WorldWideScience

Sample records for evidensbaserede farmakologiske interventioner

  1. Evidensbaserede farmakologiske interventioner inden for intensiv terapi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Else Kirstine; Toft, Palle

    2009-01-01

    Very few randomised controlled trials (RCTs) conducted in intensive care units and using mortality as their primary outcome have shown a beneficial effect of pharmacological intervention on survival. Other types of evidence than the RCT should therefore be considered. Observational studies...

  2. Demens: ikke farmakologiske interventioner - en kommenteret udenlandsk medicinsk teknologivurdering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lisbeth Villemoes

    Fysisk træning som gang, styrketræning og yoga kan hæmme udvikling af demens hos raske ældre og forbedre fysisk funktion hos personer med demens. Det peger en undersøgelse fra Sundhedsstyrelsen på. Undersøgelsen belyser effekten af ikke-medicinske indsatser til personer med og uden demens. Der er...

  3. Demens: ikke farmakologiske interventioner - en kommenteret udenlandsk medicinsk teknologivurdering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lisbeth Villemoes

    2010-01-01

    Fysisk træning som gang, styrketræning og yoga kan hæmme udvikling af demens hos raske ældre og forbedre fysisk funktion hos personer med demens. Det peger en undersøgelse fra Sundhedsstyrelsen på. Undersøgelsen belyser effekten af ikke-medicinske indsatser til personer med og uden demens. Der er...

  4. Mobning og interventioner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Stine Kaplan

    2016-01-01

    Afhandlingen ”Mobning og interventioner – positioneringsteoretiske analyser af gruppesamtaler med børn” er baseret på en empirisk undersøgelse af udvalgte interventionssamtaler, der har til hensigt at skulle reducere eller stoppe mobning. Ambitionen i afhandlingen har været at skabe indsigt i de ...

  5. Liberal Interventionism: The Crisis Within

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Katja Lindskov

    2017-01-01

    Liberal interventionism today is not only responding to crises in countries experiencing violent conflict, distress and disaster. It also responds to a crisis within.......Liberal interventionism today is not only responding to crises in countries experiencing violent conflict, distress and disaster. It also responds to a crisis within....

  6. Supervisors interventioner ved parallelprocesser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard

    2006-01-01

    Artiklen reflekterer over supervisors anvendelse af, holdning til og intervention ved parallelprocesser. Parallelprocesser betegner en række mere eller mindre forskellige fænomener, der alle har til fælles, at en relation eller et tema i det psykoterapeutiske forhold gentages i det supervisoriske...... forhold eller vice versa. Medens fænomenet er relativt velbeskrevet, findes der overraskende få betragtninger over, hvordan supervisor med fordel kan forholde sig hertil. På baggrund af en litteraturanalyse og ikke mindst inddragelse af et casestudie yder artiklen således et savnet bidrag til området og...... dermed også til den psykodynamiske supervisionsteori. En revideret version af en tidligere model for supervisors valg af foci anvendes bl.a. i et forsøg på at operationalisere nogle guidelines eller principper for supervisoriske interventioner, ligesom niveauet for supervisandernes faglige udvikling...

  7. Between reactive and proactive interventionism: The African Union ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between reactive and proactive interventionism: The African Union Peace and Security Council's engagement in the Horn of Africa. ... This reveals that the PSC is beset by a 'reactive' form of interventionism which in many respects is a function of the absence of a proactive and preventive culture of crisis prevention within ...

  8. 4 rapporter om 4 interventioner i 4 professioner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, Lene Storgaard; Kamstrup, Anne Katrine; Laursen, Per Fibæk

    2013-01-01

    I denne publikation præsenteres fire delrapporter i den såkaldte interventionsdel af projektet Brobygning mellem teori og praksis. Rapporten præsenterer et fokus på professionshøjskolernes egne interventioner....

  9. Farmakologisk hypertensionsbehandling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole Lederballe; Christensen, Kent Lodberg; Bang, Lia E

    2009-01-01

    with cardiac comorbidity. Initial combination therapy is indicated in high-risk patients where blood pressure reduction of > 20/10 mmHg is desired. Resistant hypertension generally calls for an increment in diuretic dosage and/or addition of a potassium-sparing diuretic. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jun-8...

  10. In search of a new paradigm: development interventionism from a human dignity perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2004-01-01

    “I shall sing no celebratory song!” Apparently, after more than fifty years of development co-operation this is how Philip Quarles van Ufford views the history of interventionism in the South since the idea of development emerged after World War II. “‘Something is rotten in the state of

  11. [Cell signaling pathways interaction in cellular proliferation: Potential target for therapeutic interventionism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdespino-Gómez, Víctor Manuel; Valdespino-Castillo, Patricia Margarita; Valdespino-Castillo, Víctor Edmundo

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, cellular physiology is best understood by analysing their interacting molecular components. Proteins are the major components of the cells. Different proteins are organised in the form of functional clusters, pathways or networks. These molecules are ordered in clusters of receptor molecules of extracellular signals, transducers, sensors and biological response effectors. The identification of these intracellular signaling pathways in different cellular types has required a long journey of experimental work. More than 300 intracellular signaling pathways have been identified in human cells. They participate in cell homeostasis processes for structural and functional maintenance. Some of them participate simultaneously or in a nearly-consecutive progression to generate a cellular phenotypic change. In this review, an analysis is performed on the main intracellular signaling pathways that take part in the cellular proliferation process, and the potential use of some components of these pathways as target for therapeutic interventionism are also underlined. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  12. A solution from hell: the United States and the rise of humanitarian interventionism, 1991-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheim, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This article traces the rise of humanitarian interventionist ideas in the US from 1991 to 2003. Until 1997, humanitarian intervention was a relatively limited affair, conceived ad hoc more than systematically, prioritized below multilateralism, aiming to relieve suffering without transforming foreign polities. For this reason, US leaders and citizens scarcely contemplated armed intervention in the Rwandan genocide of 1994: the US 'duty to stop genocide' was a norm still under development. It flourished only in the late 1990s, when humanitarian interventionism, like neoconservatism, became popular in the US establishment and enthusiastic in urging military invasion to remake societies. Now inaction in Rwanda looked outrageous. Stopping the genocide seemed, in retrospect, easily achieved by 5,000 troops, a projection that ignored serious obstacles. On the whole, humanitarian interventionists tended to understate difficulties of halting ethnic conflict, ignore challenges of postconflict reconstruction, discount constraints imposed by public opinion, and override multilateral procedures. These assumptions primed politicians and the public to regard the Iraq war of 2003 as virtuous at best and unworthy of strenuous dissent at worst. The normative commitment to stop mass killing outstripped US or international capabilities—a formula for dashed hopes and dangerous deployments that lives on in the 'responsibility to protect'.

  13. The adaptation of counter-revolutionary rhetoric in Belgium (1886-1893: social defence through mitigated state interventionism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Custodio VELASCO MESA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the discourse and reaction of Belgium conservatism to the wave of the mass strikes affecting the country during a key period marked by two events: the protests of 1886 that shocked public opinion; and the passing of universal suffrage in 1893. Accordingly, it explores the way in which these sectors interpreted the labour unrest and articulated a discourse and interventionism in line with that initiated by Germany in 1883 and which refers to the counter-revolutionary thought of Le Play. That said, this proposal links up with two major histeriographical controversies. Firstly, the polemic about the role of discourse in identity building and socio-political actions by means of the cultural construction of repertoires of arguments. Secondly, it refers to the debate on the continuity of policies and the formal types of arguments employed by counter-revolutionary groups to dismantle movements of a revolutionary or progessive bent.

  14. LOCATIVE MEDIA INTERVENTIONISM – A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR CRITICAL REVIEW OF AUGMENTED REALITY APPLICATIONS IN THE PARTICIPATORY SPATIAL DESIGN CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers an analytical framework for a critical review of augmented reality visualisations in the domain of participatory spatial design in general and Participatory Architecture in particular. By offering this framework the paper aims to respond to the concern in published discourse that augmented reality visualisations are insufficient on their own to accomplish participation’s ultimate objective of social inclusion. To derive this framework the paper turns to augmented reality itself, that is, the realm of locative media practice as a whole. Illustrative examples have been reviewed to identify an overarching commonality of purpose, namely proactive spatial intervention for social inclusion. This common underpinning concept has been labelled as Locative Media Interventionism, or LMI. Finally, this compact framework has been used to evaluate augmented reality applications in participatory spatial design. A cursory evaluation of micro as well as macro scale examples indicates that the usage of this visualisation technology has yet to undergo the process of maturation that locative media in general has undergone. It has yet to evolve out from being a mere novelty to becoming a politically charged platform for delivering social inclusion

  15. Anomalous right coronary artery origin with interarterial pathway-importance of morphological origin assessment and the role of percutaneous interventionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Iglesias, Daniel; Martínez Fernández, Lidia; Martín Fernández, María; García Suárez, Laura; García Pérez, Laura; Calvo Blanco, Juan; Cigarrán Sexto, Helena; Del Valle Fernández, Raquel; Morís de la Tassa, César

    2017-05-01

    Anomalies in coronary arteries (CA) are an important issue in cardiology and cardiovascular surgery. Specifically the anomalous origin of the right coronary artery (RCA) is of special importance because it is the most frequent anomaly. Clinical practice guidelines recommend the revascularization treatment in cases of interarterial pathway and documented myocardial ischemia and when hypoplasia, compression or obstruction is evident. We report two different cases of patients with anomalous origin of RCA and associated interarterial pathway. With them we want to highlight the different presentation forms of these patients and the different diagnostic alternatives available in each of the steps. In the patient with anomalous origin of the RCA and associated interarterial pathway, the first step after establishing the diagnosis is to rule out the presence of inducible ischemia. In those patients in whom ischemia induction tests are negative, the second step is to adequately assess the interarterial pathway, in order to rule out obstructions or compressions that also justify revascularization. In those cases in which all the tests are negative, the current evidence does not recommend revascularization, but adequate periodic follow-up is recommended. For this reason, we believe that the stress echocardiogram and exercise perfusion scintigraphy (based on availability and experience in each center) are fundamental because of their high sensitivity and specificity. We would also like to highlight the role that percutaneous interventionism can play in this type of clinical cases. Especially with patients of high surgical risk and in whom the percutaneous approach is feasible.

  16. The politics of technology and site location: impact of state interventionism on an Indian public sector firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Subramanian

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Can an industrial organisation simultaneously fulfil economic and social functions, that is to say successfully reconcile its own priorities of optimal resource utilisation and productive efficiency with the larger objectives of social justice defined for it by public authorities? This is the central question this paper whose compass is restricted to the 1980s asks, and seeks to answer on the basis of a study of locational and technology choices at a big public sector manufacturing firm, Indian Telephone Industries. It will show how decisions pertaining both to the implantation of new state-owned factories and the sourcing of technology were shaped not by an economic rationale but a political one where employment generation took precedence over all other considerations. This was a consequence, on the one hand, of the paradigm of state-initiated industrial development embraced by India after Independence in 1947 and which held out the promise of future prosperity for the population at large; on the other, of the mode of governance prevailing in public enterprises where state interventionism rhymed with the complete loss of autonomy for managements. The paper concludes by pointing out that however justified the redistributive goals allocated to public enterprises from the standpoint of improving living standards, they proved highly detrimental to their efficient working as well as onerous for the exchequer.

  17. Scandalum acceptum and scandalum datum: Kant's non-Interventionism in the Fifth Preliminary Article of the Perpetual Peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Is it right to wage war to export democracy, or - as Kant would have said - to forcibly interfere in the constitution and in the government of another state with the goal of transforming it into a republic? The answer of Kant, contained in the fifth preliminary article of the Perpetual Peace, leans towards non-interventionism: a bad constitution can never justify a war, because it may be the root only of a scandalum acceptum. To understand the meaning of scandalum acceptum we have to become aware that it is a term originating from moral theology, which we should translate into the language of international law. The scandal, as it was still clear to Kant’s contemporaries, is the sin of advertising a sinful behavior: but it is just a scandalum acceptum if the act that inspired others to sin has been done without the intention to give them a bad example. A flawed constitution can be only the occasion of a scandalum acceptum because its legal power does not spread its influence beyond the border of its state. If a nation chooses to imitate the allegedly wrong constitution of another state, its choice depends only on its sovereignty, because it is a matter of internal constitutional law. On the other hand, waging war against another country because of its allegedly flawed constitution is a worse kind of scandal, the scandalum datum, because it involves an international law principle of limited sovereignty according to which every state has the right to assault another state because of its constitution.

