium influx studies in bronchopulmonary vagal afferent neurons dissociated from vagal sensory ganglia indicated that the tachykinin-containing C-fibers arising from the jugular ganglia mediate bradykinin-evoked coughing. Also implicating the jugular C-fibers was the observation that simultaneous blockade of neurokinin2 (NK2; SR48968) and NK3 (SR142801 or SB223412) receptors nearly abolished the bradykinin-evoked cough responses. The data suggest that bradykinin induces coughing in guinea pigs by activating B2 receptors on bronchopulmonary C-fibers. We speculate that therapeutics targeting the actions of bradykinin may prove useful in the treatment of cough. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  12. Temporal suppression and augmentation of click-evoked otoacoustic emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhulst, Sarah; Harte, James; Dau, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates temporal suppression of click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs), occurring when a suppressor-click is presented close in time to a test-click (e.g. 0-8ms). Various temporal suppression methods for examining temporal changes in cochlear compression were evaluated and me...... under test. Temporal suppression was shown to be comparable for CEOAEs and SSOAEs, indicating similar underlying cochlear nonlinear mechanisms. This study contributes to a better understanding of the temporal properties of cochlear dynamics....

  13. Sympathetic skin response evoked by laser skin stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, P.; Truini, A.; Serrao, M.; Iannetti, G. D.; Parisi, L.; Pozzessere, G.; Cruccu, G.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evoke sympathetic skin responses (SSRs) in healthy subjects using laser stimulation and to compare these responses with those induced by conventional electrical stimuli. Twenty healthy subjects were investigated. SSRs were obtained using electrical and laser stimuli delivered to the wrist controlateral to the recording site. The sympathetic sudomotor conduction velocity (SSFCV) was measured in 8 subjects by simultaneously recording the SSR from the hand and ...

  14. Brain stem auditory evoked responses in chronic alcoholics.

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Y W; McLeod, J G; Tuck, R R; Feary, P A

    1985-01-01

    Brain stem auditory evoked responses (BAERs) were performed on 25 alcoholic patients with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, 56 alcoholic patients without Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, 24 of whom had cerebellar ataxia, and 37 control subjects. Abnormal BAERs were found in 48% of patients with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, in 25% of alcoholic patients without Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome but with cerebellar ataxia, and in 13% of alcoholic patients without Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome or ataxia. The mean...

  15. The 'glial' glutamate transporter, EAAT2 (Glt-1) accounts for high affinity glutamate uptake into adult rodent nerve endings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchak, Sachin K; Baloyianni, Nicoletta V; Perkinton, Michael S; Williams, Robert J; Meldrum, Brian S; Rattray, Marcus

    2003-02-01

    The excitatory amino acid transporters (EAAT) removes neurotransmitters glutamate and aspartate from the synaptic cleft. Most CNS glutamate uptake is mediated by EAAT2 into glia, though nerve terminals show evidence for uptake, through an unknown transporter. Reverse-transcriptase PCR identified the expression of EAAT1, EAAT2, EAAT3 and EAAT4 mRNAs in primary cultures of mouse cortical or striatal neurones. We have used synaptosomes and glial plasmalemmal vesicles (GPV) from adult mouse and rat CNS to identify the nerve terminal transporter. Western blotting showed detectable levels of the transporters EAAT1 (GLAST) and EAAT2 (Glt-1) in both synaptosomes and GPVs. Uptake of [3H]D-aspartate or [3H]L-glutamate into these preparations revealed sodium-dependent uptake in GPV and synaptosomes which was inhibited by a range of EAAT blockers: dihydrokainate, serine-o-sulfate, l-trans-2,4-pyrrolidine dicarboxylate (PDC) (+/-)-threo-3-methylglutamate and (2S,4R )-4-methylglutamate. The IC50 values found for these compounds suggested functional expression of the 'glial, transporter, EAAT2 in nerve terminals. Additionally blockade of the majority EAAT2 uptake sites with 100 micro m dihydrokainate, failed to unmask any functional non-EAAT2 uptake sites. The data presented in this study indicate that EAAT2 is the predominant nerve terminal glutamate transporter in the adult rodent CNS.

