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Sample records for evoked compound action

  1. The Electrically Evoked Compound Action Potential: From Laboratory to Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shuman; Teagle, Holly F B; Buchman, Craig A

    2017-01-01

    The electrically evoked compound action potential (eCAP) represents the synchronous firing of a population of electrically stimulated auditory nerve fibers. It can be directly recorded on a surgically exposed nerve trunk in animals or from an intra-cochlear electrode of a cochlear implant. In the past two decades, the eCAP has been widely recorded in both animals and clinical patient populations using different testing paradigms. This paper provides an overview of recording methodologies and response characteristics of the eCAP, as well as its potential applications in research and clinical situations. Relevant studies are reviewed and implications for clinicians are discussed.

  2. Facilitation and refractoriness of the electrically evoked compound action potential.

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    Hey, Matthias; Müller-Deile, Joachim; Hessel, Horst; Killian, Matthijs

    2017-11-01

    In this study we aim to resolve the contributions of facilitation and refractoriness at very short pulse intervals. Measurements of the refractory properties of the electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) of the auditory nerve in cochlear implant (CI) users at inter pulse intervals below 300 μs are influenced by facilitation and recovery effects. ECAPs were recorded using masker pulses with a wide range of current levels relative to the probe pulse levels, for three suprathreshold probe levels and pulse intervals from 13 to 200 μs. Evoked potentials were measured for 21 CI patients by using the masked response extraction artifact cancellation procedure. During analysis of the measurements the stimulation current was not used as absolute value, but in relation to the patient's individual ECAP threshold. This enabled a more general approach to describe facilitation as a probe level independent effect. Maximum facilitation was found for all tested inter pulse intervals at masker levels near patient's individual ECAP threshold, independent from probe level. For short inter pulse intervals an increased N1P1 amplitude was measured for subthreshold masker levels down to 120 CL below patient's individual ECAP threshold in contrast to the recreated state. ECAPs recorded with inter pulse intervals up to 200 μs are influenced by facilitation and recovery. Facilitation effects are most pronounced for masker levels at or below ECAP threshold, while recovery effects increase with higher masker levels above ECAP threshold. The local maximum of the ECAP amplitude for masker levels around ECAP threshold can be explained by the mutual influence of maximum facilitation and minimal refractoriness. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Accuracy of measurement in electrically evoked compound action potentials.

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    Hey, Matthias; Müller-Deile, Joachim

    2015-01-15

    Electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAP) in cochlear implant (CI) patients are characterized by the amplitude of the N1P1 complex. The measurement of evoked potentials yields a combination of the measured signal with various noise components but for ECAP procedures performed in the clinical routine, only the averaged curve is accessible. To date no detailed analysis of error dimension has been published. The aim of this study was to determine the error of the N1P1 amplitude and to determine the factors that impact the outcome. Measurements were performed on 32 CI patients with either CI24RE (CA) or CI512 implants using the Software Custom Sound EP (Cochlear). N1P1 error approximation of non-averaged raw data consisting of recorded single-sweeps was compared to methods of error approximation based on mean curves. The error approximation of the N1P1 amplitude using averaged data showed comparable results to single-point error estimation. The error of the N1P1 amplitude depends on the number of averaging steps and amplification; in contrast, the error of the N1P1 amplitude is not dependent on the stimulus intensity. Single-point error showed smaller N1P1 error and better coincidence with 1/√(N) function (N is the number of measured sweeps) compared to the known maximum-minimum criterion. Evaluation of N1P1 amplitude should be accompanied by indication of its error. The retrospective approximation of this measurement error from the averaged data available in clinically used software is possible and best done utilizing the D-trace in forward masking artefact reduction mode (no stimulation applied and recording contains only the switch-on-artefact). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. An indirect component in the evoked compound action potential of the vagal nerve

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    Ordelman, Simone C. M. A.; Kornet, Lilian; Cornelussen, Richard; Buschman, Hendrik P. J.; Veltink, Peter H.

    2010-12-01

    The vagal nerve plays a vital role in the regulation of the cardiovascular system. It not only regulates the heart but also sends sensory information from the heart back to the brain. We hypothesize that the evoked vagal nerve compound action potential contains components that are indirect via the brain stem or coming via the neural network on the heart. In an experimental study of 15 pigs, we identified four components in the evoked compound action potentials. The fourth component was found to be an indirect component, which came from the periphery. The latency of the indirect component increased when heart rate and contractility were decreased by burst stimulation (P = 0.01; n = 7). When heart rate and contractility were increased by dobutamine administration, the latency of the indirect component decreased (P = 0.01; n = 9). This showed that the latency of the indirect component of the evoked compound action potentials may relate to the state of the cardiovascular system.

  5. [Effect of stimulating pulse width on the threshold of electrically evoked compound action potential].

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    Yu, Zhongde; Xiao, Ling; Li, Ping; Meng, Li; Zi, Rui; Fei, Xingbo

    2014-12-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between stimulating pulse width and the threshold of electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP). Firstly, the rheobase and chronaxy from strength-duration curve of nerve fiber was computed using the shepherd's experiment results. Secondly, based on the relationship between ECAP and the action potential of nerve fiber, a mathematical expression to describe the relationship between stimulating pulse width and ECAP threshold was proposed. Thirdly, the parameters were obtained and the feasibility was proved to the expression with the results of experiment using guinea pigs. Research result showed that with ECAP compared to the action potential of nerve fiber, their threshold function relationship with stimulating pulse width was similar, and rheobase from the former was an order smaller in the magnitude than the latter, but the chronaxy was close to each other. These findings may provide meaningful guidance to clinical ECAP measurement and studying speech processing strategies of cochlear implant.

  6. Analysis of electrically evoked compound action potential of the auditory nerve in children with bilateral cochlear implants.

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    Caldas, Fernanda Ferreira; Cardoso, Carolina Costa; Barreto, Monique Antunes de Souza Chelminski; Teixeira, Marina Santos; Hilgenberg, Anacléia Melo da Silva; Serra, Lucieny Silva Martins; Bahmad Junior, Fayez

    2016-01-01

    The cochlear implant device has the capacity to measure the electrically evoked compound action potential of the auditory nerve. The neural response telemetry is used in order to measure the electrically evoked compound action potential of the auditory nerve. To analyze the electrically evoked compound action potential, through the neural response telemetry, in children with bilateral cochlear implants. This is an analytical, prospective, longitudinal, historical cohort study. Six children, aged 1-4 years, with bilateral cochlear implant were assessed at five different intervals during their first year of cochlear implant use. There were significant differences in follow-up time (p=0.0082) and electrode position (p=0.0019) in the T-NRT measure. There was a significant difference in the interaction between time of follow-up and electrode position (p=0.0143) when measuring the N1-P1 wave amplitude between the three electrodes at each time of follow-up. The electrically evoked compound action potential measurement using neural response telemetry in children with bilateral cochlear implants during the first year of follow-up was effective in demonstrating the synchronized bilateral development of the peripheral auditory pathways in the studied population. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Motor evoked potentials and compound muscle action potentials as prognostic tools for neonates with spina bifida.

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    Cuppen, Inge; Geerdink, Niels; Rotteveel, Jan J; Mullaart, Reinier; Roeleveld, Nel; Pasman, Jaco W

    2013-03-01

    MEPs and CMAPs as prognostic tools for spina bifida. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the prognostic value of neurophysiological investigations compared to clinical neurological examination in infants with spina bifida. Thirty-six neonates born with spina bifida between 2002 and 2007 were evaluated and followed for 2 years. Lumbar motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) were obtained at the median age of 2 days old before surgical closure of the spinal anomaly. MEPs were recorded from the quadriceps femoris, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius muscles and CMAPs from the latter two muscles. Areas under the curve and latencies of the MEPs and CMAPs were measured. Clinical neurological outcome at the age of 2 years was described using Muscle Function Classes (MFCs) and ambulation status. The areas under the curve of MEPs and CMAPs in the legs were associated with lower neonatal levels of motor and sensory impairment. Better muscle function class of the lower limbs at 2 years of age was associated with larger MEP and CMAP areas of the gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles at neonatal age. MEPs and CMAPs of the gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles are of prognostic value for clinical neurological outcome in neonates born with spina bifida. Copyright © 2012 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Electrically evoked compound action potentials artefact rejection by independent component analysis: procedure automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhoun, Idrick; McKay, Colette; El-Deredy, Wael

    2015-01-15

    Independent-components-analysis (ICA) successfully separated electrically-evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs) from the stimulation artefact and noise (ECAP-ICA, Akhoun et al., 2013). This paper shows how to automate the ECAP-ICA artefact cancellation process. Raw-ECAPs without artefact rejection were consecutively recorded for each stimulation condition from at least 8 intra-cochlear electrodes. Firstly, amplifier-saturated recordings were discarded, and the data from different stimulus conditions (different current-levels) were concatenated temporally. The key aspect of the automation procedure was the sequential deductive source categorisation after ICA was applied with a restriction to 4 sources. The stereotypical aspect of the 4 sources enables their automatic classification as two artefact components, a noise and the sought ECAP based on theoretical and empirical considerations. The automatic procedure was tested using 8 cochlear implant (CI) users and one to four stimulus electrodes. The artefact and noise sources were successively identified and discarded, leaving the ECAP as the remaining source. The automated ECAP-ICA procedure successfully extracted the correct ECAPs compared to standard clinical forward masking paradigm in 22 out of 26 cases. ECAP-ICA does not require extracting the ECAP from a combination of distinct buffers as it is the case with regular methods. It is an alternative that does not have the possible bias of traditional artefact rejections such as alternate-polarity or forward-masking paradigms. The ECAP-ICA procedure bears clinical relevance, for example as the artefact rejection sub-module of automated ECAP-threshold detection techniques, which are common features of CI clinical fitting software. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Waveform Similarity Analysis: A Simple Template Comparing Approach for Detecting and Quantifying Noisy Evoked Compound Action Potentials.

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    Jason Robert Potas

    Full Text Available Experimental electrophysiological assessment of evoked responses from regenerating nerves is challenging due to the typical complex response of events dispersed over various latencies and poor signal-to-noise ratio. Our objective was to automate the detection of compound action potential events and derive their latencies and magnitudes using a simple cross-correlation template comparison approach. For this, we developed an algorithm called Waveform Similarity Analysis. To test the algorithm, challenging signals were generated in vivo by stimulating sural and sciatic nerves, whilst recording evoked potentials at the sciatic nerve and tibialis anterior muscle, respectively, in animals recovering from sciatic nerve transection. Our template for the algorithm was generated based on responses evoked from the intact side. We also simulated noisy signals and examined the output of the Waveform Similarity Analysis algorithm with imperfect templates. Signals were detected and quantified using Waveform Similarity Analysis, which was compared to event detection, latency and magnitude measurements of the same signals performed by a trained observer, a process we called Trained Eye Analysis. The Waveform Similarity Analysis algorithm could successfully detect and quantify simple or complex responses from nerve and muscle compound action potentials of intact or regenerated nerves. Incorrectly specifying the template outperformed Trained Eye Analysis for predicting signal amplitude, but produced consistent latency errors for the simulated signals examined. Compared to the trained eye, Waveform Similarity Analysis is automatic, objective, does not rely on the observer to identify and/or measure peaks, and can detect small clustered events even when signal-to-noise ratio is poor. Waveform Similarity Analysis provides a simple, reliable and convenient approach to quantify latencies and magnitudes of complex waveforms and therefore serves as a useful tool for

  10. The effect of shoulder position on motor evoked and maximal muscle compound action potentials of the biceps brachii.

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    Collins, Brandon W; Button, Duane C

    2018-02-05

    The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of shoulder position, 0° versus 90° shoulder flexion, on stimulation intensity and maximal muscle compound action potentials (M max ) and motor evoked potentials (MEP) of the biceps brachii during both rest and 10% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Nine participants completed two experimental sessions with four conditions. During each condition, transcranial magnetic (TMS) and Erb's point stimulation were used to elicit MEPs and M max , respectively. During rest, the TMS intensity to elicit a MEP response (pshoulder-position and state-dependent, whereas MEP and M max amplitudes were only shoulder position-dependent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Normative findings of electrically evoked compound action potential measurements using the neural response telemetry of the Nucleus CI24M cochlear implant system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cafarelli-Dees, D.; Dillier, N.; Lai, W.K.; Wallenberg, E. von; Dijk, B. van; Akdas, F.; Aksit, M.; Batman, C.; Beynon, A.J.; Burdo, S.; Chanal, J.M.; Collet, L.; Conway, M.; Coudert, C.; Craddock, L.; Cullington, H.; Deggouj, N.; Fraysse, B.; Grabel, S.; Kiefer, J.; Kiss, J.G.; Lenarz, T.; Mair, A.; Maune, S.; Muller-Deile, J.; Piron, J.P.; Razza, S.; Tasche, C.; Thai-Van, H.; Toth, F.; Truy, E.; Uziel, A.; Smoorenburg, G.F.

    2005-01-01

    One hundred and forty-seven adult recipients of the Nucleus 24 cochlear implant system, from 13 different European countries, were tested using neural response telemetry to measure the electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP), according to a standardised postoperative measurement

  12. Reliability of the diaphragmatic compound muscle action potential evoked by cervical magnetic stimulation and recorded via chest wall surface EMG.

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    Welch, Joseph F; Mildren, Robyn L; Zaback, Martin; Archiza, Bruno; Allen, Grayson P; Sheel, A William

    2017-09-01

    Stimulation of the phrenic nerve via cervical magnetic stimulation (CMS) elicits a compound muscle action potential (CMAP) that allows for assessment of diaphragm activation. The reliability of CMS to evoke the CMAP recorded by chest wall surface EMG has yet to be comprehensively examined. CMS was performed on healthy young males (n=10) and females (n=10). Surface EMG electrodes were placed on the right and left hemi-diaphragm between the 6-8th intercostal spaces. CMAPs were analysed for: latency, duration, peak-to-peak amplitude, and area. Reliability within and between experimental sessions was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Bilateral (right-left) and sex-based (male-female) comparisons were also made (independent samples t-test). All CMAP characteristics demonstrated high reproducibility within (ICCs>0.96) and between (ICCs>0.89) experimental sessions. No statistically significant bilateral or sex-based differences were found (p>0.05). CMS is a reliable and non-invasive method to evaluate phrenic nerve conduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Algorithm for multi-curve-fitting with shared parameters and a possible application in evoked compound action potential measurements.

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    Spitzer, Philipp; Zierhofer, Clemens; Hochmair, Erwin

    2006-02-22

    Experimental results are commonly fitted by determining parameter values of suitable mathematical expressions. In case a relation exists between different data sets, the accuracy of the parameters obtained can be increased by incorporating this relationship in the fitting process instead of fitting the recordings separately. An algorithm to fit multiple measured curves simultaneously was developed. The method accounts for parameters that are shared by some curves. It can be applied to either linear or nonlinear equations. Simulated noisy "measurement results" were created to compare the introduced method to the "straight forward" way of fitting the curves separately. The analysis of the simulated measurements confirm, that the introduced method yields more accurate parameters compared to the ones gained by fitting the measurements separately. Therefore it needs more computer time. As an example, the new fitting algorithm is applied to the measurements of the evoked compound action potentials (ECAP) of the auditory nerve: This leads to promising ideas to reduce artefacts generated by the measuring process. The introduced fitting algorithm uses the relationship between multiple measurement results to increase the accuracy of the parameters. Its application in the field of ECAP measurements is promising and should be further investigated.

  14. Algorithm for multi-curve-fitting with shared parameters and a possible application in evoked compound action potential measurements

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    Zierhofer Clemens

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental results are commonly fitted by determining parameter values of suitable mathematical expressions. In case a relation exists between different data sets, the accuracy of the parameters obtained can be increased by incorporating this relationship in the fitting process instead of fitting the recordings separately. Methods An algorithm to fit multiple measured curves simultaneously was developed. The method accounts for parameters that are shared by some curves. It can be applied to either linear or nonlinear equations. Simulated noisy "measurement results" were created to compare the introduced method to the "straight forward" way of fitting the curves separately. Results The analysis of the simulated measurements confirm, that the introduced method yields more accurate parameters compared to the ones gained by fitting the measurements separately. Therefore it needs more computer time. As an example, the new fitting algorithm is applied to the measurements of the evoked compound action potentials (ECAP of the auditory nerve: This leads to promising ideas to reduce artefacts generated by the measuring process. Conclusion The introduced fitting algorithm uses the relationship between multiple measurement results to increase the accuracy of the parameters. Its application in the field of ECAP measurements is promising and should be further investigated.

  15. The indolic compound hypaphorine produced by ectomycorrhizal fungus interferes with auxin action and evokes early responses in nonhost Arabidopsis thaliana.

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    Reboutier, David; Bianchi, Michele; Brault, Mathias; Roux, Camille; Dauphin, Aurélien; Rona, Jean-Pierre; Legué, Valérie; Lapeyrie, Frédéric; Bouteau, François

    2002-09-01

    Signals leading to mycorrhizal differentiation are largely unknown. We have studied the sensitivity of the root system from plant model Arabidopsis thaliana to hypaphorine, the major indolic compound isolated from the basidiomycetous fungus Pisolithus tinctorius. This fungi establishes ectomycorrhizas with Eucalyptus globulus. Hypaphorine controls root hair elongation and counteracts the activity of indole-3-acetic acid on root elongation on A. thaliana, as previously reported for the host plant. In addition, we show that hypaphorine counteracts the rapid upregulation by indole-3-acetic acid and 1-naphthalenic-acetic acid of the primary auxin-responsive gene IAA1 and induces a rapid, transient membrane depolarization in root hairs and suspension cells, due to the modulation of anion and K+ currents. These early responses indicate that components necessary for symbiosis-related differentiation events are present in the nonhost plant A. thaliana and provide tools for the dissection of the hypaphorine-auxin interaction.

  16. Characterization of Cochlear, Vestibular and Cochlear-Vestibular Electrically Evoked Compound Action Potentials in Patients with a Vestibulo-Cochlear Implant

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    T. A. K. Nguyen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The peripheral vestibular system is critical for the execution of activities of daily life as it provides movement and orientation information to motor and sensory systems. Patients with bilateral vestibular hypofunction experience a significant decrease in quality of life and have currently no viable treatment option. Vestibular implants could eventually restore vestibular function. Most vestibular implant prototypes to date are modified cochlear implants to fast-track development. These use various objective measurements, such as the electrically evoked compound action potential (eCAP, to supplement behavioral information. We investigated whether eCAPs could be recorded in patients with a vestibulo-cochlear implant. Specifically, eCAPs were successfully recorded for cochlear and vestibular setups, as well as for mixed cochlear-vestibular setups. Similarities and slight differences were found for the recordings of the three setups. These findings demonstrated the feasibility of eCAP recording with a vestibulo-cochlear implant. They could be used in the short term to reduce current spread and avoid activation of non-targeted neurons. More research is warranted to better understand the neural origin of vestibular eCAPs and to utilize them for clinical applications.

  17. Comparison of electrically evoked compound action potential thresholds and loudness estimates for the stimuli used to program the Advanced Bionics cochlear implant.

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    Jeon, Eun Kyung; Brown, Carolyn J; Etler, Christine P; O'Brien, Sara; Chiou, Li-Kuei; Abbas, Paul J

    2010-01-01

    In the mid-1990s, Cochlear Corporation introduced a cochlear implant (CI) to the market that was equipped with hardware that made it possible to record electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs) from CI users of all ages. Over the course of the next decade, many studies were published that compared ECAP thresholds with levels used to program the speech processor of the Nucleus CI. In 2001 Advanced Bionics Corporation introduced the Clarion CII cochlear implant (the Clarion CII internal device is also known as the CII Bionic Ear). This cochlear implant was also equipped with a system that allowed measurement of the ECAP. While a great deal is known about how ECAP thresholds compare with the levels used to program the speech processor of the Nucleus CI, relatively few studies have reported comparisons between ECAP thresholds and the levels used to program the speech processor of the Advanced Bionics CI. To explore the relationship between ECAP thresholds and behavioral measures of perceptual dynamic range for the range of stimuli commonly used to program the speech processor of the Advanced Bionics CI. This prospective and experimental study uses correlational and descriptive statistics to define the relationship between ECAP thresholds and perceptual dynamic range measures. Twelve postlingually deafened adults participated in this study. All were experienced users of the Advanced Bionics CI system. ECAP thresholds were recorded using the commercially available SoundWave software. Perceptual measures of threshold (T-level), most comfortable level (M-level), and maximum comfortable level (C-level) were obtained using both "tone bursts" and "speech bursts." The relationship between these perceptual and electrophysiological variables was defined using paired t-tests as well as correlation and linear regression. ECAP thresholds were significantly correlated with the perceptual dynamic range measures studied; however, correlations were not strong. Analysis of

  18. Efeitos do potencial de ação neural sobre a percepção de fala em usuários de implante coclear Influence of evoked compound action potential on speech perception in cochlear implant users

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    Mariana Cardoso Guedes

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O Potencial de Ação Composto Evocado Eletricamente reflete a atividade do nervo auditivo, podendo ser registrado através dos eletrodos do implante coclear. A determinação dos elementos neurais estimuláveis pode contribuir para explicar a variabilidade de desempenho entre indivíduos implantados. OBJETIVO: Comparar o desempenho nos testes de percepção da fala entre pacientes que apresentaram e que não apresentaram potencial de ação composto evocado eletricamente no momento intra-operatório. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo no qual 100 indivíduos usuários do implante coclear Nucleus 24 foram divididos em dois grupos de acordo com a presença ou ausência do potencial de ação intra-operatório. Após 6 meses de uso do dispositivo, os resultados dos testes de percepção de fala foram comparados entre os grupos. RESULTADOS: O potencial foi observado em 72% dos pacientes. A percepção no teste de frases em formato aberto foi melhor nos indivíduos com presença de potencial (média 82,8% contra 41,0%, p = 0,005. Houve associação entre ausência do potencial e etiologia da surdez por meningite. CONCLUSÃO: Ausência de potencial neural intraoperatório esteve associada ao pior desempenho na percepção da fala e à etiologia da surdez por meningite. Por outro lado, a presença do potencial de ação intraoperatório sugere ótimo prognóstico.Electrically Evoked Compound Action Potential is a measure of synchronous cochlear nerve fibers activity elicited by electrical stimulation of the cochlear implant. The electrophysiological nerve responses may contribute to explain the variability in individual performance of cochlear implant recipients. AIM: To compare speech perception tests’ performances of cochlear implant users according to the presence or absence of intraoperative neural telemetry responses. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Prospective study design with 100 "Nucleus 24" cochlear implant users divided in two groups according

  19. On the Dynamics of Action Representations Evoked by Names of Manipulable Objects

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    Bub, Daniel N.; Masson, Michael E. J.

    2012-01-01

    Two classes of hand action representations are shown to be activated by listening to the name of a manipulable object (e.g., cellphone). The functional action associated with the proper use of an object is evoked soon after the onset of its name, as indicated by primed execution of that action. Priming is sustained throughout the duration of the…

  20. Components of Action Representations Evoked when Identifying Manipulable Objects

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    Daniel N Bub

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We examined the influence of holding planned hand actions in working memory on the time taken to visually identify objects with handles. Features of the hand actions and position of the object's handle were congruent or incongruent on two dimensions: alignment (left vs. right and orientation (horizontal vs. vertical. When an object was depicted in an upright view, subjects were slower to name it when its handle was congruent with the planned hand actions on one dimension but incongruent on the other, relative to when the object handle and actions were congruent on both or neither dimension. This pattern is consistent with many other experiments demonstrating that a cost occurs when there is partial feature overlap between a planned action and a perceived target. An opposite pattern of results was obtained when the depicted object appeared in a 90-degree rotated view (e.g., a beer mug on its side, suggesting that the functional goal associated with the object (e.g., drinking from an upright beer mug was taken into account during object perception and that this knowledge superseded the influence of the action afforded by the depicted view of the object. These results have implications for the relationship between object perception and action representations, and for the mechanisms that support the identification of rotated objects.

  1. Effects of aging on evoked retrusive tongue actions.

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    Becker, Benjamin J; Russell, John A; Connor, Nadine P

    2015-06-01

    Tongue strength, timing, and coordination deficits may underlie age-related swallowing function. Retrusive tongue actions are likely important in retrograde bolus transport. However, age-related changes in retrusive tongue muscle contractile properties have not been identified in animal studies. Because previous studies employed whole hypoglossal nerve stimulation that activated both protrusive and retrusive tongue muscles, co-contraction may have masked retrusive muscle force decrements. The hypotheses of this study were: (1) retrusive tongue muscle contraction forces would be diminished and temporal characteristics prolonged in old rats when lateral nerves were selectively activated, and (2) greater muscle contractile forces with selective lateral branch stimulation would be found relative to whole hypoglossal nerve stimulation. Nineteen Fischer 344/Brown Norway rats (9 old, 10 young adult) underwent tongue muscle contractile property recording elicited by: (1) bilateral whole hypoglossal nerve stimulation, and (2) selective lateral branch stimulation. Twitch contraction time (CT), half-decay time, maximal twitch and tetanic forces, and a fatigue index were measured. For whole nerve stimulation, CT was significantly longer in the old group. No significant age group differences were found with selective lateral nerve stimulation. Significantly reduced twitch forces (old group only), increased tetanic forces and significantly less fatigue were found with selective lateral nerve stimulation than with whole hypoglossal stimulation. Retrusive tongue forces are not impaired in old rats. Deficits observed in swallowing with aging may be due to other factors such as inadequate bolus propulsive forces, mediated by protrusive tongue muscles, or timing/coordination of muscle actions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Action Tendency Emotions Evoked by Memorable Breast Cancer Messages and Their Association With Prevention and Detection Behaviors

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    Smith, Sandi W.; Hamel, Lauren M; Kotowski, Michael R.; Nazione, Samantha; LaPlante, Carolyn; Atkin, Charles K.; Stohl, Cynthia; Skubisz, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Memorable messages about breast cancer sent by different sources, such as friends and family members, were analyzed for the action tendency emotions that they evoked. Negative emotions of fear, sadness, and anger, and positive emotions of hope and relief were analyzed for their associations with prevention and detection breast cancer behaviors. Messages that evoked fear were significantly more likely to be associated with detection behaviors, whereas messages that evoked relief were significa...

  3. [Anti-hypertensive action of melatoninergic compounds].

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    Inoue, Yuichi

    2014-08-01

    Melatonin synchronizes circadian rhythms with light/dark period and it was demonstrated to correct chronodisruption. The night time rise in endogenous circulating melatonin levels is also inversely related to the reduction in night time blood pressure. The chronic administration of melatonin to individuals with hypertension induces a measurable drop in night time systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Moreover, the higher the night time level of endogenous melatonin (estimated from urinary metabolite of melatonin, 6-hydroxymelatonin sulphate), the greater the reduction in arterial blood pressure at night. The implication of these findings is that melatonin may have utility as an anti-hypertensive agent. Previous data have suggested that cardiovascular effects of melatonin are at least partly mediated via MT(1)/MT(2) receptors and associated with its chronobiotic action. Therefore, although anti-hypertensive action of melatonin is not so dramatic, it is believed that these effects will be shared by melatonin receptor agonists as well. Considering this, the investigation of cardiovascular effects of melatoninergic compounds should no longer be neglected.

  4. Antimicrobial Action of Compounds from Marine Seaweed

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    María José Pérez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed produces metabolites aiding in the protection against different environmental stresses. These compounds show antiviral, antiprotozoal, antifungal, and antibacterial properties. Macroalgae can be cultured in high volumes and would represent an attractive source of potential compounds useful for unconventional drugs able to control new diseases or multiresistant strains of pathogenic microorganisms. The substances isolated from green, brown and red algae showing potent antimicrobial activity belong to polysaccharides, fatty acids, phlorotannins, pigments, lectins, alkaloids, terpenoids and halogenated compounds. This review presents the major compounds found in macroalga showing antimicrobial activities and their most promising applications.

  5. [Antimicrobial action of new imidazolinium compounds].

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    Kuncewicz, Z; Krysiński, J; Pernak, J

    1990-01-01

    Syntheses and antibacterial activity of 1-ethyl-2-alkyl-3-(alkoxymethyl)- and 1-ethyl-2-alkyl-3-(alkylthiomethyl)imidazolinium chlorides are described. Syntheses of the imidazolinium compounds were performed by reaction of 1-ethyl-2-alkylimidazoline with chloromethylalkyl ether or with chloromethylalkyl sulfide. Antimicrobial properties of obtained compounds was tested on 13 strains of bacteria and fungi. Chlorides with alkylthiomethyl residue showed the highest antimicrobial activity.

  6. Clinical pharmacology of multiple action compounds.

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    Prichard, B N; Tomlinson, B

    1989-01-01

    There are two principal divisions of the beta adrenoceptor blocking drugs in widespread clinical use, non-selective and selective agents, with or without intrinsic sympathomimetic activity. These properties confer differing pharmacological properties. A beta blocking drug with significant intrinsic sympathomimetic activity can be regarded as a multiple action drug. A third division of beta adrenoceptor blocking drugs is a newer development; these, which beside blocking the beta receptor, have an important peripheral vasodilator activity. Labetalol was the first drug of this group, prizidilol followed, but has been withdrawn because of toxicity. Several other agents are now under evaluation including bucindolol, carvedilol, dilevalol (one of the isomers of labetalol) and medroxalol. Celiprolol is an agent which is beta 1 selective and in addition has peripheral vasodilator activity. There are three mechanisms which have been described as responsible for peripheral vasodilation, alpha receptor blockade, beta 2 agonism, and a dilator action independent of either the alpha or beta receptors. Evidence for these various mechanisms is more readily obtainable from animal experiments, but some confirmatory evidence has been obtained in man. Inhibition of alpha stimulation has been found with labetalol, to a small degree with medroxalol and carvedilol, and has been suggested with celiprolol. Beta 2 mediated vasodilatation has been shown by celiprolol, dilevalol and medroxalol, and evidence of a vasodilatation independent of alpha or beta receptors has been obtained with celiprolol and carvedilol. More evidence is required to be sure of the exact contribution of each of these mechanisms. Combined action results in important haemodynamic differences from beta blockade, notably, peripheral resistance is reduced and less effect is seen on cardiac output.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Compound sensory action potential in normal and pathological human nerves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The compound sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) is the result of phase summation and cancellation of single fiber potentials (SFAPs) with amplitudes that depend on fiber diameter, and the amplitude and shape of the SNAP is determined by the distribution of fiber diameters. Conduction velocities...... at different conduction distances are determined by summation of SFAPs of varying fiber diameters, and differ in this respect, also, from the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) for which conduction velocities are determined by the very fastest fibers in the nerve. The effect and extent of temporal...

  8. Endocannabinoids produced upon action potential firing evoke a Cl(-) current via type-2 cannabinoid receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Boon, Femke S; Chameau, Pascal; Houthuijs, Kas; Bolijn, Simone; Mastrangelo, Nicolina; Kruse, Chris G; Maccarrone, Mauro; Wadman, Wytse J; Werkman, Taco R

    2014-12-01

    The functional presence of type-2 cannabinoid receptors (CB2Rs) in layer II/III pyramidal neurons of the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was recently demonstrated. In the present study, we show that the application of the endocannabinoids (eCBs) 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and methanandamide [a stable analog of the eCB anandamide (AEA)] can activate CB2Rs of mPFC layer II/III pyramidal neurons, which subsequently induces a Cl(-) current. In addition, we show that action potential (AP) firing evoked by 20-Hz current injections results in an eCB-mediated opening of Cl(-) channels via CB2R activation. This AP-evoked synthesis of eCBs is dependent on the Ca(2+) influx through N-type voltage-gated calcium channels. Our results indicate that 2-AG is the main eCB involved in this process. Finally, we demonstrate that under physiologically relevant intracellular Cl(-) conditions, 20-Hz AP firing leads to a CB2R-dependent reduction in neuronal excitability. Altogether, our data indicate that eCBs released upon action potential firing can modulate, through CB2R activation, neuronal activity in the mPFC. We discuss how this may be a mechanism to prevent excessive neuronal firing.

  9. Compound sensory action potential in normal and pathological human nerves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The compound sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) is the result of phase summation and cancellation of single fiber potentials (SFAPs) with amplitudes that depend on fiber diameter, and the amplitude and shape of the SNAP is determined by the distribution of fiber diameters. Conduction velocitie...

  10. Compound muscle action potentials in newborn infants with spina bifida.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, N.; Pasman, J.W.; Rotteveel, J.J.; Roeleveld, N.; Mullaart, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) and neurological impairment in newborn infants with spina bifida. Thirty-one newborn infants (17 males, 14 females, mean gestational age 39 wks [SD 2]; mean birthweight 3336 g [SD 496]) with

  11. Candidacidal Action of CF66I, an Antifungal Compound Produced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Purpose: To investigate the candidacidal activity of a novel compound CF66I and attempt to elucidate its mode of action. Methods: Minimal inhibition concentrations (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC) of CF66I for Candida albicans were determined using serial broth dilution method. Colony count assay, K+.

  12. Temporal dynamics of action perception: differences on ERP evoked by object-related and non-object-related actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamain, Yannick; Pluciennicka, Ewa; Kalénine, Solène

    2014-10-01

    While neuropsychological dissociations suggest that distinct processes are involved in execution or perception of transitive (object-related) and intransitive (non-object-related) actions, the few neuroimaging studies that directly contrasted the brain activations underlying transitive and intransitive gesture perception failed to find substantial differences between the two action types. However, the distinction could be visible on brain activity timing within the fronto-parietal network. In this study, we used Event-Related Potential (ERP) method to assess the temporal dynamics of object-related and non-object-related action processing. Although both meaningful, only object-related actions involve object motor features. Accordingly, perception of the two action types would show distinct neural correlates. Participants were presented with four movie types (ORA, Object-Related Action, NORA: Non-Object-Related Action and 2 control movies) and were instructed to perform tasks that required explicit or implicit action recognition (specific action recognition or color change detection). Movies were presented as Point-Light Display (PLD) and thus provided only information about gesture kinematics regardless of action type. ERP were computed during movie visual perception and analyzed as a function of movie type and task. The main result revealed a difference between ORA and NORA on the amplitude of the P3a component in the fronto-parietal region. The difference observed around 250 ms after movie onset do not likely origin from variation in low-level visual features or attention resource allocation. Instead, we suggest that it reflects incidental recruitment of object attributes during object-related action perception. The exact nature of these attributes is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Direct speech compounds: Evoking socio-cultural scenarios through fictive interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, T.A.J.M.; Pascual Olive, E.; Krolak, E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines English nominal compounds whose modifier could serve as a self-sufficient discourse unit (e.g. "Hi honey, I'm home happiness," " 'not happy, money back' guarantee"). The scant literature on the construction treats such modifiers as embedded sentences, clauses, or phrases. Drawing

  14. Direct speech compounds : Evoking socio-cultural scenarios through fictive interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pascual, Esther; Krolak, Emilia; Janssen, Theo A. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines English nominal compounds whose modifier could serve as a self-sufficient discourse unit (e.g. "Hi honey, I'm home happiness," "'not happy, money back' guarantee"). The scant literature on the construction treats such modifiers as embedded sentences, clauses, or phrases. Drawing

  15. Action Potential-Evoked Calcium Release Is Impaired in Single Skeletal Muscle Fibers from Heart Failure Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFranco, Marino; Quiñonez, Marbella; Shieh, Perry; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Cruz, Daniel; Deng, Mario C.; Vergara, Julio L.; Middlekauff, Holly R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercise intolerance in chronic heart failure (HF) has been attributed to abnormalities of the skeletal muscles. Muscle function depends on intact excitation-contraction coupling (ECC), but ECC studies in HF models have been inconclusive, due to deficiencies in the animal models and tools used to measure calcium (Ca2+) release, mandating investigations in skeletal muscle from HF patients. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that Ca2+ release is significantly impaired in the skeletal muscle of HF patients in whom exercise capacity is severely diminished compared to age-matched healthy volunteers. Methods and Findings Using state-of-the-art electrophysiological and optical techniques in single muscle fibers from biopsies of the locomotive vastus lateralis muscle, we measured the action potential (AP)-evoked Ca2+ release in 4 HF patients and 4 age-matched healthy controls. The mean peak Ca2+ release flux in fibers obtained from HF patients (10±1.2 µM/ms) was markedly (2.6-fold) and significantly (pfibers from healthy volunteers (28±3.3 µM/ms). This impairment in AP-evoked Ca2+ release was ubiquitous and was not explained by differences in the excitability mechanisms since single APs were indistinguishable between HF patients and healthy volunteers. Conclusions These findings prove the feasibility of performing electrophysiological experiments in single fibers from human skeletal muscle, and offer a new approach for investigations of myopathies due to HF and other diseases. Importantly, we have demonstrated that one step in the ECC process, AP-evoked Ca2+ release, is impaired in single muscle fibers in HF patients. PMID:25310188

  16. Action potential-evoked calcium release is impaired in single skeletal muscle fibers from heart failure patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marino DiFranco

    Full Text Available Exercise intolerance in chronic heart failure (HF has been attributed to abnormalities of the skeletal muscles. Muscle function depends on intact excitation-contraction coupling (ECC, but ECC studies in HF models have been inconclusive, due to deficiencies in the animal models and tools used to measure calcium (Ca2+ release, mandating investigations in skeletal muscle from HF patients. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that Ca2+ release is significantly impaired in the skeletal muscle of HF patients in whom exercise capacity is severely diminished compared to age-matched healthy volunteers.Using state-of-the-art electrophysiological and optical techniques in single muscle fibers from biopsies of the locomotive vastus lateralis muscle, we measured the action potential (AP-evoked Ca2+ release in 4 HF patients and 4 age-matched healthy controls. The mean peak Ca2+ release flux in fibers obtained from HF patients (10±1.2 µM/ms was markedly (2.6-fold and significantly (p<0.05 smaller than in fibers from healthy volunteers (28±3.3 µM/ms. This impairment in AP-evoked Ca2+ release was ubiquitous and was not explained by differences in the excitability mechanisms since single APs were indistinguishable between HF patients and healthy volunteers.These findings prove the feasibility of performing electrophysiological experiments in single fibers from human skeletal muscle, and offer a new approach for investigations of myopathies due to HF and other diseases. Importantly, we have demonstrated that one step in the ECC process, AP-evoked Ca2+ release, is impaired in single muscle fibers in HF patients.

  17. Human neural tuning estimated from compound action potentials in normal hearing human volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschooten, Eric; Desloovere, Christian; Joris, Philip X.

    2015-12-01

    The sharpness of cochlear frequency tuning in humans is debated. Evoked otoacoustic emissions and psychophysical measurements suggest sharper tuning in humans than in laboratory animals [15], but this is disputed based on comparisons of behavioral and electrophysiological measurements across species [14]. Here we used evoked mass potentials to electrophysiologically quantify tuning (Q10) in humans. We combined a notched noise forward masking paradigm [9] with the recording of trans tympanic compound action potentials (CAP) from masked probe tones in awake human and anesthetized monkey (Macaca mulatta). We compare our results to data obtained with the same paradigm in cat and chinchilla [16], and find that CAP-Q10values in human are ˜1.6x higher than in cat and chinchilla and ˜1.3x higher than in monkey. To estimate frequency tuning of single auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) in humans, we derive conversion functions from ANFs in cat, chinchilla, and monkey and apply these to the human CAP measurements. The data suggest that sharp cochlear tuning is a feature of old-world primates.

  18. Acute stress increases depolarization-evoked glutamate release in the rat prefrontal/frontal cortex: the dampening action of antidepressants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Musazzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral stress is recognized as a main risk factor for neuropsychiatric diseases. Converging evidence suggested that acute stress is associated with increase of excitatory transmission in certain forebrain areas. Aim of this work was to investigate the mechanism whereby acute stress increases glutamate release, and if therapeutic drugs prevent the effect of stress on glutamate release.Rats were chronically treated with vehicle or drugs employed for therapy of mood/anxiety disorders (fluoxetine, desipramine, venlafaxine, agomelatine and then subjected to unpredictable footshock stress. Acute stress induced marked increase in depolarization-evoked release of glutamate from synaptosomes of prefrontal/frontal cortex in superfusion, and the chronic drug treatments prevented the increase of glutamate release. Stress induced rapid increase in the circulating levels of corticosterone in all rats (both vehicle- and drug-treated, and glutamate release increase was blocked by previous administration of selective antagonist of glucocorticoid receptor (RU 486. On the molecular level, stress induced accumulation of presynaptic SNARE complexes in synaptic membranes (both in vehicle- and drug-treated rats. Patch-clamp recordings of pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex revealed that stress increased glutamatergic transmission through both pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms, and that antidepressants may normalize it by reducing release probability.Acute footshock stress up-regulated depolarization-evoked release of glutamate from synaptosomes of prefrontal/frontal cortex. Stress-induced increase of glutamate release was dependent on stimulation of glucocorticoid receptor by corticosterone. Because all drugs employed did not block either elevation of corticosterone or accumulation of SNARE complexes, the dampening action of the drugs on glutamate release must be downstream of these processes. This novel effect of antidepressants on the response to stress

  19. Spine Calcium Transients Induced by Synaptically-Evoked Action Potentials Can Predict Synapse Location and Establish Synaptic Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Rhiannon M.; van Ooyen, Arjen

    2012-01-01

    CA1 pyramidal neurons receive hundreds of synaptic inputs at different distances from the soma. Distance-dependent synaptic scaling enables distal and proximal synapses to influence the somatic membrane equally, a phenomenon called “synaptic democracy”. How this is established is unclear. The backpropagating action potential (BAP) is hypothesised to provide distance-dependent information to synapses, allowing synaptic strengths to scale accordingly. Experimental measurements show that a BAP evoked by current injection at the soma causes calcium currents in the apical shaft whose amplitudes decay with distance from the soma. However, in vivo action potentials are not induced by somatic current injection but by synaptic inputs along the dendrites, which creates a different excitable state of the dendrites. Due to technical limitations, it is not possible to study experimentally whether distance information can also be provided by synaptically-evoked BAPs. Therefore we adapted a realistic morphological and electrophysiological model to measure BAP-induced voltage and calcium signals in spines after Schaffer collateral synapse stimulation. We show that peak calcium concentration is highly correlated with soma-synapse distance under a number of physiologically-realistic suprathreshold stimulation regimes and for a range of dendritic morphologies. Peak calcium levels also predicted the attenuation of the EPSP across the dendritic tree. Furthermore, we show that peak calcium can be used to set up a synaptic democracy in a homeostatic manner, whereby synapses regulate their synaptic strength on the basis of the difference between peak calcium and a uniform target value. We conclude that information derived from synaptically-generated BAPs can indicate synapse location and can subsequently be utilised to implement a synaptic democracy. PMID:22719238

  20. A novel Fer/FerT targeting compound selectively evokes metabolic stress and necrotic death in malignant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkis, Yoav; Cohen, Moshe; Yaffe, Etai; Satmary-Tusk, Shirly; Feldman, Tal; Hikri, Elad; Nyska, Abraham; Feiglin, Ariel; Ofran, Yanay; Shpungin, Sally; Nir, Uri

    2017-10-16

    Disruption of the reprogrammed energy management system of malignant cells is a prioritized goal of targeted cancer therapy. Two regulators of this system are the Fer kinase, and its cancer cell specific variant, FerT, both residing in subcellular compartments including the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Here, we show that a newly developed inhibitor of Fer and FerT, E260, selectively evokes metabolic stress in cancer cells by imposing mitochondrial dysfunction and deformation, and onset of energy-consuming autophagy which decreases the cellular ATP level. Notably, Fer was also found to associate with PARP-1 and E260 disrupted this association thereby leading to PARP-1 activation. The cooperative intervention with these metabolic pathways leads to energy crisis and necrotic death in malignant, but not in normal human cells, and to the suppression of tumors growth in vivo. Thus, E260 is a new anti-cancer agent which imposes metabolic stress and cellular death in cancer cells.The tyrosine-kinases Fer/FerT associate with the mitochondrial electron transport chain in cancer cells supporting their metabolic reprogramming. Here the authors discover a compound that disrupts Fer /FerT activity and selectively induces cell death of cancer cell lines displaying anti-tumor activity in vivo.

  1. Mechanisms of action of phenolic compounds in olive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafehi, Haloom; Ververis, Katherine; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2012-06-01

    Olive oil, an oil rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFCs) and minor constituents including phenolic compounds, is a major component of the Mediterranean diet. The potential health benefits of the Mediterranean diet were highlighted by the seminal Seven Countries Study, and more contemporary research has identified olive oil as a major element responsible for these effects. It is emerging that the phenolic compounds are the most likely candidates accounting for the cardioprotective and cancer preventative effects of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). In particular, the phenolic compound, hydroxytyrosol has been identified as one of the most potent antioxidants found in olive oil. This review will briefly consider historical aspects of olive oil research and the biological properties of phenolic compounds in olive oil will be discussed. The focus of the discussion will be related to the mechanisms of action of hydroxytyrosol. Studies have demonstrated that hydroxytyrosol induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in cancer cells. Further, research has shown that hydroxytyrosol can prevent cardiovascular disease by reducing the expression of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells and preventing the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The molecular mechanisms accounting for these effects are reviewed.

  2. Evaluation of the Electrically Evoked Action Potential Threshold Changes in Three Months after Receiving the Device in Children with Cochlear Implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Pourjavid

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: In neural response telemetry (NRT, intracochlear electrodes stimulate the auditory nerve and record the neural responses. The electrical stimulation send to the auditory nerve by an electrode and the resulted response, called electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP, is recorded by an adjacent electrode. The most important clinical applications of this test are evaluation and monitoring the intra and postoperative responses of auditory nerve and help to primary setting of speech processor. The aim of this study was evaluating of the potential's threshold changes in three monthes after receiving the devise in pediatric cochlear implant recipients.Materials and Methods: This longitudinal study evaluated the potential's threshold in four given electrodes in four sessions after receiving the device by approximately one months intervals in children implanted in Amir Alam and Hazrat-e-Rasoul hospitals in 2007, July to December.Results: ECAP mean threshold level of each electrode did not significantly change in differnent sessions, while there was significant difference between apical and basal electrodes’ responses in every session(p<0.001.Conclusion: The reliabiliy of the responses result in more certainty of clinician to fit the speech processor for a long time. Better responses in apical electrodes may lead to develope an effective coding strategy.

  3. Motor evoked potentials and compound muscle action potentials as prognostic tools for neonates with spina bifida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuppen, I.; Geerdink, N.; Rotteveel, J.J.; Mullaart, R.A.; Roeleveld, N.; Pasman, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    MEPs and CMAPs as prognostic tools for spina bifida. AIM: The aim of this prospective study was to determine the prognostic value of neurophysiological investigations compared to clinical neurological examination in infants with spina bifida. METHODS: Thirty-six neonates born with spina bifida

  4. Visual Stimuli Evoked Action Potentials Trigger Rapidly Propagating Dendritic Calcium Transients in the Frog Optic Tectum Layer 6 Neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gytis Svirskis

    Full Text Available The superior colliculus in mammals or the optic tectum in amphibians is a major visual information processing center responsible for generation of orientating responses such as saccades in monkeys or prey catching avoidance behavior in frogs. The conserved structure function of the superior colliculus the optic tectum across distant species such as frogs, birds monkeys permits to draw rather general conclusions after studying a single species. We chose the frog optic tectum because we are able to perform whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings fluorescence imaging of tectal neurons while they respond to a visual stimulus. In the optic tectum of amphibians most visual information is processed by pear-shaped neurons possessing long dendritic branches, which receive the majority of synapses originating from the retinal ganglion cells. Since the first step of the retinal input integration is performed on these dendrites, it is important to know whether this integration is enhanced by active dendritic properties. We demonstrate that rapid calcium transients coinciding with the visual stimulus evoked action potentials in the somatic recordings can be readily detected up to the fine branches of these dendrites. These transients were blocked by calcium channel blockers nifedipine CdCl2 indicating that calcium entered dendrites via voltage-activated L-type calcium channels. The high speed of calcium transient propagation, >300 μm in <10 ms, is consistent with the notion that action potentials, actively propagating along dendrites, open voltage-gated L-type calcium channels causing rapid calcium concentration transients in the dendrites. We conclude that such activation by somatic action potentials of the dendritic voltage gated calcium channels in the close vicinity to the synapses formed by axons of the retinal ganglion cells may facilitate visual information processing in the principal neurons of the frog optic tectum.

  5. Potassium conductances mediate bidirectional state-dependent modulation of action potential evoked dendritic calcium signals in dentate gyrus granule cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    János Brunner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Backpropagating action potentials (bAPs and local calcium signals that they trigger are fundamental for dendritic functions. Here we addressed the question what extent the changes of local dendritic membrane properties can contribute to the shaping of the coupling between dendritic action potentials and the local calcium responses. Using a combination of in vitro electrophysiological and confocal imaging techniques we found that activation of dendritic GIRK channels via mGlu2 or GABAB receptors enhanced the bAP¬-triggered calcium signals in the dendrites of dentate gyrus granule cells (GCs. The enhancement of calcium signals was significant only in those dendritic regions, where these receptors are predominantly expressed. Similarly to GIRK channel activation, somatic hyperpolarization by DC current injection (from -64 mV to -77 mV, significantly increased bAP-associated calcium signals in the proximal dendrites. The hyperpolarization was associated with a decrease in the input resistance due to the rectification of the membrane potential of GCs. The effect of hyperpolarization on the calcium signals was maintained when T-type calcium currents were blocked but it decreased when GIRK channels were inhibited. Simultaneous dual somato-dendritic recordings from GCs showed that somatic hyperpolarization accelerated the repolarization phase of dendritic bAP in the proximal region whereas the rising phase and peak amplitude was not affected. We hypothesize that the larger driving force for calcium ions during the faster repolarization can contribute to the increasing in calcium signals. Employment of previously recorded dendritic bAP waveforms from hyperpolarized membrane potential as voltage command evoked larger calcium currents in nucleated patches compared to bAP waveform from the same recording at depolarized membrane potential. Furthermore, addition of native, high-voltage activated, inactivating potassium conductance by somatic dynamic clamp

  6. Compound muscle action potential duration in critical illness neuromyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Christopher L; Boon, Andrea J; Harper, C Michel; Goodman, Brent P

    2018-03-01

    We sought to determine the specificity of compound muscle action potential (CMAP) durations and amplitudes in a large critical illness neuromyopathy (CINM) cohort relative to controls with other neuromuscular conditions. Fifty-eight patients with CINM who had been seen over a 17-year period were retrospectively studied. Electrodiagnostic findings of the CINM cohort were compared with patients with axonal peripheral neuropathy and myopathy due to other causes. Mean CMAP durations were prolonged, and mean CMAP amplitudes were severely reduced both proximally and distally in all nerves studied in the CINM cohort relative to the control groups. The specificity of prolonged CMAP durations for CINM approached 100% if they were encountered in more than 1 nerve. Prolonged, low-amplitude CMAPs occur more frequently and with greater severity in CINM patients than in neuromuscular controls with myopathy and axonal neuropathy and are highly specific for the diagnosis of CINM. Muscle Nerve 57: 395-400, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Two-Photon Na+ Imaging Reports Somatically Evoked Action Potentials in Rat Olfactory Bulb Mitral and Granule Cell Neurites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ona-Jodar, Tiffany; Gerkau, Niklas J; Sara Aghvami, S; Rose, Christine R; Egger, Veronica

    2017-01-01

    Dendrodendritic synaptic interactions are a hallmark of neuronal processing in the vertebrate olfactory bulb. Many classes of olfactory bulb neurons including the principal mitral cells (MCs) and the axonless granule cells (GCs) dispose of highly efficient propagation of action potentials (AP) within their dendrites, from where they can release transmitter onto each other. So far, backpropagation in GC dendrites has been investigated indirectly via Ca2+ imaging. Here, we used two-photon Na+ imaging to directly report opening of voltage-gated sodium channels due to AP propagation in both cell types. To this end, neurons in acute slices from juvenile rat bulbs were filled with 1 mM SBFI via whole-cell patch-clamp. Calibration of SBFI signals revealed that a change in fluorescence ΔF/F by 10% corresponded to a Δ[Na+]i of ∼22 mM. We then imaged proximal axon segments of MCs during somatically evoked APs (sAP). While single sAPs were detectable in ∼50% of axons, trains of 20 sAPs at 50 Hz always resulted in substantial ΔF/F of ∼15% (∼33 mM Δ[Na+]i). ΔF/F was significantly larger for 80 Hz vs. 50 Hz trains, and decayed with half-durations τ1/2 ∼0.6 s for both frequencies. In MC lateral dendrites, AP trains yielded small ΔF/F of ∼3% (∼7 mM Δ[Na+]i). In GC apical dendrites and adjacent spines, single sAPs were not detectable. Trains resulted in an average dendritic ΔF/F of 7% (16 mM Δ[Na+]i) with τ1/2 ∼1 s, similar for 50 and 80 Hz. Na+ transients were indistinguishable between large GC spines and their adjacent dendrites. Cell-wise analysis revealed two classes of GCs with the first showing a decrease in ΔF/F along the dendrite with distance from the soma and the second an increase. These classes clustered with morphological parameters. Simulations of Δ[Na+]i replicated these behaviors via negative and positive gradients in Na+ current density, assuming faithful AP backpropagation. Such specializations of dendritic excitability might confer

  8. Spontaneous and evoked pain-associated behaviors in a rat model of neuropathic pain respond differently to drugs with different mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Nobuhito; Sekizawa, Toshihiro; Gotoh, Takayasu; Watabiki, Tomonari; Takahashi, Masayasu; Kakimoto, Shuichiro; Takahashi, Yuko; Iino, Masanobu; Nagakura, Yukinori

    2016-02-01

    Given that patients with neuropathic pain suffer a mixture of spontaneous and evoked pain symptoms, we assessed the effects of drugs with different mechanism of action on spontaneous and evoked pain-associated behaviors in a rat model of neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. Frequent aberrant limb movement on the operated side was measured to assess spontaneous pain-associated behavior, and mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were evaluated to assess evoked pain-associated behaviors. These three types of behavior were assessed after administration of the following drugs: pregabalin (α2δ-subunit ligand), morphine (μ-opioid receptor agonist), perampanel (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid [AMPA] receptor antagonist), clonidine, dexmedetomidine (α2-adrenoceptor agonists), and diclofenac (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug [NSAID]). Pregabalin at an oral dose of 10 or 30mg/kg significantly alleviated frequent aberrant limb movement and mechanical allodynia, but not thermal hyperalgesia. Morphine at a subcutaneous dose of 1 or 3mg/kg significantly improved all three types of behavior. Perampanel at an oral dose of 1mg/kg attenuated only frequent aberrant limb movement. Intraperitoneal administration of clonidine (0.01 or 0.03mg/kg) and dexmedetomidine (0.03mg/kg) significantly improved all three types of behavior, while diclofenac did not relieve any of the behaviors. Pregabalin, clonidine, and dexmedetomidine significantly decreased motor performance at doses close to analgesic doses in the rotarod test. The present study demonstrates that responses to spontaneous and evoked pain symptoms in neuropathic pain condition differ depending on a drug's mechanism of action. The selection and application of drugs according to the specific symptoms would be considered for the medication of patients with neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Acute nerve compression and the compound muscle action potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baylor Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Detecting acute nerve compression using neurophysiologic studies is an important part of the practice of clinical intra-operative neurophysiology. The goal of this paper was to study the changes in the compound muscle action potential (CMAP during acute mechanical compression. This is the type of injury most likely to occur during surgery. Thus, understanding the changes in the CMAP during this type of injury will be useful in the detection and prevention using intra-operative neurophysiologic monitoring. The model involved compression of the hamster sciatic nerve over a region of 1.3 mm with pressures up to 2000 mmHg for times on the order of 3 minutes. In this model CMAP amplitude dropped to 50% of its baseline value when a pressure of roughly 1000 mmHg is applied while, at the same time, nerve conduction velocities decline by only 5%. The ability to detect statistically significant changes in the CMAP at low force levels using other descriptors of the CMAP including duration, latency variation, etc alone or in conjunction with amplitude and velocity measures was investigated. However, these other parameters did not allow for earlier detection of significant changes. This study focused on a model in which nerve injury on a short time scale is purely mechanical in origin. It demonstrated that a pure compression injury produced large changes in CMAP amplitude prior to large changes in conduction velocity. On the other hand, ischemic and stretch injuries are associated with larger changes in conduction velocity for a given value of CMAP amplitude reduction.

  10. Suprathreshold compound action potential amplitude as a measure of auditory function in cochlear implant users

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    Rachel A. Scheperle

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrically evoked compound action potential (eCAP amplitudes elicited at suprathreshold levels were assessed as a measure of the effectiveness of cochlear implant (CI stimulation. Twenty-one individuals participated; one was excluded due to facial stimulation during eCAP testing. For each participant, eCAPs were elicited with stimulation from seven electrodes near the upper limit of the individual's electrical dynamic range. A reduced-channel CI program was created using those same seven electrodes, and participants performed a vowel discrimination task. Consistent with previous reports, eCAP amplitudes varied across tested electrodes; the profiles were unique to each individual. In 6 subjects (30%, eCAP amplitude variability was partially explained by the impedance of the recording electrode. The remaining amplitude variability within subjects, and the variability observed across subjects could not be explained by recording electrode impedance. This implies that other underlying factors, such as variations in neural status across the array, are responsible. Across-site mean eCAP amplitude was significantly correlated with vowel discrimination scores (r2 = 0.56. A single eCAP amplitude measured from the middle of the array was also significantly correlated with vowel discrimination, but the correlation was weaker (r2 = 0.37, though not statistically different from the across-site mean. Normalizing each eCAP amplitude by its associated recording electrode impedance did not improve the correlation with vowel discrimination (r2 = 0.52. Further work is needed to assess whether combining eCAP amplitude with other measures of the electrode-neural interface and/or with more central measures of auditory function provides a more complete picture of auditory function in CI recipients.

  11. Effects of estragole on the compound action potential of the rat sciatic nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Leal-Cardoso

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Estragole, a relatively nontoxic terpenoid ether, is an important constituent of many essential oils with widespread applications in folk medicine and aromatherapy and known to have potent local anesthetic activity. We investigated the effects of estragole on the compound action potential (CAP of the rat sciatic nerve. The experiments were carried out on sciatic nerves dissected from Wistar rats. Nerves, mounted in a moist chamber, were stimulated at a frequency of 0.2 Hz, with electric pulses of 50-100-µs duration at 10-20 V, and evoked CAP were monitored on an oscilloscope and recorded on a computer. CAP control parameters were: peak-to-peak amplitude (PPA, 9.9 ± 0.55 mV (N = 15, conduction velocity, 92.2 ± 4.36 m/s (N = 15, chronaxy, 45.6 ± 3.74 µs (N = 5, and rheobase, 3.9 ± 0.78 V (N = 5. Estragole induced a dose-dependent blockade of the CAP. At 0.6 mM, estragole had no demonstrable effect. At 2.0 and 6.0 mM estragole, PPA was significantly reduced at the end of 180-min exposure of the nerve to the drug to 85.6 ± 3.96 and 13.04 ± 1.80% of control, respectively. At 4.0 mM, estragole significantly altered PPA, conduction velocity, chronaxy, and rheobase (P <= 0.05, ANOVA; N = 5 to 49.3 ± 6.21 and 77.7 ± 3.84, 125.9 ± 10.43 and 116.7 ± 4.59%, of control, respectively. All of these effects developed slowly and were reversible upon a 300-min wash-out. The data show that estragole dose-dependently blocks nerve excitability.

  12. Compound action potential of sensory tail nerves in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leandri, Massimo; Saturno, Moreno; Cilli, Michele; Bisaglia, Michela; Lunardi, Gianluigi

    2007-01-01

    Assessment of the conduction velocity of motor fibers of the rat tail nerves has been used by some authors in the past, but very little is known about the sensory fibers. In 10 adult rats, weighing between 320 and 380 g, responses from the nerves and muscles of the tail have been recorded after stimulation at its root and tip. It was found that stimulation of the tip involved mainly sensory fibers, of which two main groups could be identified. One faster group, conducting within the range of 38-27 m/s, and one slower group with range 14-7 m/s. The bipolar recording configuration was found to be optimal for sensory recording. Stimulation of the tail root evoked a motor response, which was preceded by a very small neurographic activity, due to the fastest sensory fibers conducting antidromically. The conduction velocity of motor fibers was calculated to be approximately 19 m/s. Distance traveled by the volley can be assessed with excellent precision on the tail nerves; hence the calculated conduction velocities are highly reliable and reproducible. We propose that the tail nerves may be a useful tool for evaluation of conduction velocity of Abeta and Adelta afferents. As the technique is just minimally invasive, the test can be repeated a number of times in animals under chronic experimental conditions.

  13. Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavaglia, Juliano; Markoski, Melissa M; Oliveira, Aline; Marcadenti, Aline

    2016-01-01

    Grape seed oil is rich in phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and vitamins, with economic importance to pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industry. Its use as an edible oil has also been suggested, especially due to its pleasant sensory characteristics. Grape seed oil has beneficial properties for health that are mainly detected by in vitro studies, such as anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties, and may interact with cellular and molecular pathways. These effects have been related to grape seed oil constituents, mainly tocopherol, linolenic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, procyanidins, carotenoids, and phytosterols. The aim of this article was to briefly review the composition and nutritional aspects of grape seed oil, the interactions of its compounds with molecular and cellular pathways, and its possible beneficial effects on health.

  14. Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Garavaglia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape seed oil is rich in phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and vitamins, with economic importance to pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industry. Its use as an edible oil has also been suggested, especially due to its pleasant sensory characteristics. Grape seed oil has beneficial properties for health that are mainly detected by in vitro studies, such as anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties, and may interact with cellular and molecular pathways. These effects have been related to grape seed oil constituents, mainly tocopherol, linolenic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, procyanidins, carotenoids, and phytosterols. The aim of this article was to briefly review the composition and nutritional aspects of grape seed oil, the interactions of its compounds with molecular and cellular pathways, and its possible beneficial effects on health.

  15. Optical coherence tomography for compound action potential detection: a computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiani, Francesca; Nikolic, Konstantin; Constandinou, Timothy G.

    2017-07-01

    The feasibility of using time domain optical coherence tomography (TD-OCT) to detect compound action potential in a peripheral nerve and the setup characteristics, are studied through the use of finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique.

  16. Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health

    OpenAIRE

    Juliano Garavaglia; Melissa M. Markoski; Aline Oliveira; Aline Marcadenti

    2016-01-01

    Grape seed oil is rich in phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and vitamins, with economic importance to pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industry. Its use as an edible oil has also been suggested, especially due to its pleasant sensory characteristics. Grape seed oil has beneficial properties for health that are mainly detected by in vitro studies, such as anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties, and may interact with cellular and molecular pathways. These...

  17. Sound-Making Actions Lead to Immediate Plastic Changes of Neuromagnetic Evoked Responses and Induced β-Band Oscillations during Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Bernhard; Barat, Masihullah; Fujioka, Takako

    2017-06-14

    Auditory and sensorimotor brain areas interact during the action-perception cycle of sound making. Neurophysiological evidence of a feedforward model of the action and its outcome has been associated with attenuation of the N1 wave of auditory evoked responses elicited by self-generated sounds, such as talking and singing or playing a musical instrument. Moreover, neural oscillations at β-band frequencies have been related to predicting the sound outcome after action initiation. We hypothesized that a newly learned action-perception association would immediately modify interpretation of the sound during subsequent listening. Nineteen healthy young adults (7 female, 12 male) participated in three magnetoencephalographic recordings while first passively listening to recorded sounds of a bell ringing, then actively striking the bell with a mallet, and then again listening to recorded sounds. Auditory cortex activity showed characteristic P1-N1-P2 waves. The N1 was attenuated during sound making, while P2 responses were unchanged. In contrast, P2 became larger when listening after sound making compared with the initial naive listening. The P2 increase occurred immediately, while in previous learning-by-listening studies P2 increases occurred on a later day. Also, reactivity of β-band oscillations, as well as θ coherence between auditory and sensorimotor cortices, was stronger in the second listening block. These changes were significantly larger than those observed in control participants (eight female, five male), who triggered recorded sounds by a key press. We propose that P2 characterizes familiarity with sound objects, whereas β-band oscillation signifies involvement of the action-perception cycle, and both measures objectively indicate functional neuroplasticity in auditory perceptual learning. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT While suppression of auditory responses to self-generated sounds is well known, it is not clear whether the learned action-sound association

  18. Six coordination compounds: mode of cytotoxic action and biological evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali aydin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the biological and anticancer properties of followed coordination compounds. IR spectra, magnetic properties, thermal analyses and crystal structures of six cyanido-complexes derivatives with [MII(CN4]2- (MII= Ni and Pd and [Co(CN6]3- anions and N-bishydeten (N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethylethylenediamine as a capping ligand have been previously reported. Here, we investigated these complexes denoted as[Ni(N-bishydetenNi(CN4] (C1, [Zn2(N-bishydeten2Ni(CN4] (C2, [Ni(N-bishydetenPd(CN4] (C3, [Cd(N-bishydeten2][Pd(CN4] (C4, [Ni2(N-bishydeten2Co(CN6].3H2O (C5 and K[Cd(N-bishydetenCo(CN6].1.5H2O (C6, which were tested for their anti-proliferative activity against human cervical cancer (HeLa, human colon cancer (HT29, rat glioma (C6 and African green monkey kidney (Vero cell lines. The DNA/BSA binding affinities of these compounds were also elucidated by spectroscopic titrations, displacement experiments and electrophoresis measurements. Studies on cancerous cells revealed that C1, C2, C4 and C6 exhibited significant antitumor activity and inhibited tumor progression in testing cell lines and showed high solubility in the solvent. Absorbance and emission spectra data results revealed that the complexes interact with the DNA via groove binding mode of interaction. Overall, these compounds have been found to demonstrate effective anti-proliferative activity against the cancer cell lines, indicating that they are a potent candidate for preclinical or clinical study.

  19. Life cycle responses of the midge Chironomus riparius to compounds with different modes of action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinkovic, M.; Verweij, R.A.; Nummerdor, G.A.; Jonker, M.J.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Admiraal, W.

    2011-01-01

    Compounds with different modes of action may affect life cycles of biota differently. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the impact of four chemicals with different modes of action, including the essential metal copper, the nonessential metal cadmium, the organometal

  20. Life cycle responses of the midge Chironomus riparius to compounds with different modes of action.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinkovic, M.; Verweij, R.A.; Nummerdor, G.A.; Jonker, M.J.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Admiraal, W.

    2011-01-01

    Compounds with different modes of action may affect life cycles of biota differently. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the impact of four chemicals with different modes of action, including the essential metal copper, the nonessential metal cadmium, the organometal

  1. Targeting microRNAs: a new action mechanism of natural compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qian; Ma, Leina; Liu, Zhantao; Yang, Zhihong; Wang, Jin; Liu, Jia; Jiang, Guohui

    2017-02-28

    Unlike genetics, epigenetics involves the modification of genome without changes in DNA sequences, including DNA methylation, histone modification, chromatin remodeling and noncoding RNA regulation. MicroRNA (miRNA), a member of noncoding RNAs superfamily, participates in RNA interference through a unique mechanism. Currently, microRNAs have been found to be regulated by some natural compounds. Through altering the expression of miRNAs and influencing the downstream signaling pathways or target genes, several natural compounds exhibit its bioactivity in the prevention, diagnosis, therapy, prognosis and drug resistance of human diseases, such as cancer. In this review, several natural compounds and their studies about miRNA-related action mechanism were summarized. These studies provide a new insight into action mechanism by which natural compound exerts its bioactivity and a novel treatment strategy, demonstrating natural compound a promising remedy for clinical treatments.

  2. Reversible phase change of new anthracene compounds triggered by the action of light and heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihara, Hideyuki; Yoshida, Masaru

    2014-03-01

    We synthesized 2-anthroyl and 9-anthroyl ester compounds and investigated their bulk-phase changes associated with photodimerization under melting conditions (melt-photodimerization) and subsequent thermal back reactions. All the five anthroyl compounds exhibited melting points lower than ca. 160 °C, and they were nearly quantitatively converted to the corresponding photodimers by UV irradiation in their molten state. Among them, two 2-anthroyl compounds remained isotropic and lost fluidity during the melt-photodimerization. The obtained photodimers exhibited robust solid-state amorphous phases at room temperature. In contrast, the other three anthroyl compounds showed crystallization during the melt-photodimerization. It was also found that the photodimers returned to the corresponding monomers by heat. We successfully demonstrated rewritable photopatterning using the phase change of the anthracene compounds triggered by the action of light and heat.