  18. Farmakologisk behandling af astma under graviditet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akram, Iram; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Johnsen, Claus Rikard

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most frequent chronic diseases which complicate pregnancy. Well-controlled asthma during pregnancy reduces the risk of for exacerbations and, consequently, the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. Pharmacological therapy for pregnant women with asthma is a challenge, not least ...... due to suboptimal adherence with controller therapy and pregnant women's concerns about harmful effects of medication on the fetus. This review provides an update on the safety of asthma medication during pregnancy, based on recent clinical studies and international guidelines.......Asthma is one of the most frequent chronic diseases which complicate pregnancy. Well-controlled asthma during pregnancy reduces the risk of for exacerbations and, consequently, the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. Pharmacological therapy for pregnant women with asthma is a challenge, not least...

  19. Nye farmakologiske behandlingsmodaliteter ved type 2-diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsbad, Sten; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2012-01-01

    The variable pathogenesis and progressive nature of type 2 diabetes emphasise the need for new antidiabetic treatments. The long acting glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors have improved the treatment. Novel approaches include inhibitors of sodium glucose...... co-transporter 2, which increase renal glucose elimination, G-protein-coupled receptor agonists, which potentiate insulin and incretin hormone secretion. Proof of principle has been shown for glucagon receptor agonists, glucokinase activators and treatment with dual intestinal peptides, which all...

  20. Psykosociale interventioner ved debuterende psykoser i skizofrenispektret

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Bertelsen, Mette

    2008-01-01

    The possibilities for intervention in the early phases of schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychosis were reviewed. Long duration of untreated psychosis is related to persistent psychotic symptoms. Early detection programmes can reduce the duration of untreated psychosis and thereby probably...... improve outcome. There is ample evidence that intensive specialised assertive intervention during the early phase of psychotic symptoms is effective in improving several outcomes. Family intervention reduces risk of remission and improve compliance with antipsychotic medication....

  1. Psykosociale interventioner ved debuterende psykoser i skizofrenispektret

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Bertelsen, Mette

    2008-01-01

    improve outcome. There is ample evidence that intensive specialised assertive intervention during the early phase of psychotic symptoms is effective in improving several outcomes. Family intervention reduces risk of remission and improve compliance with antipsychotic medication....

  2. Psykosociale interventioner ved debuterende psykoser i skizofrenispektret

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Bertelsen, Mette

    2008-01-01

    The possibilities for intervention in the early phases of schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychosis were reviewed. Long duration of untreated psychosis is related to persistent psychotic symptoms. Early detection programmes can reduce the duration of untreated psychosis and thereby probably...

  3. Metaanalyse af farmakologisk alkoholmisbrugsbehandling med acamprosat, naltrexon og disulfiram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrov, Igor; Krogh, Jesper; Nordentoft, Merete

    2011-01-01

    continuous abstinence. Acamprosate increased the total number of abstinence days with 14% (MD = 14.02; 95% CI: 9.57-18.47). Disulfiram appeared to be effective only when the intake was supervised. Based on the amount of scientific evidence, acamprosate and naltrexone therapy should be increased in clinical...

  4. Farmakologisk behandling af mild ukompliceret hypertension i almen praksis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Maja Skov; Christensen, Bo; Søndergaard, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In Denmark, patients with hypertension are primarily managed in primary care. A recent Cochrane review concluded that pharmacotherapy of patients with mild hypertension (systolic blood pressure 140-159 mmHg; diastolic blood...... pressure 90-99 mmHg; no diabetes or cardiovascular disease) did not reduce mortality or morbidity. The evidence for pharmacotherapy in patients having mild/uncomplicated hypertension is weak. However, current Danish guidelines have taken this into consideration in their recommendations of pharmacotherapy...... to patients with mild/uncomplicated hypertension....

  5. How Agency Can Solve Interventionism's Problem of Circularity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbers, V.; Bruin, L.C. de

    2014-01-01

    Woodward’s interventionist theory of causation is beset by a problem of circularity: the analysis of causes is in terms of interventions, and the analysis of interventions is in terms of causes. This is not in itself an argument against the correctness of the analysis. But by requiring us to have

  6. Seksuel dysfunktion i menopausen. Status over forekomst, farmakologiske behandlingsmuligheder og risici

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Nina; Hilmand, Christina Bjerre; Jensen, Pernille Tine

    2006-01-01

    on female sexual dysfunction only in a limited group of women: those with arousal problems without desire problems. This result demands a focus on new pharmaceutical products, and at present the effect of testosterone and selective estrogen receptor modulators on female sexual dysfunction is being......The frequency of female sexual dysfunction increases with age, and the menopause has a negative influence on sexual life. Pharmacological treatment options of female sexual dysfunctions in the menopause include hormone therapy and sildenafil. Few randomised controlled studies have been done...

  7. Energy management under liberalism and interventionism; La maitrise de l`energie entre liberalisme et interventionnisme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finon, D.; Menanteau, P. [Grenoble Univ., Institute for Energy Economics and Policy (France)

    1999-11-01

    The deregulation of the energy industries and the globalization of markets in the developed world and the integration of the economies of developing countries into the world economy present a major challenge to the energy sector, not the least of them is response to the long term environmental challenges. It is clear that if the developed nations take their commitments seriously to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions, they also have to deal with the problem of depleting domestic resources and the risks attendant on the fact that the largest conventional energy sources are situated in regions of the world that are politically unstable. Deregulation, and complete reliance on market forces alone, as advocated by supply-side economics, does not suffice under such circumstances; government intervention of some form, such as energy substitution and energy conservation measures, appear to be inevitable. This paper explores the differences between regulated and deregulated energy economies, the influence of globalization, the global threat of environmental damage, the security of supply situation and the options available to both the energy-consuming developed nations and the energy-rich developing nations to find a resolution to the common problem of saving the environment despite widely diverging economic and social imperatives.

  8. THE MILITARY STATE IN SOUTH AMERICA: INTERVENTIONISM, CAUDILLOS AND ARMED FORCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEDRO RIVAS NIETO

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work the author analyzes the elements of the Military State, which was the result of National Security Regimes. They ruled South America during the last third of the 20th century. The behaviour of the Armed Forces is compared with that of the classic caudillos. The Armed Forces-Civil Society relationship is studied too. And, of course, the intervention in political issues by the military and their relationship with political parties is also analyzed, as well. The conclusion ends with an analysis of the authoritarian nature of Military State.

  9. [In favour of early detection and moderate interventionism: to what extent is early stimulation effective?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats-Vinas, J M

    2007-05-21

    To review the bases and outcomes of early stimulation in the light of the results reported in the literature. We survey the papers that report results obtained from early stimulation in children at risk and in others with known dysfunctions, who were treated using diverse techniques with heterogeneous theoretical bases, programmes of intervention and application times and which range from the early stages of life (neonatal intensive care units) to the later stages of development. The main data taken into account were the meta-analyses. No data were found indicating permanent positive effects on the neurodevelopment of children to whom stimulation techniques were applied and, when short-term effects were reported, they were not detected in the medium or long term. Early stimulation techniques are politically correct, but are not effective enough to make their application recommendable as a valid preventive procedure. We suggest applying the treatments to children with known impairments in order to prevent the appearance of the self-fulfilling prophecy effect.

  10. Faces of conflict: Interventionism and substantiveness in the conflict framing process

    OpenAIRE

    Bartholomé, A.A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Political conflicts in the media are a central aspect of a functioning democracy. Being exposed to different viewpoints helps citizens in forming an opinion and knowing what standpoints political parties take in political matters. The media play an important role in this process. This dissertation focusses on conflict framing in political news in the Netherlands. Different types of conflict framing are taken into account, specifically by making a distinction regarding the level of interventio...

  11. Faces of conflict : Interventionism and substantiveness in the conflict framing process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartholomé, A.A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Political conflicts in the media are a central aspect of a functioning democracy. Being exposed to different viewpoints helps citizens in forming an opinion and knowing what standpoints political parties take in political matters. The media play an important role in this process. This dissertation

  12. Disruption and deniable interventionism: explaining the appeal of covert action and special forces in contemporary British policy

    OpenAIRE

    Cormac, Rory

    2017-01-01

    The United Kingdom has long engaged in covert action. It continues to do so today. Owing to the secrecy involved, however, such activity has consistently been excluded from debates about Britain’s global role, foreign and security policy, and military planning: an important lacuna given the controversy, risk, appeal, and frequency of covert action. Examining when, how, and why covert action is used, this article argues that contemporary covert action has emerged from, and is shaped by, a spec...

  13. LOCATIVE MEDIA INTERVENTIONISM – A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR CRITICAL REVIEW OF AUGMENTED REALITY APPLICATIONS IN THE PARTICIPATORY SPATIAL DESIGN CONTEXT

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohammad Khan; Lian Loke

    2017-01-01

    This paper offers an analytical framework for a critical review of augmented reality visualisations in the domain of participatory spatial design in general and Participatory Architecture in particular...

  14. Sygepleje til trakeostomerede patienter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dorthe Wiinholdt; Richard, René; Rydahl Hansen, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Der er ikke enighed om principperne bag plejen af trakeostomerede patienter, når de er i risiko for dysfagi og silent aspiration. Uenigheden har ført til udarbejdelse af en klinisk retningslinje med evidensbaserede anbefalinger....

  15. Diagnostic imaging of the breast. Examination techniques, appearances, differential diagnosis and interventiones. 3. compl. rev. ed.; Bildgebende Mammadiagnostik. Untersuchungstechnik, Befundmuster, Differenzialdiagnose und Interventionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heywang-Koebrunner, Sylvia H. [Referenzzentrum Mammographie, Muenchen (Germany).; Schreer, Ingrid [Radiologische Allianz, Hamburg (Germany).

    2015-07-01

    The book on diagnostic imaging of the breast covers the following topics: Part I: Techniques: anamnesis and dialogue, clinical indications, mammography, sonography, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, new imaging techniques, image clarification and percutaneous breast biopsy, preoperative marking. Part II: Appearance: the normal mamma, benign mamma modifications, cysts, benign tumors, inflammatory diseases, lesions with uncertain biological potential (B3 lesions), in-situ carcinoma, invasive carcinoma. Lymph nodes, other semi-malign and malign tumors, post-traumatic, post-operative and post-therapeutic changes, imaging diagnostics for breast implants, skin changes, the male breast. Part III: Use of imaging breast diagnostics: continuative diagnostics of screening indications and problem solution for the symptomatic patient.

  16. Sobre a deontologia do intervencionismo estatal no setor saúde On the deontology of government interventionism in the health sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Flávio Silveira

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o processo que define a mercantilização, o corporativismo, as ações preventivas e educativas em saúde pública e as investigações científicas básicas e aplicadas na medicina de modo a caracterizar algumas causas e efeitos da aplicação da perspectiva de individualização que é decorrência dos princípios da doutrina utilitarista. Os problemas da assistência à saúde, os problemas educacionais e os fatores do desenvolvimento cultural, científico e econômico são discutidos através de uma análise inter-relacionada onde é detectada a tendência resistente à superação dessa perspectiva. Os princípios utilitaristas foram entendidos como produtores de efeitos contrários aos desejados pelo controle político, ou seja, a ineficiência do setor saúde, causada por este controle, passa a constituir, ela mesma, uma ameaça à ordem social que este arranjo político pretende manter. Assim, há exigências de concentração institucional das ações de saúde, de divisão técnica do trabalho e de desenvolvimento de tecnologias de processo que podem ser integradas à prática política atual a partir do entendimento apresentado.The attitude adopted to problems in the health sector is based on principles which arise from the doctrine of utilitarian philosophy which imposes a perspective of individualization incapable of providing structural solutions. The process which defines the mercantilization, the corporative system, the preventive and educative action in public health and both basic scientific investigation as well as that applied in Medicine is described insuch a way as to characterize some of the causes and the effects of this perspective. By means of the inter-connected analysis of the problems of health assistance, of education and of cultural, scientific and economic development, the tendency to resist the movement to replace this perspective and the consequence inertia of the evolution of the health sector is discussed By this analysis it is also to be seen that the utilitarian principles produce the inverse effect to that desired by the political guide-lines adopted, that is to say, when they make the health sector inefficient, they then become a threat to the social order which it wishes to maintain. Thus it is concluded that the demands of the institutional concentration of health actions, of the technical division of labor and of the development of adequate technologies of process, can be integrated into present political practice on the basis of this understanding.

