Sample records for evidences convective membrane

  1. Solutocapillary Convection Effects on Polymeric Membrane Morphology (United States)

    Krantz, William B.; Todd, Paul W.; Kinagurthu, Sanjay


    Macro voids are undesirable large pores in membranes used for purification. They form when membranes are cast as thin films on a smooth surface by evaporating solvent (acetone) from a polymer solution. There are two un-tested hypotheses explaining the growth of macro voids. One states that diffusion of the non-solvent (water) is solely responsible, while the other states that solutocapillary convection is the primary cause of macro void growth. Solutocapillary convection is flow-caused by a concentration induced surface-tension gradient. Macrovoid growth in the former hypothesis is gravity independent, while in the latter it is opposed by gravity. To distinguish between these two hypotheses, experiments were designed to cast membranes in zero-gravity. A semi-automated apparatus was designed and built for casting membranes during the 20 secs of zero-g time available in parabolic aircraft flight such as NASA's KC-135. The phase changes were monitored optically, and membrane morphology was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These studies appear to be the first quantitative studies of membrane casting in micro-gravity which incorporate real-time data acquisition. Morphological studies of membranes cast at 0, 1, and 1.8 g revealed the presence of numerous, sparse and no macrovoids respectively. These results are consistent with the predictions of the solutocapillary hypothesis of macrovoid growth.

  2. Evidence of Inward Toroidal Momentum Convection in the JET Tokamak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tala, T.; Zastrow, K.-D.; Ferreira, J.


    Experiments have been carried out on the Joint European Torus tokamak to determine the diffusive and convective momentum transport. Torque, injected by neutral beams, was modulated to create a periodic perturbation in the toroidal rotation velocity. Novel transport analysis shows the magnitude...... and profile shape of the momentum diffusivity are similar to those of the ion heat diffusivity. A significant inward momentum pinch, up to 20 m/s, has been found. Both results are consistent with gyrokinetic simulations. This evidence is complemented in plasmas with internal transport barriers....

  3. Convection due to an unstable density difference across a permeable membrane (United States)

    Puthenveettil, Baburaj A.; Arakeri, Jaywant H.

    We study natural convection driven by unstable concentration differences of sodium chloride (NaCl) across a horizontal permeable membrane at Rayleigh numbers (Ra) of 1010 to 1011 and Schmidt number (Sc)=600. A layer of brine lies over a layer of distilled water, separated by the membrane, in square-cross-section tanks. The membrane is permeable enough to allow a small flow across it at higher driving potentials. Based on the predominant mode of transport across the membrane, three regimes of convection, namely an advection regime, a diffusion regime and a combined regime, are identified. The near-membrane flow in all the regimes consists of sheet plumes formed from the unstable layers of fluid near the membrane. In the advection regime observed at higher concentration differences (Bb) show a common log-normal probability density function at all Ra. We propose a phenomenology which predicts /line{lambda}_b sqrt{Z_w Z_{V_i}}, where Zw and Z_{V_i} are, respectively, the near-wall length scales in Rayleighnard convection (RBC) and due to the advection velocity. In the combined regime, which occurs at intermediate values of C/2)4/3. At lower driving potentials, in the diffusion regime, the flux scaling is similar to that in turbulent RBC.

  4. Silicon nanopore membrane (SNM) for islet encapsulation and immunoisolation under convective transport (United States)

    Song, Shang; Faleo, Gaetano; Yeung, Raymond; Kant, Rishi; Posselt, Andrew M.; Desai, Tejal A.; Tang, Qizhi; Roy, Shuvo


    Problems associated with islet transplantation for Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) such as shortage of donor cells, use of immunosuppressive drugs remain as major challenges. Immune isolation using encapsulation may circumvent the use of immunosuppressants and prolong the longevity of transplanted islets. The encapsulating membrane must block the passage of host’s immune components while providing sufficient exchange of glucose, insulin and other small molecules. We report the development and characterization of a new generation of semipermeable ultrafiltration membrane, the silicon nanopore membrane (SNM), designed with approximately 7 nm-wide slit-pores to provide middle molecule selectivity by limiting passage of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, the use of convective transport with a pressure differential across the SNM overcomes the mass transfer limitations associated with diffusion through nanometer-scale pores. The SNM exhibited a hydraulic permeability of 130 ml/hr/m2/mmHg, which is more than 3 fold greater than existing polymer membranes. Analysis of sieving coefficients revealed 80% reduction in cytokines passage through SNM under convective transport. SNM protected encapsulated islets from infiltrating cytokines and retained islet viability over 6 hours and remained responsive to changes in glucose levels unlike non-encapsulated controls. Together, these data demonstrate the novel membrane exhibiting unprecedented hydraulic permeability and immune-protection for islet transplantation therapy.

  5. Influence of high range of mass transfer coefficient and convection heat transfer on direct contact membrane distillation performance

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Gil


    In order to improve water production of membrane distillation (MD), the development of high performance membrane having better mass transfer and enhancement of convection heat transfer in MD module have been continuously investigated. This paper presents the relationship between the heat and mass transfer resistance across the membrane and the performance improvement. Various ranges of mass transfer coefficient (MTC) from normal (0.3×10−6 to 2.1×10−6kg/m2sPa: currently available membranes) to high (>2.1×10−6kg/m2sPa: membranes under development) were simulated using an experimentally validated model at different ranges of convection heat transfer by varying the inlet flow rates and spacer enhancement factor. The effect of mass transfer and convection heat transfer on the MD performance parameters including temperature polarization coefficient (TPC), mean permeate flux, and specific energy consumption were investigated in a direct contact MD (DCMD) configuration. Results showed that improving the MTC at the low ranges is more important than that at the high ranges where the heat transfer resistance becomes dominant and hence the convection heat transfer coefficient must be increased. Therefore, an effort on designing MD modules using feed and permeate spacers and controlling the membrane surface roughness to increase the convection heat transfer and TPC in the channel aiming to enhance the flux is required because the currently developed mass transfer has almost reached the critical point.

  6. Evidence for Gravity Wave Seeding of Convective Ionosphere Storms Initiated by Deep Troposphere Convection (United States)

    Kelley, M. C.; Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Dao, E. V.; Holzworth, R. H., II


    With the increase in solar activity, the Communications/Outage Forecast System satellite (C/NOFS) now goes below the F peak. As such, we now can study the development of Convective Ionospheric Storms (CIS) and, most importantly, large-scale seeding of the low growth-rate Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability. Two mechanisms have been suggested for such seeding: the Collisional Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability (CKHI) and internal atmospheric gravity waves. A number of observations have shown that the spectrum of fully developed topside structures peaks at 600 km and extends to over 1000 km. These structures are exceedingly difficult to explain by CKHI. Here we show that sinusoidal plasma oscillations on the bottomside during daytime develop classical R-T structures on the nightside with the background 600 km structure still apparent. In two case studies, thunderstorm activity was observed east of the sinusoidal features in the two hours preceding the C/NOFS passes. Thus, we argue that convective tropospheric storms are a likely source of these sinusoidal features.