  3. Inhibition by TRPA1 agonists of compound action potentials in the frog sciatic nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushita, Akitomo; Ohtsubo, Sena; Fujita, Tsugumi; Kumamoto, Eiichi, E-mail: kumamote@cc.saga-u.ac.jp

    2013-04-26

    Highlights: •TRPA1 agonists inhibited compound action potentials in frog sciatic nerves. •This inhibition was not mediated by TRPA1 channels. •This efficacy was comparable to those of lidocaine and cocaine. •We found for the first time an ability of TRPA1 agonists to inhibit nerve conduction. -- Abstract: Although TRPV1 and TRPM8 agonists (vanilloid capsaicin and menthol, respectively) at high concentrations inhibit action potential conduction, it remains to be unknown whether TRPA1 agonists have a similar action. The present study examined the actions of TRPA1 agonists, cinnamaldehyde (CA) and allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which differ in chemical structure from each other, on compound action potentials (CAPs) recorded from the frog sciatic nerve by using the air-gap method. CA and AITC concentration-dependently reduced the peak amplitude of the CAP with the IC{sub 50} values of 1.2 and 1.5 mM, respectively; these activities were resistant to a non-selective TRP antagonist ruthenium red or a selective TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031. The CA and AITC actions were distinct in property; the latter but not former action was delayed in onset and partially reversible, and CA but not AITC increased thresholds to elicit CAPs. A CAP inhibition was seen by hydroxy-α-sanshool (by 60% at 0.05 mM), which activates both TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels, a non-vanilloid TRPV1 agonist piperine (by 20% at 0.07 mM) and tetrahydrolavandulol (where the six-membered ring of menthol is opened; IC{sub 50} = 0.38 mM). It is suggested that TRPA1 agonists as well as TRPV1 and TRPM8 agonists have an ability to inhibit nerve conduction without TRP activation, although their agonists are quite different in chemical structure from each other.

  4. Automatic classification of visual evoked potentials based on wavelet decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiakiewicz, Paweł; Dobrowolski, Andrzej P.; Tomczykiewicz, Kazimierz

    2017-04-01

    Diagnosis of part of the visual system, that is responsible for conducting compound action potential, is generally based on visual evoked potentials generated as a result of stimulation of the eye by external light source. The condition of patient's visual path is assessed by set of parameters that describe the time domain characteristic extremes called waves. The decision process is compound therefore diagnosis significantly depends on experience of a doctor. The authors developed a procedure - based on wavelet decomposition and linear discriminant analysis - that ensures automatic classification of visual evoked potentials. The algorithm enables to assign individual case to normal or pathological class. The proposed classifier has a 96,4% sensitivity at 10,4% probability of false alarm in a group of 220 cases and area under curve ROC equals to 0,96 which, from the medical point of view, is a very good result.

  5. Herbal Remedies for Coccidiosis Control: A Review of Plants, Compounds, and Anticoccidial Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangarasu Muthamilselvan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coccidiosis is the bane of the poultry industry causing considerable economic loss. Eimeria species are known as protozoan parasites to cause morbidity and death in poultry. In addition to anticoccidial chemicals and vaccines, natural products are emerging as an alternative and complementary way to control avian coccidiosis. In this review, we update recent advances in the use of anticoccidial phytoextracts and phytocompounds, which cover 32 plants and 40 phytocompounds, following a database search in PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Four plant products commercially available for coccidiosis are included and discussed. We also highlight the chemical and biological properties of the plants and compounds as related to coccidiosis control. Emphasis is placed on the modes of action of the anticoccidial plants and compounds such as interference with the life cycle of Eimeria, regulation of host immunity to Eimeria, growth regulation of gut bacteria, and/or multiple mechanisms. Biological actions, mechanisms, and prophylactic/therapeutic potential of the compounds and extracts of plant origin in coccidiosis are summarized and discussed.

  6. Herbal Remedies for Coccidiosis Control: A Review of Plants, Compounds, and Anticoccidial Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthamilselvan, Thangarasu; Wu, Yueh-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Coccidiosis is the bane of the poultry industry causing considerable economic loss. Eimeria species are known as protozoan parasites to cause morbidity and death in poultry. In addition to anticoccidial chemicals and vaccines, natural products are emerging as an alternative and complementary way to control avian coccidiosis. In this review, we update recent advances in the use of anticoccidial phytoextracts and phytocompounds, which cover 32 plants and 40 phytocompounds, following a database search in PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Four plant products commercially available for coccidiosis are included and discussed. We also highlight the chemical and biological properties of the plants and compounds as related to coccidiosis control. Emphasis is placed on the modes of action of the anticoccidial plants and compounds such as interference with the life cycle of Eimeria, regulation of host immunity to Eimeria, growth regulation of gut bacteria, and/or multiple mechanisms. Biological actions, mechanisms, and prophylactic/therapeutic potential of the compounds and extracts of plant origin in coccidiosis are summarized and discussed. PMID:27429634

  7. Antimicrobial compounds targeting Gram-negative bacteria in food: Their mode of action and combinational effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgaard, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria are a major cause of food spoilage and foodborne illnesses. However, finding effective solutions against Gram-negative bacteria are complicated because of increasing consumer demands for more natural, minimally processed, and fresh high quality food products without...... they interact with bacterial cells to exert their mechanism of inhibition or killing. Furthermore, natural antimicrobials are often not potent enough as single compounds, and may cause unwanted sensory side-effects, which limit the quantities that can be applied to food. These problems might be circumvented...... by combining antimicrobials to decrease the concentrations needed without compromising their antimicrobial activity. The work described in this dissertation presents two projects concerning the mechanism of action of selected natural antimicrobial compounds primarily against Gram-negative bacteria, and two...

  8. Molecular mechanisms of anti-cancer action of garlic compounds in neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Surajit; Choudhury, Subhasree Roy; Banik, Naren L; Ray, Swapan K

    2011-05-01

    The medicinal properties of garlic (Allium sativum) have been well known and widely used since historical times. Garlic compounds have received increasing attention during the last few years due to their cancer chemopreventive properties. The anti-cancer activity of garlic-derived organosulfur compounds (OSCs) are extensively reported in many cancers but only a few in the pediatric tumor neuroblastoma, which warrants exploration of new therapy for its management. There are some recent reports suggesting that garlic-derived OSCs cause cell cycle arrest, generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), activate stress kinases, and also stimulate the mitochondrial pathway for apoptosis in malignant neuroblastoma. The comprehensive mechanisms of anti-cancer action of OSCs still remain unclear and require more studies in neuroblastoma. This review is designed to highlight the molecular mechanisms of anti-cancer actions of garlic-derived OSCs in neuroblastoma and as well as in several other cancers. Further studies should be conducted to establish the clinical expediency of garlic-derived OSCs for treatment of malignant neuroblastoma in humans.

  9. Determination of Nerve Fiber Diameter Distribution From Compound Action Potential: A Continuous Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Un, M Kerem; Kaghazchi, Hamed

    2018-01-01

    When a signal is initiated in the nerve, it is transmitted along each nerve fiber via an action potential (called single fiber action potential (SFAP)) which travels with a velocity that is related with the diameter of the fiber. The additive superposition of SFAPs constitutes the compound action potential (CAP) of the nerve. The fiber diameter distribution (FDD) in the nerve can be computed from the CAP data by solving an inverse problem. This is usually achieved by dividing the fibers into a finite number of diameter groups and solve a corresponding linear system to optimize FDD. However, number of fibers in a nerve can be measured sometimes in thousands and it is possible to assume a continuous distribution for the fiber diameters which leads to a gradient optimization problem. In this paper, we have evaluated this continuous approach to the solution of the inverse problem. We have utilized an analytical function for SFAP and an assumed a polynomial form for FDD. The inverse problem involves the optimization of polynomial coefficients to obtain the best estimate for the FDD. We have observed that an eighth order polynomial for FDD can capture both unimodal and bimodal fiber distributions present in vivo, even in case of noisy CAP data. The assumed FDD distribution regularizes the ill-conditioned inverse problem and produces good results.

  10. The anti-HIV activity and mechanisms of action of pure compounds isolated from Rosa damascena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, N; Piacente, S; Pizza, C; Burke, A; Khan, A I; Hay, A J

    1996-12-04

    Water and methanol extracts of Rosa damascena exhibited moderate anti-HIV activity. The anti-viral activities of 9 compounds isolated from the methanol extract were compared. The tetrahydroxyflavanone (kaempferol, 1), was effective in reducing the maturation of infectious progeny virus apparently due to selective inhibition of the viral protease. On the other hand the pentahydroxyflavone (quercetin, 2) and two 3-substituted derivatives of kaempferol appeared to inhibit HIV-infection by preventing binding of gp120 to CD4. 2-Phenylethanol-O-(6-O-galloyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside 8 interacted irreversibly with gp120 and neutralized virus infectivity. The differences in the modes of action of 1 and 8 can account for the apparent synergy of their anti-viral activities.

  11. A molecular barcoded yeast ORF library enables mode-of-action analysis of bioactive compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresham, David; Nishimura, Shinichi; Natarajan, Paramasivam; Koh, Judice L Y; Porter, Justin; Gray, Christopher A; Andersen, Raymond J; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey; Andrews, Brenda; Botstein, David; Graham, Todd R; Yoshida, Minoru; Boone, Charles

    2013-01-01

    We present a yeast chemical-genomics approach designed to identify genes that when mutated confer drug resistance, thereby providing insight about the modes of action of compounds. We developed a molecular barcoded yeast open reading frame (MoBY-ORF) library in which each gene, controlled by its native promoter and terminator, is cloned into a centromere-based vector along with two unique oligonucleotide barcodes. The MoBY-ORF resource has numerous genetic and chemical-genetic applications, but here we focus on cloning wild-type versions of mutant drug-resistance genes using a complementation strategy and on simultaneously assaying the fitness of all transformants with barcode microarrays. The complementation cloning was validated by mutation detection using whole-genome yeast tiling microarrays, which identified unique polymorphisms associated with a drug-resistant mutant. We used the MoBY-ORF library to identify the genetic basis of several drug-resistant mutants and in this analysis discovered a new class of sterol-binding compounds. PMID:19349972

  12. The Influence of Glutamate on Axonal Compound Action Potential In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelela, Ahmed; Wieraszko, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Background  Our previous experiments demonstrated modulation of the amplitude of the axonal compound action potential (CAP) by electrical stimulation. To verify assumption that glutamate released from axons could be involved in this phenomenon, the modification of the axonal CAP induced by glutamate was investigated. Objectives  The major objective of this research is to verify the hypothesis that axonal activity would trigger the release of glutamate, which in turn would interact with specific axonal receptors modifying the amplitude of the action potential. Methods  Segments of the sciatic nerve were exposed to exogenous glutamate in vitro, and CAP was recorded before and after glutamate application. In some experiments, the release of radioactive glutamate analog from the sciatic nerve exposed to exogenous glutamate was also evaluated. Results  The glutamate-induced increase in CAP was blocked by different glutamate receptor antagonists. The effect of glutamate was not observed in Ca-free medium, and was blocked by antagonists of calcium channels. Exogenous glutamate, applied to the segments of sciatic nerve, induced the release of radioactive glutamate analog, demonstrating glutamate-induced glutamate release. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that axolemma contains components necessary for glutamatergic neurotransmission. Conclusion  The proteins of the axonal membrane can under the influence of electrical stimulation or exogenous glutamate change membrane permeability and ionic conductance, leading to a change in the amplitude of CAP. We suggest that increased axonal activity leads to the release of glutamate that results in changes in the amplitude of CAPs.

  13. [Effects of submarine engine room steady noise on the compound action potential tuning curves and its relation to cochlear pathology in guinea pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, H

    1990-06-01

    Compound Action Potential Tuning Curves (CAP-TC) for tone pip of 2k, 4 kHz were examined in 8 guinea pigs before and after exposure to noise with main energy centered in the range of 0.25-4.0 kHz. CAP-TC was measured with the pure tone simultaneous masking profiles. AP was evoked by tone pip with an intensity of 10 dB above threshold. Masker level producing 40% reduction in AP amplitude was used. Relations between changes in CAP-TC and AP threshold shifts and the pathology of the stereocilia of hair cells were evaluated by surface preparation and SEM observation in 13 ears. After noise exposure, animals with damaged stereocilia showed AP threshold shift of 20-50 dB, deteriorations of CAP-TC, decrease of Q10 dB value, threshold shift of characteristic frequencies (CF) and displacement of CF towards higher frequencies. It showed that stereocilia damage may affect the susceptibility and frequency selectivity of the cochlea. We consider the CAP-TC may be an useful and sensitive index for detecting physiological and pathological conditions of the cochlea.

  14. Docking Studies in Target Proteins Involved in Antibacterial Action Mechanisms: Extending the Knowledge on Standard Antibiotics to Antimicrobial Mushroom Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Alves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the knowledge on target proteins of standard antibiotics was extended to antimicrobial mushroom compounds. Docking studies were performed for 34 compounds in order to evaluate their affinity to bacterial proteins that are known targets for some antibiotics with different mechanism of action: inhibitors of cell wall synthesis, inhibitors of protein synthesis, inhibitors of nucleic acids synthesis and antimetabolites. After validation of the molecular docking approach, virtual screening of all the compounds was performed against penicillin binding protein 1a (PBP1a, alanine racemase (Alr, d-alanyl-d-alanine synthetase (Ddl, isoleucyl-tRNA sinthetase (IARS, DNA gyrase subunit B, topoisomerase IV (TopoIV, dihydropteroate synthetase (DHPS and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR using AutoDock4. Overall, it seems that for the selected mushroom compounds (namely, enokipodins, ganomycins and austrocortiluteins the main mechanism of the action is the inhibition of cell wall synthesis, being Alr and Ddl probable protein targets.

  15. Docking studies in target proteins involved in antibacterial action mechanisms: extending the knowledge on standard antibiotics to antimicrobial mushroom compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Maria José; Froufe, Hugo J C; Costa, Ana F T; Santos, Anabela F; Oliveira, Liliana G; Osório, Sara R M; Abreu, Rui M V; Pintado, Manuela; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2014-01-29

    In the present work, the knowledge on target proteins of standard antibiotics was extended to antimicrobial mushroom compounds. Docking studies were performed for 34 compounds in order to evaluate their affinity to bacterial proteins that are known targets for some antibiotics with different mechanism of action: inhibitors of cell wall synthesis, inhibitors of protein synthesis, inhibitors of nucleic acids synthesis and antimetabolites. After validation of the molecular docking approach, virtual screening of all the compounds was performed against penicillin binding protein 1a (PBP1a), alanine racemase (Alr), d-alanyl-d-alanine synthetase (Ddl), isoleucyl-tRNA sinthetase (IARS), DNA gyrase subunit B, topoisomerase IV (TopoIV), dihydropteroate synthetase (DHPS) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) using AutoDock4. Overall, it seems that for the selected mushroom compounds (namely, enokipodins, ganomycins and austrocortiluteins) the main mechanism of the action is the inhibition of cell wall synthesis, being Alr and Ddl probable protein targets.

  16. Compound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    UV-vis spectra showing solvent effects on compounds (6). Figure S4. UV-vis spectra showing solvent effects on compounds (9). Figure S5. UV-vis spectra showing solvent ___, acidic--- and basic -□- effects on compound (8) in CH2Cl2 solution. Table S1. 1H and 13C NMR spectral data of salicylaldimine Schiff bases (5-8).

  17. Mechanistic Studies of Anti-Hyperpigmentary Compounds: Elucidating Their Inhibitory and Regulatory Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Y. Y. Lam

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Searching for depigmenting agents from natural sources has become a new direction in the cosmetic industry as natural products are generally perceived as relatively safer. In our previous study, selected Chinese medicines traditionally used to treat hyperpigmentation were tested for anti-hyperpigmentary effects using a melan-a cell culture model. Among the tested chemical compounds, 4-ethylresorcinol, 4-ethylphenol and 1-tetradecanol were found to possess hypopigmentary effects. Western blot analysis, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP assay, protein kinase A (PKA activity assay, tyrosinase inhibition assay and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay were performed to reveal the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of the hypopigmentary effects. 4-Ethylresorcinol and 4-ethylphenol attenuated mRNA and protein expression of tyrosinase-related protein (TRP-2, and possessed antioxidative effect by inhibiting lipid peroxidation. 1-Tetradecanol was able to attenuate protein expression of tyrosinase. The hypopigmentary actions of 4-ethylresorcinol, 4-ethylphenol and 1-tetradecanol were associated with regulating downstream proteins along the PKA pathway. 4-Ethylresorcinol was more effective in inhibiting melanin synthesis when compared to 4-ethylphenol and 1-tetradecanol.

  18. Inhibition of Oral Streptococci Growth Induced by the Complementary Action of Berberine Chloride and Antibacterial Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Dziedzic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Synergistic interactions between natural bioactive compounds from medicinal plants and antibiotics may exhibit therapeutic benefits, acting against oral cariogenic and opportunistic pathogens. The aim of the presented work was to assess the antibacterial activity of berberine chloride (BECl in light of the effect exerted by common antibiotics on selected reference strains of oral streptococci (OST, and to evaluate the magnitude of interactions. Three representative oral microorganisms were investigated: Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 (SM, S. sanguinis ATCC 10556 (SS, S. oralis ATCC 9811 (SO and microdilution tests, along with disc diffusion assays were applied. Here, we report that growth (viability of all oral streptococci was reduced by exposure to BECl and was dependent primarily on exposure/ incubation time. A minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of BECl against OST ranged from 512 µg/mL (SS to 1024 µg/mL (SM, SO. The most noticeable antibacterial effects were observed for S. sanguinis (MIC 512 µg/mL and the most significant synergistic action was found for the combinations BECl-penicillin, BECl-clindamycin and BECl-erythromycin. The S. oralis reflects the highest MBC value as assessed by the AlamarBlue assay (2058 µg/mL. The synergy between berberine and common antibiotics demonstrates its potential use as a novel antibacterial tool for opportunistic infections and also provides a rational basis for the use of berberine as an oral hygiene measure.

  19. Antiviral activity and mode of action of propolis extracts and selected compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, Paul; Neuner, Annett; Nolkemper, Silke; Zundel, Christine; Nowack, Hans; Sensch, Karl Heinz; Reichling, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous and ethanol extracts of propolis were analysed phytochemically and examined for their antiviral activity in vitro. Different polyphenols, flavonoids and phenylcarboxylic acids were identified as major constituents. The antiviral effect of propolis extracts and selected constituents, e.g. caffeic acid (1), p-coumaric acid (2), benzoic acid (3), galangin (4), pinocembrin (5) and chrysin (6) against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) was analysed in cell culture. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of aqueous and ethanol propolis extracts for HSV-1 plaque formation was determined at 0.0004% and 0.000035%, respectively. Both propolis extracts exhibited high levels of antiviral activity against HSV-1 in viral suspension tests, plaque formation was significantly reduced by >98%. In order to determine the mode of antiviral action of propolis, the extracts were added at different times during the viral infection cycle. Both propolis extracts exhibited high anti-HSV-1 activity when the viruses were pretreated with these drugs prior to infection. Among the analysed compounds, only galangin and chrysin displayed some antiviral activity. However, the extracts containing many different components exhibited significantly higher antiherpetic effects as well as higher selectivity indices than single isolated constituents. Propolis extracts might be suitable for topical application against herpes infection.

  20. Compound muscle action potential and motor function in children with spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewelt, Aga; Krosschell, Kristin J; Scott, Charles; Sakonju, Ai; Kissel, John T; Crawford, Thomas O; Acsadi, Gyula; D'anjou, Guy; Elsheikh, Bakri; Reyna, Sandra P; Schroth, Mary K; Maczulski, Jo Anne; Stoddard, Gregory J; Elovic, Elie; Swoboda, Kathryn J

    2010-11-01

    Reliable outcome measures that reflect the underlying disease process and correlate with motor function in children with SMA are needed for clinical trials. Maximum ulnar compound muscle action potential (CMAP) data were collected at two visits over a 4-6-week period in children with SMA types II and III, 2-17 years of age, at four academic centers. Primary functional outcome measures included the Modified Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale (MHFMS) and MHFMS-Extend. CMAP negative peak amplitude and area showed excellent discrimination between the ambulatory and non-ambulatory SMA cohorts (ROC = 0.88). CMAP had excellent test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.96-0.97, n = 64) and moderate to strong correlation with the MHFMS and MHFMS-Extend (r = 0.61-0.73, n = 68, P < 0.001). Maximum ulnar CMAP amplitude and area is a feasible, valid, and reliable outcome measure for use in pediatric multicenter clinical trials in SMA. CMAP correlates well with motor function and has potential value as a relevant surrogate for disease status.

  1. Decline of compound muscle action potentials and statistical MUNEs during Wallerian degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlusoy Acar, Z; Yalinay Dikmen, P; Yayla, V; Başaran, K; Emekli, U; Öge, A E

    2014-09-01

    In two previous studies, we found that the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitude loss was significantly higher than the loss of estimated motor unit numbers in the course of Wallerian degeneration (WD). In order to overcome some drawbacks of the method previously used, we performed a similar CMAP vs MUNE comparison by using the statistical motor unit number estimation (MUNE) method. Initial electrophysiological studies on 6 patients were performed between 22 and 98 hours after the injuries; it was possible to make repeated examinations, four times in 1 nerve, twice in 1 nerve and three times in 4 nerves, before the eventual complete disappearance of the CMAPs. The transected/intact (T/I) side CMAP ratios declined steeply as WD evolved. They were significantly lower than the relatively stable MUNE ratios 48 hours after the injury. This study, performed with the use of statistical MUNE, strengthens our previous observation by the incremental method that might have some relevance to the pathophysiology of early WD. CMAP amplitude loss that is more than expected from the amount of axonal degeneration may indicate a considerable amount of inactive muscle fibers in the motor units innervated by the nerve fibers, which are undergoing degeneration but still retain their excitability. Although technical sources of error cannot be totally excluded, our findings could more likely be explained by the failing of neuromuscular synapses in an asynchronous order before complete unresponsiveness of the motor unit ensues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Transgenerational actions of environmental compounds on reproductive disease and identification of epigenetic biomarkers of ancestral exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikkam, Mohan; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Tracey, Rebecca; Haque, Md M; Skinner, Michael K

    2012-01-01

    Environmental factors during fetal development can induce a permanent epigenetic change in the germ line (sperm) that then transmits epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease in the absence of any subsequent exposure. The epigenetic transgenerational actions of various environmental compounds and relevant mixtures were investigated with the use of a pesticide mixture (permethrin and insect repellant DEET), a plastic mixture (bisphenol A and phthalates), dioxin (TCDD) and a hydrocarbon mixture (jet fuel, JP8). After transient exposure of F0 gestating female rats during the period of embryonic gonadal sex determination, the subsequent F1-F3 generations were obtained in the absence of any environmental exposure. The effects on the F1, F2 and F3 generations pubertal onset and gonadal function were assessed. The plastics, dioxin and jet fuel were found to promote early-onset female puberty transgenerationally (F3 generation). Spermatogenic cell apoptosis was affected transgenerationally. Ovarian primordial follicle pool size was significantly decreased with all treatments transgenerationally. Differential DNA methylation of the F3 generation sperm promoter epigenome was examined. Differential DNA methylation regions (DMR) were identified in the sperm of all exposure lineage males and found to be consistent within a specific exposure lineage, but different between the exposures. Several genomic features of the DMR, such as low density CpG content, were identified. Exposure-specific epigenetic biomarkers were identified that may allow for the assessment of ancestral environmental exposures associated with adult onset disease.

  3. Transgenerational actions of environmental compounds on reproductive disease and identification of epigenetic biomarkers of ancestral exposures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Manikkam

    Full Text Available Environmental factors during fetal development can induce a permanent epigenetic change in the germ line (sperm that then transmits epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease in the absence of any subsequent exposure. The epigenetic transgenerational actions of various environmental compounds and relevant mixtures were investigated with the use of a pesticide mixture (permethrin and insect repellant DEET, a plastic mixture (bisphenol A and phthalates, dioxin (TCDD and a hydrocarbon mixture (jet fuel, JP8. After transient exposure of F0 gestating female rats during the period of embryonic gonadal sex determination, the subsequent F1-F3 generations were obtained in the absence of any environmental exposure. The effects on the F1, F2 and F3 generations pubertal onset and gonadal function were assessed. The plastics, dioxin and jet fuel were found to promote early-onset female puberty transgenerationally (F3 generation. Spermatogenic cell apoptosis was affected transgenerationally. Ovarian primordial follicle pool size was significantly decreased with all treatments transgenerationally. Differential DNA methylation of the F3 generation sperm promoter epigenome was examined. Differential DNA methylation regions (DMR were identified in the sperm of all exposure lineage males and found to be consistent within a specific exposure lineage, but different between the exposures. Several genomic features of the DMR, such as low density CpG content, were identified. Exposure-specific epigenetic biomarkers were identified that may allow for the assessment of ancestral environmental exposures associated with adult onset disease.

  4. Effects of terpineol on the compound action potential of the rat sciatic nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Moreira

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Terpineol, a volatile terpenoid alcohol of low toxicity, is widely used in the perfumery industry. It is an important chemical constituent of the essential oil of many plants with widespread applications in folk medicine and in aromatherapy. The effects of terpineol on the compound action potential (CAP of rat sciatic nerve were studied. Terpineol induced a dose-dependent blockade of the CAP. At 100 µM, terpineol had no demonstrable effect. At 300 µM terpineol, peak-to-peak amplitude and conduction velocity of CAP were significantly reduced at the end of 180-min exposure of the nerve to the drug, from 3.28 ± 0.22 mV and 33.5 ± 7.05 m/s, respectively, to 1.91 ± 0.51 mV and 26.2 ± 4.55 m/s. At 600 µM, terpineol significantly reduced peak-to-peak amplitude and conduction velocity from 2.97 ± 0.55 mV and 32.8 ± 3.91 m/s to 0.24 ± 0.23 mV and 2.72 ± 2.72 m/s, respectively (N = 5. All these effects developed slowly and were reversible upon 180-min washout.

  5. Chemical genetics reveals an RGS/G-protein role in the action of a compound.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Fitzgerald

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available We report here on a chemical genetic screen designed to address the mechanism of action of a small molecule. Small molecules that were active in models of urinary incontinence were tested on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and the resulting phenotypes were used as readouts in a genetic screen to identify possible molecular targets. The mutations giving resistance to compound were found to affect members of the RGS protein/G-protein complex. Studies in mammalian systems confirmed that the small molecules inhibit muscarinic G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR signaling involving G-alphaq (G-protein alpha subunit. Our studies suggest that the small molecules act at the level of the RGS/G-alphaq signaling complex, and define new mutations in both RGS and G-alphaq, including a unique hypo-adapation allele of G-alphaq. These findings suggest that therapeutics targeted to downstream components of GPCR signaling may be effective for treatment of diseases involving inappropriate receptor activation.

  6. The influence of cochlear hearing loss and probe tone level on compound action potential tuning curves in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, Wim

    1986-01-01

    The effect of cochlear hearing loss and of probe tone level on slopes and sharpness of compound action potential tuning curves was investigated. Thirty-one simultaneously masked isoreduction (50%) tuning curves were determined in 26 adults with cochlear hearing losses up to 60 dB. Probe tone

  7. Intracellular Diagnostics: Hunting for the Mode of Action of Redox-Modulating Selenium Compounds in Selected Model Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Mániková

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Redox-modulating compounds derived from natural sources, such as redox active secondary metabolites, are currently of considerable interest in the field of chemoprevention, drug and phytoprotectant development. Unfortunately, the exact and occasionally even selective activity of such products, and the underlying (bio-chemical causes thereof, are often only poorly understood. A combination of the nematode- and yeast-based assays provides a powerful platform to investigate a possible biological activity of a new compound and also to explore the “redox link” which may exist between its activity on the one side and its chemistry on the other. Here, we will demonstrate the usefulness of this platform for screening several selenium and tellurium compounds for their activity and action. We will also show how the nematode-based assay can be used to obtain information on compound uptake and distribution inside a multicellular organism, whilst the yeast-based system can be employed to explore possible intracellular mechanisms via chemogenetic screening and intracellular diagnostics. Whilst none of these simple and easy-to-use assays can ultimately substitute for in-depth studies in human cells and animals, these methods nonetheless provide a first glimpse on the possible biological activities of new compounds and offer direction for more complicated future investigations. They may also uncover some rather unpleasant biochemical actions of certain compounds, such as the ability of the trace element supplement selenite to induce DNA strand breaks.

  8. Effects of selected pharmacological agents on avian auditory and vestibular compound action potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irons-Brown, Shunda R; Jones, Timothy A

    2004-09-01

    Glutamate is currently the consensus candidate for the hair cell transmitter in the inner ear of vertebrates. However, other candidate transmitter systems have been proposed and there may be differences in this regard for auditory and vestibular neuroepithelia. In the present study, perilymphatic perfusion was used to deliver prescribed concentrations of ten drugs to the interstitial fluids of the inner ear of hatchling chickens (n = 124). Dose-response curves were obtained for four of these pharmacological agents. The work was carried out in part to distinguish further the neuroepithelial chemical receptors mediating auditory and vestibular compound action potentials (CAPs). Kainic acid (KA) eliminated both auditory and vestibular responses. D-alpha-Aminoadipic acid (DAA) and dizocilpine maleate (MK-801), both NMDA-specific antagonists, failed to alter vestibular CAPs at any concentration. MK-801 significantly and selectively reduced auditory CAPs at concentrations equal to or greater than 1 mM. Similarly, kynurenic acid (4-hydroxyquinoline-2-carboxylic acid, 1 mM), a glutamate antagonist, significantly reduced auditory but not vestibular CAPs. A non-NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX), reduced vestibular CAPs significantly but only at the highest concentration tested (1 mM). In contrast, CNQX reduced auditory responses at concentration as low as 1 microM. The CNQX concentration effective in reducing auditory CAPs by 50% (EC(50)) was approximately 20 microM. Glutamate (1 mM) as well as alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA), a glutamate agonist, significantly reduced auditory CAPs (AMPA EC(50)=100 microM). Bicuculline, a GABA(A) receptor antagonist, and L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, failed to alter responses from either modality. These findings support the hypothesis that glutamate receptors mediate auditory CAPs in birds. However, the results underscore a remarkable difference in

  9. Compound motor action potential duration and latency are markers of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Neel K; Park, Andrea M; Al-Lozi, Mohammad T; Gale, Derrick C; Paniello, Randal C

    2017-08-01

    Compound motor action potential (CMAP) can quantitatively evaluate innervation following injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) in canines. CMAP duration (the total time of CMAP) and latency (the time between the nerve impulse and the onset of action potentials) have not been assessed following RLN injury. Animal study. Twelve canine hemilaryngeal preparations were investigated. Baseline CMAP duration and latency were derived. Group A (n = 5) underwent RLN stretch injury, and group B (n = 7) underwent RLN transection/repair. The change in CMAP duration and latency was assessed between the baseline and 6-month measurements using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves for each group individually and combined. Six months following injury, transection/repair injuries had the most significant increase in CMAP duration (2.8 ± 0.6 ms vs. 4.2 ± 0.8 ms, difference 1.4 ms 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.43 to 2.40) and latency (2.6 ± 0.5 ms vs. 5.6 ± 1.5 ms, difference 3.0 ms 95% CI: 1.65 to 4.38). Stretch injuries also caused an increase in CMAP duration (2.3 ± 0.8 ms vs. 3.0 ± 0.6 ms, difference 0.7 ms 95% CI: -0.49 to 1.77) and latency (2.5 ± 0.8 ms vs. 4.7 ± 1.5 ms, difference 2.3 95% CI: 0.76 to 3.80). Using ROC curves, CMAP duration and latency differentiated between the baseline control and RLN injury at 6 months (area under the curve = 0.78 and 0.98, respectively). CMAP duration and latency are both quantitative measures that may have clinical utility as markers of RLN injury. CMAP latency had superior discrimination between injured and uninjured RLNs. Increased CMAP duration and latency may be explained by incomplete myelination and focal conduction block. NA. Laryngoscope, 127:1855-1860, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  10. Auditory nerve frequency tuning measured with forward-masked compound action potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschooten, Eric; Robles, Luis; Kovačić, Damir; Joris, Philip X

    2012-12-01

    Frequency selectivity is a fundamental cochlear property. Recent studies using otoacoustic emissions and psychophysical forward masking suggest that frequency selectivity is sharper in human than in common laboratory species. This has been disputed based on reports using compound action potentials (CAPs), which reflect activity in the auditory nerve and can be measured in humans. Comparative data of CAPs, obtained with a variety of simultaneous masking protocols, have been interpreted to indicate similarity of frequency tuning across mammals and even birds. Unfortunately, there are several issues with the available CAP measurements which hamper a straightforward comparison across species. We investigate sharpness of CAP tuning in cat and chinchilla using a forward masking notched-noise paradigm--which is less confounded by cochlear nonlinearities than simultaneous masking paradigms and similar to what was used in the psychophysical study reporting sharper tuning in humans. Our parametric study, using different probe frequencies and notch widths, shows relationships consistent with those of auditory nerve fibers (ANFs). The sharpness of tuning, quantified by Q(10) factors, is negatively correlated with probe level and increases with probe frequency, but the Q(10) values are generally lower than the average trend for ANFs. Like the single fiber data, tuning for CAPs is sharper in cat than in chinchilla, but the two species are similar in the dependence of tuning on probe frequency and in the relationship between tuning in ANFs and CAP. Growth-of-maskability functions show slopes <1 indicating that with increasing probe level the probe is more susceptible to cochlear compression than the masker. The results support the use of forward-masked CAPs as an alternative measure to estimate ANF tuning and to compare frequency tuning across species.

  11. Anti-spasmodic action of crude methanolic extract and a new compound isolated from the aerial parts of Myrsine africana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Bashir

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myrsine africana is an herbaceous plant that is traditionally used as appetizer and carminative. Locally, it is used for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, rheumatism and diarrhea by healers. The aims of the current study were to screen the crude methanol extract obtained from the aerial parts (leaves and stem of M. africana, for antispasmodic actions on isolated tissues and further to subject the ethyl acetate (EtOAc fraction of plant to column chromatography for isolation of pure compounds. Methods The antispasmodic action of the crude methanol extract was measured on the spontaneous rabbit's jejunum preparations at concentration 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/ml. The crude extract was also applied, in similar concentrations, on KCl (80 mM induced contractions to explain its possible mode of action. Results A new compound Myrsigenin was isolated from the EtOAc fraction of M. africana. The structure of the compound was identified with the help of 13C-NMR, 1H-NMR, HMBC, HMQC, NOESY and COSY. The plant crude methanol extract showed a significant antispasmodic action on rabbit jejunum and abolished the tissue contraction completely at concentration of 5.0 mg/ml. Conclusion The study concludes that the methanol crude extract of aerial parts of M. africana has antispasmodic action possibly through the calcium channel blocking mechanisms. A new compound Myrsigenin was isolated from the EtOAc fraction of the plant.

  12. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 566: EMAD Compound, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada with ROTC-1, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Krauss

    2011-06-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 566: EMAD Compound, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 566 comprises Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-99-20, EMAD Compound, located within Area 25 of the Nevada National Security Site. The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and provide data confirming that the closure objectives for CAU 566 were met. To achieve this, the following actions were performed: • Review the current site conditions, including the concentration and extent of contamination. • Implement any corrective actions necessary to protect human health and the environment. • Properly dispose of corrective action and investigation wastes. • Document Notice of Completion and closure of CAU 566 issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. From October 2010 through May 2011, closure activities were performed as set forth in the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 566: EMAD Compound, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. The purposes of the activities as defined during the data quality objectives process were as follows: • Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. • If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent, implement appropriate corrective actions, and properly dispose of wastes. Analytes detected during the closure activities were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) to determine COCs for CAU 566. Assessment of the data from collected soil samples, and from radiological and visual surveys of the site, indicates the FALs were exceeded for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and radioactivity. Corrective actions were implemented to remove the following: • Radiologically contaminated soil assumed greater than FAL at two locations • Radiologically contaminated soil assumed greater than FAL with

  13. Study on material base and action mechanism of compound Danshen dripping pills for treatment of atherosclerosis based on modularity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Yuan, Wen-Feng; Chen, Chao; Wang, Shu-Mei; Liang, Sheng-Wang

    2016-12-04

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used in China and its surrounding countries in clinical treatments for centuries-long time. However, due to the complexity of TCM constituents, both action mechanism and material base of TCM remain nearly unknown. The present study was designed to uncover the action mechanism and material base of TCM in a low-cost manner. Compound Danshen dripping pills (DSP) is a widely used TCM for treatment of atherosclerosis, and was researched here to demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. We constructed a heterogeneous network for DSP, identified the significant network module, and analyzed the primary pharmacological units by performing GO and pathways enrichment analysis. Two significant network modules were identified from the heterogeneous network of DSP, and three compounds out of four hub nodes in the network were found to intervene in the process of atherosclerosis. Moreover, 13 out of 20 enriched pathways that were ranked in top 10 corresponding to both the two pharmacological units were found to be involved in the process of atherosclerosis. Quercetin, luteolin and apigenin may be the main active compounds which modulate the signaling pathways, such as metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450, retinol metabolism, etc. The present method helps reveal the action mechanism and material base of DSP for treatment of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Elucidation of the Mode of Action of a New Antibacterial Compound Active against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelien Gerits

    Full Text Available Nosocomial and community-acquired infections caused by multidrug resistant bacteria represent a major human health problem. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of antibiotics with new modes of action. In this study, we investigated the antibacterial characteristics and mode of action of a new antimicrobial compound, SPI031 (N-alkylated 3, 6-dihalogenocarbazol 1-(sec-butylamino-3-(3,6-dichloro-9H-carbazol-9-ylpropan-2-ol, which was previously identified in our group. This compound exhibits broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, including activity against the human pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We found that SPI031 has rapid bactericidal activity (7-log reduction within 30 min at 4x MIC and that the frequency of resistance development against SPI031 is low. To elucidate the mode of action of SPI031, we performed a macromolecular synthesis assay, which showed that SPI031 causes non-specific inhibition of macromolecular biosynthesis pathways. Liposome leakage and membrane permeability studies revealed that SPI031 rapidly exerts membrane damage, which is likely the primary cause of its antibacterial activity. These findings were supported by a mutational analysis of SPI031-resistant mutants, a transcriptome analysis and the identification of transposon mutants with altered sensitivity to the compound. In conclusion, our results show that SPI031 exerts its antimicrobial activity by causing membrane damage, making it an interesting starting point for the development of new antibacterial therapies.

  15. Physicochemical Mechanisms of Synergistic Biological Action of Combinations of Aromatic Heterocyclic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim P. Evstigneev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of synergistic biological effects observed in the simultaneous use of aromatic heterocyclic compounds in combination are reviewed, and the specific biological role of heteroassociation of aromatic molecules is discussed.

  16. Evoked cavernous activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Uğur; Soylu, Ahmet; Ozcan, Cemal; Kutlu, Ramazan; Güneş, Ali

    2002-01-01

    Corpus cavernosum electromyography has been widely done to evaluate autonomic dysfunction in patients with erectile dysfunction. We assessed the value of corpus cavernosum electromyography, evoked cavernous activity and penile sympathetic skin responses for their accuracy in determining autonomic involvement in cases of erectile dysfunction. We evaluated 75 men with erectile dysfunction by corpus cavernosum electromyography, evoked cavernous activity and penile sympathetic skin response tests at our neurourology laboratory. The etiology of dysfunction was vascular, neurogenic, psychogenic or mixed based on a detailed medical and sexual history, physical examination, electrophysiological and laboratory studies, penile color Doppler ultrasonography, and cavernosography and/or cavernosometry. Autonomic involvement was clinically assessed by systemic findings, such as orthostatic hypotension, impaired gastrointestinal motility, sinus dysrhythmia and secretomotor changes. A concentric electromyography needle placed in the right cavernous body was used to record corpus cavernosum electromyography and evoked cavernous activity. The right median nerve was stimulated electrically with 13 to 16 mA. to determine evoked cavernous activity and the penile sympathetic skin response. The latter response was recorded with silver disc electrodes placed on the left cavernous body. All tests were performed using an electromyography/evoked potential machine. We determined the relationships among corpus cavernosum electromyography, evoked cavernous activity and penile sympathetic skin response tests in respect to etiological factors. The 56 patients with normal corpus cavernosum electromyography activity had also evoked cavernous activity and a penile sympathetic skin response except for 1 with no penile sympathetic skin response but evoked cavernous activity. None of these patients had autonomic neuropathy. Of the 19 patients without corpus cavernosum electromyography activity 11 had

  17. Characterization of Cochlear, Vestibular and Cochlear-Vestibular Electrically Evoked Compound Action Potentials in Patients with a Vestibulo-Cochlear Implant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T. A. K.; Cavuscens, Samuel; Ranieri, Maurizio; Schwarz, Konrad; Guinand, Nils; van de Berg, Raymond; van den Boogert, Thomas; Lucieer, Floor; van Hoof, Marc; Guyot, Jean-Philippe; Kingma, Herman; Micera, Silvestro; Perez Fornos, Angelica

    2017-01-01

    The peripheral vestibular system is critical for the execution of activities of daily life as it provides movement and orientation information to motor and sensory systems. Patients with bilateral vestibular hypofunction experience a significant decrease in quality of life and have currently no

  18. Genome-wide fitness test and mechanism-of-action studies of inhibitory compounds in Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deming Xu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a prevalent fungal pathogen amongst the immunocompromised population, causing both superficial and life-threatening infections. Since C. albicans is diploid, classical transmission genetics can not be performed to study specific aspects of its biology and pathogenesis. Here, we exploit the diploid status of C. albicans by constructing a library of 2,868 heterozygous deletion mutants and screening this collection using 35 known or novel compounds to survey chemically induced haploinsufficiency in the pathogen. In this reverse genetic assay termed the fitness test, genes related to the mechanism of action of the probe compounds are clearly identified, supporting their functional roles and genetic interactions. In this report, chemical-genetic relationships are provided for multiple FDA-approved antifungal drugs (fluconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin, 5-fluorocytosine, and amphotericin B as well as additional compounds targeting ergosterol, fatty acid and sphingolipid biosynthesis, microtubules, actin, secretion, rRNA processing, translation, glycosylation, and protein folding mechanisms. We also demonstrate how chemically induced haploinsufficiency profiles can be used to identify the mechanism of action of novel antifungal agents, thereby illustrating the potential utility of this approach to antifungal drug discovery.

  19. Streamlined Approach for (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 566: E-MAD Compound, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Krauss

    2010-06-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 566, EMAD Compound, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Corrective Action Unit 566 comprises the following corrective action site (CAS) located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site: • 25-99-20, EMAD Compound This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing CAS 25-99-20. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 566 using the SAFER process. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation before selecting the appropriate corrective action. It is anticipated that the results of the field investigation and implementation of a corrective action of clean closure will support a defensible recommendation that no further corrective action is necessary. If it is determined that complete clean closure cannot be accomplished during the SAFER, then a hold point will have been reached and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) will be consulted to determine whether the remaining contamination will be closed under the alternative corrective action of closure in place. This will be presented in a closure report that will be prepared and submitted to NDEP for review and approval. The data quality objective (DQO) strategy for CAU 566 was developed at a meeting on April 30, 2009, by representatives of NDEP and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to determine and implement appropriate corrective actions for CAU 566. The following text summarizes the SAFER activities that will

  20. Evoking prescribed spike times in stochastic neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doose, Jens; Lindner, Benjamin

    2017-09-01

    Single cell stimulation in vivo is a powerful tool to investigate the properties of single neurons and their functionality in neural networks. We present a method to determine a cell-specific stimulus that reliably evokes a prescribed spike train with high temporal precision of action potentials. We test the performance of this stimulus in simulations for two different stochastic neuron models. For a broad range of parameters and a neuron firing with intermediate firing rates (20-40 Hz) the reliability in evoking the prescribed spike train is close to its theoretical maximum that is mainly determined by the level of intrinsic noise.

  1. Mode of Action Profiles for Pesticide Compounds with Rodent Liver Tumor Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mode of action (MOA) provides a central framework for assessing human relevance of adverse health outcomes observed in nonclinical safety studies. The goal of this study was to characterize MOA profiles for known rodent liver tumorigens identified from a database of pesticides as...

  2. Abiotic synthesis of purines and other heterocyclic compounds by the action of electrical discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, S.; Flory, D.; Basile, B.; Oro, J.

    1984-01-01

    The synthesis of purines and pyrimidines using Oparin-Urey-type primitive earth atmospheres has been demonstrated by reacting methane, ethane, and ammonia in electrical discharges. Adenine, guaine, 4-aminoimidazole-5-carboxamide (AICA), and isocytosine have been identified by UV spectrometry and paper chromatography as the products of the reaction. The total yields of the identified heterocyclic compounds are 0.0023 percent. It is concluded that adenine synthesis occurs at a much lower concentration of hydrogen cyanide than has been shown by earlier studies. Pathways for the synthesis of purines from hydrogen cyanide are discussed, and a comparison of the heterocyclic compounds that have been identified in meteorites and in prebiotic reactions is presented.

  3. Proprioceptive evoked gamma oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, S.M.; Hansen, Lars Kai; Parnas, J.

    2007-01-01

    A proprioceptive stimulus consisting of a weight change of a handheld load has recently been shown to elicit an evoked potential. Previously, somatosensory gamma oscillations have only been evoked by electrical stimuli. We conjectured that a natural proprioceptive stimulus also would be able...... to evoke gamma oscillations. EEG was recorded using 64 channels in 14 healthy subjects. In each of three runs a stimulus of 100 g load increment in each hand was presented in 120 trials. Data were wavelet transformed and runs collapsed. Inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC) was computed as the best measure...... contralateral to stimulus side and additionally an unexpected 20 Hz activity was observed slightly lateralized in the frontal central region. The gamma phase locking may be a manifestation of early somatosensory feature integration. The analyses suggest that the high frequency activity consists of two distinct...

  4. Mitochondria-Targeted Triphenylphosphonium-Based Compounds: Syntheses, Mechanisms of Action, and Therapeutic and Diagnostic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielonka, Jacek; Joseph, Joy; Sikora, Adam; Hardy, Micael; Ouari, Olivier; Vasquez-Vivar, Jeannette; Cheng, Gang; Lopez, Marcos; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman

    2017-08-09

    Mitochondria are recognized as one of the most important targets for new drug design in cancer, cardiovascular, and neurological diseases. Currently, the most effective way to deliver drugs specifically to mitochondria is by covalent linking a lipophilic cation such as an alkyltriphenylphosphonium moiety to a pharmacophore of interest. Other delocalized lipophilic cations, such as rhodamine, natural and synthetic mitochondria-targeting peptides, and nanoparticle vehicles, have also been used for mitochondrial delivery of small molecules. Depending on the approach used, and the cell and mitochondrial membrane potentials, more than 1000-fold higher mitochondrial concentration can be achieved. Mitochondrial targeting has been developed to study mitochondrial physiology and dysfunction and the interaction between mitochondria and other subcellular organelles and for treatment of a variety of diseases such as neurodegeneration and cancer. In this Review, we discuss efforts to target small-molecule compounds to mitochondria for probing mitochondria function, as diagnostic tools and potential therapeutics. We describe the physicochemical basis for mitochondrial accumulation of lipophilic cations, synthetic chemistry strategies to target compounds to mitochondria, mitochondrial probes, and sensors, and examples of mitochondrial targeting of bioactive compounds. Finally, we review published attempts to apply mitochondria-targeted agents for the treatment of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases.

  5. Coumarin Antifungal Lead Compounds from Millettia thonningii and Their Predicted Mechanism of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. Ayine-Tora

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fungal pathogens continue to pose challenges to humans and plants despite efforts to control them. Two coumarins, robustic acid and thonningine-C isolated from Millettia thonningii, show promising activity against the fungus Candida albicans with minimum fungicidal concentration of 1.0 and 0.5 mg/mL, respectively. Molecular modelling against the putative bio-molecular target, lanosterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51, revealed a plausible binding mode for the active compounds, in which the hydroxyl group binds with a methionine backbone carboxylic group blocking access to the iron catalytic site. This binding disrupts the synthesis of several important sterols for the survival of fungi.

  6. Understanding the Effectiveness of Natural Compound Mixtures in Cancer through Their Molecular Mode of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thazin Nwe Aung

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Many approaches to cancer management are often ineffective due to adverse reactions, drug resistance, or inadequate target specificity of single anti-cancer agents. In contrast, a combinatorial approach with the application of two or more anti-cancer agents at their respective effective dosages can achieve a synergistic effect that boosts cytotoxicity to cancer cells. In cancer, aberrant apoptotic pathways allow cells that should be killed to survive with genetic abnormalities, leading to cancer progression. Mutations in apoptotic mechanism arising during the treatment of cancer through cancer progression can consequently lead to chemoresistance. Natural compound mixtures that are believed to have multiple specific targets with minimal acceptable side-effects are now of interest to many researchers due to their cytotoxic and chemosensitizing activities. Synergistic interactions within a drug mixture enhance the search for potential molecular targets in cancer cells. Nonetheless, biased/flawed scientific evidence from natural products can suggest false positive therapeutic benefits during drug screening. In this review, we have taken these factors into consideration when discussing the evidence for these compounds and their synergistic therapeutic benefits in cancer. While there is limited evidence for clinical efficacy for these mixtures, in vitro data suggest that these preparations merit further investigation, both in vitro and in vivo.

  7. Understanding the Effectiveness of Natural Compound Mixtures in Cancer through Their Molecular Mode of Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Thazin Nwe; Qu, Zhipeng; Kortschak, R. Daniel; Adelson, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Many approaches to cancer management are often ineffective due to adverse reactions, drug resistance, or inadequate target specificity of single anti-cancer agents. In contrast, a combinatorial approach with the application of two or more anti-cancer agents at their respective effective dosages can achieve a synergistic effect that boosts cytotoxicity to cancer cells. In cancer, aberrant apoptotic pathways allow cells that should be killed to survive with genetic abnormalities, leading to cancer progression. Mutations in apoptotic mechanism arising during the treatment of cancer through cancer progression can consequently lead to chemoresistance. Natural compound mixtures that are believed to have multiple specific targets with minimal acceptable side-effects are now of interest to many researchers due to their cytotoxic and chemosensitizing activities. Synergistic interactions within a drug mixture enhance the search for potential molecular targets in cancer cells. Nonetheless, biased/flawed scientific evidence from natural products can suggest false positive therapeutic benefits during drug screening. In this review, we have taken these factors into consideration when discussing the evidence for these compounds and their synergistic therapeutic benefits in cancer. While there is limited evidence for clinical efficacy for these mixtures, in vitro data suggest that these preparations merit further investigation, both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:28304343

  8. Evoked acoustic emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, C; Parbo, J; Johnsen, N J

    1985-01-01

    Stimulated acoustic emissions were recorded in response to tonal stimuli at 60 dB p.e. SPL in a small group of normal-hearing adults. Power spectral analysis reveals that the evoked activity from each ear contains energy in preferential frequency bands and the change of stimulus frequency has only...

  9. Proprioceptive evoked gamma oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, Sidse M; Hansen, Lars Kai; Parnas, Josef

    2007-01-01

    to evoke gamma oscillations. EEG was recorded using 64 channels in 14 healthy subjects. In each of three runs a stimulus of 100 g load increment in each hand was presented in 120 trials. Data were wavelet transformed and runs collapsed. Inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC) was computed as the best measure...

  10. Esculetin, a natural coumarin compound, evokes Ca(2+) movement and activation of Ca(2+)-associated mitochondrial apoptotic pathways that involved cell cycle arrest in ZR-75-1 human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hong-Tai; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Lin, You-Sheng; Shieh, Pochuen; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Jan, Chung-Ren; Liang, Wei-Zhe

    2016-04-01

    Esculetin (6,7-dihydroxycoumarin), a derivative of coumarin compound, is found in traditional medicinal herbs. It has been shown that esculetin triggers diverse cellular signal transduction pathways leading to regulation of physiology in different models. However, whether esculetin affects Ca(2+) homeostasis in breast cancer cells has not been explored. This study examined the underlying mechanism of cytotoxicity induced by esculetin and established the relationship between Ca(2+) signaling and cytotoxicity in human breast cancer cells. The results showed that esculetin induced concentration-dependent rises in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in ZR-75-1 (but not in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) human breast cancer cells. In ZR-75-1 cells, this Ca(2+) signal response was reduced by removing extracellular Ca(2+) and was inhibited by the store-operated Ca(2+) channel blocker 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB). In Ca(2+)-free medium, pre-treatment with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump inhibitor thapsigargin (TG) abolished esculetin-induced [Ca(2+)]i rises. Conversely, incubation with esculetin abolished TG-induced [Ca(2+)]i rises. Esculetin induced cytotoxicity that involved apoptosis, as supported by the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential and the release of cytochrome c and the proteolytic activation of caspase-9/caspase-3, which were partially reversed by pre-chelating cytosolic Ca(2+) with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM). Moreover, esculetin increased the percentage of cells in G2/M phase and regulated the expressions of p53, p21, CDK1, and cyclin B1. Together, in ZR-75-1 cells, esculetin induced [Ca(2+)]i rises by releasing Ca(2+) from the ER and causing Ca(2+) influx through 2-APB-sensitive store-operated Ca(2+) entry. Furthermore, esculetin activated Ca(2+)-associated mitochondrial apoptotic pathways that involved G2/M cell cycle arrest. Graphical abstract The summary of esculetin-evoked

  11. Assessing the effects of the three herbicides acetochlor, 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on the compound action potential of the sciatic nerve of the frog (Rana ridibunda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafeiridou, Georgia; Geronikaki, Athina; Papaefthimiou, Chrisovalantis; Tryfonos, Melpomeni; Kosmidis, Efstratios K; Theophilidis, George

    2006-11-01

    To assess the relative toxicity of the herbicides acetochlor and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) on the nervous system, the sciatic nerve of the frog (Rana ridibunda) nerve was incubated in saline inside a specially designed recording chamber. This chamber permits monitoring of the evoked compound action potential (CAP) of the nerve, a parameter that could be used to quantify the vitality of the nerve in normal conditions as well as when the nerve was exposed to the compounds under investigation. Thus, when the nerve was exposed to acetochlor, the EC(50) was estimated to be 0.22mM, while for 2,4,5-T the EC(50) was 0.90mM. Using the identical nerve preparation, the EC(50) of 2,4-D was estimated to be 3.80mM [Kouri, G., Theophilidis, G., 2002. The action of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on the isolated sciatic nerve of the frog (Rana ridibunda). Neurotoxicol. Res. 4, 25-32]. The ratio of the relative toxicity for acetochlor, 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D was found to be 1:4:17.2. However, because it is well-known that the action of 2,4-D is dependent on the pH, the relative toxicity of the three compounds was tested at pH 3.3, since it has been found that the sciatic nerve of the frog is tolerant of such a low pH. Under these conditions, the EC(50) was 0.77mM (from 0.22mM at pH 7.2) for acetochlor, 0.20mM (from 0.90mM) for 2,4,5-T and 0.24mM (from 3.80mM at pH 7.2) for 2,4-D. Thus, the relative toxicity of the three compounds changed drastically to 1:0.25:0.31. This change in the relative toxicity is due not only to the increase in the toxicity of 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D at low pH levels, but also to the decrease in the toxicity of acetochlor at pH 3.3.

  12. BAER - brainstem auditory evoked response

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... auditory potentials; Brainstem auditory evoked potentials; Evoked response audiometry; Auditory brainstem response; ABR; BAEP ... Normal results vary. Results will depend on the person and the instruments used to perform the test.

  13. Volatile compounds emitted by diverse phytopathogenic microorganisms promote plant growth and flowering through cytokinin action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-López, Ángela María; Baslam, Marouane; De Diego, Nuria; Muñoz, Francisco José; Bahaji, Abdellatif; Almagro, Goizeder; Ricarte-Bermejo, Adriana; García-Gómez, Pablo; Li, Jun; Humplík, Jan F; Novák, Ondřej; Spíchal, Lukáš; Doležal, Karel; Baroja-Fernández, Edurne; Pozueta-Romero, Javier

    2016-12-01

    It is known that volatile emissions from some beneficial rhizosphere microorganisms promote plant growth. Here we show that volatile compounds (VCs) emitted by phylogenetically diverse rhizosphere and non-rhizhosphere bacteria and fungi (including plant pathogens and microbes that do not normally interact mutualistically with plants) promote growth and flowering of various plant species, including crops. In Arabidopsis plants exposed to VCs emitted by the phytopathogen Alternaria alternata, changes included enhancement of photosynthesis and accumulation of high levels of cytokinins (CKs) and sugars. Evidence obtained using transgenic Arabidopsis plants with altered CK status show that CKs play essential roles in this phenomenon, because growth and flowering responses to the VCs were reduced in mutants with CK-deficiency (35S:AtCKX1) or low receptor sensitivity (ahk2/3). Further, we demonstrate that the plant responses to fungal VCs are light-dependent. Transcriptomic analyses of Arabidopsis leaves exposed to A. alternata VCs revealed changes in the expression of light- and CK-responsive genes involved in photosynthesis, growth and flowering. Notably, many genes differentially expressed in plants treated with fungal VCs were also differentially expressed in plants exposed to VCs emitted by the plant growth promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus subtilis GB03, suggesting that plants react to microbial VCs through highly conserved regulatory mechanisms. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Repetitive compound muscle action potentials in electrophysiological diagnosis of congenital myasthenic syndromes: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMSs are a heterogeneous group of disorders, characterized by dysfunction of neuromuscular junction (NMJ transmission. These syndromes are genetically inherited and are present since birth. Some have characteristic clinical or electrodiagnostic features but in many cases determination of the specific form requires genetic studies or specialized morphological and electrophysiological studies on muscle tissue. We report a case of a 4-year-old boy with progressive ptosis and limitation of ocular movements who was diagnosed as slow-channel CMS based on the characteristic electrodiagnostic features. Repetitive compound muscle action potentials (R-CMAPs were recorded after single nerve stimulus, with decremental response after repetitive trains performed at 3 Hz. CMSs are at times clinically difficult to distinguish from acquired myasthenia. The characteristic clinical and electrodiagnostic features help in the diagnosis and enable rational therapy. In this article we discuss the characteristics of synaptic R-CMAPs.

  15. Mechanisms of Action of Compounds That Enhance Storage Lipid Accumulation in Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordão, Rita; Campos, Bruno; Piña, Benjamín; Tauler, Romà; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Barata, Carlos

    2016-12-20

    Accumulation of storage lipids in the crustacean Daphnia magna can be altered by a number of exogenous and endogenous compounds, like 20-hydroxyecdysone (natural ligand of the ecdysone receptor, EcR), methyl farnesoate, pyrirproxyfen (agonists of the methyl farnesoate receptor, MfR), and tributyltin (agonist of the retinoid X acid receptor, RXR). This effect, analogous to the obesogenic disruption in mammals, alters Daphnia's growth and reproductive investment. Here we propose that storage lipid accumulation in droplets is regulated in Daphnia by the interaction between the nuclear receptor heterodimer EcR:RXR and MfR. The model was tested by determining changes in storage lipid accumulation and on gene transcription in animals exposed to different effectors of RXR, EcR, and MfR signaling pathways, either individually or in combination. RXR, EcR, and MfR agonists increased storage lipid accumulation, whereas fenarimol and testosterone (reported inhibitors of ecdysteroid synthesis and an EcR antagonist, respectively) decreased it. Joint effects of mixtures with fenarimol, testosterone, and ecdysone were antagonistic, mixtures of juvenoids showed additive effects following a concentration addition model, and combinations of tributyltin with juvenoids resulted in greater than additive effects. Co-exposures of ecdysone with juvenoids resulted in deregulation of ecdysone- and farnesoid-regulated genes, accordingly with the observed changes in lipid accumulation These results indicate the requirement of ecdysone binding to the EcR:RXR:MfR complex to regulate lipid storage and that an excess of ecdysone disrupts the whole process, probably by triggering negative feedback mechanisms.

  16. Cordycepin Decreases Compound Action Potential Conduction of Frog Sciatic Nerve In Vitro Involving Ca2+-Dependent Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hua Yao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordycepin has been widely used in oriental countries to maintain health and improve physical performance. Compound nerve action potential (CNAP, which is critical in signal conduction in the peripheral nervous system, is necessary to regulate physical performance, including motor system physiological and pathological processes. Therefore, regulatory effects of cordycepin on CNAP conduction should be elucidated. In this study, the conduction ability of CNAP in isolated frog sciatic nerves was investigated. Results revealed that cordycepin significantly decreased CNAP amplitude and conductive velocity in a reversible and concentration-dependent manner. At 50 mg/L cordycepin, CNAP amplitude and conductive velocity decreased by 62.18 ± 8.06% and 57.34% ± 6.14% compared with the control amplitude and conductive velocity, respectively. However, the depressive action of cordycepin on amplitude and conductive velocity was not observed in Ca2+-free medium or in the presence of Ca2+ channel blockers (CdCl2/LaCl3. Pretreatment with L-type Ca2+ channel antagonist (nifedipine/deltiazem also blocked cordycepin-induced responses; by contrast, T-type and P-type Ca2+ channel antagonists (Ni2+ failed to block such responses. Therefore, cordycepin decreased the conduction ability of CNAP in isolated frog sciatic nerves via L-type Ca2+ channel-dependent mechanism.

  17. Tramadol, but not its major metabolite (mono-O-demethyl tramadol) depresses compound action potentials in frog sciatic nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuki, R; Fujita, T; Koga, A; Liu, T; Nakatsuka, T; Nakashima, M; Kumamoto, E

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Although tramadol is known to exhibit a local anaesthetic effect, how tramadol exerts this effect is not understood fully. Experimental approach: The effects of tramadol and its metabolite mono-O-demethyl-tramadol (M1) on compound action potentials (CAPs) were examined by applying the air-gap method to frog sciatic nerves, and the results were compared with those of other local anaesthetics, lidocaine and ropivacaine. Key results: Tramadol reduced the peak amplitude of the CAP in a dose-dependent manner (IC50=2.3 mM). On the other hand, M1 (1–2 mM), which exhibits a higher affinity for μ-opioid receptors than tramadol, did not affect CAPs. These effects of tramadol were resistant to the non-selective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone and the μ-opioid receptor agonist, DAMGO, did not affect CAPs. This tramadol action was not affected by a combination of the noradrenaline uptake inhibitor, desipramine, and the 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake inhibitor, fluoxetine. Lidocaine and ropivacaine also concentration-dependently reduced CAP peak amplitudes with IC50 values of 0.74 and 0.34 mM, respectively. Conclusions and implications: These results indicate that tramadol reduces the peak amplitude of CAP in peripheral nerve fibres with a potency which is less than those of lidocaine and ropivacaine, whereas M1 has much less effect on CAPs. This action of tramadol was not produced by activation of μ-opioid receptors nor by inhibition of noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake. It is suggested that the methyl group present in tramadol but not in M1 may play an important role in producing nerve conduction block. PMID:16921387

  18. Selecting and evoking innovators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Christiansen, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    prepared for and conducted selection of and collaboration with innovators. The outcome was successful in the sense that the innovators produced excellent foundation for conceptual interaction design by creating mock-ups and explanations incarnating their preferences, attitudes and habits. By referring...... to theories of learning we try to explain how our way of working with selection and evoking of innovators has contributed to this positive result and how our approach to user-driven innovation can be regarded as a way to combine democracy and creativity in design....

  19. International Evoked Potentials Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    1980-01-01

    The past decade has seen great progress in the measurement of evoked potentials in man; a steady increase in our understanding of their charac­ teristics, their origins and their usefulness; and a growing application in the field of clinical diagnosis. The topic is a truly multidisciplinary one. Important research contributions have been made by workers of many different backgrounds and clinical applications span the specialities. This book represents a revised and updated version of the work originally presented at the international evoked potential symposium held in Nottingham 4-6 1978. The Nottingham Symposium provided a forum for a state-of-the-art discussion amongst workers from many different disciplines and from many different countries. For each major topic in the field an expert review set the scene for discussion of current research presentations. This format is retained in the book: the chapters in Part A provide the context in which the research presented in Part B is set. The task of selecting m...

  20. Central Antinociceptive and Mechanism of Action of Pereskia bleo Kunth Leaves Crude Extract, Fractions, and Isolated Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhon, Carolina Carvalho; Abdul Wahab, Ikarastika Rahayu; Boylan, Fabio; Fernandes, Patricia Dias

    2015-01-01

    Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC. (Cactaceae) is a plant commonly used in popular medicine in Malaysia. In this work, we evaluate the antinociceptive effect of P. bleo leaf extracts and isolated compounds in central antinociceptive model. Ethanol extract (E), hexane (H), ethyl acetate (EA), or butanol (B) fractions (30, 50, or 100 mg/kg, p.o.), sitosterol (from hexane) and vitexin (from ethyl acetate), were administered to mice. Antinociceptive effect was evaluated in the hot plate and capsaicin- or glutamate-induced licking models. Morphine (1 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as reference drug. Naloxone (1 mg/kg, i.p.), atropine (1 mg/kg, i.p.), and L-nitro arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 3 mg/kg, i.p.) were administered 30 min earlier (100 mg/kg, p.o.) in order to evaluate the mechanism of the antinociceptive action. Higher dose of B developed an effect significantly superior to morphine-treated group. Naloxone prevented the antinociceptive effect of all fractions. L-NAME demonstrated effect against E, EA, and B. In all fractions, sitosterol and vitexin reduced the licking time after capsaicin injection. Glutamate-induced licking response was blocked by H, EA, and B. Our results indicate that Pereskia bleo fractions, sitosterol and vitexin, possessed a central antinociceptive effect. Part of this effect is mediated by opioid receptors and nitrergic pathway. PMID:26273315

  1. The influence of noise exposure on the parameters of a convolution model of the compound action potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertoff, M E; Lichtenhan, J T; Tourtillott, B M; Esau, K S

    2008-10-01

    The influence of noise exposure on the parameters of a convolution model of the compound action potential (CAP) was examined. CAPs were recorded in normal-hearing gerbils and in gerbils exposed to a 117 dB SPL 8 kHz band of noise for various durations. The CAPs were fitted with an analytic CAP to obtain the parameters representing the number of nerve fibers (N), the probability density function [P(t)] from a population of nerve fibers, and the single-unit waveform [U(t)]. The results showed that the analytic CAP fitted the physiologic CAPs well with correlations of approximately 0.90. A subsequent analysis using hierarchical linear modeling quantified the change in the parameters as a function of both signal level and hearing threshold. The results showed that noise exposure caused some of the parameter-level functions to simply shift along the signal level axis in proportion to the amount of hearing loss, whereas others shifted along the signal level axis and steepened. Significant changes occurred in the U(t) parameters, but they were not related to hearing threshold. These results suggest that noise exposure alters the physiology underlying the CAP, some of which can be explained by a simple lack of gain, whereas others may not.

  2. Central Antinociceptive and Mechanism of Action of Pereskia bleo Kunth Leaves Crude Extract, Fractions, and Isolated Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Carvalho Guilhon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pereskia bleo (Kunth DC. (Cactaceae is a plant commonly used in popular medicine in Malaysia. In this work, we evaluate the antinociceptive effect of P. bleo leaf extracts and isolated compounds in central antinociceptive model. Ethanol extract (E, hexane (H, ethyl acetate (EA, or butanol (B fractions (30, 50, or 100 mg/kg, p.o., sitosterol (from hexane and vitexin (from ethyl acetate, were administered to mice. Antinociceptive effect was evaluated in the hot plate and capsaicin- or glutamate-induced licking models. Morphine (1 mg/kg, p.o. was used as reference drug. Naloxone (1 mg/kg, i.p., atropine (1 mg/kg, i.p., and L-nitro arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 3 mg/kg, i.p. were administered 30 min earlier (100 mg/kg, p.o. in order to evaluate the mechanism of the antinociceptive action. Higher dose of B developed an effect significantly superior to morphine-treated group. Naloxone prevented the antinociceptive effect of all fractions. L-NAME demonstrated effect against E, EA, and B. In all fractions, sitosterol and vitexin reduced the licking time after capsaicin injection. Glutamate-induced licking response was blocked by H, EA, and B. Our results indicate that Pereskia bleo fractions, sitosterol and vitexin, possessed a central antinociceptive effect. Part of this effect is mediated by opioid receptors and nitrergic pathway.

  3. Electrocochleography potentials evoked by condensation and rarefaction clicks independently derived by a new numerical filtering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparacino, G; Milani, S; Magnavita, V; Arslan, E

    2000-01-01

    The cochlear microphonic potential (CM) and the compound action potential (CAP) cannot be measured separately but only in combination. In the literature their individual estimates are conventionally recovered by the so-called CM cancellation technique. This method averages the potential obtained in response to rarefaction and condensation clicks under the assumption that changing the polarity of the clicks only affects the CM sign and does not alter the CAP in any way. However, both theory and evidence suggest that these hypotheses can be critical. In addition, recent contributions in the electrocochleography (ECochG) literature suggested that assessing the influence of stimulus polarity on the evoked CAP may constitute an indicator of clinical usefulness which the CM cancellation method cannot supply. In this work we propose a new algorithm to estimate the cochlear potentials evoked from positive clicks, CAP+ and CM+, and those evoked from negative clicks, CAP- and CM-, by processing the same kind and amount of data employed in the CM cancellation method. The application to real data taken from 3 subjects exhibiting quantitatively and qualitatively different ECochG responses at various levels of stimulation intensity is presented. In addition, simulated problems where the true CAP and CM are known are studied to permit a fair assessment of the proposed technique. Results suggest that the new algorithm is potentially able to point out small differences between CAP+ and CAP-. This encourages its further employment on a larger scale. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. Vestibular evoked myogenic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe, Lilian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential (VEMP is a promising test for the evaluation of the cholic descending vestibular system. This reflex depends of the integrity from the saccular macula, from the inferior vestibular nerve, the vestibular nuclei, the vestibule-spinal tract and effectors muscles. Objective: Perform a systematic review of the pertinent literature by means of database (COCHRANE, MEDLINE, LILACS, CAPES. Conclusion: The clinical application of the VEMP has expanded in the last years, as goal that this exam is used as complementary in the otoneurological evaluation currently used. But, methodological issues must be clarified. This way, this method when combined with the standard protocol, can provide a more widely evaluation from the vestibular system. The standardization of the methodology is fundamental criterion for the replicability and sensibility of the exam.