  17. 5'adenosinmonofosfataktiveret proteinkinase og livsstilssygdomme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Kiens, Bente; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    5'adenosinmonofosfataktiveret proteinkinase (AMPK) er et enzym, der aktiveres, når cellers energistatus trues, og det aktiverer energigivende processer, mens energiforbrugende processer hæmmes. AMPK er også involveret i regulering af genekspression og i appetitregulering. Farmakologisk aktivering...

  18. Mindfulness-baseret stressreduktion (MBSR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piet, Jacob

    Oplægget er en kort status over den empiriske forskning inden for området med fokus på virkning samt potentielle virkningsmekanismer i relation til stress. Der peges desuden på nogle af de forhold og faktorer, der er vigtige for at opretholde kvalitet og integritet i evidensbaserede mindfulness-t...

  19. Implementering af evidensbaseret praksis i det logopædiske arbejdsfelt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oversættelse af Embedding Evidence-Based Practice in Speech and Language Therapy Denne antologi rummer en lang række artikler, der forholder sig til alle hjørner af det evidensbaserede praksisfelt. Fra ledelse og organisering, over formulering af egne forskningsspørgsmål, kritisk vurdering af...

  20. First dose in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard Christensen, Mette Marie

    2011-01-01

    Du er blevet ansat som læge i et lægemiddelfirma med ansvar for planlægning og sikkerhed i fase 1 forsøg. Firmaet har udviklet tre dopamin D2-receptor antagonister til behandling af skizofreni. Lægemidlerne har undergået et omfattende farmakologisk, toksikologisk og farmaceutisk afprøvningsprogra...... fase 1 forsøg alias »First dose in man«....

  1. Fase 3 hjerterehabilitering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Karen Kjær

    2011-01-01

    Der er international konsensus om at inddele hjerterehabilitering i 3 faser. Rehabiliteringsfase 3 er udlagt til primærsektoren og defineret ved fastholdelse af den forebyggende farmakologiske behandling og de opnåede livsstilsændringer. Da mange hjertepatienter ikke gennemfører fase 2, og....../eller ikke opnår behandlingsmålene, er der i fase 3 også brug for optimering af behandlingen....

  2. Det man tænker er man selv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Philip

    2017-01-01

    I en tid, hvor ”det postfaktuelle samfund” er det mest populære udtryk øst for Valby bakke, er det vigtigt for de profaktuelle fanebærere at forstå, at fakta og evidens ikke i sig selv ændrer på folks opfattelse og holdninger. For at evidensbaserede argumenter skal få en vigtig position i samfund...

  3. Les Politiques de soutien à l’art en Angleterre depuis 1990 : « exception britannique », dirigisme ou modèle hybride ? English Arts Policies since 1990: Laissez-Faire, Interventionism or a Hybrid Model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Doustaly

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, English public support for the arts has drawn closer to the continental model of administration of culture while retaining and even creating idiosyncracies: funds are increasing but come partly from the National Lottery rather than taxes, and they are still distributed by Non-Departmental Public Bodies (NDPBs. However, the State intervenes more directly than in the past, and public opinion accepts public funding of culture more readily. One may wonder if there is still a style of arts administration characteristic of England, and in this case, what its features are. This article analyses the relationship between the State and the arts supported by Arts Council England, a NDPB responsible for distributing public funds to live and visual arts organisations in line with the Department for Culture, Media and Sport’s policy.

  4. Facilitation visits as a method for implementing change in general practice - What lies beneath the label?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Tina Drud

    2016-01-01

    ingen klar og konsistent definition af facilitering, og der er markante variationer i indholdet mellem forskellige facilitatorinterventioner. Facilitatorer beskrives at have mange forskellige roller og mangeartede aktiviteter er beskrevet både inden for enkelte interventioner og på tværs af...... interventioner. Desuden fremhæves det som afgørende at tilgangen skræddersyes til den enkelte praksis eller team. For at bidrage til et mere nuanceret billede af hvad der kan være under faciliteringsetiketten var ideen med denne afhandling at undersøge en dansk facilitatorintervention i almen praksis fra...

  5. Musikterapi med børn og unge voksne med en svær autismeforstyrrelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    Musikterapi kan have en signifikant effekt på de primære problematikker ved autismeforstyrrelsen, som f.eks. social interaktion, initierende adfærd og social-emotionel gensidighed. Kapitlet giver et indblik i de ’unikke og essentielle’ træk ved musikterapeutiske interventioner, der ifølge en nyli...

  6. FV-projektet - model til Forebyggende Virksomhedsstrategier i SMV’er (også kaldet Produktivitet og Trivsel - projektet)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine; Poulsen, Signe; Gish, Liv

    anvende i forebyggelsen af stress. Modellen var baseret på tidligere forskningsprojekterfaringer fra ”Videnarbejde og Stres – mellem begejstring og belastning” (Projektnummer 4-2006-04) projektet samt teorier om organisatoriske interventioner med deltagelse af medarbejdere og ledere. Resultatet af...

  7. Money and War Murray Rothbard’s A History of Money and Banking in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas Zelmanovitz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a presentation and an interpretation of Murray Rothbard’s views on the relation between the fiscal necessities brought by war and interventionism in Money and Banking as read from his book A History of Money and Banking in the United States.

  8. Enhanced care by generalists for functional somatic symptoms and disorders in primary care (Review)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendal, Marianne; Blankenstein, Annette H; Morriss, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Mange patienter kommer i almen praksis med medicinsk uforklarede (funktionelle) symptomer. Hidtil har forskning peget på, at særlige interventioner, som udføres af specialister (fx kognitiv adfærdsterapi), kan forbedre patienternes helbred og funktionsevne, men der mangler behandlingsmodeller, so...

  9. Den retfærdige krigs teori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nikolaj K.

    2014-01-01

    Vestens historie ledsages af krige en masse. De har antaget mange forskellige former, men på et tidspunkt aftog ukontrollerede erobringskampe og blev erstattet af strategiske, magtkalkulerede interventioner. I det 16. og 17. århundrede blev det vigtigt at tale om en retfærdig krig. Nikolaj Anders...

  10. Notes on the notion of "just war"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangenberg, Mikkel

    2009-01-01

    En Bordieu-inspireret analyse af ideen om "retfærdig krig", og forholdet mellem intellektuelle og krigsførsel - set i lyset af kritiske interventioner i forhold til Irak-krigen ved Michael Walzer, Slavoj Zizek, og Antonio Negri og Michael Hardt. Udgivelsesdato: july 09...

  11. Reconsiderations of the Development and Governance Model after the Financial and Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Prisecaru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Financial crisis brought to the fore the fierce confrontation between Keynes disciples and Friedman disciples, between demand siders and supply siders, between Obama’s policies focused on economic growrh and EU austerity policies focused on deficit and debts reduction. Monetary policy showed its limits and neoliberal approach favored the risky products(derivatives and speculative activities. Supply siders, like David Harper, centred on three pillars: tax incentives, competition policy, enhancement of productive credit. Lisbon Strategy and Europe 2020 represent a supply side agenda based on sectoral policies. Great economists like Joseph Stiglitz and Paul Krugman have supported state interventionism and higher government spending for demand recovery and resuming the economic growth. Besides state interventionism one needs the urgent reconsideration of capitalist development model and strongly improving the governance at all levels: global, European, national, corporate.

  12. Manual on best practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxlund, Bjarke

    Der er mange måder at imødegå den globale hiv/aids epidemi på, men ikke alle tilgange virker lige godt. 'Best practices' er blevet lanceret af UNAIDS og andre som et værktøj til at sikre, at kun de mest effektive og virkningsfulde interventioner bliver promoveret i hiv/aids forebyggelse, behandling......, pleje og støtte. Det store spørgsmål er, hvad der kendetegner 'best practice', og hvordan NGOer kan anvende begrebet? Det er blot et af de mange spørgsmål som denne manual om hiv og aids interventioner for og med børn og unge i lavindkomstlande beskæftiger sig med....

  13. Economic Policy: protectionism as an elite strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Vo Phuong Mai Le; Minford, Patrick; Nowell, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The EU has pursued protectionist policies not merely in food but also in manufacturing at the customs union level. In services it has not dismantled much of the existing national protectionism. The economic costs are calculated here at some 3% of GDP for the UK and some 4% for the rest of the EU - or much larger under liberal planning assumptions. Added to its social interventionism, these costs suggest that the EU has put political integration before economic efficiency. This policymaking pa...

  14. Samtænkning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veicherts, Nicolas Teodors

    2005-01-01

    Konklusionen på to DIIS briefs i denne serie er, at “samtænkning af militær og civil indsats er kommet for at blive”, se www.diis.dk/sw1506.afp og 14827.afp. Den konklusion ændres ikke i denne tredje og sidste publikation i serien, der fortsat har militære interventioner som ramme. Rapporten...

  15. Latin America Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-15

    Equipment (in thousands of 1970 pesos) (Source: CLARIN and INDEC [National Institute of Statistics and Census] Figures) INVERSION BRUTA fHTERNA Fl JA...industry and the country, financial orientation, the degree of interventionism and the labor system, in an interview granted to the magazine ESTRATEGIA ...the text of which reads: Development Model ESTRATEGIA : The country has become used to every government, based on the development plan, setting basic

  16. Mercantilism and economic growth in the viceroyalty of the Peru. the cigar shop of tobacco 1750-1800

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Cerón, Carlos; Departamento Académico de Historia, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima - Perú.

    2014-01-01

    Conform he was leaving extending in the Peru the real interventionism for intermission of the Bourbon reforms, an economic growth maintained that he benefitted the cost-reducing forces of the country was produced. The colonial politics under the state impulse began to yield its consequences, which were shown at the indexes of collection that the national treasury was showing. In this process the State kept an important role like intervening businessman the control of the commerce of the tobac...

  17. Epstein-Barr virus-kodet BILF1 er en konstitutivt aktiv G-protein-koblede receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Sarah J; Rosenkilde, Mette M; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    Både beta-og gammaherpesviruses kode G-protein-koblede receptorer (GPCRs) med unikke farmakologiske fænotyper og vigtige biologiske funktioner. Et eksempel er ORF74, den gamma2-herpesvirus Kaposis sarkom-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-kodet GPCR, som er meget konstitutivt aktiv og betragtes som den...... væsentligste Oncogene i Kaposis sarkom patogenese. I modsætning hertil den nuværende annotation af Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genom ikke afslører nogen GPCR homolog kodet af denne menneskelige onkogene gamma1-herpesvirus. Men, ved at anvende bioinformatik, anerkendte vi, at den tidligere fastsatte EBV åben...... læsning ramme BILF1 faktisk koder en GPCR. Desuden BILF1 er medlem af en ny familie af beslægtede GPCRs udelukkende kodet af gamma1-herpesviruses. Angivelse af hæmagglutinin-mærkede BILF1 i HEK293 epitelcelle linje viste, at BILF1 udtrykkes som en cirka 50-kDa glykosyleret protein. Immunhistokemi og...