  7. Influence of Solutocapillary Convection on Macrovoid Defect Formation in Polymeric Membranes (United States)

    Greenberg, Alan R.; Krantz, William B.; Todd, Paul


    The focus of this research project involved the dry-cast process for polymeric membrane formation, whereby evaporation of solvent from an initially homogeneous polymer/solvent/ nonsolvent solution results in phase separation and the formation of polymer-rich and polymer-lean phases. Under certain conditions the polymer-lean phase gives rise to very large and usually undesirable, tear-drop-shaped pores (size approx. 10 - 50 microns) termed macrovoids (MVs). Although in many cases the presence of MV pores has deleterious effects on membrane performance, there are a number of innovative applications where the presence of such pores is highly desirable. Although researchers have proposed a variety of mechanisms for MV formation over the past three decades, two main hypotheses are currently favored: one asserts that MV growth can be attributed solely to diffusion (the diffusive growth hypothesis), whereas the other states that solutocapillary convection (the SC hypothesis) at the MV interface contributes to growth. The overall goal of this research was to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of the fundamental mechanism of MV growth. This research incorporates a coupled modeling and experimental approach to test a solutocapillary convection hypothesis for the growth of macrovoid pores in polymeric membranes. Specifically, we utilized a modification of the first principles model developed by two of the PIs (ARG and WBK) for dry-cast CA membranes. For the experimental component, two separate and mutually complementary approaches were used to study MV growth. In the first, membranes cast in a zero-g environment aboard the NASA KC-135 aircraft were compared with those cast on the ground to assess the effect of the buoyancy force on membrane morphology and MV size and shape. In the second approach, videomicroscopy flow visualization (VMFV) was utilized to observe MV formation and growth in real time and to assess the effect of surface tension on the MV growth dynamics

  8. Influence of high range of mass transfer coefficient and convection heat transfer on direct contact membrane distillation performance

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Gil; Jeong, Sanghyun; Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem; Ghaffour, NorEddine


    (>2.1×10−6kg/m2sPa: membranes under development) were simulated using an experimentally validated model at different ranges of convection heat transfer by varying the inlet flow rates and spacer enhancement factor. The effect of mass transfer

  9. A Solution of the Convective-Diffusion Equation for Solute Mass Transfer inside a Capillary Membrane Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Godongwana


    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical model of substrate mass transfer through the lumen of a membrane bioreactor. The model is a solution of the convective-diffusion equation in two dimensions using a regular perturbation technique. The analysis accounts for radial-convective flow as well as axial diffusion of the substrate specie. The model is applicable to the different modes of operation of membrane bioreactor (MBR systems (e.g., dead-end, open-shell, or closed-shell mode, as well as the vertical or horizontal orientation. The first-order limit of the Michaelis-Menten equation for substrate consumption was used to test the developed model against available analytical results. The results obtained from the application of this model, along with a biofilm growth kinetic model, will be useful in the derivation of an efficiency expression for enzyme production in an MBR.

  10. Cholesteatoma behind an intact tympanic membrane: histopathologic evidence for a tympanic membrane origin. (United States)

    Sudhoff, H; Linthicum, F H


    Several theories have been proposed with respect to the origin and pathogenesis of cholesteatoma behind an intact tympanic membrane. The authors describe a case of cholesteatoma behind an intact tympanic membrane in a 71-year-old man with a history of tympanic membrane retraction fixed to the incus without evidence of a perforation. The membrane eventually became detached, and remnants of keratinizing squamous epithelium were found on the incus. Mechanisms such as metaplasia, ectopic epidermis rests, or ingrowth of meatal epidermis have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma behind an intact tympanic membrane. These findings, based on temporal bone histopathology, support the role of an acquired epidermal rest. This case report provides evidence that cholesteatoma behind an intact tympanic membrane can be established from a resolved retraction of the pars tensa of the tympanic membrane.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, Nicolas; Strugarek, Antoine; Charbonneau, Paul, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128 Succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, Qc H3C 3J7 (Canada)


    We investigate the possible development of magnetohydrodynamical instabilities in the EULAG-MHD “millennium simulation” of Passos and Charbonneau. This simulation sustains a large-scale magnetic cycle characterized by solar-like polarity reversals taking place on a regular multidecadal cadence, and in which zonally oriented bands of strong magnetic fields accumulate below the convective layers, in response to turbulent pumping from above in successive magnetic half-cycles. Key aspects of this simulation include low numerical dissipation and a strongly sub-adiabatic fluid layer underlying the convectively unstable layers corresponding to the modeled solar convection zone. These properties are conducive to the growth and development of two-dimensional instabilities that are otherwise suppressed by stronger dissipation. We find evidence for the action of a non-axisymmetric magnetoshear instability operating in the upper portions of the stably stratified fluid layers. We also investigate the possibility that the Tayler instability may be contributing to the destabilization of the large-scale axisymmetric magnetic component at high latitudes. On the basis of our analyses, we propose a global dynamo scenario whereby the magnetic cycle is driven primarily by turbulent dynamo action in the convecting layers, but MHD instabilities accelerate the dissipation of the magnetic field pumped down into the overshoot and stable layers, thus perhaps significantly influencing the magnetic cycle period. Support for this scenario is found in the distinct global dynamo behaviors observed in an otherwise identical EULAG-MHD simulations, using a different degree of sub-adiabaticity in the stable fluid layers underlying the convection zone.

  12. Influence of convection on the diffusive transport and sieving of water and small solutes across the peritoneal membrane. (United States)

    Asghar, Ramzana B; Diskin, Ann M; Spanel, Patrik; Smith, David; Davies, Simon J


    The three-pore model of peritoneal membrane physiology predicts sieving of small solutes as a result of the presence of a water-exclusive pathway. The purpose of this study was to measure the diffusive and convective components of small solute transport, including water, under differing convection. Triplicate studies were performed in eight stable individuals using 2-L exchanges of bicarbonate buffered 1.36 or 3.86% glucose and icodextrin. Diffusion of water was estimated by establishing an artificial gradient of deuterated water (HDO) between blood/body water and the dialysate. (125)RISA (radio-iodinated serum albumin) was used as an intraperitoneal volume marker to determine the net ultrafiltration and reabsorption of fluid. The mass transfer area coefficient (MTAC) for HDO and solutes was estimated using the Garred and Waniewski equations. The MTAC of HDO calculated for 1.36% glucose and icodextrin were similar (36.8 versus 39.7 ml/min; P = 0.3), whereas for other solutes, values obtained using icodextrin were consistently higher (P solutes is a reflection of their sieving. The increase in the MTAC of water and urea associated with an increase in convection is most likely due to increased mixing within the interstitium.

  13. High-flux membrane separation using fluid skimming dominated convective fluid flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinther, van A.M.C.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Boom, R.M.


    We here report on the separation of yeast cells, with micro-engineered membranes having pores that are typically five times larger than the cells. The separation is due to neither shear-induced diffusion, nor initial lift, but to an effect similar to fluid skimming. The separation performance is

  14. Analysis of fluid-solid interaction in MHD natural convection in a square cavity equally partitioned by a vertical flexible membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehryan, S.A.M.; Ghalambaz, Mohammad; Ismael, Muneer A.; Chamkha, Ali J.


    This paper investigates numerically the problem of unsteady natural convection inside a square cavity partitioned by a flexible impermeable membrane. The finite element method with the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) technique has been used to model the interaction of the fluid and the membrane. The horizontal walls of the cavity are kept adiabatic while the vertical walls are kept isothermal at different temperatures. A uniform magnetic field is applied onto the cavity with different orientations. The cavity has been provided by two eyelets to compensate volume changes due the movement of the flexible membrane. A parametric study is carried out for the pertinent parameters, which are the Rayleigh number (10"5–10"8), Hartmann number (0–200) and the orientation of the magnetic field (0–180°). The change in the Hartmann number affects the shape of the membrane and the heat transfer in the cavity. The angle of the magnetic field orientation also significantly affects the shape of the membrane and the heat transfer in the cavity. - Highlights: • Magnetohydrodynamics heat transfer in a partitioned cavity is studied. • There is a flexible membrane in the cavity. • The membrane is modeled using fluid-solid structure interaction. • A moving grid formulation based on ALE is adopted. • The effect of the magnetic field on the natural convection heat transfer is examined.