  5. Compound EGFR mutation is frequently detected with co-mutations of actionable genes and associated with poor clinical outcome in lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Young; Cho, Eun Na; Park, Heae Surng; Hong, Ji Young; Lim, Seri; Youn, Jong Pil; Hwang, Seung Yong; Chang, Yoon Soo

    2016-01-01

    Compound EGFR mutations, defined as double or multiple mutations in the EGFR tyrosine kinase domain, are frequently detected with advances in sequencing technology but its clinical significance is unclear. This study analyzed 61 cases of EGFR mutation positive lung adenocarcinoma using next-generation sequencing (NGS) based repeated deep sequencing panel of 16 genes that contain actionable mutations and investigated clinical implication of compound EGFR mutations. Compound EGFR mutation was detected in 15 (24.6%) of 61 cases of EGFR mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma. The majority (12/15) of compound mutations are combination of the atypical mutation and typical mutations such as exon19 deletion, L858R or G719X substitutions, or exon 20 insertion whereas 3 were combinations of rare atypical mutations. The patients with compound mutation showed shorter overall survival than those with simple mutations (83.7 vs. 72.8 mo; P = 0.020, Breslow test). Among the 115 missense mutations discovered in the tested genes, a few number of actionable mutations were detected irrelevant to the subtype of EGFR mutations, including ALK rearrangement, BCL2L11 intron 2 deletion, KRAS c.35G>A, PIK3CA c.1633G>A which are possible target of crizotinib, BH3 mimetics, MEK inhibitors, and PI3K-tyrosine kinase inhibitors, respectively. 31 missense mutations were detected in the cases with simple mutations whereas 84 in those with compound mutation, showing that the cases with compound missense mutation have higher burden of missense mutations (P = 0.001, independent sample t-test). Compound EGFR mutations are detected at a high frequency using NGS-based repeated deep sequencing. Because patients with compound EGFR mutations showed poor clinical outcomes, they should be closely monitored during follow-up.

  6. Music evokes vivid autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfi, Amy M; Karlan, Brett; Tranel, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Music is strongly intertwined with memories-for example, hearing a song from the past can transport you back in time, triggering the sights, sounds, and feelings of a specific event. This association between music and vivid autobiographical memory is intuitively apparent, but the idea that music is intimately tied with memories, seemingly more so than other potent memory cues (e.g., familiar faces), has not been empirically tested. Here, we compared memories evoked by music to those evoked by famous faces, predicting that music-evoked autobiographical memories (MEAMs) would be more vivid. Participants listened to 30 songs, viewed 30 faces, and reported on memories that were evoked. Memories were transcribed and coded for vividness as in Levine, B., Svoboda, E., Hay, J. F., Winocur, G., & Moscovitch, M. [2002. Aging and autobiographical memory: Dissociating episodic from semantic retrieval. Psychology and Aging, 17, 677-689]. In support of our hypothesis, MEAMs were more vivid than autobiographical memories evoked by faces. MEAMs contained a greater proportion of internal details and a greater number of perceptual details, while face-evoked memories contained a greater number of external details. Additionally, we identified sex differences in memory vividness: for both stimulus categories, women retrieved more vivid memories than men. The results show that music not only effectively evokes autobiographical memories, but that these memories are more vivid than those evoked by famous faces.

  7. Polysulfide evokes acute pain through the activation of nociceptive TRPA1 in mouse sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Yukari; Takahashi, Kenji; Tominaga, Makoto; Kimura, Hideo; Ohta, Toshio

    2015-05-02

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is oxidized to polysulfide. Recent reports show that this sulfur compound modulates various biological functions. We have reported that H2S is involved in inflammatory pain in mice. On the other hand, little is known about the functional role of polysulfide in sensory neurons. Here we show that polysulfide selectively stimulates nociceptive TRPA1 and evokes acute pain, using TRPA1-gene deficient mice (TRPA1(-/-)), a heterologous expression system and a TRPA1-expressing cell line. In wild-type mouse sensory neurons, polysulfide elevated the intracellular Ca concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in a dose-dependent manner. The half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of polysulfide was less than one-tenth that of H2S. The [Ca(2+)]i responses to polysulfide were observed in neurons responsive to TRPA1 agonist and were inhibited by blockers of TRPA1 but not of TRPV1. Polysulfide failed to evoke [Ca(2+)]i increases in neurons from TRPA1(-/-) mice. In RIN-14B cells, constitutively expressing rat TRPA1, polysulfide evoked [Ca(2+)]i increases with the same EC50 value as in sensory neurons. Heterologously expressed mouse TRPA1 was activated by polysulfide and that was suppressed by dithiothreitol. Analyses of the TRPA1 mutant channel revealed that cysteine residues located in the internal domain were related to the sensitivity to polysulfide. Intraplantar injection of polysulfide into the mouse hind paw induced acute pain and edema which were significantly less than in TRPA1(-/-) mice. The present data suggest that polysulfide functions as pronociceptive substance through the activation of TRPA1 in sensory neurons. Since the potency of polysulfide is higher than parental H2S and this sulfur compound is generated under pathophysiological conditions, it is suggested that polysulfide acts as endogenous ligand for TRPA1. Therefore, TRPA1 may be a promising therapeutic target for endogenous sulfur compound-related algesic action.

  8. Adjective metaphors evoke negative meanings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Maki; Utsumi, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Previous metaphor studies have paid much attention to nominal metaphors and predicative metaphors, but little attention has been given to adjective metaphors. Although some studies have focused on adjective metaphors, they only examined differences in the acceptability of various types of adjective metaphors. This paper explores the cognitive effects evoked by adjective metaphors. Three psychological experiments revealed that (1) adjective metaphors, especially those modified by color adjectives, tend to evoke negative effect; (2) although the meanings of metaphors are basically affected by the meanings of their vehicles, when a vehicle has a neutral meaning, negative meanings are evoked most frequently for adjective metaphors compared to nominal and predicative metaphors; (3) negative meanings evoked by adjective metaphors are related to poeticness, and poetic metaphors evoke negative meanings more easily than less poetic metaphors. Our research sheds new light on studies of the use of metaphor, which is one of the most basic human cognitive abilities.

  9. Adjective metaphors evoke negative meanings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Sakamoto

    Full Text Available Previous metaphor studies have paid much attention to nominal metaphors and predicative metaphors, but little attention has been given to adjective metaphors. Although some studies have focused on adjective metaphors, they only examined differences in the acceptability of various types of adjective metaphors. This paper explores the cognitive effects evoked by adjective metaphors. Three psychological experiments revealed that (1 adjective metaphors, especially those modified by color adjectives, tend to evoke negative effect; (2 although the meanings of metaphors are basically affected by the meanings of their vehicles, when a vehicle has a neutral meaning, negative meanings are evoked most frequently for adjective metaphors compared to nominal and predicative metaphors; (3 negative meanings evoked by adjective metaphors are related to poeticness, and poetic metaphors evoke negative meanings more easily than less poetic metaphors. Our research sheds new light on studies of the use of metaphor, which is one of the most basic human cognitive abilities.

  10. The use of compound muscle action potentials (CMAP) for postoperative monitoring of free functioning gracilis muscle transfer: A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, Amr M E; Doi, Kazuteru; Hattori, Yasunori; Sakamoto, Soutetsu; Yonemura, Hiroshi; Kumar, Kannan

    2015-07-01

    The use of skin flap as a monitoring tool cannot sensitively reflect the vascularity of a functioning free muscle transfer (FFMT), and it may result in delayed detection of vascular compromise. We report the use of compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) as a supplemental method in the monitoring of free gracilis transfers. In 46 successful free gracilis transfers in 23 patients following total brachial plexus injury (BPI), CMAPs were measured every hour for 75 h postoperatively. We analyzed the amplitude, latency, and duration to understand the Wallerian degeneration effect and thresholds to warn vascular compromise clinically. After the primary study, we applied CMAP monitoring for 23 clinical cases. Three basic wave patterns of the CMAPs with or without dispersion were recognized. Forty-two CMAPs were successfully traced and 27 CMAPs with one constant wave pattern showed two types of amplitude and latency changes; positive and negative Wallerian degeneration. The mean 1-h maximal decreases of amplitudes and elongation of latency were 36% and 77%, respectively; however, they returned to the original pattern within 1 h. There were no significant differences of reinnervation time and final strength of elbow flexion between these 46 muscle transfers. In the clinical series, we experienced two cases of vascular compromise that showed CMAP critical alterations without skin flap changes. Our preliminary results show that the measurement of CMAPs has great potential for the sensitive and reliable monitoring of muscle circulation after FFMT. The clinical critical values of CMAP amplitude changes for vascular compromise are >40% sudden decrease, and they continued to decrease further. This technique is most useful for postoperative vascular monitoring of a buried muscle flap, and it is proven to be of clinical significance in current vascular compromised cases. Level Ⅳ, Case Series. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic

  11. Evoked emotions predict food choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelle R Dalenberg

    Full Text Available In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well scores from emotion-profiling methods predict actual food choice and/or consumption. To test this, we proposed to decompose emotion scores into valence and arousal scores using Principal Component Analysis (PCA and apply Multinomial Logit Models (MLM to estimate food choice using liking, valence, and arousal as possible predictors. For this analysis, we used an existing data set comprised of liking and food-evoked emotions scores from 123 participants, who rated 7 unlabeled breakfast drinks. Liking scores were measured using a 100-mm visual analogue scale, while food-evoked emotions were measured using 2 existing emotion-profiling methods: a verbal and a non-verbal method (EsSense Profile and PrEmo, respectively. After 7 days, participants were asked to choose 1 breakfast drink from the experiment to consume during breakfast in a simulated restaurant environment. Cross validation showed that we were able to correctly predict individualized food choice (1 out of 7 products for over 50% of the participants. This number increased to nearly 80% when looking at the top 2 candidates. Model comparisons showed that evoked emotions better predict food choice than perceived liking alone. However, the strongest predictive strength was achieved by the combination of evoked emotions and liking. Furthermore we showed that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores more accurately predict food choice than verbal food-evoked emotions scores.

  12. Evoked emotions predict food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalenberg, Jelle R; Gutjar, Swetlana; Ter Horst, Gert J; de Graaf, Kees; Renken, Remco J; Jager, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well scores from emotion-profiling methods predict actual food choice and/or consumption. To test this, we proposed to decompose emotion scores into valence and arousal scores using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and apply Multinomial Logit Models (MLM) to estimate food choice using liking, valence, and arousal as possible predictors. For this analysis, we used an existing data set comprised of liking and food-evoked emotions scores from 123 participants, who rated 7 unlabeled breakfast drinks. Liking scores were measured using a 100-mm visual analogue scale, while food-evoked emotions were measured using 2 existing emotion-profiling methods: a verbal and a non-verbal method (EsSense Profile and PrEmo, respectively). After 7 days, participants were asked to choose 1 breakfast drink from the experiment to consume during breakfast in a simulated restaurant environment. Cross validation showed that we were able to correctly predict individualized food choice (1 out of 7 products) for over 50% of the participants. This number increased to nearly 80% when looking at the top 2 candidates. Model comparisons showed that evoked emotions better predict food choice than perceived liking alone. However, the strongest predictive strength was achieved by the combination of evoked emotions and liking. Furthermore we showed that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores more accurately predict food choice than verbal food-evoked emotions scores.

  13. Dual actions of a novel bifunctional compound to lower glucose in mice with diet-induced insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Katherine; Jih, Alice; Kavaler, Sarah T; Lagakos, William S; Oh, Dayoung; Watkins, Steven M; Kim, Jane J

    2015-08-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 22:6n-3) and salicylate are both known to exert anti-inflammatory effects. This study investigated the effects of a novel bifunctional drug compound consisting of DHA and salicylate linked together by a small molecule that is stable in plasma but hydrolyzed in the cytoplasm. The components of the bifunctional compound acted synergistically to reduce inflammation mediated via nuclear factor κB in cultured macrophages. Notably, oral administration of the bifunctional compound acted in two distinct ways to mitigate hyperglycemia in high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance. In mice with diet-induced obesity, the compound lowered blood glucose by reducing hepatic insulin resistance. It also had an immediate glucose-lowering effect that was secondary to enhanced glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion and abrogated by the administration of exendin(9-39), a GLP-1 receptor antagonist. These results suggest that the bifunctional compound could be an effective treatment for individuals with type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. This strategy could also be employed in other disease conditions characterized by chronic inflammation. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Dietary polyphenols against metabolic disorders: How far have we progressed in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of action of these compounds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Conesa, María-Teresa

    2017-06-13

    The aim of this review was to critically assess the evidence supporting the metabolic and anti-inflammatory effects attributed to polyphenols and the potential mechanisms of action underlying these effects. The metabolic and anti-inflammatory properties of polyphenols and polyphenol-rich products have been shown mostly in rodents. These compounds appear to share multiple mechanisms of action at different body sites (gastrointestinal tract, microbiota, host organs) and the responsible molecules may be the original plant compounds, the microbial metabolites and (or) the host derived conjugates. Polyphenols may modify digestion and absorption of nutrients, microbiota composition and metabolism, and host tissue metabolic pathways but none of these mechanisms have been fully demonstrated in vivo and thus, more and better designed studies are needed. Furthermore, human clinical trials show inconsistent evidence of the metabolic and inflammation regulatory properties of polyphenols. Some of the principal limitations of these studies as well as recommendations to further progress in the understanding of the metabolic effects and mechanisms of action of polyphenols are discussed.

  15. The action of mebeverine and metabolites on mammalian non-myelinated nerve fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Hertog, A; Van den Akker, J

    1987-07-23

    The effect of mebeverine, mebeverine-alcohol and veratric acid on voltage-operated ion channels and on sodium pump activity were studied. The amplitude and duration of the compound action potential evoked in the vagus nerve were decreased by mebeverine but not by the metabolites. The amplitude of the post-tetanic hyperpolarization was decreased by mebeverine while the time constant of decay, representing sodium-potassium pump activity, was not affected by the compounds tested. These results show that mebeverine exerts a local anaesthetic action by blocking voltage-operated sodium channels.

  16. Inhibitory effect of cholesteryl gamma-aminobutyrate on evoked activity in rat hippocampal slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, G W; Shashoua, V E; Jacob, J N

    1985-02-01

    Cholesteryl gamma-aminobutyrate (C-G) readily crosses the blood-brain barrier and has properties that suggest that it may be a potential gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mimetic compound. The effect of this compound on the orthodromically-evoked discharge of hippocampal pyramidal cells was investigated using slices of rat hippocampus maintained in vitro. The compound produced dose-dependent inhibition of the discharge of pyramidal cells. The magnitude of the inhibitory effect was somewhat less than that produced by a similar dose of GABA, but the duration of the inhibition was prolonged by about 10-fold over that produced by GABA. The inhibition produced by cholesteryl gamma-aminobutyrate was blocked by the addition of picrotoxin to the incubation medium, and by replacement of chloride with isethionate. In addition, pretreatment of slices with the irreversible esterase inhibitor, phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride, attenuated the effects of cholesteryl gamma-aminobutyrate, but not that of GABA. These results suggest that cholesteryl gamma-aminobutyrate has GABA-like actions in the CNS, and that its activity is largely dependent upon enzymatic release of GABA from the compound by esterases present in the tissue.

  17. Detection of antifungal compounds in Polygonum ferrugineum Wedd. extracts by bioassay-guided fractionation. Some evidences of their mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, S N; Furlan, R L E; Zacchino, S A

    2011-11-18

    Polygonum ferrugineum Wedd. (Polygonaceae) is used to heal infected wounds and as antiseptic, antibiotic or antifungal in the traditional Argentinean medicine. The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the antifungal properties of different extracts of aerial parts of Polygonum ferrugineum, in order to give support to its ethnopharmacological use and to isolate the compounds responsible for the antifungal properties. The most active compounds were tested for their capacity of producing hyphae malformations, similar to those previously observed for crude extracts. Agar Dilution Method (ADM) and Agar Overlay Bioautography (AOB) were used for bioassay-guided fractionation of the aerial part extracts against a panel of human opportunistic pathogenic fungi. The Neurospora crassa assay, followed by Optical Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy observation, was used for studies of mechanisms of action. MeOH extract and DCM and Hex sub-extracts, but not Aq, EtOAc or BuOH ones possess antifungal activity. Of the seven isolated compounds, cardamonin 2 showed a selective inhibition of Epidermophyton floccosum with a very low MIC (=6.2 μg/mL) and pashanone 1 possessed moderate antifungal activity (MICs=25-50 μg/mL) but a broader spectrum of action. Chalcone 2, but not 1, induced swelling and shortening of the Neurospora crassa hyphae, similar as those caused by the crude DCM extract. The bioassay-guided fractionation of Polygonum ferrugineum DCM extract allowed the isolation of five active compounds. Among them, cardamonin 2 showed the highest antifungal activity and selectivity towards Epidermophyton floccosum; in addition, it induced Neurospora crassa malformations that are similar than those produced by the crude DCM extract. These results give additional support to the ethnopharmacological use of Polygonum ferrugineum as antifungal agent. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evoked Emotions Predict Food Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalenberg, Jelle R.; Gutjar, Swetlana; ter Horst, Gert J.; de Graaf, Kees; Renken, Remco J.; Jager, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments.

  19. Vasorelaxant mode of action of dichloromethane-soluble extract from Agastache mexicana and its main bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Flores, Angélica; Hernández-Abreu, Oswaldo; Rios, María Yolanda; León-Rivera, Ismael; Aguilar-Guadarrama, Berenice; Castillo-España, Patricia; Perea-Arango, Irene; Estrada-Soto, Samuel

    2016-12-01

    Agastache mexicana (Kunth) Lint & Epling (Lamiaceae) is a plant used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of hypertension, anxiety and so on. To determine the vasorelaxant effect and functional mode of action of dichloromethane-soluble extract from A. mexicana (DEAm) and isolate the constituents responsible for the pharmacological activity. Extracts were prepared from the aerial parts of A. mexicana (225.6 g) by successive maceration with hexane, dichloromethane and methanol (three times for 72 h at room temperature), respectively. DEAm (0.01-1000 μg/mL), fractions (at 174.27 μg/mL), acacetin and ursolic acid (UA) (0.5-500 μM) were evaluated to determine their vasorelaxant effect on ex vivo rat aorta ring model. In vivo UA antihypertensive action was determined on spontaneously hypertensive rats. DEAm induced a significant vasorelaxant effect in concentration-dependent and endothelium-independent manners (EC 50  =   174.276 ± 5.98 μg/mL) by a calcium channel blockade and potassium channel opening. Bio-guided fractionation allowed to isolate acacetin (112 mg), UA (2.830 g), acacetin/oleanolic acid (OA) (M1) (155 mg) and acacetin/OA/UA (M2) (1.382 g) mixtures, which also showed significant vasodilation. UA significantly diminished diastolic (80 mmHg) and systolic blood pressure (120 mmHg), but heart rate was not modified. DEAm produced significant vasorelaxant action by myogenic control cation. The presence of acacetin, OA and UA into the extract was substantial for the relaxant activity of DEAm. In vivo antihypertensive action of UA corroborates the use of A. mexicana as an antihypertensive agent on Mexican folk medicine.

  20. [Exposing the rabbit cerebellopontine angle through post-sigmoid sinus approach and recording the direct compound action potential of the auditory nerve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ming; Wu, Hao; Li, Zhaoji; Chen, Xiangping; Cao, Rongping; Shen, Min; Zhu, Chunsheng; Zhou, Jingfeng

    2005-04-01

    To study the way of exposing the rabbit cerebellopontine angle through post-sigmoid sinus approach and recording the direct compound action potential of the auditory nerve, and to investigate the stability of DCAP N1 wave latency. Fifteen New Zealand rabbits which had normal Preyer's auricle reflex were selected. Each one was studied in the left ear. After anaesthetized,the cerebellopontine angle of rabbits were exposed through post-sigmoid sinus approach under aseptic status,then the needle-shaped pole were inserted into the facial-acoustic nerve complex. The DCAP was recorded at the immediateness, 2 h and 5 h after the insertino sequentially. At last, DCAP N1 wave latencies of 15 rabbits were statisticed and analyzed using paired-samples t-test. To the 15 sides, the distinct curves with well differentiated waves were induced in the all three times. No significant difference in any N1 wave latency had been found among the 3 times. The rabbit cerebellopontine angle could be exposed and the direct compound action potential of the auditory nerve could be recorded successfully by the way studied in this experiment. In normal state, the individual value of DCAP N1 wave latency is stable. During the process of surgery in which the cerebellopontine angle has been exposed, the DCAP N1 wave latency is a practical index for monitoring of hearing impairment.

  1. Roles of Natural Compounds from Medicinal Plants in Cancer Treatment: Structure and Mode of Action at Molecular Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, Mahmood; Malik, Arif; Manan, Abdul; Arooj, Mahwish; Qazi, Mahmood Husain; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Sheikh, Ishfaq Ahmed; Gan, Siew Hua; Asif, Muhammad; Naseer, Muhammad Imran

    2015-01-01

    Every year, cancer takes the life of millions of people. Conventional treatments have produced unsatisfactory results for some types of cancer, and the side effects are extensive, leading to a shift in the focus of treatment towards alternative medicines. Indeed, medicinal plants have long been investigated by scientists for their anti-cancer properties. Some phytochemicals that are important active constituents of plants, including catechins, ursolic acid, silymarin, glycyrrhizin, ellagic acid, gallic acid and various types of flavonoids, have shown promise in future cancer management. The current review covers various aspects of cancer treatment based on medicinal plants at molecular level and sheds light on their structures and modes of action.

  2. Chemical properties and mechanisms determining the anti-cancer action of garlic-derived organic sulfur compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerella, Claudia; Dicato, Mario; Jacob, Claus; Diederich, Marc

    2011-03-01

    Organic sulfur compounds (OSCs) derived from plants, fungi or bacteria can serve as chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic agents and have been attracting medical and research interest as a promising source for novel anti-cancer agents. Garlic, which has long been used as a medicinal plant in different cultures due to its multiple beneficial effects, contains a consistent number of OSCs, the majority of which are currently under investigation for their biological activities. Experimental animal and laboratory studies have shown strong evidence that garlic OSCs may affect cancer cells by promoting early mitotic arrest followed by apoptotic cell death without affecting healthy cells. The ability of OSCs to hinder cancer cell proliferation and viability tightly correlates with the length of the sulfur chain. Current data support a mechanism of mitotic arrest of cancer cells due to the alteration of the microtubule network, possibly as a consequence of the high reactivity of sulfur atoms against the thiol groups of different cellular macromolecules controlling crucial regulatory functions. Taken together, these findings indicate a promising potential for the use of garlic-derived sulfur compounds in chemoprevention and chemotherapy.

  3. Small molecules targeting hepatitis C virus-encoded NS5A cause subcellular redistribution of their target: insights into compound modes of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targett-Adams, Paul; Graham, Emily J S; Middleton, Jenny; Palmer, Amy; Shaw, Stephen M; Lavender, Helen; Brain, Philip; Tran, Thien Duc; Jones, Lyn H; Wakenhut, Florian; Stammen, Blanda; Pryde, David; Pickford, Chris; Westby, Mike

    2011-07-01

    The current standard of care for hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients consists of lengthy treatment with interferon and ribavirin. To increase the effectiveness of HCV therapy, future regimens will incorporate multiple direct-acting antiviral (DAA) drugs. Recently, the HCV-encoded NS5A protein has emerged as a promising DAA target. Compounds targeting NS5A exhibit remarkable potency in vitro and demonstrate early clinical promise, suggesting that NS5A inhibitors could feature in future DAA combination therapies. Since the mechanisms through which these molecules operate are unknown, we have used NS5A inhibitors as tools to investigate their modes of action. Analysis of replicon-containing cells revealed dramatic phenotypic alterations in NS5A localization following treatment with NS5A inhibitors; NS5A was redistributed from the endoplasmic reticulum to lipid droplets. The NS5A relocalization did not occur in cells treated with other classes of HCV inhibitors, and NS5A-targeting molecules did not cause similar alterations in the localization of other HCV-encoded proteins. Time course analysis of the redistribution of NS5A revealed that the transfer of protein to lipid droplets was concomitant with the onset of inhibition, as judged by the kinetic profiles for these compounds. Furthermore, analysis of the kinetic profile of inhibition for a panel of test molecules permitted the separation of compounds into different kinetic classes based on their modes of action. Results from this approach suggested that NS5A inhibitors perturbed the function of new replication complexes, rather than acting on preformed complexes. Taken together, our data reveal novel biological consequences of NS5A inhibition, which may help enable the development of future assay platforms for the identification of new and/or different NS5A inhibitors.

  4. Genotoxicity of Tri- and Hexavalent Chromium Compounds In Vivo and Their Modes of Action on DNA Damage In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhijia; Zhao, Min; Zhen, Hong; Chen, Lifeng; Shi, Ping; Huang, Zhiwei

    2014-01-01

    Chromium occurs mostly in tri- and hexavalent states in the environment. Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] compounds are extensively used in diverse industries, and trivalent chromium [Cr(III)] salts are used as micronutrients and dietary supplements. In the present work, we report that they both induce genetic mutations in yeast cells. They both also cause DNA damage in both yeast and Jurkat cells and the effect of Cr(III) is greater than that of Cr(VI). We further show that Cr(III) and Cr(VI) cause DNA damage through different mechanisms. Cr(VI) intercalates DNA and Cr(III) interferes base pair stacking. Based on our results, we conclude that Cr(III) can directly cause genotoxicity in vivo. PMID:25111056

  5. Evoked Emotions Predict Food Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Dalenberg, Jelle R.; Swetlana Gutjar; Gert J Ter Horst; Kees de Graaf; Renken, Remco J.; Gerry Jager

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well ...

  6. EVOKED CAVERNOUS ACTIVITY: NEUROANATOMIC IMPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, Ugur; Vicars, Brenda; Yang, Claire C.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the autonomic innervation of the penis by using evoked cavernous activity (ECA). We recruited 7 males with thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI) and sexual dysfunction and 6 males who were scheduled to have pelvic surgery (PS), specifically non-nerve-sparing radical cystoprostatectomy. In the PS subjects, ECA was performed both pre- and postoperatively. The left median nerve was electrically stimulated and ECA was recorded with two concentric electromyography needles placed into t...

  7. Model of evoked rabbit phonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ping Jiang; French, Lesley C; Ohno, Tsunehisa; Zealear, David L; Rousseau, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    We describe a method for eliciting phonation in an in vivo rabbit preparation using low-frequency, bipolar pulsed stimulation of the cricothyroid muscles with airflow delivered to the glottis. Ten New Zealand White breeder rabbits weighing 3 to 5 kg were used in this study. The cricothyroid muscles were isolated bilaterally, and separate pairs of anode-cathode hooked-wire electrodes were inserted into each muscle. A Grass S-88 stimulator and 2 constant-current PSIU6 isolation units were used to deliver bipolar square wave pulses to each cricothyroid muscle, with airflow delivered to the glottis through a cuffed endotracheal tube. Phonation was evoked with a 50-Hz, 4-mA stimulus train of 1-ms pulses delivered to each cricothyroid muscle. The pulse trains were on for 2 seconds and were repeated every 5 seconds over a period of 180 minutes. Airflow was delivered at 143 cm3/s, producing phonation measuring 71 to 85 dB sound pressure level. Evoked phonation is feasible in rabbits by use of bipolar stimulation of the cricothyroid muscles with airflow delivered to the glottis. The in vivo rabbit preparation described may provide a useful small animal option for studies of evoked phonation. From the level and consistency of the adduction observed, we hypothesize that current spreading to the underlying adductor muscles and nerves resulted in neural pathway involvement beyond discrete activation of the cricothyroid muscle, providing sufficient approximation of the vocal folds for phonation.

  8. Cytotoxic Activity and Chemical Composition of the Root Extract from the Mexican Species Linum scabrellum: Mechanism of Action of the Active Compound 6-Methoxypodophyllotoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne Alejandre-García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cytotoxic activity and the chemical composition of the dichloromethane/methanol root extract of Linum scabrellum Planchon (Linaceae were analyzed. Using NMR spectra and mass spectrometry analyses of the extract we identified eight main constituents: oleic acid (1, octadecenoic acid (2, stigmasterol (3, α-amyrin (4, pinoresinol (5, 6 methoxypodophyllotoxin (6, coniferin (7, and 6-methoxypodophyllotoxin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (8. By using the sulforhodamine B assay, an important cytotoxic activity against four human cancer cell lines, HF6 colon (IC50 = 0.57 μg/mL, MCF7 breast (IC50 = 0.56 μg/mL, PC3 prostate (IC50 = 1.60 μg/mL, and SiHa cervical (IC50 = 1.54 μg/mL, as well as toward the normal fibroblasts line HFS-30 IC50 = 1.02 μg/mL was demonstrated. Compound 6 (6-methoxypodophyllotoxin was responsible for the cytotoxic activity exhibiting an IC50 value range of 0.0632 to 2.7433 µg/mL against the tested cell lines. Cell cycle studies with compound 6 exhibited a cell arrest in G2/M of the prostate PC3 cancer cell line. Microtubule disruption studies demonstrated that compound 6 inhibited the polymerization of tubulin through its binding to the colchicine site (binding constant Kb=7.6×106 M-1. A dose-response apoptotic effect was also observed. This work constitutes the first investigation reporting the chemical composition of L. scabrellum and the first study determining the mechanism of action of compound 6.

  9. Antibacterial compounds of Canadian honeys target bacterial cell wall inducing phenotype changes, growth inhibition and cell lysis that resemble action of β-lactam antibiotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Brudzynski

    Full Text Available Honeys show a desirable broad spectrum activity against Gram-positive and negative bacteria making antibacterial activity an intrinsic property of honey and a desirable source for new drug development. The cellular targets and underlying mechanism of action of honey antibacterial compounds remain largely unknown. To facilitate the target discovery, we employed a method of phenotypic profiling by directly comparing morphological changes in Escherichia coli induced by honeys to that of ampicillin, the cell wall-active β-lactam of known mechanism of action. Firstly, we demonstrated the purity of tested honeys from potential β-lactam contaminations using quantitative LC-ESI-MS. Exposure of log-phase E. coli to honey or ampicillin resulted in time- and concentration-dependent changes in bacterial cell shape with the appearance of filamentous phenotypes at sub-inhibitory concentrations and spheroplasts at the MBC. Cell wall destruction by both agents, clearly visible on microscopic micrographs, was accompanied by increased permeability of the lipopolysaccharide outer membrane as indicated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS. More than 90% E. coli exposed to honey or ampicillin became permeable to propidium iodide. Consistently with the FACS results, both honey-treated and ampicillin-treated E. coli cells released lipopolysaccharide endotoxins at comparable levels, which were significantly higher than controls (p<0.0001. E. coli cells transformed with the ampicillin-resistance gene (β-lactamase remained sensitive to honey, displayed the same level of cytotoxicity, cell shape changes and endotoxin release as ampicillin-sensitive cells. As expected, β-lactamase protected the host cell from antibacterial action of ampicillin. Thus, both honey and ampicillin induced similar structural changes to the cell wall and LPS and that this ability underlies antibacterial activities of both agents. Since the cell wall is critical for cell growth and

  10. The action of ether and methoxyflurane on synaptic transmission in isolated preparations of the mammalian cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, C D; Russell, W J; Smaje, J C

    1975-06-01

    1. The actions of ether and methoxyflurane on the evoked potentials of in vitro preparations of the guinea-pig olfactory cortex were studied. Following stimulation of the lateral olfactory tract (l.o.t.) evoked potentials could be recorded from the cortical surface; these potentials consisted of an initial wave (the compound action potential of the l.o.t.) followed by a negative field potential which was associated with the synchronous excitation of many superficial excitatory synapses (population e.p.s.p.). Superimposed on the population e.p.s.p. was a number of positive peaks. These positive peaks reflect the synchronous discharge of many neurones and so have been called population spikes. 2. When ether or methoxyflurane was added to the gas stream that superfused the surface of the preparations, the population e.p.s.p.s. and population spikes were depressed at lower concentrations than those required to depress the compound action potential of the afferent fibres. 3. The evoked activity of individual cells in the cortex was depressed by ether and methoxyflurane. However, five of the twelve cells tested in ether showed an increase in their evoked activity at concentrations below 4-5%, but at higher concentrations these cells also became depressed. 4. Both ether and methoxyflurane depressed the sensitivity of cortical neurones to iontophoretically applied L-glutamate and may similarly depress the sensitivity of the post-synaptic membrane to the released transmitter substance. 5. Neither anaesthetic appeared to increase the threshold depolarization required for nerve impulse generation. Thus, the decrease of the discharge of the post-synaptic cells was primarily caused by a depression of chemical transmission. 6. Ether caused some cells in the cortex to alter their normal pattern of synaptically evoked discharge and both anaesthetics induced similar changes during excitation by glutamate.

  11. Quantitative structure-activity relationships of insecticides and plant growth regulators: comparative studies toward understanding the molecular mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamura, H; Nishimura, K; Fujita, T

    1985-01-01

    Emphasis was put on the comparative quantitative structure-activity approaches to the exploration of action mechanisms of structurally different classes of compounds showing the same type of activity as well as those of the same type of compounds having different actions. Examples were selected from studies performed on insecticides and plant growth regulators, i.e., neurotoxic carbamates, phosphates, pyrethroids and DDT analogs, insect juvenile hormone mimics, and cytokinin agonistic and antagonistic compounds. Similarities and dissimilarities in structures required to elicit activity between compounds classes were revealed in terms of physicochemical parameters, provoking further exploration and evoking insights into the molecular mechanisms of action which may lead to the development of new structures having better qualities. PMID:3905379

  12. Effects of Various Antiepileptics Used to Alleviate Neuropathic Pain on Compound Action Potential in Frog Sciatic Nerves: Comparison with Those of Local Anesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhei Uemura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antiepileptics used for treating neuropathic pain have various actions including voltage-gated Na+ and Ca2+ channels, glutamate-receptor inhibition, and GABAA-receptor activation, while local anesthetics are also used to alleviate the pain. It has not been fully examined yet how nerve conduction inhibitions by local anesthetics differ in extent from those by antiepileptics. Fast-conducting compound action potentials (CAPs were recorded from frog sciatic nerve fibers by using the air-gap method. Antiepileptics (lamotrigine and carbamazepine concentration dependently reduced the peak amplitude of the CAP (IC50=0.44 and 0.50 mM, resp.. Carbamazepine analog oxcarbazepine exhibited an inhibition smaller than that of carbamazepine. Antiepileptic phenytoin (0.1 mM reduced CAP amplitude by 15%. On the other hand, other antiepileptics (gabapentin, sodium valproate, and topiramate at 10 mM had no effect on CAPs. The CAPs were inhibited by local anesthetic levobupivacaine (IC50=0.23 mM. These results indicate that there is a difference in the extent of nerve conduction inhibition among antiepileptics and that some antiepileptics inhibit nerve conduction with an efficacy similar to that of levobupivacaine or to those of other local anesthetics (lidocaine, ropivacaine, and cocaine as reported previously. This may serve to know a contribution of nerve conduction inhibition in the antinociception by antiepileptics.

  13. Ultrapotent effects of salvinorin A, a hallucinogenic compound from Salvia divinorum, on LPS-stimulated murine macrophages and its anti-inflammatory action in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviello, Gabriella; Borrelli, Francesca; Guida, Francesca; Romano, Barbara; Lewellyn, Kevin; De Chiaro, Maria; Luongo, Livio; Zjawiony, Jordan K; Maione, Sabatino; Izzo, Angelo A; Capasso, Raffaele

    2011-09-01

    The hallucinogenic compound, salvinorin A, is a potent κ-opioid receptor (KOR) agonist. However, other target(s) than the KOR, such as the cannabinoid CB1 receptor, have been proposed to explain its multiple pharmacological actions. Here, we have evaluated the effect of salvinorin A in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages as well as in models of inflammation in vivo. Salvinorin A (0.1-10 pM) reduced LPS-stimulated nitrite, TNF-α and IL-10 (but not IL-1β) levels as well as iNOS (but not COX-2) LPS-induced hyperexpression. The effect of salvinorin A on nitrite levels was reverted by the opioid antagonist naloxone, the KOR antagonist nor-binaltorphimine and by the CB1 antagonist rimonabant Salvinorin A also prevented KOR and CB1 hyperexpression induced by LPS. In vivo, salvinorin A reduced the LPS- and the carrageenan-induced paw oedema and formalin-induced inflammatory pain, in a nor-binaltorphimine and rimonabant-sensitive manner. It is concluded that salvinorin A-via KORs and CB1 receptors-exerts ultrapotent actions on macrophages and also shows moderate antinflammatory effects in vivo.

  14. Effects of various antiepileptics used to alleviate neuropathic pain on compound action potential in frog sciatic nerves: comparison with those of local anesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Yuhei; Fujita, Tsugumi; Ohtsubo, Sena; Hirakawa, Naomi; Sakaguchi, Yoshiro; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2014-01-01

    Antiepileptics used for treating neuropathic pain have various actions including voltage-gated Na(+) and Ca(2+) channels, glutamate-receptor inhibition, and GABA(A)-receptor activation, while local anesthetics are also used to alleviate the pain. It has not been fully examined yet how nerve conduction inhibitions by local anesthetics differ in extent from those by antiepileptics. Fast-conducting compound action potentials (CAPs) were recorded from frog sciatic nerve fibers by using the air-gap method. Antiepileptics (lamotrigine and carbamazepine) concentration dependently reduced the peak amplitude of the CAP (IC50 = 0.44 and 0.50 mM, resp.). Carbamazepine analog oxcarbazepine exhibited an inhibition smaller than that of carbamazepine. Antiepileptic phenytoin (0.1 mM) reduced CAP amplitude by 15%. On the other hand, other antiepileptics (gabapentin, sodium valproate, and topiramate) at 10 mM had no effect on CAPs. The CAPs were inhibited by local anesthetic levobupivacaine (IC50 = 0.23 mM). These results indicate that there is a difference in the extent of nerve conduction inhibition among antiepileptics and that some antiepileptics inhibit nerve conduction with an efficacy similar to that of levobupivacaine or to those of other local anesthetics (lidocaine, ropivacaine, and cocaine) as reported previously. This may serve to know a contribution of nerve conduction inhibition in the antinociception by antiepileptics.

  15. Antimutagenic effects and possible mechanisms of action of vitamins and related compounds against genotoxic heterocyclic amines from cooked food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edenharder, R; Worf-Wandelburg, A; Decker, M; Platt, K L

    1999-07-21

    Possible antimutagenic activity of 26 vitamins and related compounds - ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, cyanocobalamin, folic acid, nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, pantothenic acid, pyridoxale, pyridoxamine, pyridoxine, retinal, retinol, retinoic acid, retinyl acetate, retinyl palmitate, riboflavin, riboflavin 5'-phosphate, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), alpha-tocopherol, alpha-tocopherol acetate, vitamins K(1), K(3), K(4), 1, 4-naphthoquinone, and coenzyme Q(10) - was tested against six heterocyclic amine (HCA) mutagens, i.e., 2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo[4, 5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-6-methyl-dipyrido[1,2-a:3',2'-d]imidazole (Glu-P-1) and 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-2) in the Salmonella/reversion assay using tester strains Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100. Retinol, retinal, riboflavin, riboflavin 5'-phosphate, FAD, vitamins K(1), K(3), K(4), 1, 4-naphthoquinone, and coenzyme Q(10) caused a concentration-dependent decrease in the mutagenicity of all six mutagens in both tester strains. Quantification of antimutagenic potencies by calculating ID(50)1000; vitamin K(1): 401-740; vitamin K(3) (menadione): 85-590; vitamin K(4): 45-313; 1,4-naphthoquinone: 170-290; coenzyme Q(10): 490-860. In general, there were no major differences between HCAs tested except in part with Trp-P-2 nor between the two tester strains. In enzyme kinetic experiments with Salmonella, retinol, vitamins K(3), and K(4) behaved as competitive inhibitors of IQ induced mutagenesis. However, at the highest concentration of menadione (200 nmol/plate) and of riboflavin 5'-phosphate (2000 nmol/plate), non-competitive inhibition was observed. At other concentrations of riboflavin 5'-phosphate and at all concentrations of FAD, meaningful interpretation of enzyme kinetics were not possible. Reduction of the activity of 7

  16. Achieving Presence through Evoked Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Jayesh S.; Schmidt, Colin; Richir, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The sense of “Presence” (evolving from “telepresence”) has always been associated with virtual reality research and is still an exceptionally mystifying constituent. Now the study of presence clearly spans over various disciplines associated with cognition. This paper attempts to put forth a concept that argues that it’s an experience of an “Evoked Reality (ER)” (illusion of reality) that triggers an “Evoked Presence (EP)” (sense of presence) in our minds. A Three Pole Reality Model is proposed to explain this phenomenon. The poles range from Dream Reality to Simulated Reality with Primary (Physical) Reality at the center. To demonstrate the relationship between ER and EP, a Reality-Presence Map is developed. We believe that this concept of ER and the proposed model may have significant applications in the study of presence, and in exploring the possibilities of not just virtual reality but also what we call “reality.” PMID:23550234

  17. Evoked Electromyographically Controlled Electrical Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiro Hayashibe

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Time-variant muscle responses under electrical stimulation (ES are often problematic for all the applications of neuroprosthetic muscle control. This situation limits the range of ES usage in relevant areas, mainly due to muscle fatigue and also to changes in stimulation electrode contact conditions, especially in transcutaneous ES. Surface electrodes are still the most widely used in noninvasive applications.Electrical field variations caused by changes in the stimulation contact condition markedly affect the resulting total muscle activation levels. Fatigue phenomena under functional electrical stimulation (FES are also well known source of time-varying characteristics coming from muscle response under ES. Therefore it is essential to monitor the actual muscle state and assess the expected muscle response by ES so as to improve the current ES system in favour of adaptive muscle-response-aware FES control. To deal with this issue, we have been studying a novel control technique using evoked electromyography (eEMG signals to compensate for these muscle time-variances under ES for stable neuroprosthetic muscle control. In this perspective article, I overview the background of this topic and highlight important points to be aware of when using ES to induce the desired muscle activation regardless of the time-variance. I also demonstrate how to deal with the common critical problem of ES to move toward robust neuroprosthetic muscle control with the Evoked Electromyographically Controlled Electrical Stimulation paradigm.

  18. Serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline adjust actions of myelinated afferents via modulation of presynaptic inhibition in the mouse spinal cord.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L García-Ramírez

    Full Text Available Gain control of primary afferent neurotransmission at their intraspinal terminals occurs by several mechanisms including primary afferent depolarization (PAD. PAD produces presynaptic inhibition via a reduction in transmitter release. While it is known that descending monoaminergic pathways complexly regulate sensory processing, the extent these actions include modulation of afferent-evoked PAD remains uncertain. We investigated the effects of serotonin (5HT, dopamine (DA and noradrenaline (NA on afferent transmission and PAD. Responses were evoked by stimulation of myelinated hindlimb cutaneous and muscle afferents in the isolated neonatal mouse spinal cord. Monosynaptic responses were examined in the deep dorsal horn either as population excitatory synaptic responses (recorded as extracellular field potentials; EFPs or intracellular excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs. The magnitude of PAD generated intraspinally was estimated from electrotonically back-propagating dorsal root potentials (DRPs recorded on lumbar dorsal roots. 5HT depressed the DRP by 76%. Monosynaptic actions were similarly depressed by 5HT (EFPs 54%; EPSCs 75% but with a slower time course. This suggests that depression of monosynaptic EFPs and DRPs occurs by independent mechanisms. DA and NA had similar depressant actions on DRPs but weaker effects on EFPs. IC50 values for DRP depression were 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 µM for 5HT, DA and NA, respectively. Depression of DRPs by monoamines was nearly-identical in both muscle and cutaneous afferent-evoked responses, supporting a global modulation of the multimodal afferents stimulated. 5HT, DA and NA produced no change in the compound antidromic potentials evoked by intraspinal microstimulation indicating that depression of the DRP is unrelated to direct changes in the excitability of intraspinal afferent fibers, but due to metabotropic receptor activation. In summary, both myelinated afferent-evoked DRPs and monosynaptic

  19. Marine Pharmacology in 2012–2013: Marine Compounds with Antibacterial, Antidiabetic, Antifungal, Anti-Inflammatory, Antiprotozoal, Antituberculosis, and Antiviral Activities; Affecting the Immune and Nervous Systems, and Other Miscellaneous Mechanisms of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro M. S. Mayer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The peer-reviewed marine pharmacology literature from 2012 to 2013 was systematically reviewed, consistent with the 1998–2011 reviews of this series. Marine pharmacology research from 2012 to 2013, conducted by scientists from 42 countries in addition to the United States, reported findings on the preclinical pharmacology of 257 marine compounds. The preclinical pharmacology of compounds isolated from marine organisms revealed antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis, antiviral and anthelmitic pharmacological activities for 113 marine natural products. In addition, 75 marine compounds were reported to have antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory activities and affect the immune and nervous system. Finally, 69 marine compounds were shown to display miscellaneous mechanisms of action which could contribute to novel pharmacological classes. Thus, in 2012–2013, the preclinical marine natural product pharmacology pipeline provided novel pharmacology and lead compounds to the clinical marine pharmaceutical pipeline, and contributed significantly to potentially novel therapeutic approaches to several global disease categories.

  20. Marine Pharmacology in 2012–2013: Marine Compounds with Antibacterial, Antidiabetic, Antifungal, Anti-Inflammatory, Antiprotozoal, Antituberculosis, and Antiviral Activities; Affecting the Immune and Nervous Systems, and Other Miscellaneous Mechanisms of Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Alejandro M. S.; Rodríguez, Abimael D.; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Fusetani, Nobuhiro

    2017-01-01

    The peer-reviewed marine pharmacology literature from 2012 to 2013 was systematically reviewed, consistent with the 1998–2011 reviews of this series. Marine pharmacology research from 2012 to 2013, conducted by scientists from 42 countries in addition to the United States, reported findings on the preclinical pharmacology of 257 marine compounds. The preclinical pharmacology of compounds isolated from marine organisms revealed antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis, antiviral and anthelmitic pharmacological activities for 113 marine natural products. In addition, 75 marine compounds were reported to have antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory activities and affect the immune and nervous system. Finally, 69 marine compounds were shown to display miscellaneous mechanisms of action which could contribute to novel pharmacological classes. Thus, in 2012–2013, the preclinical marine natural product pharmacology pipeline provided novel pharmacology and lead compounds to the clinical marine pharmaceutical pipeline, and contributed significantly to potentially novel therapeutic approaches to several global disease categories. PMID:28850074

  1. Determinants, analysis and interpretation of the muscle compound action potential (M wave) in humans: implications for the study of muscle fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Falces, Javier; Place, Nicolas

    2018-03-01

    The compound muscle action potential (M wave) has been commonly used to assess the peripheral properties of the neuromuscular system. More specifically, changes in the M-wave features are used to examine alterations in neuromuscular propagation that can occur during fatiguing contractions. The utility of the M wave is based on the assumption that impaired neuromuscular propagation results in a decrease in M-wave size. However, there remains controversy on whether the size of the M wave is increased or decreased during and/or after high-intensity exercise. The controversy partly arises from the fact that previous authors have considered the M wave as a whole, i.e., without analyzing separately its first and second phases. However, in a series of studies we have demonstrated that the first and second phases of the M wave behave in a different manner during and after fatiguing contractions. The present review is aimed at five main objectives: (1) to describe the mechanistic factors that determine the M-wave shape; (2) to analyze the various factors influencing M-wave properties; (3) to emphasize the need to analyze separately the first and second M-wave phases to adequately identify and interpret changes in muscle fiber membrane properties; (4) to advance the hypothesis that it is an increase (and not a decrease) of the M-wave first phase which reflects impaired sarcolemmal membrane excitability; and (5) to revisit the involvement of impaired sarcolemmal membrane excitability in the reduction of the force generating capacity.

  2. [Multicentric study on a topical compound with lymph-draining action in the treatment of the phlebostatic ulcer of the inferior limbs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiummariello, S; De Gado, F; Monarca, C; Ruggiero, M; Carlesimo, B; Scuderi, N; Alfano, C

    2009-01-01

    Phlebostatic sore of the lower limbs is a typical chronic venous insufficiency complication and is still a widely controversial issue in its treatment. The common therapies, in fact, are not yet standardized and they not show complete efficacy. Since 2005 to 2007 a multicentric clinical trial was conducted at the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery of "Sapienza" University of Rome and at the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Department, University of Perugia, in order to evaluate the efficacy of the Idrastin lymph-draining cream in patients with phlebostatic sores of the lower limbs. This study enrolled on 80 patients, split into 2 homogeneous groups of 40 patients: group A was treated by only elastocompressive therapy, group B by elastocompressive therapy and Idrastin. Multicentric analysis has considered the following parameters: local pain, perilesional flogosis , granulation tissue, perilesional tissue tropism healing time. In the group B results highlighted: reduction of the local pain, stopped in 72 hours; flogosis decrease disappeared in one week; tissue granulation growth in one week; lesion healing in 4 weeks. These results pointed out statistically significance of the variables considered. In our opinion Idrastin compounds such as phytoessence of hops and Hedera helix, had contributed to analgesia; Aesculus hippocastanum, and Vitis vinifera and Ruscus aculeatus phytoessence showed anti-flogistic action; allantoin and Centella asiatica and jaluronic acid aided to sore healing. Idrastin gives an effective support to the treatment of the phlebostatic sores warrants a faster and more effective healing process, than to the wounds treated by only the elastocompressive therapy.

  3. Ocular Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe, Lilian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Diagnostic testing of the vestibular system is an essential component of treating patients with balance dysfunction. Until recently, testing methods primarily evaluated the integrity of the horizontal semicircular canal, which is only a portion of the vestibular system. Recent advances in technology have afforded clinicians the ability to assess otolith function through vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP testing. VEMP testing from the inferior extraocular muscles of the eye has been the subject of interest of recent research. Objective To summarize recent developments in ocular VEMP testing. Results Recent studies suggest that the ocular VEMP is produced by otolith afferents in the superior division of the vestibular nerve. The ocular VEMP is a short latency potential, composed of extraocular myogenic responses activated by sound stimulation and registered by surface electromyography via ipsilateral otolithic and contralateral extraocular muscle activation. The inferior oblique muscle is the most superficial of the six extraocular muscles responsible for eye movement. Therefore, measurement of ocular VEMPs can be performed easily by using surface electrodes on the skin below the eyes contralateral to the stimulated side. Conclusion This new variation of the VEMP procedure may supplement conventional testing in difficult to test populations. It may also be possible to use this technique to evaluate previously inaccessible information on the vestibular system.

  4. Evoked cavernous activity: neuroanatomic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, U; Vicars, B; Yang, C C

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the autonomic innervation of the penis by using evoked cavernous activity (ECA). We recruited seven men with thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI) and sexual dysfunction, and six men who were scheduled to have pelvic surgery (PS), specifically non-nerve-sparing radical cystoprostatectomy. In the PS patients, ECA was performed both pre- and postoperatively. The left median nerve was electrically stimulated and ECA was recorded with two concentric electromyography needles placed into the right and left cavernous bodies. We simultaneously recorded hand and foot sympathetic skin responses (SSRs) as controls. In the SCI group, all but one patient had reproducible hand SSRs. None of these patients had ECA or foot SSRs. All the PS patients had reproducible ECA and SSRs, both preoperatively and postoperatively. There was no difference in the latency and amplitude measurements of ECA and SSRs in the postoperative compared with that of the pre-operative period (P>0.05). In conclusion, ECA is absent in men with SCI above the sympathetic outflow to the genitalia. In men, after radical pelvic surgery, ECA is preserved, indicating the preservation of sympathetic fibers.

  5. Neuromodulation of evoked muscle potentials induced by epidural spinal-cord stimulation in paralyzed individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayenko, Dimitry G; Angeli, Claudia; Harkema, Susan J; Edgerton, V Reggie; Gerasimenko, Yury P

    2014-03-01

    Epidural stimulation (ES) of the lumbosacral spinal cord has been used to facilitate standing and voluntary movement after clinically motor-complete spinal-cord injury. It seems of importance to examine how the epidurally evoked potentials are modulated in the spinal circuitry and projected to various motor pools. We hypothesized that chronically implanted electrode arrays over the lumbosacral spinal cord can be used to assess functionally spinal circuitry linked to specific motor pools. The purpose of this study was to investigate the functional and topographic organization of compound evoked potentials induced by the stimulation. Three individuals with complete motor paralysis of the lower limbs participated in the study. The evoked potentials to epidural spinal stimulation were investigated after surgery in a supine position and in one participant, during both supine and standing, with body weight load of 60%. The stimulation was delivered with intensity from 0.5 to 10 V at a frequency of 2 Hz. Recruitment curves of evoked potentials in knee and ankle muscles were collected at three localized and two wide-field stimulation configurations. Epidural electrical stimulation of rostral and caudal areas of lumbar spinal cord resulted in a selective topographical recruitment of proximal and distal leg muscles, as revealed by both magnitude and thresholds of the evoked potentials. ES activated both afferent and efferent pathways. The components of neural pathways that can mediate motor-evoked potentials were highly dependent on the stimulation parameters and sensory conditions, suggesting a weight-bearing-induced reorganization of the spinal circuitries.

  6. Evoked potentials in neuroinfections in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Komantsev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of the neurophysiological study in which 95 children with viral encephalitis and 30 children with meningitis (age from 2 up to 17 years undergo evoked potentials investigation. Some specific features of evoked potentials in neuroinfections have been shown to correlate with the course of disease and the age of the patients. We give a description of a logistic model of predicting outcomes in such patients by complex diagnostic method. We have found that evoked potentials may be successfully implemented in correcting the therapeutic strategies. Study of evoked potentials in neuroinfections in children can define the severity and extent of lesions and help to identify subclinical dysfunction and monitor the recovery processes under the therapy.

  7. Visual Evoked Potentials in Rett Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gordon Millichap

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from the Boston Children's Hospital recorded pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (VEPs in Mecp2 heterozygous female mice and in 34 girls with Rett syndrome (RTT.

  8. Transmitter modulation of spike-evoked calcium transients in arousal related neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlmeier, Kristi Anne; Leonard, Christopher S

    2006-01-01

    -evoked intracellular calcium transients dampen excitability and stimulate NO production in these neurons. In this study, we investigated the action of several arousal-related neurotransmitters and the role of specific calcium channels in these LDT Ca(2+)-transients by simultaneous whole-cell recording and calcium...

  9. High-resolution measurement of electrically-evoked vagus nerve activity in the anesthetized dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Paul B.; Lubock, Nathan B.; Hincapie, Juan G.; Ruble, Stephen B.; Hamann, Jason J.; Grill, Warren M.

    2013-04-01

    Objective. Not fully understanding the type of axons activated during vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is one of several factors that limit the clinical efficacy of VNS therapies. The main goal of this study was to characterize the electrical recruitment of both myelinated and unmyelinated fibers within the cervical vagus nerve. Approach. In anesthetized dogs, recording nerve cuff electrodes were implanted on the vagus nerve following surgical excision of the epineurium. Both the vagal electroneurogram (ENG) and laryngeal muscle activity were recorded in response to stimulation of the right vagus nerve. Main results. Desheathing the nerve significantly increased the signal-to-noise ratio of the ENG by 1.2 to 9.9 dB, depending on the nerve fiber type. Repeated VNS following nerve transection or neuromuscular block (1) enabled the characterization of A-fibers, two sub-types of B-fibers, and unmyelinated C-fibers, (2) confirmed the absence of stimulation-evoked reflex compound nerve action potentials in both the ipsilateral and contralateral vagus nerves, and (3) provided evidence of stimulus spillover into muscle tissue surrounding the stimulating electrode. Significance. Given the anatomical similarities between the canine and human vagus nerves, the results of this study provide a template for better understanding the nerve fiber recruitment patterns associated with VNS therapies.

  10. Instrumentation to Record Evoked Potentials for Closed-Loop Control of Deep Brain Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Alexander R.; Grill, Warren M.

    2012-01-01

    Closed-loop deep brain stimulation (DBS) systems offer promise in relieving the clinical burden of stimulus parameter selection and improving treatment outcomes. In such a system, a feedback signal is used to adjust automatically stimulation parameters and optimize the efficacy of stimulation. We explored the feasibility of recording electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs) during DBS for use as a feedback control signal. A novel instrumentation system was developed to suppress the stimulus artifact and amplify the small magnitude, short latency ECAP response during DBS with clinically relevant parameters. In vitro testing demonstrated the capabilities to increase the gain by a factor of 1,000x over a conventional amplifier without saturation, reduce distortion of mock ECAP signals, and make high fidelity recordings of mock ECAPs at latencies of only 0.5 ms following DBS pulses of 50 to 100 μs duration. Subsequently, the instrumentation was used to make in vivo recordings of ECAPs during thalamic DBS in cats, without contamination by the stimulus artifact. The signal characteristics were similar across three experiments, suggesting common neural activation patterns. The ECAP recordings enabled with this novel instrumentation may provide insight into the type and spatial extent of neural elements activated during DBS, and could serve as feedback control signals for closed-loop systems. PMID:22255894

  11. A Shape-Adaptive, Antibacterial-Coating of Immobilized Quaternary-Ammonium-Compounds Tethered on Hyperbranched Polyurea and its Mechanism of Action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asri, Lia; Crismaru, Mihaela; Roest, Steven; Chen, Yun; Ivashenko, Oleksii; Rudolf, Petra; Tiller, Joerg C.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Loontjens, Ton J.A.; Busscher, Henk J. Busscher

    2014-01-01

    Quaternary-ammonium-compounds are potent cationic antimicrobials used in everyday consumer products. Surface-immobilized, quaternary-ammonium-compounds create an antimicrobial contact-killing coating. We describe the preparation of a shape-adaptive, contact-killing coating by tethering

  12. Novel in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo assays elucidating the effects of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) on thyroid hormone action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schriks, M.

    2006-01-01

    The last years, both scientific and public concern about the possible threat of compounds in the environment that may affect endocrine functions has increased. Thus far, the majority of endocrine disruptor research has focused on the interference of compounds with the sex hormone homeostasis. Less

  13. Toxicity of individual pharmaceuticals and their mixtures to Aliivibrio fischeri: Experimental results for single compounds and considerations of their mechanisms of action and potential acute effects on aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nica, Valeria; Villa, Sara; Finizio, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    In the first part of a broader study on the effects of individual and multicomponent mixtures of pharmaceutical active compounds, the authors used the Microtox(®) test system to analyze in detail the effects of 10 widely used human and veterinary pharmaceutical active compounds toward the bioluminescent bacterium Aliivibrio fischeri. The experimental results indicated moderate toxicity for the majority of the tested compounds. Comparison between experimental 50% inhibitory concentrations and those predicted from the quantitative structure-activity relationship models indicated that most of the tested pharmaceutical active compounds behave as polar narcotic compounds toward A. fischeri (only the antibiotic chlortetracycline seemed to have a specific mechanism of action). A comparison between the experimental results and a collection of acute toxicity data on other nontarget organisms indicated that in general A. fischeri has a comparable sensitivity to other aquatic species. However, according to the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals, the majority of the investigated chemicals can be classified as harmful or nontoxic for aquatic ecosystems. Finally, based on comparisons among the 95th percentile of measured environmental concentrations found in European Union water bodies and acute toxicity data on various aquatic organisms, no risk to aquatic life exists when the tested pharmaceutical active compounds are assessed as individual chemicals. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:807-814. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  14. Characterization of music-evoked autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janata, Petr; Tomic, Stefan T; Rakowski, Sonja K

    2007-11-01

    Despite music's prominence in Western society and its importance to individuals in their daily lives, very little is known about the memories and emotions that are often evoked when hearing a piece of music from one's past. We examined the content of music-evoked autobiographical memories (MEAMs) using a novel approach for selecting stimuli from a large corpus of popular music, in both laboratory and online settings. A set of questionnaires probed the cognitive and affective properties of the evoked memories. On average, 30% of the song presentations evoked autobiographical memories, and the majority of songs also evoked various emotions, primarily positive, that were felt strongly. The third most common emotion was nostalgia. Analyses of written memory reports found both general and specific levels of autobiographical knowledge to be represented, and several social and situational contexts for memory formation were common across many memories. The findings indicate that excerpts of popular music serve as potent stimuli for studying the structure of autobiographical memories.

  15. Evoked cochlear potentials in the barn owl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köppl, Christine; Gleich, Otto

    2007-06-01

    Gross electrical responses to tone bursts were measured in adult barn owls, using a single-ended wire electrode placed onto the round window. Cochlear microphonic (CM) and compound action potential (CAP) responses were evaluated separately. Both potentials were physiologically vulnerable. Selective abolishment of neural responses at high frequencies confirmed that the CAP was of neural origin, while the CM remained unaffected. CAP latencies decreased with increasing stimulus frequency and CAP amplitudes were correlated with known variations in afferent fibre numbers from the different papillar regions. This suggests a local origin of the CAP along the tonotopic gradient within the basilar papilla. The audiograms derived from CAP and CM threshold responses both showed a broad frequency region of optimal sensitivity, very similar to behavioural and single-unit data, but shifted upward in absolute sensitivity. CAP thresholds rose above 8 kHz, while CM responses showed unchanged sensitivity up to 10 kHz.

  16. The neonatal development of the light flash visual evoked potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, M; Abrahamsson, M; Sjöström, A

    1999-01-01

    To follow visual development longitudinally in the normal neonate using the flash visual evoked potential (VEP) and to find indications for a relationship between potential development and visual development. Twenty healthy infants, born at term, were included in the study. Flash and patterned flash VEPs were used. The first VEP was recorded the day of birth or just postnatally, and succeeding recordings were performed the following weeks and months. The data revealed different types of VEP in the neonatal period suggesting great variability in visual function on the day of birth. In the early development a potential of long latency and duration preceded the development of a more compound potential of shorter latency. The two types of responses seemed to coalesce during early development; the first late response was attenuated and was eventually integrated in the more mature VEP. At approximately five weeks of age changes in the VEP were simultaneous with the development of responsive smiling and another visual behaviour of the infants. The results showed many similarities between the VEP development in infants and in immature animals. In developing animals geniculo-cortical and extra-geniculate visual afferent pathways evoke two types of VEPs similar to those recorded in the present study. The early responses were also similar to previous recordings from children with lesions in the geniculo-striatal pathway or primary cortex. Our interpretation of the results was that the human VEP also consists of responses evoked by afferents running both in geniculo-cortical and extra-geniculate pathways and that the two types of responses could be separated in the VEP in the neonatal period. These findings are important for our understanding of conditions with a delay in visual maturation, for example intracranial haemorrhages, hydrocephalus, pre/dys-maturity and 'idiopathic' delayed visual maturation.

  17. Complexin Mutants Reveal Partial Segregation between Recycling Pathways That Drive Evoked and Spontaneous Neurotransmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeva, Nadezhda; Cho, Richard W.; Vasin, Alexander; Gonzalez, Agustin; Littleton, J. Troy

    2017-01-01

    Synaptic vesicles fuse at morphological specializations in the presynaptic terminal termed active zones (AZs). Vesicle fusion can occur spontaneously or in response to an action potential. Following fusion, vesicles are retrieved and recycled within nerve terminals. It is still unclear whether vesicles that fuse spontaneously or following evoked release share similar recycling mechanisms. Genetic deletion of the SNARE-binding protein complexin dramatically increases spontaneous fusion, with the protein serving as the synaptic vesicle fusion clamp at Drosophila synapses. We examined synaptic vesicle recycling pathways at complexin null neuromuscular junctions, where spontaneous release is dramatically enhanced. We combined loading of the lipophilic dye FM1–43 with photoconversion, electron microscopy, and electrophysiology to monitor evoked and spontaneous recycling vesicle pools. We found that the total number of recycling vesicles was equal to those retrieved through spontaneous and evoked pools, suggesting that retrieval following fusion is partially segregated for spontaneous and evoked release. In addition, the kinetics of FM1–43 destaining and synaptic depression measured in the presence of the vesicle-refilling blocker bafilomycin indicated that spontaneous and evoked recycling pools partially intermix during the release process. Finally, FM1–43 photoconversion combined with electron microscopy analysis indicated that spontaneous recycling preferentially involves synaptic vesicles in the vicinity of AZs, whereas vesicles recycled following evoked release involve a larger intraterminal pool. Together, these results suggest that spontaneous and evoked vesicles use separable recycling pathways and then partially intermix during subsequent rounds of fusion. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neurotransmitter release involves fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane in response to an action potential, or spontaneously in the absence of stimulation. Upon

  18. Brain correlates of music-evoked emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    Music is a universal feature of human societies, partly owing to its power to evoke strong emotions and influence moods. During the past decade, the investigation of the neural correlates of music-evoked emotions has been invaluable for the understanding of human emotion. Functional neuroimaging studies on music and emotion show that music can modulate activity in brain structures that are known to be crucially involved in emotion, such as the amygdala, nucleus accumbens, hypothalamus, hippocampus, insula, cingulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex. The potential of music to modulate activity in these structures has important implications for the use of music in the treatment of psychiatric and neurological disorders.

  19. Assessing in Vitro Acaricidal Effect and Joint Action of a Binary Mixture Between Essential Oil Compounds (Thymol, Phellandrene, Eucalyptol, Cinnamaldehyde, Myrcene, Carvacrol Over Ectoparasitic Mite Varroa Destructor (Acari: Varroidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brasesco Constanza

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman, 2000 causes the most important parasitosis of beekeeping in the world. For this reason, prevention is needed to avoid colony death. The most typical treatments involve synthetic acaricides. However, the use of these acaricides results in the emergence of resistant populations of mites to these products and in the appearances of drug residues in products of the hives. Compounds of essential oils have emerged as an alternative to traditional acaricides; however the toxicity produced by these mixtures is currently poorly explored. The aim of this work was to assess, by means of in vitro tests with adult bees, how acaricidal action and toxic interactions in a binary mixture of essential oil compounds (Thymol, Phellandrene, Eucalyptol, Cinnamaldehyde, Myrcene, and Carvacrol affect V. destructor. Calculations of LC50 ’s of the individual compounds on A. mellifera and V. destructor made clear that the toxic effect of each compound is different for both species. Thymol and Phellandrene turned out to be lethal for mites at lower concentrations than for bees. The binary mixture of these two substances presented a different toxicity than one produced by each pure compound, as it was highly selective for mites in bioassays at 24 hours through complete exposure to both A. mellifera and V. destructor. These results make such formulations optimal substances to be considered as alternative controls for the parasitosis.