  18. Omega-3 fiskeolie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Anita; Sørensen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Rapport afgrænser sig til evidensbaserede helbredsmæssige gevinster ved et øget indtag af langkædede omega-3, som opnås ved en kost rig på fisk eller som et tilskud af fiskeolier. Der gennemføres en systematisk litteraturgennemgang, som baserer sig på et evidensniveau svarende til styrke A. Det...... betyder, at gennemgangen inkluderer metaanalyser/oversigtsartikler af enten eksperimentelle studier eller observationsstudier, endvidere indgår udvalgte større RCT, som er refereret i meta-analyserne. Sammenfattende findes på baggrund af litteraturgennemgang, at tilskud af omega-3 har effekt på...... hjertesygdom ved at nedsætte mortaliteten. Effekten er mest evident ved personer i særlig risiko for at udvikle hjerte-karsygdom, eller som sekundær/tertiær profylakse. Tilsvarende findes også ved tilskud af omega-3 en forebyggende effekt i forhold til iskæmisk apopleksi. Af mulige virkningsmekanismer viser...

  19. Rygeafvænning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lous, Jørgen; Bredesen, stud. med. Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Denne artikel giver en oversigt over en række rygeafvænningsinterventioner med baggrund i data fra Cochranebiblioteket samt randomiserede undersøgelser, der er fundet i PubMed-databasen 1999-2007. Oversogten dokumenterer effekt af rygeafvænning hos både raske og syge i daglig praksis. Der er påvi...... effekt af individuel rådgivning, gruppeterapi, selvhjælpssamtaler samt proaktive telefontjenester. Der er påvist sikker effekt af nikotinsubstitution, bupropion og nortryptilin samt clonidin og vareniclin. En række andre interventioner er ikke dokumenteret effektive....

  20. Om mobningens vandringer mellem enshed og forskellighed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    bliver i så fald de interventionsrettede konsekvenser af dette? Hvordan og med hvilke konsekvenser identificeres og afgrænses mobning fra interventionens iagttagelsespunkt? Hvilke normative idealer – f.eks. om sammenhold og rummelighed – informerer (mere eller mindre åbenlyst) disse interventioner, som...... tankefigurer – og dermed i forhold til analytiske informeringer af de voksnes blikke – der er virksomme, når det gælder mobning. Vi vil tage dem med os videre ind i skolebørnenes sociale verden og relateringspraksisser....

  1. Gruppemusikterapi med patienter med borderline-personlighedsforstyrrelse i dagbehandlingsregi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Niels

    2008-01-01

    Denne artikel er første redegørelse for de erfaringer, som er gjort med gruppemusikterapi (GMT) for patienter med borderline-personlighedsforstyrrelse (BPF) i dagbehandlingsregi på Aalborg Psykiatriske Sygehus. Artiklen indeholder både konkrete anvisninger til aktiviteter og interventioner, ligesom...... den i et teoretisk perspektiv redegør for forskellige processer og reaktioner, der kan iagttages i behandlingen. Artiklen konkluderer, at GMT i sin nuværende form kan bidrage til udvikling af BPF-patienters evne til mentalisering og affektregulering, til opbygning af en gruppefølelse og fremme af...

  2. Estado, burguesia e legislacao trabalhista brasileira no limiar dos anos 30: notas para uma discussao.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Vicente de Morales.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The creation and implementation of Brazilian labor laws during the 1930s gave rise to important political debates. The various stakeholders - the state, the bourgeoisie, and workers - each with their own social project, had forged mechanisms designed to protect their own interests. Within this framework, this article addresses the arguments regarding the Expulsión of Foreigners Act (1907, the “Dois Terços”(Two-thirds Act (1930, and the Unionization Act (1931. These acts provide clear evidence that the growth of state interventionism was accompanied by tensions and changes, and that the labor legislation was not simply the ‘gift’ of a Corporate State.

  3. THE POLITICAL OUTCOMES OF GLOBALISATION IN WORLD TRADE: CYPRUS AND IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SADIK ACAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been a controversy between the theses of “liberalism” and “interventionism” in the history. Although the original aim was liberalism, the final outcome of today’s globalism is the interventionism. Since the theories grounded on the existence of liberalism, interventionism was assumed to be an exceptional circumstance. In today’s terminology, the term of liberalisation is replaced by globalisation. While liberalism base on the grounds of free movement of goods and services, “globalisation” is commonly used to address the ability of free movement of “financial capital”. Trade, in the history, has had a role in shaping countries’ foreign policy. Recent developments in today’s world are the evidence of this fact. The main reason of the USA’s ongoing insistance on the Iraq issue is the accumulation of the rents in the hands of Far East countries. This is due to the fact that the trade activities in the field of Atlantic Ocean reduced, while trade within the Pasific Ocean countries increased. Thus, Europe wishes to approach to trade in the Far East via the Mediterranean and the Middle East. The USA on the other hand tries to control those regions for the same reason. Turkey, here, has an importance arising from her geographical situation.

  4. MEDENİYETLER ÇATIŞMASI MI, MENFAATLER ÇATIŞMASI MI?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SADIK ACAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been a controversy between the theses of “liberalism” and “interventionism” in the history. Although the original aim was liberalism, the final outcome of today’s globalism is the interventionism. Since the theories grounded on the existence of liberalism, interventionism was assumed to be an exceptional circumstance. In today’s terminology, the term of liberalisation is replaced by globalisation. While liberalism base on the grounds of free movement of goods and services, “globalisation” is commonly used to address the ability of free movement of “financial capital”. Trade, in the history, has had a role in shaping countries’ foreign policy. Recent developments in today’s world are the evidence of this fact. The main reason of the USA’s ongoing insistance on the Iraq issue is the accumulation of the rents in the hands of Far East countries. This is due to the fact that the trade activities in the field of Atlantic Ocean reduced, while trade within the Pasific Ocean countries increased. Thus, Europe wishes to approach to trade in the Far East via the Mediterranean and the Middle East. The USA on the other hand tries to control those regions for the same reason. Turkey, here, has an importance arising from her geographical situation.

  5. Determinants of State Intervention: Evidence for the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Gabriela MAŞCA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to analyze the determinants of State intervention upon the social and economic life, and to grasp their implications in terms of public policy. The problem of State interventionism is a current one, and over time it has been under the influence of certain factors such as interstate differences, economic and social crises, political governance of the country, regional policy and globalization. The challenges that the current economic crisis brings in terms of State interventionism, are also presented. Some indicators that quantify the extent of State intervention through public expenditures are analyzed for the EU member countries (1995- 2010 in order to capture the general trends in their evolution and the peculiarities of their structure. The empirical analysis, based on a panel econometric model, aims to establish the relevance held by the main determinants for the degree of State intervention in budgetary expenditure, for the EU countries. The possibilities for an increasing State interference during the crisis, related with the withdrawal of the State once the crisis would be overcome, are valued with reference to the significant determinants of the interference policy derived from empirical analysis.

  6. Sovereignty and regional integration in Latin America: a political conundrum?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto de Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an inherent contradiction between the regional integration projects in Latin America, albeit rhetorically conducted, and the staunch defense by most countries of their national sovereignty, which restricts and opposes many liberalization mechanisms implicit in, and necessary to, the integration processes, based on the rendition of sovereignty in some areas of economic relevance, including, and especially, trade and industrial policies, as well as other sectorial measures. The dilemma is historically compounded by a juridical tradition that places the retraction into an introverted version of the sovereignty principle into the context of conceptual elaborations well known in the international law, such as Calvo doctrine and the Drago principle. Brazil is one of the most resolute promoters of the national sovereignty principle among Latin American countries, clearly expressed in its constitutional chart and foreign policy stances, since the Second Hague peace conference of 1907. Other Latin American countries, mainly in Central America and the Caribbean, are much more motivated by real concerns over recurrent United States interventionism in the regional, in some cases by military means. This framework has somewhat infringed on integration projects, which is also hindered by economic nationalism and state interventionism.

  7. ″The Anthropocene″, Ecosystem Management, and Environmental Virtue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    *Portions of this article are drawn from: Sandler, R. Environmental Ethics: Theory in Practice, Oxford University Press, New York, in press. In this article I consider contrasting views on the implications of rapid, macroscale anthropogenic change for environmental ethics, particularly ecosystem management, species conservation, and environmental virtue. I begin by reviewing the Anthropocene debate, which has become a primary point of discourse on whether we ought to embrace a more interventionist stance regarding ecosystem management and species conservation. I then discuss the challenges posed by rapid ecological change to predominant ecosystem management and species conservation practices. I argue that these challenges not withstanding, we ought not go all in on interventionist management, even as novel conservation and management techniques can be justified in particular cases. It is possible to adopt a more forward looking normative stance, without licensing robust interventionism. Finally, I discuss the implications of this for some environmental virtues.

  8. Whispering Risk in the Prince’s ear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    ideologies. Instead of having a singular performative logic risk has been enlisted to support very different political projects from government interventionism global governance and activism to financial austerity, deregulation and decentralization. It is suggested that the value of the morphological......How do we examine the political effects of the different ways in which societal danger can be articulated? This paper explores what happens if security and risk – rather than being considered ‘primary’ in relation to politics or endowed with singular logics or grammars are treated as concepts...... systems but precisely the place where complexity and multiple contexts are translated into political programs. Through an analysis of the role of two ‘risk-gurus’ in recent UK ideological debate, it is shown how risk has joined ‘equality’ and ‘freedom’ as a central political concept in two contemporary UK...

  9. Fra kollegial supervision til fællesfaglig udvikling - et eksperiment med entreprenørskabsundervisning i faget Kulturformidling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbeshausen, Hans; Jensen, Agnete Lunddahl; Riis, Ragnhild

    2013-01-01

    of the teacher-to-teacher supervision changed through the teamwork process. An initial concern about individual teaching skills was transformed into a joint concern about how to strengthen the academic argument for entrepreneurial thinking in academic education. The added value of working as a team in developing....... Deres involvering viste sig i dialogiske interventioner i undervisningens form og indhold. This article presents an explorative journey carried out by a team of teachers. The aim was to develop their teaching methods in master courses in communication by integrating entrepreneurial thinking. The focus...... academic teaching is that a general reluctance towards entrepreneurial thinking has been transformed into a mutual interest and willingness to accept that certain entrepreneurial elements can improve academic standards....

  10. Grotius’ theory of natural law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govedarica Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After analyzing Grotius’ formulation of the state of nature and natural law, social contract and international law, the author places emphasis on two insights. First, that a certain heuristic principle plays a central role in Grotius’ argument - the analogy between individuals and states in the state of nature. Second, his firm belief that within the international framework the protection of natural law of people and communities comes before respect for state sovereignty. The author will argue that morally unacceptable implications of these characteristics of Grotius’ theory, when we take into account the way in which he defines the rights of punishment and property, are in fact legitimation of interventionism and colonialism. The author will also argue that Grotius initiated an influential tradition in international law, characterized by a lack of clear boundaries between legal and moral norms.

  11. [Acardiac headless twin: a case report and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufettal, H; Noun, M; Hermas, S; Samouh, N

    2010-03-01

    Monochorial twin pregnancies are characterised by the presence of vascular connections between the twins. These connections can be the cause of pathologies such as the twin-twin transfusion syndrome or the TRAP syndrome, which is defined as the association of a headless, acardiac twin with a healthy twin. The case of an acardiac, headless twin diagnosed during pregnancy at 24 weeks of amenorrhea is described. An acardiac headless twin is a rare phenomenon. Yet early diagnosis is crucial during pregnancy to provide adequate monitoring. It is associated with a high death rate in the healthy twin caused by anaemia and heart failure. Therapeutic resources involve interruption of vascular anostomoses between the twins in order to perform a selective feticide. Treatment of acardiac headless twin pregnancy ranges from obstetric abstentionism to interventionism, which depends on the prognosis for the healthy twin, dominated by the risk of preterm birth and heart failure. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  12. Competitive Advantaje Anatomy: from Methodological Holism to State Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Marinescu

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the orthodox theory of international trade, the argument of selective industrial policy means the state capability of identifying competitive advantages and to exploit them. In this approach, I want to emphasize the necessity of a critical reconsideration of the “competitive advantage” and “national competitiveness”, and also of the implications deriving from these concepts over public policy. First of all, I analyzed the scientifically basis of competitiveness: on the free market, the competitive advantage is given by the entrepreneurial ability, which so becomes the real source of the economic success. Being given any other conditions, meaning here a market affected by state’s interventionism, reaching “competitive advantages” derives from rent-seeking activities which attend to capture public policy.