  15. Analysis of fluid-solid interaction in MHD natural convection in a square cavity equally partitioned by a vertical flexible membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehryan, S.A.M., E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dezful Branch, Islamic Azad University, Dezful (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghalambaz, Mohammad, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dezful Branch, Islamic Azad University, Dezful (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ismael, Muneer A., E-mail: [Mechanical Engineering Department, Engineering College, University of Basrah, Basrah (Iraq); Chamkha, Ali J., E-mail: [Mechanical Engineering Department, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University, Al-Khobar 31952 (Saudi Arabia); Prince Sultan Endowment for Energy and Environment, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University, Al-Khobar 31952 (Saudi Arabia)


    This paper investigates numerically the problem of unsteady natural convection inside a square cavity partitioned by a flexible impermeable membrane. The finite element method with the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) technique has been used to model the interaction of the fluid and the membrane. The horizontal walls of the cavity are kept adiabatic while the vertical walls are kept isothermal at different temperatures. A uniform magnetic field is applied onto the cavity with different orientations. The cavity has been provided by two eyelets to compensate volume changes due the movement of the flexible membrane. A parametric study is carried out for the pertinent parameters, which are the Rayleigh number (10{sup 5}–10{sup 8}), Hartmann number (0–200) and the orientation of the magnetic field (0–180°). The change in the Hartmann number affects the shape of the membrane and the heat transfer in the cavity. The angle of the magnetic field orientation also significantly affects the shape of the membrane and the heat transfer in the cavity. - Highlights: • Magnetohydrodynamics heat transfer in a partitioned cavity is studied. • There is a flexible membrane in the cavity. • The membrane is modeled using fluid-solid structure interaction. • A moving grid formulation based on ALE is adopted. • The effect of the magnetic field on the natural convection heat transfer is examined.

  16. Is There Evidence that Mid-Latitude Stratospheric Ozone Depletion Occurs in Conjunction with North American Monsoon Convection? (United States)

    Rosenlof, K. H.; Ray, E. A.; Portmann, R. W.


    A recent study suggests that during the period of the summertime North American Monsoon (NAM), ozone depletion could occur as a result of catalytic ozone destruction associated with the cold and wet conditions caused by overshooting convection. Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) water vapor measurements do show that the NAM region is wetter than other parts of the globe in regards to both the mean and extremes. However, definitive evidence of ozone depletion occurring in that region has not been presented. In this study, we examine coincident measurements of water vapor, ozone, and tropospheric tracers from aircraft data taken during the Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) aircraft campaign looking specifically for ozone depletion in regions identified as impacted by overshooting convection. Although we do find evidence of lower ozone values in air impacted by convective overshoots, using tropospheric tracers we attribute those observations to input of tropospheric air rather than catalytic ozone destruction. Additionally, we explore the consequences of these lower ozone values on surface UV, and conclude that there is minimal impact on the UV index.

  17. Fetal membrane healing after spontaneous and iatrogenic membrane rupture: A review of current evidence


    Devlieger, R.; Millar, L. K.; Bryant-Greenwood, G.; Lewi, L.; Deprest, J. A.


    In view of the important protective role of the fetal membranes, wound sealing, tissue regeneration, or wound healing could be life saving in cases of preterm premature rupture of the membranes. Although many investigators are studying the causes of preterm premature rupture of membranes, the emphasis has not been on the wound healing capacity of the fetal membranes. In this review, the relevant literature on the pathophysiologic condition that leads to preterm premature rupture of membranes ...

  18. Damage of Escherichia coli membrane by bactericidal agent polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride: micrographic evidences. (United States)

    Zhou, Z X; Wei, D F; Guan, Y; Zheng, A N; Zhong, J J


    The purpose of this study was to provide micrographic evidences for the damaged membrane structure and intracellular structure change of Escherichia coli strain 8099, induced by polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride (PHMG). The bactericidal effect of PHMG on E. coli was investigated based on beta-galactosidase activity assay, fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate confocal laser scanning microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results revealed that a low dose (13 microg ml(-1)) of PHMG slightly damaged the outer membrane structure of the treated bacteria and increased the permeability of the cytoplasmic membrane, while no significant damage was observed to the morphological structure of the cells. A high dose (23 microg ml(-1)) of PHMG collapsed the outer membrane structure, led to the formation of a local membrane pore across the membrane and badly damaged the internal structure of the cells. Subsequently, intracellular components were leaked followed by cell inactivation. Dose-dependent membrane disruption was the main bactericidal mechanism of PHMG. The formation of the local membrane pores was probable after exposure to a high dose (23 microg ml(-1)) of PHMG. Micrographic evidences were provided about the damaged membrane structure and intracellular structure change of E. coli. The presented information helps understand the bactericidal mechanism of PHMG by membrane damage.

  19. Glycine transporter dimers: evidence for occurrence in the plasma membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholomäus, Ingo; Milan-Lobo, Laura; Nicke, Annette


    membrane based on hydrodynamic and native gel electrophoretic studies. Here, we used cysteine substitution and oxidative cross-linking to show that of GlyT1 and GlyT2 also form dimeric complexes within the plasma membrane. GlyT oligomerization at the cell surface was confirmed for both GlyT1 and GlyT2......Different Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent neurotransmitter transporters of the SLC6a family have been shown to form dimers or oligomers in both intracellular compartments and at the cell surface. In contrast, the glycine transporters (GlyTs) GlyT1 and -2 have been reported to exist as monomers in the plasma...

  20. Comparison of Numerical and Experimental Studies for Flow-Field Optimization Based on Under-Rib Convection in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Duy Vinh


    Full Text Available The flow-field design based on under-rib convection plays an important role in enhancing the performance of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs because it ensures the uniform distribution of the reacting gas and the facilitation of water. This research focused on developing suitable configurations of the anode and cathode bipolar plates to enhance the fuel cell performance based on under-rib convection. The work here evaluated the effects of flow-field designs, including a serpentine flow field with sub channel and by pass and a conventional serpentine flow-field on single-cell performance. Both the experiment and computer simulation indicated that the serpentine flow field with sub channel and by pass (SFFSB configuration enables more effective utilization of the electrocatalysts since it improves reactant transformation rate from the channel to the catalyst layer, thereby dramatically improving the fuel cell performance. The simulation and experimental results indicated that the power densities are increased by up to 16.74% and 18.21%, respectively, when applying suitable flow-field configurations to the anode and cathode bipolar plates. The findings in this are the foundation for enhancing efficient PEMFCs based on flow field design.