  20. Temperature differentially facilitates spontaneous but not evoked glutamate release from cranial visceral primary afferents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Fawley

    Full Text Available Temperature is fundamentally important to all biological functions including synaptic glutamate release. Vagal afferents from the solitary tract (ST synapse on second order neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract, and glutamate release at this first central synapse controls autonomic reflex function. Expression of the temperature-sensitive Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Type 1 receptor separates ST afferents into C-fibers (TRPV1+ and A-fibers (TRPV1-. Action potential-evoked glutamate release is similar between C- and A-fiber afferents, but TRPV1 expression facilitates a second form of synaptic glutamate release in C-fibers by promoting substantially more spontaneous glutamate release. The influence of temperature on different forms of glutamate release is not well understood. Here we tested how temperature impacts the generation of evoked and spontaneous release of glutamate and its relation to TRPV1 expression. In horizontal brainstem slices of rats, activation of ST primary afferents generated synchronous evoked glutamate release (ST-eEPSCs at constant latency whose amplitude reflects the probability of evoked glutamate release. The frequency of spontaneous EPSCs in these same neurons measured the probability of spontaneous glutamate release. We measured both forms of glutamate from each neuron during ramp changes in bath temperature of 4-5 °C. Spontaneous glutamate release from TRPV1+ closely tracked with these thermal changes indicating changes in the probability of spontaneous glutamate release. In the same neurons, temperature changed axon conduction registered as latency shifts but ST-eEPSC amplitudes were constant and independent of TRPV1 expression. These data indicate that TRPV1-operated glutamate release is independent of action potential-evoked glutamate release in the same neurons. Together, these support the hypothesis that evoked and spontaneous glutamate release originate from two pools of vesicles that are

  1. Higher success rate with transcranial electrical stimulation of motor-evoked potentials using constant-voltage stimulation compared with constant-current stimulation in patients undergoing spinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigematsu, Hideki; Kawaguchi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Hironobu; Takatani, Tsunenori; Iwata, Eiichiro; Tanaka, Masato; Okuda, Akinori; Morimoto, Yasuhiko; Masuda, Keisuke; Tanaka, Yuu; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2017-10-01

    During spine surgery, the spinal cord is electrophysiologically monitored via transcranial electrical stimulation of motor-evoked potentials (TES-MEPs) to prevent injury. Transcranial electrical stimulation of motor-evoked potential involves the use of either constant-current or constant-voltage stimulation; however, there are few comparative data available regarding their ability to adequately elicit compound motor action potentials. We hypothesized that the success rates of TES-MEP recordings would be similar between constant-current and constant-voltage stimulations in patients undergoing spine surgery. The objective of this study was to compare the success rates of TES-MEP recordings between constant-current and constant-voltage stimulation. This is a prospective, within-subject study. Data from 100 patients undergoing spinal surgery at the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar level were analyzed. The success rates of the TES-MEP recordings from each muscle were examined. Transcranial electrical stimulation with constant-current and constant-voltage stimulations at the C3 and C4 electrode positions (international "10-20" system) was applied to each patient. Compound muscle action potentials were bilaterally recorded from the abductor pollicis brevis (APB), deltoid (Del), abductor hallucis (AH), tibialis anterior (TA), gastrocnemius (GC), and quadriceps (Quad) muscles. The success rates of the TES-MEP recordings from the right Del, right APB, bilateral Quad, right TA, right GC, and bilateral AH muscles were significantly higher using constant-voltage stimulation than those using constant-current stimulation. The overall success rates with constant-voltage and constant-current stimulations were 86.3% and 68.8%, respectively (risk ratio 1.25 [95% confidence interval: 1.20-1.31]). The success rates of TES-MEP recordings were higher using constant-voltage stimulation compared with constant-current stimulation in patients undergoing spinal surgery. Copyright © 2017

  2. Antibacterial activity and mechanism of action of the benzazole acrylonitrile-based compounds: In vitro, spectroscopic, and docking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlNeyadi, Shaikha S; Salem, Alaa A; Ghattas, Mohammad A; Atatreh, Noor; Abdou, Ibrahim M

    2017-08-18

    A new series of pyrimidine derivatives 5, 9a-d and 12a-d was synthesized by an efficient procedure. The antibacterial activity of the new compounds was studied against four bacterial strains. Compound 5 was found to exhibit the highest potency, with = 1.0 μg/ml, against both Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa when compared with amoxicillin (MIC = 1.0-1.5 μg/mL). Transmission electron microscope results confirmed that activities against bacteria occurred via rupturing of the cell wall. Molecular modeling results suggested that compounds 5, 9a-d and 12a-d have the potential to irreversibly bind to the penicillin-binding protein (PBP) Ser62 residue in the active site and were able to overcome amoxicillin resistance in bacteria by inhibiting the β-lactamase enzyme. Docking studies showed that compounds 5, 9a-d and 12a-d inhibit the β-lactamase enzyme through covalent bonding with Ser70. The synergistic effect with amoxicillin was studied. The newly synthesized compounds reported in this study warrant further consideration as prospective antimicrobial agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Transient Evoked aotacoustic emissions otologically normal adults

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABUTH

    Objective: To examine the effects of aging on the existence of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions in normal adult. Material and methods 40 ... wax or any middle ear pathology which might affect the recording at TEOAEs. After that, ... related to decreased hearing sensitivity and are independent of aging, Previous studies.

  4. Neural correlates of evoked phantom limb sensations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, J; Diers, M; Milde, C; Frobel, C; Kleinböhl, D; Flor, H

    2017-05-01

    Previous work showed the existence of changes in the topographic organization within the somatosensory cortex (SI) in amputees with phantom limb pain, however, the link between nonpainful phantom sensations such as cramping or tingling or the percept of the limb and cortical changes is less clear. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a highly selective group of limb amputees who experienced inducible and reproducible nonpainful phantom sensations. A standardized procedure was used to locate body sites eliciting phantom sensations in each amputee. Selected body sites that could systematically evoke phantom sensations were stimulated using electrical pulses in order to induce phasic phantom sensations. Homologous body parts were also stimulated in a group of matched controls. Activations related to evoked phantom sensations were found bilaterally in SI and the intraparietal sulci (IPS), which significantly correlated with the intensity of evoked phantom sensations. In addition, we found differences in intra- and interhemispheric interaction between amputees and controls during evoked phantom sensations. We assume that phantom sensations might be associated with a functional decoupling between bilateral SI and IPS, possibly resulting from transcallosal reorganization mechanisms following amputation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. A Network Pharmacology Approach to Determine Active Compounds and Action Mechanisms of Ge-Gen-Qin-Lian Decoction for Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiying Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM herbal formulae can be valuable therapeutic strategies and drug discovery resources. However, the active ingredients and action mechanisms of most TCM formulae remain unclear. Therefore, the identification of potent ingredients and their actions is a major challenge in TCM research. In this study, we used a network pharmacology approach we previously developed to help determine the potential antidiabetic ingredients from the traditional Ge-Gen-Qin-Lian decoction (GGQLD formula. We predicted the target profiles of all available GGQLD ingredients to infer the active ingredients by clustering the target profile of ingredients with FDA-approved antidiabetic drugs. We also applied network target analysis to evaluate the links between herbal ingredients and pharmacological actions to help explain the action mechanisms of GGQLD. According to the predicted results, we confirmed that a novel antidiabetic ingredient from Puerariae Lobatae radix (Ge-Gen, 4-Hydroxymephenytoin, increased the insulin secretion in RIN-5F cells and improved insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The network pharmacology strategy used here provided a powerful means for identifying bioactive ingredients and mechanisms of action for TCM herbal formulae, including Ge-Gen-Qin-Lian decoction.

  6. Using the dioxin receptor-calux in vitro bioassay to screen marine harbor sediments for compounds with a dioxin-like mode of action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stronkhorst, J.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Murk, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    The presence of dioxin-like compounds in sediments from harbors and reference sites along the Dutch coast was investigated using the dioxin receptor–chemically activated luciferase gene expression (DR-CALUX) bioassay. The DR-CALUX response varied between 0.2 and 136 ng/kg dry weight expressed in

  7. [Actions of new iminium compounds against bacteria and fungi. 30. 3-alkoxymethyl-1-hexyl-, 3-alkylthiomethyl-1-hexyl-, 3-alkoxymethyl-1-octyl- and 3-alkylthiomethyl-1-octylbenzimidazolium chlorides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernak, J; Skrzypczak, A; Krysiński, J; Kaźmierczak, M; Jedraszczyk, J; Michalak, L

    1994-02-01

    Syntheses and antimicrobial activity of the title compounds are described. They were obtained by reaction of 1-hexyl- or 1-octylbenzimidazol with chloromethylalkyl ether or chloromethylalkyl sulfide. The antibacterial properties were tested on 13 strains of bacteria and fungi. The best antibacterial activity was exhibited by chlorides with octylthiomethyl and decyloxymethyl groups.

  8. Visually Evoked Spiking Evolves While Spontaneous Ongoing Dynamics Persist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huys, Raoul; Jirsa, Viktor K; Darokhan, Ziauddin

    2016-01-01

    attractor. Its existence guarantees that evoked spiking return to the spontaneous state. However, the spontaneous ongoing spiking state and the visual evoked spiking states are qualitatively different and are separated by a threshold (separatrix). The functional advantage of this organization...

  9. Wiener kernel analysis of a noise-evoked otoacoustic emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, P; Maat, A; Wit, H P

    1997-01-01

    In one specimen of the frog species, Rana esculenta, the following were measured: (1) a spontaneous otoacoustic emission; (2) a click-evoked otoacoustic emissions; and (3) a noise evoked otoacoustic emission. From the noise evoked emission response, a first-and a second-order Wiener kernel and the

  10. Neurotrophin-evoked depolarization requires the sodium channel Na(V)1.9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Robert; Kafitz, Karl W; Konnerth, Arthur

    2002-10-17

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and other neurotrophins are essential for normal brain function. Many types of neurons in the central nervous system are excited by BDNF or neurotrophin-4/5, an action that has recently been implicated in synaptic plasticity. The mechanisms involved in this transmitter-like action of neurotrophins remains unclear. Here, by screening candidate genes with an antisense messenger RNA expression approach and by co-expressing the receptor tyrosine kinase TrkB and various sodium channels, we demonstrate that the tetrodotoxin-insensitive sodium channel Na(V)1.9 underlies the neurotrophin-evoked excitation. These results establish the molecular basis of neurotrophin-evoked depolarization and reveal a mechanism of ligand-mediated sodium channel activation.

  11. Thought-evoking approaches in engineering problems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    In creating the value-added product in not distant future, it is necessary and inevitable to establish a holistic and though-evoking approach to the engineering problem, which should be at least associated with the inter-disciplinary knowledge and thought processes across the whole engineering spheres. It is furthermore desirable to integrate it with trans-disciplinary aspects ranging from manufacturing culture, through liberal-arts engineering, and industrial sociology.   The thought-evoking approach can be exemplified and typified by representative engineering problems: unveiling essential features in ‘Tangential Force Ratio and Interface Pressure’, prototype development for ‘Bio-mimetic Needle’ and application of ‘Water-jet Machining to Artificial Hip Joint’, product innovation in ‘Heat Sink for Computer’, application of ‘Graph Theory’ to similarity evaluation of production systems, leverage among reciprocity attributes in ‘Industrial and Engineering Designs for Machine Enclosure’,...

  12. Music-Evoked Emotions-Current Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Hans-Eckhardt

    2017-01-01

    The present study is focused on a review of the current state of investigating music-evoked emotions experimentally, theoretically and with respect to their therapeutic potentials. After a concise historical overview and a schematic of the hearing mechanisms, experimental studies on music listeners and on music performers are discussed, starting with the presentation of characteristic musical stimuli and the basic features of tomographic imaging of emotional activation in the brain, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET), which offer high spatial resolution in the millimeter range. The progress in correlating activation imaging in the brain to the psychological understanding of music-evoked emotion is demonstrated and some prospects for future research are outlined. Research in psychoneuroendocrinology and molecular markers is reviewed in the context of music-evoked emotions and the results indicate that the research in this area should be intensified. An assessment of studies involving measuring techniques with high temporal resolution down to the 10 ms range, as, e.g., electroencephalography (EEG), event-related brain potentials (ERP), magnetoencephalography (MEG), skin conductance response (SCR), finger temperature, and goose bump development (piloerection) can yield information on the dynamics and kinetics of emotion. Genetic investigations reviewed suggest the heredity transmission of a predilection for music. Theoretical approaches to musical emotion are directed to a unified model for experimental neurological evidence and aesthetic judgment. Finally, the reports on musical therapy are briefly outlined. The study concludes with an outlook on emerging technologies and future research fields.

  13. Phencyclidine (PCP)-like inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate-evoked striatal acetylcholine release, /sup 3/H-TCP binding and synaptosomal dopamine uptake by metaphit, a proposed PCP receptor acylator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snell, L.D.; Johnson, K.M.; Yi, S.J.; Lessor, R.A.; Rice, K.C.; Jacobson, A.E.

    1987-12-14

    The phencyclidine (PCP) receptor acylator, metaphit, has been reported to act as a PCP antagonist. Recent electrophysiological and behavioral assessments of metaphit action have revealed, however, that this compound can also act as a PCP-like agonist. The present study examined the effects of metaphit on the inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced /sup 3/H-acetylcholine (ACh) release, /sup 3/H-TCP binding and synaptosomal /sup 3/H-dopamine (DA) uptake in the rat striatum. Preincubation of striatal slices for 10 min in the presence of metaphit, followed by a prolonged washout, produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of the ACh release evoked by 300 ..mu..M NMDA. At high concentrations, preincubation with PCP also resulted in inhibition of this measure. However, this could be reduced by extending the washout period, a procedure which had no effect on the inhibition produced by metaphit. At 10..mu..M, metaphit resulted in a 53% reduction in NMDA-evoked ACh release while PCP had no effect under identical conditions. Preincubation of slices in 10 ..mu..M PCP and metaphit reduced the metaphit inhibition by 62%. The effects of PCP and metaphit, alone or in combination, on NMDA-induced ACh release were paralleled by a loss of /sup 3/H-TCP binding sites in striatal tissue incubated under identical conditions suggesting that metaphit exerts long-lasting agonist-like actions on PCP receptors coupled to NMDA receptors. 27 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  14. Antifungal Activity of Naphthoquinoidal Compounds In Vitro against Fluconazole-Resistant Strains of Different Candida Species: A Special Emphasis on Mechanisms of Action on Candida tropicalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, João B. A.; da Silva, Cecília R.; Neta, Maria A. S.; Campos, Rosana S.; Siebra, Janaína T.; Silva, Rose A. C.; Gaspar, Danielle M.; Magalhães, Hemerson I. F.; de Moraes, Manoel O.; Lobo, Marina D. P.; Grangeiro, Thalles B.; Carvalho, Tatiane S. C.; Diogo, Emilay B. T.; da Silva Júnior, Eufrânio N.; Rodrigues, Felipe A. R.; Cavalcanti, Bruno C.; Júnior, Hélio V. N.

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, the incidence of candidemia in tertiary hospitals worldwide has substantially increased. These infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality; in addition, they prolong hospital stays and raise the costs associated with treatment. Studies have reported a significant increase in infections by non-albicans Candida species, especially C. tropicalis. The number of antifungal drugs on the market is small in comparison to the number of antibacterial agents available. The limited number of treatment options, coupled with the increasing frequency of cross-resistance, makes it necessary to develop new therapeutic strategies. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the antifungal activities of three semisynthetic naphthofuranquinone molecules against fluconazole-resistant Candida spp. strains. These results allowed to us to evaluate the antifungal effects of three naphthofuranquinones on fluconazole-resistant C. tropicalis. The toxicity of these compounds was manifested as increased intracellular ROS, which resulted in membrane damage and changes in cell size/granularity, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and DNA damage (including oxidation and strand breakage). In conclusion, the tested naphthofuranquinones (compounds 1–3) exhibited in vitro cytotoxicity against fluconazole-resistant Candida spp. strains. PMID:24817320

  15. Direct motor evoked potentials and cortical mapping using the NIM® nerve monitoring system: A technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Suparna; Haji, Faizal; Hebb, Matthew; Chui, Jason

    2017-04-01

    Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) are commonly used to prevent neurological injury when operating in close proximity to the motor cortex or corticospinal pathway. We report a novel application of the NIM® nerve monitoring system (Medtronic@ NIM response 3.0) for intraoperative direct cortical (dc)-MEPs monitoring. A 69-year-old female patient presented with a 4month history of progressive left hemiparesis resulting from a large right sided posterior frontal meningioma that abutted and compressed the motor cortex. Motor cortical mapping and MEPs were indicated. The patient was anesthetized and maintained on total intravenous anesthetics. Compound muscle action potentials (CMAP) of the right upper limb were monitored using the NIM system. After a craniotomy was performed, we first used the Ojemann stimulator (monopolar) for dc-stimulation and then switched to use the monopolar nerve stimulator probe of the NIM system. The CMAP response was successfully elicited using the NIM stimulating probe (pulse width=250s, train frequency=7pulses/s, current=20mA). A gross total resection of the tumor was achieved with intermittent cortical mapping of MEPs. There were no intraoperative complications and the patient's motor function was preserved after the surgery. In this case, we reported the successful use of the NIM nerve monitoring system to elicit dc-MEPs under general anesthesia. The advantages of using this system include a simple set up and application, neurosurgeon familiarity, wide availability and lower cost. dc-MEPs can be achieved using the NIM system. We conclude that the NIM nerve monitoring system is a feasible alternative to standard neurophysiological monitoring systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Marine Pharmacology in 2009–2011: Marine Compounds with Antibacterial, Antidiabetic, Antifungal, Anti-Inflammatory, Antiprotozoal, Antituberculosis, and Antiviral Activities; Affecting the Immune and Nervous Systems, and other Miscellaneous Mechanisms of Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Alejandro M. S.; Rodríguez, Abimael D.; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Fusetani, Nobuhiro

    2013-01-01

    The peer-reviewed marine pharmacology literature from 2009 to 2011 is presented in this review, following the format used in the 1998–2008 reviews of this series. The pharmacology of structurally-characterized compounds isolated from marine animals, algae, fungi and bacteria is discussed in a comprehensive manner. Antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis, and antiviral pharmacological activities were reported for 102 marine natural products. Additionally, 60 marine compounds were observed to affect the immune and nervous system as well as possess antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory effects. Finally, 68 marine metabolites were shown to interact with a variety of receptors and molecular targets, and thus will probably contribute to multiple pharmacological classes upon further mechanism of action studies. Marine pharmacology during 2009–2011 remained a global enterprise, with researchers from 35 countries, and the United States, contributing to the preclinical pharmacology of 262 marine compounds which are part of the preclinical pharmaceutical pipeline. Continued pharmacological research with marine natural products will contribute to enhance the marine pharmaceutical clinical pipeline, which in 2013 consisted of 17 marine natural products, analogs or derivatives targeting a limited number of disease categories. PMID:23880931

  17. Glucagon-like peptide-2 modulates neurally evoked mucosal chloride secretion in guinea pig small intestine in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassano, Sara; Liu, Sumei; Qu, Mei-Hu; Mulè, Flavia; Wood, Jackie D

    2009-10-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is an important neuroendocrine peptide in intestinal physiology. It influences digestion, absorption, epithelial growth, motility, and blood flow. We studied involvement of GLP-2 in intestinal mucosal secretory behavior. Submucosal-mucosal preparations from guinea pig ileum were mounted in Ussing chambers for measurement of short-circuit current (I(sc)) as a surrogate for chloride secretion. GLP-2 action on neuronal release of acetylcholine was determined with ELISA. Enteric neuronal expression of the GLP-2 receptor (GLP-2R) was studied with immunohistochemical methods. Application of GLP-2 (0.1-100 nM) to the serosal or mucosal side of the preparations evoked no change in baseline I(sc) and did not alter transepithelial ionic conductance. Transmural electrical field stimulation (EFS) evoked characteristic biphasic increases in I(sc), with an initially rapid rising phase followed by a sustained phase. Application of GLP-2 reduced the EFS-evoked biphasic responses in a concentration-dependent manner. The GLP-2R antagonist GLP-2-(3-33) significantly reversed suppression of the EFS-evoked responses by GLP-2. Tetrodotoxin, scopolamine, and hexamethonium, but not vasoactive intestinal peptide type 1 receptor (VPAC1) antagonist abolished or reduced to near zero the EFS-evoked responses. GLP-2 suppressed EFS-evoked acetylcholine release as measured by ELISA. Pretreatment with GLP-2-(3-33) offset this action of GLP-2. In the submucosal plexus, GLP-2R immunoreactivity (-IR) was expressed in choline acetyltransferase-IR neurons, somatostatin-IR neurons, neuropeptide Y-IR neurons, and vasoactive intestinal peptide-IR neurons. We conclude that submucosal neurons in the guinea pig ileum express GLP-2R. Activation of GLP-2R decreases neuronally evoked epithelial chloride secretion by suppressing acetylcholine release from secretomotor neurons.

  18. Multisensory Perception of Action in Posterior Temporal and Parietal Cortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Thomas W.; VanDerKlok, Ross M.; Stevenson, Ryan A.; James, Karin Harman

    2011-01-01

    Environmental events produce many sensory cues for identifying the action that evoked the event, the agent that performed the action, and the object targeted by the action. The cues for identifying environmental events are usually distributed across multiple sensory systems. Thus, to understand how environmental events are recognized requires an…

  19. Motor-evoked potential gain is a helpful test for the detection of corticospinal tract dysfunction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclos, Y; Grapperon, A M; Jouve, E; Truillet, R; Zemmour, C; Verschueren, A; Pouget, J; Attarian, S

    2017-02-01

    The detection of upper motor neuron (UMN) dysfunction is necessary for the diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, signs of UMN dysfunction may be difficult to establish. This study aimed to determine whether motor-evoked potential (MEP) gain (MEP area/background electromyographic activity) represents an efficient alternative to assess UMN dysfunction. MEP area, MEP/compound muscle action potential (CMAP) area ratio, and MEP gain were tested at different force levels in healthy control subjects and ALS patients. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses was used to determine the diagnostic utility of MEP gain and compare it to alternative techniques, namely, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and the triple stimulation technique (TST). MEP gain revealed a significant difference between the patients and healthy control subjects in contrast to MEP area and MEP/CMAP area ratio. The diagnostic utility of MEP gain was comparable with that of TST and superior to that of DTI. MEP gain can distinguish ALS patients from control subjects and may be helpful for the diagnosis of ALS. MEP gain appears to be a useful adjunct test and noninvasive method for the assessment of corticospinal dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Music-Evoked Emotions—Current Studies

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    Hans-Eckhardt Schaefer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study is focused on a review of the current state of investigating music-evoked emotions experimentally, theoretically and with respect to their therapeutic potentials. After a concise historical overview and a schematic of the hearing mechanisms, experimental studies on music listeners and on music performers are discussed, starting with the presentation of characteristic musical stimuli and the basic features of tomographic imaging of emotional activation in the brain, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and positron emission tomography (PET, which offer high spatial resolution in the millimeter range. The progress in correlating activation imaging in the brain to the psychological understanding of music-evoked emotion is demonstrated and some prospects for future research are outlined. Research in psychoneuroendocrinology and molecular markers is reviewed in the context of music-evoked emotions and the results indicate that the research in this area should be intensified. An assessment of studies involving measuring techniques with high temporal resolution down to the 10 ms range, as, e.g., electroencephalography (EEG, event-related brain potentials (ERP, magnetoencephalography (MEG, skin conductance response (SCR, finger temperature, and goose bump development (piloerection can yield information on the dynamics and kinetics of emotion. Genetic investigations reviewed suggest the heredity transmission of a predilection for music. Theoretical approaches to musical emotion are directed to a unified model for experimental neurological evidence and aesthetic judgment. Finally, the reports on musical therapy are briefly outlined. The study concludes with an outlook on emerging technologies and future research fields.

  1. Music-Evoked Emotions—Current Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Hans-Eckhardt

    2017-01-01

    The present study is focused on a review of the current state of investigating music-evoked emotions experimentally, theoretically and with respect to their therapeutic potentials. After a concise historical overview and a schematic of the hearing mechanisms, experimental studies on music listeners and on music performers are discussed, starting with the presentation of characteristic musical stimuli and the basic features of tomographic imaging of emotional activation in the brain, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET), which offer high spatial resolution in the millimeter range. The progress in correlating activation imaging in the brain to the psychological understanding of music-evoked emotion is demonstrated and some prospects for future research are outlined. Research in psychoneuroendocrinology and molecular markers is reviewed in the context of music-evoked emotions and the results indicate that the research in this area should be intensified. An assessment of studies involving measuring techniques with high temporal resolution down to the 10 ms range, as, e.g., electroencephalography (EEG), event-related brain potentials (ERP), magnetoencephalography (MEG), skin conductance response (SCR), finger temperature, and goose bump development (piloerection) can yield information on the dynamics and kinetics of emotion. Genetic investigations reviewed suggest the heredity transmission of a predilection for music. Theoretical approaches to musical emotion are directed to a unified model for experimental neurological evidence and aesthetic judgment. Finally, the reports on musical therapy are briefly outlined. The study concludes with an outlook on emerging technologies and future research fields. PMID:29225563

  2. Do ambient urban odors evoke basic emotions?

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    Sandra Theresia Weber-Glass

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fragrances, such as plant odors, have been shown to evoke autonomic response patterns associated with Ekman’s (Ekman et al., 1983 basic emotions happiness, surprise, anger, fear, sadness and disgust. Inducing positive emotions by odors in highly frequented public spaces could serve to improve the quality of life in urban environments. Thus, the present study evaluated the potency of ambient odors connoted with an urban environment to evoke basic emotions on an autonomic and cognitive response level. Synthetic mixtures representing the odors of disinfectant, candles / bees wax, summer air, burnt smell, vomit and musty smell as well as odorless water as a control were presented five times in random order to 30 healthy, non-smoking human subjects with intact sense of smell. Skin temperature, skin conductance, breathing rate, forearm muscle activity, blink rate and heart rate were recorded simultaneously. Subjects rated the odors in terms of pleasantness, intensity and familiarity and gave verbal labels to each odor as well as cognitive associations with the basic emotions. The results showed that the amplitude of the skin conductance response varied as a function of odor presentation. Burnt smell and vomit elicited significantly higher electrodermal responses than summer air. Also, a negative correlation was revealed between the amplitude of the skin conductance response and hedonic odor valence indicating that the magnitude of the electrodermal response increased with odor unpleasantness. The analysis of the cognitive associations between odors and basic emotions showed that candles / bees wax and summer air were specifically associated with happiness whereas burnt smell and vomit were uniquely associated with disgust. Our findings suggest that city odors may evoke specific cognitive associations of basic emotions and that autonomic activity elicited by such odors is related to odor hedonics.

  3. Ribonuclease H/DNA Polymerase HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Dual Inhibitor: Mechanistic Studies on the Allosteric Mode of Action of Isatin-Based Compound RMNC6.

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    Angela Corona

    Full Text Available The DNA polymerase and ribonuclease H (RNase H activities of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 are needed for the replication of the viral genome and are validated drug targets. However, there are no approved drugs inhibiting RNase H and the efficiency of DNA polymerase inhibitors can be diminished by the presence of drug resistance mutations. In this context, drugs inhibiting both activities could represent a significant advance towards better anti-HIV therapies. We report on the mechanisms of allosteric inhibition of a newly synthesized isatin-based compound designated as RMNC6 that showed IC50 values of 1.4 and 9.8 μM on HIV-1 RT-associated RNase H and polymerase activities, respectively. Blind docking studies predict that RMNC6 could bind two different pockets in the RT: one in the DNA polymerase domain (partially overlapping the non-nucleoside RT inhibitor [NNRTI] binding pocket, and a second one close to the RNase H active site. Enzymatic studies showed that RMNC6 interferes with efavirenz (an approved NNRTI in its binding to the RT polymerase domain, although NNRTI resistance-associated mutations such as K103N, Y181C and Y188L had a minor impact on RT susceptibility to RMNC6. In addition, despite being naturally resistant to NNRTIs, the polymerase activity of HIV-1 group O RT was efficiently inhibited by RMNC6. The compound was also an inhibitor of the RNase H activity of wild-type HIV-1 group O RT, although we observed a 6.5-fold increase in the IC50 in comparison with the prototypic HIV-1 group M subtype B enzyme. Mutagenesis studies showed that RT RNase H domain residues Asn474 and Tyr501, and in a lesser extent Ala502 and Ala508, are critical for RMNC6 inhibition of the endonuclease activity of the RT, without affecting its DNA polymerization activity. Our results show that RMNC6 acts as a dual inhibitor with allosteric sites in the DNA polymerase and the RNase H domains of HIV-1 RT.

  4. Ribonuclease H/DNA Polymerase HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Dual Inhibitor: Mechanistic Studies on the Allosteric Mode of Action of Isatin-Based Compound RMNC6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Angela; Meleddu, Rita; Esposito, Francesca; Distinto, Simona; Bianco, Giulia; Masaoka, Takashi; Maccioni, Elias; Menéndez-Arias, Luis; Alcaro, Stefano; Le Grice, Stuart F J; Tramontano, Enzo

    2016-01-01

    The DNA polymerase and ribonuclease H (RNase H) activities of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are needed for the replication of the viral genome and are validated drug targets. However, there are no approved drugs inhibiting RNase H and the efficiency of DNA polymerase inhibitors can be diminished by the presence of drug resistance mutations. In this context, drugs inhibiting both activities could represent a significant advance towards better anti-HIV therapies. We report on the mechanisms of allosteric inhibition of a newly synthesized isatin-based compound designated as RMNC6 that showed IC50 values of 1.4 and 9.8 μM on HIV-1 RT-associated RNase H and polymerase activities, respectively. Blind docking studies predict that RMNC6 could bind two different pockets in the RT: one in the DNA polymerase domain (partially overlapping the non-nucleoside RT inhibitor [NNRTI] binding pocket), and a second one close to the RNase H active site. Enzymatic studies showed that RMNC6 interferes with efavirenz (an approved NNRTI) in its binding to the RT polymerase domain, although NNRTI resistance-associated mutations such as K103N, Y181C and Y188L had a minor impact on RT susceptibility to RMNC6. In addition, despite being naturally resistant to NNRTIs, the polymerase activity of HIV-1 group O RT was efficiently inhibited by RMNC6. The compound was also an inhibitor of the RNase H activity of wild-type HIV-1 group O RT, although we observed a 6.5-fold increase in the IC50 in comparison with the prototypic HIV-1 group M subtype B enzyme. Mutagenesis studies showed that RT RNase H domain residues Asn474 and Tyr501, and in a lesser extent Ala502 and Ala508, are critical for RMNC6 inhibition of the endonuclease activity of the RT, without affecting its DNA polymerization activity. Our results show that RMNC6 acts as a dual inhibitor with allosteric sites in the DNA polymerase and the RNase H domains of HIV-1 RT.

  5. Somatosensory evoked response: application in neurology

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    Carlos A. M. Guerreiro

    1982-03-01

    Full Text Available One technique used for short-latency somatosensory evoked response (SER is described. SER following nerve stimulation is a unique non-invasive, clinical test used to evaluate the somatosensory pathways. It tests the physiological function of the median nerve, the brachial plexus, the C6-7 cervical roots, cervical spinal cord, the cuneate nuclei, the medial lemniscus, the thalamus, and the contralateral sensory cortex. It has been shown to be a reliable and useful clinical test partiicularly in multiple sclerosis and comatose patients. The promising technique of SER following peroneal nerve stimulation is mentioned.

  6. The methanolic extract of Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf. and its major compound pinostrobin induces anti-ulcerogenic property in vivo: possible involvement of indirect antioxidant action.

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    Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim; Mohan, Syam; Abdulla, Mahmmod Ameen; Sukari, Mohd Aspollah; Abdul, Ahmad Bustamam; Taha, Manal Mohamed Elhassan; Syam, Suvitha; Ahmad, Syahida; Lee, Ka-Heng

    2011-09-02

    Boesenbergia rotunda (L) Mansf. has been used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders including peptic ulcer. In the current study we aimed to investiagte the anti-ulcer activities of methanolic extract of B. rotunda (MEBR) and its main active compound, pinostrobin on ethanol-induced ulcer in rats. The possible involevement of lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, cyclooxygenases and free radical scavenging mechanisms also has been investigated. Pinostrobin was isolated form the rhizomes of B. rotunda. Ulcer index, gastric juice acidity, mucus content, gross and histological gastric lesions and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were evaluated in ethanol-induced ulcer in vivo. The effect of pinostrobin into lipopolysaccharide/interferon-γ stimulated rodent cells, COX-1 and COX-2 activities were done in vitro. Pre-treatment with MEBR, pinostrobin or omeprazole protected the gastric mucosa as seen by reduction in ulcer area and mucosal content, reduced or absence of submucosal edema and leucocytes infiltration. Pinostrobin significantly (pantioxidant assays also exhibited non significance in vitro. Thus it can be concluded that MEBR possesses anti-ulcer activity, which could be attributed to indirect anti-oxidant mechanism of pinostrobin but not to the intervention with nitric oxide and COX inflammation pathways. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Semipurified Ethyl Acetate Partition of Methanolic Extract of Melastoma malabathricum Leaves Exerts Gastroprotective Activity Partly via Its Antioxidant-Antisecretory-Anti-Inflammatory Action and Synergistic Action of Several Flavonoid-Based Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail Suhaimy, Noor Wahida; Noor Azmi, Ahmad Khusairi; Mohtarrudin, Norhafizah; Omar, Maizatul Hasyima; Tohid, Siti Farah Md; Cheema, Manraj Singh; Teh, Lay Kek; Salleh, Mohd Zaki; Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin

    2017-01-01

    Recent study has demonstrated the gastroprotective activity of crude methanolic extract of M. malabathricum leaves. The present study evaluated the gastroprotective potential of semipurified extracts (partitions): petroleum ether, ethyl acetate (EAMM), and aqueous obtained from the methanolic extract followed by the elucidation of the gastroprotective mechanisms of the most effective partition. Using the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer assay, all partitions exerted significant gastroprotection, with EAMM being the most effective partition. EAMM significantly (i) reduced the volume and acidity (free and total) while increasing the pH of gastric juice and enhanced the gastric wall mucus secretion when assessed using the pylorus ligation assay, (ii) increased the enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant activity of the stomach tissue, (iii) lost its gastroprotective activity following pretreatment with N-omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; NO blocker) or carbenoxolone (CBXN; NP-SH blocker), (iv) exerted antioxidant activity against various in vitro oxidation assays, and (v) showed moderate in vitro anti-inflammatory activity via the LOX-modulated pathway. In conclusion, EAMM exerts a remarkable NO/NP-SH-dependent gastroprotective effect that is attributed to its antisecretory and antioxidant activities, ability to stimulate the gastric mucus production and endogenous antioxidant system, and synergistic action of several gastroprotective-induced flavonoids.

  8. Masculinization of female gastropod mollusks induced by organotin compounds, focusing on mechanism of actions of tributyltin and triphenyltin for development of imposex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Toshihiro

    2006-01-01

    Imposex, the superimposition of male-type genital organs (penis and vas deferens) on female gastropods, is cause-specific and induced by low concentrations of certain organotins, such as tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) from antifouling paints. Reproductive failure may be observed at severely affected stages. The history of imposex study and the legislation of organotins are summarized. The present statuses of gastropod imposex and organotin pollution in Japan, together with endocrine disruption observed in abalones, are also summarized, on the basis of the results of the field studies of the rock shell (Thais clavigera) conducted at 174 locations along the Japan coast between January 1999 and November 2001, the histopathological and analytical chemical studies of the ivory shell (Babylonia japonica), and both field and laboratory studies of the abalone (Haliotis madaka and H. gigantea). The fundamental knowledge of the endocrinology of gastropod mollusks is briefly described. Four hypotheses, such as that of aromatase-inhibition, regarding the induction mechanism of imposex induced by organotins in gastropods are reviewed. Finally, a new hypothesis that states that retinoid X receptor (RXR) plays an important role in inducing the development of imposex, i.e., the differentiation and growth of male-type genital organs in female gastropods, is reviewed and discussed to clarify the entire mode of action of TBT or TPT in the development of imposex in gastropods.

  9. Evaluation of the cholinomimetic actions of trimethylsulfonium, a compound present in the midgut gland of the sea hare Aplysia brasiliana (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia

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    C.M. Kerchove

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Trimethylsulfonium, a compound present in the midgut gland of the sea hare Aplysia brasiliana, negatively modulates vagal response, indicating a probable ability to inhibit cholinergic responses. In the present study, the pharmacological profile of trimethylsulfonium was characterized on muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In rat jejunum the contractile response induced by trimethylsulfonium (pD2 = 2.46 ± 0.12 and maximal response = 2.14 ± 0.32 g was not antagonized competitively by atropine. The maximal response (Emax to trimethylsulfonium was diminished in the presence of increasing doses of atropine (P<0.05, suggesting that trimethylsulfonium-induced contraction was not related to muscarinic stimulation, but might be caused by acetylcholine release due to presynaptic stimulation. Trimethylsulfonium displaced [³H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate from rat cortex membranes with a low affinity (Ki = 0.5 mM. Furthermore, it caused contraction of frog rectus abdominis muscles (pD2 = 2.70 ± 0.06 and Emax = 4.16 ± 0.9 g, which was competitively antagonized by d-tubocurarine (1, 3 or 10 µM with a pA2 of 5.79, suggesting a positive interaction with nicotinic receptors. In fact, trimethylsulfonium displaced [³H]-nicotine from rat diaphragm muscle membranes with a Ki of 27.1 µM. These results suggest that trimethylsulfonium acts as an agonist on nicotinic receptors, and thus contracts frog skeletal rectus abdominis muscle and rat jejunum smooth muscle via stimulation of postjunctional and neuronal prejunctional nicotinic cholinoreceptors, respectively.

  10. Evoked potentials in pediatric cerebral malaria

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    Minal Bhanushali

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Cortical evoked potentials (EP provide localized data regarding brain function and may offer prognostic information and insights into the pathologic mechanisms of malariamediated cerebral injury. As part of a prospective cohort study, we obtained somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs and brainstem auditory EPs (AEPs within 24 hours of admission on 27 consecutive children admitted with cerebral malaria (CM. Children underwent follow-up for 12 months to determine if they had any long term neurologic sequelae. EPs were obtained in 27 pediatric CM admissions. Two children died. Among survivors followed an average of 514 days, 7/25 (28.0% had at least one adverse neurologic outcome. Only a single subject had absent cortical EPs on admission and this child had a good neurologic outcome. Among pediatric CM survivors, cortical EPs are generally intact and do not predict adverse neurologic outcomes. Further study is needed to determine if alterations in cortical EPs can be used to predict a fatal outcome in CM.

  11. [Personality dimensions and cerebral evoked potential].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camposano, S; Alvarez, C; Lolas, F

    1994-12-01

    Eysenck's personality theory postulates 3 orthogonal dimensions of personality: extraversion (E), neuroticism (N) and psychoticism (P), predicting conductual and physiological predispositions to suffer mental illness. Biological bases of Eysenck's personality traits have been documented electrophysiologically. Psychoticism, the latest described dimension, is controverted, since there is some evidence of common factors with the other two. In order to assess the relation between Eysenck's dimensions and sensorial reactivity and information encoding processes we studied 20 healthy young subjects (mean age 28.5 years) with flash visual cortical evoked potentials (VEP, 3 intensities, peak to peak amplitude of III, IV-V-VI, VII components), and auditory cognitive evoked potentials (odd ball paradigm, P300 latency). There was a positive correlation between N and P dimensions (Spearman, r = 0.52), between N and VEP amplitude at high intensity (r = 0.58) and a negative correlation between E and P300 latency (r = 0.58). In short we found that P is not an independent dimension, but is related to sensorial reactivity. E dimension was related to encoding processes supporting Eysenck's observations about memory and learning differences.

  12. Long Latency Auditory Evoked Potentials during Meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, Shirley; Deepeshwar, Singh; Naveen, Kalkuni Visweswaraiah; Pailoor, Subramanya

    2015-10-01

    The auditory sensory pathway has been studied in meditators, using midlatency and short latency auditory evoked potentials. The present study evaluated long latency auditory evoked potentials (LLAEPs) during meditation. Sixty male participants, aged between 18 and 31 years (group mean±SD, 20.5±3.8 years), were assessed in 4 mental states based on descriptions in the traditional texts. They were (a) random thinking, (b) nonmeditative focusing, (c) meditative focusing, and (d) meditation. The order of the sessions was randomly assigned. The LLAEP components studied were P1 (40-60 ms), N1 (75-115 ms), P2 (120-180 ms), and N2 (180-280 ms). For each component, the peak amplitude and peak latency were measured from the prestimulus baseline. There was significant decrease in the peak latency of the P2 component during and after meditation (Pmeditation facilitates the processing of information in the auditory association cortex, whereas the number of neurons recruited was smaller in random thinking and non-meditative focused thinking, at the level of the secondary auditory cortex, auditory association cortex and anterior cingulate cortex. © EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ECNS) 2014.

  13. New perspectives on vestibular evoked myogenic potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengren, Sally M; Kingma, Herman

    2013-02-01

    Although the vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) measured from the cervical muscles (cVEMP, cervical VEMP) is well described and has documented clinical utility, its analogue recorded from the extraocular muscles (oVEMP, ocular VEMP) has been described only recently and is currently emerging as an additional test of otolith function. This review will, therefore, summarize recent developments in VEMP research with a focus on the oVEMP. Recent studies suggest that the oVEMP is produced by otolith afferents in the superior vestibular nerve division, whereas the cVEMP evoked by sound is thought to be an inferior vestibular nerve reflex. Correspondingly, the oVEMP correlates better with caloric and subjective visual vertical tests than sound-cVEMPs. cVEMPs are more complicated than often thought, as shown by the presence of crossed responses and conflicting results of recent vibration studies. Altered inner ear mechanics produced by the vestibular diseases superior semicircular canal dehiscence and Ménière's disease lead to changes in the preferred frequency of the oVEMP and cVEMP. The oVEMP provides complementary diagnostic information to the cVEMP and is likely to be a useful addition to the diagnostic test battery in neuro-otology.

  14. Speech Evoked Auditory Brainstem Response in Stuttering

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    Ali Akbar Tahaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory processing deficits have been hypothesized as an underlying mechanism for stuttering. Previous studies have demonstrated abnormal responses in subjects with persistent developmental stuttering (PDS at the higher level of the central auditory system using speech stimuli. Recently, the potential usefulness of speech evoked auditory brainstem responses in central auditory processing disorders has been emphasized. The current study used the speech evoked ABR to investigate the hypothesis that subjects with PDS have specific auditory perceptual dysfunction. Objectives. To determine whether brainstem responses to speech stimuli differ between PDS subjects and normal fluent speakers. Methods. Twenty-five subjects with PDS participated in this study. The speech-ABRs were elicited by the 5-formant synthesized syllable/da/, with duration of 40 ms. Results. There were significant group differences for the onset and offset transient peaks. Subjects with PDS had longer latencies for the onset and offset peaks relative to the control group. Conclusions. Subjects with PDS showed a deficient neural timing in the early stages of the auditory pathway consistent with temporal processing deficits and their abnormal timing may underlie to their disfluency.

  15. A new benzoxazine compound blocks KATP channels in pancreatic beta cells: molecular basis for tissue selectivity in vitro and hypoglycaemic action in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, J-F; Tricarico, D; Laghezza, A; Loiodice, F; Tortorella, V; Camerino, D Conte

    2006-12-01

    The 2-propyl-1,4 benzoxazine (AM10) shows a peculiar behaviour in skeletal muscle, inhibiting or opening the ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channel in the absence and presence of ATP, respectively. We focused on tissue selectivity and mechanism of action of AM10 by testing its effects on pancreatic KATP channels by means of both in vitro and in vivo investigations. In vitro, patch-clamp recordings were performed in native pancreatic beta cells and in tsA201 cells expressing the Kir6.2 Delta C36 channel. In vivo, an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test was performed in normal mice. In contrast with what observed in the skeletal muscle, AM10, in whole cell perforated mode, did not augment KATP current (I(KATP)) of native beta cells but it inhibited it in a concentration-dependent manner (IC(50): 11.5 nM; maximal block: 60%). Accordingly, in current clamp recordings, a concentration-dependent membrane depolarization was observed. On excised patches, AM10 reduced the open-time probability of KATP channels without altering their single channel conductance; the same effect was observed in the presence of trypsin in the bath solution. Moreover, AM10 inhibited, in an ATP-independent manner, the K(+) current resulting from expressed Kir6.2 Delta C36 (maximal block: 60% at 100 microM; IC(50): 12.7 nM) corroborating an interaction with Kir. In vivo, AM10 attenuated the glycemia increase following a glucose bolus in a dose-dependent manner, without, at the dose tested, inducing fasting hypoglycaemia. Altogether, these results help to gain insight into a new class of tissue specific KATP channel modulators.

  16. Intraurethral stimulation evokes bladder responses via 2 distinct reflex pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woock, John P; Yoo, Paul B; Grill, Warren M

    2009-07-01

    Recent animal studies have shown that selective activation of pudendal nerve branches can evoke bladder responses through 2 distinct reflex pathways. We examined intraurethral electrical stimulation as a minimally invasive means of selectively activating these pathways in the cat. Bladder responses evoked by intraurethral electrical stimulation were measured in alpha-chloralose anesthetized male cats at different stimulation frequencies, stimulation intensities and intraurethral locations. Intraurethral electrical stimulation evoked inhibitory and excitatory bladder reflexes depending on stimulation frequency and location. Stimulation in the penile urethra 0 to 3 cm from the urethral meatus at 33 Hz evoked bladder contraction and at 10 Hz it evoked bladder relaxation. These responses were abolished after bilateral transection of the dorsal penile nerves. Stimulation in the membranous urethra 5 to 7 cm from the urethral meatus at 2, 10 and 33 Hz evoked bladder contractions. These responses were abolished after bilateral transection of the cranial sensory nerves. Following acute spinal cord transection bladder contractions were still evoked by 33 Hz stimulation in the penile urethra but not by stimulation at any frequency in the membranous urethra. Intraurethral electrical stimulation selectively evoked bladder responses by activating 2 distinct pudendal afferent pathways. Responses depended on stimulation frequency and location. Intraurethral electrical stimulation is a valid means of determining the pathways involved in bladder responses evoked by pudendal nerve stimulation.

  17. Sensory-Evoked Intrinsic Imaging Signals in the Olfactory Bulb Are Independent of Neurovascular Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Vincis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Functional brain-imaging techniques used in humans and animals, such as functional MRI and intrinsic optical signal (IOS imaging, are thought to largely rely on neurovascular coupling and hemodynamic responses. Here, taking advantage of the well-described micro-architecture of the mouse olfactory bulb, we dissected the nature of odor-evoked IOSs. Using in vivo pharmacology in transgenic mouse lines reporting activity in different cell types, we show that parenchymal IOSs are largely independent of neurotransmitter release and neurovascular coupling. Furthermore, our results suggest that odor-evoked parenchymal IOSs originate from changes in light scattering of olfactory sensory neuron axons, mostly due to water movement following action potential propagation. Our study sheds light on a direct correlate of neuronal activity, which may be used for large-scale functional brain imaging.

  18. [Neurotoxicity of carbapenem compounds and other beta-lactam antibiotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagawa, M; Nouda, H

    1996-01-01

    The neurotoxic potencies are considerably different among various beta-lactam antibiotics. Some carbapenem antibiotics, a new class beta-lactam antibiotic, also induce convulsion in human and laboratory animals. This article reviews the structure activity relationship for the neurotoxicity of beta-lactam antibiotics, especially carbapenems. As for the neurotoxicity of carbapenem antibiotics, the presence of amino group in the C-2 side chain is an important factor in inducing convulsion and the strength of basicity of the amino group is correlated with the convulsant activity. The beta-lactam ring of carbapenem is not necessary to evoke convulsions. The neurotoxicity of carbapenem antibiotics is related to only a part of the structure, including the C-2 side chain, but not to the carbapenem skeleton itself. In comparison with other beta-lactam antibiotics, it has been found that the structure responsible for the convulsive action of carbapenems is significantly different from penicillins and cephalosporins in which the beta-lactam ring is essential to evoke convulsion. The induction of convulsions by carbapenem antibiotics is predominantly caused through the inhibition of gamma aminobutyric acid receptor in a similar manner as with penicillins and cephalosporins. However, the detail mechanism may be different not only among carbapenems, cephalosporins, and penicillins but among carbapenem compounds themselves. It is important to know the neurotoxic potential of a compound by investigating the effect of direct administration into the central nervous system such as intraventricular administration, since the penetration through blood-brain barrier or the pharmacokinetic property is varied in seriously ill patients. Possible drug interactions regarding neurotoxicity are also discussed. We hope these findings described here will be helpful in developing more efficient and safer beta-lactam antibiotics of a new generation.

  19. Recording evoked potentials during deep brain stimulation: development and validation of instrumentation to suppress the stimulus artefact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, A R; Grill, W M

    2012-06-01

    The clinical efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of movement disorders depends on the identification of appropriate stimulation parameters. Since the mechanisms of action of DBS remain unclear, programming sessions can be time consuming, costly and result in sub-optimal outcomes. Measurement of electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs) during DBS, generated by activated neurons in the vicinity of the stimulating electrode, could offer insight into the type and spatial extent of neural element activation and provide a potential feedback signal for the rational selection of stimulation parameters and closed-loop DBS. However, recording ECAPs presents a significant technical challenge due to the large stimulus artefact, which can saturate recording amplifiers and distort short latency ECAP signals. We developed DBS-ECAP recording instrumentation combining commercial amplifiers and circuit elements in a serial configuration to reduce the stimulus artefact and enable high fidelity recording. We used an electrical circuit equivalent model of the instrumentation to understand better the sources of the stimulus artefact and the mechanisms of artefact reduction by the circuit elements. In vitro testing validated the capability of the instrumentation to suppress the stimulus artefact and increase gain by a factor of 1000 to 5000 compared to a conventional biopotential amplifier. The distortion of mock ECAP (mECAP) signals was measured across stimulation parameters, and the instrumentation enabled high fidelity recording of mECAPs with latencies of only 0.5 ms for DBS pulse widths of 50 to 100 µs/phase. Subsequently, the instrumentation was used to record in vivo ECAPs, without contamination by the stimulus artefact, during thalamic DBS in an anesthetized cat. The characteristics of the physiological ECAP were dependent on stimulation parameters. The novel instrumentation enables high fidelity ECAP recording and advances the potential use

  20. Resting Heart Rate and Auditory Evoked Potential

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    Simone Fiuza Regaçone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between rest heart rate (HR and the components of the auditory evoked-related potentials (ERPs at rest in women. We investigated 21 healthy female university students between 18 and 24 years old. We performed complete audiological evaluation and measurement of heart rate for 10 minutes at rest (heart rate monitor Polar RS800CX and performed ERPs analysis (discrepancy in frequency and duration. There was a moderate negative correlation of the N1 and P3a with rest HR and a strong positive correlation of the P2 and N2 components with rest HR. Larger components of the ERP are associated with higher rest HR.

  1. Visual evoked potentials in rubber factory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, O P; Kumar, V

    1997-01-01

    Pattern reversal visual evoked potentials (pVEP) were studied in 39 male rubber factory workers in the age range of 18-55 years and 20 control subjects (aged 18-46 years) not exposed to the rubber factory environment. Results revealed that 20 (51%) rubber factory workers had abnormal latencies of wave P1 (dominant component of pVEP) as per accepted criteria of 99% tolerance limit set for the control group (i.e. any value above mean +3 SD of control was considered abnormal). The section-wise per cent distribution of abnormalities was vulcanization (83%), tubing (75%), calendering (60%), loading (38%) and mixing (14%). This study provides electrophysiological evidence that rubber factory environments affect the conduction processes in optical pathways from their origin in the retina to striate cortex. However, this study has its limitations in not identifying the specific chemical(s) causing these changes in VEP.

  2. Bayesian analysis of MEG visual evoked responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, D.M.; George, J.S.; Wood, C.C.

    1999-04-01

    The authors developed a method for analyzing neural electromagnetic data that allows probabilistic inferences to be drawn about regions of activation. The method involves the generation of a large number of possible solutions which both fir the data and prior expectations about the nature of probable solutions made explicit by a Bayesian formalism. In addition, they have introduced a model for the current distributions that produce MEG and (EEG) data that allows extended regions of activity, and can easily incorporate prior information such as anatomical constraints from MRI. To evaluate the feasibility and utility of the Bayesian approach with actual data, they analyzed MEG data from a visual evoked response experiment. They compared Bayesian analyses of MEG responses to visual stimuli in the left and right visual fields, in order to examine the sensitivity of the method to detect known features of human visual cortex organization. They also examined the changing pattern of cortical activation as a function of time.

  3. Music evokes vicarious emotions in listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Ai; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Why do we listen to sad music? We seek to answer this question using a psychological approach. It is possible to distinguish perceived emotions from those that are experienced. Therefore, we hypothesized that, although sad music is perceived as sad, listeners actually feel (experience) pleasant emotions concurrent with sadness. This hypothesis was supported, which led us to question whether sadness in the context of art is truly an unpleasant emotion. While experiencing sadness may be unpleasant, it may also be somewhat pleasant when experienced in the context of art, for example, when listening to sad music. We consider musically evoked emotion vicarious, as we are not threatened when we experience it, in the way that we can be during the course of experiencing emotion in daily life. When we listen to sad music, we experience vicarious sadness. In this review, we propose two sides to sadness by suggesting vicarious emotion. PMID:24910621

  4. RECORDING OF VESTIBULAR EVOKED MYOGENIC POTENTIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Sazgar

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown recently that loud clicks evoke myogenic potentials in the tonically contracting sternocleidomastoid muscles. Studies have suggested that these potentials are of vestibular origin, especially of the saccule and inferior vestibular nerve. A pilot study was undertaken in our hospital to record vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP for the first time in Iran. Eighteen healthy volunteers (32 ears without history of otologic or vestibular disorders were subjected to the VEMP test. Twenty-one patients (26 ears with unilateral (6 patients and bilateral (5 patients high frequency sensorineural hearing loss with unknown etiology, acoustic neuroma (1 patient, Meniere’s disease (4 patients and unilateral low frequency sensorineural hearing loss without vestibular complaint (5 patients were also enrolled in this study. VEMP response to clicks was obtained from 84.4% of ears of healthy subjects. These subjects demonstrated short latency waves to click stimuli during tonic neck flexor activation. Mean latencies of first positive (p13 and first negative (n23 potentials in healthy subjects were 12.45 ± 1.9 ms and 20.8 ± 3.5 ms, respectively. Median latencies of these two potentials were 12.1 and 19.3 ms, respectively. We could record VEMP in 5 patients with unilateral and all patients with high and low frequency sensorineural hearing loss without vestibular complaint. In the patient with acoustic neuroma VEMP was absent on the affected side. This technique may offer a new method to evaluate otolith and sacculocollic pathways in human.

  5. Inhibitory effect by new monocyclic 4-alkyliden-beta-lactam compounds on human platelet activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavanetto, Martina; Zarpellon, Alessandro; Giacomini, Daria; Galletti, Paola; Quintavalla, Arianna; Cainelli, Gianfranco; Folda, Alessandra; Scutari, Guido; Deana, Renzo

    2007-08-01

    In the present study some new beta-lactam compounds were screened for their ability to inhibit human platelet activation. In particular four compounds differing in the group on the nitrogen atom of the azetidinone ring were investigated. A beta-lactam having an ethyl 2-carboxyethanoate N-bound group was demonstrated to inhibit, in the micromolar range, both the Ca(2+) release from endoplasmic reticulum, induced either by thrombin or by the ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin, and the Ca(2+) entry in platelets driven by emptying the endoplasmic reticulum. The compound also inhibited the platelet aggregation induced by a variety of physiological agonists including ADP, collagen, thrombin and thrombin mimetic peptide TRAP. The beta-lactam reduced the phosphorylation of pleckstrin (apparent MW 47 kDa), elicited by thrombin but not by the protein kinase C activator phorbol ester. Accordingly it did not significantly affect the aggregation evoked by phorbol ester or Ca(2+) ionophore. It was concluded that the beta-lactam likely exerts its anti-platelet-activating action by hampering the agonist induced cellular Ca(2+) movements. The beta-lactam concentration, which significantly inhibited platelet activation, only negligibly affected the cellular viability. Even if it is still premature to draw definitive conclusions, the present results suggest that this new compound might constitute a tool of potential clinical interest and the starting-point for the synthesis of new more beneficial anti-thrombotic compounds.

  6. Sex differences in pudendal somatosensory evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelliccioni, G; Piloni, V; Sabbatini, D; Fioravanti, P; Scarpino, O

    2014-06-01

    Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) of the pudendal nerve are a well-established diagnostic tool for the evaluation of pelvic floor disorders. However, the possible influence of sex differences on response latencies has not been established yet. The aim of this study was to standardize the procedures and to evaluate possible effects of gender differences on anal and penile/clitoral SEPs. The anal and dorsal penile/clitoral SEPs were recorded in 84 healthy subjects (40 males and 44 females; mean age 47.9 ± 16.6 years, range 16-81 years; mean height 168.3 ± 20.3 cm, range 155-187 cm). Pudendal SEPs were evoked with a bipolar surface electrode stimulating the clitoris or the base of the penis and the anal orifice and recorded using scalp electrodes. The latency of the first positive component (P1) was measured. The effect and possible interaction of (a) stimulation site and (b) gender on the two variables was explored by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). The examination was well tolerated and a reproducible waveform of sufficient quality was obtained in all the subjects examined. In the female subjects, a mean cortical P1 latency of 37.0 ± 2.6 and 36.4 ± 3.2 ms for anal and clitoral stimulation, respectively, was found. In the male subjects, the cortical latencies were 38.0 ± 3.5 ms for the anal stimulation and 40.2 ± 3.7 ms for the penile stimulation. At MANOVA, a statistically significant main effect of stimulation site and gender as well as a significant interaction between the two variables was found. Anal and dorsal penile/clitoral SEPs represent a well-tolerated and reproducible method to assess the functional integrity of the sensory pathways in male and female subjects. Obtaining sex-specific reference data, by individual electrophysiological testing, is highly recommended because of significant latency differences between males and females, at least as far as penile/clitoral responses are concerned.

  7. G-protein coupled receptor-evoked glutamate exocytosis from astrocytes: role of prostaglandins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cali, Corrado; Lopatar, Jan; Petrelli, Francesco; Pucci, Luca; Bezzi, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytes are highly secretory cells, participating in rapid brain communication by releasing glutamate. Recent evidences have suggested that this process is largely mediated by Ca(2+)-dependent regulated exocytosis of VGLUT-positive vesicles. Here by taking advantage of VGLUT1-pHluorin and TIRF illumination, we characterized mechanisms of glutamate exocytosis evoked by endogenous transmitters (glutamate and ATP), which are known to stimulate Ca(2+) elevations in astrocytes. At first we characterized the VGLUT1-pHluorin expressing vesicles and found that VGLUT1-positive vesicles were a specific population of small synaptic-like microvesicles containing glutamate but which do not express VGLUT2. Endogenous mediators evoked a burst of exocytosis through activation of G-protein coupled receptors. Subsequent glutamate exocytosis was reduced by about 80% upon pharmacological blockade of the prostaglandin-forming enzyme, cyclooxygenase. On the other hand, receptor stimulation was accompanied by extracellular release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Interestingly, administration of exogenous PGE2 produced per se rapid, store-dependent burst exocytosis of glutamatergic vesicles in astrocytes. Finally, when PGE2-neutralizing antibody was added to cell medium, transmitter-evoked exocytosis was again significantly reduced (by about 50%). Overall these data indicate that cyclooxygenase products are responsible for a major component of glutamate exocytosis in astrocytes and that large part of such component is sustained by autocrine/paracrine action of PGE2.

  8. G-Protein Coupled Receptor-Evoked Glutamate Exocytosis from Astrocytes: Role of Prostaglandins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Cali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytes are highly secretory cells, participating in rapid brain communication by releasing glutamate. Recent evidences have suggested that this process is largely mediated by Ca2+-dependent regulated exocytosis of VGLUT-positive vesicles. Here by taking advantage of VGLUT1-pHluorin and TIRF illumination, we characterized mechanisms of glutamate exocytosis evoked by endogenous transmitters (glutamate and ATP, which are known to stimulate Ca2+ elevations in astrocytes. At first we characterized the VGLUT1-pHluorin expressing vesicles and found that VGLUT1-positive vesicles were a specific population of small synaptic-like microvesicles containing glutamate but which do not express VGLUT2. Endogenous mediators evoked a burst of exocytosis through activation of G-protein coupled receptors. Subsequent glutamate exocytosis was reduced by about 80% upon pharmacological blockade of the prostaglandin-forming enzyme, cyclooxygenase. On the other hand, receptor stimulation was accompanied by extracellular release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2. Interestingly, administration of exogenous PGE2 produced per se rapid, store-dependent burst exocytosis of glutamatergic vesicles in astrocytes. Finally, when PGE2-neutralizing antibody was added to cell medium, transmitter-evoked exocytosis was again significantly reduced (by about 50%. Overall these data indicate that cyclooxygenase products are responsible for a major component of glutamate exocytosis in astrocytes and that large part of such component is sustained by autocrine/paracrine action of PGE2.

  9. The direct actions of cannabidiol and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol at GABAAreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakas, T; van Nieuwenhuijzen, P S; Devenish, S O; McGregor, I S; Arnold, J C; Chebib, M

    2017-05-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major non-intoxicating component of cannabis and possesses anti-epileptic, anxiolytic and anti-hyperalgesic properties. The mechanism of action of CBD in producing such effects remains unclear. Despite evidence that some endogenous and synthetic cannabinoids interact with GABA A receptors, no-one has yet investigated the effects of CBD. Here we used two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology to compare the actions of CBD with those of the major central endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) on human recombinant GABA A receptors (synaptic α1-6βγ2 and extrasynaptic α4β2δ) expressed on Xenopus oocytes. CBD and 2-AG were positive allosteric modulators at α1-6βγ2 receptors, with low micromolar potencies. The maximal level of enhancement seen with either CBD or 2-AG were on α2-containing GABA A receptor subtypes, with approximately a 4-fold enhancement of the GABA EC 5 evoked current, more than twice the potentiation seen with other α-subunit receptor combinations. Further we observed β-subunit selectivity, whereby modulatory activity was higher at β2/β3 over β1 subunits. The β1-subunit homologous mutant β2(V436T) substantially diminished the efficacy of both drugs to a third of that obtained with wild-type β2 subunit combinations, but without changing potency. The potency of CBD increased and efficacy preserved in binary α1/α2β2 receptors indicating that their effects do not involve the classic benzodiazepine site. Exploration of extrasynaptic α4β2δ receptors revealed that both compounds enhanced GABA EC 5 evoked currents at concentrations ranging from 0.01-1μM. Taken together these results reveal a mode of action of CBD on specifically configured GABA A receptors that may be relevant to the anticonvulsant and anxiolytic effects of the compound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Plant cysteine proteases that evoke itch activate protease-activated receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, V.B.; Lerner, E.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Bromelain, ficin and papain are cysteine proteases from plants that produce itch upon injection into skin. Their mechanism of action has not been considered previously. Objectives To determine the mechanism by which these proteases function. Methods The ability of these proteases to activate protease-activated receptors was determined by ratiometric calcium imaging. Results We show here that bromelain, ficin and papain activate protease-activated receptors 2 and 4. Conclusions Bromelain, ficin and papain function as signalling molecules and activate protease-activated receptors. Activation of these receptors is the likely mechanism by which these proteases evoke itch. PMID:20491769

  11. Visually evoked spiking evolves while spontaneous ongoing dynamics persist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoul eHuys

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurons in the primary visual cortex spontaneously spike even when there are no visual stimuli. It is unknown whether the spiking evoked by visual stimuli is just a modification of the spontaneous ongoing cortical spiking dynamics or whether the spontaneous spiking state disappears and is replaced by evoked spiking. This study of laminar recordings of spontaneous spiking and visually evoked spiking of neurons in the ferret primary visual cortex shows that the spiking dynamics does not change: the spontaneous spiking as well as evoked spiking is controlled by a stable and persisting fixed point attractor. Its existence guarantees that evoked spiking return to the spontaneous state. However, the spontaneous ongoing spiking state and the visual evoked spiking states are qualitatively different and are separated by a threshold (separatrix. The functional advantage of this organization is that it avoids the need for a system reorganization following visual stimulation, and impedes the transition of spontaneous spiking to evoked spiking and the propagation of spontaneous spiking from layer 4 to layers 2-3.

  12. Evoked otoacoustic emissions behaviour in retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, C; Cagini, C; Menduno, P; Toniassoni, I; Desantis, A; Pennacchi, A; Ricci, G; Molini, E

    1994-01-01

    The hearing function was studied in 26 patients affected by retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and in their relatives. Sixteen patients showed bilateral normal hearing when examined with traditional audiometric methods. In these normoacusic patients evoked otoacoustic emissions (EOE) have been studied. The EOE offer a unique opportunity to measure objectively the function of outer hair cells: they record the amplitude of the energy produced by the outer hair cells of the coclea following an acoustic stimulation. The data have been statistically compared, using the Student's t-test, with those obtained in a homogeneous control-group of normal subjects. In normoacusic subjects with RP the average values of EOE intensity are statistically lower than those of normal subjects in 64 of the 127 frequency bands examined. Moreover, the distribution of the EOE in patients with retinitis pigmentosa proved to be more discontinous than that observed in the normal subjects. The EOE recorded in 14 normoacusic relatives show in some cases small anomalies but the data, on account of the limited sample group, cannot be statistically evaluated. Therefore a subclinical alteration of the Organ of Corti is found in 100% of the patients affected by RP, although they appear to be normoacusic to usual audiometric tests.

  13. Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions in rock musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høydal, Erik Harry; Lein Størmer, Carl Christian; Laukli, Einar; Stenklev, Niels Christian

    2017-09-01

    Our focus in this study was the assessment of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) in a large group of rock musicians. A further objective was to analyse tinnitus among rock musicians as related to TEOAEs. The study was a cross-sectional survey of rock musicians selected at random. A control group was included at random for comparison. We recruited 111 musicians and a control group of 40 non-musicians. Testing was conducted by using clinical examination, pure tone audiometry, TEOAEs and a questionnaire. TEOAE SNR in the half-octave frequency band centred on 4 kHz was significantly lower bilaterally in musicians than controls. This effect was strongly predicted by age and pure-tone hearing threshold levels in the 3-6 kHz range. Bilateral hearing thresholds were significantly higher at 6 kHz in musicians. Twenty percent of the musicians had permanent tinnitus. There was no association between the TEOAE parameters and permanent tinnitus. Our results suggest an incipient hearing loss at 6 kHz in rock musicians. Loss of TEOAE SNR in the 4 kHz half-octave frequency band was observed, but it was related to higher mean 3-6 kHz hearing thresholds and age. A large proportion of rock musicians have permanent tinnitus.

  14. Visual evoked potential study in slow learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliq, Farah; Anjana, Yumnam; Vaney, Neelam

    2009-01-01

    Slow learners are individuals with low achievement and comparably low IQ scores. It may be a symptom reflecting a larger underlying problem in them. Sensory neural processing of visual information can be one of the contributory factors for their underachievement. The present study was undertaken to examine the integrity and function of visual pathway by means of Visual Evoked Potential (VEP). Pattern reversal VEP was performed on seventeen slow learners. Fifteen age and sex matched children with good school performance and normal IQ were taken as controls. There was significant prolongation of N75 component of VEP in slow learners. The latencies of P100 and N145 were also increased but could not reach the level of significance. Our findings are suggestive of the presence of a weaker VEP response in slow learners indicative of a deficit early in the visual processing. There is some abnormality in the geniculate afferents to V1 which is consistent with a defect in the magnocellular pathway at the level of Visual Area 1 or earlier.

  15. Organization of sensory discrimination and response selection in choice and nonchoice conditions: a study using cerebral evoked potentials in normal humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodin, D S; Aminoff, M J; Shefrin, S L

    1990-10-01

    1. It has been suggested that the long-latency "event-related" cerebral evoked potentials (ERPs) reflect certain aspects of the neural processing underlying sensory discrimination in a two-choice reaction time task. The present paper examines the hypothesis that the coupling of these ERPs to sensory discrimination is variable and that the discrimination process is completed at different points during the course of cerebral processing, depending on the actual requirements of the task. 2. We recorded the cerebral evoked potentials and electromyogram (EMG) of the responding muscle in five different reaction time tasks, each requiring sensory discrimination and response selection of varying complexity. In the Choice condition two stimuli were presented, and two separate responses were required. In the two Go-No Go conditions two stimuli were presented, but a response was required to only one or the other of the stimuli. In the two Simple conditions only one stimulus was presented, and one response was required. 3. Under both Choice and Go-No Go conditions, the frequency histogram of the onset latency of the compound muscle action potential for the response to the frequent tone showed a bimodal distribution without overlap, suggesting that there were two distinct types of responder: fast and slow. The comparable histograms for the onset latency of the response to the rare tone also showed a bimodal distribution, but the mean onset latency was prolonged relative to the response to the frequent tone, and the mean separation was less so that the two distributions overlapped each other. 4. Despite the marked difference in response latencies between the fast and slow responders, there was no appreciable difference in cerebral evoked responses between the two groups. Moreover, in response to the frequent tone, all slow responders and, likewise, all fast responders had similar onset latencies of the averaged EMG activity regardless of condition. Nonetheless, fast or slow

  16. Transoesophageal spinal cord stimulation for motor-evoked potentials monitoring: feasibility, safety and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Kazumasa; Shiiya, Norihiko; Takahashi, Daisuke; Ohkura, Kazuhiro; Yamashita, Katsushi; Kando, Yumi

    2015-08-01

    Specificity of transcranial motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) is low because amplitude fluctuation is common, which seems due to several technical and fundamental reasons including difficulty in electrodes positioning and fixation for transcranial stimulation and susceptibility to anaesthesia. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility, safety and stability of our novel technique of transoesophageal spinal cord stimulation to improve the stability of MEPs. Ten anaesthetized adult beagle dogs were used. Transoesophageal stimulation was performed between the oesophageal luminal surface electrode (cathode) and a subcutaneous needle electrode (anode) at the fourth to fifth thoracic vertebra level. Stimulation was achieved with a train of five pulses delivered at 2.0-ms intervals. Compound muscle action potentials were recorded from four limbs and external anal sphincter muscles. Stability to anaesthetic agents was tested at varying speeds of propofol and remifentanil, and effects of varying concentration of sevoflurane inhalation were also evaluated. Transoesophageal MEPs could be recorded without difficulty in all dogs. Fluoroscopic evaluation showed that electrodes misalignment up to 5 cm cranially or caudally could be tolerated. Stimulus intensity to achieve maximum amplitude of hindlimb muscle potentials on both sides was significantly lower by transoesophageal stimulation than by transcranial stimulation (383 ± 41 vs 533 ± 121 V, P = 0.02) and had less interindividual variability. Latency of transoesophageal MEPs was shorter than that of transcranial MEPs at every recording point. No arrhythmia was provoked during stimulation. Animals that were allowed to recover showed no neurological abnormality. In the two sacrificed animals, the explanted oesophagus showed no mucosal injury. Stability to varying dose of anaesthetic agents was similar between transoesophageal and transcranial stimulation, except for the potentials of forelimbs by transoesophageal

  17. Evoked potentials and head injury. 1. Rating of evoked potential abnormality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, M; Hall, K; Hopkins, H K; Belleza, T

    1981-10-01

    This paper describes a method for rating the degree of abnormality of auditory, visual and somatosensory evoked potential patterns in head injury (HI) patients. Criteria for judging degree of EP abnormality are presented that allow assessment of the extent and severity of subcortical and cortical dysfunction associated with traumatic brain damage. Interrater reliability data based upon blind ratings of normal and HI patients are presented and shown to be highly significant. Tables of normative values of peak latencies and amplitudes are given and illustrations of EP patterns of different degrees of abnormality are presented.