  16. Deletion of genes involved in glutamate metabolism to improve poly-gamma-glutamic acid production in B. amyloliquefaciens LL3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; He, Yulian; Gao, Weixia; Feng, Jun; Cao, Mingfeng; Yang, Chao; Song, Cunjiang; Wang, Shufang

    2015-02-01

    Here, we attempted to elevate poly-gamma-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) production by modifying genes involved in glutamate metabolism in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens LL3. Products of rocR, rocG and gudB facilitate the conversion from glutamate to 2-oxoglutarate in Bacillus subtillis. The gene odhA is responsible for the synthesis of a component of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate to succinyl coenzyme A. In-frame deletions of these four genes were performed. In shake flask experiments the gudB/rocG double mutant presented enhanced production of γ-PGA, a 38 % increase compared with wild type. When fermented in a 5-L fermenter with pH control, the γ-PGA yield of the rocR mutant was increased to 5.83 g/L from 4.55 g/L for shake flask experiments. The gudB/rocG double mutant produced 5.68 g/L γ-PGA compared with that of 4.03 g/L for the wild type, a 40 % increase. Those results indicated the possibility of improving γ-PGA production by modifying glutamate metabolism, and identified potential genetic targets to improve γ-PGA production.

  17. GMP reverses the facilitatory effect of glutamate on inhibitory avoidance task in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, M A; Jurach, A; da Costa Júnior, E M; Lima, T T; Jiménez-Bernal, R E; Begnini, J; Souza, D O; de Mello, C F

    1996-09-02

    Previous studies have demonstrated that post-training intrahippocampal glutamate administration improves inhibitory avoidance task performance in rats. Antagonism of the agonist actions of glutamate by guanine nucleotides has been shown at the molecular and behavioural level. In the present investigation we demonstrate that intrahippocampal co-administration of GMP (guanosine 5'-monophosphate) reverses the facilitatory effect of glutamate on the inhibitory avoidance learning paradigm and inhibits [3H]glutamate binding in hippocampal synaptic plasma membranes. These results suggest that guanine nucleotides may modulate glutamate actions.

  18. Index finger somatosensory evoked potentials in blind Braille readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giriyappa, Dayananda; Subrahmanyam, Roopakala Mysore; Rangashetty, Srinivasa; Sharma, Rajeev

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, vision has been considered the dominant modality in our multi-sensory perception of the surrounding world. Sensory input via non-visual tracts becomes of greater behavioural relevance in totally blind individuals to enable effective interaction with the world around them. These include audition and tactile perceptions, leading to an augmentation in these perceptions when compared with normal sighted individuals. The objective of the present work was to study the index finger somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) in totally blind and normal sighted individuals. SEPs were recorded in 15 Braille reading totally blind females and compared with 15 age-matched normal sighted females. Latency and amplitudes of somatosensory evoked potential waveforms (N9, N13, and N20) were measured. Amplitude of N20 SEP (a cortical somatosensory evoked potential) was significantly larger in the totally blind than in normal sighted individuals (p Braille reading right index finger. Totally blind Braille readers have larger N20 amplitude, suggestive of greater somatosensory cortical representation of the Braille reading index finger.

  19. Neuronal Rac1 Is Required for Learning-Evoked Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Matthew P.; Freewoman, Julia; Cord, Branden; Babu, Harish; Brakebusch, Cord

    2013-01-01

    Hippocampus-dependent learning and memory relies on synaptic plasticity as well as network adaptations provided by the addition of adult-born neurons. We have previously shown that activity-induced intracellular signaling through the Rho family small GTPase Rac1 is necessary in forebrain projection neurons for normal synaptic plasticity in vivo, and here we show that selective loss of neuronal Rac1 also impairs the learning-evoked increase in neurogenesis in the adult mouse hippocampus. Earlier work has indicated that experience elevates the abundance of adult-born neurons in the hippocampus primarily by enhancing the survival of neurons produced just before the learning event. Loss of Rac1 in mature projection neurons did reduce learning-evoked neurogenesis but, contrary to our expectations, these effects were not mediated by altering the survival of young neurons in the hippocampus. Instead, loss of neuronal Rac1 activation selectively impaired a learning-evoked increase in the proliferation and accumulation of neural precursors generated during the learning event itself. This indicates that experience-induced alterations in neurogenesis can be mechanistically resolved into two effects: (1) the well documented but Rac1-independent signaling cascade that enhances the survival of young postmitotic neurons; and (2) a previously unrecognized Rac1-dependent signaling cascade that stimulates the proliferative production and retention of new neurons generated during learning itself. PMID:23884931

  20. Perceptual learning of acoustic noise generates memory-evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrillon, Thomas; Kouider, Sid; Agus, Trevor; Pressnitzer, Daniel

    2015-11-02

    Experience continuously imprints on the brain at all stages of life. The traces it leaves behind can produce perceptual learning [1], which drives adaptive behavior to previously encountered stimuli. Recently, it has been shown that even random noise, a type of sound devoid of acoustic structure, can trigger fast and robust perceptual learning after repeated exposure [2]. Here, by combining psychophysics, electroencephalography (EEG), and modeling, we show that the perceptual learning of noise is associated with evoked potentials, without any salient physical discontinuity or obvious acoustic landmark in the sound. Rather, the potentials appeared whenever a memory trace was observed behaviorally. Such memory-evoked potentials we