  1. Glycine transporter dimers: evidence for occurrence in the plasma membrane. (United States)

    Bartholomäus, Ingo; Milan-Lobo, Laura; Nicke, Annette; Dutertre, Sébastien; Hastrup, Hanne; Jha, Alok; Gether, Ulrik; Sitte, Harald H; Betz, Heinrich; Eulenburg, Volker


    Different Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent neurotransmitter transporters of the SLC6a family have been shown to form dimers or oligomers in both intracellular compartments and at the cell surface. In contrast, the glycine transporters (GlyTs) GlyT1 and -2 have been reported to exist as monomers in the plasma membrane based on hydrodynamic and native gel electrophoretic studies. Here, we used cysteine substitution and oxidative cross-linking to show that of GlyT1 and GlyT2 also form dimeric complexes within the plasma membrane. GlyT oligomerization at the cell surface was confirmed for both GlyT1 and GlyT2 by fluorescence resonance energy transfer microscopy. Endoglycosidase treatment and surface biotinylation further revealed that complex-glycosylated GlyTs form dimers located at the cell surface. Furthermore, substitution of tryptophan 469 of GlyT2 by an arginine generated a transporter deficient in dimerization that was retained intracellulary. Based on these results and GlyT structures modeled by using the crystal structure of the bacterial homolog LeuT(Aa), as a template, residues located within the extracellular loop 3 and at the beginning of transmembrane domain 6 are proposed to contribute to the dimerization interface of GlyTs.

  2. Evidence of Convective Redistribution of Carbon Monoxide in Aura Tropospheric Emission Sounder (TES) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) Observations (United States)

    Manyin, Michael; Douglass, Anne; Schoeberl, Mark


    Vertical convective transport is a key element of the tropospheric circulation. Convection lofts air from the boundary layer into the free troposphere, allowing surface emissions to travel much further, and altering the rate of chemical processes such as ozone production. This study uses satellite observations to focus on the convective transport of CO from the boundary layer to the mid and upper troposphere. Our hypothesis is that strong convection associated with high rain rate regions leads to a correlation between mid level and upper level CO amounts. We first test this hypothesis using the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemistry and transport model. We find the correlation is robust and increases as the precipitation rate (the strength of convection) increases. We next examine three years of CO profiles from the Tropospheric Emission Sounder (TES) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instruments aboard EOS Aura. Rain rates are taken from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B-42 multi-satellite product. Again we find a correlation between mid-level and upper tropospheric CO, which increases with rain rate. Our result shows the critical importance of tropical convection in coupling vertical levels of the troposphere in the transport of trace gases. The effect is seen most clearly in strong convective regions such as the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone.

  3. Evidence for thermal convection in the deep carbonate aquifer of the eastern sector of the Po Plain, Italy (United States)

    Pasquale, V.; Chiozzi, P.; Verdoya, M.


    Temperatures recorded in wells as deep as 6 km drilled for hydrocarbon prospecting were used together with geological information to depict the thermal regime of the sedimentary sequence of the eastern sector of the Po Plain. After correction for drilling disturbance, temperature data were analyzed through an inversion technique based on a laterally constant thermal gradient model. The obtained thermal gradient is quite low within the deep carbonate unit (14 mK m- 1), while it is larger (53 mK m- 1) in the overlying impermeable formations. In the uppermost sedimentary layers, the thermal gradient is close to the regional average (21 mK m- 1). We argue that such a vertical change cannot be ascribed to thermal conductivity variation within the sedimentary sequence, but to deep groundwater flow. Since the hydrogeological characteristics (including litho-stratigraphic sequence and structural setting) hardly permit forced convection, we suggest that thermal convection might occur within the deep carbonate aquifer. The potential of this mechanism was evaluated by means of the Rayleigh number analysis. It turned out that permeability required for convection to occur must be larger than 3 10- 15 m2. The average over-heat ratio is 0.45. The lateral variation of hydrothermal regime was tested by using temperature data representing the aquifer thermal conditions. We found that thermal convection might be more developed and variable at the Ferrara High and its surroundings, where widespread fracturing may have increased permeability.

  4. Convective influx/glymphatic system: tracers injected into the CSF enter and leave the brain along separate periarterial basement membrane pathways. (United States)

    Albargothy, Nazira J; Johnston, David A; MacGregor-Sharp, Matthew; Weller, Roy O; Verma, Ajay; Hawkes, Cheryl A; Carare, Roxana O


    Tracers injected into CSF pass into the brain alongside arteries and out again. This has been recently termed the "glymphatic system" that proposes tracers enter the brain along periarterial "spaces" and leave the brain along the walls of veins. The object of the present study is to test the hypothesis that: (1) tracers from the CSF enter the cerebral cortex along pial-glial basement membranes as there are no perivascular "spaces" around cortical arteries, (2) tracers leave the brain along smooth muscle cell basement membranes that form the Intramural Peri-Arterial Drainage (IPAD) pathways for the elimination of interstitial fluid and solutes from the brain. 2 μL of 100 μM soluble, fluorescent fixable amyloid β (Aβ) were injected into the CSF of the cisterna magna of 6-10 and 24-30 month-old male mice and their brains were examined 5 and 30 min later. At 5 min, immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy revealed Aβ on the outer aspects of cortical arteries colocalized with α-2 laminin in the pial-glial basement membranes. At 30 min, Aβ was colocalised with collagen IV in smooth muscle cell basement membranes in the walls of cortical arteries corresponding to the IPAD pathways. No evidence for drainage along the walls of veins was found. Measurements of the depth of penetration of tracer were taken from 11 regions of the brain. Maximum depths of penetration of tracer into the brain were achieved in the pons and caudoputamen. Conclusions drawn from the present study are that tracers injected into the CSF enter and leave the brain along separate periarterial basement membrane pathways. The exit route is along IPAD pathways in which Aβ accumulates in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) in Alzheimer's disease. Results from this study suggest that CSF may be a suitable route for delivery of therapies for neurological diseases, including CAA.

  5. Lysosomal membrane permeabilization in cell death: new evidence and implications for health and disease. (United States)

    Serrano-Puebla, Ana; Boya, Patricia


    Recent studies have demonstrated that, in addition to their central role in cellular catabolic reactions, lysosomes are implicated in many cellular processes, including metabolism, membrane repair, and cell death. Lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) has emerged as a pathway by which cell demise is regulated under physiological conditions and contributes to cell death in many pathological situations. Here, we review the latest evidence on LMP-mediated cell death, the upstream and downstream signals involved, and the role of LMP in the normal physiology of organisms. We also discuss the contributions of lysosomal damage and LMP to the pathogenic features of several disease states, such as lysosomal storage disorders and other neurodegenerative conditions. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  6. Convective overshooting in stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrássy, R.


    Numerous observations provide evidence that the standard picture, in which convective mixing is limited to the unstable layers of a star, is incomplete. The mixing layers in real stars are significantly more extended than what the standard models predict. Some of the observations require changing

  7. Membrane binding properties of EBV gp110 C-terminal domain; evidences for structural transition in the membrane environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Jean; Seo, Min-Duk; Lee, Suk Kyeong; Lee, Bong Jin


    Gp110 of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) mainly localizes on nuclear/ER membranes and plays a role in the assembly of EBV nucleocapsid. The C-terminal tail domain (gp110 CTD) is essential for the function of gp110 and the nuclear/ER membranes localization of gp110 is ruled by its C-terminal unique nuclear localization signal (NLS), consecutive four arginines. In the present study, the structural properties of gp110 CTD in membrane mimics were investigated using CD, size-exclusion chromatography, and NMR, to elucidate the effect of membrane environment on the structural transition and to compare the structural feature of the protein in the solution state with that of the membrane-bound form. CD and NMR analysis showed that gp110 CTD in a buffer solution appears to adopt a stable folding intermediate which lacks compactness, and a highly helical structure is formed only in membrane environments. The helical content of gp110 CTD was significantly affected by the negative charge as well as the size of membrane mimics. Based on the elution profiles of the size-exclusion chromatography, we found that gp110 CTD intrinsically forms a trimer, revealing that a trimerization region may exist in the C-terminal domain of gp110 like the ectodomain of gp110. The mutation of NLS (RRRR) to RTTR does not affect the overall structure of gp110 CTD in membrane mimics, while the helical propensity in a buffer solution was slightly different between the wild-type and the mutant proteins. This result suggests that not only the helicity induced in membrane environment but also the local structure around NLS may be related to trafficking to the nuclear membrane. More detailed structural difference between the wild-type and the mutant in membrane environment was examined using synthetic two peptides including the wild-type NLS and the mutant NLS

  8. Radiation inactivation method provides evidence that membrane-bound mitochondrial creatine kinase is an oligomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quemeneur, E.; Eichenberger, D.; Goldschmidt, D.; Vial, C.; Beauregard, G.; Potier, M.