  18. Somatosensory evoked potentials in children with autism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hanan Galal Azouz

    2013-09-07

    Sep 7, 2013 ... Abstract Introduction: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder in the category of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), which is characterized by widespread abnormalities of social inter- actions, communication, and severely restricted interests and highly repetitive behavior. Children with autism show ...

  19. Characterisation and mechanisms of bradykinin-evoked pain in man using iontophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Kathryn J; Zambreanu, Laura; Bennett, David L H; McMahon, Stephen B

    2013-06-01

    Bradykinin (BK) is an inflammatory mediator that can evoke oedema and vasodilatation, and is a potent algogen signalling via the B1 and B2 G-protein coupled receptors. In naïve skin, BK is effective via constitutively expressed B2 receptors (B2R), while B1 receptors (B1R) are purported to be upregulated by inflammation. The aim of this investigation was to optimise BK delivery to investigate the algesic effects of BK and how these are modulated by inflammation. BK iontophoresis evoked dose- and temperature-dependent pain and neurogenic erythema, as well as thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia (P skin was pretreated with compound 4880 to degranulate the MCs prior to BK challenge. The early phase of BK-evoked pain was reduced in degranulated skin (P wheal, and flare were still evident. In contrast to BK, the B1R selective agonist des-Arg9-BK failed to induce pain or sensitise naïve skin. However, following skin inflammation induced by ultraviolet B irradiation, this compound produced a robust pain response. We have optimised a versatile experimental model by which BK and its analogues can be administered to human skin. We have found that there is an early phase of BK-induced pain which partly depends on the release of inflammatory mediators by MCs; however, subsequent hyperalgesia is not dependent on MC degranulation. In naïve skin, B2R signaling predominates, however, cutaneous inflammation results in enhanced B1R responses. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Towards a neural basis of music-evoked emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan

    2010-03-01

    Music is capable of evoking exceptionally strong emotions and of reliably affecting the mood of individuals. Functional neuroimaging and lesion studies show that music-evoked emotions can modulate activity in virtually all limbic and paralimbic brain structures. These structures are crucially involved in the initiation, generation, detection, maintenance, regulation and termination of emotions that have survival value for the individual and the species. Therefore, at least some music-evoked emotions involve the very core of evolutionarily adaptive neuroaffective mechanisms. Because dysfunctions in these structures are related to emotional disorders, a better understanding of music-evoked emotions and their neural correlates can lead to a more systematic and effective use of music in therapy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Distraction Reduces Both Early and Late Electrocutaneous Stimulus Evoked Potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, J.H.G.; Wiering, Caro H.; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Previous electroencephalography studies revealed mixed effects of sustained distraction on early negative and later positive event-related potential components evoked by electrocutaneous stimuli. In our study we further examined the influence of sustained distraction to clarify these discrepancies.

  2. Click-evoked responses in vestibular afferents in rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhu, Hong; Tang, Xuehui; Wei, Wei; Mustain, William; Xu, Youguo; Zhou, Wu

    2011-01-01

    Sound activates not only the cochlea but also the vestibular end organs. Research on this phenomenon led to the discovery of the sound-evoked vestibular myogenic potentials recorded from the sternocleidomastoid muscles...

  3. Recording evoked potentials during deep brain stimulation: development and validation of instrumentation to suppress the stimulus artefact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, A R; Grill, W M

    2012-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for movement disorders, but the selection of stimulus parameters is a clinical burden and often yields sub-optimal outcomes for patients. Measurement of electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs) during DBS could offer insight into the type and spatial extent of neural element activation and provide a potential feedback signal for the rational selection of stimulus parameters and closed-loop DBS. However, recording ECAPs presents a significant technical challenge due to the large stimulus artefact, which can saturate recording amplifiers and distort short latency ECAP signals. We developed DBS-ECAP recording instrumentation combining commercial amplifiers and circuit elements in a serial configuration to reduce the stimulus artefact and enable high fidelity recording. We used an electrical circuit equivalent model of the instrumentation to understand better the sources of the stimulus artefact and the mechanisms of artefact reduction by the circuit elements. In vitro testing validated the capability of the instrumentation to suppress the stimulus artefact and increase gain by a factor of 1,000 to 5,000 compared to a conventional biopotential amplifier. The distortion of mock ECAP (mECAP) signals was measured across stimulation parameters, and the instrumentation enabled high fidelity recording of mECAPs with latencies of only 0.5 ms for DBS pulse widths of 50 to 100 μs/phase. Subsequently, the instrumentation was used to record in vivo ECAPs, without contamination by the stimulus artefact, during thalamic DBS in an anesthetized cat. The characteristics of the physiological ECAP were dependent on stimulation parameters. The novel instrumentation enables high fidelity ECAP recording and advances the potential use of the ECAP as a feedback signal for the tuning of DBS parameters. PMID:22510375

  4. Real-time estimation of FES-induced joint torque with evoked EMG : Application to spinal cord injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhan; Guiraud, David; Andreu, David; Benoussaad, Mourad; Fattal, Charles; Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro

    2016-06-22

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a neuroprosthetic technique for restoring lost motor function of spinal cord injured (SCI) patients and motor-impaired subjects by delivering short electrical pulses to their paralyzed muscles or motor nerves. FES induces action potentials respectively on muscles or nerves so that muscle activity can be characterized by the synchronous recruitment of motor units with its compound electromyography (EMG) signal is called M-wave. The recorded evoked EMG (eEMG) can be employed to predict the resultant joint torque, and modeling of FES-induced joint torque based on eEMG is an essential step to provide necessary prediction of the expected muscle response before achieving accurate joint torque control by FES. Previous works on FES-induced torque tracking issues were mainly based on offline analysis. However, toward personalized clinical rehabilitation applications, real-time FES systems are essentially required considering the subject-specific muscle responses against electrical stimulation. This paper proposes a wireless portable stimulator used for estimating/predicting joint torque based on real time processing of eEMG. Kalman filter and recurrent neural network (RNN) are embedded into the real-time FES system for identification and estimation. Prediction results on 3 able-bodied subjects and 3 SCI patients demonstrate promising performances. As estimators, both Kalman filter and RNN approaches show clinically feasible results on estimation/prediction of joint torque with eEMG signals only, moreover RNN requires less computational requirement. The proposed real-time FES system establishes a platform for estimating and assessing the mechanical output, the electromyographic recordings and associated models. It will contribute to open a new modality for personalized portable neuroprosthetic control toward consolidated personal healthcare for motor-impaired patients.

  5. Actions of insecticides on the insect GABA receptor complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermudez, I.; Hawkins, C.A.; Taylor, A.M.; Beadle, D.J. (School of Biological and Molecular Sciences, Oxford Polytechnic, Headington, Oxford (England))

    1991-01-01

    The actions of insecticides on the insect gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor were investigated using (35S)t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (( 35S)TBPS) binding and voltage-clamp techniques. Specific binding of (35S)TBPS to a membrane homogenate derived from the brain of Locusta migratoria locusts is characterised by a Kd value of 79.3 {plus minus} 2.9 nM and a Bmax value of 1770 {plus minus} 40 fmol/mg protein. (35S)TBPS binding is inhibited by mM concentrations of barbiturates and benzodiazepines. In contrast dieldrin, ivermectin, lindane, picrotoxin and TBPS are inhibitors of (35S)TBPS binding at the nanomolar range. Bicuculline, baclofen and pyrethroid insecticides have no effect on (35S)TBPS binding. These results are similar to those obtained in electrophysiological studies of the current elicited by GABA in both Locusta and Periplaneta americana central neurones. Noise analysis of the effects of lindane, TBPS, dieldrin and picrotoxin on the cockroach GABA responses reveals that these compounds decrease the variance of the GABA-induced current but have no effect on its mean open time. All these compounds, with the exception of dieldrin, significantly decrease the conductance of GABA-evoked single current.

  6. Chronic treatment with escitalopram but not R-citalopram translocates Galpha(s) from lipid raft domains and potentiates adenylyl cyclase: a 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter-independent action of this antidepressant compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lanqiu; Rasenick, Mark M

    2010-03-01

    Chronic antidepressant treatment has been shown to increase adenylyl cyclase activity, in part, due to translocation of Galpha(s) from lipid rafts to a nonraft fraction of the plasma membrane where they engage in a more facile stimulation of adenylyl cyclase. This effect holds for multiple classes of antidepressants, and for serotonin uptake inhibitors, it occurs in the absence of the serotonin transporter. In the present study, we examined the change in the amount of Galpha(s) in lipid raft and whole cell lysate after exposing C6 cells to escitalopram. The results showed that chronic (but not acute) escitalopram decreased the content of Galpha(s) in lipid rafts, whereas there was no change in overall Galpha(s) content. These effects were drug dose- and exposure time-dependent. Although R-citalopram has been reported to antagonize some effects of escitalopram, this compound was without effect on Galpha(s) localization in lipid rafts, and R-citalopram did not inhibit these actions of escitalopram. Escitalopram treatment increased cAMP accumulation, and this seemed due to increased coupling between Galpha(s) and adenylyl cyclase. Thus, escitalopram is potent, rapid and efficacious in translocating Galpha(s) from lipid rafts, and this effect seems to occur independently of 5-hydroxytryptamine transporters. Our results suggest that, although antidepressants display distinct affinities for well identified targets (e.g., monoamine transporters), several presynaptic and postsynaptic molecules are probably modified during chronic antidepressant treatment, and these additional targets may be required for clinical efficacy of these drugs.

  7. Chronic Treatment with Escitalopram but Not R-Citalopram Translocates Gαs from Lipid Raft Domains and Potentiates Adenylyl Cyclase: A 5-Hydroxytryptamine Transporter-Independent Action of This Antidepressant Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lanqiu

    2010-01-01

    Chronic antidepressant treatment has been shown to increase adenylyl cyclase activity, in part, due to translocation of Gαs from lipid rafts to a nonraft fraction of the plasma membrane where they engage in a more facile stimulation of adenylyl cyclase. This effect holds for multiple classes of antidepressants, and for serotonin uptake inhibitors, it occurs in the absence of the serotonin transporter. In the present study, we examined the change in the amount of Gαs in lipid raft and whole cell lysate after exposing C6 cells to escitalopram. The results showed that chronic (but not acute) escitalopram decreased the content of Gαs in lipid rafts, whereas there was no change in overall Gαs content. These effects were drug dose- and exposure time-dependent. Although R-citalopram has been reported to antagonize some effects of escitalopram, this compound was without effect on Gαs localization in lipid rafts, and R-citalopram did not inhibit these actions of escitalopram. Escitalopram treatment increased cAMP accumulation, and this seemed due to increased coupling between Gαs and adenylyl cyclase. Thus, escitalopram is potent, rapid and efficacious in translocating Gαs from lipid rafts, and this effect seems to occur independently of 5-hydroxytryptamine transporters. Our results suggest that, although antidepressants display distinct affinities for well identified targets (e.g., monoamine transporters), several presynaptic and postsynaptic molecules are probably modified during chronic antidepressant treatment, and these additional targets may be required for clinical efficacy of these drugs. PMID:19996298

  8. Toluene Diisocyanates (TDI) Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Action Plan addresses the use of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and related compounds in products that may result in consumer and general population exposures, particularly in or around buildings, including homes and schools.

  9. Differential contribution of sodium channel subtypes to action potential generation in unmyelinated human C-type nerve fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Philip M; Hilmer, Verena B; Grafe, Peter

    2007-09-01

    Multiple voltage-dependent sodium channels (Na(v)) contribute to action potentials and excitability of primary nociceptive neurons. The aim of the current study was to characterize subtypes of Na(v) that contribute to action potential generation in peripheral unmyelinated human C-type nerve fibers. Registration of C-fiber compound action potentials and determination of membrane threshold was performed by a computerized threshold tracking program. Nerve fibers were stimulated with a 1-ms current pulse either alone or after a small ramp current lasting 300 ms. Compound C-fiber action potentials elicited by supramaximal 1-ms current pulses were rather resistant to application of tetrodotoxin (30-90 nM). However, the same concentrations of tetrodotoxin strongly reduced the peak height and elevated membrane threshold of action potentials evoked at the end of a 300-ms current ramp. A similar effect was observed during application of lidocaine and mexiletine (50 microM each). These data indicate that more than one type of Na(v) contributes to the generation of action potentials in unmyelinated human C-type nerve fibers. The peak height of an action potential produced by a short electrical impulse is dependent on the activation of tetrodotoxin-resistant ion channels. In contrast, membrane threshold and action potential peak height at the end of a slow membrane depolarization are regulated by a subtype of Na(v) with high sensitivity to low concentrations of tetrodotoxin, lidocaine, and mexiletine. The electrophysiologic and pharmacologic characteristics may indicate the functional activity of the Na(v) 1.7 subtype of voltage-dependent sodium channels.

  10. Flash visual evoked potentials in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jing-Jing; Wang, Wei-Ping; Guo, Shu-Juan; Liu, Zhi-Wei; Xu, Xiu

    2013-03-01

    To describe the development of flash visual evoked potentials (FVEPs) in preterm infants from 1 to 18 months and to determine if the maturation of FVEPs is similar to that of term infants. Longitudinal follow-up study. Twenty very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants, 42 low birth weight (LBW) preterm infants, and 41 term infants underwent FVEP recordings and neurodevelopmental examinations at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months of corrected and chronological ages. The FVEP recordings were carried out with the VikingQuest-IV neuroelectrophysiological device (VikingQuest, Nicolet, WI), and neurodevelopmental assessments were made by the Development Screen Test and Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition. At 1, 3, 6, and 9 months of age, neurodevelopment was measured with the Mental Index and Developmental Quotient. At 12 and 18 months, neurodevelopment was assessed using the Mental Developmental Index and Psychomotor Developmental Index. Two FVEP values were analyzed: the P2 amplitude (peak to peak from the preceding N2 wave) and the latency of the P2 wave. There was no significant difference for age-dependent decreased pattern of FVEP P2 latency between preterm infants and the control group. This pattern consisted of a rapid decrease in the first 6 months of life, a gradual decline from 6 to 12 months of age, and a steady reduction from 12 to 18 months of age. The P2 latencies were prolonged significantly at all 6 recorded times in the VLBW group compared with the controls and showed a delay in the LBW group at 1 and 3 months of corrected age. The maturation of P2 latency in LBW infants is similar to that of the controls at 3 months of corrected age, but the maturation of P2 latency in VLBW children remained delayed when compared with the controls until 18 months of corrected age. Although the FVEP development pattern of preterm infants was similar to that of healthy full-term infants, the former had deficits in visual electrophysiologic maturation

  11. Effects of intraocular mescaline and LSD on visual-evoked responses in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eells, J T; Wilkison, D M

    1989-01-01

    The effects of mescaline and LSD on the flash-evoked cortical potential (FEP) were determined in unrestrained rats with chronically-implanted electrodes. Systemic administration of mescaline or LSD significantly attenuated the primary component of the FEP at three stimulus intensities with the greatest effect observed 60-90 minutes following drug administration. The magnitude and specificity of the effects of these agents on the primary response suggest that they produce deficits in conduction through the retino-geniculato-cortical system. The serotonin receptor antagonists, cyproheptadine and methysergide, antagonized the mescaline-induced depression of the FEP in accordance with neurochemical and behavioral evidence that mescaline acts as a partial agonist on serotonin receptors. Topical or intraocular administration of atropine antagonized the actions of systemically-administered mescaline. In addition, intraocular administration of mescaline or LSD attenuated the FEP indicative of an action of these hallucinogens on visual processing in the retina which is modulated by muscarinic receptor activity.

  12. [Glu2]TRH dose-dependently attenuates TRH-evoked analeptic effect in the mouse brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vien; Zharikova, Alevtina D.; Prokai-Tatrai, Katalin; Prokai, Laszlo

    2010-01-01

    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH, pGlu-His-Pro-NH2) and the structurally related [Glu2]TRH (pGlu-Glu-Pro-NH2) are endogenous peptides with a plethora of actions in the central nervous system. Many centrally-mediated effects of TRH are shared with those of [Glu2]TRH, although the involvement of different receptors are presumed. The analeptic action is the best-known TRH-related central nervous system effect. While [Glu2]TRH itself is analeptic, its co-administration with TRH into mice produced a dose-depended attenuation of TRH-evoked reversal of barbiturate-induced sleeping time. This finding is in agreement with our previous observations that [Glu2]TRH significantly attenuates TRH-induced hippocampal extracellular acetylcholine release. Taken together, [Glu2]TRH may be considered as a negative modulator for the cholinergic effect of TRH in the mouse brain. PMID:20188155

  13. [Glu2]TRH dose-dependently attenuates TRH-evoked analeptic effect in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vien; Zharikova, Alevtina D; Prokai-Tatrai, Katalin; Prokai, Laszlo

    2010-04-29

    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH, pGlu-His-Pro-NH(2)) and the structurally related [Glu(2)]TRH (pGlu-Glu-Pro-NH(2)) are endogenous peptides with a plethora of actions in the central nervous system. Many centrally-mediated effects of TRH are shared with those of [Glu(2)]TRH, although the involvement of different receptors is presumed. The analeptic action is the best-known TRH-related central nervous system effect. While [Glu(2)]TRH itself is analeptic, its co-administration with TRH into mice produced a dose-dependent attenuation of TRH-evoked reversal of barbiturate-induced sleeping time. This finding is in agreement with our previous observations that [Glu(2)]TRH significantly attenuates TRH-induced hippocampal extracellular acetylcholine release. Taken together, [Glu(2)]TRH may be considered as a negative modulator for the cholinergic effect of TRH in the mouse brain. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Action semantics modulate action prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that action prediction involves an internal action simulation that runs time-locked to the real action. The present study replicates and extends these findings by indicating a real-time simulation process (Graf et al., 2007), which can be differentiated from a similarity-based evaluation of internal action representations. Moreover, results showed that action semantics modulate action prediction accuracy. The semantic effect was specified by the processing of action verbs and concrete nouns (Experiment 1) and, more specifically, by the dynamics described by action verbs (Experiment 2) and the speed described by the verbs (e.g., "to catch" vs. "to grasp" vs. "to stretch"; Experiment 3). These results propose a linkage between action simulation and action semantics as two yet unrelated domains, a view that coincides with a recent notion of a close link between motor processes and the understanding of action language.

  15. Natural compounds with herbicidal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Montemurro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Research about phytotoxic activity of natural compounds could lead both to find new herbicidal active ingredients and to plan environmental friendly weed control strategies. Particularly, living organisms could be a source of compounds that are impossible, for their complexity, to synthesize artificially. More over, they could have alternative sites of action respect to the known chemical herbicides and, due to their origin, they should be more environmental safe. Many living organism, such as bacteria, fungi, insects, lichens and plants, are able to produce bioactive compounds. They generally are secondary metabolites or simply waste molecules. In this paper we make a review about these compounds, highlighting potential and constraints.

  16. The paradox of music-evoked sadness: an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taruffi, Liila; Koelsch, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This study explores listeners' experience of music-evoked sadness. Sadness is typically assumed to be undesirable and is therefore usually avoided in everyday life. Yet the question remains: Why do people seek and appreciate sadness in music? We present findings from an online survey with both Western and Eastern participants (N = 772). The survey investigates the rewarding aspects of music-evoked sadness, as well as the relative contribution of listener characteristics and situational factors to the appreciation of sad music. The survey also examines the different principles through which sadness is evoked by music, and their interaction with personality traits. Results show 4 different rewards of music-evoked sadness: reward of imagination, emotion regulation, empathy, and no "real-life" implications. Moreover, appreciation of sad music follows a mood-congruent fashion and is greater among individuals with high empathy and low emotional stability. Surprisingly, nostalgia rather than sadness is the most frequent emotion evoked by sad music. Correspondingly, memory was rated as the most important principle through which sadness is evoked. Finally, the trait empathy contributes to the evocation of sadness via contagion, appraisal, and by engaging social functions. The present findings indicate that emotional responses to sad music are multifaceted, are modulated by empathy, and are linked with a multidimensional experience of pleasure. These results were corroborated by a follow-up survey on happy music, which indicated differences between the emotional experiences resulting from listening to sad versus happy music. This is the first comprehensive survey of music-evoked sadness, revealing that listening to sad music can lead to beneficial emotional effects such as regulation of negative emotion and mood as well as consolation. Such beneficial emotional effects constitute the prime motivations for engaging with sad music in everyday life.

  17. The paradox of music-evoked sadness: an online survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liila Taruffi

    Full Text Available This study explores listeners' experience of music-evoked sadness. Sadness is typically assumed to be undesirable and is therefore usually avoided in everyday life. Yet the question remains: Why do people seek and appreciate sadness in music? We present findings from an online survey with both Western and Eastern participants (N = 772. The survey investigates the rewarding aspects of music-evoked sadness, as well as the relative contribution of listener characteristics and situational factors to the appreciation of sad music. The survey also examines the different principles through which sadness is evoked by music, and their interaction with personality traits. Results show 4 different rewards of music-evoked sadness: reward of imagination, emotion regulation, empathy, and no "real-life" implications. Moreover, appreciation of sad music follows a mood-congruent fashion and is greater among individuals with high empathy and low emotional stability. Surprisingly, nostalgia rather than sadness is the most frequent emotion evoked by sad music. Correspondingly, memory was rated as the most important principle through which sadness is evoked. Finally, the trait empathy contributes to the evocation of sadness via contagion, appraisal, and by engaging social functions. The present findings indicate that emotional responses to sad music are multifaceted, are modulated by empathy, and are linked with a multidimensional experience of pleasure. These results were corroborated by a follow-up survey on happy music, which indicated differences between the emotional experiences resulting from listening to sad versus happy music. This is the first comprehensive survey of music-evoked sadness, revealing that listening to sad music can lead to beneficial emotional effects such as regulation of negative emotion and mood as well as consolation. Such beneficial emotional effects constitute the prime motivations for engaging with sad music in everyday life.

  18. The Paradox of Music-Evoked Sadness: An Online Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taruffi, Liila; Koelsch, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This study explores listeners’ experience of music-evoked sadness. Sadness is typically assumed to be undesirable and is therefore usually avoided in everyday life. Yet the question remains: Why do people seek and appreciate sadness in music? We present findings from an online survey with both Western and Eastern participants (N = 772). The survey investigates the rewarding aspects of music-evoked sadness, as well as the relative contribution of listener characteristics and situational factors to the appreciation of sad music. The survey also examines the different principles through which sadness is evoked by music, and their interaction with personality traits. Results show 4 different rewards of music-evoked sadness: reward of imagination, emotion regulation, empathy, and no “real-life” implications. Moreover, appreciation of sad music follows a mood-congruent fashion and is greater among individuals with high empathy and low emotional stability. Surprisingly, nostalgia rather than sadness is the most frequent emotion evoked by sad music. Correspondingly, memory was rated as the most important principle through which sadness is evoked. Finally, the trait empathy contributes to the evocation of sadness via contagion, appraisal, and by engaging social functions. The present findings indicate that emotional responses to sad music are multifaceted, are modulated by empathy, and are linked with a multidimensional experience of pleasure. These results were corroborated by a follow-up survey on happy music, which indicated differences between the emotional experiences resulting from listening to sad versus happy music. This is the first comprehensive survey of music-evoked sadness, revealing that listening to sad music can lead to beneficial emotional effects such as regulation of negative emotion and mood as well as consolation. Such beneficial emotional effects constitute the prime motivations for engaging with sad music in everyday life. PMID:25330315

  19. Amiodarone reduces depolarization-evoked glutamate release from hippocampual synaptosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia Yu Chang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Decreased brain glutamate level has emerged as a new therapeutic approach for epilepsy. This study investigated the effect and mechanism of amiodarone, an anti-arrhythmic drug with antiepileptic activity, on glutamate release in the rat hippocampus. In a synaptosomal preparation, amiodarone reduced 4-aminopyridine-evoked Ca2+-dependent glutamate release and cytosolic Ca2+ concentration elevation. Amiodarone did not affect the 4-aminopyridine-evoked depolarization of the synaptosomal membrane potential or the Na+ channel activator veratridine-evoked glutamate release, indicating that the amiodarone-mediated inhibition of glutamate release is not caused by a decrease in synaptosomal excitability. The inhibitory effect of amiodarone on 4-aminopyridine-evoked glutamate release was markedly decreased in synaptosomes pretreated with the Cav2.2 (N-type and Cav2.1 (P/Q-type channel blocker ω-conotoxin MVIIC, the calmodulin antagonists W7 and calmidazolium, or the protein kinase A inhibitors H89 and KT5720. However, the intracellular Ca2+-release inhibitors dantrolene and CGP37157 had no effect on the amiodarone-mediated inhibition of glutamate release. Furthermore, amiodarone reduced the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents without affecting their amplitude in hippocampal slices. Our data suggest that amiodarone reduces Ca2+ influx through N- and P/Q-type Ca2+ channels, subsequently reducing the Ca2+-calmodulin/protein kinase A cascade to inhibit the evoked glutamate release from rat hippocampal nerve terminals.

  20. Human auditory evoked potentials. II - Effects of attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picton, T. W.; Hillyard, S. A.

    1974-01-01

    Attention directed toward auditory stimuli, in order to detect an occasional fainter 'signal' stimulus, caused a substantial increase in the N1 (83 msec) and P2 (161 msec) components of the auditory evoked potential without any change in preceding components. This evidence shows that human auditory attention is not mediated by a peripheral gating mechanism. The evoked response to the detected signal stimulus also contained a large P3 (450 msec) wave that was topographically distinct from the preceding components. This late positive wave could also be recorded in response to a detected omitted stimulus in a regular train and therefore seemed to index a stimulus-independent perceptual decision process.

  1. Anaesthetic tricaine acts preferentially on neural voltage-gated sodium channels and fails to block directly evoked muscle contraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seetharamaiah Attili

    Full Text Available Movements in animals arise through concerted action of neurons and skeletal muscle. General anaesthetics prevent movement and cause loss of consciousness by blocking neural function. Anaesthetics of the amino amide-class are thought to act by blockade of voltage-gated sodium channels. In fish, the commonly used anaesthetic tricaine methanesulphonate, also known as 3-aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester, metacaine or MS-222, causes loss of consciousness. However, its role in blocking action potentials in distinct excitable cells is unclear, raising the possibility that tricaine could act as a neuromuscular blocking agent directly causing paralysis. Here we use evoked electrical stimulation to show that tricaine efficiently blocks neural action potentials, but does not prevent directly evoked muscle contraction. Nifedipine-sensitive L-type Cav channels affecting movement are also primarily neural, suggesting that muscle Nav channels are relatively insensitive to tricaine. These findings show that tricaine used at standard concentrations in zebrafish larvae does not paralyse muscle, thereby diminishing concern that a direct action on muscle could mask a lack of general anaesthesia.

  2. Visual evoked responses during standing and walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Gramann

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Human cognition has been shaped both by our body structure and by its complex interactionswith its environment. Our cognition is thus inextricably linked to our own and others’ motorbehavior. To model brain activity associated with natural cognition, we propose recording theconcurrent brain dynamics and body movements of human subjects performing normal actions.Here we tested the feasibility of such a mobile brain/body (MoBI imaging approach byrecording high-density electroencephalographic (EEG activity and body movements of subjectsstanding or walking on a treadmill while performing a visual oddball response task. Independentcomponent analysis (ICA of the EEG data revealed visual event-related potentials (ERPs thatduring standing, slow walking, and fast walking did not differ across movement conditions,demonstrating the viability of recording brain activity accompanying cognitive processes duringwhole body movement. Non-invasive and relatively low-cost MoBI studies of normal, motivatedactions might improve understanding of interactions between brain and body dynamics leadingto more complete biological models of cognition.

  3. Multipurpose Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

  4. Complementary Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa eSartori

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Complementary colors are color pairs which, when combined in the right proportions, produce white or black. Complementary actions refer here to forms of social interaction wherein individuals adapt their joint actions according to a common aim. Notably, complementary actions are incongruent actions. But being incongruent is not sufficient to be complementary (i.e., to complete the action of another person. Successful complementary interactions are founded on the abilities: (i to simulate another person’s movements, (ii to predict another person’s future action/s, (iii to produce an appropriate incongruent response which differ, while interacting, with observed ones, and (iv to complete the social interaction by integrating the predicted effects of one’s own action with those of another person. This definition clearly alludes to the functional importance of complementary actions in the perception–action cycle and prompts us to scrutinize what is taking place behind the scenes. Preliminary data on this topic have been provided by recent cutting-edge studies utilizing different research methods. This mini-review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the processes and the specific activations underlying complementary actions.

  5. Automatic Recruitment of the Motor System by Undetected Graspable Objects: A Motor-evoked Potential Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Nicolas A; Behrens, Ashleigh D; Harris, Irina M

    2017-11-01

    Previous behavioral and neuroimaging studies have suggested that the motor properties associated with graspable objects may be automatically accessed when people passively view these objects. We directly tested this by measuring the excitability of the motor pathway when participants viewed pictures of graspable objects that were presented during the attentional blink (AB), when items frequently go undetected. Participants had to identify two briefly presented objects separated by either a short or long SOA. Motor-evoked potentials were measured from the right hand in response to a single TMS pulse delivered over the left primary motor cortex 250 msec after the onset of the second target. Behavioral results showed poorer identification of objects at short SOA compared with long SOA, consistent with an AB, which did not differ between graspable and nongraspable objects. However, motor-evoked potentials measured during the AB were significantly higher for graspable objects than for nongraspable objects, irrespective of whether the object was successfully identified or undetected. This provides direct evidence that the motor system is automatically activated during visual processing of objects that afford a motor action.

  6. Contact heat evoked potentials using simultaneous EEG and fMRI and their correlation with evoked pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atherton Duncan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Contact Heat Evoked Potential Stimulator (CHEPS utilises rapidly delivered heat pulses with adjustable peak temperatures to stimulate the differential warm/heat thresholds of receptors expressed by Aδ and C fibres. The resulting evoked potentials can be recorded and measured, providing a useful clinical tool for the study of thermal and nociceptive pathways. Concurrent recording of contact heat evoked potentials using electroencephalogram (EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI has not previously been reported with CHEPS. Developing simultaneous EEG and fMRI with CHEPS is highly desirable, as it provides an opportunity to exploit the high temporal resolution of EEG and the high spatial resolution of fMRI to study the reaction of the human brain to thermal and nociceptive stimuli. Methods In this study we have recorded evoked potentials stimulated by 51°C contact heat pulses from CHEPS using EEG, under normal conditions (baseline, and during continuous and simultaneous acquisition of fMRI images in ten healthy volunteers, during two sessions. The pain evoked by CHEPS was recorded on a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. Results Analysis of EEG data revealed that the latencies and amplitudes of evoked potentials recorded during continuous fMRI did not differ significantly from baseline recordings. fMRI results were consistent with previous thermal pain studies, and showed Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD changes in the insula, post-central gyrus, supplementary motor area (SMA, middle cingulate cortex and pre-central gyrus. There was a significant positive correlation between the evoked potential amplitude (EEG and the psychophysical perception of pain on the VAS. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of recording contact heat evoked potentials with EEG during continuous and simultaneous fMRI. The combined use of the two methods can lead to identification of distinct patterns of brain

  7. Modeling the response of small myelinated axons in a compound nerve to kilohertz frequency signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelot, N. A.; Behrend, C. E.; Grill, W. M.

    2017-08-01

    Objective. There is growing interest in electrical neuromodulation of peripheral nerves, particularly autonomic nerves, to treat various diseases. Electrical signals in the kilohertz frequency (KHF) range can produce different responses, including conduction block. For example, EnteroMedics’ vBloc® therapy for obesity delivers 5 kHz stimulation to block the abdominal vagus nerves, but the mechanisms of action are unclear. Approach. We developed a two-part computational model, coupling a 3D finite element model of a cuff electrode around the human abdominal vagus nerve with biophysically-realistic electrical circuit equivalent (cable) model axons (1, 2, and 5.7 µm in diameter). We developed an automated algorithm to classify conduction responses as subthreshold (transmission), KHF-evoked activity (excitation), or block. We quantified neural responses across kilohertz frequencies (5-20 kHz), amplitudes (1-8 mA), and electrode designs. Main results. We found heterogeneous conduction responses across the modeled nerve trunk, both for a given parameter set and across parameter sets, although most suprathreshold responses were excitation, rather than block. The firing patterns were irregular near transmission and block boundaries, but otherwise regular, and mean firing rates varied with electrode-fibre distance. Further, we identified excitation responses at amplitudes above block threshold, termed ‘re-excitation’, arising from action potentials initiated at virtual cathodes. Excitation and block thresholds decreased with smaller electrode-fibre distances, larger fibre diameters, and lower kilohertz frequencies. A point source model predicted a larger fraction of blocked fibres and greater change of threshold with distance as compared to the realistic cuff and nerve model. Significance. Our findings of widespread asynchronous KHF-evoked activity suggest that conduction block in the abdominal vagus nerves is unlikely with current clinical parameters. Our

  8. Mesoionic Compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 10. Mesoionic Compounds - An Unconventional Class of Aromatic Heterocycles. Bharati V Badami. General Article Volume 11 Issue 10 October 2006 pp 40-48. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  9. Mesoionic Compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sydnone, the representative mesoionic compound has been extensively studied because of its unusual structure, chemi- cal properties and synthetic utility. Sydnone is used as a versatile synthon in heterocyclic synthesis. This article gives a brief account of the comparative studies of the structural features of mesoionic ...

  10. Evoked responses to sinusoidally modulated sound in unanaesthetized dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielen, A.M.; Kamp, A.; Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Reneau, J.P.; Storm van Leeuwen, W.

    1. 1. Responses evoked by sinusoidally amplitude-modulated sound in unanaesthetized dogs have been recorded from inferior colliculus and from auditory cortex structures by means of chronically indwelling stainless steel wire electrodes. 2. 2. Harmonic analysis of the average responses demonstrated

  11. Pattern visual evoked responses in hereditary spastic paraplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, I R; Mastaglia, F L; Edis, R; Howe, J W

    1981-01-01

    Pattern visual evoked responses were studied in 13 patients from nine families with dominant herditary spastic paraplegia and in seven sporadic cases. The responses were normal in all the dominantly inherited cases but abnormal in three of the seven sporadic cases. PMID:7217977

  12. The role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Visual Evoked ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: To report our experience in management of patients with optic neuritis. The effects of brain magnetic resonance imaging and visual evoked potential on management were investigated. Methods: This is a four years clinical trial that included patients presenting with first attack of optic neuritis older than 16 years ...

  13. Temporal Tuning Effects in the Visually Evoked Response,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    Berger (1932) also observed that these brain waves are slowed in states of depressed function such as sleep activity and that they can be blocked by...Ma4cay and Jefferys, 1973). Transient VER’s, polyphasic in form and 200-500 milliseconds in duration, are evoked by stepwise changes in one or more per

  14. Visual evoked potentials in workers with chronic solvent encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberk, Maarten M.; Brons, Joke T.; Sallé, Herman J. A.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. Two promising variations of visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were studied in solvent-exposed workers: the effect of a low-contrast stimulus in comparison with the usually applied high contrast, and the ability of pattern-onset VEP to reveal damage to specific visual cortical areas. In

  15. The computation of evoked heart rate and blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koers, G.; Mulder, L.J.M.; van der Veen, F.M.

    1999-01-01

    For many years psychophysiologists have been interested in stimulus related changes in heart rate and blood pressure. To represent these evoked heart rate and blood pressure patterns, heart rate and blood pressure data have to be transformed into equidistant time series. This paper presents an

  16. Single-sweep spectral analysis of contact heat evoked potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine M; Graversen, Carina; Frøkjaer, Jens B

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: The cortical response to nociceptive thermal stimuli recorded as contact heat evoked potentials (CHEPs) may be altered by morphine. However, previous studies have averaged CHEPs over multiple stimuli, which are confounded by jitter between sweeps. Thus, the aim was to assess single-sweep ch...

  17. The masseteric reflex evoked by tooth and denture tapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodin, P; Fløystrand, F; Orstavik, J

    1991-07-01

    The characteristics of the masseter reflex evoked by tapping a maxillary incisor were compared with the reflex pattern evoked by tapping a corresponding denture tooth after insertion of an immediate denture. Up to three inhibitory phases (I-1, I-2 and I-3), followed by excitation, were found on an averaged EMG. The tapping force threshold for the early inhibitory phase was lower than for the late phases. The pattern of the reflex was generally the same before and after insertion of the denture, but the threshold values increased. After insertion of the denture, the threshold for I-1 increased from 1 +/- 0.3N to 2.2 +/- 0.4N, the threshold for I-2 increased from 2.4 +/- 0.8N to 3.8 +/- 0.9N, and the threshold for I-3 increased from 5.1 +/- 0.6N to 8.3 +/- 0.9N. The latency period for I-1 also increased from 12.3 +/- 0.5 ms to 13.1 +/- 0.3 ms after insertion of the denture. After relining, the threshold for evoking I-1 decreased from 2.7 +/- 1.2N to 1.2 +/- 0.6N. It was assumed that the mechanoreceptors situated in the mucosa under the denture base could take over the functional role of the periodontal mechanoreceptors for evoking the masseter reflex during tapping, and that these afferents probably had connections to the same interneurones.

  18. [Actions of new iminium compounds on bacteria and fungi. 27. Synthesis of 1-n-decyl-2-phenyl-3-(n-alkylthiomethyl)- and 1-n-decyl-2-phenyl-3-(n-alkoxymethyl)imidazolium chlorides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernak, J; Skrzypczak, A; Michalak, L; Krysinski, J

    1992-08-01

    The imidazolium compounds 1-3 were prepared by quaternization of 1-decyl-2-phenylimidazole with the pertinent chloromethyl-n-alkyl ethers. 1-3 were tested for their antibacterial and antimycotic efficacies.

  19. Comparison of clinical and evoked pain measures in fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Richard E; Gracely, Richard H; McLean, Samuel A; Williams, David A; Giesecke, Thorsten; Petzke, Frank; Sen, Ananda; Clauw, Daniel J

    2006-07-01

    Evoked pain measures such as tender point count and dolorimetry are often used to determine tenderness in studies of fibromyalgia (FM). However, these measures frequently do not improve in clinical trials and are known to be influenced by factors other than pain such as distress and expectancy. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether evoked pain paradigms that present pressure stimuli in a random fashion (eg, Multiple Random Staircase [MRS]) would track with clinical pain improvement in patients with FM better than traditional measures. Sixty-five subjects enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of acupuncture were observed longitudinally. Clinical pain was measured on a 101-point numerical rating scale (NRS) and the Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), whereas evoked pressure sensitivity was assessed via manual tender point count, dolorimetry, and MRS methods. Improvements in clinical pain and evoked pain were assessed irrespective of group assignment. Improvement was seen in clinical pain during the course of the trial as measured by both NRS (P = .032) and SF-MPQ (P = .001). The MRS was the only evoked pain measure to improve correspondingly with treatment (MRS, P = .001; tender point count and dolorimeter, P > .05). MRS change scores were correlated with changes in NRS pain ratings (P = .003); however, this association was not stronger than tender point or dolorimetry correlations with clinical pain improvement (P > .05). Pain sensitivity as assessed by random paradigms was associated with improvements in clinical FM pain. Sophisticated pain testing paradigms might be responsive to change in clinical trials. Trials in fibromyalgia often use both clinical and experimental methods of pain assessment; however, these two outcomes are often poorly correlated. We explore the relationship between changes in clinical and experimental pain within FM patients. Pressure pain testing that applies stimuli in a random order is associated with

  20. Amiodarone reduces depolarization-evoked glutamate release from hippocampual synaptosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia Yu; Hung, Chi Feng; Huang, Shu Kuei; Kuo, Jinn Rung; Wang, Su Jane

    2017-03-01

    Decreased brain glutamate level has emerged as a new therapeutic approach for epilepsy. This study investigated the effect and mechanism of amiodarone, an anti-arrhythmic drug with antiepileptic activity, on glutamate release in the rat hippocampus. In a synaptosomal preparation, amiodarone reduced 4-aminopyridine-evoked Ca2+-dependent glutamate release and cytosolic Ca2+ concentration elevation. Amiodarone did not affect the 4-aminopyridine-evoked depolarization of the synaptosomal membrane potential or the Na+ channel activator veratridine-evoked glutamate release, indicating that the amiodarone-mediated inhibition of glutamate release is not caused by a decrease in synaptosomal excitability. The inhibitory effect of amiodarone on 4-aminopyridine-evoked glutamate release was markedly decreased in synaptosomes pretreated with the Cav2.2 (N-type) and Cav2.1 (P/Q-type) channel blocker ω-conotoxin MVIIC, the calmodulin antagonists W7 and calmidazolium, or the protein kinase A inhibitors H89 and KT5720. However, the intracellular Ca2+-release inhibitors dantrolene and CGP37157 had no effect on the amiodarone-mediated inhibition of glutamate release. Furthermore, amiodarone reduced the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents without affecting their amplitude in hippocampal slices. Our data suggest that amiodarone reduces Ca2+ influx through N- and P/Q-type Ca2+ channels, subsequently reducing the Ca2+-calmodulin/protein kinase A cascade to inhibit the evoked glutamate release from rat hippocampal nerve terminals. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Visual evoked potentials in patients after methanol poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Pavel; Zakharov, Sergey; Diblík, Pavel; Pelclová, Daniela; Ridzoň, Petr

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of the visual evoked potentials (VEP) examination in patients after severe poisoning by methanol. The group of 47 patients (38 males and 9 females) was assembled out of persons who survived an outbreak of poisoning by the methanol adulterated alcohol beverages, which happened in the Czech Republic in 2012-2013. The visual evoked potentials examination was performed using monocular checkerboard pattern-reversal stimulation. Two criteria of abnormality were chosen: missing evoked response, and wave P1 latency > 117 ms. Non-parametric statistical methods (median, range, and the median test) were used to analyze factors influencing the VEP abnormality. The visual evoked potential was abnormal in 20 patients (43%), 5 of them had normal visual acuity on the Snellen chart. The VEP abnormality did not correlate significantly with initial serum concentrations of methanol, formic acid or lactate; however, it showed statistically significant inverse relation to the initial serum pH: the subgroup with the abnormal VEP had significantly lower median pH in comparison with the subgroup with the normal VEP (7.16 vs. 7.34, p = 0.04). The abnormality was not related to chronic alcohol abuse. The visual evoked potentials examination appeared sensitive enough to detected even subclinical impairment of the optic system. Metabolic acidosis is likely to be the key factor related to the development of visual damage induced by methanol. The examination performed with a delay of 1-9 months after the poisoning documented the situation relatively early after the event. It is considered as a baseline for the planned long-term follow-up of the patients, which will make it possible to assess the dynamics of the observed changes, their reversibility, and the occurrence of potential late sequelae. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  2. Toxicology of perfluorinated compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, Thorsten [Hessian State Laboratory, Wiesbaden (Germany); Mattern, Daniela; Brunn, Hubertus [Hessian State Laboratory, Giessen (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Perfluorinated compounds [PFCs] have found a wide use in industrial products and processes and in a vast array of consumer products. PFCs are molecules made up of carbon chains to which fluorine atoms are bound. Due to the strength of the carbon/fluorine bond, the molecules are chemically very stable and are highly resistant to biological degradation; therefore, they belong to a class of compounds that tend to persist in the environment. These compounds can bioaccumulate and also undergo biomagnification. Within the class of PFC chemicals, perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorosulphonic acid are generally considered reference substances. Meanwhile, PFCs can be detected almost ubiquitously, e.g., in water, plants, different kinds of foodstuffs, in animals such as fish, birds, in mammals, as well as in human breast milk and blood. PFCs are proposed as a new class of 'persistent organic pollutants'. Numerous publications allude to the negative effects of PFCs on human health. The following review describes both external and internal exposures to PFCs, the toxicokinetics (uptake, distribution, metabolism, excretion), and the toxicodynamics (acute toxicity, subacute and subchronic toxicities, chronic toxicity including carcinogenesis, genotoxicity and epigenetic effects, reproductive and developmental toxicities, neurotoxicity, effects on the endocrine system, immunotoxicity and potential modes of action, combinational effects, and epidemiological studies on perfluorinated compounds). (orig.)

  3. Differential effects of nitrous oxide and propofol on myogenic transcranial motor evoked responses during sufentanil anaesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ubags, L. H.; Kalkman, C. J.; Been, H. D.; Drummond, J. C.

    1997-01-01

    We have compared the effects of 50% nitrous oxide and propofol, each administered concurrently with sufentanil, on the amplitudes and latencies of the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) response to transcranial electrical stimulation. Using a crossover design, 12 patients undergoing spinal

  4. Compound odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas have been extensively reported in the dental literature, and the term refers to tumors of odontogenic origin. Though the exact etiology is still unknown, the postulated causes include: local trauma, infection, inheritance and genetic mutation. The majority of the lesions are asymptomatic; however, may be accompanied with pain and swelling as secondary complaints in some cases. Here, we report a case of a compound odontome in a 14 year old patient.

  5. Intracochlear Recordings of Acoustically and Electrically Evoked Potentials in Nucleus Hybrid L24 Cochlear Implant Users and Their Relationship to Speech Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Ryong; Tejani, Viral D.; Abbas, Paul J.; Brown, Carolyn J.

    2017-01-01

    The Hybrid cochlear implant (CI) has been developed for individuals with high frequency hearing loss who retain good low frequency hearing. Outcomes have been encouraging but individual variability is high; the health of the cochlea and the auditory nerve may be important factors driving outcomes. Electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs) reflect the response of the auditory nerve to electrical stimulation while electrocochleography (ECochG) reflects the response of the cochlear hair cells and auditory nerve to acoustic stimulation. In this study both ECAPs and ECochG responses were recorded from Nucleus Hybrid L24 CI users. Correlations between these two measures of peripheral auditory function and speech perception are reported. This retrospective study includes data from 25 L24 CI users. ECAPs and ECochG responses were recorded from an intracochlear electrode using stimuli presented at or near maximum acceptable loudness levels. Speech perception was assessed using Consonant-Nucleus-Consonant (CNC) word lists presented in quiet and AzBio sentences presented at a +5 dB signal-to-noise ratio in both the combined acoustic and electric (A+E) and electric (E) alone listening modes. Acoustic gain was calculated by subtracting these two scores. Correlations between these physiologic and speech perception measures were then computed. ECAP amplitudes recorded from the most apical electrode were significantly correlated with CNC scores measured in the E alone (r = 0.56) and A+E conditions (r = 0.64), but not with performance on the AzBio test. ECochG responses recorded using the most apical electrode in the intracochlear array but evoked using a 500 Hz tone burst were not correlated with either the scores on the CNC or AzBio tests. However, ECochG amplitude was correlated with a composite metric relating the additional benefit of acoustic gain in noise relative to quiet conditions (r = 0.67). Both measures can be recorded from Hybrid L24 CI users and both

  6. Acute disturbance of calcium homeostasis in PC12 cells as a novel mechanism of action for (sub)micromolar concentrations of organophosphate insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Marieke; Hamers, Timo; Westerink, Remco H S

    2014-07-01

    Organophosphates (OPs) and carbamates are widely used insecticides that exert their neurotoxicity via inhibition of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and subsequent overexcitation. OPs can induce additional neurotoxic effects at concentrations below those for inhibition of AChE, indicating other mechanisms of action are also involved. Since tight regulation of the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) is essential for proper neuronal development and function, effects of one carbamate (carbaryl) and two OPs (chlorpyrifos, parathion-ethyl) as well as their -oxon metabolites on [Ca(2+)]i were investigated. Effects of acute (20min) exposure to (mixtures of) insecticides on basal and depolarization-evoked [Ca(2+)]i were measured in fura-2-loaded PC12 cells using single-cell fluorescence microscopy. Acute exposure to chlorpyrifos and its metabolite chlorpyrifos-oxon (10μM) induced a modest increase in basal [Ca(2+)]i. More importantly, the tested OPs concentration-dependently inhibited depolarization-evoked [Ca(2+)]i. Chlorpyrifos already induced a ∼30% inhibition at 0.1μM and a 100% inhibition at 10μM (IC50=0.43μM), whereas parathion-ethyl inhibited the depolarization-evoked [Ca(2+)]i increase with ∼70% at 10μM. Interestingly, -oxon metabolites were more potent inhibitors of AChE, but were less potent inhibitors of depolarization-evoked [Ca(2+)]i compared to their parent compound (chlorpyrifos-oxon) or were even without effect (paraoxon-ethyl and -methyl). Similarly, acute exposure to carbaryl had no effect on [Ca(2+)]i. Exposure to mixtures of chlorpyrifos with its oxon-analog or with parathion-ethyl did not increase the degree of inhibition, indicating additivity does not apply. These data demonstrate that concentration-dependent inhibition of depolarization-evoked [Ca(2+)]i is a novel mechanism of action of (sub)micromolar concentrations of OPs that could partly underlie OP-induced neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical evaluation of cochlear hearing status in dogs using evoked otoacoustic emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, R; McBrearty, A; Pratola, L; Calvo, G; Anderson, T J; Penderis, J

    2012-06-01

    Evoked otoacoustic emission testing is the preferred test in human patients for sensorineural deafness screening in neonates and cochlear outer hair cell function monitoring in adults. This study evaluated evoked otoacoustic emission testing for cochlear function assessment in dogs within a clinical setting. Two populations of anaesthetised dogs were included. In group 1 the evoked otoacoustic emission response was compared to the brainstem auditory evoked response in 10 dogs having hearing assessment. Group 2 comprised 43 presumed normal dogs, in which the suitability of two types of evoked otoacoustic emissions, transient-evoked and distortion product otoacoustic emissions, were evaluated (brainstem auditory evoked response was not performed in this group). Valid transient-evoked otoacoustic emission and distortion-product otoacoustic emission responses were successfully recorded within the clinical setting and correctly identified deaf and hearing ears. Within presumed healthy dogs, normal otoacoustic emission response was demonstrated in more than 80% of dogs using a single, short distortion-product otoacoustic emission run and in 78% of dogs with valid transient-evoked otoacoustic emission responses using a series of three repeated transient-evoked otoacoustic emission short runs. Transient-evoked otoacoustic emission and distortion-product otoacoustic emission testing provided a rapid, non-invasive frequency-specific assessment of cochlear function. Transient-evoked otoacoustic emission and distortion product otoacoustic emission testing is suitable as a screening procedure to detect loss of cochlear function in dogs, although further investigation is needed. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  8. An inventory and update of jealousy-evoking partner behaviours in modern society.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P. H.; Groothof, Hinke A. K.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to identify the most important jealousy-evoking partner behaviours and to examine the extent to which these behaviours evoke jealousy. Based on the literature, a questionnaire was constructed containing 42 jealousy-evoking partner behaviours, including a partner's

  9. Monoamine Release in the Cat Lumbar Spinal Cord during Fictive Locomotion Evoked by the Mesencephalic Locomotor Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. Noga

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord neurons active during locomotion are innervated by descending axons that release the monoamines serotonin (5-HT and norepinephrine (NE and these neurons express monoaminergic receptor subtypes implicated in the control of locomotion. The timing, level and spinal locations of release of these two substances during centrally-generated locomotor activity should therefore be critical to this control. These variables were measured in real time by fast-cyclic voltammetry in the decerebrate cat’s lumbar spinal cord during fictive locomotion, which was evoked by electrical stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR and registered as integrated activity in bilateral peripheral nerves to hindlimb muscles. Monoamine release was observed in dorsal horn (DH, intermediate zone/ventral horn (IZ/VH and adjacent white matter (WM during evoked locomotion. Extracellular peak levels (all sites increased above baseline by 138 ± 232.5 nM and 35.6 ± 94.4 nM (mean ± SD for NE and 5-HT, respectively. For both substances, release usually began prior to the onset of locomotion typically earliest in the IZ/VH and peaks were positively correlated with net activity in peripheral nerves. Monoamine levels gradually returned to baseline levels or below at the end of stimulation in most trials. Monoamine oxidase and uptake inhibitors increased the release magnitude, time-to-peak (TTP and decline-to-baseline. These results demonstrate that spinal monoamine release is modulated on a timescale of seconds, in tandem with centrally-generated locomotion and indicate that MLR-evoked locomotor activity involves concurrent activation of descending monoaminergic and reticulospinal pathways. These gradual changes in space and time of monoamine concentrations high enough to strongly activate various receptors subtypes on locomotor activated neurons further suggest that during MLR-evoked locomotion, monoamine action is, in part, mediated by extrasynaptic

  10. [Motor evoked potentials of the perineal floor. Preliminary results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opsomer, R J; Van Cangh, P J; Humblet, Y; Abi Aad, A; Rossini, P M

    1989-01-01

    Neuromotor pathways from the brain to the pelvic floor have been poorly documented. The recent development of Motor Evoked Potentials may well fill this gap in our basic knowledge. Our technique consists of transcutaneous stimulation of the motor cortex and sacral roots with a magnetic device while recording the evoked response from the bulbocavernosus muscle and anal sphincter. Cortical stimulation is performed first at rest and then during voluntary contraction of the examined muscles ("facilitation" procedure). Sacral root stimulation is performed at rest. Stimulation at 2 different levels allows measurement of the total transit time (brain to muscle transit time) and the peripheral transit time (sacral roots to muscle). By subtracting the latter from the former, the central transit time (brain to sacral roots) is obtained. The technique is painless, and to our knowledge no side effects have been reported. The authors present the preliminary results of this new technique.

  11. Evoked potentials and head injury. 2. Clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, M; Hopkins, H K; Hall, K; Belleza, T

    1981-10-01

    The method of rating abnormality of evoked brain potential patterns and assessing the extent and severity of cortical and subcortical brain dysfunction in head injury patients described in Part I is applied in a clinical context. Evoked potential abnormality (EPA) scores are found to be significantly correlated both with admission and outcome disability approximately one year after head injury. Correlations increase with the increase in the number of sensory modalities tested. Correlations between EPA scores and clinical disability (measured by the Disability Rating Scale) decrease with time after injury. Significant correlations, however, persist for about 60 days after onset of injury. It was found that EP pattern abnormalities can reflect specific sensory (and at times motor) deficits in noncommunicative patients and thereby contribute significantly to early treatment and rehabilitation planning.

  12. Binocular interactions in the guinea pig's visual-evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Kahraman; Demirtas, Serdar; Goksoy, Cuneyt

    2006-12-13

    In this study, binocular interaction in guinea pigs is evaluated using bioelectrical activities. A difference potential, as evidence of an interaction, is calculated by subtracting the sum of visual-evoked potentials recorded by left and right monocular visual stimulations from the potential recorded by binocular stimulation. A negative monophasic wave with an average amplitude of 15.1 microV and an average latency of 106 ms is observed in the difference potential. This finding implies that the P100 is the main guinea pig visual-evoked potential wave that is affected by binocular interaction. Binocular interaction is also observed in the waves N75 and N140, although with a smaller amplitude. No interaction is observed in the segments of P55 and P200 waves.

  13. Multimodality evoked potentials in occupational exposure to metallic mercury vapour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langauer-Lewowicka, H; Kazibutowska, Z

    1989-01-01

    Central nervous system dysfunction among workers exposed to metallic mercury was studied by measuring somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) and visual evoked potentials (VEPs). The examinations were conducted in 28 workers suspected of chronic mercury intoxication. They were exposed to Hg for a period ranging from 4-34 years (mean 22.1) in an acetic aldehyde and chlorine manufacturing plant. The increase of amplitude of N20 SSEP (13 cases) and elongation of its latency were frequent abnormalities in the examined group. The latency of N20 was significantly longer in the exposed group in comparison with the control one, the amplitude of N20 was also significantly higher. Significantly prolonged latency of P100 VEP was found in the group exposed to Hg. These findings suggest the possibility of an adverse effect due to Hg on the central part of the somatosensory and visual pathway.

  14. Evoked response audiometry used in testing auditory organs of miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinowski, T.; Klepacki, J.; Wagstyl, R.

    1980-01-01

    The evoked response audiometry method of testing hearing loss is presented and the results of comparative studies using subjective tonal audiometry and evoked response audiometry in tests of 56 healthy men with good hearing are discussed. The men were divided into three groups according to age and place of work: work place without increased noise; work place with noise and vibrations (at drilling machines); work place with noise and shocks (work at excavators in surface coal mines). The ERA-MKII audiometer produced by the Medelec-Amplaid firm was used. Audiometric threshhold curves for the three groups of tested men are given. At frequencies of 500, 1000 and 4000 Hz mean objective auditory threshhold was shifted by 4-9.5 dB in comparison to the subjective auditory threshold. (21 refs.) (In Polish)

  15. Abdominal acupuncture reduces laser-evoked potentials in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazzaglia, C.; Liguori, S.; Minciotti, I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Acupuncture is known to reduce clinical pain, although the exact mechanism is unknown. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of acupuncture on laser-evoked potential amplitudes and laser pain perception. Methods: In order to evaluate whether abdominal acupuncture...... is able to modify pain perception, 10 healthy subjects underwent a protocol in which laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) and laser pain perception were collected before the test (baseline), during abdominal acupuncture, and 15. min after needle removal. The same subjects also underwent a similar protocol...... in which, however, sham acupuncture without any needle penetration was used. Results: During real acupuncture, both N1 and N2/P2 amplitudes were reduced, as compared to baseline (p . < 0.01). The reduction lasted up to 15. min after needle removal. Furthermore, laser pain perception was reduced during...

  16. Exploration of Action Figure Appeals Using Evaluation Grid Method and Quantification Theory Type I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hua-Cheng; Chen, Hung-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary toy is characterized by accelerating social, cultural and technological change. An attractive action figure can grab consumers' attention, influence the latent consuming preference and evoke their pleasure. However, traditional design of action figure is always dependent on designer's opinion, subjective experience and preference. It…

  17. Selective fluorescence sensing of Cu(II) and Zn(II) using a new Schiff base-derived model compound: naked eye detection and spectral deciphering of the mechanism of sensory action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Aniruddha; Paul, Bijan Kumar; Ghosh, Soumen; Kar, Samiran; Guchhait, Nikhil

    2013-11-07

    A new Schiff base compound 2-((benzylimino)-methyl)-naphthalen-1-ol (2BIMN1O) has been synthesized and characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, DEPT, FT-IR and mass spectroscopic techniques. The significantly low fluorescence yield of the compound has been rationalized in connection with photo-induced electron transfer (PET) from the imine receptor moiety to the naphthalene fluorophore unit. Subsequently, an evaluation of the transition metal ion-induced modification of the fluorophore-receptor communication reveals a promising prospect for the title compound to function as a fluorosensor for Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) ions selectively, through remarkable fluorescence enhancement. While perturbation of the PET process in 2BIMN1O has been argued to be the responsible mechanism behind the fluorescence enhancement, the selectivity for these two metal ions has been interpreted on the grounds of an appreciably strong binding interaction. Particularly notable aspects regarding the chemosensory activity of the compound are its ability to detect the aforesaid transition metal ions down to the level of micromolar concentration (detection limit being 0.82 and 0.35 μM respectively), along with a simple and efficient synthetic procedure. Also the spectral modulation of 2BIMN1O in the presence of the transition metal ions paves the way for the construction of a calibration curve in the context of its fluorescence signaling potential.

  18. The Dynamic Functional Capacity Theory: Music Evoked Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Klineburger, Philip C

    2014-01-01

    The music-evoked emotion literature implicates many brain regions involved in emotional processing but is currently lacking a model that specifically explains how they temporally and dynamically interact to produce intensely pleasurable emotions. A conceptual model, The Dynamic Functional Capacity Theory (DFCT), is proposed that provides a foundation for the further understanding of how brain regions interact to produce intense intensely pleasurable emotions. The DFCT claims th...

  19. Multimodality evoked potentials in HTLV-I associated myelopathy.

    OpenAIRE

    Kakigi, R; Shibasaki, H; Kuroda, Y; Endo, C; Oda, K; Ikeda, A; Hashimoto, K

    1988-01-01

    Multimodality evoked potentials (EPs) consisting of somatosensory EPs (SEPs), visual EPs (VEPs) and brainstem auditory EPs (BAEPs) were studied in 16 cases with HTLV-I associated myelopathy (HAM). Median nerve SEPs were normal in all cases. In posterior tibial nerve SEPs, the potential recorded at the 12th thoracic spinal process was normal in every case but cortical components were significantly prolonged in 10 cases, although five of these showed no sensory impairment. BAEPs were normal in ...

  20. Establishing an evoked-potential vision-tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Trent A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents experimental evidence to support the feasibility of an evoked-potential vision-tracking system. The topics discussed are stimulator construction, verification of the photic driving response in the electroencephalogram, a method for performing frequency separation, and a transient-analysis example. The final issue considered is that of object multiplicity (concurrent visual stimuli with different flashing rates). The paper concludes by discussing several applications currently under investigation.

  1. Magnesium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 52 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2006. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from sea-water by Premier Chemicals in Florida; from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas; and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from brucite by Applied Chemical Magnesias in Texas, from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas from their operations mentioned above. About 59 percent of the magnesium compounds consumed in the United States was used for refractories that are used mainly to line steelmaking furnaces. The remaining 41 percent was consumed in agricultural, chemical, construction, environmental and industrial applications.

  2. Perceptual learning of acoustic noise generates memory-evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrillon, Thomas; Kouider, Sid; Agus, Trevor; Pressnitzer, Daniel

    2015-11-02

    Experience continuously imprints on the brain at all stages of life. The traces it leaves behind can produce perceptual learning [1], which drives adaptive behavior to previously encountered stimuli. Recently, it has been shown that even random noise, a type of sound devoid of acoustic structure, can trigger fast and robust perceptual learning after repeated exposure [2]. Here, by combining psychophysics, electroencephalography (EEG), and modeling, we show that the perceptual learning of noise is associated with evoked potentials, without any salient physical discontinuity or obvious acoustic landmark in the sound. Rather, the potentials appeared whenever a memory trace was observed behaviorally. Such memory-evoked potentials were characterized by early latencies and auditory topographies, consistent with a sensory origin. Furthermore, they were generated even on conditions of diverted attention. The EEG waveforms could be modeled as standard evoked responses to auditory events (N1-P2) [3], triggered by idiosyncratic perceptual features acquired through learning. Thus, we argue that the learning of noise is accompanied by the rapid formation of sharp neural selectivity to arbitrary and complex acoustic patterns, within sensory regions. Such a mechanism bridges the gap between the short-term and longer-term plasticity observed in the learning of noise [2, 4-6]. It could also be key to the processing of natural sounds within auditory cortices [7], suggesting that the neural code for sound source identification will be shaped by experience as well as by acoustics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials in children with lead exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia de Freitas Alvarenga

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Earlier studies have demonstrated an auditory effect of lead exposure in children, but information on the effects of low chronic exposures needs to be further elucidated. Objective: To investigate the effect of low chronic exposures of the auditory system in children with a history of low blood lead levels, using an auditory electrophysiological test. Methods: Contemporary cross-sectional cohort. Study participants underwent tympanometry, pure tone and speech audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions, and brainstem auditory evoked potentials, with blood lead monitoring over a period of 35.5 months. The study included 130 children, with ages ranging from 18 months to 14 years, 5 months (mean age 6 years, 8 months ± 3 years, 2 months. Results: The mean time-integrated cumulative blood lead index was 12 µg/dL (SD ± 5.7, range:2.433. All participants had hearing thresholds equal to or below 20 dBHL and normal amplitudes of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. No association was found between the absolute latencies of waves I, III, and V, the interpeak latencies I-III, III-V, and I-V, and the cumulative lead values. Conclusion: No evidence of toxic effects from chronic low lead exposures was observed on the auditory function of children living in a lead contaminated area.

  4. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials in children with lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Katia de Freitas; Morata, Thais Catalani; Lopes, Andrea Cintra; Feniman, Mariza Ribeiro; Corteletti, Lilian Cassia Bornia Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Earlier studies have demonstrated an auditory effect of lead exposure in children, but information on the effects of low chronic exposures needs to be further elucidated. To investigate the effect of low chronic exposures of the auditory system in children with a history of low blood lead levels, using an auditory electrophysiological test. Contemporary cross-sectional cohort. Study participants underwent tympanometry, pure tone and speech audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions, and brainstem auditory evoked potentials, with blood lead monitoring over a period of 35.5 months. The study included 130 children, with ages ranging from 18 months to 14 years, 5 months (mean age 6 years, 8 months ± 3 years, 2 months). The mean time-integrated cumulative blood lead index was 12 μg/dL (SD ± 5.7, range: 2.433). All participants had hearing thresholds equal to or below 20 dBHL and normal amplitudes of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. No association was found between the absolute latencies of waves I, III, and V, the interpeak latencies I-III, III-V, and I-V, and the cumulative lead values. No evidence of toxic effects from chronic low lead exposures was observed on the auditory function of children living in a lead contaminated area. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Index finger somatosensory evoked potentials in blind Braille readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giriyappa, Dayananda; Subrahmanyam, Roopakala Mysore; Rangashetty, Srinivasa; Sharma, Rajeev

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, vision has been considered the dominant modality in our multi-sensory perception of the surrounding world. Sensory input via non-visual tracts becomes of greater behavioural relevance in totally blind individuals to enable effective interaction with the world around them. These include audition and tactile perceptions, leading to an augmentation in these perceptions when compared with normal sighted individuals. The objective of the present work was to study the index finger somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) in totally blind and normal sighted individuals. SEPs were recorded in 15 Braille reading totally blind females and compared with 15 age-matched normal sighted females. Latency and amplitudes of somatosensory evoked potential waveforms (N9, N13, and N20) were measured. Amplitude of N20 SEP (a cortical somatosensory evoked potential) was significantly larger in the totally blind than in normal sighted individuals (p Braille reading right index finger. Totally blind Braille readers have larger N20 amplitude, suggestive of greater somatosensory cortical representation of the Braille reading index finger.

  6. Auditory evoked potentials in children and adolescents with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Letícia; Rosa, Rafael F M; Zen, Paulo R G; Sleifer, Pricila

    2018-01-01

    Down syndrome, or trisomy 21, is the most common genetic alteration in humans. The syndrome presents with several features, including hearing loss and changes in the central nervous system, which may affect language development in children and lead to school difficulties. The present study aimed to investigate group differences in the central auditory system by long-latency auditory evoked potentials and cognitive potential. An assessment of 23 children and adolescents with Down syndrome was performed, and a control group composed of 43 children and adolescents without genetic and/or neurological changes was used for comparison. All children underwent evaluation with pure tone and vocal audiometry, acoustic immitance measures, long-latency auditory evoked potentials, and cognitive potential. Longer latencies of the waves were found in the Down syndrome group than the control group, without significant differences in amplitude, suggesting that individuals with Down syndrome have difficulty in discrimination and auditory memory. It is, therefore, important to stimulate and monitor these children in order to enable adequate development and improve their life quality. We also emphasize the importance of the application of auditory evoked potentials in clinical practice, in order to contribute to the early diagnosis of hearing alterations and the development of more research in this area. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Binaural interaction in auditory evoked potentials: Brainstem, middle- and long-latency components

    OpenAIRE

    McPherson, DL; Starr, A

    1993-01-01

    Binaural interaction occurs in the auditory evoked potentials when the sum of the monaural auditory evoked potentials are not equivalent to the binaural evoked auditory potentials. Binaural interaction of the early- (0-10 ms), middle- (10-50 ms) and long-latency (50-200 ms) auditory evoked potentials was studied in 17 normal young adults. For the early components, binaural interaction was maximal at 7.35 ms accounting for a reduction of 21% of the amplitude of the binaural evoked potentials. ...

  8. Bioavailability of dietary phenolic compounds: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Gutiérrez-Grijalva Paul Gutiérrez-Grijalva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are ubiquitous in plant-based foods. High dietary intake of fruits, vegetables and cereals is related to a decreased rate in chronic diseases. Phenolic compounds are thought to be responsible, at least in part, for those health effects. Nonetheless, phenolic compounds bioaccessibility and biotransformation is often not considered in these studies; thus, a precise mechanism of action of phenolic compounds is not known. In this review we aim to present a comprehensive knowledge of the metabolic processes through which phenolic compounds go after intake.

  9. Action perception predicts action performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Heather R; Kurby, Christopher A; Giovannetti, Tania; Zacks, Jeffrey M

    2013-09-01

    Everyday action impairments often are observed in demented older adults, and they are common potential barriers to functional independence. We evaluated whether the ability to segment and efficiently encode activities is related to the ability to execute activities. Further, we evaluated whether brain regions important for segmentation also were important for action performance. Cognitively healthy older adults and those with very mild or mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type watched and segmented movies of everyday activities and then completed the Naturalistic Action Test. Structural MRI was used to measure volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), posterior cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Dementia status and the ability to segment everyday activities strongly predicted naturalistic action performance, and MTL volume largely accounted for this relationship. In addition, the current results supported the Omission-Commission Model: Different cognitive and neurological mechanisms predicted different types of action error. Segmentation, dementia severity, and MTL volume predicted everyday omission errors, DLPFC volume predicted commission errors, and ACC volume predicted action additions. These findings suggest that event segmentation may be critical for effective action production, and that the segmentation and production of activities may recruit the same event representation system. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Magnesium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 57 percent of magnesium compounds produced in the United States in 2011. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties LLC from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia LLC in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash Wendover LLC and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma Inc. in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its brine operation in Michigan.