  13. From Orthodoxy to Heterodoxy: Financial Crisis Literature Compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Ignacio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we’ll attempt to explain the connection between interventionism in financial markets, financial crises and economic downturns, as the main cause of the financial crisis mainstream models; As well as the connection between the theories of Austrian and Minsky’s economic cycle as branches of heterodox economic theory. In order to achieve this target, we’ll begin with a brief introduction of mainstream financial crises models in the orthodox economic literature, then we’ll examine the statements of the Austrian Business Cycle Theory and the Financial Instability Hypothesis, and evaluate whether a connection between the two. We conclude that Financial Instability Hypothesis can be studied as a particular case of the Austrian Business Cycle Theory.

  14. Cardiogenic shock: management of right ventricular infarction shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Bailén, M; Ruiz García, M I; Ferrezuelo Mata, A; Quirós Barrera, R

    2012-04-01

    Right ventricular infarction is a not uncommon cause of cardiogenic shock, whose frecuency is variable and could be underestimated. Although left ventricular myocardial management is well defined in the right ventricular infarction are few studies with low level of evidence, to establish definitive guidelines. It is assumed that the treatment is similar to that of the left ventricle, although there are some differences. The axis of the therapeutic management, as well as the left ventricle infarction, is based on early myocardial reperfusion, particularly through percutaneous coronary interventionism. Throm-bolysis is an option, especially after an increase in systemic blood pressure using vasoactive drugs such as norepinephrine. The preload optimization by volume administration during resuscitation of shock is useful, but it must be with caution. The use of levosimendan could be potentially beneficial option. On the neurohormonal modulation of systemic inflammatory response produced after the cardiogenic shock (CS), the use of ACE inhibitors and beta-blockers is controversial.

  15. Observations on Professor Hayek's Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwig von Mises

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This memorandum was written at the request of Henry Hazlitt to provide Mises’s comments on and concerns about F.A. Hayek’s initial proposals for what became the Mont Pèlerin Society. Mises stresses that those who favor liberty and freedom and oppose totalitarianism must also oppose interventionism. The memo argues that those who fought and lost against the rising tide of totalitarianism at the turn of the 20th Century lost their battles because they settled for middle-of-the-road policies that conceded considerable ground to the socialists. The weak point in Professor Hayek’s plan is that it relies upon the cooperation of many men who are today’s middle-of-the-roaders. As interventionists, they may not be the hoped-for intellectual pioneers to inspire people to build a freer world.

  16. THE IMPACT OF YEARS OF TEACHING EXPERIENCE ON THE CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT APPROACHES OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Ünal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study provided a basis for answering the following essential question: Does the years of experience affect teachers' classroom management approaches? Data were collected from 268 primary school teachers. The findings of this study demonstrated that experienced teachers are more likely to prefer to be in control in their classrooms than beginning teachers while interacting with students when making decisions. Investigating the previous studies, researchers were able to discover that there is certain path teachers follow through their career. While preservice teachers prefer non-interventionism (minimum teacher control, they support interactionism (shared control during internship and early career years, and finally they prefer to choose complete teacher control when they become experienced teachers.

  17. Stabilization policies for the tourist sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, A. M.

    1999-01-01

    Over the past few decades, tourism has increasingly been included in economic policies at all levels. Not surprisingly, the tourism sector is highly satisfied with this development: the inclusion in economic policies can be taken as an indication of its acceptance as a respectable player - on equal...... terms with other types of business operations. However, despite the general acceptance and approval of the contribution of tourism to the economy and employment, policies seem to neglect certain characteristics of the tourist trade. This article examines a critical issue: the turbulence caused by exits...... and entries of firms. Data from the tourism sector in Denmark serve to illustrate the problems with considerable turbulence in the population of tourism enterprises. Instability can be regarded as a major challenge for policy makers. Within the policy tradition of interventionism, two main types of measures...

  18. Stroke patient's experiences with Wii sports during inpatients rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celinder, Dora Maria; Peoples, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    Introduktion: Virtual reality spil har været benyttet sammen med terapi i forbindelse med apopleksi rehabilitering, oftes efter udskrivelse fra hospital. Formålet med dette studie er at udforske apopleksiramtes oplevelse af Wii Sports som et supplement til almindelig ergoterapeutisk genoptræning...... under genoptræning på hospitalet. Materiale og metode: Studiet benyttede et kvalitative triangulerings design, gennem brug af semi-strukturerede interviews og feld noter. 9 danske apopleksiramte patienter deltog og modtog mellem en og ni interventioner med Wii Sports over en tre-ugers periode....... Dataanalyse blev foretaget på baggrund af en kvalitativ indholdsanalyse. Resultat: Analysen vise et overordnet tema: "Forbindelse til tidligere, aktuelle og fremtidige betydningsfulde aktiviteter", og tre underkategorier som afspejlede de apopleksiramtes oplevelse med Wii Sports: 1) Variation, 2) Engagement 3...

  19. Gruppemusikterapi med patienter med borderline-personlighedsforstyrrelse i dagbehandlingsregi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Hannibal

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Denne artikel er første redegørelse for de erfaringer, som er gjort med gruppemusikterapi (GMT for patienter med borderline-personlighedsforstyrrelse (BPF i dagbehandlingsregi på Aalborg Psykiatriske Sygehus. Artiklen indeholder både konkrete anvisninger til aktiviteter og interventioner, ligesom den i et teoretisk perspektiv redegør for forskellige processer og reaktioner, der kan iagttages i behandlingen. Artiklen konkluderer, at GMT i sin nuværende form kan bidrage til udvikling af BPF-patienters evne til mentalisering og affektregulering, til opbygning af en gruppefølelse og fremme af interpersonel læring, ligesom GMT kan udvikle alliance til terapi generelt og GMT specifikt.

  20. Musiklyttepuder, lyd-bøjler og spillelister i behandlingen af psykiatriske patienter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Hannibal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Personaleerfaringer med at anvende musiklyttepuder til forskellige grupper af patienter i psykiatrien i Aalborg. Denne artikel omhandler anvendelse af receptiv musikmedicin i psykiatrien. Artiklen har specielt fokus på interventioner, hvor ikke-musikterapeutisk personale administrerer musikken til patienter, med henblik på at mindske uro, agitation og anvendelse af PN-medicin samt aflede fra tankerforstyrrelse og forbedre indsovning. Artiklen indeholder en interviewundersøgelse, hvor fem personaler fra forskellige afdelinger informerer om erfaringer med implementering af musikken i form af musiklytteudstyr. Undersøgelsen dokumenterer bl.a.: At interventionen kan virke efter hensigten. At det er vigtigt, at der er musikterapeut tilknyttet som konsulent. At der er nogle tekniske barrierer og behov for en forenkling af musikprogrammer/spillelister. Endelig konkluderes det, at der er behov for dokumentation for effekten gennem en systematisk undersøgelsen.

  1. Market as microeconomic environment: Mechanisms and controversy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brkić Ivana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary microeconomic principles are based on market ideology. The paper presents the description of market mechanisms, as well as interpreted economic realities in their application. Although none of science stream excludes completely the efficiency and presence of other, it is disputed over the dominance of the market or the state within the economic processes. The gap between two doctrines: market self-regulation vs. state interventionism allows us to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of one and the other concept. The symbiosis of these two institutions - market and state - could give good results in the achievement of social goals, creating a welfare society, and thus deal with the problems of today: the degradation of an environment, the economic crisis and social inequality.

  2. Peace through Institutions: Woodrow Wilson and the Paris Peace Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Küntay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As we approach the centennial of World War I, it is fitting to undertake a retrospective, academic review of the institutions devised in the war’s aftermath. The efforts to build and sustain a global order ensuring peace and cooperation in the international community - which ultimately failed with the beginning of a Second World War—constitute telling and timely lessons for world politics today. This paper looks critically at America’s role in World War I, diplomatic talks preceding the signature of the treaty of Versailles, and domestic and international reactions to President Woodrow Wilson’s signature idealism.The paper begins with a historical overview of how World War I began in Europe in an effort to contextualize the entrance of the United States in 1917, two and a half years after the war began. Since Woodrow Wilson originally promoted American neutrality, and U.S. public opinion had mostly favored isolationism until World War I, Wilson’s presidency represents a historic shift in American foreign policy to interventionism and eventually, its post-Cold War “global policeman” status. Assessing the main actors of WWI and America’s role in it serves to frame Woodrow Wilson’s asymmetrical reception within his own country. In the U.S., Wilson’s foreign affairs record is characterized by his intervention in Mexico, his original attempt to remain uninvolved in Europe’s war, and his failed attempt to keep peace after the war. Wilson garnered domestic support for U.S. entrance with his call to “make the world safe for democracy.” Using such overt idealistic rhetoric in the foreign policymaking decision process was novel at the time, but sounds all too familiar today. Post-WWI, Wilson’s fight with Congress and the U.S. not entering into the League of Nations resembles rifts between U.S. administrations and their Congresses in recent times, and it arguably indirectly contributed to the occurrence of the World War II. As U

  3. Against explanatory minimalism in psychiatry

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    Tim eThornton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticised both as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell’s criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation respectively and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein’s Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein’s remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of level of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation.

  4. Against Explanatory Minimalism in Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticized not only as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell's criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation, respectively, and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein's Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein's remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of levels of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is that the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation.

  5. A «hunger revolt» in Galicia during the early period of the Franco regime : O Saviñao | Una «revuelta de hambre» en la Galicia del primer franquismo : O Saviñao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Souto Blanco

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1946, in O Saviñao, a parish in the province of Lugo, a conflict arose with features of a ?hunger revolt? more typical of the Ancien Régime: peasant women took possession of the bread supply and carried out a retroactive protest (they demanded the restoration of the traditional and now abrogated right of self-sustenance, with one specific aim (that bread should be sold at a fair price, and with an organizational structure, if only informal (including some local leaders and a degree of community support. The resurgence of this old form of protest can be explained by certain features of the early period of the Franco regime: interventionism, corruption and repression. | En 1946, en O Saviñao, municipio de la provincia de Lugo, se originó un conflicto con las características de una «revuelta de hambre» propia del Antiguo Régimen: campesinas que se incautan del pan y llevan a cabo una protesta reactiva (reclaman un derecho revocado, el auto-abastecimiento, con un objetivo específico (conseguir el pan a un precio justo, y con una estructura organizativa, aunque sea informal (a partir de alguna autoridad local o de un consenso de apoyo en la comunidad. La reaparición de esta forma antigua de protesta, puede explicarse por las características del primer franquismo: intervencionismo, corrupción y represión.

  6. [Evaluation by focus groups on women's expectations and perceptions during the birth process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro-Losada, M T; Díaz-Sanisidro, E; Martínez-Romero, M D; Rial-Boubeta, A; Varela-Mallou, J; Clavería-Fontán, A

    2013-01-01

    Delivery care giving is undergoing excessive interventionism today, not supported by scientific evidence, neglecting organisational aspects and individualisation. This study analyses the perception of mothers during their delivery, postpartum and breastfeeding periods in the Galician Health Service, in order to inform and help to improve this service. A total of 14 focus group meetings were held (one in each Galician public hospital), consisting of women who, in 2008, delivered by vaginal delivery or those who were not scheduled for a caesarean section. The process of birth analysis can identify a sequence of important elements both positive and negative, for mothers, and may lead to suggestions for improvement. Their experiences and opinions, especially in aspects such as participation in decision-making, mechanisation of labour and lactation, may help to conduct an assessment of the maternity ward operating. When investigating expectations and demands from users, information from perceived quality is received, and also mothers' experience is shared. Mothers call for humanity, empathy, information and participation. Facing the implementation of these elements, the key processes for working harder are the dilation stage and hospital staying. Copyright © 2012 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Reforma y contrarreforma laboral en Argentina, crónica simple de un proceso pendular

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    Adrián Goldin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Labor reform and counter-reform in Argentina, simple chronic of a pendulum processAfter placing it in the context of the processes of labor reforms produced in Latin America in the early 90’s (its inspiration, its dynamics, its actors, the article considers in particular the case of Argentina. Inthat assignment, it examines the labor reforms that took place there from dominant perspectives - external flexibility, internal flexibility, reduction and variation of costs, collective labor relations - confirming a strong deregulated activism in the field of individual relations, while it was verified a high administrative interventionism of decentralized bias with a limited institutional transformation in collective relations.At the end of that decade, it had already been clear that those strategies haven’t had a virtuous effect on the social labor situation or the labor market. In this context, a new government that comes into power in 2003, leaves without effect a good part of those reforms and instead it undertakes a process of institutional reconfiguration of the legal system of labor protection: a systematic increase of the Living Wage, strengthening of the collective wage bargaining - with the consequent tendential improvement of wages of workers in the formal sector - and, by virtue of parliamentary initiatives, a sequence of introduction of micro-reforms always oriented to increase the protection of workers, which as a whole would have to involve a remarkable recovery of the tutelary bias of labor regulations.