    Lyophilized suspensions of rabbit heart mitochondria have been irradiated with varying doses of gamma rays. Mitochondrial creatine kinase activity was inactivated exponentially with a radiation inactivation size of 352 or 377 kDa depending upon the initial medium. These values are in good agreement with the molecular mass previously deduced from by permeation experiments: 357 kDa. This is the first direct evidence showing that the native form of mitochondrial creatine kinase is associated to the inner membrane as an oligomer, very likely an octamer

  9. 2H NMR evidence for antibiotic-induced cholesterol immobilization in biological model membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufourc, E.J.; Smith, I.C.


    The interaction of the polyene antibiotic filipin with membrane sterols has been studied by deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance of the molecular probes [2,2,3,4,4,6- 2 H6]cholesterol and 1-myristoyl-2-[4',4',14',14',14'- 2 H5]myristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho- choline. At physiological temperatures, there is evidence of filipin-induced cholesterol immobilization in the membrane. The 2 H NMR spectra of cholesterol show two domains in which ordering and dynamics are very different. In one of these, cholesterol is static on the 2 H NMR time scale, whereas in the other it undergoes rapid axially symmetric motions similar to those it exhibits in the drug-free membrane; this indicates that the jumping frequency of cholesterol between the labile and immobilized domains is less than 10(5) s -1 . The distribution of cholesterol between these two sites is temperature dependent. In contrast to cholesterol, the phospholipids sense only one type of environment, at both the top and center of the bilayer, indicating that cholesterol acts as a screen, preventing the lipids from direct interaction with the antibiotic. At low temperature, the ordering of the lipid in the presence of cholesterol does not change upon filipin addition, whereas at elevated temperatures the local ordering of both the lipid and the labile cholesterol is significantly lower than that in the absence of the drug

  10. Heat Convection (United States)

    Jiji, Latif M.

    Professor Jiji's broad teaching experience lead him to select the topics for this book to provide a firm foundation for convection heat transfer with emphasis on fundamentals, physical phenomena, and mathematical modelling of a wide range of engineering applications. Reflecting recent developments, this textbook is the first to include an introduction to the challenging topic of microchannels. The strong pedagogic potential of Heat Convection is enhanced by the follow ing ancillary materials: (1) Power Point lectures, (2) Problem Solutions, (3) Homework Facilitator, and, (4) Summary of Sections and Chapters.

  11. Evidence for small-scale convection in the Pacific and Atlantic upper mantle from joint analysis of surface wave phase velocity and seafloor bathymetry (United States)

    Ma, Z.; Dalton, C. A.


    It has been long observed that the rate of seafloor subsidence in the Pacific Ocean is lower than predicted by half-space cooling at ages older than 70 Myr. The magnitude, geographical distribution, onset time, and physical origin of the flattening are fundamental to our understanding of the evolution of oceanic lithosphere, and give important constraints on the Earth's heat budget and ocean volume throughout its history. However, none of these quantities is well established even after a long history of debates. Here, we present evidence from bathymetry and seismic tomography for the wide-scale operation of small-scale convection in the Pacific and Atlantic upper mantle. We track the temporal evolution of surface wave phase velocity and seafloor topography along age trajectories, which connect each piece of seafloor with the ridge segment that created it. The half-space cooling model (HSCM) and plate cooling model are used to predict the age dependence of phase velocity and bathymetry and to identify, for each age trajectory, the age at which the HSCM fails to explain the observations. The phase velocity and bathymetry are analyzed independently and yet yield identical results for more than 80% of points. We observe a wide range of ages at which the HSCM fails in the Atlantic and a much narrower range in the Pacific. We find that the age at which the HSCM fails is anti-correlated with the present-day depth of the ridge axis, with younger failure ages corresponding to deeper ridge axes and therefore colder mantle beneath the ridge.Such dependence is best explained by the small-scale convection model in which the effective viscosity of the lithosphere is regulated by the dehydration process that happens at the mid-ocean ridges. Decompression melting at a ridge removes water from the mantle and generates a depleted, dehydrated, and viscous layer. Since high mantle potential temperatures cause decompression melting to begin at greater depths, the thickness of the

  12. Convection-enhanced water evaporation


    B. M. Weon; J. H. Je; C. Poulard


    Water vapor is lighter than air; this can enhance water evaporation by triggering vapor convection but there is little evidence. We directly visualize evaporation of nanoliter (2 to 700 nL) water droplets resting on silicon wafer in calm air using a high-resolution dual X-ray imaging method. Temporal evolutions of contact radius and contact angle reveal that evaporation rate linearly changes with surface area, indicating convective (instead of diffusive) evaporation in nanoliter water droplet...

  13. Evidence of hemispheric specialization in marmosets (Callithrix penicillata using tympanic membrane thermometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tomaz


    Full Text Available Recent studies have employed tympanic thermometry to assess lateralization of cognitive and emotional functions in primates. However, no studies using this technique have investigated the possibility of hemispheric specialization in New World monkeys. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate tympanic membrane (TM temperature asymmetries and their possible correlation with stress responses in marmosets (Callithrix penicillata. Infrared TM thermometry was completed bilaterally in 24 animals (14 males and 10 females during a stressful situation of capture and restraint. There were no significant differences between gender. A significant negative correlation was observed between TM temperature of the right ear and the number of captures (r = -0.633; P<0.001. Subjects with a more frequent previous history of captures (5 to 9 captures; N = 11 showed lower TM temperature when compared to those with fewer previous captures (1 to 4 captures; N = 13. No differences were observed for the left TM temperature. These results suggest that under intense emotional challenge (capture and restraint there is a stronger activation of the neural structures situated in the right brain hemisphere. Taken together, the data reveal for the first time evidence of hemispheric specialization in emotional physiological processing in a New World monkey.

  14. National Convective Weather Diagnostic (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current convective hazards identified by the National Convective Weather Detection algorithm. The National Convective Weather Diagnostic (NCWD) is an automatically...