  11. Bismaleimide compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Johnnie E.; Jamieson, Donald R.

    1986-01-14

    Bismaleimides of the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently is H, C.sub.1-4 -alkyl, C.sub.1-4 -alkoxy, C1 or Br, or R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1-3; and the alkylene bridging group, optionally, is substituted by 1-3 methyl groups or by fluorine, form polybismaleimide resins which have valuable physical properties. Uniquely, these compounds permit extended cure times, i.e., they remain fluid for a time sufficient to permit the formation of a homogeneous melt prior to curing.

  12. Therapeutic Phytogenic Compounds for Obesity and Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Soong Jung

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural compounds have been used to develop drugs for many decades. Vast diversities and minimum side effects make natural compounds a good source for drug development. However, the composition and concentrations of natural compounds can vary. Despite this inconsistency, half of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved pharmaceuticals are natural compounds or their derivatives. Therefore, it is essential to continuously investigate natural compounds as sources of new pharmaceuticals. This review provides comprehensive information and analysis on natural compounds from plants (phytogenic compounds that may serve as anti-obesity and/or anti-diabetes therapeutics. Our growing understanding and further exploration of the mechanisms of action of the phytogenic compounds may afford opportunities for development of therapeutic interventions in metabolic diseases.

  13. Intraoperative observation of changes in cochlear nerve action potentials during exposure to electromagnetic fields generated by mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colletti, Vittorio; Mandalà, Marco; Manganotti, Paolo; Ramat, Stefano; Sacchetto, Luca; Colletti, Liliana

    2011-07-01

    The rapid spread of devices generating electromagnetic fields (EMF) has raised concerns as to the possible effects of this technology on humans. The auditory system is the neural organ most frequently and directly exposed to electromagnetic activity owing to the daily use of mobile phones. In recent publications, a possible correlation between mobile phone usage and central nervous system tumours has been detected. Very recently a deterioration in otoacoustic emissions and in the auditory middle latency responses after intensive and long-term magnetic field exposure in humans has been demonstrated. To determine with objective observations if exposure to mobile phone EMF affects acoustically evoked cochlear nerve compound action potentials, seven patients suffering from Ménière's disease and undergoing retrosigmoid vestibular neurectomy were exposed to the effects of mobile phone placed over the craniotomy for 5 min. All patients showed a substantial decrease in amplitude and a significant increase in latency of cochlear nerve compound action potentials during the 5 min of exposure to EMF. These changes lasted for a period of around 5 min after exposure. The possibility that EMF can produce relatively long-lasting effects on cochlear nerve conduction is discussed and analysed in light of contrasting previous literature obtained under non-surgical conditions. Limitations of this novel approach, including the effects of the anaesthetics, craniotomy and surgical procedure, are presented in detail.

  14. Glomerular input patterns in the mouse olfactory bulb evoked by retronasal odor stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furudono, Yuichi; Cruz, Ginny; Lowe, Graeme

    2013-04-08

    Odorant stimuli can access the olfactory epithelium either orthonasally, by inhalation through the external nares, or retronasally by reverse airflow from the oral cavity. There is evidence that odors perceived through these two routes can differ in quality and intensity. We were curious whether such differences might potentially have a neural basis in the peripheral mechanisms of odor coding. To explore this possibility, we compared olfactory receptor input to glomeruli in the dorsal olfactory bulb evoked by orthonasal and retronasal stimulation. Maps of glomerular response were acquired by optical imaging of transgenic mice expressing synaptopHluorin (spH), a fluorescent reporter of presynaptic activity, in olfactory nerve terminals. We found that retronasally delivered odorants were able to activate inputs to multiple glomeruli in the dorsal olfactory bulb. The retronasal responses were smaller than orthonasal responses to odorants delivered at comparable concentrations and flow rates, and they displayed higher thresholds and right-shifted dose-response curves. Glomerular maps of orthonasal and retronasal responses were usually well overlapped, with fewer total numbers of glomeruli in retronasal maps. However, maps at threshold could be quite distinct with little overlap. Retronasal responses were also more narrowly tuned to homologous series of aliphatic odorants of varying carbon chain length, with longer chain, more hydrophobic compounds evoking little or no response at comparable vapor levels. Several features of retronasal olfaction are possibly referable to the observed properties of glomerular odorant responses. The finding that retronasal responses are weaker and sparser than orthonasal responses is consistent with psychophysical studies showing lower sensitivity for retronasal olfaction in threshold and suprathreshold tests. The similarity and overlap of orthonasal and retronasal odor maps at suprathreshold concentrations agrees with generally similar

  15. Hyposmolarity evokes norepinephrine efflux from synaptosomes by a depolarization- and Ca2+ -dependent exocytotic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuz, K; Pasantes-Morales, H

    2005-10-01

    Osmolarity reduction (20%) elicited 3H-norepinephrine (NE) efflux from rat cortical synaptosomes. The hyposmotic NE release resulted from the following events: (i) a Na+-dependent and La3+-, Gd3+- and ruthenium red-sensitive depolarization; (ii) a cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) rise with contributions from external Ca2+ influx and internal Ca2+ release, probably through the mitochondrial Na+-Ca2+ exchanger; and (iii) activation of a [Ca2+]i-evoked, tetanus toxin (TeTX)-sensitive, PKC-modulated NE efflux mechanism. This sequence was established from results showing a drop in the hyposmotic [Ca2+]i rise by preventing depolarization with La3+, and by the inhibitory effects of Ca2+-free medium (EGTA; 50%), CGP37157 (the mitochondrial Na+-Ca2+ exchanger blocker; 48%), EGTA + CGP37157 or by EGTA-AM (> 95% in both cases). In close correspondence with these effects, NE efflux was 92% decreased by Na+ omission, 75% by La3+, 47% by EGTA, 50% by CGP37157, 90% by EGTA + CGP37157 and 88% by EGTA-AM. PKC influenced the intracellular Ca2+ release and, mainly through this action, modulated NE efflux. TeTX suppressed NE efflux. The K+-stimulated NE release, studied in parallel, was unaffected by Na+ omission, or by La3+, Gd3+ or ruthenium red. It was fully dependent on external Ca2+, insensitive to CGP37157 and abolished by TeTX. These results suggest that the hyposmotic events, although different from the K+-evoked depolarization and [Ca2+]i rise mechanisms, are able to trigger a depolarization-dependent, Ca2+-dependent and TeTX-sensitive mechanism for neurotransmitter release.

  16. Short-term EEG dynamics and neural generators evoked by navigational images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Axelle; Cevallos, Carlos; Cebolla, Ana-Maria; Caharel, Stéphanie; Dan, Bernard; Cheron, Guy

    2017-01-01

    The ecological environment offered by virtual reality is primarily supported by visual information. The different image contents and their rhythmic presentation imply specific bottom-up and top-down processing. Because these processes already occur during passive observation we studied the brain responses evoked by the presentation of specific 3D virtual tunnels with respect to 2D checkerboard. For this, we characterized electroencephalograhy dynamics (EEG), the evoked potentials and related neural generators involved in various visual paradigms. Time-frequency analysis showed modulation of alpha-beta oscillations indicating the presence of stronger prediction and after-effects of the 3D-tunnel with respect to the checkerboard. Whatever the presented image, the generators of the P100 were situated bilaterally in the occipital cortex (BA18, BA19) and in the right inferior temporal cortex (BA20). In checkerboard but not 3D-tunnel presentation, the left fusiform gyrus (BA37) was additionally recruited. P200 generators were situated in the temporal cortex (BA21) and the cerebellum (lobule VI/Crus I) specifically for the checkerboard while the right parahippocampal gyrus (BA36) and the cerebellum (lobule IV/V and IX/X) were involved only during the 3D-tunnel presentation. For both type of image, P300 generators were localized in BA37 but also in BA19, the right BA21 and the cerebellar lobule VI for only the checkerboard and the left BA20-BA21 for only the 3D-tunnel. Stronger P300 delta-theta oscillations recorded in this later situation point to a prevalence of the effect of changing direction over the proper visual content of the 3D-tunnel. The parahippocampal gyrus (BA36) implicated in navigation was also identified when the 3D-tunnel was compared to their scrambled versions, highlighting an action-oriented effect linked to navigational content.

  17. Short-term EEG dynamics and neural generators evoked by navigational images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axelle Leroy

    Full Text Available The ecological environment offered by virtual reality is primarily supported by visual information. The different image contents and their rhythmic presentation imply specific bottom-up and top-down processing. Because these processes already occur during passive observation we studied the brain responses evoked by the presentation of specific 3D virtual tunnels with respect to 2D checkerboard. For this, we characterized electroencephalograhy dynamics (EEG, the evoked potentials and related neural generators involved in various visual paradigms. Time-frequency analysis showed modulation of alpha-beta oscillations indicating the presence of stronger prediction and after-effects of the 3D-tunnel with respect to the checkerboard. Whatever the presented image, the generators of the P100 were situated bilaterally in the occipital cortex (BA18, BA19 and in the right inferior temporal cortex (BA20. In checkerboard but not 3D-tunnel presentation, the left fusiform gyrus (BA37 was additionally recruited. P200 generators were situated in the temporal cortex (BA21 and the cerebellum (lobule VI/Crus I specifically for the checkerboard while the right parahippocampal gyrus (BA36 and the cerebellum (lobule IV/V and IX/X were involved only during the 3D-tunnel presentation. For both type of image, P300 generators were localized in BA37 but also in BA19, the right BA21 and the cerebellar lobule VI for only the checkerboard and the left BA20-BA21 for only the 3D-tunnel. Stronger P300 delta-theta oscillations recorded in this later situation point to a prevalence of the effect of changing direction over the proper visual content of the 3D-tunnel. The parahippocampal gyrus (BA36 implicated in navigation was also identified when the 3D-tunnel was compared to their scrambled versions, highlighting an action-oriented effect linked to navigational content.

  18. Evoked bioelectrical activity of efferent fibers of the sciatic nerve of white rats in experimental menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodinsky A.G.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our work was analysis of the bioelectrical activity of efferent fibers of the sciatic nerve in experimental menopause condition. Experiments were performed on 25 female white rats, divided into experimental and control groups. Menopause was modeled by total ovariohysterectomy. In 120 days after modeling we had recorded evoked action potentials of fibers of isolated ventral root L5 induced by stimulation of sciatic nerve with rectangular pulses. Threshold, chronaxia, latency, amplitude and duration of the action potential (AP were analysed. Refractory phenomenon was investigated by applying paired stimuli at intervals of 2 to 20 ms. In the context of long-term hypoestrogenemy threshold of AP appearance was 55,32±7,69%, chronaxy – 115,09±2,67%, latent period – 112,62±1,74% as compared with the control animals (p<0.01. In conditions of paired stimuli applying the amplitude of response to the testing stimulus in animals with ovariohysterectomy at intervals 3 and 4 ms was 61,25±36,45% and 53,48±18,64% (p<0.05 respectively.

  19. Modulation of the N30 generators of the somatosensory evoked potentials by the mirror neuron system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebolla, A M; Palmero-Soler, E; Dan, B; Cheron, G

    2014-07-15

    The N30 component of the somatosensory evoked potential is known to be modulated by sensory interference, motor action, movement ideation and observation. We introduce a new paradigm in which the observation task of another person's hand movement triggers the somatosensory stimulus, inducing the N30 response in participants. In order to identify the possible contribution of the mirror neuron network (MNN) to this early sensorimotor processing, we analyzed the N30 topography, the event-related spectral perturbation and the inter-trial coherence on single electroencephalogram (EEG) trials, and we applied swLORETA to localize the N30 sources implicated in the time-frequency domain at rest and during observation, as well as the generators differentiating these two contextual brain states. We found that N30 amplitude increase correlated with increased contralateral precentral alpha, frontal beta, and contralateral frontal gamma power spectrum, and with central and precentral alpha and parietal beta phase-locking of ongoing EEG signals. We demonstrate specific activation of the contralateral post-central and parietal cortex where the angular gyrus (BA39), an important MNN node, is implicated in this enhancement during observation. We conclude that this part of the MNN, involved in proprioceptive processing and more complex body-action representations, is already active prior to somatosensory input and may enhance N30. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Vanadium Compounds as PTP Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Irving

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Phosphotyrosine signaling is regulated by the opposing actions of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs and protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs. Here we discuss the potential of vanadium derivatives as PTP enzyme inhibitors and metallotherapeutics. We describe how vanadate in the V oxidized state is thought to inhibit PTPs, thus acting as a pan-inhibitor of this enzyme superfamily. We discuss recent developments in the biological and biochemical actions of more complex vanadium derivatives, including decavanadate and in particular the growing number of oxidovanadium compounds with organic ligands. Pre-clinical studies involving these compounds are discussed in the anti-diabetic and anti-cancer contexts. Although in many cases PTP inhibition has been implicated, it is also clear that many such compounds have further biochemical effects in cells. There also remain concerns surrounding off-target toxicities and long-term use of vanadium compounds in vivo in humans, hindering their progress through clinical trials. Despite these current misgivings, interest in these chemicals continues and many believe they could still have therapeutic potential. If so, we argue that this field would benefit from greater focus on improving the delivery and tissue targeting of vanadium compounds in order to minimize off-target toxicities. This may then harness their full therapeutic potential.

  1. Cortical modulation of short-latency TMS-evoked potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenica eVeniero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation - electroencephalogram (TMS-EEG co-registration offers the opportunity to test reactivity of brain areas across distinct conditions through TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs. Several TEPs have been described, their functional meaning being largely unknown. In particular, short-latency potentials peaking at 5 (P5 and 8 (N8 ms after the TMS pulse have been recently described, but because of their huge amplitude, the problem of whether their origin is cortical or not has been opened. To gain information about these components, we employed a protocol that modulates primary motor cortex excitability (MI through an exclusively cortical phenomena: low frequency stimulation of premotor area (PMC. TMS was applied simultaneously with EEG recording from 70 electrodes. Amplitude of TEPs evoked by 200 single-pulses TMS delivered over MI at 110% of resting motor threshold was measured before and after applying 900 TMS conditioning stimuli to left premotor cortex with 1 Hz repetition rate. Single subject analyses showed reduction in TEPs amplitude after PMC conditioning in a sample of participants and increase in TEPs amplitude in two subjects. No effects were found on corticospinal excitability as recorded by motor evoked potentials (MEPs. Furthermore, correlation analysis showed an inverse relation between the effects of the conditioning protocol on P5-N8 complex amplitude and MEPs amplitude. Because the effects of the used protocol have been ascribed to a cortical interaction between premotor area and MI, we suggest that despite the sign of P5-N8 amplitude modulation is not consistent across participant, this modulation could indicate, at least in part, their cortical origin. We conclude that with an accurate experimental procedure early-latency components can be used to evaluate the reactivity of the stimulated cortex.

  2. Human auditory evoked potentials. I - Evaluation of components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picton, T. W.; Hillyard, S. A.; Krausz, H. I.; Galambos, R.

    1974-01-01

    Fifteen distinct components can be identified in the scalp recorded average evoked potential to an abrupt auditory stimulus. The early components occurring in the first 8 msec after a stimulus represent the activation of the cochlea and the auditory nuclei of the brainstem. The middle latency components occurring between 8 and 50 msec after the stimulus probably represent activation of both auditory thalamus and cortex but can be seriously contaminated by concurrent scalp muscle reflex potentials. The longer latency components occurring between 50 and 300 msec after the stimulus are maximally recorded over fronto-central scalp regions and seem to represent widespread activation of frontal cortex.

  3. The division of attention and the human auditory evoked potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hink, R. F.; Van Voorhis, S. T.; Hillyard, S. A.; Smith, T. S.

    1977-01-01

    The sensitivity of the scalp-recorded, auditory evoked potential to selective attention was examined while subjects responded to stimuli presented to one ear (focused attention) and to both ears (divided attention). The amplitude of the N1 component was found to be largest to stimuli in the ear upon which attention was to be focused, smallest to stimuli in the ear to be ignored, and intermediate to stimuli in both ears when attention was divided. The results are interpreted as supporting a capacity model of attention.

  4. Brain stem auditory evoked responses in human infants and adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecox, K.; Galambos, R.

    1974-01-01

    Brain stem evoked potentials were recorded by conventional scalp electrodes in infants (3 weeks to 3 years of age) and adults. The latency of one of the major response components (wave V) is shown to be a function both of click intensity and the age of the subject; this latency at a given signal strength shortens postnatally to reach the adult value (about 6 msec) by 12 to 18 months of age. The demonstrated reliability and limited variability of these brain stem electrophysiological responses provide the basis for an optimistic estimate of their usefulness as an objective method for assessing hearing in infants and adults.

  5. Temporal suppression and augmentation of click-evoked otoacoustic emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhulst, Sarah; Harte, James; Dau, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates and models temporal suppression of click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs). This suppression-effect is created when a suppressor-click is presented close in time to a test-click. The analysis was carried out for short time-frames of short- and long-latency CEOAEs...... suppression is present in all CEOAEs for inter-click intervals (ICIs) less than 8 ms. The long-latency CEOAEs showed augmentation (i.e., negative suppression) for ICIs of 6-7 ms which was not reported for the short-latency CEOAE at these ICIs. A phenomenological approach is adopted here to explain both...

  6. Estimation of evoked potentials using total least squares prony technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkin, T; Saliu, S

    1998-09-01

    The authors investigate the applicability of Prony modelling to the estimation of evoked potentials. Four types of total least squares (TLS) model are considered and their optimal parameters are defined based on ten visual averaged EPs. Simulations with various signal and noise characteristics show that the TLS-Prony estimation is superior to averaging for two of the models, namely the unconstrained and the stable models. Application of the TLS-Prony estimator as a post-processor to moderate averaging allows a reduction in the number of responses averaged, or equivalently of recording time, by a factor of two.

  7. Neuronal Rac1 is required for learning-evoked neurogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haditsch, Ursula; Anderson, Matthew P; Freewoman, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Hippocampus-dependent learning and memory relies on synaptic plasticity as well as network adaptations provided by the addition of adult-born neurons. We have previously shown that activity-induced intracellular signaling through the Rho family small GTPase Rac1 is necessary in forebrain projection...... neurons for normal synaptic plasticity in vivo, and here we show that selective loss of neuronal Rac1 also impairs the learning-evoked increase in neurogenesis in the adult mouse hippocampus. Earlier work has indicated that experience elevates the abundance of adult-born neurons in the hippocampus...

  8. Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorrieri, R.; Rensink, Arend; Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.; Smolka, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter, we give a comprehensive overview of the research results in the field of action refinement during the past 12 years. The different approaches that have been followed are outlined in detail and contrasted to each other in a uniform framework. We use two running examples to discuss

  9. Hausa verbal compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McIntyre, Joseph Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Verbal compounds abound in Hausa (a Chadic language). A very broad definition of Hausa verbal compounds (henceforth: VC) is “a compound with a verb”. Four types of verbal compound are analysed: V[erb]+X compounds, PAC+V compounds (a PAC is a pronoun complex indicating TAM), VCs with a ma prefix

  10. Clinical application of visual evoked potential in orbital cellulitis of infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Juan Jing

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the visual evoked potential in infantile orbital cellulitis' clinical applications by monitoring the visual evoked potential changes in infantile orbital cellulitis before, during and after treatment.METHODS: Twenty-three cases of CT diagnosed single orbital cellulitis were examined by the visual evoked potentials. The affected eyes as observation group, and healthy eyes as control group. Comparative observation of visual evoked potential changes in amplitude and incubation period before, during and after the treatment. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the observation group's visual evoked potential changes included reduced amplitude, extended incubation period. With the treatment progress, the observation group had gradual increase in amplitude, gradual reduction in incubation period. CONCLUSION: In infantile orbital cellulitis, the use of visual evoked potentials is a simple, feasible and effective method to monitoring the visual function during the treatment.

  11. Magnetic fields evoked by speech sounds in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihko, Elina; Kujala, Teija; Mickos, Annika; Antell, Henrik; Alku, Paavo; Byring, Roger; Korkman, Marit

    2005-01-01

    Our objective was to study how well the auditory evoked magnetic fields (EF) reflect the behavioral discrimination of speech sounds in preschool children, and if they reveal the same information as simultaneously recorded evoked potentials (EP). EFs and EPs were recorded in 11 preschool children (mean age 6 years 9 months) using an oddball paradigm with two sets of speech stimuli consisting both of one standard and two deviants. After the brain activity recording, children were tested on behavioural discrimination of the same stimuli presented in pairs. There was a mismatch negativity (MMN) calculated from difference curves and its magnetic counterpart MMNm measured from the original responses only to those deviants, which were behaviourally easiest to discriminate from the standards. In addition, EF revealed significant differences between the locations of the activation depending on the hemisphere and stimulus properties. EF, in addition to reflecting the sound-discrimination accuracy in a similar manner as EP, also reflected the spatial differences in activation of the temporal lobes. These results suggest that both EPs and EFs are feasible for investigating the neural basis of sound discrimination in young children. The recording of EFs with its high spatial resolution reveals information on the location of the activated neural sources.

  12. A New Measure for Monitoring Intraoperative Somatosensory Evoked Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Jeong Eun; Choi, Young Doo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To propose a new measure for effective monitoring of intraoperative somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) and to validate the feasibility of this measure for evoked potentials (EP) and single trials with a retrospective data analysis study. Methods The proposed new measure (hereafter, a slope-measure) was defined as the relative slope of the amplitude and latency at each EP peak compared to the baseline value, which is sensitive to the change in the amplitude and latency simultaneously. We used the slope-measure for EP and single trials and compared the significant change detection time with that of the conventional peak-to-peak method. When applied to single trials, each single trial signal was processed with optimal filters before using the slope-measure. In this retrospective data analysis, 7 patients who underwent cerebral aneurysm clipping surgery for unruptured aneurysm middle cerebral artery (MCA) bifurcation were included. Results We found that this simple slope-measure has a detection time that is as early or earlier than that of the conventional method; furthermore, using the slope-measure in optimally filtered single trials provides warning signs earlier than that of the conventional method during MCA clipping surgery. Conclusion Our results have confirmed the feasibility of the slope-measure for intraoperative SEP monitoring. This is a novel study that provides a useful measure for either EP or single trials in intraoperative SEP monitoring. PMID:25628803

  13. A wireless system for monitoring transcranial motor evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajidavar, Aydin; Seifert, Jennifer L; Bell, Jennifer E S; Seo, Young-Sik; Delgado, Mauricio R; Sparagana, Steven; Romero, Mario I; Chiao, J-C

    2011-01-01

    Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) is commonly used as an attempt to minimize neurological morbidity from operative manipulations. The goal of IONM is to identify changes in the central and peripheral nervous system function prior to irreversible damage. Intraoperative monitoring also has been effective in localizing anatomical structures, including peripheral nerves and sensorimotor cortex, which helps guide the surgeon during dissection. As part of IONM, transcranial motor evoked potentials (TcMEPs), and somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) are routinely monitored. However, current wired systems are cumbersome as the wires contribute to the crowded conditions in the operating room and in doing so not only it limits the maneuverability of the surgeon and assistants, but also places certain demand in the total anesthesia required during surgery, due to setup preoperative time needed for proper electrode placement, due to the number and length of the wires, and critical identification of the lead wires needed for stimulation and recording. To address these limitations, we have developed a wireless TcMEP IONM system as a first step toward a multimodality IONM system. Bench-top and animal experiments in rodents demonstrated that the wireless method reproduced with high fidelity, and even increased the frequency bandwidth of the TcMEP signals, compared to wired systems. This wireless system will reduce the preoperative time required for IONM setup, add convenience for surgical staff, and reduce wire-related risks for patients during the operation.

  14. Evoked brain potentials and disability in brain-damaged patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, M; Hall, K; Hopkins, K; Belleza, T; Berrol, S; Reynolds, G

    1977-08-01

    Various measures of evoked brain potential abnormality (EPA) were correlated with disability ratings (DR) for 35 brain-damaged patients. EPA data consisted of judgements of abnormality of ipsilateral, contralateral and bilateral responses to auditory and visual stimuli reflecting activity in the brain stem, subcortex and cortex. DR data were obtained from a scale developed for this study to quantize and categorize patients with a wide range of disabilities from coma to normal functioning. EPA scores based on visual and auditory cortical responses showed significantly positive correlations with degree of disability. Visual response correlation was .49, auditory .38 and combined visual and auditory .51. It was concluded that EPA measures can reflect disability independently of clinical information. They are useful in assessing brain function in general and, specifically, in assessing impairment of sensory function. The evoked potential technique was particularly useful in patients who were not able to participate fully in their own examination. There were indications that the technique may also be valuable in monitoring progress and in predicting clinical outcome in brain-damaged patients.

  15. Characteristics and clinical applications of ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantner, C; Gürkov, R

    2012-12-01

    Recently, ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMPs) have been described and added to the neuro-otologic test battery as a new measure for the vestibulo-ocular reflex. oVEMPs represent extraocular muscle activity in response to otolith stimulation e.g. by air-conducted sound or bone-conducted vibration. In response to vestibular stimulation, electromyographic activity of the extraocular muscles can be recorded by means of surface electrodes placed beneath the contralateral eye. oVEMPs are likely to reflect predominantly utricular function, while the widely established cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs) assess saccular function. Thus, measuring oVEMPs and cVEMPs in addition to caloric and head impulse testing provides further evaluation of the vestibular system and enables quick and cost-effective assessment of otolith function. This review summarizes the neurophysiological properties of oVEMPs, gives recommendations for recording conditions and discusses oVEMP alterations in various disorders of the vestibular system. With increasing insight into oVEMP characteristics in vestibular disorders, e.g. Menière's disease and superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome, oVEMPs are becoming a promising new diagnostic tool for evaluating utricular function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Somatosensory evoked potentials in children with severe head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalamon, Johannes; Singer, Georg; Kurschel, Senta; Höllwarth, Michael E

    2005-07-01

    We evaluated the predictive value of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) in a series of children with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). The prospective clinical investigation was performed in a Level I paediatric trauma centre. We included 26 consecutive comatose paediatric patients aged from 1 month to 17 years (median age 11 years) following severe TBI (initial Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) 8 or below). Besides SEP recordings, the intracranial pressure and the results of an initial cranial CT scan were filed. The Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) was used to assess outcome at discharge. Thirteen children had normal SEP measurements, three patients had abnormal SEP recordings and a cortical response was bilaterally absent in ten children. Out of 26 children, 10 died whereas two remained in a persistent vegetative state. Only one child suffered from significant neurological deficits (GOS 3) at discharge. Seven patients survived with a GOS of 4 and six children survived without neurological impairment (GOS 5). Normal SEP indicated a favourable outcome in most children but did not rule out the occurrence of death, while absence of SEP was related to unfavourable outcome in all cases. Measurement of somatosensory evoked potentials provides valuable data for determining the prognosis at early coma stages. Our data show that an unfavourable outcome can be predicted with higher precision than a favourable outcome.

  17. Unwanted sexual experiences and cognitive appraisals that evoke mental contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Ryotaro; Kobori, Osamu; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    Mental contamination is a psychological sense of contamination that involves an internal, emotional feeling of dirtiness that may be evoked by unwanted thoughts and images, such as sexual assaults. This study aimed to investigate which types of unwanted sexual experiences evoke the strongest mental contamination, and to test the hypothesis that cognitive appraisals of an unwanted sexual experience predict indices of mental contamination (i.e. feeling of dirtiness, urge to wash, internal negative emotions, and external negative emotions). 148 female participants were asked to recall their most distressing unwanted sexual experiences. Indices of mental contamination and cognitive appraisals of the experience were then assessed. Our findings indicated that individuals recalling experiences related to rape felt more intense feelings of dirtiness than individuals recalling other types of unwanted sexual experience, such as verbal sexual assault, visual sexual assault, and forcible touching/frottage. In addition, hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that a cognitive appraisal of perceived violation predicted all of the indices of mental contamination after controlling anxiety, depression, and fear of contact contamination. The present study demonstrated that an individual is at greatest risk of mental contamination if she has experienced rape/attempted rape, and if she makes a cognitive appraisal of violation regarding the incident.

  18. Synaptically evoked glutamate transporter currents in Spinal Dorsal Horn Astrocytes

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    Dougherty Patrick M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Removing and sequestering synaptically released glutamate from the extracellular space is carried out by specific plasma membrane transporters that are primarily located in astrocytes. Glial glutamate transporter function can be monitored by recording the currents that are produced by co-transportation of Na+ ions with the uptake of glutamate. The goal of this study was to characterize glutamate transporter function in astrocytes of the spinal cord dorsal horn in real time by recording synaptically evoked glutamate transporter currents. Results Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were obtained from astrocytes in the spinal substantia gelatinosa (SG area in spinal slices of young adult rats. Glutamate transporter currents were evoked in these cells by electrical stimulation at the spinal dorsal root entry zone in the presence of bicuculline, strychnine, DNQX and D-AP5. Transporter currents were abolished when synaptic transmission was blocked by TTX or Cd2+. Pharmacological studies identified two subtypes of glutamate transporters in spinal astrocytes, GLAST and GLT-1. Glutamate transporter currents were graded with stimulus intensity, reaching peak responses at 4 to 5 times activation threshold, but were reduced following low-frequency (0.1 – 1 Hz repetitive stimulation. Conclusion These results suggest that glutamate transporters of spinal astrocytes could be activated by synaptic activation, and recording glutamate transporter currents may provide a means of examining the real time physiological responses of glial cells in spinal sensory processing, sensitization, hyperalgesia and chronic pain.

  19. Nostalgia-Evoked Inspiration: Mediating Mechanisms and Motivational Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Elena; Sedikides, Constantine; Wildschut, Tim; Cheung, Wing-Yee; Routledge, Clay; Arndt, Jamie

    2015-10-01

    Six studies examined the nostalgia-inspiration link and its motivational implications. In Study 1, nostalgia proneness was positively associated with inspiration frequency and intensity. In Studies 2 and 3, the recollection of nostalgic (vs. ordinary) experiences increased both general inspiration and specific inspiration to engage in exploratory activities. In Study 4, serial mediational analyses supported a model in which nostalgia increases social connectedness, which subsequently fosters self-esteem, which then boosts inspiration. In Study 5, a rigorous evaluation of this serial mediational model (with a novel nostalgia induction controlling for positive affect) reinforced the idea that nostalgia-elicited social connectedness increases self-esteem, which then heightens inspiration. Study 6 extended the serial mediational model by demonstrating that nostalgia-evoked inspiration predicts goal pursuit (intentions to pursue an important goal). Nostalgia spawns inspiration via social connectedness and attendant self-esteem. In turn, nostalgia-evoked inspiration bolsters motivation. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  20. Visual evoked potentials, reaction times and eye dominance in cricketers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, N G; Harden, L M; Rogers, G G

    2005-09-01

    Few studies have examined the physiology of cricket, including the difference in ability between batsmen to make controlled contact with a ball bowled at high speed. We therefore measured visual evoked potentials and choice reaction times with dominant eyes, non-dominant eyes, and both eyes together, in 15 elite batsmen and 10 elite bowlers (aged 20.9 SD 1.9 years) and 9 control subjects (aged 20.2 SD 1.5 years). The latency and amplitude of waves N70, P100 and N145 were determined for each visual evoked potential (VEP). In addition interpeak latencies and peak to peak amplitudes were measured. The subjects also completed a choice reaction test to a visual stimulus. We found that cricketers were not more likely to have crossed dominance (dominant eye contralateral to dominant hand) than controls. Cricketers had a faster latency for VEP wave N70 than controls (p=0.03). However reaction time was not different between cricketers and the control group. Across all subjects, in comparison to monocular testing, binocular testing led to a faster choice reaction time (p=0.02) and larger amplitudes of VEP wave N70 (p=0.01). Visual processing during the first 100(-1)50 ms of the balls flight together with binocular vision facilitates retinal activation in talented cricketers.

  1. Modified cytoplasmic Ca2+ sequestration contributes to spinal cord injury-induced augmentation of nerve-evoked contractions in the rat tail artery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Al Dera

    Full Text Available In rat tail artery (RTA, spinal cord injury (SCI increases nerve-evoked contractions and the contribution of L-type Ca2+ channels to these responses. In RTAs from unoperated rats, these channels play a minor role in contractions and Bay K8644 (L-type channel agonist mimics the effects of SCI. Here we investigated the mechanisms underlying the facilitatory actions of SCI and Bay K8644 on nerve-evoked contractions of RTAs and the hypothesis that Ca2+ entering via L-type Ca2+ channels is rapidly sequestered by the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR limiting its role in contraction. In situ electrochemical detection of noradrenaline was used to assess if Bay K8644 increased noradrenaline release. Perforated patch recordings were used to assess if SCI changed the Ca2+ current recorded in RTA myocytes. Wire myography was used to assess if SCI modified the effects of Bay K8644 and of interrupting SR Ca2+ uptake on nerve-evoked contractions. Bay K8644 did not change noradrenaline-induced oxidation currents. Neither the size nor gating of Ca2+ currents differed between myocytes from sham-operated (control and SCI rats. Bay K8644 increased nerve-evoked contractions in RTAs from both control and SCI rats, but the magnitude of this effect was reduced by SCI. By contrast, depleting SR Ca2+ stores with ryanodine or cyclopiazonic acid selectively increased nerve-evoked contractions in control RTAs. Cyclopiazonic acid also selectively increased the blockade of these responses by nifedipine (L-type channel blocker in control RTAs, whereas ryanodine increased the blockade produced by nifedipine in both groups of RTAs. These findings suggest that Ca2+ entering via L-type channels is normally rapidly sequestered limiting its access to the contractile mechanism. Furthermore, the findings suggest SCI reduces the role of this mechanism.

  2. Actionable Nuggets

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColl, Mary Ann; Aiken, Alice; Smith, Karen; McColl, Alexander; Green, Michael; Godwin, Marshall; Birtwhistle, Richard; Norman, Kathleen; Brankston, Gabrielle; Schaub, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To present the results of a pilot study of an innovative methodology for translating best evidence about spinal cord injury (SCI) for family practice. Design Review of Canadian and international peer-reviewed literature to develop SCI Actionable Nuggets, and a mixed qualitative-quantitative evaluation to determine Nuggets’ effect on physician knowledge of and attitudes toward patients with SCI, as well as practice accessibility. Setting Ontario, Newfoundland, and Australia. Participants Forty-nine primary care physicians. Methods Twenty Actionable Nuggets (pertaining to key health issues associated with long-term SCI) were developed. Nugget postcards were mailed weekly for 20 weeks to participating physicians. Prior knowledge of SCI was self-rated by participants; they also completed an online posttest to assess the information they gained from the Nugget postcards. Participants’ opinions about practice accessibility and accommodations for patients with SCI, as well as the acceptability and usefulness of Nuggets, were assessed in interviews. Main findings With Actionable Nuggets, participants’ knowledge of the health needs of patients with SCI improved, as knowledge increased from a self-rating of fair (58%) to very good (75%) based on posttest quiz results. The mean overall score for accessibility and accommodations in physicians’ practices was 72%. Participants’ awareness of the need for screening and disease prevention among this population also increased. The usefulness and acceptability of SCI Nugget postcards were rated as excellent. Conclusion Actionable Nuggets are a knowledge translation tool designed to provide family physicians with concise, practical information about the most prevalent and pressing primary care needs of patients with SCI. This evidence-based resource has been shown to be an excellent fit with information consumption processes in primary care. They were updated and adapted for distribution by the Canadian

  3. Gallium-containing anticancer compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitambar, Christopher R

    2012-06-01

    There is an ever pressing need to develop new drugs for the treatment of cancer. Gallium nitrate, a group IIIa metal salt, inhibits the proliferation of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo and has shown activity against non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and bladder cancer in clinical trials. Gallium can function as an iron mimetic and perturb iron-dependent proliferation and other iron-related processes in tumor cells. Gallium nitrate lacks crossresistance with conventional chemotherapeutic drugs and is not myelosuppressive; it can be used when other drugs have failed or when the blood count is low. Given the therapeutic potential of gallium, newer generations of gallium compounds are now in various phases of preclinical and clinical development. These compounds hold the promise of greater anti-tumor activity against a broader spectrum of cancers. The development of gallium compounds for cancer treatment and their mechanisms of action will be discussed.

  4. pH-evoked dural afferent signaling is mediated by ASIC3 and is sensitized by mast cell mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jin; Wei, Xiaomei; Bischoff, Christina; Edelmayer, Rebecca M; Dussor, Gregory

    2013-09-01

    Prior studies have shown that decreased meningeal pH activates dural afferents via opening of acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), suggesting one pathophysiological mechanism for the generation of headaches. The studies described here further examined the ASIC subtype mediating pH-induced dural-afferent activation and examined whether sensitization influences pH responses. Given the potential importance of meningeal mast cells to headache, the goal of this study was to evaluate dural afferent responses to pH following sensitization with mast cell mediators. Cutaneous allodynia was measured in rats following stimulation of the dura with decreased pH alone or in combination with mast cell mediators. Trigeminal ganglion neurons retrogradely labeled from the dura were stained with an ASIC3 antibody using immunohistochemistry. Current and action potentials evoked by changes in pH alone or in combination with mast cell mediators were measured in retrogradely labeled dural afferents using patch-clamp electrophysiology. pH-sensitive dural afferents generated currents in response to the ASIC3 activator 2-guanidine-4-methylquinazoline (GMQ), approximately 80% of these neurons express ASIC3 protein, and pH-evoked behavioral responses were inhibited by the ASIC3 blocker APETx2. Following exposure to mast cell mediators, dural afferents exhibited increased pH-evoked excitability, and cutaneous allodynia was observed at higher pH than with pH stimuli alone. These data indicate that the predominant ASIC subtype responding to decreased meningeal pH is ASIC3. Additionally, they demonstrate that in the presence of inflammation, dural afferents respond to even smaller decreases in pH providing further support for the ability of small pH changes within the meninges to initiate afferent input leading to headache. © 2013 American Headache Society.

  5. Assessment of visual disability using visual evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jihoon; Oh, Seiyul; Kyung, Sungeun

    2012-08-06

    The purpose of this study is to validate the use of visual evoked potential (VEP) to objectively quantify visual acuity in normal and amblyopic patients, and determine if it is possible to predict visual acuity in disability assessment to register visual pathway lesions. A retrospective chart review was conducted of patients diagnosed with normal vision, unilateral amblyopia, optic neuritis, and visual disability who visited the university medical center for registration from March 2007 to October 2009. The study included 20 normal subjects (20 right eyes: 10 females, 10 males, ages 9-42 years), 18 unilateral amblyopic patients (18 amblyopic eyes, ages 19-36 years), 19 optic neuritis patients (19 eyes: ages 9-71 years), and 10 patients with visual disability having visual pathway lesions. Amplitude and latencies were analyzed and correlations with visual acuity (logMAR) were derived from 20 normal and 18 amblyopic subjects. Correlation of VEP amplitude and visual acuity (logMAR) of 19 optic neuritis patients confirmed relationships between visual acuity and amplitude. We calculated the objective visual acuity (logMAR) of 16 eyes from 10 patients to diagnose the presence or absence of visual disability using relations derived from 20 normal and 18 amblyopic eyes. Linear regression analyses between amplitude of pattern visual evoked potentials and visual acuity (logMAR) of 38 eyes from normal (right eyes) and amblyopic (amblyopic eyes) subjects were significant [y = -0.072x + 1.22, x: VEP amplitude, y: visual acuity (logMAR)]. There were no significant differences between visual acuity prediction values, which substituted amplitude values of 19 eyes with optic neuritis into function. We calculated the objective visual acuity of 16 eyes of 10 patients to diagnose the presence or absence of visual disability using relations of y = -0.072x + 1.22 (-0.072). This resulted in a prediction reference of visual acuity associated with malingering vs. real

  6. The Intraoperative Effect of Methadone on Somatosensory Evoked Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Maureen; Hackworth, Robert J; John, King; Riffenburgh, Robert; Tomlin, Jeffrey; Wamsley, Brian

    2017-04-01

    Evoked potentials (EP), both somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) and transcranial motor evoked potentials (TcMEP), are often used during complex spine surgery to monitor the integrity of spinal pathways during operations in or around the spine. Changes in these monitored EP signals (increased latency and decreased amplitude) may result from ischemia, direct surgical injury, changes in blood pressure, hypoxia, changes in CO2 tension, and anesthetic agents. Typically, a clinically significant change for SSEPs is defined as an increase in latency >10% or a decrease of amplitude >50%. A clinically significant change for TcMEPs is much more complex but is also described in terms of large signal loss or decrease. Opioids have been shown to both increase latency and decrease the amplitude of SSEPs, although this change is usually not clinically significant. There has been a renewed interest in methadone for use in spine and other complex surgeries. However, the effect of methadone on intraoperative monitoring of SSEPs and TcMEPs is unknown. We present the first study to directly look at the effects of methadone on SSEP and TcMEP monitoring during complex spine surgery. The goal of this study was to observe the effect of methadone on an unrandomized set of patients. The primary endpoint was methadone's effect on SSEPs, and the secondary endpoint was methadone's effect on TcMEPs. Adult patients undergoing spine surgery requiring intraoperative neuromonitoring were induced with general anesthesia and had a baseline set of SSEPs and TcMEPs recorded. Next, methadone dosed 0.2 mg/kg/lean body weight was given. Repeat SSEPs and TcMEPs were recorded at 5, 10, and 15 minutes, with the timing based on distribution half-life of methadone between 6 and 8 minutes. Postoperatively, adverse events from methadone administration were collected. There was a statistically significant difference found in SSEPs for N20 latency (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17-0.53; P=0.028), P37 latency

  7. The Princip cult and what it evokes in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Beckett Weaver

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Princip cult and what it evokes in Hungary On the 28th of June, 1914, a consumptive student, Gavrilo Princip, shot and killed prince Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. The prince’s wife Sofia was also killed by a stray bullet. In the century that has passed since the assassination, the memory of Princip and the cult constructed around him has been distorted beyond recognition. As local and international politics were altered, so changed Princip’s image. The memory of Princip now evokes strong reactions not only in the South Slav lands, but in Hungary as well. In what follows, we will examine possible sources for the strong reactions evoked by Princip’s memory among Hungarians a century after his act.   Kult Principa i co on ewokuje na Węgrzech W dniu 28 czerwca 1914 roku chory na gruźlicę student Gavrilo Princip zastrzelił księcia Franciszka Ferdynanda, następcę tronu monarchii austro-węgierskiej. Od zbłąkanej kuli zginęła także żona księcia, Zofia. W okresie stulecia, które minęło od tego zabójstwa, pamięć o Principie i kult zbudowany wokół niego przeobraziły się diametralnie. Wraz z przemianami polityki lokalnej i międzynarodowej zmieniało się także postrzeganie Principa. Obecnie pamięć o Principie wywołuje silne reakcje nie tylko na ziemiach południowosłowiańskich, ale również na Węgrzech. Autor artykułu docieka, skąd mogą wypływać silne reakcje, jakie pamięć Principa wywołuje u Węgrów sto lat po jego czynie.

  8. SOMATOSENSORY EVOKED POTENTIALS IN DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE - 2

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    Rekha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disorder affecting majority of population. It is estimated that over 400 million people throughout the world have diabetes. It has progressed to be a pandemic from an epidemic causing morbidity and mortality in the population. Among the many complications of diabetes, diabetic neuropathies contribute majorly to the morbidity associated with the disease. Axonal conduction is affected by elevated levels of protein kinase c causing neuronal ischemia; decreased ce llular myoinositol affecting sodium potassium ATPase pump leads to decreased nerve conduction; Somatosensory E voked P otentials (SSEPs reflect the activity of somatosensory pathways mediated through the dorsal columns of the spinal cord and the specific so matosensory cortex. Recording of Somatosensory Evoked Potentials in diabetics is done to assess the sensory involvement of spinal cord. Presence of SEPs provides clear evidence for axonal continuity and by using different stimulation sites, the rate of reg eneration can be determined. Both onset and peak latencies of all SEP components are prolonged in patients with diabetes. Present study is done to compare somatosensory evoked potentials in diabetics and normal subjects. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: The present study was undertaken at the Upgraded Department of Physiology, Osmania Medical College, Koti, Hyderabad. The study was conducted on subjects, both male and female in the age group of 45 to 55 years, suffering from type II diabetes excluding other neurologi cal disorders. Non - invasive method of estimation of nerve conduction studies using SFEMG/EP — Electromyography or evoked potential system (Nicolet systems — USA using surface electrodes with automated computerized monitor attached with printer is used. RESUL TS : ANOVA showed statistically significant N9 latency (right & left sides. Latencies of all the components of SSEPs were more significant than amplitudes in Diabetic

  9. Assessment of visual disability using visual evoked potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeon Jihoon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to validate the use of visual evoked potential (VEP to objectively quantify visual acuity in normal and amblyopic patients, and determine if it is possible to predict visual acuity in disability assessment to register visual pathway lesions. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted of patients diagnosed with normal vision, unilateral amblyopia, optic neuritis, and visual disability who visited the university medical center for registration from March 2007 to October 2009. The study included 20 normal subjects (20 right eyes: 10 females, 10 males, ages 9–42 years, 18 unilateral amblyopic patients (18 amblyopic eyes, ages 19–36 years, 19 optic neuritis patients (19 eyes: ages 9–71 years, and 10 patients with visual disability having visual pathway lesions. Amplitude and latencies were analyzed and correlations with visual acuity (logMAR were derived from 20 normal and 18 amblyopic subjects. Correlation of VEP amplitude and visual acuity (logMAR of 19 optic neuritis patients confirmed relationships between visual acuity and amplitude. We calculated the objective visual acuity (logMAR of 16 eyes from 10 patients to diagnose the presence or absence of visual disability using relations derived from 20 normal and 18 amblyopic eyes. Results Linear regression analyses between amplitude of pattern visual evoked potentials and visual acuity (logMAR of 38 eyes from normal (right eyes and amblyopic (amblyopic eyes subjects were significant [y = −0.072x + 1.22, x: VEP amplitude, y: visual acuity (logMAR]. There were no significant differences between visual acuity prediction values, which substituted amplitude values of 19 eyes with optic neuritis into function. We calculated the objective visual acuity of 16 eyes of 10 patients to diagnose the presence or absence of visual disability using relations of y = −0.072x + 1.22 (−0.072. This resulted in a prediction

  10. Spontaneous activity forms a foundation for odor-evoked activation maps in the rat olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Garth J; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G; Baker, Keeley L; Herman, Peter; Shepherd, Gordon M; Verhagen, Justus V; Hyder, Fahmeed

    2018-01-25

    Fluctuations in spontaneous activity have been observed by many neuroimaging techniques, but because these resting-state changes are not evoked by stimuli, it is difficult to determine how they relate to task-evoked activations. We conducted multi-modal neuroimaging scans of the rat olfactory bulb, both with and without odor, to examine interaction between spontaneous and evoked activities. Independent component analysis of spontaneous fluctuations revealed resting-state networks, and odor-evoked changes revealed activation maps. We constructed simulated activation maps using resting-state networks that were highly correlated to evoked activation maps. Simulated activation maps derived by intrinsic optical signal (IOS), which covers the dorsal portion of the glomerular sheet, significantly differentiated one odor's evoked activation map from the other two. To test the hypothesis that spontaneous activity of the entire glomerular sheet is relevant for representing odor-evoked activations, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to map the entire glomerular sheet. In contrast to the IOS results, the fMRI-derived simulated activation maps significantly differentiated all three odors' evoked activation maps. Importantly, no evoked activation maps could be significantly differentiated using simulated activation maps produced using phase-randomized resting-state networks. Given that some highly organized resting-state networks did not correlate with any odors' evoked activation maps, we posit that these resting-state networks may characterize evoked activation maps associated with odors not studied. These results emphasize that fluctuations in spontaneous activity are relevant for active processing, signifying the relevance of resting-state mapping to functional neuroimaging. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Multimodality evoked potentials in HTLV-I associated myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakigi, R; Shibasaki, H; Kuroda, Y; Endo, C; Oda, K; Ikeda, A; Hashimoto, K

    1988-08-01

    Multimodality evoked potentials (EPs) consisting of somatosensory EPs (SEPs), visual EPs (VEPs) and brainstem auditory EPs (BAEPs) were studied in 16 cases with HTLV-I associated myelopathy (HAM). Median nerve SEPs were normal in all cases. In posterior tibial nerve SEPs, the potential recorded at the 12th thoracic spinal process was normal in every case but cortical components were significantly prolonged in 10 cases, although five of these showed no sensory impairment. BAEPs were normal in every case whose hearing was intact, but VEPs were abnormal in two cases whose visual acuities were normal. The present results in HAM indicate predominant lesion in the thoracic cord, and might also suggest some subclinical lesion in the visual pathway.

  12. Temporal suppression and augmentation of click-evoked otoacoustic emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhulst, Sarah; Harte, James; Dau, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates temporal suppression of click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs), occurring when a suppressor-click is presented close in time to a test-click (e.g. 0-8ms). Various temporal suppression methods for examining temporal changes in cochlear compression were evaluated...... and measured here for seven subjects, both for short- and long-latency CEOAEs. Long-latency CEOAEs (duration >20ms) typically indicate the presence of synchronised spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SSOAEs). Temporal suppression can only be linked to changes in CEOAE-compression if the suppressor-click affects...... the CEOAE magnitude. Phase changes induced by the suppressor-click were shown to bias suppression in two ways: (i) when a specific asymmetric measurement method was used and (ii) when synchronisation between the CEOAE and the click-stimuli was incomplete. When such biases were eliminated, temporal...

  13. Auditory evoked responses upon awakening from sleep in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, M; De Gennaro, L; Ferlazzo, F; Curcio, G; Barattucci, M; Bertini, M

    2001-09-14

    The hypothesis that a state of hypoarousal upon awakening should lead to a decrease in amplitude and an increase in latency of the N1-P2 components of the Auditory Evoked Potentials (AEPs) as compared to presleep wakefulness levels, was evaluated after two nocturnal awakenings and after the final morning awakening from a 7.5-h night of sleep. The amplitude of the N1-P2 complex was reduced upon awakening as compared to presleep wakefulness levels, but only following the first nocturnal awakening, scheduled after the first 2 h of sleep. This result is interpreted as indicating a link between slow wave sleep amount, mainly present during the first part of the night, and lowered levels of brain activation upon awakening. The reaction times, recorded concomitantly to AEPs, were more sensitive to the negative effects of sleep inertia.

  14. Auditory evoked field measurement using magneto-impedance sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, K., E-mail: o-kabou@echo.nuee.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Tajima, S.; Song, D.; Uchiyama, T. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Hamada, N.; Cai, C. [Aichi Steel Corporation, Tokai (Japan)

    2015-05-07

    The magnetic field of the human brain is extremely weak, and it is mostly measured and monitored in the magnetoencephalography method using superconducting quantum interference devices. In this study, in order to measure the weak magnetic field of the brain, we constructed a Magneto-Impedance sensor (MI sensor) system that can cancel out the background noise without any magnetic shield. Based on our previous studies of brain wave measurements, we used two MI sensors in this system for monitoring both cerebral hemispheres. In this study, we recorded and compared the auditory evoked field signals of the subject, including the N100 (or N1) and the P300 (or P3) brain waves. The results suggest that the MI sensor can be applied to brain activity measurement.

  15. Can Treadmill Perturbations Evoke Stretch Reflexes in the Calf Muscles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth H Sloot

    Full Text Available Disinhibition of reflexes is a problem amongst spastic patients, for it limits a smooth and efficient execution of motor functions during gait. Treadmill belt accelerations may potentially be used to measure reflexes during walking, i.e. by dorsal flexing the ankle and stretching the calf muscles, while decelerations show the modulation of reflexes during a reduction of sensory feedback. The aim of the current study was to examine if belt accelerations and decelerations of different intensities applied during the stance phase of treadmill walking can evoke reflexes in the gastrocnemius, soleus and tibialis anterior in healthy subjects. Muscle electromyography and joint kinematics were measured in 10 subjects. To determine whether stretch reflexes occurred, we assessed modelled musculo-tendon length and stretch velocity, the amount of muscle activity, as well as the incidence of bursts or depressions in muscle activity with their time delays, and co-contraction between agonist and antagonist muscle. Although the effect on the ankle angle was small with 2.8±1.0°, the perturbations caused clear changes in muscle length and stretch velocity relative to unperturbed walking. Stretched muscles showed an increasing incidence of bursts in muscle activity, which occurred after a reasonable electrophysiological time delay (163-191 ms. Their amplitude was related to the muscle stretch velocity and not related to co-contraction of the antagonist muscle. These effects increased with perturbation intensity. Shortened muscles showed opposite effects, with a depression in muscle activity of the calf muscles. The perturbations only slightly affected the spatio-temporal parameters, indicating that normal walking was retained. Thus, our findings showed that treadmill perturbations can evoke reflexes in the calf muscles and tibialis anterior. This comprehensive study could form the basis for clinical implementation of treadmill perturbations to functionally

  16. Light-evoked S-nitrosylation in the retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooker, Ryan E; Vigh, Jozsef

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in the retina is triggered by light stimulation. NO has been shown to modulate visual signal processing at multiple sites in the vertebrate retina, via activation of the most sensitive target of NO signaling, soluble guanylate cyclase. NO can also alter protein structure and function and exert biological effects directly by binding to free thiol groups of cysteine residues in a chemical reaction called S-nitrosylation. However, in the central nervous system, including the retina, this reaction has not been considered to be significant under physiological conditions. Here we provide immunohistochemical evidence for extensive S-nitrosylation that takes place in the goldfish and mouse retinas under physiologically relevant light intensities, in an intensity-dependent manner, with a strikingly similar pattern in both species. Pre-treatment with NEM, which occludes S-nitrosylation, or with TRIM, an inhibitor of neuronal NO synthase, eliminated the light-evoked increase in S-nitrosylated protein immunofluorescence (SNI) in the retinas of both species. Similarly, light did not increase SNI, above basal levels, in retinas of transgenic mice lacking neuronal NO synthase. Qualitative analysis of the light-adapted mouse retina with mass spectrometry revealed more than 300 proteins that were S-nitrosylated upon illumination, many of which are known to participate directly in retinal signal processing. Our data strongly suggest that in the retina, light-evoked NO production leads to extensive S-nitrosylation and that this process is a significant post-translational modification affecting a wide range of proteins under physiological conditions. PMID:25823749

  17. EFFECT OF SMOKING ON TRASIENTLY EVOKED OTOACOUSTIC EMISSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegenava, Kh; Japaridze, Sh; Sharashenidze, N; Jalabadze, G; Kevanishvili, Z

    2016-01-01

    Evoked otoacoustic emissions, EOAEs, are proved to be sounds aroused in response to external acoustic stimulus by the cochlear outer hair cells. Transiently evoked otoacoustic emissions, TEOAEs, are the most clinically utilized EOAEs. TEOAEs are detectable in 98% of people with normal hearing, regardless of age or sex, while two ears of any individual produce similar TEOAEs waveforms. The objective of the presented study was the comparison of TEOAE magnitudes in cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. The TEOAE occurrence and characteristics in individuals of both samples with audiometrically proved hearing losses and in those without were also specifically examined. 30 smokers and and 30 nonsmokers within the age range of 30-59 years were involved in the present study after informed concent. OAEs were performed to each subject by Madsen Capella's-OAE/middle ear analyzer-GN Otometrics, (Danmark). After OAE testing each subject was performed routine pure-tone audiometry and tympanometry. Obtained results were statistically treated by the student's t-distribution. According to our results 76.6% of smokers and 3.33% of nonsmokers had marked different level decrease in TEOAE amplitude. Audiographic measurments showed altered audiogram in 6.7% of smokers and in 3.33% of nonsmokers. Based on the above mentioned results we suppose that smoking has significant influence on hearing function, especially on cochlear apparatus; At the same time, TOEAE, as a sensitive method can be used for very early detection of hearing loss, even when there are neither any subjective complains nor some changies on audiogram.

  18. Light-evoked S-nitrosylation in the retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooker, Ryan E; Vigh, Jozsef

    2015-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in the retina is triggered by light stimulation. NO has been shown to modulate visual signal processing at multiple sites in the vertebrate retina, via activation of the most sensitive target of NO signaling, soluble guanylate cyclase. NO can also alter protein structure and function and exert biological effects directly by binding to free thiol groups of cysteine residues in a chemical reaction called S-nitrosylation. However, in the central nervous system, including the retina, this reaction has not been considered to be significant under physiological conditions. Here we provide immunohistochemical evidence for extensive S-nitrosylation that takes place in the goldfish and mouse retinas under physiologically relevant light intensities, in an intensity-dependent manner, with a strikingly similar pattern in both species. Pretreatment with N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), which occludes S-nitrosylation, or with 1-(2-trifluromethylphenyl)imidazole (TRIM), an inhibitor of neuronal NO synthase, eliminated the light-evoked increase in S-nitrosylated protein immunofluorescence (SNI) in the retinas of both species. Similarly, light did not increase SNI, above basal levels, in retinas of transgenic mice lacking neuronal NO synthase. Qualitative analysis of the light-adapted mouse retina with mass spectrometry revealed more than 300 proteins that were S-nitrosylated upon illumination, many of which are known to participate directly in retinal signal processing. Our data strongly suggest that in the retina light-evoked NO production leads to extensive S-nitrosylation and that this process is a significant posttranslational modification affecting a wide range of proteins under physiological conditions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Interaction of sound and sight during action perception: evidence for shared modality-dependent action representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaerts, Kaat; Swinnen, Stephan P; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2009-10-01

    Seeing or hearing manual actions activates the mirror neuron system, i.e., specialized neurons within motor areas which fire not only when an action is performed but also when it is passively perceived. Although it has been shown that mirror neurons respond to either action-specific vision or sound, it remains a topic of debate whether and how vision and sound interact during action perception. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation to explore multimodal interactions in the human motor system, namely at the level of the primary motor cortex (M1). Corticomotor excitability in M1 was measured while subjects perceived unimodal visual (V), unimodal auditory (A), or multimodal (V+A) stimuli of a simple hand action. In addition, incongruent multimodal stimuli were included, in which incongruent vision or sound was presented simultaneously with the auditory or visual action stimulus. A selective response increase was observed to the congruent multimodal stimulus as compared to the unimodal and incongruent multimodal stimuli. These findings speak in favour of 'shared' action representations in the human motor system that are evoked in a 'modality-dependent' way, i.e., they are elicited most robustly by the simultaneous presentation of congruent auditory and visual stimuli. Multimodality in the perception of hand movements bears functional similarities to speech perception, suggesting that multimodal convergence is a generic feature of the mirror system which applies to action perception in general.

  20. Long-term mTOR inhibitors administration evokes altered calcium homeostasis and platelet dysfunction in kidney transplant patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Esther; Berna-Erro, Alejandro; Bermejo, Nuria; Brull, José María; Martinez, Rocío; Garcia Pino, Guadalupe; Alvarado, Raul; Salido, Ginés María; Rosado, Juan Antonio; Cubero, Juan José; Redondo, Pedro Cosme

    2013-01-01

    The use of the mammal target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors has been consolidated as the therapy of election for preventing graft rejection in kidney transplant patients, despite their immunosuppressive activity is less strong than anti-calcineurin agents like tacrolimus and cyclosporine A. Furthermore, as mTOR is widely expressed, rapamycin (a macrolide antibiotic produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus) is recommended in patients presenting neoplasia due to its antiproliferative actions. Hence, we have investigated whether rapamycin presents side effects in the physiology of other cell types different from leucocytes, such as platelets. Blood samples were drawn from healthy volunteers and kidney transplant patients long-term medicated with rapamycin: sirolimus and everolimus. Platelets were either loaded with fura-2 or directly stimulated, and immunoassayed or fixed with Laemmli's buffer to perform the subsequent analysis of platelet physiology. Our results indicate that rapamycin evokes a biphasic time-dependent alteration in calcium homeostasis and function in platelets from kidney transplant patients under rapamycin regime, as demonstrated by the reduction in granule secretion observed and subsequent impairment of platelet aggregation in these patients compared with healthy volunteers. Platelet count was also reduced in these patients, thus 41% of patients presented thrombocytopenia. All together our results show that long-term administration of rapamycin to kidney transplant patients evokes alteration in platelet function. PMID:23577651

  1. High-throughput analysis of stimulus-evoked behaviors in Drosophila larva reveals multiple modality-specific escape strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, Tomoko; Jovanic, Tihana; Denisov, Gennady; Dang, Tam C; Hoffmann, Dominik; Kerr, Rex A; Zlatic, Marta

    2013-01-01

    All organisms react to noxious and mechanical stimuli but we still lack a complete understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms by which somatosensory information is transformed into appropriate motor outputs. The small number of neurons and excellent genetic tools make Drosophila larva an especially tractable model system in which to address this problem. We developed high throughput assays with which we can simultaneously expose more than 1,000 larvae per man-hour to precisely timed noxious heat, vibration, air current, or optogenetic stimuli. Using this hardware in combination with custom software we characterized larval reactions to somatosensory stimuli in far greater detail than possible previously. Each stimulus evoked a distinctive escape strategy that consisted of multiple actions. The escape strategy was context-dependent. Using our system we confirmed that the nociceptive class IV multidendritic neurons were involved in the reactions to noxious heat. Chordotonal (ch) neurons were necessary for normal modulation of head casting, crawling and hunching, in response to mechanical stimuli. Consistent with this we observed increases in calcium transients in response to vibration in ch neurons. Optogenetic activation of ch neurons was sufficient to evoke head casting and crawling. These studies significantly increase our understanding of the functional roles of larval ch neurons. More generally, our system and the detailed description of wild type reactions to somatosensory stimuli provide a basis for systematic identification of neurons and genes underlying these behaviors.

  2. The Effect of Lamotrigine and Levetiracetam on TMS-Evoked EEG Responses Depends on Stimulation Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Premoli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography (TMS-EEG has uncovered underlying mechanisms of two anti-epileptic medications: levetiracetam and lamotrigine. Despite their different mechanism of action, both drugs modulated TMS-evoked EEG potentials (TEPs in a similar way. Since both medications increase resting motor threshold (RMT, the current aim was to examine the similarities and differences in post-drug TEPs, depending on whether stimulation intensity was adjusted to take account of post-drug RMT increase. The experiment followed a placebo controlled, double blind, crossover design, involving a single dose of either lamotrigine or levetiracetam. When a drug-induced increase of RMT occurred, post-drug measurements involved two blocks of stimulations, using unadjusted and adjusted stimulation intensity. A cluster based permutation analysis of differences in TEP amplitude between adjusted and unadjusted stimulation intensity showed that lamotrigine induced a stronger modulation of the N45 TEP component compared to levetiracetam. Results highlight the impact of adjusting stimulation intensity.

  3. The insulin-mediated modulation of visually evoked magnetic fields is reduced in obese subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Guthoff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insulin is an anorexigenic hormone that contributes to the termination of food intake in the postprandial state. An alteration in insulin action in the brain, named "cerebral insulin resistance", is responsible for overeating and the development of obesity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To analyze the direct effect of insulin on food-related neuronal activity we tested 10 lean and 10 obese subjects. We conducted a magnetencephalography study during a visual working memory task in both the basal state and after applying insulin or placebo spray intranasally to bypass the blood brain barrier. Food and non-food pictures were presented and subjects had to determine whether or not two consecutive pictures belonged to the same category. Intranasal insulin displayed no effect on blood glucose, insulin or C-peptide concentrations in the periphery; however, it led to an increase in the components of evoked fields related to identification and categorization of pictures (at around 170 ms post stimuli in the visual ventral stream in lean subjects when food pictures were presented. In contrast, insulin did not modulate food-related brain activity in obese subjects. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrated that intranasal insulin increases the cerebral processing of food pictures in lean whereas this was absent in obese subjects. This study further substantiates the presence of a "cerebral insulin resistance" in obese subjects and might be relevant in the pathogenesis of obesity.

  4. Steady-state visual evoked potentials as a research tool in social affective neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Matthias J; Miskovic, Vladimir; Keil, Andreas

    2016-12-01

    Like many other primates, humans place a high premium on social information transmission and processing. One important aspect of this information concerns the emotional state of other individuals, conveyed by distinct visual cues such as facial expressions, overt actions, or by cues extracted from the situational context. A rich body of theoretical and empirical work has demonstrated that these socioemotional cues are processed by the human visual system in a prioritized fashion, in the service of optimizing social behavior. Furthermore, socioemotional perception is highly dependent on situational contexts and previous experience. Here, we review current issues in this area of research and discuss the utility of the steady-state visual evoked potential (ssVEP) technique for addressing key empirical questions. Methodological advantages and caveats are discussed with particular regard to quantifying time-varying competition among multiple perceptual objects, trial-by-trial analysis of visual cortical activation, functional connectivity, and the control of low-level stimulus features. Studies on facial expression and emotional scene processing are summarized, with an emphasis on viewing faces and other social cues in emotional contexts, or when competing with each other. Further, because the ssVEP technique can be readily accommodated to studying the viewing of complex scenes with multiple elements, it enables researchers to advance theoretical models of socioemotional perception, based on complex, quasinaturalistic viewing situations. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  5. Vagal sensory evoked potentials disappear under the neuromuscular block - an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutzow, Bianca; Lange, Jörn; Gibb, Andreas; Schroeder, Henry; Nowak, Andreas; Wendt, Michael; Usichenko, Taras I

    2013-09-01

    Transcutaneous vagal nerve stimulation is a promising treatment modality in patients suffering mood disorders and chronic pain, however, the mechanisms are still to be elucidated. A recently developed technique of EEG responses to electrical stimulation of the inner side of the tragus suggests that these responses are far field potentials, generated in the vagal system - Vagal Sensory Evoked Potentials (VSEP). To reproduce the VSEP technique free from myogenic artifacts. Fourteen ASA I-II patients scheduled for elective surgery in standardized Total Intravenous Anesthesia (TIVA) were enrolled. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation was applied to the inner side of the right tragus. Averaged EEG responses were recorded from the electrode positions C4-F4 and T4-O2 before and after induction of TIVA, during the maximal effect of the non-depolarizing muscle relaxing agent, cis-atracurium (C-AR) and after recovery from C-AR under TIVA. Typical response curves with P1, N1 and P2 peaks could be reproduced in all patients before and after anesthesia induction. The response curves disappeared during the C-AR action and re-appeared after recovery from C-AR under TIVA. The disappearance of the scalp responses to electrical tragus stimulation under the neuromuscular block suggests a muscular origin of these potentials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cholinergic pairing with visual activation results in long-term enhancement of visual evoked potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Il Kang

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine (ACh contributes to learning processes by modulating cortical plasticity in terms of intensity of neuronal activity and selectivity properties of cortical neurons. However, it is not known if ACh induces long term effects within the primary visual cortex (V1 that could sustain visual learning mechanisms. In the present study we analyzed visual evoked potentials (VEPs in V1 of rats during a 4-8 h period after coupling visual stimulation to an intracortical injection of ACh analog carbachol or stimulation of basal forebrain. To clarify the action of ACh on VEP activity in V1, we individually pre-injected muscarinic (scopolamine, nicotinic (mecamylamine, alpha7 (methyllycaconitine, and NMDA (CPP receptor antagonists before carbachol infusion. Stimulation of the cholinergic system paired with visual stimulation significantly increased VEP amplitude (56% during a 6 h period. Pre-treatment with scopolamine, mecamylamine and CPP completely abolished this long-term enhancement, while alpha7 inhibition induced an instant increase of VEP amplitude. This suggests a role of ACh in facilitating visual stimuli responsiveness through mechanisms comparable to LTP which involve nicotinic and muscarinic receptors with an interaction of NMDA transmission in the visual cortex.

  7. Early visual evoked potentials are modulated by eye position in humans induced by whole body rotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petit Laurent

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To reach and grasp an object in space on the basis of its image cast on the retina requires different coordinate transformations that take into account gaze and limb positioning. Eye position in the orbit influences the image's conversion from retinotopic (eye-centered coordinates to an egocentric frame necessary for guiding action. Neuroimaging studies have revealed eye position-dependent activity in extrastriate visual, parietal and frontal areas that is along the visuo-motor pathway. At the earliest vision stage, the role of the primary visual area (V1 in this process remains unclear. We used an experimental design based on pattern-onset visual evoked potentials (VEP recordings to study the effect of eye position on V1 activity in humans. Results We showed that the amplitude of the initial C1 component of VEP, acknowledged to originate in V1, was modulated by the eye position. We also established that putative spontaneous small saccades related to eccentric fixation, as well as retinal disparity cannot explain the effects of changing C1 amplitude of VEP in the present study. Conclusions The present modulation of the early component of VEP suggests an eye position-dependent activity of the human primary visual area. Our findings also evidence that cortical processes combine information about the position of the stimulus on the retinae with information about the location of the eyes in their orbit as early as the stage of primary visual area.