  8. Patterns of non-participation in breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Line Flytkjær

    2015-01-01

    Screening for brystkræft blev introduceret i Region Midtjylland i 2008-2009 for kvinder i alderen 50-69 år for at øge overlevelsen ved at fange sygdommen tidligt. En høj deltagelse i screeningen er afgørende, hvis dødeligheden for brystkræft fremover skal reduceres. I første screeningsrunde deltog...... screeningsenheden har af betydning. Resultaterne viser, at de kvinder, der ikke kom til screening, hyppigst var at finde blandt kvinder med lav social position, kvinder med flere kroniske sygdomme og kvinder med bopæl langt væk fra screeningsenheden. Resultaterne viser dog også, at kvinder med høj uddannelse deltog...... drage fordel af ekstra støtte eller særlige interventioner, når de skal beslutte, om de vil deltage i screening. Derfor bør fremtidige tiltag, som har til formål at øge deltagelsen, tage højde for individuelle, sociale og organisatoriske barrierer....

  9. Ground truth data generation for skull-face overlay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, O; Cavalli, F; Campomanes-Álvarez, B R; Campomanes-Álvarez, C; Valsecchi, A; Huete, M I

    2015-05-01

    Objective and unbiased validation studies over a significant number of cases are required to get a more solid picture on craniofacial superimposition reliability. It will not be possible to compare the performance of existing and upcoming methods for craniofacial superimposition without a common forensic database available for the research community. Skull-face overlay is a key task within craniofacial superimposition that has a direct influence on the subsequent task devoted to evaluate the skull-face relationships. In this work, we present the procedure to create for the first time such a dataset. We have also created a database with 19 skull-face overlay cases for which we are trying to overcome legal issues that allow us to make it public. The quantitative analysis made in the segmentation and registration stages, together with the visual assessment of the 19 face-to-face overlays, allows us to conclude that the results can be considered as a gold standard. With such a ground truth dataset, a new horizon is opened for the development of new automatic methods whose performance could be now objectively measured and compared against previous and future proposals. Additionally, other uses are expected to be explored to better understand the visual evaluation process of craniofacial relationships in craniofacial identification. It could be very useful also as a starting point for further studies on the prediction of the resulting facial morphology after corrective or reconstructive interventionism in maxillofacial surgery.

  10. Current Economic and Financial Crisis – New Issues or Returning to the Old Problems? Paradigms, Causes, Effects and Solutions Adopted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix TOTIR

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available At the ideological level, the current crisis, as the others in history, has triggered an intellectual debate among several applicable ideas: ultra-liberal theory of the "invisible hand" of Adam Smith, Keynes's theory of state interventionism and even neo-Marxist theories. Globalization, with all its core components, generates a chain reaction when the phenomenon occurs, either positive or negative. The origin of the current financial crisis should be sought in the effects of massive cross-border capital flows and the use of more complex derivatives. Reaching the saturation of the three engines of economic growth worldwide in the period after the collapse of the socialist bloc is another important cause of all the failures that currently exist worldwide. Acquisition of toxic assets from bank balance sheets, their recapitalization and takeover by the state, but also the reinforcement of the prudential supervision of capitalization, liquidity and risk management system, improved transparency and speed the process of evaluating or reinforcing authorities' response to risk, can be considered short or long term anti-crisis measures, as appropriate.

  11. Dynamisk assessment som interventionsværktøj

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiberg, Misja; Andersen, Luna Kragh; Scavenius Sonne-Schmidt, Christoffer

    anbragte børn kan støttes til bedre skolegang. Denne rapport redegør for resultaterne af et kontrolleret forsøg med udredningsmetoden dynamisk assessment. Formålet med forsøget er at afdække, om en kortlægning af barnets faglige, kognitive og sociale styrker og vanskeligheder, som inkluderer dynamisk...... assessment, kan bibringe viden, der kan medvirke til at skabe mere målrettede og mere effektive skolestøttende interventioner, sammenlignet med konventionelle udredningsmetoder. I rapporten undersøges forskelle i effekten på børnenes kognitive, sociale og faglige udbytte af en individuel, skolebaseret......, der har fået et udredningsforløb med ”dynamisk assessment”, kombineret med kortlægning med de samme konventionelle statiske test, som er anvendt i gruppe 1. LUKoP-indsatsen blev igangsat i slutningen af 2014 og forløb over cirka 18 måneder. I forsøget deltog 100 anbragte børn i alderen 6-14 år, deres...

  12. The relevance of a rules-based maize marketing policy: an experimental case study of Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbink, Klaus; Jayne, Thomas S; Moller, Lars C

    2011-01-01

    Strategic interaction between public and private actors is increasingly recognised as an important determinant of agricultural market performance in Africa and elsewhere. Trust and consultation tends to positively affect private activity while uncertainty of government behaviour impedes it. This paper reports on a laboratory experiment based on a stylised model of the Zambian maize market. The experiment facilitates a comparison between discretionary interventionism and a rules-based policy in which the government pre-commits itself to a future course of action. A simple precommitment rule can, in theory, overcome the prevailing strategic dilemma by encouraging private sector participation. Although this result is also borne out in the economic experiment, the improvement in private sector activity is surprisingly small and not statistically significant due to irrationally cautious choices by experimental governments. Encouragingly, a rules-based policy promotes a much more stable market outcome thereby substantially reducing the risk of severe food shortages. These results underscore the importance of predictable and transparent rules for the state's involvement in agricultural markets.

  13. Working for the ‘Free’ Market: state complicity in routine corporate harm in the United Kingdom (Trabajando para el mercado “libre”: complicidad estatal en la rutina del daño corporativo en el Reino Unido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Tombs

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents two forms of harms which are not ‘dramatic’, in fact, each is very low level, and each represents an instance of routine, normalized forms of harm which emanate from the business sector, and in the production of which the state is complicit. The focus specifically here is, in the first substantial section of the paper, on the economic harms produced by the retail sector of the UK financial services industry and, in the second, on the level and scale of airborne pollution in the UK from a range of business sources. While they are very different, they in fact have a lot in common, and tell us a lot about business and state practices. The remainder of the paper considers these state practices at length: despite misunderstandings and claims that governments are withdrawing from free markets, what one finds is a torrent of state intervention designed to create conditions of non-interventionism. It is no mere bystander to these harms, but intimately complicit in them through, variously, deregulation, reregulation and non-enforcement of law... Such state practices are documented in the third part of the paper, which focuses on what is termed regulatory re-shaping by central Governments in the UK since 1997. The results of such state activity may render such harms more likely, even more normalized.  In conclusion, the paper considers briefly the relationship between rendering such harms visible and effective resistance to them.

  14. GIM-behandling af en traumatiseret flygtning med PTSD – med fokus på traumebearbejdning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torben Moe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Artiklen omhandler en case med fokus på direkte traumebehandling i traumefokuseret Guided Imagery and Music (GIM. Patienten deltog i et mixed methods feasibility-pilotprojekt vedrørende behandling af traumatiserede flygtninge, som er beskrevet i artiklen Feasibility of trauma-focused Guided Imagery and Music with adult refugees diagnosed with PTSD – a pilot study. Patienten modtog 16 sessioner over en periode på ca. 6 måneder. I artiklen gives eksempler på traumefokuserede interventioner og eksempler på patientens kommentarer, oplevelser, refleksioner og udbytte af behandlingen. Behandlingstilgangen i konteksten med traumatiserede flygtninge er en ny variation inden for spektret af GIM-terapi, og beskrivelsen af behandlingsforløbet understøttes af teoretisk forståelse af processen. Resultater for pilotstudiet viser, at patienten fik signifikant udbytte af terapien. Dette bliver understøttet af patientens egne udtalelser i evalueringen af forløbet samt ud fra data fra de spørgeskemaer, der blev anvendt i undersøgelsen. Patienten har efter GIM-forløbet en score på Harwards Trauma Questionaire (HTQ, som ligger under cut-off for diagnosen PTSD og scorer markant højere på WHO-5 livsstil-skemaet.

  15. Familier og ADHD-problematikker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maja Lundemark

    Denne rapport henvender sig til alle – borgere, professionelle i det sociale og sundhedsfaglige arbejde, forskere og politikere – som interesserer sig for forståelsen og betydningen af ADHD-problematikker i familiers daglige liv. Rapporten har særligt fokus på brugernes egne perspektiver på ADHD......-problematikker, og der er lagt vægt på en ressourceorienteret tilgang. Rapporten viser, på baggrund af observationer og interview med familier, hvor ADHD-problematikker er en del af de daglige udfordringer, at ADHD opleves meget differentieret af de forskellige individer, hvilket tyder på, at det kan være en idé......, at de sociale indsatser udvikles med afsæt i de enkelte familiers oplevede problemer og behov for støtte. Samtidig beskrives behov for at sætte fokus på og tage afsæt i familiernes egne håndterings- og kompensations- strategier, når der udvikles sociale interventioner. Endelig rejses der på baggrund af...

  16. Kliniske retningslinjer for træning af aerob kapacitet og muskelstyrke til patienter med reumatoid artrit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Birgit Tine; Læssøe, Uffe; Kjær, Thomas

    -intensitets træning af patienter med reumatoid artrit. Evidensen forsikkerhed og effekt af høj-intensitetstræning af patienter med reumatoid artrit i funktionsklasse III er CENTER FOR KLINISKE RETNINGSLINJER- CLEARINGHOUSESide 2uklar. Der bør derfor tages ekstra forholdsregler i forbindelse med træningen af disse......Baggrund: Patienter med reumatoid artrit har en forhøjet risiko for udviklingen af cardio-vaskulære lidelser (CVD) ogtidlig død. Inflammation, smerter og generel træthed resulterer i nedsat muskelstyrke og lavt fysiskfunktions- og aktivitetsniveau hos mange af disse patienter, hvilket yderligere...... III, i primær eller sekundær sektoren. Intervention/er: Kortvarig land- eller vandbaseret højintensitets træning af aerob kapacitet, kortvarig eller længerevarendeland-baseret høj-intensitets træning af aerob kapacitet i kombination med muskelstyrke træning oglængerevarende land-baseret høj...

  17. Birth delivery assisted by nurse-midwife: perspectives and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Aparecida Lagrosa Garcia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To present the conflicts in birth deliveries assisted by nurse midwife and propose ways to minimize them. Methods: We researched the historical evolution of childbirth and the actions that were necessary for the training of professionals. Codes of Ethics of Nursing and Medicine, the current law, basic books of obstetrics and gynecology, articles from medical and nursing journals, with Lilacs and Medline as data sources; laic texts and others from non-governmental organizations (NGO were surveyed. Conflicts were identified in birth deliveries by nurse midwife, for which we propose ways of acting. Results: The analysis of research material shows that the time of delivery, initially at home and afterwards in institutions, brought interventionism in this activity; that social and human aspects of birth and delivery were minimized and birth delivery changed into medical act. We found a strong link between the focus in humanization at child delivery and its assistance by nurses. Conclusions: We conclude that even with legal and ethical support the delivery care by nurse midwife is a source of conflict between the health team, particularly with regard to the limits of performance of the nurse and doctor. Such conflicts must be identified and discussed in the institutions and they should invest in teamwork and have clear protocols defining boundaries of responsibility.