  15. The in vivo structure of biological membranes and evidence for lipid domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickels, Jonathan D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Chatterjee, Sneha [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stanley, Christopher B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Qian, Shuo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cheng, Xiaolin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Myles, Dean A. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Standaert, Robert F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Elkins, James G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Katsaras, John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Lopez, Daniel [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)


    Examining the fundamental structure and processes of living cells at the nanoscale poses a unique analytical challenge, as cells are dynamic, chemically diverse, and fragile. A case in point is the cell membrane, which is too small to be seen directly with optical microscopy and provides little observational contrast for other methods. As a consequence, nanoscale characterization of the membrane has been performed ex vivo or in the presence of exogenous labels used to enhance contrast and impart specificity. Here, we introduce an isotopic labeling strategy in the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis to investigate the nanoscale structure and organization of its plasma membrane in vivo. Through genetic and chemical manipulation of the organism, we labeled the cell and its membrane independently with specific amounts of hydrogen (H) and deuterium (D). These isotopes have different neutron scattering properties without altering the chemical composition of the cells. From neutron scattering spectra, we confirmed that the B. subtilis cell membrane is lamellar and determined that its average hydrophobic thickness is 24.3 ± 0.9 Ångstroms (Å). Furthermore, by creating neutron contrast within the plane of the membrane using a mixture of H- and D-fatty acids, we detected lateral features smaller than 40 nm that are consistent with the notion of lipid rafts. These experiments—performed under biologically relevant conditions—answer long-standing questions in membrane biology and illustrate a fundamentally new approach for systematic in vivo investigations of cell membrane structure.

  16. No Evidence for Spontaneous Lipid Transfer at ER-PM Membrane Contact Sites. (United States)

    Merklinger, Elisa; Schloetel, Jan-Gero; Spitta, Luis; Thiele, Christoph; Lang, Thorsten


    Non-vesicular lipid transport steps play a crucial role in lipid trafficking and potentially include spontaneous exchange. Since membrane contact facilitates this lipid transfer, it is most likely to occur at membrane contact sites (MCS). However, to date it is unknown whether closely attached biological membranes exchange lipids spontaneously. We have set up a system for studying the exchange of lipids at MCS formed between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the plasma membrane. Contact sites were stably anchored and the lipids cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine (PC) were not capable of transferring spontaneously into the opposed bilayer. We conclude that physical contact between two associated biological membranes is not sufficient for transfer of the lipids PC and cholesterol.

  17. Evidence for the Involvement of Membranous Bodies in the Processes Leading to Genetic Transformation in Bacillus subtilis (United States)

    Wolstenholme, David R.; Vermeulen, Cornelius A.; Venema, Gerhardus


    Wolstenholme, David R. (Max-Planck-Institut für Biologie, Tübingen, Germany), Cornelius A. Vermeulen, and Gerhardus Venema. Evidence for the involvement of membranous bodies in the processes leading to genetic transformation in Bacillus subtilis. J. Bacteriol. 92:1111–1121. 1966.—Data obtained from electron microscopic autoradiographs of profiles of cells of a Bacillus subtilis population exposed to H3-thymidine-labeled donor deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) during the phase of maximal competence indicated that molecules originating from absorbed DNA are closely associated with membranous bodies, particularly with those situated in the cytoplasm, but that most if not all of the radioactive molecules are outside the bodies. It is suggested that membranous bodies produce enzymes essential to the eventual incorporation of transforming DNA into the bacterial genome, or to the breakdown and utilization or expulsion of absorbed DNA not incorporated as transformant (or to both processes). During the phase of maximal competence, the total number of membranous bodies seen in profiles increased continuously to as much as 2.3 times the numbers found during earlier stages of culture. This increase was not accounted for by a decrease in bacterial cell volume, but resulted from an actual increase in total volume of membranous bodies. The number of membranous bodies visibly connecting plasma membrane and nuclear region increased during maximal competence to as much as 30 times the numbers found in earlier stages. As both increases were found in the absence of donor DNA and only began after maximal competence was attained, it seemed most probable that they were an expression of a physiological state influenced by the continuing deficiency of nutrients in the growth medium during this phase of culture. Images PMID:4959042

  18. Evidence that membrane transduction of oligoarginine does not require vesicle formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaro, Jennica L.; Shen Weichiang


    The involvement of vesicular formation processes in the membrane transduction and nuclear transport of oligoarginine is currently a subject of controversy. In this report, a novel quantitative method which allows for the selective measurement of membrane transduction excluding concurrent endocytosis was used to determine the effects of temperature, endosomal acidification, endosomolysis, and several known inhibitors of endocytic pathways on the internalization of oligoarginine. The results show that, unlike endocytosis, transduction of oligoarginine was not affected by incubation at 16 deg. C as compared to the 37 deg. C control, and was only partially inhibited at 4 deg. C incubation. Additionally, membrane transduction was not inhibited to the same extent as endocytosis following treatment with ammonium chloride, hypertonic medium, amiloride, or filipin. The endosomolytic activity of oligoarginine was investigated by examining the leakage of FITC-dextran into the cytosolic compartment, which was not higher in the presence of oligoarginine. Furthermore, ammonium chloride showed no effect on the nuclear transport of oligoarginine. The data presented in this report indicate that membrane transduction is likely to occur at the plasma membrane without the formation of membrane vesicles, and the nuclear localization involves membrane transduction, rather than endocytosis of oligoarginine

  19. The pattern of convection in the Sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, N.O.


    The structure of solar magnetic fields is dominated by the effects of convection, which should be incorporated in any model of the solar cycle. Although mixing length theory is adequate for calculating the structure of main sequence stars, a better description of convection is needed for any detailed dynamo model. Recent work on nonlinear convection at low Prandt numbers is reviewed. There has been some progress towards a theory of compressible convection, though there is still no firm theoretical evidence for cells with scales less than the depth of the convecting layer. However, it remains likely that the pattern of solar convection is dominated by granules, supergranules and giant cells. The effects of rotation on these cells are briefly considered. (Auth.)

  20. Tocopherol synthesis from homogentisate in Capsicum anuum L. (yellow pepper) chromoplast membranes: evidence for tocopherol cyclase.


    Arango, Y; Heise, K P


    The present study shows for the first time appreciable tocopherol cyclase activities in plastidial membrane preparations of Capsicum annuum L. (yellow pepper) fruits. When chromoplast membranes from yellow peppers were incubated with [3H]homogentisate and phytyl pyrophosphate under strictly reducing conditions, all biosynthesis precursors were labelled. The main labelling was found in gamma-tocopherol. These observations contradict the hypothesis that assigns a rate-limiting function to tocop...

  1. Evidence that the synthesis of glucosylphosphodolichol in yeast involves a 35-kDa membrane protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palamarczyk, G.; Drake, R.; Haley, B.; Lennarz, W.J.


    In an effort to identify the polypeptide chain of glucosylphosphodolichol synthase, yeast microsomal membranes were allowed to react with 5-azido[β- 32 P]UDPGlc, a photoactive analogue of UDPGlc, which is a substrate for this enzyme. Upon photolysis the 32 P-labeled probe was shown to link covalently to a 35-kDa protein present in microsomal membranes prepared from several wild-type yeast strains. Binding was either reduced or absent in the microsomal membranes from two yeast mutants (alg5 and dpg1) that are known to be defective in the synthesis of glucosylphosphodolichol. The microsomes isolated from a heterozygous diploid strain alg5::dpg1 generated from these two mutants exhibited partial restoration of both the ability to photolabel the 35-kDa protein and the ability to catalyze the synthesis of glucosylphosphodolichol. Microsomal membranes from a mutant strain that synthesized glucosylphosphodolichol but lacked the ability to transfer the glucosyl residue to the growing lipid-linked oligosaccharide (alg6) exhibited labeling with 5-azido[β- 32 P]UDPGlc comparable to that found in microsomes from the wild-type strain. In all cases photoinsertion of the probe into the 35-kDa protein correlated with the level of synthase assayed in the microsomal membranes. These results strongly support the conclusion that the 35-kDa protein labeled in these experiments is a component of glucosylphosphodolichol synthase

  2. Evidence for a plasma-membrane-bound nitrate reductase involved in nitrate uptake of Chlorella sorokiniana (United States)

    Tischner, R.; Ward, M. R.; Huffaker, R. C.