  8. Coupled Learning of Action Parameters and Forward Models for Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-09

    rules, predicting high-level, abstract Both authors are with the Robotics and Biology Laboratory , Technische Universität Berlin, Germany. We gratefully...collection: In each scenario, the robot interacts with cabinets in different states (open, locked, closed, un- locked) by randomly selecting the handle , box...mechanisms.) Third, in some training samples an action evokes undesired side effects; e.g., in the box-and- handle scenario the robot simultaneously

  9. Rubber compounding and processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, MJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This chapter presents an overview on the compounding and processing techniques of natural rubber compounds. The introductory portion deals with different types of rubbers and principles of rubber compounding. The primary and secondary fillers used...

  10. How Do RIM-BPs Link Voltage-Gated Ca(2+) Channels to Evoked Neurotransmitter Release?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying C; Kavalali, Ege T

    2015-09-23

    Coupling between voltage-gated Ca(2+) influx and synaptic vesicle exocytosis is essential for rapid evoked neurotransmission. Acuna et al. show that the knockout of RIM-BPs, which are key structural components of this coupling, decreases the reliability of evoked neurotransmitter release. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sex and Ear Differences in Spontaneous and Click-Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snihur, Adrian W. K.; Hampson, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Effects of sex and handedness on the production of spontaneous and click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) were explored in a non-hearing impaired population (ages 17-25 years). A sex difference in OAEs, either produced spontaneously (spontaneous OAEs or SOAEs) or in response to auditory stimuli (click-evoked OAEs or CEOAEs) has been reported in…

  12. The Nature and Process of Development in Averaged Visually Evoked Potentials: Discussion on Pattern Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Shuji; Mizutani, Tohru

    This paper examines the development of visually evoked EEG patterns in retarded and normal subjects. The paper focuses on the averaged visually evoked potentials (AVEP) in the central and occipital regions of the brain in eyes closed and eyes open conditions. Wave pattern, amplitude, and latency are examined. The first section of the paper reviews…

  13. One Year of Musical Training Affects Development of Auditory Cortical-Evoked Fields in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Takako; Ross, Bernhard; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Pantev, Christo; Trainor, Laurel J.

    2006-01-01

    Auditory evoked responses to a violin tone and a noise-burst stimulus were recorded from 4- to 6-year-old children in four repeated measurements over a 1-year period using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Half of the subjects participated in musical lessons throughout the year; the other half had no music lessons. Auditory evoked magnetic fields…

  14. Long-term visuo-gustatory appetitive and aversive conditioning potentiate human visual evoked potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Gert R.J.; Laugesen, Jakob L.; Møller, Per

    2017-01-01

    and aversive visuo-gustatory conditioning were studied with high density EEG-recordings focusing on late components in the visual evoked potentials (VEPs), specifically the N2-P3 waves. Unfamiliar images were paired with either a pleasant or an unpleasant juice and VEPs evoked by the images were compared...

  15. The effect of changes in perilymphatic K+ on the vestibular evoked potential in the guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, C. M.; Wit, H. P.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effect on the functioning of the vestibular system of a rupture of Reissner's membrane, artificial endolymph was injected in scala media of ten guinea pigs and vestibular evoked potentials (VsEPs), evoked by vertical acceleration pulses, were measured. Directly after injection of

  16. Gender differences in rival characteristics that evoke jealousy in response to emotional versus sexual infidelity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Dijkstra, Pieternel

    2004-01-01

    Previous research has shown that in men jealousy is evoked more by a rival's status-related characteristics than in women, whereas in women jealousy is evoked more by a rival's physical attractiveness than in men. The present study examined whether the occurrence of this gender difference depends

  17. Long-Term Visuo-Gustatory Appetitive and Aversive Conditioning Potentiate Human Visual Evoked Potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Gert Rene Juul; Laugesen, Jakob Lund; Møller, Per

    2017-01-01

    and aversive visuo-gustatory conditioning were studied with high density EEG-recordings focusing on late components in the visual evoked potentials (VEPs), specifically the N2-P3 waves. Unfamiliar images were paired with either a pleasant or an unpleasant juice and VEPs evoked by the images were compared...

  18. Identifying Botanical Mechanisms of Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, May Fern

    2010-01-01

    The biological mechanism of action for any botanical extract is a necessary part of discovery to determine pharmacological use and safety. Interestingly, many activities that are governed by endogenous compounds are not fully understood making the characterization of mechanisms elusive. For example, phytoestrogens are being consumed for menopausal symptoms while the biological action of estradiol are still being investigated. Therefore, long term efficacy and safety issues are a challenge in the field. As new activities are associated with new biological pathways, an important component of therapeutic discovery will need to be the re-evaluation of negative or less active natural products to determine their relative use as medicines. PMID:20837111

  19. The involuntary nature of music-evoked autobiographical memories in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Fasotti, Luciano; Allain, Philippe

    2012-03-01

    The main objective of this paper was to examine the involuntary nature of music-evoked autobiographical memories. For this purpose, young adults, older adults, and patients with a clinical diagnosis of probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) were asked to remember autobiographical events in two conditions: after being exposed to their own chosen music, and in silence. Compared to memories evoked in silence, memories evoked in the "Music" condition were found to be more specific, accompanied by more emotional content and impact on mood, and retrieved faster. In addition, these memories engaged less executive processes. Thus, with all these characteristics and the fact that they are activated by a perceptual cue (i.e., music), music-evoked autobiographic memories have all the features to be considered as involuntary memories. Our paper reveals several characteristics of music-evoked autobiographical memories in AD patients and offers a theoretical background for this phenomenon. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dorsal root activity evoked by stimulation of vagina-cervix-uterus junction in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Anibal; Lara-Garcia, Miguel; Cruz, Yolanda; Pacheco, Pablo

    2013-02-16

    In the present study, we characterized the evoked electrical activity from T(13) to S(2) dorsal roots (DRs) during glass probe-stimulation of the vagina-cervix-uterus junction (VCUJ) of female Wistar rats. The results showed that gentle stimulation of VCUJ evoked high-amplitude electrical activity in L(3) and L(6) DRs. Hypogastric or pelvic nerve transection failed to abolish this activity. L(6)-S(1) spinal trunk transection abolished the high-amplitude electrical activity evoked in L(6) DR, while transection of the lumbosacral trunk blocked the high-amplitude electrical activity evoked in L(3) DR. These data suggest that during copulation, penile intromission likely activates the low-threshold sensory receptors of the VCUJ, thereby evoking sensory neural activity that enters the spinal cord via L(3) and L(6) dorsal roots, whose axons travel through the lumbosacral trunk and pudendal nerve. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Frequency characteristics of human muscle and cortical responses evoked by noisy Achilles tendon vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mildren, Robyn L; Peters, Ryan M; Hill, Aimee J; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien; Carpenter, Mark G; Inglis, J Timothy

    2017-05-01

    Noisy stimuli, along with linear systems analysis, have proven to be effective for mapping functional neural connections. We explored the use of noisy (10-115 Hz) Achilles tendon vibration to examine somatosensory reflexes in the triceps surae muscles in standing healthy young adults ( n = 8). We also examined the association between noisy vibration and electrical activity recorded over the sensorimotor cortex using electroencephalography. We applied 2 min of vibration and recorded ongoing muscle activity of the soleus and gastrocnemii using surface electromyography (EMG). Vibration amplitude was varied to characterize reflex scaling and to examine how different stimulus levels affected postural sway. Muscle activity from the soleus and gastrocnemii was significantly correlated with the tendon vibration across a broad frequency range (~10-80 Hz), with a peak located at ~40 Hz. Vibration-EMG coherence positively scaled with stimulus amplitude in all three muscles, with soleus displaying the strongest coupling and steepest scaling. EMG responses lagged the vibration by ~38 ms, a delay that paralleled observed response latencies to tendon taps. Vibration-evoked cortical oscillations were observed at frequencies ~40-70 Hz (peak ~54 Hz) in most subjects, a finding in line with previous reports of sensory-evoked γ-band oscillations. Further examination of the method revealed 1 ) accurate reflex estimates could be obtained with vibration; 2 ) responses did not habituate over 2 min of exposure; and importantly, 3 ) noisy vibration had a minimal influence on standing balance. Our findings suggest noisy tendon vibration is an effective novel approach to characterize somatosensory reflexes during standing. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We applied noisy (10-115 Hz) vibration to the Achilles tendon to examine the frequency characteristics of lower limb somatosensory reflexes during standing. Ongoing muscle activity was coherent with the noisy vibration (peak coherence ~40 Hz), and

  2. Primary Generators of Visually Evoked Field Potentials Recorded in the Macaque Auditory Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajikawa, Yoshinao; Smiley, John F; Schroeder, Charles E

    2017-10-18

    Prior studies have reported "local" field potential (LFP) responses to faces in the macaque auditory cortex and have suggested that such face-LFPs may be substrates of audiovisual integration. However, although field potentials (FPs) may reflect the synaptic currents of neurons near the recording electrode, due to the use of a distant reference electrode, they often reflect those of synaptic activity occurring in distant sites as well. Thus, FP recordings within a given brain region (e.g., auditory cortex) may be "contaminated" by activity generated elsewhere in the brain. To determine whether face responses are indeed generated within macaque auditory cortex, we recorded FPs and concomitant multiunit activity with linear array multielectrodes across auditory cortex in three macaques (one female), and applied current source density (CSD) analysis to the laminar FP profile. CSD analysis revealed no appreciable local generator contribution to the visual FP in auditory cortex, although we did note an increase in the amplitude of visual FP with cortical depth, suggesting that their generators are located below auditory cortex. In the underlying inferotemporal cortex, we found polarity inversions of the main visual FP components accompanied by robust CSD responses and large-amplitude multiunit activity. These results indicate that face-evoked FP responses in auditory cortex are not generated locally but are volume-conducted from other face-responsive regions. In broader terms, our results underscore the caution that, unless far-field contamination is removed, LFPs in general may reflect such "far-field" activity, in addition to, or in absence of, local synaptic responses.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Field potentials (FPs) can index neuronal population activity that is not evident in action potentials. However, due to volume conduction, FPs may reflect activity in distant neurons superimposed upon that of neurons close to the recording electrode. This is problematic as the

  3. Dual, but not selective, COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors, attenuate acetic acid-evoked bladder irritation in the anaesthetised female cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibberley, Alexandra; McCafferty, Gerald P; Evans, Christopher; Edwards, Richard M; Hieble, J Paul

    2006-05-01

    Non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors exert effects on lower urinary tract function in several species. The exact contributions of COX-1 and COX-2 isozymes have not been studied much. The present studies investigated the effects of non- and selective COX inhibitors on bladder irritation in the cat.Chloralose-anaesthetised female cats were catheterised through the bladder dome for cystometric evaluation of bladder responses to intravesical infusion of saline or acetic acid. Bladder capacity, voiding efficiency, threshold pressure, and reflex-evoked bladder contraction amplitude and duration were measured. The cat COX selectivity of the doses of inhibitors examined was determined using an in vitro whole-blood assay and analysis of plasma levels. Pretreatment with indomethacin or ketoprofen (non-selective COX inhibitors; 0.3 mg kg(-1) i.v.) inhibited acetic acid-evoked irritation (characterised by a decrease in bladder capacity in vehicle pretreated animals). FR-122047 (selective COX-1 inhibitor), NS-398 and nimesulide (selective COX-2 inhibitors; 1 and 3 mg kg(-1) i.v.) had no effects on bladder irritation. Analysis of plasma levels of the doses examined and determination of COX-1 and COX-2 inhibition in cat whole blood confirmed the reported selectivity of these compounds in this species. The present studies suggest that dual COX inhibition is required to attenuate acetic acid-evoked bladder irritation in the cat.

  4. Influence of visual angle on pattern reversal visual evoked potentials

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    Ruchi Kothari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to find whether the visual evoked potential (VEP latencies and amplitude are altered with different visual angles in healthy adult volunteers or not and to determine the visual angle which is the optimum and most appropriate among a wide range of check sizes for the reliable interpretation of pattern reversal VEPs (PRVEPs. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 40 healthy volunteers. The subjects were divided into two groups. One group consisted of 20 individuals (nine males and 11 females in the age range of 25-57 years and they were exposed to checks subtending a visual angle of 90, 120, and 180 minutes of arc. Another group comprised of 20 individuals (10 males and 10 females in the age range of 36-60 years and they were subjected to checks subtending a visual angle of 15, 30, and 120 minutes of arc. The stimulus configuration comprised of the transient pattern reversal method in which a black and white checker board is generated (full field on a VEP Monitor by an Evoked Potential Recorder (RMS EMG. EPMARK II. The statistical analysis was done by One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA using EPI INFO 6. Results: In Group I, the maximum (max. P100 latency of 98.8 ± 4.7 and the max. P100 amplitude of 10.05 ± 3.1 μV was obtained with checks of 90 minutes. In Group II, the max. P100 latency of 105.19 ± 4.75 msec as well as the max. P100 amplitude of 8.23 ± 3.30 μV was obtained with 15 minutes. The min. P100 latency in both the groups was obtained with checks of 120 minutes while the min. P100 amplitude was obtained with 180 minutes. A statistically significant difference was derived between means of P100 latency for 15 and 30 minutes with reference to its value for 120 minutes and between the mean value of P100 amplitude for 120 minutes and that of 90 and 180 minutes. Conclusion: Altering the size of stimulus (visual angle has an effect on the PRVEP parameters. Our study found that the 120

  5. Olive oil phenolic compounds affect the release of aroma compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Alessandro; Caporaso, Nicola; Villani, Veronica; Paduano, Antonello; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2015-08-15

    Twelve aroma compounds were monitored and quantified by dynamic headspace analysis after their addition in refined olive oil model systems with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) biophenols to simulate EVOO aroma. The influence of polyphenols on aroma release was studied under simulated mouth conditions by using human saliva, and SPME-GC/MS analysis. While few differences were observed in orthonasal assay (without saliva), interesting results were obtained for retronasal aroma. Biophenols caused generally the lowest headspace release of almost all volatile compounds. However, only ethyl esters and linalool concentrations were significantly lower in retronasal than orthonasal assay. Saliva also caused higher concentration of hexanal, probably due to hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) action on linoleyl hydroperoxides. Epicatechin was compared to EVOO phenolics and the behaviour was dramatically different, likely to be due to salivary protein-tannin binding interactions, which influenced aroma headspace release. These results were also confirmed using two extra virgin olive oils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Emotional stimuli modulate readiness for action : a transcranial magnetic stimulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, Anouk M; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M; van Stegeren, Anda H; Hajcak, Greg; Ridderinkhof, K Richard

    Emotional stimuli may prime the motor system and facilitate action readiness. Direct evidence for this effect has been shown by recent studies using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). When administered over the primary motor cortex involved in responding, TMS pulses elicit motor-evoked

  7. Emotional stimuli modulate readiness for action: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, A.M.; van den Wildenberg, W.P.M.; van Stegeren, A.H.; Hajcak, G.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.

    2010-01-01

    Emotional stimuli may prime the motor system and facilitate action readiness. Direct evidence for this effect has been shown by recent studies using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). When administered over the primary motor cortex involved in responding, TMS pulses elicit motor-evoked

  8. Differential effects of lysergic acid diethylamide, methysergide, and cyproheptadine on modality-specific and nonspecific sensory evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkison, D M; Hosko, M J

    1983-11-01

    The effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), methysergide, and cyproheptadine on activity in classical primary pathways of the visual and somatosensory systems were compared with their effects on activity in sensory convergent (association) regions in alpha-chloralose-anesthetized cats. Those effects were blocked by cyproheptadine whereas methysergide potentiated the actions of LSD on visual primary activity. In contrast, LSD depressed the primary somatic pathway, at small doses (25 to 50 micrograms/kg) and facilitated the response at larger doses (200 micrograms/kg). Cyproheptadine and methysergide did not agonize these actions of LSD. The anterior marginal cortex, nucleus central median-parafascicularis, nucleus lateral posterior, and the superior colliculus, all sites of heterosensory convergence, were depressed by LSD. The depression of responses at heterosensory sites by LSD was blocked by cyproheptadine. Methysergide potentiated the LSD-induced depression of visual-evoked activity but not somatosensory activity. These results suggest that LSD depresses sensory activity in regions which integrate multiple sensory modalities independently of actions on sensory-specific pathways. These effects appear to involve a cyproheptadine-sensitive system.

  9. Slow excitatory synaptic potentials evoked by distension in myenteric descending interneurones of guinea-pig ileum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, P D J; Bornstein, J C

    2002-01-01

    The functional significance of the slow excitatory synaptic potentials (EPSPs) in myenteric neurones is unknown. We investigated this using intracellular recording from myenteric neurones in guinea-pig ileum, in vitro. In all, 121 neurones responded with fast EPSPs to distension of the intestine oral to the recording site. In 28 of these neurones, distension also evoked depolarizations similar to the slow EPSPs evoked by electrical stimulation in the same neurones. Intracellular injection of biocytin and immunohistochemistry revealed that neurones responding to distension with slow EPSPs were descending interneurones, which were immunoreactive for nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Other neurones, including inhibitory motor neurones and interneurones lacking NOS, did not respond to distension with slow EPSPs, but many had slow EPSPs evoked electrically. Slow EPSPs evoked electrically or by distension in NOS-immunoreactive descending interneurones were resistant to blockade of NK1 or NK3 tachykinin receptors (SR 140333, 100 nm; SR 142801, 100 nm, respectively) and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (PHCCC, 10–30 μm), when the antagonists were applied in the recording chamber of a two-chambered organ bath. However, slow EPSPs evoked electrically in inhibitory motor neurones were substantially depressed by SR 140333 (100 nm). Blockade of synaptic transmission in the stimulation chamber of the organ bath abolished slow EPSPs evoked by distension, indicating that they arose from activity in interneurones, and not from anally directed, intrinsic sensory neurones. Thus, distension evokes slow EPSPs in a subset of myenteric neurones, which may be important for intestinal motility. PMID:11882690

  10. Transient Evoked and Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions in a Group of Neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Giovanna Cesar; Delecrode, Camila Ribas; Kemp, Adriana Tahara; Martins, Fabiana; Cardoso, Ana Claudia Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The most commonly used method in neonatal hearing screening programs is transient evoked otoacoustic emissions in the first stage of the process. There are few studies comparing transient evoked otoacoustic emissions with distortion product, but some authors have investigated the issue. Objective To correlate the results of transient evoked and distortion product otoacoustic emissions in a Brazilian maternity hospital. Methods This is a cross-sectional, comparative, and prospective study. The study included 579 newborns, ranging from 6 to 54 days of age, born in a low-risk maternity hospital and assessed for hearing loss. All neonates underwent hearing screening by transient evoked and distortion product otoacoustic emissions. The results were analyzed using the Spearman correlation test to relate the two procedures. Results The pass index on transient evoked otoacoustic emissions was 95% and on distortion product otoacoustic emissions was 91%. The comparison of the two procedures showed that 91% of neonates passed on both procedures, 4.5% passed only on transient evoked otoacoustic emissions, 0.5% passed only on distortion product otoacoustic emissions, and 4% failed on both procedures. The inferential analysis showed a significant strong positive relationship between the two procedures. Conclusion The failure rate was higher in distortion product otoacoustic emissions when compared with transient evoked; however, there was correlation between the results of the procedures. PMID:26157501

  11. Organic compounds inhibiting S. epidermidis adhesion and biofilm formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Zhiqiang [Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Dk-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Virology of Ministry of Education and Public Health, Institute of Medical Microbiology and Institutes of Biomedical Science, Shanghai Medical School of Fudan University, Yi Xue Yuan Road 138, Shanghai 200032 (China); Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, 86 Jonathan Lucas Street, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Zhang, Jingdong; Hu, Yifan; Chi, Qijin [Department of Chemistry, Building 207, NanoDTU, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Mortensen, Ninell P. [Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Dk-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Department of Biochemistry and Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37932 (United States); Qu, Di [Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Virology of Ministry of Education and Public Health, Institute of Medical Microbiology and Institutes of Biomedical Science, Shanghai Medical School of Fudan University, Yi Xue Yuan Road 138, Shanghai 200032 (China); Molin, Soren [Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Dk-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Ulstrup, Jens, E-mail: ju@kemi.dtu.dk [Department of Chemistry, Building 207, NanoDTU, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2009-07-15

    The formation of biofilms on surfaces of indwelling medical devices is a serious medical problem. Staphylococcus epidermidis is a common pathogen found to colonize implanted devices and as a biofilm is more resistant to the host immune system as well as to antibiotic treatments. Combating S. epidermidis infections by preventing or eradicating biofilm formation of the bacterium is therefore a medically important challenge. We report here a study of biofilm formation of S. epidermidis on solid surfaces using a combination of confocal laser scanning (CLSM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) in both air and aqueous environments. We have investigated the inhibitory effects of surfaces treated with four organic compounds, two benzoate derivatives denoted as compound 59 and 75 and two carboxamide derivatives denoted as compound 47 and 73, on S. epidermidis adhesion and biofilm formation. All four compounds evoke significant inhibitory effects on the formation of S. epidermidis biofilms with compounds 47 and 73 being most effective. None of the compounds were found to inhibit growth of S. epidermidis in liquid cultures. Bacteria attached to the substrate when exposed to the compounds were not affected indicating that these compounds inhibit initial adhesion. These results suggest a pretreatment for medically implanted surfaces that can prevent the biofilm formation and reduce infection.

  12. Language impairment is reflected in auditory evoked fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihko, Elina; Kujala, Teija; Mickos, Annika; Alku, Paavo; Byring, Roger; Korkman, Marit

    2008-05-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) is diagnosed when a child has problems in producing or understanding language despite having a normal IQ and there being no other obvious explanation. There can be several associated problems, and no single underlying cause has yet been identified. Some theories propose problems in auditory processing, specifically in the discrimination of sound frequency or rapid temporal frequency changes. We compared automatic cortical speech-sound processing and discrimination between a group of children with SLI and control children with normal language development (mean age: 6.6 years; range: 5-7 years). We measured auditory evoked magnetic fields using two sets of CV syllables, one with a changing consonant /da/ba/ga/ and another one with a changing vowel /su/so/sy/ in an oddball paradigm. The P1m responses for onsets of repetitive stimuli were weaker in the SLI group whereas no significant group differences were found in the mismatch responses. The results indicate that the SLI group, having weaker responses to the onsets of sounds, might have slightly depressed sensory encoding.

  13. Evoking Baldwin’s Blues: The Experience of Dislocated Listening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashida K. Braggs

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available “It is only in his music [. . .] that the Negro in America has been able to tell his story. It is a story which otherwise has yet to be told and which no American is prepared to hear,” so wrote James Baldwin in “Many Thousands Gone.” Throughout his career, James Baldwin returned to this incomprehension of African-American experience. He continually privileged music in his literature, crafting his own literary blues to address it. Baldwin’s blues resonated even more powerfully and painfully for its emotional and geographical dislocation. In this article, Rashida K. Braggs argues that it was the combination of music, word, and migration that prompted Baldwin’s own deeper understanding. Exploring her term dislocated listening, Braggs investigates how listening to music while willfully dislocated from one’s cultural home prompts a deeper understanding of African-American experience. The distance disconcerts, leaving one more vulnerable, while music impels the reader, audience, and even Baldwin to identify with some harsh realities of African-American experience. Baldwin evokes the experience of dislocated listening in his life and in “Sonny’s Blues.” Braggs also creates an experience of dislocated listening through her video performance of Baldwin’s words, thus attempting to draw the reader as well into a more attuned understanding of African-American experience.

  14. Brain stem evoked response audiometry of former drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weich, Tainara Milbradt; Tochetto, Tania Maria; Seligman, Lilian

    2012-10-01

    Illicit drugs are known for their deleterious effects upon the central nervous system and more specifically for how they adversely affect hearing. This study aims to analyze and compare the hearing complaints and the results of brainstem evoked response audiometry (BERA) of former drug user support group goers. This is a cross-sectional non-experimental descriptive quantitative study. The sample consisted of 17 subjects divided by their preferred drug of use. Ten individuals were placed in the marijuana group (G1) and seven in the crack/cocaine group (G2). The subjects were further divided based on how long they had been using drugs: 1 to 5 years, 6 to 10 years, and over 15 years. They were interviewed, and assessed by pure tone audiometry, acoustic impedance tests, and BERA. No statistically significant differences were found between G1 and G2 or time of drug use in absolute latencies and interpeak intervals. However, only five of the 17 individuals had BERA results with adequate results for their ages. Marijuana and crack/cocaine may cause diffuse disorders in the brainstem and compromise the transmission of auditory stimuli regardless of how long these substances are used for.

  15. Analysis of visual evoked responses in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallecourt, J; Chain, F; Leblanc, M; Lhermitte, F

    1980-12-01

    In Multiple Sclerosis (MS) the modification of the latency of visual evoked responses (VER's) shows sequels of the involvement of anterior optic tracts manifested by a retro-bulbar optic neuritis (RBON). This study was made on 102 patients with MS. The stimulus used the pattern reversal of a checkboard. The influence of the size and squares 8' and 20' chosen as stimulus has been first studied in patients with antecedents of RBON. Using the 8' squares, all eyes with a history of RBON had pathological VER's. When there is no clinical antecedent of RBON, this means of stimulation enabled us to detect sequels of RBON. In "definitive" and "probable" MS, 100% of patients had pathological VER's either for both eyes of a single eyes. In "possible" MS a sequel of RBON was demonstrated in 57% of this population without clinical antecedent of RBON. A correlation between VER's result and the ophthalmological examination (visual acuity, fundoscopic examination and acquired dyschromatopsie) was made. Although VER's are an excellent method for detecting the sequels of RBON in MS. VER's abnormalities have no etiological significance, they are observed in other neurological involvements of anterior optic tracts. These different points are discussed and a physiological interpretation of VER's abnormalities is proposed.

  16. Neurogenic vestibular evoked potentials using a tone pip auditory stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathanasiou, E S; Zamba-Papanicolaou, E; Pantziaris, M; Kleopas, K; Kyriakides, T; Papacostas, S; Pattichis, C; Iliopoulos, I; Piperidou, C

    2004-01-01

    To obtain neurogenic vestibular evoked potentials (NVESTEPs) with surface scalp recording using a tone pip auditory stimulus. Fourteen neurologically normal volunteers (Age range 26-45 years, 10 females and 4 males), and two patients with sensorineural hearing loss and possible multiple sclerosis respectively, were examined. Two channel recordings were obtained, the first channel being P3 referred to Fpz, and the second channel being P4 referred to Fpz. A 1 kHz tone pip stimulus with two cycles was delivered via headphones monoaurally with contralateral masking noise. A consistent negative wave with a mean absolute latency of 4.72 msec was obtained, which we have named N5. 25% of the ears tested had better responses at the ipsilateral parietal electrode. In the patient with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, NVESTEPs was present, suggesting that the NVESTEP is not a cochlear response. In the patient with possible multiple sclerosis, an abnormal NVESTEP response and a normal BAEP response were found. Use of a tone-pip rather than a click auditory stimulus allows a lower click intensity to be used in the production of NVESTEP responses, leads to a shorter testing time, and is therefore more comfortable for the patient. This study adds to our impression that the NVESTEP may be a physiological response that can be used to assess the vestibular system and is different from the BAEP response. Further testing in patients with symptoms of dizziness and with disorders specific for the vestibular nerve is required.

  17. A Subspace Method for Dynamical Estimation of Evoked Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanos D. Georgiadis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a challenge in evoked potential (EP analysis to incorporate prior physiological knowledge for estimation. In this paper, we address the problem of single-channel trial-to-trial EP characteristics estimation. Prior information about phase-locked properties of the EPs is assesed by means of estimated signal subspace and eigenvalue decomposition. Then for those situations that dynamic fluctuations from stimulus-to-stimulus could be expected, prior information can be exploited by means of state-space modeling and recursive Bayesian mean square estimation methods (Kalman filtering and smoothing. We demonstrate that a few dominant eigenvectors of the data correlation matrix are able to model trend-like changes of some component of the EPs, and that Kalman smoother algorithm is to be preferred in terms of better tracking capabilities and mean square error reduction. We also demonstrate the effect of strong artifacts, particularly eye blinks, on the quality of the signal subspace and EP estimates by means of independent component analysis applied as a prepossessing step on the multichannel measurements.

  18. Flash visual evoked potentials in diurnal birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondi, Maurizio; Biaggi, Fabio; Di Ianni, Francesco; Dodi, Pier Luigi; Quintavalla, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility of Flash Visual Evoked Potentials (FVEPs) testing in birds of prey in a clinical setting and to describe the protocol and the baseline data for normal vision in this species. FVEP recordings were obtained from 6 normal adult birds of prey: n. 2 Harris's Hawks (Parabuteo unicinctus), n. 1 Lanner Falcon (Falco biarmicus), n. 2 Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) and n. 1 Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug). Before carrying out VEP tests, all animals underwent neurologic and ophthalmic routine examination. Waveforms were analysed to identify reproducible peaks from random variation of baseline. At least three positive and negative peaks were highlighted in all tracks with elevated repeatability. Measurements consisted of the absolute and relative latencies of these peaks (P1, N1, P2, N2, P3, and N3) and their peak-to-peak amplitudes. Both the peak latency and wave morphology achieved from normal animals were similar to those obtained previously in other animal species. This test can be easily and safely performed in a clinical setting in birds of prey and could be useful for an objective assessment of visual function.

  19. Effect of pupil size on multifocal pattern visual evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Alessandra; Balachandran, Chandra; Klistorner, Alexander I; Graham, Stuart L; Billson, Francis A

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of pupil diameter on the amplitude and latency of multifocal visual evoked potentials (mfVEP). The multifocal objective perimeter (Accumap; Objectivision) was used to stimulate the visual field at 56 sites extending to 32 degrees using a pseudo-random pattern stimulus. The mfVEP were recorded using bipolar occipital electrodes, 7 min/eye. Ten normal subjects were recruited from the community and one eye was randomly selected for testing. The mfVEP were recorded at four different pupil diameters (2 mm, 4 mm, 6 mm, 8 mm), obtained by applying tropicamide (0.5%) or pilocarpine (2%) in different dilutions. Appropriate refractive correction was provided to overcome cycloplegia and achieve a visual acuity of 6/7.5 or better. Analysis revealed that at most pupil diameters the normalized full field amplitude did not show significant variation, except at the most miotic pupil diameter (2 mm), where the amplitude became reduced, based on 2-way anova and Tukey's T method. There was, however, significant correlation between latency and pupil area (correlation coefficient: upper field -0.63, lower field -0.76). The results suggest that even in the presence of mydriatics or miotics, the mfVEP test can be used to assess diseases that affect amplitude, provided near correction is used. The interpretation of latency, however, must be made with caution, as a borderline conduction defect with a dilated pupil may appear normal.

  20. Responses evoked by a vestibular implant providing chronic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lara A; Haburcakova, Csilla; Gong, Wangsong; Lee, Daniel J; Wall, Conrad; Merfeld, Daniel M; Lewis, Richard F

    2012-01-01

    Patients with bilateral vestibular loss experience dehabilitating visual, perceptual, and postural difficulties, and an implantable vestibular prosthesis that could improve these symptoms would be of great benefit to these patients. In previous work, we have shown that a one-dimensional, unilateral canal prosthesis can improve the vestibulooccular reflex (VOR) in canal-plugged squirrel monkeys. In addition to the VOR, the potential effects of a vestibular prosthesis on more complex, highly integrative behaviors, such as the perception of head orientation and posture have remained unclear. We tested a one-dimensional, unilateral prosthesis in a rhesus monkey with bilateral vestibular loss and found that chronic electrical stimulation partially restored the compensatory VOR and also that percepts of head orientation relative to gravity were improved. However, the one-dimensional prosthetic stimulation had no clear effect on postural stability during quiet stance, but sway evoked by head-turns was modestly reduced. These results suggest that not only can the implementation of a vestibular prosthesis provide partial restitution of VOR but may also improve perception and posture in the presence of bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH). In this review, we provide an overview of our previous and current work directed towards the eventual clinical implementation of an implantable vestibular prosthesis.

  1. Protocol to collect late latency auditory evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Luzia Maria Pozzobom; Alvarenga, Kátia de Freitas; Costa Filho, Orozimbo Alves

    2009-01-01

    Long Latency Auditory Evoked Potentials (LLAEP) represents a number of electrical changes occurring in the central nervous system, resulting from stimulation of the auditory sensorial pathways. Many studies approach the use of these potentials controlling the artifact created by eye movement with the use of equipment with a large number of channels. However, what happens is very different in Brazilian clinical practice, where the equipment used has a very limited number of channels. to compare the two methods used to control the artifacts created by eye movements during LLAEP capture using two recording channels. this is a prospective study with the application of two LLAEP capturing methods (eye artifact subtraction and rejection limit control) in 10 normal hearing individuals. we did not observe statistically significant differences concerning the latency values obtained with the use of both methods, only concerning amplitude values. both methods were efficient to capture the LLAEP and to control the eye movement artifact. The rejection limit control method produced greater amplitude values.

  2. Vestibular evoked myogenic potential in noise-induced hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushlendra Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise affects one′s hearing as well as balance mechanism. The hearing mechanism of the noise-exposed individuals has been extensively studied. However, in view of the poor research focus on the sacculo-collic reflexes, especially in this study area, the present study was undertaken to examine the vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP in subjects with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL. A total of 30 subjects (55 ears with NIHL participated in the present study within the age range of 30-40 years. VEMP recordings were done at 99 dBnHL using IHS instrument. The results indicated that as the average pure tone hearing threshold increased, the VEMP latencies were prolonged and peak to peak amplitude was reduced in NIHL subjects. Out of the 55 ears, VEMP was absent in 16 (29.0% ears. The latency was prolonged and the peak to peak amplitude was reduced in 19 (34.6% ears. VEMP results were normal in 20 (36.4% ears. Therefore, VEMP was abnormal or absent in 67% of NIHL subjects in the present study. Hence it can be concluded that the possibility of vestibular dysfunction, specially the saccular pathway, is high in individuals with NIHL. VEMP, a non-invasive and user friendly procedure, can be employed in these individuals to assess sacculo-collic reflex.

  3. Evoked cavernous activity: measuring penile autonomic innervation following pelvic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, U; Ellis, W; Lange, P; Yang, C

    2006-01-01

    To assess cavernous nerve integrity, we measured evoked cavernous activity (ECA) in 16 men who underwent nerve sparing radical prostatectomy (NS group) and 11 men who underwent non-nerve-sparing surgery (non-NS group). The right median nerve was electrically stimulated and ECA was recorded with two concentric electromyography needles placed into the right and left cavernous bodies. We simultaneously recorded hand and foot sympathetic skin responses (SSRs) as controls. All subjects had recordable SSR, and all subjects following nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy had reproducible ECA. Of the 11 non-NS subjects, eight had no response, indicating interrupted corporal innervation. Three subjects had reproducible ECA, one of whom had a very late latency, suggesting residual innervation was present. The mean latencies of ECA were similar to foot SSR mean latencies (P>0.05), but not to hand SSR latencies. The non-NS group was significantly different from the NS group for the presence of ECA (PECA is a viable method of evaluating the autonomic innervation of the penis.

  4. Early event related fields during visually evoked pain anticipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Raghavan; Burgess, Richard C; Plow, Ela B; Floden, Darlene P; Machado, Andre G

    2016-03-01

    Pain experience is not only a function of somatosensory inputs. Rather, it is strongly influenced by cognitive and affective pathways. Pain anticipatory phenomena, an important limitation to rehabilitative efforts in the chronic state, are processed by associative and limbic networks, along with primary sensory cortices. Characterization of neurophysiological correlates of pain anticipation, particularly during very early stages of neural processing is critical for development of therapeutic interventions. Here, we utilized magnetoencephalography to study early event-related fields (ERFs) in healthy subjects exposed to a 3 s visual countdown task that preceded a painful stimulus, a non-painful stimulus or no stimulus. We found that the first countdown cue, but not the last cue, evoked critical ERFs signaling anticipation, attention and alertness to the noxious stimuli. Further, we found that P2 and N2 components were significantly different in response to first-cues that signaled incoming painful stimuli when compared to non-painful or no stimuli. The findings indicate that early ERFs are relevant neural substrates of pain anticipatory phenomena and could be potentially serve as biomarkers. These measures could assist in the development of neurostimulation approaches aimed at curbing the negative effects of pain anticipation during rehabilitation. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgür, Abdulkadir; Serdaroğlu Beyazal, Münevver; Terzi, Suat; Coşkun, Zerrin Özergin; Dursun, Engin

    2016-10-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease with unknown etiology. Although sacroiliac joint involvement is the classic sign along with the formed immune mediators, it may result in immune-mediated inner ear disease and may cause damage to the audiovestibular system. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) is a clinical reflex test used in the diagnosis of vestibular diseases and is performed by recording and evaluating the muscle potentials resulting from the stimulation of the vestibular system with different stimuli. The aim of this study is to evaluate the cervical VEMP test results in AS patients without vestibular symptoms. Thirty-three patients with AS and a control group of 30 healthy volunteers with similar demographic characteristics were evaluated in the study. VEMP wave latency, P13-N23 wave amplitude, and VEMP asymmetry ratio (VAR) values were compared between the groups. The relationship between clinical and laboratory findings of the AS patients and VEMP data were also investigated. Compared with healthy people, this study shows the response rate of patients with ankylosing spondylitis was reduced in the VEMP test, and P13-N23 wave amplitude showed a decrease in AS patients who had VEMP response (p ankylosing spondylitis. The data obtained from this study suggest that AS may lead to decreased sensitivity of the vestibular system.

  6. An evoked potential mapping of transcallosal projections in the cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cukiert

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available In ten adult cats anesthetized with ketamine hydrochloride the neocortex was exposed and rectangular pulses (1msec, 0.5 Hz and variable intensity were applied to discrete points of one side and transcallosal evoked potentials were recorded from the other. The stimulation and recording positions were determined on a cartesian map of most of the exposable neocortical areas and the potentials were analysed as to their components, voltage and latency. Passive spread and electrotonic potentials and the effects of increasing frequency were also analysed. The results showed large transcallosal potentials in some areas and an increase of potentials in the caudorostral direction, attaining the highest values in anteromedial areas of the suprasylvian gyrus. Confirming anatomical studies, a few silent spots were found in the motor and somesthetic cortex and in restricted posterior regions of the visual cortex, where small or zero voltages occurred. While causing weak contralateral potentials, stimulation of some posterior sites provoked high voltage potentials in anterior regions of the side being stimulated and in the corresponding area of the opposite site. These posterior sites are. poorly interconnected by the corpus callosum. The L-shaped indirect connection described in this work may be involved in some types of epilepsy and may explain the effectiveness of partial callosotomy in their treatment.

  7. Ocular Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials: Where Are We Now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugaiczyk, Julia

    2017-12-01

    Over the last decade, ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMPs) have evolved as a new clinical test for dynamic otolith (predominantly utricular) function. The aim of this review is to give an update on the neurophysiological foundations of oVEMPs and their implications for recording and interpreting oVEMP responses in clinical practice. Different lines of anatomical, neurophysiological, and clinical evidence support the notion that oVEMPs measure predominantly contralateral utricular function, while cervical cVEMPs are an indicator of ipsilateral saccular function. Bone-conducted vibration (BCV) in the midline of the forehead at the hairline (Fz) or unilateral air-conducted sound (ACS) are commonly used as stimuli for oVEMPs. It is recommended to apply short stimuli with short rise times for obtaining optimal oVEMP responses. Finally, this review summarizes the clinical application and interpretation of oVEMPs, particularly for vestibular neuritis, Ménière's disease, superior canal dehiscence and "challenging" patients.

  8. Pattern Visual Evoked Potentials Elicited by Organic Electroluminescence Screen

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    Celso Soiti Matsumoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine whether organic electroluminescence (OLED screens can be used as visual stimulators to elicit pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (p-VEPs. Method. Checkerboard patterns were generated on a conventional cathode-ray tube (S710, Compaq Computer Co., USA screen and on an OLED (17 inches, 320 × 230 mm, PVM-1741, Sony, Tokyo, Japan screen. The time course of the luminance changes of each monitor was measured with a photodiode. The p-VEPs elicited by these two screens were recorded from 15 eyes of 9 healthy volunteers (22.0 ± 0.8 years. Results. The OLED screen had a constant time delay from the onset of the trigger signal to the start of the luminescence change. The delay during the reversal phase from black to white for the pattern was 1.0 msec on the cathode-ray tube (CRT screen and 0.5 msec on the OLED screen. No significant differences in the amplitudes of P100 and the implicit times of N75 and P100 were observed in the p-VEPs elicited by the CRT and the OLED screens. Conclusion. The OLED screen can be used as a visual stimulator to elicit p-VEPs; however the time delay and the specific properties in the luminance change must be taken into account.

  9. Development of Brainstem-Evoked Responses in Congenital Auditory Deprivation

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    J. Tillein

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To compare the development of the auditory system in hearing and completely acoustically deprived animals, naive congenitally deaf white cats (CDCs and hearing controls (HCs were investigated at different developmental stages from birth till adulthood. The CDCs had no hearing experience before the acute experiment. In both groups of animals, responses to cochlear implant stimulation were acutely assessed. Electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses (E-ABRs were recorded with monopolar stimulation at different current levels. CDCs demonstrated extensive development of E-ABRs, from first signs of responses at postnatal (p.n. day 3 through appearance of all waves of brainstem response at day 8 p.n. to mature responses around day 90 p.n.. Wave I of E-ABRs could not be distinguished from the artifact in majority of CDCs, whereas in HCs, it was clearly separated from the stimulus artifact. Waves II, III, and IV demonstrated higher thresholds in CDCs, whereas this difference was not found for wave V. Amplitudes of wave III were significantly higher in HCs, whereas wave V amplitudes were significantly higher in CDCs. No differences in latencies were observed between the animal groups. These data demonstrate significant postnatal subcortical development in absence of hearing, and also divergent effects of deafness on early waves II–IV and wave V of the E-ABR.

  10. Flash visual evoked potentials in diurnal birds of prey

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    Maurizio Dondi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility of Flash Visual Evoked Potentials (FVEPs testing in birds of prey in a clinical setting and to describe the protocol and the baseline data for normal vision in this species. FVEP recordings were obtained from 6 normal adult birds of prey: n. 2 Harris’s Hawks (Parabuteo unicinctus, n. 1 Lanner Falcon (Falco biarmicus, n. 2 Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus and n. 1 Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug. Before carrying out VEP tests, all animals underwent neurologic and ophthalmic routine examination. Waveforms were analysed to identify reproducible peaks from random variation of baseline. At least three positive and negative peaks were highlighted in all tracks with elevated repeatability. Measurements consisted of the absolute and relative latencies of these peaks (P1, N1, P2, N2, P3, and N3 and their peak-to-peak amplitudes. Both the peak latency and wave morphology achieved from normal animals were similar to those obtained previously in other animal species. This test can be easily and safely performed in a clinical setting in birds of prey and could be useful for an objective assessment of visual function.

  11. Vestibular evoked myogenic potential findings in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escorihuela García, Vicente; Llópez Carratalá, Ignacio; Orts Alborch, Miguel; Marco Algarra, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease involving the occurrence of demyelinating, chronic neurodegenerative lesions in the central nervous system. We studied vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) in this pathology, to allow us to evaluate the saccule, inferior vestibular nerve and vestibular-spinal pathway non-invasively. There were 23 patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis who underwent VEMP recordings, comparing our results with a control group consisting of 35 healthy subjects. We registered p13 and n23 wave latencies, interaural amplitude difference and asymmetry ratio between both ears. Subjects also underwent an otoscopy and audiometric examination. The prolongation of p13 and n23 wave latencies was the most notable characteristic, with a mean p13 wave latency of 19.53 milliseconds and a mean latency of 30.06 milliseconds for n23. In contrast, the asymmetry index showed no significant differences with our control group. In case of multiple sclerosis, the prolongation of the p13 and n23 VEMP wave latencies is a feature that has been attributed to slowing of conduction by demyelination of the vestibular-spinal pathway. In this regard, alteration of the response or lack thereof in these potentials has a locator value of injury to the lower brainstem. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  12. Transient and distortion product evoked otoacoustic emissions in premature infants

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    Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Costa Pires de

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The correlation between the transient (TEOE and distortion product (DPOAE evoked otoacoustic emissions may be useful for the neonatal auditory screening, mainly in premature infants, who have risk indicators for hearing deficiency. There is need for deepening the knowledge regarding this population cochlea features. Objective: To compare the TEOE and DPOAE in premature infants. To analyze the reproducibility in the TEOE, the amplitude and the sign/noise ratio in the TEOE and DPOAE. Method: TEOE and DPOAE were carried out in 50 premature infants. The tests were correlated as for the criterion "pass/failure" and compared according to amplitude and sign/noise ratio parameters. Results: The TEOE were present in 71% of the sample. The frequency of 3kHz presented a better performance in the average reproducibility, amplitude and sign/noise ratio. The DPOAE were present in 97% of the sample. The frequency of 2kHz had a major average amplitude, the values of the sign/noise ratio increased proportionally in the high frequencies. There was a strong correlation between TEOE and DPOAE in the "pass/failure" criterion (p=0.006. Conclusion: The correlation between the TEOE and DPOAE results was significant. But one method compliments the other and both may be used in the TAN.

  13. Humor drawings evoked temporal and spectral EEG processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hsien-Chu; Chuang, Shang-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The study aimed to explore the humor processing elicited through the manipulation of artistic drawings. Using the Comprehension–Elaboration Theory of humor as the main research background, the experiment manipulated the head portraits of celebrities based on the independent variables of facial deformation (large/small) and addition of affective features (positive/negative). A 64-channel electroencephalography was recorded in 30 participants while viewing the incongruous drawings of celebrities. The electroencephalography temporal and spectral responses were measured during the three stages of humor which included incongruity detection, incongruity comprehension and elaboration of humor. Analysis of event-related potentials indicated that for humorous vs non-humorous drawings, facial deformation and the addition of affective features significantly affected the degree of humor elicited, specifically: large > small deformation; negative > positive affective features. The N170, N270, N400, N600-800 and N900-1200 components showed significant differences, particularly in the right prefrontal and frontal regions. Analysis of event-related spectral perturbation showed significant differences in the theta band evoked in the anterior cingulate cortex, parietal region and posterior cingulate cortex; and in the alpha and beta bands in the motor areas. These regions are involved in emotional processing, memory retrieval, and laughter and feelings of amusement induced by elaboration of the situation. PMID:28402573

  14. Cancer prevention with natural compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullett, Norleena P; Ruhul Amin, A R M; Bayraktar, Soley; Pezzuto, John M; Shin, Dong M; Khuri, Fadlo R; Aggarwal, Bharat B; Surh, Young-Joon; Kucuk, Omer

    2010-06-01

    Botanical and nutritional compounds have been used for the treatment of cancer throughout history. These compounds also may be useful in the prevention of cancer. Population studies suggest that a reduced risk of cancer is associated with high consumption of vegetables and fruits. Thus, the cancer chemopreventive potential of naturally occurring phytochemicals is of great interest. There are numerous reports of cancer chemopreventive activity of dietary botanicals, including cruciferous vegetables such as cabbage and broccoli, Allium vegetables such as garlic and onion, green tea, Citrus fruits, soybeans, tomatoes, berries, and ginger, as well as medicinal plants. Several lead compounds, such as genistein (from soybeans), lycopene (from tomatoes), brassinin (from cruciferous vegetables), sulforaphane (from asparagus), indole-3-carbinol (from broccoli), and resveratrol (from grapes and peanuts) are in preclinical or clinical trials for cancer chemoprevention. Phytochemicals have great potential in cancer prevention because of their safety, low cost, and oral bioavailability. In this review, we discuss potential natural cancer preventive compounds and their mechanisms of action. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Potent effects of alkaloid-rich extract from Huperzia selago against sodium nitroprusside-evoked PC12 cells damage via attenuation of oxidative stress and apoptosis

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    Anna Magdalena Lenkiewicz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Imbalance between production and scavenging of free radicals and other reactive oxygen species (ROS is a component of many diseases, but it is especially important in aging-related diseases of the central nervous system. Oxidative stress-induced neuronal dysfunction plays an important role in the pathomechanism of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. Experimental data showed that free radical scavengers may protect the brain against oxidative modifications. The need for efficient and safe antioxidants with therapeutic potential stimulated the rise of interest in the medicinal plant products, which are a rich source of phytochemicals possessing biological activity. In our studies we focused on alkaloid fractions (AFs isolated from club moss, Huperzia selago and Diphasiastrum complanatum, due to their beneficial activity and exclusive chemical structure. Our previous study demonstrated that selected alkaloids from Huperzia selago effectively protect macromolecules from oxidative damage. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the effects and mechanisms of action of AFs isolated from Huperzia selago and Diphasiastrum complanatum against sodium nitroprusside (SNP-induced oxidative injury in PC12 cells. The results demonstrated that the selected AFs via reduction of nitric oxide (NO liberation protected cells against oxidative stress, DNA and mitochondrial damage, as well as apoptosis caused by SNP. Selected AF notably decreased SNP-evoked mitochondrial polymerase γ (Polg up-regulation. Furthermore, AF which contains Lycopodine, Serratidine, Lycoposerramine-G and (probably Cermizine B completely inhibited the SNP-induced expression of interferon-γ (Ifng and cyclooxygenase 2 (Ptgs2 as well as significantly down-regulated the expression of 12/15-lipoxygenase (Alox12 and tended to decrease the mRNA level of interleukin-6 gene (Il6. In conclusion, these results suggest that the AFs from Huperzia selago

  16. Music-evoked emotions: principles, brain correlates, and implications for therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes principles underlying the evocation of emotion with music: evaluation, resonance, memory, expectancy/tension, imagination, understanding, and social functions. Each of these principles includes several subprinciples, and the framework on music-evoked emotions emerging from these principles and subprinciples is supposed to provide a starting point for a systematic, coherent, and comprehensive theory on music-evoked emotions that considers both reception and production of music, as well as the relevance of emotion-evoking principles for music therapy. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  17. [Present situation and development of ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Juan; Xu, Min; Zhang, Qing

    2013-04-01

    Myogenic potentials evoked by air conducted sound (ACS), bone conducted vibration (BCV) or galvanic pulses can be recorded with surface electrodes over contracted muscles. These myogenic potentials are of vestibular origin (utricle and saccule) and so these potentials are called vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs). Since the vestibular system has projections to many muscle systems, there are many such VEMPs. In this review, we discuss the generated origin, response pathway, waveform characteristics and clinical application of ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP).

  18. NLP-12 engages different UNC-13 proteins to potentiate tonic and evoked release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhitao; Vashlishan-Murray, Amy B; Kaplan, Joshua M

    2015-01-21

    A neuropeptide (NLP-12) and its receptor (CKR-2) potentiate tonic and evoked ACh release at Caenorhabditis elegans neuromuscular junctions. Increased evoked release is mediated by a presynaptic pathway (egl-30 Gαq and egl-8 PLCβ) that produces DAG, and by DAG binding to short and long UNC-13 proteins. Potentiation of tonic ACh release persists in mutants deficient for egl-30 Gαq and egl-8 PLCβ and requires DAG binding to UNC-13L (but not UNC-13S). Thus, NLP-12 adjusts tonic and evoked release by distinct mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/351038-05$15.00/0.

  19. Action-potential discharge in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons: current source-density analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, T L; Turner, R W; Miller, J J

    1987-11-01

    1. The site of origin of evoked action-potential discharge in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was investigated using the in vitro rat hippocampal slice preparation. 2. Action-potential discharge in pyramidal cells was evoked by stimulation of efferent pyramidal cell fibers in the alveus (antidromic) or afferent synaptic inputs in stratum oriens (SO) or stratum radiatum (SR). Laminar profiles of evoked extracellular field potentials were recorded at 25-micron intervals along the entire dendrosomatic axis of the pyramidal cell and a one-dimensional current source-density analysis was applied. 3. Suprathreshold stimulation of the alveus evoked an antidromic population spike response and current sink with the shortest peak latency in stratum pyramidale or proximal stratum oriens. A biphasic positive/negative potential associated with a current source/sink was recorded in dendritic regions, with both components increasing in peak latency with distance from the border of stratum pyramidale. 4. Suprathreshold stimulation of SO or SR evoked a population spike response superimposed upon the underlying synaptic depolarization at all levels of the dendrosomatic axis. The shortest latency population spike and current sink were recorded in stratum pyramidale or proximal stratum oriens. In dendritic regions, a biphasic positive/negative potential and current source/sink conducted with increasing latency from the border of stratum pyramidale. 5. A direct comparison of alvear- and SR-evoked responses revealed a basic similarity in population spike potentials and associated sink/source relationships at both the somatic and dendritic level and a similar shift in peak latency of spike components along the pyramidal cell axis. 6. It is concluded that the initial site for generation of a spike along the dendrosomatic axis of the pyramidal cell following antidromic or orthodromic stimulation is in the region of the cell body layer (soma or axon hillock). Action-potential discharge in

  20. [Patterns of action potential firing in cortical neurons of neonatal mice and their electrophysiological property].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furong, Liu; Shengtian, L I

    2016-05-25

    To investigate patterns of action potential firing in cortical heurons of neonatal mice and their electrophysiological properties. The passive and active membrane properties of cortical neurons from 3-d neonatal mice were observed by whole-cell patch clamp with different voltage and current mode. Three patterns of action potential firing were identified in response to depolarized current injection. The effects of action potential firing patterns on voltage-dependent inward and outward current were found. Neurons with three different firing patterns had different thresholds of depolarized current. In the morphology analysis of action potential, the three type neurons were different in rise time, duration, amplitude and threshold of the first action potential evoked by 80 pA current injection. The passive properties were similar in three patterns of action potential firing. These results indicate that newborn cortical neurons exhibit different patterns of action potential firing with different action potential parameters such as shape and threshold.

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of laser-evoked potentials in diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, Giulia; La Cesa, Silvia; Leone, Caterina; Pepe, Alessia; Galosi, Eleonora; Fiorelli, Marco; Valeriani, Massimiliano; Lacerenza, Marco; Pergolini, Mario; Biasiotta, Antonella; Cruccu, Giorgio; Truini, Andrea

    2017-06-01

    Although the most widely agreed neurophysiological tool for investigating small fiber damage is laser-evoked potential (LEP) recording, no study has documented its diagnostic accuracy. In this clinical, neurophysiological, and skin biopsy study, we collected age-corrected LEP normative ranges, verified the association of LEPs with pinprick sensory disturbances in the typical diabetic mixed fiber polyneuropathy, and assessed the sensitivity and specificity of LEPs in diabetic small fiber neuropathy. From 288 LEP recordings from the face, hand, and foot in 73 healthy subjects, we collected age-corrected normative ranges for LEPs. We then selected 100 patients with mixed-fiber diabetic neuropathy and 25 patients with possible small-fiber diabetic neuropathy. In the 100 patients with mixed fiber neuropathy, we verified how LEP abnormalities were associated with clinically evident pinprick sensory disturbances. In the 25 patients with possible pure small fiber neuropathy, using the skin biopsy for assessing the intraepidermal nerve fiber density as a reference standard, we calculated LEP sensitivity and specificity. In healthy participants, age strongly influenced normative ranges for all LEP variables. By applying age-corrected normative ranges for LEPs, we found that LEPs were strongly associated with pinprick sensory disturbances. In relation to the skin biopsy findings, LEPs yielded 78% sensitivity and 81% specificity in the diagnosis of diabetic small fiber neuropathy. Our study, providing age-corrected normative ranges for the main LEP data and their diagnostic accuracy, helps to make LEPs more reliable as a clinical diagnostic tool, and proposes this technique as a less invasive alternative to skin biopsy for diagnosing diabetic small fiber neuropathy.

  2. EVALUATION OF BRAINSTEM AUDITORY EVOKED POTENTIAL IN MIGRAINE PATIENT

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    Sowmiya R, Vinodha R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migraine is worldwide common, chronic, Neurovascular disorder, characterized by attacks of severe headache and an Aura involving neurologic symptoms. Its pathogenesis was incompletely understood whether of cortical or brainstem origin. Aim: The present study was undertaken to investigate brainstem auditory functions in Migraine patients. Materials and Methods: The subjects were recruited based on International Headache Society classification for Migraine. Subjects with episodes of headache for at least 2yrs, 2 attacks per month in last quarter year were included in the study. Forty subjects (16 Migraine with Aura & 24 cases – Migraine without aura & forty age / sex matched controls were selected. Brainstem auditory evoked potential was recorded using 4-Channel polygraph (Neuro perfect plus. Electrodes were placed according to 10 – 20 electrode placement system. Auditory stimulus in the form of click sound is delivered through the headphones. Clicks were delivered at a rate of 8-10 /sec. The intensity of the stimulus is set at 30db. About 100 averages were recorded. BAEP waveforms – Wave I, III & V latencies and the interpeak latencies were measured. The results were analysed statistically using student‘t’ test. Results: BAEP recording shows significant prolongation in latencies of Wave I, III & V and the Interpeak latency (IPL I-III, III-V & I-V in Migraine with aura. In Migraine without aura, there was significant prolongation of Wave I, III & V and III-V & I-VIPL (P<0.05. Conclusion: Prolongation suggests that there is involvement of brainstem structures in Migraine, thus BAEP can be used as an effective tool in evaluation of Migraine.

  3. Brainstem auditory-evoked potential in Boxer dogs

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    Mariana Isa Poci Palumbo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Brainstem auditory-evoked potential (BAEP has been widely used for different purposes in veterinary practice and is commonly used to identify inherited deafness and presbycusis. In this study, 43 Boxer dogs were evaluated using the BAEP. Deafness was diagnosed in 3 dogs (2 bilateral and 1 unilateral allowing the remaining 40 Boxers to be included for normative data analysis including an evaluation on the influence of age on the BAEP. The animals were divided into 2 groups of 20 Boxers each based on age. The mean age was 4.54 years (range, 1-8 in group I, and 9.83 years (range, 8.5-12 in group II. The mean latency for I, III, and V waves were 1.14 (±0.07, 2.64 (±0.11, and 3.48 (±0.10 ms in group I, and 1.20 (±0.12, 2.73 (±0.15, and 3.58 (±0.22 ms in group II, respectively. The mean inter-peak latencies for the I-III, III-V and I-V intervals were 1.50 (±0.15, 0.84 (±0.15, and 2.34 (±0.11 ms in group I, and 1.53 (±0.16, 0.85 (±0.15, and 2.38 (±0.19 ms in group II, respectively. Latencies of waves I and III were significant different between group I and II. For the I-III, III-V and I-V intervals, no significant differences were observed between the 2 groups. As far as we know, this is the first normative study of BAEP obtained from Boxer dogs.

  4. Visual Evoked Potential to Assess Retinopathy in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari Kumar, K V S; Ahmad, F M H; Sood, Sandeep; Mansingh, Sudhir

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated for early retinopathy using the visual evoked potential (VEP) in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus during pregnancy. All patients with GDM and type 2 diabetes seen between June and October of 2014 were included in this cross-sectional, observational study. Patients with secondary diabetes, ocular or major illness were excluded from the study. VEP was recorded in both eyes to derive prominent positive peak latency (P100), amplitude and initial negative deflection (N75) latency. The data were compared with 10 gestational age-matched controls with normal glucose tolerance. Appropriate statistical methods were used for comparison among the 3 groups. The study participants (40 with GDM, 10 with type 2 diabetes, 10 with normal glucose tolerance) had a median (25th to 75th interquartile range) age of 26 (24.3, 30) years, a gestational age of 24.5 (21, 27) weeks and weights of 66.8 (63.4, 71.5) kg. The P100 latencies were comparable among the 3 groups (p=0.0577). However, patients with any diabetes (GDM and type 2 diabetes) had prolonged P100 latencies (p=0.0139) and low P100 amplitudes (p=0.0391) in comparison to controls. P100 latency showed a direct correlation with hyperglycemia (p=0.0118). Our data showed that VEP abnormalities are detectable even in the short-term hyperglycemia of GDM and type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Spontaneous and evoked high-frequency oscillations in the tetanus toxin model of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolston, John D; Laxpati, Nealen G; Gutekunst, Claire-Anne; Potter, Steve M; Gross, Robert E

    2010-11-01

    High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) are an emerging biomarker for epileptic tissue. Yet the mechanism by which HFOs are produced is unknown, and their rarity makes them difficult to study. Our objective was to examine the occurrence of HFOs in relation to action potentials (APs) and the effect of microstimulation in the tetanus toxin (TT) model of epilepsy, a nonlesional model with a short latency to spontaneous seizures. Rats were injected with TT into dorsal hippocampus and implanted with a 16-channel (8 × 2) multielectrode array, one row each in CA3 and CA1. After onset of spontaneous seizures (3-9 days), recordings were begun of APs and local field potentials, analyzed for the occurrence of interictal spikes and HFOs. Recordings were made during microstimulation of each electrode using customized, open-source software. Population bursts of APs during interictal spikes were phase-locked with HFOs, which were observable almost exclusively with high-amplitude interictal spikes. Furthermore, HFOs could reliably be produced by microstimulation of the hippocampus, providing evidence that these oscillations can be controlled temporally by external means. We show for the first time the occurrence of HFOs in the TT epilepsy model, an attractive preparation for their experimental investigation and, importantly, one with a different etiology than that of status models, providing further evidence of the generality of HFOs. The ability to provoke HFOs with microstimulation may prove useful for better understanding of HFOs by directly evoking them in the lab, and designing high-throughput techniques for presurgical localization of the epileptic focus. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2010 International League Against Epilepsy.

  6. Adaptive cytoprotection through modulation of nitric oxide in ethanol-evoked gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Joshua Ka-Shun; Cho, Chi-Hin; Lam, Shiu-Kum

    2004-09-01

    To assess the mechanisms of protective action by different mild irritants through maintenance of gastric mucosal integrity and modulation of mucosal nitric oxide (NO) in experimental gastritis rats. Either 200 mL/L ethanol, 50 g/L NaCl or 0.3 mol/L HCl was pretreated to normal or 800 mL/L ethanol-induced acute gastritis Sprague-Dawley rats before a subsequent challenge with 500 mL/L ethanol. Both macroscopic lesion areas and histological damage scores were determined in the gastric mucosa of each group of animals. Besides, gastric mucosal activities of NO synthase isoforms and of superoxide dismutase, along with mucosal level of leukotriene (LT)C4 were measured. Macroscopic mucosal damages were protected by 200 mL/L ethanol and 50 g/L NaCl in gastritis rats. However, although 200 mL/L ethanol could protect the surface layers of mucosal cells in normal animals (protection attenuated by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester), no cytoprotection against deeper histological damages was found in gastritis rats. Besides, inducible NO synthase activity was increased in the mucosa of gastritis animals and unaltered by mild irritants. Nevertheless, the elevation in mucosal LTC4 level following 500 mL/L ethanol administration and under gastritis condition was significantly reduced by pretreatment of all three mild irritants in both normal and gastritis animals. These findings suggest that the aggravated 500 mL/L ethanol-evoked mucosal damages under gastritis condition could be due to increased inducible NO and LTC4 production in the gastric mucosa. Only 200 mL/L ethanol is truly "cytoprotective" at the surface glandular level of non-gastritis mucosa. Furthermore, the macroscopic protection of the three mild irritants involves reduction of LTC4 level in both normal and gastritis mucosa, implicating preservation of the vasculature. Copyright 2004 The WJG Press ISSN

  7. P2X7R modulation of visually evoked synaptic responses in the retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavda, Seetal; Luthert, Philip J; Salt, Thomas E

    2016-12-01

    P2X7Rs are distributed throughout all layers of the retina, and thus, their localisation on various cell types puts into question their specific site(s) of action. Using a dark-adapted, ex vivo mouse retinal whole mount preparation, the present study aimed to characterise the effect of P2X7R activation on light-evoked, excitatory RGC ON-field excitatory post-synaptic potentials (fEPSPs) and on outer retinal electroretinogram (ERG) responses under comparable conditions. The pharmacologically isolated NMDA receptor-mediated RGC ON-fEPSP was reduced in the presence of BzATP, an effect which was significantly attenuated by A438079 and other selective P2X7R antagonists A804598 or AF27139. In physiological Krebs medium, BzATP induced a significant potentiation of the ERG a-wave, with a concomitant reduction in the b-wave and the power of the oscillatory potentials. Conversely, in the pharmacologically modified Mg2+-free perfusate, BzATP reduced both the a-wave and b-wave. The effects of BzATP on the ERG components were suppressed by A438079. A role for P2X7R function in visual processing in both the inner and outer retina under physiological conditions remains controversial. The ON-fEPSP was significantly reduced in the presence of A804598 but not by A438079 or AF27139. Furthermore, A438079 did not have any effect on the ERG components in physiological Krebs but potentiated and reduced the a-wave and b-wave, respectively, when applied to the pharmacologically modified medium. Therefore, activation of P2X7Rs affects the function in the retinal ON pathway. The presence of a high concentration of extracellular ATP would most likely contribute to the modulation of visual transmission in the retina in the pathophysiological microenvironment.

  8. Candidacidal Action of CF66I, an Antifungal Compound Produced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -1,6-glucan, one of fungal cell wall components, and then affected the normal structure of fungal cell wall and induced cell wall thickening, which was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) CF66I also exerted its candidacidal ...

  9. Quantifying interhemispheric symmetry of somatosensory evoked potentials with the intraclass correlation coefficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wassenberg, Wilma J. G.; van der Hoeven, Johannes H.; Leenders, Klaus L.; Maurits, Natasha M.

    Although large intersubject variability is reported for cortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs), variability between hemispheres within one subject is thought to be small. Therefore, interhemispheric comparison of SEP waveforms might be clinically useful to detect unilateral abnormalities in

  10. Prestimulus amplitudes modulate P1 latencies and evoked traveling alpha waves

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    Nicole Alexandra Himmelstoss

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Traveling waves have been well documented in the ongoing, and more recently also in the evoked EEG. In the present study we investigate what kind of physiological process might be responsible for inducing an evoked traveling wave. We used a semantic judgment task which already proved useful to study evoked traveling alpha waves that coincide with the appearance of the P1 component. We found that the P1 latency of the leading electrode is significantly correlated with prestimulus amplitude size and that this event is associated with a transient change in alpha frequency. We assume that cortical background excitability, as reflected by an increase in prestimulus amplitude, is responsible for the observed change in alpha frequency and the initiation of an evoked traveling trajectory.

  11. The Role of Odor-Evoked Memory in Psychological and Physiological Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel S. Herz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the special features of odor-evoked memory and the current state-of-the-art in odor-evoked memory research to show how these unique experiences may be able to influence and benefit psychological and physiological health. A review of the literature leads to the conclusion that odors that evoke positive autobiographical memories have the potential to increase positive emotions, decrease negative mood states, disrupt cravings, and reduce physiological indices of stress, including systemic markers of inflammation. Olfactory perception factors and individual difference characteristics that would need to be considered in therapeutic applications of odor-evoked-memory are also discussed. This article illustrates how through the experimentally validated mechanisms of odor-associative learning and the privileged neuroanatomical relationship that exists between olfaction and the neural substrates of emotion, odors can be harnessed to induce emotional and physiological responses that can improve human health and wellbeing.

  12. Assessment evaluation of transient evoked otoacoustic emission by contralateral suppression in tinnitus patient with normal hearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helnaz Mokrian

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The suppression of the transient evoked otoacoustic emission by contralateral white noise did not reach statistically significant levels in tinnitus patients while the amplitude in control group reduced significantly.

  13. Dynamic Lateralization of Pupil Dilation Evoked by Locus Coeruleus Activation Results from Sympathetic, Not Parasympathetic, Contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pupil size is collectively controlled by the sympathetic dilator and parasympathetic sphincter muscles. Locus coeruleus (LC activation has been shown to evoke pupil dilation, but how the sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways contribute to this dilation remains unknown. We examined pupil dilation elicited by LC activation in lightly anesthetized rats. Unilateral LC activation evoked bilateral but lateralized pupil dilation; i.e., the ipsilateral dilation was significantly larger than the contralateral dilation. Surgically blocking the ipsilateral, but not contralateral, sympathetic pathway significantly reduced lateralization, suggesting that lateralization is mainly due to sympathetic contribution. Moreover, we found that sympathetic, but not parasympathetic, contribution is correlated with LC activation frequency. Together, our results unveil the frequency-dependent contributions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways to LC activation-evoked pupil dilation and suggest that lateralization in task-evoked pupil dilations may be used as a biomarker for autonomic tone.

  14. Clinical Evaluation of the Vestibular Nerve Using Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogle, Jamie M

    2018-01-01

    Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials are currently the most clinically accessible method to evaluate the otolith reflex pathways. These responses provide unique information regarding the status of the utriculo-ocular and sacculo-collic reflex pathways, information that has previously been unavailable. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials are recorded from tonically contracted target muscles known to be innervated by these respective otolith organs. Diagnosticians can use vestibular evoked myogenic potentials to better evaluate the overall integrity of the inner ear and neural pathways; however, there are specific considerations for each otolith reflex protocol. In addition, specific patient populations may require protocol variations to better evaluate atypical function of the inner ear organs, vestibular nerve transmission, or subsequent reflex pathways. This is a review of the clinical application and interpretation of cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials.

  15. Music‐evoked emotions: principles, brain correlates, and implications for therapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koelsch, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    ... to provide a starting point for a systematic, coherent, and comprehensive theory on music‐evoked emotions that considers both reception and production of music, as well as the relevance of emotion...