  18. Birth delivery assisted by nurse-midwife: perspectives and controversies - doi: 10.5020/18061230.2010.p380

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Aparecida Lagrosa Garcia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To present the conflicts in birth deliveries assisted by nurse midwife and propose ways to minimize them. Methods: We researched the historical evolution of childbirth and the actions that were necessary for the training of professionals. Codes of Ethics of Nursing and Medicine, the current law, basic books of obstetrics and gynecology, articles from medical and nursing journals, with Lilacs and Medline as data sources; laic texts and others from non-governmental organizations (NGO were surveyed. Conflicts were identified in birth deliveries by nurse midwife, for which we propose ways of acting. Results: The analysis of research material shows that the time of delivery, initially at home and afterwards in institutions, brought interventionism in this activity; that social and human aspects of birth and delivery were minimized and birth delivery changed into medical act. We found a strong link between the focus in humanization at child delivery and its assistance by nurses. Conclusions: We conclude that even with legal and ethical support the delivery care by nurse midwife is a source of conflict between the health team, particularly with regard to the limits of performance of the nurse and doctor. Such conflicts must be identified and discussed in the institutions and they should invest in teamwork and have clear protocols defining boundaries of responsibility.

  19. Localism in Hong Kong: Its Origins, Development and Prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiu-chung Wong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper firstly aims to analyse the changing political landscape after the Legislative Council election in September 2017. Secondly, the social political context in which localism emerged is delineated. An analysis of the rise of the politics of democratization and identities in the post-Handover Hong Kong is provided. The policies of “One Country, Two Systems” (1C2S, initiated by the People’s Republic of China (PRC to resolve the sovereignty issue of 1997 are discussed. It is argued that in the implementation of the 1C2S since the Handover in 1997, the Chinese party/state has shifted from non-interventionism to pervasive integration, which violates its pledges of “fifty years unchanged”. The Basic Law is arbitrarily interpreted to suit political expediency. Its Leninist absorption of Hong Kong into Chinese authoritarianism has directly triggered the rise of localism in the younger generation. The paper also explores the two theoretical discourses of the “independence” and “self-determination” narratives in contemporary Hong Kong and finally the prospect of the “independence” movement is examined.

  20. The Role of Government and Markets in the Strategy “Europe 2020” of the European Union: A Robust Political Economy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wandel Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The EU’s current ten year strategy “Europe 2020” aims to set out a vision of a European social market economy for the 21st century that will promote economic growth with social and ecological attributes. This article analyzes the roles ascribed to the government and the market and the extent this role allocation is suitable to enhance growth of the European Union’s member states. Based on a robust political economy framework it is argued that this new economic policy concept is in essence a technocratic approach and a form of selective interventionism. As such it suffers from three major shortcomings: (1 it underestimates the difficulties of gathering and analyzing the relevant information necessary for steering the economy in the desired direction, (2 it encourages rent-seeking rather than productive entrepreneurship, and (3 it may cause a subtle transformation of the societal order through the diminution of individual liberties. It is contended that while an interventionist policy approach meets the preferences of large parts of the population, not the least in Germany, it is unlikely to boost economic growth and employment in the EU.

  1. El tráfico de influencias en la España franquista: decisiones públicas, beneficios privados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Fernández Roca

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available En la España del primer franquismo, la política económica autárquica y el marco institucional intervencionista provocaron que los agentes económicos no se comportaran buscando la eficiencia económica, sino como buscadores de rentas. En este artículo se estudia, en primer lugar, el tráfico de influencias en las entregas directas de activos o en las asignaciones sesgadas de bienes, legitimados de alguna forma, por parte del poder público; en segundo lugar, se analiza cómo operaron las estructuras administrativas y burocráticas del Estado. Finalmente, se estudia la generación de beneficios particulares obtenidos desde los programas económicos y desde las normativas de la política económica.During the first regime of the Franco dictatorship, the economic policy implemented in Spain was autarky. This policy and the high level of government interventionism lead the economic agents to behave as rent-seekers instead of seeking efficiency. In this paper, we firstly study the peddling of political favors not only through direct deliveries of assets but also trough the slanted assignments of goods. These two aspects were legitimized, in some way, by the State. Secondly, we analyze the role played by the government administrative and bureaucratic structures. Lastly, we study the private profits obtained from both economic programs and the regulations established by the economic policy.

  2. La paradoja de un Liberalismo Intervencionista: Colombia, años treinta, cuarentas

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    Leonardo Andrés Ferreira Vélez

    2009-12-01

    crisis of 1930, in a liberal interventionism. From here, they adhered to the liberal utilitarist group that was hep in at the time, where commun good must be above the private one, and where the State must take part in the economy to democratize the access to property over capital, land and wealth. After consolidating the interventionist legislation during the first government of Lopez Pumarejo and the social purposes described by the principles of liberal interventionism in the Constitution of 1936, the government of Eduardo Santos tried to consolidate the model of balanced growth, which would materialize these principles while changing the economic role of Colombia in the international scene, taking advantage of the benefits that the economic conjuncture caused by the second World War and its cease of imports, have offered.

  3. Demystifying the Role of Chinese Commercial Actors in Shaping China’s Foreign Assistance: The Case of Post-war Sri Lanka

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    Xiao'ou Zhu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hedging against its potential exclusion from the Trans-Pacific Partnership and other mega trading agreements, China embarked on its 21st Century Maritime Silk Road agenda to generate growth through supply chain integration and infrastructure construction in South Asian economies. However, the characteristics of China’s business-led and elite-oriented overseas development practices created policy gaps in high-risk countries. Based on interviews and fieldwork focused on Chinese State-Owned-Enterprises (SOEs in Sri Lanka, this paper explores how globalization changed the nature of these SOEs: from policy executor to both policy maker and market actor in host countries and in China. However, these changes in nature and influence of key Chinese economic actors in host countries are actually not reflected by, and are in fact out of step with, the 1994 regulation that lays down the principle of non-interventionism in foreign assistance. Such a mismatch between expansionist business and restrained regulation leads to a new paradigm where businesses, especially SOEs, serve as a bridge between the host country and Beijing to identify areas where business interest and development needs intersect, thereby shaping development financing distribution in a way that facilitates SOEs’ ascension of the global value chain. However, the exclusion of the local private sector from expressing the most pressing needs makes the new paradigm insufficient to integrate the local supply chain. This, in turn, implies the new paradigm is less able to address debt sustainability problems, and geopolitical and ethnic tension in high-risk regions. In order to redress this imbalance, this paper proposes the inclusion of the private sector and civil society into China’s mainly business-led overseas development paradigm.

  4. Future Structure of the Life-World. As an inevitable consequence of the «peer-to-peer»

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    Mototaka Mori

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to draw theoretically a future structure of the life-world. The state interventionism in the late capitalism has been often argued by the critical theoreticians like Jurgen Habermas since the last half of the twentieth century. It was particularly the main problem how possible the life-world was in such the technologically systematized society. However, the highly technological development of telecommunication has changed our everyday life very rapidly and totally. If we know such the rapid change of coevolution between human life and technology, we have to fundamentally reconsider on the theory of life-world. Therefore, in this article I will firstly focus on the classical theory of mundane social world which Alfred Schutz presented in the early 1930s. Of course, his project of socio-phenomenology has been one of the most brilliant und important works still now. However, his theory also will have to be renewed. If we know particularly the «peer-to-peer» constellation of the computer network by the distributed anonymous persons, the classical model of life-world must be versioned up to a next theoretical level. Secondly, considering on the virtual currency like the Bitcoin, this article will show you a hypothetical aspect of transformation of the life-world. The mechanism of trust, which has been often understood as one of the most important key concepts for the community or the society, may be replaced with the computer technology of cryptographic proof. Such a theoretical examination will finally lead to an important opened problem. We will have to inquire whether such the social order will be spontaneous, or whether such the ordering will have to be decided only by the speed of computer’s central processing unit.

  5. Impact on breast cancer diagnosis in a multidisciplinary unit after the incorporation of mammography digitalization and computer-aided detection systems.

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    Romero, Cristina; Varela, Celia; Muñoz, Enriqueta; Almenar, Asunción; Pinto, Jose María; Botella, Miguel

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the impact on the diagnosis of breast cancer of implementing full-field digital mammography (FFDM) in a multidisciplinary breast pathology unit and, 1 year later, the addition of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system. A total of 13,453 mammograms performed between January and July of the years 2004, 2006, and 2007 were retrospectively reviewed using conventional mammography, digital mammography, and digital mammography plus CAD techniques. Mammograms were classified into two subsets: screening and diagnosis. Variables analyzed included cancer detection rate, rate of in situ carcinoma, tumor size at detection, biopsy rate, and positive predictive value of biopsy. FFDM increased the cancer detection rate, albeit not statistically significantly. The detection rate of in situ carcinoma increased significantly using FFDM plus CAD compared with conventional technique (36.8% vs 6.7%; p = 0.05 without Bonferroni statistical correction) for the screening dataset. Relative to conventional mammography, tumor size at detection decreased with digital mammography (T1, 61.5% vs 88%; p = 0.018) and with digital mammography plus CAD (T1, 79.7%; p = 0.03 without Bonferroni statistical correction). Biopsy rates in the general population increased significantly using CAD (10.6/1000 for conventional mammography, 14.7/1000 for digital mammography, and 17.9/1000 for digital mammography plus CAD; p = 0.02). The positive predictive value of biopsy decreased slightly, but not significantly, for both subsets. The incorporation of new techniques has improved the performance of the breast unit by increasing the overall detection rates and earlier detection (smaller tumors), both leading to an increase in interventionism.

  6. Effects of Heavy Strength Training on Running Performance and Determinants of Running Performance in Female Endurance Athletes.

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    Olav Vikmoen

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of adding strength training to normal endurance training on running performance and running economy in well-trained female athletes. We hypothesized that the added strength training would improve performance and running economy through altered stiffness of the muscle-tendon complex of leg extensors.Nineteen female endurance athletes [maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max: 53±3 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, 5.8 h weekly endurance training] were randomly assigned to either normal endurance training (E, n = 8 or normal endurance training combined with strength training (E+S, n = 11. The strength training consisted of four leg exercises [3 x 4-10 repetition maximum (RM], twice a week for 11 weeks. Muscle strength, 40 min all-out running distance, running performance determinants and patellar tendon stiffness were measured before and after the intervention.E+S increased 1RM in leg exercises (40 ± 15% and maximal jumping height in counter movement jump (6 ± 6% and squat jump (9 ± 7%, p < 0.05. This was accompanied by increased muscle fiber cross sectional area of both fiber type I (13 ± 7% and fiber type II (31 ± 20% in m. vastus lateralis (p < 0.05, with no change in capillary density in m. vastus lateralis or the stiffness of the patellar tendon. Neither E+S nor E changed running economy, fractional utilization of VO2max or VO2max. There were also no change in running distance during a 40 min all-out running test in neither of the groups.Adding heavy strength training to endurance training did not affect 40 min all-out running performance or running economy compared to endurance training only.

  7. The Holy Office Against Fascism: Book Censorship and the Political Independence of the Church (1928–1931

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    Matteo Brera

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies into the activity of the Congregation of the Index and of the Holy Office have examined extensively the history of Vatican’s practices of book censorship. While up until the sixteenth century the Church imposed substantial modifications to literary texts, mainly in order to moralise them, in the seventeenth and eighteenth century it used book censorship to preserve ecclesiastical doctrine and its own power. In the nineteenth century the Roman Inquisition aimed to discredit noxious literature – and the dangerous ideas it contained – through its inclusion in the Index of Prohibited Books. In the twentieth century, when the Church’s secular power was fading, the Holy Office reacted against modernism thus intensifying its campaign against pernicious literature, seen as the main medium through which modernist ideas could infiltrate public opinion.During the papacy of Pius XI, in particular, the policies of the Holy Office mainly aimed to support the interventionism of the Holy See and its attempts to ‘catholicise’ public opinion and society. The Italian case renders a clear picture of a transformed Roman Inquisition: analysing the proceedings against Gabriele d’Annunzio (Opera omnia, 1928 and Mario Missiroli (Date a Cesare, 1929 this paper will demonstrate how the Roman Index and literary censorship stood out as the core of the Church’s relentless attempt to forge a ‘catholicised’ society between the two wars and to regain – through the forbiddance of authors and books closely linked to fascism – the political and social influence that Mussolini threatened to take-over before and in the aftermath of the Concordate of 1929. 