    Anti-nitrate-reductase (NR) immunoglobulin-G (IgG) fragments inhibited nitrate uptake into Chlorella cells but had no affect on nitrate uptake. Intact anti-NR serum and preimmune IgG fragments had no affect on nitrate uptake. Membrane-associated NR was detected in plasma-membrane (PM) fractions isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning. The PM-associated NR was not removed by sonicating PM vesicles in 500 mM NaCl and 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and represented up to 0.8% of the total Chlorella NR activity. The PM NR was solubilized by Triton X-100 and inactivated by Chlorella NR antiserum. Plasma-membrane NR was present in ammonium-grown Chlorella cells that completely lacked soluble NR activity. The subunit sizes of the PM and soluble NRs were 60 and 95 kDa, respectively, as determined by sodium-dodecyl-sulfate electrophoresis and western blotting.

  3. The problem of fouling in submerged membrane bioreactors - Model validation and experimental evidence (United States)

    Tsibranska, Irene; Vlaev, Serafim; Tylkowski, Bartosz


    Integrating biological treatment with membrane separation has found a broad area of applications and industrial attention. Submerged membrane bioreactors (SMBRs), based on membrane modules immersed in the bioreactor, or side stream ones connected in recycle have been employed in different biotechnological processes for separation of thermally unstable products. Fouling is one of the most important challenges in the integrated SMBRs. A number of works are devoted to fouling analysis and its treatment, especially exploring the opportunity for enhanced fouling control in SMBRs. The main goal of the review is to provide a comprehensive yet concise overview of modeling the fouling in SMBRs in view of the problematics of model validation, either by real system measurements at different scales or by analysis of the obtained theoretical results. The review is focused on the current state of research applying computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling techniques.

  4. Evidence for alteration of the membrane-bound ribosomes in Micrococcus luteus cells exposed to lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrow, W; Himmel, M; Squire, P G; Tornabene, T G


    Micrococcus luteus cells exposed to Pb(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ contained cytosol ribosomal particles and disaggregated membranal ribosomal particles as determined by ultracentrifugation and spectral studies. Approximately 60% of the membrane ribosome fraction from lead exposed cells had a sedimentation value of 8.4S. Cytosol ribosome from lead exposed cells as well as membranal and cytosol ribosomes from control cells were comparable by their contents of predominantly the 70S type with the 50S and 100S present in relatively small amounts. The lead content of the 8.4S components was more than 200 times higher than the components with higher sedimentation coefficients from lead exposed cells and approximately 650 times more than that of control cell ribosomes. The cells exposed to lead, however, showed no adverse effects from the lead in respect to their growth rates and cellular yields. These results indicate that lead is interacting only at specific sites of the membrane and is inducing events initiated only in strategic cellular regions. These data further substantiate that subtle changes do occur in lead exposed cells that show no obvious effects. It is assumed that these minor alterations are, in toto, biologically significant. 24 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  5. Evidence that survival of γ-irradiated Escherichia coli is influenced by membrane fluidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatvin, M.B.


    Survival studies have been carried out on an Escherichia coli auxotroph (K-12 strain K1060) defective in both fatty acid degradation and in unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. Cultures were grown overnight in media supplemented with either oleic or linolenic acid, and γ-irradiated at two temperatures. Gas chromatography of total cellular fatty acids demonstrated marked differences in the compositions. In the bacteria grown in oleate, plamitate accounted for 35% and oleate 43%, whereas those grown in linolenate had no oleate but contained 56% palmitate and 35% linolenate. The loss (35%) in total DNA radioactivity from ( 3 H)TdR labelled cells after irradiation at room temperature or on ice, was essentially the same in bacteria grown with linoleic or oleic acid medium. The survival of linolenic substituted bacteria was altered little by irradiation at ice-bath temperature, but the oleic-grown bacteria were much more radiosensitive when irradiated and plated from the cold. The temperatures of the membrane phase transitions are such that at ice-bath temperature (approximately 3 to 5 0 C) only the membrane of the linolenate grown bacteria could possibly still be in the liquid (unorganized) state. The results therefore indicate that one of the factors influencing survival of irradiated bacteria may be membrane fluidity, and the membranes are an important factor in determining the extent of damage, 'repair' and ultimate survival in irradiated cells. (U.K.)

  6. National Convective Weather Forecast (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NCWF is an automatically generated depiction of: (1) current convection and (2) extrapolated signficant current convection. It is a supplement to, but does NOT...

  7. Evidence that a glycolipid tail anchors antigen 117 to the plasma membrane of Dictyostelium discoideum cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, H.; Da Silva, A.M.; Klein, C.


    The authors describe the biochemical features of the putative cell cohesion molecule antigen 117, indicating that it is anchored to the plasma membrane by a glycolipid tail. Antigen 117 can be radiolabeled with [ 3 H]myristate, [ 3 H]palmitate, and [ 14 C]ethanolamine. The fatty acid label is removed by periodate oxidation and nitrous acid deamination, indicating that the fatty acid is attached to the protein by a structure containing carbohydrate and an unsubstituted glucosamine. As cells develop aggregation competence, the antigen is released from the cell surface in a soluble form that can still be radiolabeled with [ 14 C]ethanolamine but not with [ 3 H]myristate of [ 3 H]-palmitate. The molecular weight of the released antigen is similar to that found in the plasma membrane, but it preferentially partitions in Triton X-114 as a hydrophilic, as opposed to a hydrophobic, protein. Plasma membranes contain the enzyme activity responsible for the release of the antigen in a soluble form

  8. Evidence for Transfer of Membranes from Mesenchymal Stem Cells to HL-1 Cardiac Cells. (United States)

    Boomsma, Robert A; Geenen, David L


    This study examined the interaction of mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) with cardiac HL-1 cells during coculture by fluorescent dye labeling and then flow cytometry. MSC were layered onto confluent HL-1 cell cultures in a 1 : 4 ratio. MSC gained gap junction permeant calcein from HL-1 cells after 4 hours which was partially reduced by oleamide. After 20 hours, 99% MSC gained calcein, unaffected by oleamide. Double-labeling HL-1 cells with calcein and the membrane dye DiO resulted in transfer of both calcein and DiO to MSC. When HL-1 cells were labeled with calcein and MSC with DiO, MSC gained calcein while HL-1 cells gained DiO. Very little fusion was observed since more than 90% Sca-1 positive MSC gained DiO from HL-1 cells while less than 9% gained gap junction impermeant CMFDA after 20 hours with no Sca-1 transfer to HL-1 cells. Time dependent transfer of membrane DiD was observed from HL-1 cells to MSC (100%) and vice versa (50%) after 20 hours with more limited transfer of CMFDA. These results demonstrate that MSC and HL-1 cells exchange membrane components which may account for some of the beneficial effect of MSC in the heart after myocardial infarction.