  16. Conditioning stimulation techniques for enhancement of transcranially elicited evoked motor responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Journee, H. -L.; Polak, H. E.; De Kleuver, M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. - In spite of the use of multipulse, transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) is still insufficient in a subgroup of patients to elicit motor-evoked potentials during intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM). Classic facilitation methods used in awake patients are precluded

  17. Cervical intraspinal microstimulation evokes robust forelimb movements before and after injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunshine, Michael D.; Cho, Frances S.; Lockwood, Danielle R.; Fechko, Amber S.; Kasten, Michael R.; Moritz, Chet T.

    2013-06-01

    Objective. Intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS) is a promising method for reanimating paralyzed limbs following neurological injury. ISMS within the cervical and lumbar spinal cord is capable of evoking a variety of highly-functional movements prior to injury, but the ability of ISMS to evoke forelimb movements after cervical spinal cord injury is unknown. Here we examine the forelimb movements and muscles activated by cervical ISMS both before and after contusion injury. Approach. We documented the forelimb muscles activated and movements evoked via systematic stimulation of the rodent cervical spinal cord both before injury and three, six and nine weeks following a moderate C4/C5 lateralized contusion injury. Animals were anesthetized with isoflurane to permit construction of somatotopic maps of evoked movements and quantify evoked muscle synergies between cervical segments C3 and T1. Main results. When ISMS was delivered to the cervical spinal cord, a variety of responses were observed at 68% of locations tested, with a spatial distribution that generally corresponded to the location of motor neuron pools. Stimulus currents required to achieve movement and the number of sites where movements could be evoked were unchanged by spinal cord injury. A transient shift toward extension-dominated movements and restricted muscle synergies were observed at three and six weeks following injury, respectively. By nine weeks after injury, however, ISMS-evoked patterns were similar to spinally-intact animals. Significance. The results demonstrate the potential for cervical ISMS to reanimate hand and arm function following spinal cord injury. Robust forelimb movements can be evoked both before and during the chronic stages of recovery from a clinically relevant and sustained cervical contusion injury.

  18. Visual evoked potentials in Negro carriers of the gene for tyrosinase positive oculocutaneous albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, D; Kromberg, J; Kowalsky, R; Moosa, R; Gillman, N; Zwane, E; Fritz, V

    1988-01-01

    Visual evoked potential testing was performed on 15 Negro carriers of the gene for tyrosinase positive oculocutaneous albinism in order to detect whether they have the same visual pathway decussation anomalies as do homozygotes. No subject showed 01-02 asymmetry on monocular testing, indicating that decussation follows the normal pattern. It is concluded that visual evoked potential testing is probably not useful in the detection of Negroes heterozygous for the gene for tyrosinase positive oculocutaneous albinism. PMID:3148727

  19. The paradox of music-evoked sadness:an online survey

    OpenAIRE

    Liila Taruffi; Stefan Koelsch

    2014-01-01

    This study explores listeners’ experience of music-evoked sadness. Sadness is typically assumed to be undesirable and is therefore usually avoided in everyday life. Yet the question remains: Why do people seek and appreciate sadness in music? We present findings from an online survey with both Western and Eastern participants (N = 772). The survey investigates the rewarding aspects of music-evoked sadness, as well as the relative contribution of listener characteristics and situational factor...

  20. Skinfold thickness affects the isometric knee extension torque evoked by Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia V. A. Medeiros

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous adipose tissue may influence the transmission of electrical stimuli through to the skin, thus affecting both evoked torque and comfort perception associated with neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES. This could seriously affect the effectiveness of NMES for either rehabilitation or sports purposes. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of skinfold thickness (SFT on maximal NMES current intensity, NMES-evoked torque, and NMES-induced discomfort. METHOD: First, we compared NMES current intensity, NMES-induced discomfort, and NMES-evoked torque between two subgroups of subjects with thicker (n=10; 20.7 mm vs. thinner (n=10; 29.4 mm SFT. Second, we correlated SFT to NMES current intensity, NMES-induced discomfort, and NMES-evoked knee extension torque in 20 healthy women. The NMES-evoked torque was normalized to the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC torque. The discomfort induced by NMES was assessed with a visual analog scale (VAS. RESULTS: NMES-evoked torque was 27.5% lower in subjects with thicker SFT (p=0.01 while maximal current intensity was 24.2% lower in subjects with thinner SFT (p=0.01. A positive correlation was found between current intensity and SFT (r=0.540, p=0.017. A negative correlation was found between NMES-evoked torque and SFT (r=-0.563, p=0.012. No significant correlation was observed between discomfort scores and SFT (rs=0.15, p=0.53. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the amount of subcutaneous adipose tissue (as reflected by skinfold thickness affected NMES current intensity and NMES-evoked torque, but had no effect on discomfort perception. Our findings may help physical therapists to better understand the impact of SFT on NMES and to design more rational stimulation strategies.

  1. Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions testing for screening of sensorineural deafness in puppies

    OpenAIRE

    McBrearty, A; Penderis, J

    2011-01-01

    Background: Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE) are widely used for human neonatal deafness screening, but have not been reported for clinical use in dogs. \\ud \\ud Hypothesis/Objectives: To investigate the feasibility of TEOAE testing in conscious puppies and the ability of TEOAE testing to correctly identify deaf and hearing ears, as defined by brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER). \\ud \\ud Animals: Forty puppies from 10 litters. \\ud \\ud Methods: Prospective study on puppies p...

  2. Effect of eye lateralization on contralateral suppression of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions

    OpenAIRE

    SOI, D.; Brambilla, D; COMIOTTO, E.; DI Berardino, F; Filipponi, E.; Socci, M; SPREAFICO, E.; Forti, S.; CESARANI, A.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Several studies have previously demonstrated that postural changes modify evoked otoacoustic emission. In order to evaluate a possible interaction between eye muscles and ciliated cells in the inner ear, we studied the effects of eye lateralization on the contralateral suppression of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs). Thirty-eight normal hearing subjects with TEOAEs were recruited. Their TEAOEs at threshold level were recorded with contralateral suppression (white noise)...

  3. Awareness during anaesthesia for surgery requiring evoked potential monitoring: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritish J Korula

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evoked potential monitoring such as somatosensory-evoked potential (SSEP or motor-evoked potential (MEP monitoring during surgical procedures in proximity to the spinal cord requires minimising the minimum alveolar concentrations (MACs below the anaesthetic concentrations normally required (1 MAC to prevent interference in amplitude and latency of evoked potentials. This could result in awareness. Our primary objective was to determine the incidence of awareness while administering low MAC inhalational anaesthetics for these unique procedures. The secondary objective was to assess the adequacy of our anaesthetic technique from neurophysiologist′s perspective. Methods: In this prospective observational pilot study, 61 American Society of Anesthesiologists 1 and 2 patients undergoing spinal surgery for whom intraoperative evoked potential monitoring was performed were included; during the maintenance phase, 0.7-0.8 MAC of isoflurane was targeted. We evaluated the intraoperative depth of anaesthesia using a bispectral (BIS index monitor as well as the patients response to surgical stimulus (PRST scoring system. Post-operatively, a modified Bruce questionnaire was used to verify awareness. The adequacy of evoked potential readings was also assessed. Results: Of the 61 patients, no patient had explicit awareness. Intraoperatively, 19 of 61 patients had a BIS value of above sixty at least once, during surgery. There was no correlation with PRST scoring and BIS during surgery. Fifty-four out of 61 patient′s evoked potential readings were deemed ′good′ or ′fair′ for the conduct of electrophysiological monitoring. Conclusions: This pilot study demonstrates that administering low MAC inhalational anaesthetics to facilitate evoked potential monitoring does not result in explicit awareness. However, larger studies are needed to verify this. The conduct of SSEP electrophysiological monitoring was satisfactory with the use of this

  4. Characterization of Motor and Somatosensory Evoked Potentials in the Yucatan Micropig Using Transcranial and Epidural Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Francisco D; Santamaria, Andrea J; Bodoukhin, Nikita; Guada, Luis G; Solano, Juan P; Guest, James D

    2017-09-15

    Yucatan micropigs have brain and spinal cord dimensions similar to humans and are useful for certain spinal cord injury (SCI) translational studies. Micropigs are readily trained in behavioral tasks, allowing consistent testing of locomotor loss and recovery. However, there has been little description of their motor and sensory pathway neurophysiology. We established methods to assess motor and sensory cortical evoked potentials in the anesthetized, uninjured state. We also evaluated epidurally evoked motor and sensory stimuli from the T6 and T9 levels, spanning the intended contusion injury epicenter. Response detection frequency, mean latency and amplitude values, and variability of evoked potentials were determined. Somatosensory evoked potentials were reliable and best detected during stimulation of peripheral nerve and epidural stimulation by referencing the lateral cortex to midline Fz. The most reliable hindlimb motor evoked potential (MEP) occurred in tibialis anterior. We found MEPs in forelimb muscles in response to thoracic epidural stimulation likely generated from propriospinal pathways. Cranially stimulated MEPs were easier to evoke in the upper limbs than in the hindlimbs. Autopsy studies revealed substantial variations in cortical morphology between animals. This electrophysiological study establishes that neurophysiological measures can be reliably obtained in micropigs in a time frame compatible with other experimental procedures, such as SCI and transplantation. It underscores the need to better understand the motor control pathways, including the corticospinal tract, to determine which therapeutics are suitable for testing in the pig model.

  5. Antimicrobial compounds in tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Alison M

    2013-12-01

    The tear film coats the cornea and conjunctiva and serves several important functions. It provides lubrication, prevents drying of the ocular surface epithelia, helps provide a smooth surface for refracting light, supplies oxygen and is an important component of the innate defense system of the eye providing protection against a range of potential pathogens. This review describes both classic antimicrobial compounds found in tears such as lysozyme and some more recently identified such as members of the cationic antimicrobial peptide family and surfactant protein-D as well as potential new candidate molecules that may contribute to antimicrobial protection. As is readily evident from the literature review herein, tears, like all mucosal fluids, contain a plethora of molecules with known antimicrobial effects. That all of these are active in vivo is debatable as many are present in low concentrations, may be influenced by other tear components such as the ionic environment, and antimicrobial action may be only one of several activities ascribed to the molecule. However, there are many studies showing synergistic/additive interactions between several of the tear antimicrobials and it is highly likely that cooperativity between molecules is the primary way tears are able to afford significant antimicrobial protection to the ocular surface in vivo. In addition to effects on pathogen growth and survival some tear components prevent epithelial cell invasion and promote the epithelial expression of innate defense molecules. Given the protective role of tears a number of scenarios can be envisaged that may affect the amount and/or activity of tear antimicrobials and hence compromise tear immunity. Two such situations, dry eye disease and contact lens wear, are discussed here. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Givental action and trivialisation of circle action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dotsenko, V.; Shadrin, S.; Vallette, B.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we show that the Givental group action on genus zero cohomological field theories, also known as formal Frobenius manifolds or hypercommutative algebras, naturally arises in the deformation theory of Batalin-Vilkovisky algebras. We prove that the Givental action is equal to an action

  7. Effects of multiple doses of organophosphates on evoked potentials in mouse diaphragm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, S S; de Blaquière, G E; Williams, F M; Blain, P G

    1997-02-01

    1. Male albino mice were injected s.c. with an organophosphate (mipafox, ecothiopate or paraoxon). Treatments were either a single injection or multiple daily injections with lower doses for 5 or 8 days. At 3 h after injection the activity of brain and diaphragm acetylcholinesterase and of brain neuropathy target esterase (NTE) was measured. Also measured in the diaphragm at 3 h post dose was the duration of spontaneous miniature endplate potentials (eMEPPs), recorded extracellularly. 2. At 7 and 28 days after dosing action potentials and evoked endplate potentials, produced by stimulating the phrenic nerve at 30 Hz, were recorded in diaphragm muscle. The amplitudes, time-course and latencies of these potentials were measured and the variability of latencies (jitter) was calculated. 3. Single doses of mipafox (20 mg/kg), ecothiopate (0.192 mg/kg) or paraoxon (0.415 mg/kg) in the mouse produced ca. 70% inhibition of diaphragm acetylcholinesterase at 3 h after dosing. All three OPs produced a prolongation of the half-decay times of eMEPPs. 4. All three OPs in the above single doses produced increased muscle action potential (postjunctional) jitter but only mipafox produced an increase in endplate potential (prejunctional) jitter. Mipafox in a slightly reduced single dose (17.5 mg/kg) had no effect on prejunctional or postjunctional jitter. 5. Multiple dosing with mipafox (8 mg/kg daily for 5 days) increased both postjunctional and prejunctional jitter at both 7 and 28 days after the end of dosing. After multiple dosing with mipafox (5 mg/kg daily for 5 days) postjunctional (but not prejunctional) jitter was increased. Multiple doses of paraoxon (0.166 mg/kg daily for 5 days) or ecothiopate (0.76 mg/kg daily for 5 days) increased prejunctional and postjunctional jitter. 6. Depending on the dosing regime, all three OPs tested were capable of increasing both prejunctional and postjunctional jitter. Neither ecothiopate nor paraoxon inhibited NTE, so this prejunctional

  8. Chronic Compression of the Dorsal Root Ganglion Enhances Mechanically Evoked Pain Behavior and the Activity of Cutaneous Nociceptors in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    Full Text Available Radicular pain in humans is usually caused by intraforaminal stenosis and other diseases affecting the spinal nerve, root, or dorsal root ganglion (DRG. Previous studies discovered that a chronic compression of the DRG (CCD induced mechanical allodynia in rats and mice, with enhanced excitability of DRG neurons. We investigated whether CCD altered the pain-like behavior and also the responses of cutaneous nociceptors with unmyelinated axons (C-fibers to a normally aversive punctate mechanical stimulus delivered to the hairy skin of the hind limb of the mouse. The incidence of a foot shaking evoked by indentation of the dorsum of foot with an aversive von Frey filament (tip diameter 200 μm, bending force 20 mN was significantly higher in the foot ipsilateral to the CCD surgery as compared to the contralateral side on post-operative days 2 to 8. Mechanically-evoked action potentials were electrophysiologically recorded from the L3 DRG, in vivo, from cell bodies visually identified as expressing a transgenically labeled fluorescent marker (neurons expressing either the receptor MrgprA3 or MrgprD. After CCD, 26.7% of MrgprA3+ and 32.1% MrgprD+ neurons exhibited spontaneous activity (SA, while none of the unoperated control neurons had SA. MrgprA3+ and MrgprD+ neurons in the compressed DRG exhibited, in comparison with neurons from unoperated control mice, an increased response to the punctate mechanical stimuli for each force applied (6, 20, 40, and 80 mN. We conclude that CCD produced both a behavioral hyperalgesia and an enhanced response of cutaneous C-nociceptors to aversive punctate mechanical stimuli.

  9. Interactions between procedural learning and cocaine exposure alter spontaneous and cortically-evoked spike activity in the dorsal striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janie eOndracek

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that cocaine enhances gene regulation in the sensorimotor striatum associated with procedural learning in a running-wheel paradigm. Here we assessed whether cocaine produces enduring modifications of learning-related changes in striatal neuron activity, using single-unit recordings in anesthetized rats 1 day after the wheel training. Spontaneous and cortically-evoked spike activity was compared between groups treated with cocaine or vehicle immediately prior to the running-wheel training or placement in a locked wheel (control conditions. We found that wheel training in vehicle-treated rats increased the average firing rate of spontaneously active neurons without changing the relative proportion of active to quiescent cells. In contrast, in rats trained under the influence of cocaine, the proportion of spontaneously firing to quiescent cells was significantly greater than in vehicle-treated, trained rats. However, this effect was associated with a lower average firing rate in these spontaneously active cells, suggesting that training under the influence of cocaine recruited additional low-firing cells. Measures of cortically-evoked activity revealed a second interaction between cocaine treatment and wheel training, namely, a cocaine-induced decrease in spike onset latency in control rats (locked wheel. This facilitatory effect of cocaine was abolished when rats trained in the running wheel during cocaine action. These findings highlight important interactions between cocaine and procedural learning, which act to modify population firing activity and the responsiveness of striatal neurons to excitatory inputs. Moreover, these effects were found 24 hours after the training and last drug exposure indicating that cocaine exposure during the learning phase triggers long-lasting changes in synaptic plasticity in the dorsal striatum. Such changes may contribute to the transition from recreational to habitual or compulsive drug

  10. Unconscious Presentation of Object Affordances Evokes a Negative Compatibility Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Makris

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available According to Gibson's (1979 theory of “affordances”, the environment is constantly bombarding the viewer with a multitude of possible actions. More recently, it has been suggested that the simple viewing of an object can automatically elicit motor plans for actions towards this object. Research has attributed this phenomenon to the existence of two different neural pathways for processing visual information from objects and implied a distinction between conscious visual perception (meditated by the ventral stream and unconscious visuomotor control (sub-served by the dorsal stream. This has proved compelling to many researchers, who have further tried to dissociate conscious visual perception from visually guided performance. In the present study, participants formed precision and power grips in response to a central colour stimulus, in order to determine whether these actions could be modulated by the prior subliminal presentation of pinch/grasp affording prime objects. All prime objects were briefly presented for 20 ms, thus making it impossible for participants to consciously identify these. A mask followed the prime's initial onset, after which the target was presented. The time between the onset of the prime and the appearance of the target was, also, varied in order to assess the time course of any priming effects obtained. The results suggest that affordances for relevant actions can also be extracted from objects whose physical properties are far from obvious, and appear inaccessible to consciousness. Furthermore, we provide evidence of a negative compatibility effect under experimental circumstances that have not been described in the literature before, and which rule out many kinds of interaction at a perceptual level.

  11. [Auditory evoked potential and personality traits in chronic primary insomniacs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jian; Shui, Ren-de; Feng, Lei; Liu, Yu-Hong; He, Wei; Huang, Jing-Yi; Wang, Wei

    2009-05-01

    To investigate the personality traits and intensity dependence of auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) in chronic primary insomnia. Thirty-seven patients with chronic primary insomnia (insomnia group) and 44 healthy subjects (control group) were enrolled in the study. The AEPs were examined in insomnia and control groups; the personality traits were studied by Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scales (SSS) and Zuckerman-Kuhlman's Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ); and the mood states by Plutchik-van Praag's Depression Inventory (PVP). The scores of neuroticism-anxiety and depression in insomnia group were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.01); and the scores of impulsivity and aggression-hostility were also higher than those in control group (P<0.05); N1-P2 amplitude of AEP increased with stimulus intensity, which were significantly different in 70, 80, 90,100 dB (P<0.01). There were significant correlations between activity and N1 latency at 80 dB, activity and P2 latency at 100 dB (r=0.270, r=0.276, P<0.05); and between total scores of sensation seeking scale and N1-P2 amplitude (r=0.3746, r=0.35329, P<0.01) at 70 and 90 dB stimulus intensity in insomnia group. There were significant correlations among experience seeking and N1-P2 amplitude, experience seeking and slope rate (P<0.01) at 70, 80, 90, 100 dB stimulus intensity in insomnia group (r=0.539, r=0.3439, r=0.439, r=0.3278). There were significant correlations between sensation seeking of boredom susceptibility and slope rate (r=-0.282998, P<0.05) in insomnia group. There were significant correlations between thrill and adventure seeking and N1-P2 amplitude(r=0.2789, P<0.05) at 90 dB stimulus intensity in insomnia group; there were significant correlations between PVP and N1-P2 amplitude (r=-0.3434, r=-0.3158, P<0.05) at 70 dB and N1 latency at 80 dB in insomnia group. Chronic primary insomnia sufferers have higher levels of neuroticism-anxiety, depression, aggression-hostility and impulsivity

  12. PHARMACOLOGICAL AND MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY ASPECTS OF CANNABIS COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Cotelea

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The current communication includes a general overview of the scientific interest and medicianl chemistry aspects of Cannabis compounds. It relates to metabolism, pharmacological action and phisico-chemical analysis of these compounds, as well as of some isomers differing in spatial arrangement of functional groups.

  13. The relative importance of nitric oxide and nitric oxide-independent mechanisms in acetylcholine-evoked dilatation of the rat mesenteric bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, S J; Hill, A; Waldron, G J; Plane, F; Garland, C J

    1994-12-01

    these mechanisms does not appear to differ in sequential branches of the mesenteric artery. In contrast,A23187-evoked vasodilatation appears to be mediated predominantly by a NO-independent mechanism which is sensitive to increases in the extracellular potassium concentration and may reflect the action of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF).

  14. Using affective knowledge to generate and validate a set of emotion-related, action words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Portch

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Emotion concepts are built through situated experience. Abstract word meaning is grounded in this affective knowledge, giving words the potential to evoke emotional feelings and reactions (e.g., Vigliocco et al., 2009. In the present work we explore whether words differ in the extent to which they evoke ‘specific’ emotional knowledge. Using a categorical approach, in which an affective ‘context’ is created, it is possible to assess whether words proportionally activate knowledge relevant to different emotional states (e.g., ‘sadness’, ‘anger’, Stevenson, Mikels & James, 2007a. We argue that this method may be particularly effective when assessing the emotional meaning of action words (e.g., Schacht & Sommer, 2009. In study 1 we use a constrained feature generation task to derive a set of action words that participants associated with six, basic emotional states (see full list in Appendix S1. Generation frequencies were taken to indicate the likelihood that the word would evoke emotional knowledge relevant to the state to which it had been paired. In study 2 a rating task was used to assess the strength of association between the six most frequently generated, or ‘typical’, action words and corresponding emotion labels. Participants were presented with a series of sentences, in which action words (typical and atypical and labels were paired e.g., “If you are feeling ‘sad’ how likely would you be to act in the following way?” … ‘cry.’ Findings suggest that typical associations were robust. Participants always gave higher ratings to typical vs. atypical action word and label pairings, even when (a rating direction was manipulated (the label or verb appeared first in the sentence, and (b the typical behaviours were to be performed by the rater themselves, or others. Our findings suggest that emotion-related action words vary in the extent to which they evoke knowledge relevant for different emotional states. When

  15. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  16. Medical Applications and Toxicities of Gallium Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitambar, Christopher R.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past two to three decades, gallium compounds have gained importance in the fields of medicine and electronics. In clinical medicine, radioactive gallium and stable gallium nitrate are used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in cancer and disorders of calcium and bone metabolism. In addition, gallium compounds have displayed anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activity in animal models of human disease while more recent studies have shown that gallium compounds may function as antimicrobial agents against certain pathogens. In a totally different realm, the chemical properties of gallium arsenide have led to its use in the semiconductor industry. Gallium compounds, whether used medically or in the electronics field, have toxicities. Patients receiving gallium nitrate for the treatment of various diseases may benefit from such therapy, but knowledge of the therapeutic index of this drug is necessary to avoid clinical toxicities. Animals exposed to gallium arsenide display toxicities in certain organ systems suggesting that environmental risks may exist for individuals exposed to this compound in the workplace. Although the arsenic moiety of gallium arsenide appears to be mainly responsible for its pulmonary toxicity, gallium may contribute to some of the detrimental effects in other organs. The use of older and newer gallium compounds in clinical medicine may be advanced by a better understanding of their mechanisms of action, drug resistance, pharmacology, and side-effects. This review will discuss the medical applications of gallium and its mechanisms of action, the newer gallium compounds and future directions for development, and the toxicities of gallium compounds in current use. PMID:20623028

  17. Medical Applications and Toxicities of Gallium Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Chitambar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two to three decades, gallium compounds have gained importance in the fields of medicine and electronics. In clinical medicine, radioactive gallium and stable gallium nitrate are used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in cancer and disorders of calcium and bone metabolism. In addition, gallium compounds have displayed anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activity in animal models of human disease while more recent studies have shown that gallium compounds may function as antimicrobial agents against certain pathogens. In a totally different realm, the chemical properties of gallium arsenide have led to its use in the semiconductor industry. Gallium compounds, whether used medically or in the electronics field, have toxicities. Patients receiving gallium nitrate for the treatment of various diseases may benefit from such therapy, but knowledge of the therapeutic index of this drug is necessary to avoid clinical toxicities. Animals exposed to gallium arsenide display toxicities in certain organ systems suggesting that environmental risks may exist for individuals exposed to this compound in the workplace. Although the arsenic moiety of gallium arsenide appears to be mainly responsible for its pulmonary toxicity, gallium may contribute to some of the detrimental effects in other organs. The use of older and newer gallium compounds in clinical medicine may be advanced by a better understanding of their mechanisms of action, drug resistance, pharmacology, and side-effects. This review will discuss the medical applications of gallium and its mechanisms of action, the newer gallium compounds and future directions for development, and the toxicities of gallium compounds in current use.

  18. Isoflurane reduces the carbachol-evoked Ca2+ influx in neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Alexandra; Xu, Fang; Garavito-Aguilar, Zayra V; Blanck, Thomas J J; Recio-Pinto, Esperanza

    2004-10-01

    The authors previously reported that the isoflurane-caused reduction of the carbachol-evoked cytoplasmic Ca transient increase ([Ca]cyt) was eliminated by K or caffeine-pretreatment. In this study the authors investigated whether the isoflurane-sensitive component of the carbachol-evoked [Ca]cyt transient involved Ca influx through the plasma membrane. Perfused attached human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were exposed to carbachol (1 mm, 2 min) in the absence and presence of isoflurane (1 mm) and in the absence and presence of extracellular Ca (1.5 mm). The authors studied the effect of the nonspecific cationic channel blocker La (100 microm), of the L-type Ca channel blocker nitrendipine (10 microm), and of the N-type Ca channel blocker omega-conotoxin GVIA (0.1 microm) on isoflurane modulation of the carbachol-evoked [Ca]cyt transient. [Ca]cyt was detected with fura-2 and experiments were carried out at 37 degrees C. Isoflurane reduced the peak and area of the carbachol-evoked [Ca]cyt transient in the presence but not in the absence of extracellular Ca. La had a similar effect as the removal of extracellular Ca. Omega-conotoxin GVIA and nitrendipine did not affect the isoflurane sensitivity of the carbachol response although nitrendipine reduced the magnitude of the carbachol response. The current data are consistent with previous observations in that the carbachol-evoked [Ca]cyt transient involves both Ca release from intracellular Ca stores and Ca entry through the plasma membrane. It was found that isoflurane attenuates the carbachol-evoked Ca entry. The isoflurane sensitive Ca entry involves a cationic channel different from the L- or N- type voltage-dependent Ca channels. These results indicate that isoflurane attenuates the carbachol-evoked [Ca]cyt transient at a site at the plasma membrane that is distal to the muscarinic receptor.

  19. NOUN COMPOUND IN ENGLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Ketut Mas Indrawati

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analyzing and describing the English compound specifically the English noun compound. Compound is a combination of two or more words of which meaning cannot always be predicted from the meaning of each part. In English, words, especially adjectives and nouns, are combined into compound structures in a variety of ways. This article attempts to discuss the formal characteristics and types of the English noun compound. The theory of compound was adopted for further analysis. The finding shows that the formal characteristics of the English noun compound are: the noun compounds have primary stress on the first constituent, the semantic unity of a noun compound is reflected in an orthographic, the meaning of the noun compound cannot be predicted from the meaning of the parts. The orthographic characteristics can be solid, hyphenated, and open. The types involved are Subject and Verb, Verb and Object, verb and adverbial, verb-less, subject and complement, combining-form and Bahuvrihi

  20. Endocannabinoids produced upon action potential firing evoke a Cl− current via type-2 cannabinoid receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Boon, F.S.; Chameau, P.; Houthuijs, K.; Bolijn, S.; Mastrangelo, N.; Kruse, C.G.; Maccarrone, M.; Wadman, W.J.; Werkman, T.R.

    2014-01-01

    The functional presence of type-2 cannabinoid receptors (CB2Rs) in layer II/III pyramidal neurons of the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was recently demonstrated. In the present study, we show that the application of the endocannabinoids (eCBs) 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and methanandamide

  1. Preparation of uranium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiplinger, Jaqueline L; Montreal, Marisa J; Thomson, Robert K; Cantat, Thibault; Travia, Nicholas E

    2013-02-19

    UI.sub.3(1,4-dioxane).sub.1.5 and UI.sub.4(1,4-dioxane).sub.2, were synthesized in high yield by reacting turnings of elemental uranium with iodine dissolved in 1,4-dioxane under mild conditions. These molecular compounds of uranium are thermally stable and excellent precursor materials for synthesizing other molecular compounds of uranium including alkoxide, amide, organometallic, and halide compounds.

  2. Action potential generation in the small intestine of W mutant mice that lack interstitial cells of Cajal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malysz, J; Thuneberg, L; Mikkelsen, Hanne Birte

    1996-01-01

    + channel blockade evoked the typical spikelike action potentials. Electron microscopy identified few methylene blue-positive cells in the W/Wv small intestine associated with Auerbach's plexus as individual ICC. Numbers of resident macrophage-like cells (MLC) and fibroblast-like cells (FLC) were...

  3. Differential effect of ketamine and lidocaine on spontaneous and mechanical evoked pain in patients with nerve injury pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottrup, Hanne; Bach, Flemming Winther; Juhl, Gitte Irene

    2006-01-01

    ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist and lidocaine, a sodium channel blocker, on spontaneous pain, brush-evoked pain, and pinprick-evoked pain in patients with nerve injury pain. METHODS: Twenty patients participated in two randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover...... experiments in which they, on four different days, received a 30-minute intravenous infusion of ketamine (0.24 mg/kg), lidocaine (5 mg/kg), or saline. Ongoing pain, pain evoked by brush and repetitive pinprick stimuli, and acetone was measured before, during, and after infusion. RESULTS: Ketamine...... significantly reduced ongoing pain and evoked pain to brush and pinprick, whereas lidocaine only reduced evoked pain to repetitive pinprick stimuli. In individual patients, there was no correlation between the pain-relieving effect of lidocaine and ketamine on ongoing or mechanically evoked pains. CONCLUSIONS...

  4. Pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials as a diagnostic tool for ocular malingering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarciana de Souza Soares

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate the contributions of transient pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials in the diagnosis of ocular malingering at a Brazilian university hospital. Methods: Adult patients with suspected malingering in one or both eyes were referred for visual evoked potential testing. Data from patients' medical records were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively. Data analysis included the distance optotype visual acuity based on a ETDRS retro-illuminated chart and the transient pattern-reversal visual evoked potential parameters of latency (milliseconds and amplitude (microvolts for the P100 component, using checkerboards with visual subtenses of 15' and 60'. Motivations for malingering were noted. Results: The 20 subjects included 11 (55% women. Patient ages ranged from 21 to 61 years (mean= 45.05 ± 11.76 years; median= 49 years. In 8 patients (6 women, both eyes exhibited reduced visual acuity with normal pattern-reversal visually evoked potential parameters (pure malingerers. The remaining 12 patients (7 men exhibited reduced vision in only 1 eye, with simulated reduced vision in the contralateral eye (exaggerators. Financial motivation was noted in 18 patients (9 men. Conclusion: Normal pattern-reversal visually evoked potential parameters with suspected ocular malingering were observed in a 20 patient cohort. This electrophysiological technique appeared to be useful as a measure of visual pathway integrity in this specific population.

  5. From Nose to Memory: The Involuntary Nature of Odor-evoked Autobiographical Memories in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Gandolphe, Marie Charlotte; Gallouj, Karim; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios; Antoine, Pascal

    2017-12-25

    Research suggests that odors may serve as a potent cue for autobiographical retrieval. We tested this hypothesis in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and investigated whether odor-evoked autobiographical memory is an involuntary process that shares similarities with music-evoked autobiographical memory. Participants with mild AD and controls were asked to retrieve 2 personal memories after odor exposure, after music exposure, and in an odor-and music-free condition. AD participants showed better specificity, emotional experience, mental time travel, and retrieval time after odor and music exposure than in the control condition. Similar beneficial effects of odor and music exposure were observed for autobiographical characteristics (i.e., specificity, emotional experience, and mental time travel), except for retrieval time which was more improved after odor than after music exposure. Interestingly, regression analyses suggested executive involvement in memories evoked in the control condition but not in those evoked after music or odor exposure. These findings suggest the involuntary nature of odor-evoked autobiographical memory in AD. They also suggest that olfactory cuing could serve as a useful and ecologically valid tool to stimulate autobiographical memory, at least in the mild stage of the disease. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Reduction hybrid artifacts of EMG-EOG in electroencephalography evoked by prefrontal transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Wan, Xiaohong; Zeng, Ke; Ni, Yinmei; Qiu, Lirong; Li, Xiaoli

    2016-12-01

    Objective. When prefrontal-transcranial magnetic stimulation (p-TMS) performed, it may evoke hybrid artifact mixed with muscle activity and blink activity in EEG recordings. Reducing this kind of hybrid artifact challenges the traditional preprocessing methods. We aim to explore method for the p-TMS evoked hybrid artifact removal. Approach. We propose a novel method used as independent component analysis (ICA) post processing to reduce the p-TMS evoked hybrid artifact. Ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) was used to decompose signal into multi-components, then the components were separated with artifact reduced by blind source separation (BSS) method. Three standard BSS methods, ICA, independent vector analysis, and canonical correlation analysis (CCA) were tested. Main results. Synthetic results showed that EEMD-CCA outperformed others as ICA post processing step in hybrid artifacts reduction. Its superiority was clearer when signal to noise ratio (SNR) was lower. In application to real experiment, SNR can be significantly increased and the p-TMS evoked potential could be recovered from hybrid artifact contaminated signal. Our proposed method can effectively reduce the p-TMS evoked hybrid artifacts. Significance. Our proposed method may facilitate future prefrontal TMS-EEG researches.

  7. Cortical Auditory-Evoked Responses in Preterm Neonates: Revisited by Spectral and Temporal Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminska, A; Delattre, V; Laschet, J; Dubois, J; Labidurie, M; Duval, A; Manresa, A; Magny, J-F; Hovhannisyan, S; Mokhtari, M; Ouss, L; Boissel, A; Hertz-Pannier, L; Sintsov, M; Minlebaev, M; Khazipov, R; Chiron, C

    2017-08-11

    Characteristic preterm EEG patterns of "Delta-brushes" (DBs) have been reported in the temporal cortex following auditory stimuli, but their spatio-temporal dynamics remains elusive. Using 32-electrode EEG recordings and co-registration of electrodes' position to 3D-MRI of age-matched neonates, we explored the cortical auditory-evoked responses (AERs) after 'click' stimuli in 30 healthy neonates aged 30-38 post-menstrual weeks (PMW). (1) We visually identified auditory-evoked DBs within AERs in all the babies between 30 and 33 PMW and a decreasing response rate afterwards. (2) The AERs showed an increase in EEG power from delta to gamma frequency bands over the middle and posterior temporal regions with higher values in quiet sleep and on the right. (3) Time-frequency and averaging analyses showed that the delta component of DBs, which negatively peaked around 550 and 750 ms over the middle and posterior temporal regions, respectively, was superimposed with fast (alpha-gamma) oscillations and corresponded to the late part of the cortical auditory-evoked potential (CAEP), a feature missed when using classical CAEP processing. As evoked DBs rate and AERs delta to alpha frequency power decreased until full term, auditory-evoked DBs are thus associated with the prenatal development of auditory processing and may suggest an early emerging hemispheric specialization. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Electrically-evoked frequency-following response (EFFR) in the auditory brainstem of guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenxin; Ding, Xiuyong; Zhang, Ruxiang; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Daoxing; Wu, Xihong

    2014-01-01

    It is still a difficult clinical issue to decide whether a patient is a suitable candidate for a cochlear implant and to plan postoperative rehabilitation, especially for some special cases, such as auditory neuropathy. A partial solution to these problems is to preoperatively evaluate the functional integrity of the auditory neural pathways. For evaluating the strength of phase-locking of auditory neurons, which was not reflected in previous methods using electrically evoked auditory brainstem response (EABR), a new method for recording phase-locking related auditory responses to electrical stimulation, called the electrically evoked frequency-following response (EFFR), was developed and evaluated using guinea pigs. The main objective was to assess feasibility of the method by testing whether the recorded signals reflected auditory neural responses or artifacts. The results showed the following: 1) the recorded signals were evoked by neuron responses rather than by artifact; 2) responses evoked by periodic signals were significantly higher than those evoked by the white noise; 3) the latency of the responses fell in the expected range; 4) the responses decreased significantly after death of the guinea pigs; and 5) the responses decreased significantly when the animal was replaced by an electrical resistance. All of these results suggest the method was valid. Recording obtained using complex tones with a missing fundamental component and using pure tones with various frequencies were consistent with those obtained using acoustic stimulation in previous studies.

  9. Effects of single cycle binaural beat duration on auditory evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihajloski, Todor; Bohorquez, Jorge; Özdamar, Özcan

    2014-01-01

    Binaural beat (BB) illusions are experienced as continuous central pulsations when two sounds with slightly different frequencies are delivered to each ear. It has been shown that steady-state auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) to BBs can be captured and investigated. The authors recently developed a new method of evoking transient AEPs to binaural beats using frequency modulated stimuli. This methodology was able to create single BBs in predetermined intervals with varying carrier frequencies. This study examines the effects of the BB duration and the frequency modulating component of the stimulus on the binaural beats and their evoked potentials. Normal hearing subjects were tested with a set of four durations (25, 50, 100, and 200 ms) with two stimulation configurations, binaural dichotic (binaural beats) and diotic (frequency modulation). The results obtained from the study showed that out of the given durations, the 100 ms beat, was capable of evoking the largest amplitude responses. The frequency modulation effect showed a decrease in peak amplitudes with increasing beat duration until their complete disappearance at 200 ms. Even though, at 200 ms, the frequency modulation effects were not present, the binaural beats were still perceived and captured as evoked potentials.

  10. Evoked response audiometry in scrub typhus: prospective, randomised, case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, J S; Mohindroo, N K; Sharma, D R; Soni, K; Kaushal, S S

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the hypothesis of cochlear and retrocochlear damage in scrub typhus, using evoked response audiometry. Prospective, randomised, case-control study. The study included 25 patients with scrub typhus and 25 controls with other febrile illnesses not known to cause hearing loss. Controls were age- and sex-matched. All subjects underwent pure tone audiometry and evoked response audiometry before commencing treatment. Six patients presented with hearing loss, although a total of 23 patients had evidence of symmetrical high frequency loss on pure tone audiometry. Evoked response audiometry found significant prolongation of absolute latencies of wave I, III, V, and wave I-III interpeak latency. Two cases with normal hearing had increased interpeak latencies. These findings constitute level 3b evidence. Findings were suggestive of retrocochlear pathology in two cases with normal hearing. In other patients, high frequency hearing loss may have led to altered evoked response results. Although scrub typhus appears to cause middle ear cochlear and retrocochlear damage, the presence of such damage could not be fully confirmed by evoked response audiometry.

  11. Speech-evoked auditory brainstem responses in children with hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koravand, Amineh; Al Osman, Rida; Rivest, Véronique; Poulin, Catherine

    2017-08-01

    The main objective of the present study was to investigate subcortical auditory processing in children with sensorineural hearing loss. Auditory Brainstem Responses (ABRs) were recorded using click and speech/da/stimuli. Twenty-five children, aged 6-14 years old, participated in the study: 13 with normal hearing acuity and 12 with sensorineural hearing loss. No significant differences were observed for the click-evoked ABRs between normal hearing and hearing-impaired groups. For the speech-evoked ABRs, no significant differences were found for the latencies of the following responses between the two groups: onset (V and A), transition (C), one of the steady-state wave (F), and offset (O). However, the latency of the steady-state waves (D and E) was significantly longer for the hearing-impaired compared to the normal hearing group. Furthermore, the amplitude of the offset wave O and of the envelope frequency response (EFR) of the speech-evoked ABRs was significantly larger for the hearing-impaired compared to the normal hearing group. Results obtained from the speech-evoked ABRs suggest that children with a mild to moderately-severe sensorineural hearing loss have a specific pattern of subcortical auditory processing. Our results show differences for the speech-evoked ABRs in normal hearing children compared to hearing-impaired children. These results add to the body of the literature on how children with hearing loss process speech at the brainstem level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Do puzzle pieces and autism puzzle piece logos evoke negative associations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Raimond, Adam R; Stevenson, Jennifer L; Boston, Jilana S; Harp, Bev

    2017-08-01

    Puzzle pieces have become ubiquitous symbols for autism. However, puzzle-piece imagery stirs debate between those who support and those who object to its use because they believe puzzle-piece imagery evokes negative associations. Our study empirically investigated whether puzzle pieces evoke negative associations in the general public. Participants' ( N = 400) implicit negative associations were measured with an Implicit Association Task, which is a speeded categorization task, and participants' explicit associations were measured with an Explicit Association Task, which is a standard task for assessing consumers' explicit associations with brands (and images of those brands). Puzzle pieces, both those used as autism logos and those used more generically, evoked negative implicit associations ( t(399) = -5.357, p associations ( z = 4.693, p associated puzzle pieces, even generic puzzle pieces, with incompleteness, imperfection, and oddity. Our results bear public policy implications. If an organization's intention for using puzzle-piece imagery is to evoke negative associations, our results suggest the organization's use of puzzle-piece imagery is apt. However, if the organization's intention is to evoke positive associations, our results suggest that puzzle-piece imagery should probably be avoided.

  13. Relative efficacy of transcranial motor evoked potentials, mechanically-elicited electromyography, and evoked EMG to assess nerve root function during sustained retraction in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Russ; Lieberman, Jeremy A; Feiner, John; Burch, Shane

    2009-07-15

    This is an animal experiment using transcranial motor evoked potentials (TcMEP), mechanically elicited electromyography (EMG), and evoked EMG during spinal nerve root retraction in a pig model. To compare the sensitivity of these 3 electrophysiological measures for a constant retraction force applied to an isolated lumbar nerve root for a specific duration of time. The incidence of nerve root injury during lumbar spine surgery ranges from 0.2% to 31%. Direct retraction of spinal nerve roots may cause these injuries, but the amount and duration of force that may safely be applied is not clear. Using an established porcine model, we examined the changes occurring to multimyotomal TcMEPs, mechanically elicited EMGs, and evoked EMGs during continuous retraction of a nerve root at a constant force applied over 10 minutes. TcMEP, mechanically elicited EMG, and evoked EMG responses were recorded from the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle in 10 experiments. The dominant root innervating the TA was determined with evoked EMG; preretraction TcMEP and nerve root stimulation threshold (NRT) was obtained. The dominant root was retracted at 2 Newton (N) for 10 minutes. TcMEP trials were elicited every minute during retraction. NRT was measured immediately after retraction. TcMEP and NRT were measured after 10 minutes of recovery. RESULTS.: During the 10 minutes of retraction at 2 N, the amplitude of the TA muscle progressively decreased in all trials in a highly significant curvilinear fashion. The mean TcMEP amplitude decreased 59% +/- 14% from baseline values. The mean NRT after 10 minutes of retraction at 2 N rose to 1.8 +/- 0.7 mA (P EMG activity was variable; tonic EMG was observed in only 2 nerve roots (20%). Three electrophysiologic methods were used intraoperatively to assess neural function during retraction of a single nerve root. Retraction produced consistent changes in TcMEPs and evoked EMG. These 2 methods show promise for assessing the limits on the force and duration

  14. Corticospinal excitability modulation during action observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Luisa; Betti, Sonia; Castiello, Umberto

    2013-12-31

    This study used the transcranial magnetic stimulation/motor evoked potential (TMS/MEP) technique to pinpoint when the automatic tendency to mirror someone else's action becomes anticipatory simulation of a complementary act. TMS was delivered to the left primary motor cortex corresponding to the hand to induce the highest level of MEP activity from the abductor digiti minimi (ADM; the muscle serving little finger abduction) as well as the first dorsal interosseus (FDI; the muscle serving index finger flexion/extension) muscles. A neuronavigation system was used to maintain the position of the TMS coil, and electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded from the right ADM and FDI muscles. Producing original data with regard to motor resonance, the combined TMS/MEP technique has taken research on the perception-action coupling mechanism a step further. Specifically, it has answered the questions of how and when observing another person's actions produces motor facilitation in an onlooker's corresponding muscles and in what way corticospinal excitability is modulated in social contexts.

  15. Cyclic AMP directs inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate-evoked Ca2+ signalling to different intracellular Ca2+ stores

    OpenAIRE

    Tovey, Stephen C.; Taylor, Colin W.

    2013-01-01

    Cholesterol depletion reversibly abolishes carbachol-evoked Ca2+ release from inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate (IP3)-sensitive stores, without affecting the distribution of IP3 receptors (IP3R) or endoplasmic reticulum, IP3 formation or responses to photolysis of caged IP3. Receptors that stimulate cAMP formation do not alone evoke Ca2+ signals, but they potentiate those evoked by carbachol. We show that these potentiated signals are entirely unaffected by cholesterol depletion and that, within...

  16. Action of pro-opiomelanocortin products on the rat vas deferens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smock, T

    1986-11-03

    Behavioral study of pro-opiomelanocortin products indicates that beta-endorphin and corticotrophin-like peptides have antagonistic effects. However, these peptides have similar actions on the rat vas deferens. beta-endorphin, alpha-MSH and ACTH each inhibit electrically evoked contraction of the duct, but the corticotrophin derived peptides are tenfold more potent on a molar basis (ED50 = 9 nM). Pharmacological analysis shows that the action of corticotrophin-derived peptides does not involve an opiate receptor mechanism. The results are discussed in terms of the central action of the peptides.

  17. Beyond motor scheme: a supramodal distributed representation in the action-observation network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Ricciardi

    Full Text Available The representation of actions within the action-observation network is thought to rely on a distributed functional organization. Furthermore, recent findings indicate that the action-observation network encodes not merely the observed motor act, but rather a representation that is independent from a specific sensory modality or sensory experience. In the present study, we wished to determine to what extent this distributed and 'more abstract' representation of action is truly supramodal, i.e. shares a common coding across sensory modalities. To this aim, a pattern recognition approach was employed to analyze neural responses in sighted and congenitally blind subjects during visual and/or auditory presentation of hand-made actions. Multivoxel pattern analyses-based classifiers discriminated action from non-action stimuli across sensory conditions (visual and auditory and experimental groups (blind and sighted. Moreover, these classifiers labeled as 'action' the pattern of neural responses evoked during actual motor execution. Interestingly, discriminative information for the action/non action classification was located in a bilateral, but left-prevalent, network that strongly overlaps with brain regions known to form the action-observation network and the human mirror system. The ability to identify action features with a multivoxel pattern analyses-based classifier in both sighted and blind individuals and independently from the sensory modality conveying the stimuli clearly supports the hypothesis of a supramodal, distributed functional representation of actions, mainly within the action-observation network.

  18. Facilitation of soleus but not tibialis anterior motor evoked potentials before onset of antagonist contraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Zuur, Abraham Theodore; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2008-01-01

    as evidenced by a depression of the soleus H-reflex. The objective of this study was to investigate if motor evoked potentials (MEPs) evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) show a similar depression prior to and at the onset of contraction of muscles that are antagonists to the muscle in which......Objective: It is well documented that corticospinal projections to motoneurons of one muscle inhibit antagonist motoneurons through collaterals to reciprocally organized spinal inhibitory interneurons. During and just prior to dorsiflexion of the ankle, soleus motoneurons are thus inhibited...... the MEP is evoked. Methods: Seated subjects (n=11) were instructed to react to an auditory cue by contracting either the tibialis anterior (TA) or soleus muscle of the left ankle to 30% of their maximal dorsiflexion voluntary contraction (MVC) or plantar flexion MVC, respectively. Focal TMS at 1.2 x motor...

  19. [The use of short-latency auditory evoked potentials in the diagnosis of acoustic neurinomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliazin, V A; Bakhtin, O M; Bu Khaled, Kh E; Filatova, V S

    1993-01-01

    The short-latent acoustic evoked potentials in patients with unilateral neurosensory hypoacusis due to the tumor of the acoustic nerve or other etiology were recorded. It was found that the patients had no potential in the diseased area in monaural sound stimulation, but binaural sound stimulation enabled these potentials to be recorded. With this, the short-latent acoustic evoked potentials in patients with verified neurinoma showed a reduction in the third wave to the point of its disappearance. Those in patients whose neurosensory hypoacusis were unassociated with the development of neoplasms in the area of the acoustic nerve involve the third wave whose magnitude did not differ from that recorded in the examinees with otologically normal hearing. The authors propose to measure the third wave of the short-latent acoustic evoked potential recorded in binaural sound stimulation as a possible screening of persons at a high risk for neurinoma among patients with unilateral neurosensory hypoacusis.

  20. Visual acuity of the midland banded water snake estimated from evoked telencephalic potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Robert A; Gawne, Timothy J; Loop, Michael S; Pullman, Sheena

    2007-08-01

    The visual acuity of seven midland banded water snakes was measured by recording evoked responses from telencephalon to temporally modulated square wave grating patterns. Using conventional electrophysiological techniques and signal averaging, high contrast square wave gratings of different spatial frequencies were presented. Acuity was estimated by extrapolating relative response amplitude/log(10) spatial frequency functions which yielded an average acuity of 4.25 cycles/degree. Refractive state was also estimated by recording evoked potentials to intermediate spatial frequencies with different lenses in front of the eye. Polynomial fits indicated that under the experimental conditions the snakes were around 6.4 diopters hyperopic suggesting a corrected acuity of 4.89 cycles/degree. Reduction of grating luminance resulted in a reduction in evoked potential acuity measurements. These results indicate that the spatial resolution of midland banded water snakes is the equal of cat; about 20/120 in human clinical terms.

  1. A retinoraphe projection regulates serotonergic activity and looming-evoked defensive behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu; Yuan, Tifei; Tan, Minjie; Xi, Yue; Hu, Yu; Tao, Qian; Zhao, Zhikai; Zheng, Jiajun; Han, Yushui; Xu, Fuqiang; Luo, Minmin; Sollars, Patricia J; Pu, Mingliang; Pickard, Gary E; So, Kwok-Fai; Ren, Chaoran

    2017-03-31

    Animals promote their survival by avoiding rapidly approaching objects that indicate threats. In mice, looming-evoked defensive responses are triggered by the superior colliculus (SC) which receives direct retinal inputs. However, the specific neural circuits that begin in the retina and mediate this important behaviour remain unclear. Here we identify a subset of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) that controls mouse looming-evoked defensive responses through axonal collaterals to the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and SC. Looming signals transmitted by DRN-projecting RGCs activate DRN GABAergic neurons that in turn inhibit serotoninergic neurons. Moreover, activation of DRN serotoninergic neurons reduces looming-evoked defensive behaviours. Thus, a dedicated population of RGCs signals rapidly approaching visual threats and their input to the DRN controls a serotonergic self-gating mechanism that regulates innate defensive responses. Our study provides new insights into how the DRN and SC work in concert to extract and translate visual threats into defensive behavioural responses.

  2. Predictability of painful stimulation modulates the somatosensory-evoked potential in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manon W H Schaap

    Full Text Available Somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs are used in humans and animals to increase knowledge about nociception and pain. Since the SEP in humans increases when noxious stimuli are administered unpredictably, predictability potentially influences the SEP in animals as well. To assess the effect of predictability on the SEP in animals, classical fear conditioning was applied to compare SEPs between rats receiving SEP-evoking electrical stimuli either predictably or unpredictably. As in humans, the rat's SEP increased when SEP-evoking stimuli were administered unpredictably. These data support the hypothesis that the predictability of noxious stimuli plays a distinctive role in the processing of these stimuli in animals. The influence of predictability should be considered when studying nociception and pain in animals. Additionally, this finding suggests that animals confronted with (unpredictable noxious stimuli can be used to investigate the mechanisms underlying the influence of predictability on central processing of noxious stimuli.

  3. Classification of Auditory Evoked Potentials based on the wavelet decomposition and SVM network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Suchocki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For electrophysiological hearing assessment and diagnosis of brain stem lesions, the most often used are auditory brainstem evoked potentials of short latency. They are characterized by successively arranged maxima as a function of time, called waves. Morphology of the course, in particular, the timing and amplitude of each wave, allow a neurologist to make diagnose, what is not an easy task. A neurologist should be experienced, concentrated, and should have very good perception. In order to support his diagnostic process, the authors have developed an algorithm implementing the automated classification of auditory evoked potentials to the group of pathological and physiological cases, the sensitivity and specificity determined for an independent test group (of 50 cases of respectively 84% and 88%.[b]Keywords[/b]: biomedical engineering, brainstem auditory evoked potentials, wavelet decomposition, support vector machine

  4. Coordination Compounds in Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 6. Coordination Compounds in Biology - The Chemistry of Vitamin B12 and Model Compounds. K Hussian Reddy. General Article Volume 4 Issue 6 June 1999 pp 67-77 ...

  5. Maintenance of neuronal size gradient in MNTB requires sound-evoked activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherstone, Jessica H; Kopp-Scheinpflug, Conny; Pilati, Nadia; Wang, Yuan; Forsythe, Ian D; Rubel, Edwin W; Tempel, Bruce L

    2017-02-01

    The medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) is an important source of inhibition during the computation of sound location. It transmits fast and precisely timed action potentials at high frequencies; this requires an efficient calcium clearance mechanism, in which plasma membrane calcium ATPase 2 (PMCA2) is a key component. Deafwaddler (dfw(2J) ) mutant mice have a null mutation in PMCA2 causing deafness in homozygotes (dfw(2J) /dfw(2J) ) and high-frequency hearing loss in heterozygotes (+/dfw(2J) ). Despite the deafness phenotype, no significant differences in MNTB volume or cell number were observed in dfw(2J) homozygous mutants, suggesting that PMCA2 is not required for MNTB neuron survival. The MNTB tonotopic axis encodes high to low sound frequencies across the medial to lateral dimension. We discovered a cell size gradient along this axis: lateral neuronal somata are significantly larger than medially located somata. This size gradient is decreased in +/dfw(2J) and absent in dfw(2J) /dfw(2J) The lack of acoustically driven input suggests that sound-evoked activity is required for maintenance of the cell size gradient. This hypothesis was corroborated by selective elimination of auditory hair cell activity with either hair cell elimination in Pou4f3 DTR mice or inner ear tetrodotoxin (TTX) treatment. The change in soma size was reversible and recovered within 7 days of TTX treatment, suggesting that regulation of the gradient is dependent on synaptic activity and that these changes are plastic rather than permanent.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Neurons of the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) act as fast-spiking inhibitory interneurons within the auditory brain stem. The MNTB is topographically organized, with low sound frequencies encoded laterally and high frequencies medially. We discovered a cell size gradient along this axis: lateral neurons are larger than medial neurons. The absence of this gradient in deaf mice lacking plasma membrane calcium ATPase 2

  6. Ontogenic profile of seizures evoked by the beta-carboline DMCM (methyl-6,7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-β-carboline-3-carboxylate) in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulick, Catherine; Gutherz, Samuel; Kondratyev, Alexei; Forcelli, Patrick A.

    2014-01-01

    The beta-carboline, methyl-6,7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-β-carboline-3-carboxylate (DMCM), is a potent chemoconvulsant. While it has been utilized in adult rodents, it has not been previously examined for effects across postnatal development. DMCM is a negative allosteric modulator of benzodiazepine-sensitive GABAA receptors, receptor subtypes that are particularly enriched in limbic brain regions. This raises the possibility that DMCM may be particularly effective at evoking forebrain seizures, which is a challenge in neonatal animals due to the relative immaturity of the forebrain seizure network. The ability to selectively evoke forebrain seizures is desirable when screening for drugs to use in temporal lobe epilepsy, which is characterized by seizures within the forebrain (limbic) network. To determine the profile of DMCM action across development, we examined the dose-dependent ability of DMCM to induce seizures in rats at P7, P10, P13, P14, P21 and in adulthood. We found that the highest sensitivity to DMCM occurred in P10, P13, and P14 rats. The lowest sensitivity occurred in P21 rats. Neonatal (P7) and adult (P60+) rats displayed moderate sensitivity. With moderate (0.2–0.4mg/kg) doses of DMCM, we were able to reliably evoke limbic motor seizures without tonic-clonic components in animals as young as P7. These data support the utility of DMCM in assessing seizure threshold during development and raise the possibility for future exploration of DMCM as an agent to screen anticonvulsant drugs during the postnatal period. PMID:24967532

  7. Chemopreventive effects of natural dietary compounds on cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Min-Hsiung; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2008-11-01

    Chemoprevention, a relatively new and promising strategy to prevent cancer, is defined as the use of natural dietary compounds and/or synthetic substances to block, inhibit, reverse, or retard the process of carcinogenesis. The chemopreventive effects elicited by these natural dietary compounds are believed to include antioxidative, anti-inflammatory activity, induction of phase II enzymes, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest. Many mechanisms have been shown to account for the anticarcinogenic actions of natural dietary compounds; attention has recently been focused on intracellular-signaling cascades as common molecular targets for various chemopreventive natural dietary compounds. In this critical review, we will summarize current knowledge on natural dietary compounds that act through the signaling pathways and modulate gene expression to induce detoxifying enzymes, programmed cell death, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative effects, thus providing evidence for these substances in cancer chemopreventive action (128 references).

  8. Influence of evoked contexts on consumers' rejection of two products: Implications for shelf life estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Ana; Gagliardi, Andrés; Ares, Gastón

    2015-10-01

    Consumers' increasing demand for fresh, safe and high quality products requires food companies to accurately estimate sensory shelf life and tolerance limits for sensory defects. Sensory shelf-life and acceptance limits for sensory defects have been estimated with consumers' rejection data using survival analysis without considering contextual variables, which could have a major influence on consumers' perception. The aim of the present study was to study how consumers' rejection is affected by different evoked contexts in a laboratory setting. Two studies were carried out to study the influence of evoked contexts on consumers' rejection. In the first study consumers' rejection for consumption at home and purchase at a supermarket was compared using orange juice samples with different storage times. In the second study, consumers' rejection for consumption at home and purchase at a supermarket for brands of different familiarities was compared using dulce de leche with different plastic flavour intensities as samples. Consumers' rejection data were analysed using survival analysis. The use of written scenarios to evoke different contexts affected consumers' rejection of products with different storage times and intensities of a sensory defect. Shelf lives that were estimated based on consumers' rejection to purchase were shorter than those estimated considering consumers' rejection to consume. In the second study, consumers' rejection under the consumption at home evoked context was similar to rejection to repeat purchase of a usual brand. However, a large difference existed between the evoked contexts that involved a usual and a new brand. Consumers were harsher when considering to repeat purchase of a new brand compared to their usual brand. These results suggest that the consideration of evoked contexts could contribute to increase the accuracy of sensory shelf life estimation and acceptance limits of sensory defects, leading to more informed business decisions

  9. Similar itch and nociceptive sensations evoked by punctate cutaneous application of capsaicin, histamine and cowhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikand, Parul; Shimada, Steven G.; Green, Barry G.; LaMotte, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    Itch evoked by cowhage or histamine is reduced or blocked by capsaicin desensitization, suggesting that pruriceptive neurons are capsaicin-sensitive. Topical capsaicin can evoke both nociceptive sensations and itch, whereas intradermal injection of capsaicin evokes only burning pain. To dissociate the pruritic and nociceptive sensory effects caused by the chemical activation of sensory neurons, chemicals were applied in a punctiform manner to the skin of the forearm using individual, heat-inactivated cowhage spicules treated with various concentrations of capsaicin (1–200 mg/ml) or histamine (0.01–100 mg/ml). Perceived intensities of itch, pricking/stinging and burning were obtained every 30s using the general version of the Labeled Magnitude Scale and compared with ratings evoked by individual native cowhage spicules. Similar to cowhage, capsaicin and histamine spicules reliably evoked sensations of itch in a dose-dependent manner that were most often accompanied by pricking/stinging and to a lesser extent burning. Spicules containing 200 mg/ml capsaicin or 10 mg/ml histamine yielded peak magnitudes and durations of sensations comparable to those elicited by cowhage. Each type of spicule also produced comparable areas of dysesthesias (enhanced mechanically evoked itch or pain) and/or skin reactions (wheal and/or flare) in surrounding skin, though inconsistently. The incidence of flare was greater in response to histamine than to capsaicin or cowhage. These results suggest the possibility that capsaicin, histamine and cowhage activate common peripheral or central neural mechanisms that mediate pruritic sensations and associated dysesthesias. PMID:19423224

  10. Motor behaviors in the sheep evoked by electrical stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Linnea; Zhao, Yan; Kelly, Matthew T; Schindeldecker, William; Goetz, Steven; Nelson, Dwight E; Raike, Robert S

    2015-11-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is used to treat movement disorders, including advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). The pathogenesis of PD and the therapeutic mechanisms of DBS are not well understood. Large animal models are essential for investigating the mechanisms of PD and DBS. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel sheep model of STN DBS and quantify the stimulation-evoked motor behaviors. To do so, a large sample of animals was chronically-implanted with commercial DBS systems. Neuroimaging and histology revealed that the DBS leads were implanted accurately relative to the neurosurgical plan and also precisely relative to the STN. It was also possible to repeatedly conduct controlled evaluations of stimulation-evoked motor behavior in the awake-state. The evoked motor responses depended on the neuroanatomical location of the electrode contact selected for stimulation, as contacts proximal to the STN evoked movements at significantly lower voltages. Tissue stimulation modeling demonstrated that selecting any of the contacts stimulated the STN, whereas selecting the relatively distal contacts often also stimulated thalamus but only the distal-most contact stimulated internal capsule. The types of evoked motor behaviors were specific to the stimulation frequency, as low but not high frequencies consistently evoked movements resembling human tremor or dyskinesia. Electromyography confirmed that the muscle activity underlying the tremor-like movements in the sheep was consistent with human tremor. Overall, this work establishes that the sheep is a viable a large-animal platform for controlled testing of STN DBS with objective motor outcomes. Moreover, the results support the hypothesis that exaggerated low-frequency activity within individual nodes of the motor network can drive symptoms of human movement disorders, including tremor and dyskinesia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mechanisms of action of the organophosphorus fungicide pyrazophos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waard, de M.A.

    1974-01-01

    In plant protection organophosphorus compounds are well-known for their insecticidal and acaricidal action. Since 1960, a number of organophosphorus fungicides have also been introduced. In an in vivo screening of these and some related insecticidal compounds against Sphaerotheca

  12. DAPs: Deep Action Proposals for Action Understanding

    KAUST Repository

    Escorcia, Victor

    2016-09-17

    Object proposals have contributed significantly to recent advances in object understanding in images. Inspired by the success of this approach, we introduce Deep Action Proposals (DAPs), an effective and efficient algorithm for generating temporal action proposals from long videos. We show how to take advantage of the vast capacity of deep learning models and memory cells to retrieve from untrimmed videos temporal segments, which are likely to contain actions. A comprehensive evaluation indicates that our approach outperforms previous work on a large scale action benchmark, runs at 134 FPS making it practical for large-scale scenarios, and exhibits an appealing ability to generalize, i.e. to retrieve good quality temporal proposals of actions unseen in training.

  13. Whole person-evoked fMRI activity patterns in human fusiform gyrus are accurately modeled by a linear combination of face- and body-evoked activity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Daniel; Strnad, Lukas; Seidl, Katharina N; Kastner, Sabine; Peelen, Marius V

    2014-01-01

    Visual cues from the face and the body provide information about another's identity, emotional state, and intentions. Previous neuroimaging studies that investigated neural responses to (bodiless) faces and (headless) bodies have reported overlapping face- and body-selective brain regions in right fusiform gyrus (FG). In daily life, however, faces and bodies are typically perceived together and are effortlessly integrated into the percept of a whole person, raising the possibility that neural responses to whole persons are qualitatively different than responses to isolated faces and bodies. The present study used fMRI to examine how FG activity in response to a whole person relates to activity in response to the same face and body but presented in isolation. Using multivoxel pattern analysis, we modeled person-evoked response patterns in right FG through a linear combination of face- and body-evoked response patterns. We found that these synthetic patterns were able to accurately approximate the response patterns to whole persons, with face and body patterns each adding unique information to the response patterns evoked by whole person stimuli. These results suggest that whole person responses in FG primarily arise from the coactivation of independent face- and body-selective neural populations.

  14. Effects of etidocaine administered epidurally on changes in somatosensory evoked potentials after dermatomal stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, C; Hansen, O B; Kehlet, H

    1991-01-01

    The effect of lumbar epidural anesthesia with similar volumes (approximately 20 ml) of 1% and 1.5% etidocaine on early (less than 0.5 seconds) somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) to electrical stimulation of the S1, L1, and T10 dermatomes was examined in two groups of ten patients in a randomi......The effect of lumbar epidural anesthesia with similar volumes (approximately 20 ml) of 1% and 1.5% etidocaine on early (less than 0.5 seconds) somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) to electrical stimulation of the S1, L1, and T10 dermatomes was examined in two groups of ten patients...

  15. Development of Cervical Spinal Cord Evoked Magnetic Field Measurement System Using SQUID Magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Yoshiaki; Miyamoto, Masakazu; Kawai, Jun; Uehara, Gen; Kawabata, Shigenori; Sato, Tomoya

    We are investigating an application of the biomagnetic measurement to non-invasive diagnosis of spinal cord function. Multichannel superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) biomagnetometer systems for the measurement of the evoked magnetic field from spinal cords were developed as hospital-use apparatuses. The specific pattern transition of the spinal cord evoked field distribution was clearly observed. The conduction velocity of the cervical spinal cord, which is a significant information for the diagnosis of the dysfunction, was non-invasively estimated from the magnetic measurement.

  16. Transient brain activity explains the spectral content of steady-state visual evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaume, Antoine; Vialatte, François; Dreyfus, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) are widely used in the design of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). A lot of effort has therefore been devoted to find a fast and reliable way to detect SSVEPs. We study the link between transient and steady-state VEPs and show that it is possible to predict the spectral content of a subject's SSVEPs by simulating trains of transient VEPs. This could lead to a better understanding of evoked potentials as well as to better performances of SSVEP-based BCIs, by providing a tool to improve SSVEP detection algorithms.

  17. Selecting the smoothing parameter for estimation of slowly changing evoked potential signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, J; Turetsky, B; Fein, G

    1989-09-01

    Brain evoked potential (EP) data consist of a true response ("signal") and random background activity ("noise"), which are observed over repeated stimulus presentations ("trials"). A signal that changes slowly from trial to trial can be estimated by smoothing across trials and over time within trials. We present a method for selecting the smoothing parameter by minimizing an estimate of the mean average squared error (MASE). We evaluate the performance of this method using simulated EP data, and apply the method to an example set of real flash evoked potentials.

  18. Hitting is male, giving is female: automatic imitation and complementarity during action observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugli, Luisa; Obertis, Anna Chiara; Borghi, Anna M

    2017-11-01

    Is somebody going to hurt us? We draw back. The present study investigates using behavioral measures the interplay between imitative and complementary actions activated while observing female/male hands performing different actions. Female and male participants were required to discriminate the gender of biologically and artificially colored hands that displayed both individual (grasping) and social (giving and punching) actions. Biological hands evoked automatic imitation, while hands of different gender activated complementary mechanisms. Furthermore, responses reflected gender stereotypes: giving actions were more associated to females, punching actions to males. Results have implications for studies on social stereotyping, and for research on action observation, showing that the mirror neuron system resonates in both an imitative and complementary fashion.

  19. Natural compounds for pediatric cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrucci, Veronica; Boffa, Iolanda; De Masi, Gina; Zollo, Massimo

    2016-02-01

    There is a tremendous need in clinics to impair cancer progression through noninvasive therapeutic approaches. The use of natural compounds to achieve this is of importance to improve the quality of life of young patients during their treatments. This review will address the "status of the art" related to the potential of natural compounds that are undergoing investigation in combination with standard therapeutic protocols in preclinical and clinical studies and their importance for pediatric cancer treatment. The early studies of drug discovery of these natural compounds discussed here include the main targets, the cellular signaling pathways involved, and the potential modes of action. We also focus on some promising natural compounds that have shown excellent results in vitro and in vivo: Chebulagic acid, Apigenin, Norcantharidin, Saffron/Crocin, Parthenolide, Longikaurin E, Lupeol, Spongistatin 1, and Deoxy-variolin B. Additionally, we introduce the effects of several compounds from nutraceutical and functional foods, to underline their potential use as adjuvant therapies to improve therapeutic benefits. For this purpose, we have selected several compounds: Agaritine, Ganoderma and GL6 peptide, Diallyl trisulfide and Ajoene from garlic, Epigallocatechin gallate from green tea, Curcumin, Resveratrol, and Quercetin.

  20. Imidazoline NNC77-0074 stimulates Ca2+-evoked exocytosis in INS-1E cells by a phospholipase A2-dependent mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Hervør L; Nørby, Peder L; Høy, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the novel imidazoline compound (+)-2-(2-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-thiopene-2-yl-ethyl)-pyridine (NNC77-0074) increases insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells by stimulation of Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis. Using capacitance measurements, we now show...... that NNC77-0074 stimulates exocytosis in clonal INS-1E cells. NNC77-0074-stimulated exocytosis was antagonised by the cytoplasmic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) inhibitors ACA and AACOCF(3) and in cells treated with antisense oligonucleotide against cPLA(2)alpha. NNC77-0074-evoked insulin secretion...... was likewise inhibited by ACA, AACOCF(3), and cPLA(2)alpha antisense oligonucleotide treatment. In pancreatic islets NNC77-0074 stimulated PLA(2) activity. We propose that cPLA(2)alpha plays an important role in the regulation of NNC77-0074-evoked exocytosis in insulin secreting beta-cells....