  8. New Technologies and Sustainable Development of Industry; Neue Technologien und nachhaltige Entwicklung der Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muggli, Christoph; Baumgartner, Walter; Werner, Frank [Basics AG, Beckenhofstrasse 16, CH-8035 Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-08-01

    , even in the long-term, without sufficiency considerations in industrial production. The degree of acceptance of measures diminishes on the conservative and business sides with increasing interventionism whereas the Green lobby would put up with direct guidance measures and, above all, negative effects on the Swiss labour market. (authors)

  9. Entre el Estado y el mercado: resonancias geográficas y sustentabilidad social en Santiago de Chile

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    Francisco Sabatini

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Los autores argumentan que los resultados de las políticas urbanas pro-mercado aplicadas en Santiago después de 1973 han estado fuertemente condicionados por la "resonancia geográfica", o impronta espacial, del intervencionismo estatal previo, así como por los "espacios de borde" que el desarrollo urbano está produciendo entre las áreas pobres de la ciudad y los barrios modernos y zonas comerciales que están expandiéndose hoy. Las políticas urbanas no tienen impactos simples o directos en la ciudad, como parece implícito en el enfoque en boga sobre los "impactos territoriales" de la reestructuración capitalista y la globalización, o en la metodología de evaluación de proyectos o políticas que forma parte de las formas privadas y públicas de gestión urbana. Las resonancias geográficas y los espacios de borde pueden, incluso, impulsar resultados paradójicos, algunos de los cuales se analizan en el artículo. La atención que se dé a estas complejidades espaciales puede facilitar una mejor evaluación de las iniciativas de gestión urbana, así como de las peculiaridades de cada ciudadThe authors argue that the results of the post-1973 market-oriented urban policies in Santiago have been strongly conditioned by the "geographical resonance," or spatial imprint, of the earlier state interventionism, as well as by the "border spaces" product of urban development between the city’s poor areas and today’s expanding modern neighborhoods and commercial areas. Urban policies have no simple or direct impact on the city as implied nowadays by the popular approach of "territorial impacts" of capitalist restructuring and globalization, or in the project or policy assessment methodology, that is part of the private and public forms of urban management. Geographical resonances and border spaces could even further paradoxical results, some of which are discussed in the article. The attention paid to these spatial complexities could provide

  10. Colômbia: mais insegurança humana, menos segurança regional Colombia: more human insecurity, less regional security

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    Juan Gabriel Tokatlian

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available No contexto da grave crise que atravessa a região andina em seu conjunto, o exemplo da Colômbia é o mais dramático e serve potencialmente de modelo de intervenção externa nos assuntos internos de um país do hemisfério. Nesse sentido, analisa-se o tipo de guerra que vive a Colômbia, assim como o chamado novo intervencionismo e as possíveis saídas para o conflito armado no referido país. Trata-se de uma situação complexa e instável em que se misturam e confundem guerra política, violência criminal, demolição do Estado, violação dos direitos humanos e expansão do poderio estadunidense na região. Como decorrência do aumento dos confrontos internos, da persistência da "guerra contra as drogas" e do começo da "guerra contra o terrorismo", a ingerência dos Estados Unidos é cada vez mais eloqüente e preocupante. Enquanto isso, uma América do Sul passiva não parece querer comprometer-se com uma saída viável para um conflito expansivo no coração dos Andes.The Colombian predicament, characterized by foreign intervention in the domestic issues of a country in the Southern hemisphere, can be considered the most dramatic crisis amongst the various crises in the Andes region. The author analyzes the kind of war that exists in Colombia, as well as the so-called new interventionism and the possible solutions of the conflict in that country. It is a very complex and unstable situation in which political war, criminal violence, the destruction of the state, violation of human rights and the expansion of US power are all mixed. The intervention of the US in Colombia as a consequence of growing domestic conflicts, the continuation of the "war against drugs" and the beginning of "the war against terrorism," is increasingly evident and worrying. Meanwhile, a passive South America does not seem to be willing to engage itself in the search for a viable solution to an expanding conflict in the heart of the Andes.

  11. Globalization and genocidalism: Fictional discourse without borders, for fun and profit

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    Jokić Aleksandar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this essay we explore the relationship between globalization and genocidalism. "Globalization" is understood as "freedom and ability of individuals and firms to initiate voluntary economic transactions with residents of other countries," while "genocidalism" is defined as "(i the purposeful neglect to attribute responsibility for genocide in cases when overwhelming evidence exists, and as (ii the energetic attributions of "genocide" in less then clear cases without considering available and convincing opposing evidence and argumentation." The hypothesis that we defend here as explanatory of globalization’s "surprising" failure to live up to its often repeated theoretical promise that it is not a "zero-sum game," is that this apparent failure is a result of the impact of the sole super-power’s global politics. These policies are manifested through an open onslaught on the notion of state sovereignty (impacting the sovereignty of virtually all countries except that of the U.S., and an aggressive promotion of all kinds of interventionism, in particular armed ("humanitarian" intervention. The nexus between the two is to a significant degree provided by the social phenomenon (characteristic only of the West, since, for example, Mozambique does not go on talking about alleged genocide in, say, Northern Ireland we call "genocidalism". Genocidalism manifests itself as a tool of globalization that is ever more morphing into a sort of imperialism and neo-colonialism, and is indeed becoming something of a remarkably effective judicial Trojan horse. It looks to us that globalization is the globalization of US sovereignty, i.e., its extension over as much foreign territory as possible. Interestingly, genocidalism is a means to that end, and one that is more effective than, say, weapons of mass destruction, or even "terrorism" as a tool. Genocidalism is so effective that it bars the inherent right to self-defense against aggression, and obviates the

  12. The price of the dynastic loyalty: economic and military collaboration between the Hispanic Monarchy and theEmpire during reign of Charles II (1665-1700 El precio de la fidelidad dinástica: colaboración económica y militar entre la Monarquía Hispánica y el Imperio durante el reinado de Carlos II (1665-1700

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    Antonio José Rodríguez Hernández

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish foreign policy during the reign of Charles II, the last king of Spanish Habsburgs, it is little-known, in especial the relation ships with the Emperor. During the second half of the 17th century the political and military relation ships with the Holy Roman Empire changed notably with regard to those developed during theThirty years war, when the Spanish political and military interventionism arrived to itspeak in the European continent. During Charles’s II reign the weakness of the monarchandthe successorial problems marked the relationships of many of the European nations.Throughout this time the military and financial collaboration between both branches of the Habsburgs was more necessary than never, although the things had changed notably.Spain, although his need of money, it gave generous subsidies to the Emperor trying toensure their military collaboration with German recruits for the Spanish armies and military help to defend their European possessions from the French expansionism. But theresult of this collaboration was not the expected one, which contributed to the separation between both monarchies and to that the Succession of the monarchy didn’t relapsein imperial candidate. Along this article this military collaboration is analyzed, pointingat new keys for the analysis of the relations between the Hispanic Monarchy and theEmpire.La política exterior del reinado de Carlos II, el último rey de los Austrias, nos es bastante desconocida, y más aún sus relaciones con el Emperador. Durante la segunda mitad del siglo XVII las relaciones políticas y militares con el Sacro Imperio Romano Germánico cambiaron notablemente con respecto a las desarrolladas durante la Guerra de los Treintaaños, cuando el intervencionismo político y militar hispano llegó a suapogeo en Europa. Durante el reinado de Carlos II la debilidad del monarcay los problemas sucesorios marcaron las relaciones de muchas nacioneseuropeas. A lo largo de

  13. O estado cortesão nas relações internacionais: a disputa por poder e lucro The courtesan state in international relations: the struggle for power and profit

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    Khatchik Derghoukassian

    2002-12-01

    term of "rogue state", which was adopted in the official security lexicon of the Clinton administration in the 1990s. With the prospects of "humanitarian intervention" becoming a leading issue in Washington's international agenda, the concept of "failed state" was installed in the political and academic debate. Both terms could be seen as instrumental for the increasing American new interventionism. Yet, a third potential threat to international stability is completely ignored by U.S. - or any other state - foreign policy makers: the "courtesan state", which, broadly, is one of the results of the process of globalization and the transformation of state power. More precisely, the courtesan state is an analytical concept useful to frame certain states' links with the global illicit economy. This essay argues that the concept is crucial to understand a fundamental aspect of the power struggle that characterizes inter-state relations in the post-Cold War, and analyzes the courtesan state through its double link with other legitimate state actors, mainly the global superpower, in international politics, and, simultaneously, with non-state global actors of the illicit economy.

  14. The General Agreement on Trade in Services

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    Francina Esteve García

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available The conclusion of GATS and its inclusion as an annex in the constitutive Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO responds to the need for disposing of a stable juridical instrument which, given the current economic interdependence between States, can be applied to the international trade in services.One of the main new features of this agreement is its field of application given that it includes all service sectors (except those provided for in the name of governmental authorities and the four forms of carrying out trade in services and, as regards the principle of market access and that of national treatment, will be regulated according to those respective obligations which the Members have assumed.In exchange for not accepting the exclusion of any service sector, the negotiations concerning some fundamental sectors could not be totally closed and deadlines were extended in order to unblock the most controversial themes.One of the fundamental principles of the GATS is the most favoured nation clause of inconditional character but its consecration has been attenuated by the possibility of maintaining important exceptions in its application. The principle of transparency is also essential in the field of services, given that this sector is characterised by large public interventionism in access regulation and the exercise of the different economic activities which form it.The balance of the GATS is globally positive given that it includes a multilateral framework of principles and disciplines which is administered in the headquarters of the WTO, which have been accepted by a great majority of States within the international community and which remain subject to the WTO’s mechanism for the solution of differences.However, the opening of the market and the suppression of restrictions which derive from internal regulations have not been achieved given that, orientating itself around the objectives of national politics, liberalization is

  15. East and West: Orientalism, war and the colonial present Este e Oeste: Orientalismo, guerra e a contemporaneidade colonial

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    Jackie Assayag

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available For at least two hundred years, Western countries have exercized a "benevolent" violence through colonization. Advocated in the name of the "civilizing mission" of the West and inspired by eschatology, this calling held the promise of redemption, both for the colonizer and for the colonized. The "war declared on terrorism" after the massacre of 9/11 in New York, with the subsequent military operations in Afghanistan and in Iraq, revives this tradition of ameliorative interventionism by carrying on the old orientalist-related topoi. Far from effacing the Great Divide between the West and the Rest, the wars of a putatively new type reinforce and polarize the division between "civilized" and "barbaric" in the era of "globalization". The unfolding ideology of the American, according to which there would no longer be "outside" or "inside", because no country would now be exempt from terrorism, obscures at little cost, but not ineffectually, the "colonial present". What now prevails is a sombre vision of globalization, that of a fight to the death between two worlds, extending over all continents, between the "Empire of the Good", incarnated by America, and the "Empire of Evil", incarnated by Islamic terrorism. But this novelty goes back to schemas that are as old as the United States itself, insofar as this self-proclaimed "exceptional", "unilateral" and "providential" "imperial republic" has an idealistic or utopian component qualified as "indispensable". Welcome the the "Wilsonism in boots"!Ao longo de pelo menos duzentos anos, os países ocidentais exercitaram uma violência "benevolente" através do colonialismo. Advogado, à época, em nome de uma "missão civilizadora" do Ocidente e inspirado na escatologia, este chamamento invocava a promessa da redenção, tanto para o colonizador como para o colonizado. A declaração de "guerra ao terrorismo" depois do massacre de 11 de Setembro em Nova Iorque, e as subsequentes operações militares no