  9. Descemet's membrane endothelial keratoplasty surgery: update on the evidence and hurdles to acceptance. (United States)

    Price, Marianne O; Price, Francis W


    Descemet's stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK) is the most popular treatment for endothelial dysfunction, but Descemet's membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) now provides better vision with lower risk of immunologic rejection. Although DMEK is more challenging, advances in instrumentation and techniques are reducing the learning curve. In contrast to DSEK, which includes posterior donor stroma, DMEK consists merely of donor endothelium and Descemet's membrane, so DMEK does not create a stromal interface and induces significantly less posterior surface aberrations, resulting in better vision. Furthermore, multiple centers report remarkably low (<1%) cumulative probability of immunologic graft rejection episodes through 2 years after DMEK. Initially, the biggest challenges were tissue loss in preparation and ensuring attachment. Subsequent improvements have reduced complication rates to levels experienced with DSEK. DMEK/DSEK hybrids and 'thin' DSEK also can provide better vision than standard DSEK; randomized controlled comparisons with DMEK are needed. DMEK provides an anatomically exact replacement of dysfunctional host endothelium and has set new benchmarks for rejection risk and visual outcomes following endothelial replacement. DMEK is providing new insights into how different corneal layers contribute to immunogenicity and immune tolerance and into the key factors that limit vision after endothelial keratoplasty.

  10. Possible evidence that dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHA-S) stimulates cervical ripening by a membrane-mediated process: Specific binding-sites in plasma membrane from human uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, T.; Imai, A.; Tamaya, T.


    Fetal adrenal steroid, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHA-S) is well known to promote cervical ripening in late pregnancy. The presence of sites specifically binding the DHA-S in plasma membrane was studied in human cervical fibroblasts prepared from pregnant uterus. The fibroblasts were incubated with 3 H DHA-S and then fractionated into plasma membranes, cytosol, nuclei, and other organella debris. The specific activity of 3H-count in the plasma membrane fraction was enriched ∼ 7-fold compared with the whole homogenate. When the isolated plasma membrane preparations from the fibroblasts were exposed to 3 H DHA-S, the binding showed saturation kinetics; an apparent equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of 12 nM, and the binding capacity (Bmax) of 1.25 pmol/mg protein. The present results suggest that DHA is bound to and recognized by components in plasma membrane, and may exert its action on cervical ripening through the membrane-mediated processes

  11. Anemia of the Belgrade rat: evidence for defective membrane transport of iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, B.J.; Morgan, E.H.


    The mechanisms underlying the impaired utilization of transferrin-bound iron by erythroid cells in the anemia of the Belgrade laboratory rat were investigated using reticulocytes from homozygous anemic animals and transferrin labeled with 59 Fe and 125 I. The results were compared with those obtained using reticulocytes from phenylhydrazine-treated rats and iron-deficient rats. Each step in the iron uptake mechanism was investigated, ie, transferrin-receptor interaction, transferrin endocytosis, iron release from transferrin, and transferrin exocytosis. Although there were quantitative differences, no fundamental difference was found in any of the abovementioned aspects of cellular function when the reticulocytes from Belgrade rats were compared with those from iron-deficient animals. The basic defect in the Belgrade reticulocytes must therefore reside in subsequent steps in iron uptake, after it is released from transferrin within endocytotic vesicles, ie, in the mechanism by which it is transferred across the lining membrane of the vesicles into the cell cytosol. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of reticulocyte ghosts extracts demonstrated a prominent protein band of mol wt 69,000 that was absent or present only in low concentration extracts from the other two types of reticulocytes. This may be a result of the genetic defect

  12. Prognostic significance of EBV latent membrane protein 1 expression in lymphomas: evidence from 15 studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Mao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infection has been associated with lymphoma development. EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1 is essential for EBV-mediated transformation and progression of different human cells, including lymphocytes. This meta-analysis investigated LMP1 expression with prognosis of patients with lymphoma. METHODS: The electronic databases of PubMed, Embase, and Chinese Biomedicine Databases were searched. There were 15 published studies available for a random effects model analysis. Quality assessment was performed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for cohort studies. A funnel plot was used to investigate publication bias, and sources of heterogeneity were identified by meta-regression analysis. The combined hazard ratios (HR and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals of LMP1 expression were calculated by comparison to the overall survival. RESULTS: Overall, there was no statistical significance found between LMP1 expression and survival of lymphoma patients (HR 1.25 [95% CI, 0.92-1.68]. In subgroup analyses, LMP1 expression was associated with survival in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL (HR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.02-3.34, but not with survival of patients with Hodgkin disease (HD (HR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.74-1.44. In addition, significant heterogeneity was present and the meta-regression revealed that the outcome of analysis was mainly influenced by the cutoff value. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis demonstrated that LMP1 expression appears to be an unfavorable prognostic factor for overall survival of NHL patients. The data suggested that EBV infection and LMP1 expression may be an important factor for NHL development or progression.

  13. Histological evidence of oxidative stress and premature senescence in preterm premature rupture of the human fetal membranes recapitulated in vitro. (United States)

    Menon, Ramkumar; Boldogh, Istvan; Hawkins, Hal K; Woodson, Michael; Polettini, Jossimara; Syed, Tariq Ali; Fortunato, Stephen J; Saade, George R; Papaconstantinou, John; Taylor, Robert N


    Preterm prelabor rupture of the membranes (pPROM) may lead to preterm births (PTBs). We investigated premature senescence of fetal membranes in women with pPROM and spontaneous PTB with intact membranes (PTBs, and term births. Term fetal membranes were exposed to cigarette smoke extract to induce oxidative stress. Western blots documented p-p53 and p-p38 MAPK. Transmission electron microscopy assessed cellular morphologic features in clinical and cigarette smoke extract-treated membranes. A total of 80% of pPROM cells and >60% of term cells were positive for all three senescence phenotype markers, and concentrations were higher than in PTBs (P PTBs. Histologic and biochemical resemblance of pPROM and term membranes suggests premature senescence of the membranes is a mechanistic feature in pPROM, and this can be phenocopied in an in vitro model. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Observing Convective Aggregation (United States)

    Holloway, Christopher E.; Wing, Allison A.; Bony, Sandrine; Muller, Caroline; Masunaga, Hirohiko; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.; Turner, David D.; Zuidema, Paquita


    Convective self-aggregation, the spontaneous organization of initially scattered convection into isolated convective clusters despite spatially homogeneous boundary conditions and forcing, was first recognized and studied in idealized numerical simulations. While there is a rich history of observational work on convective clustering and organization, there have been only a few studies that have analyzed observations to look specifically for processes related to self-aggregation in models. Here we review observational work in both of these categories and motivate the need for more of this work. We acknowledge that self-aggregation may appear to be far-removed from observed convective organization in terms of time scales, initial conditions, initiation processes, and mean state extremes, but we argue that these differences vary greatly across the diverse range of model simulations in the literature and that these comparisons are already offering important insights into real tropical phenomena. Some preliminary new findings are presented, including results showing that a self-aggregation simulation with square geometry has too broad distribution of humidity and is too dry in the driest regions when compared with radiosonde records from Nauru, while an elongated channel simulation has realistic representations of atmospheric humidity and its variability. We discuss recent work increasing our understanding of how organized convection and climate change may interact, and how model discrepancies related to this question are prompting interest in observational comparisons. We also propose possible future directions for observational work related to convective aggregation, including novel satellite approaches and a ground-based observational network.

  15. Convective heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Kakac, Sadik; Pramuanjaroenkij, Anchasa


    Intended for readers who have taken a basic heat transfer course and have a basic knowledge of thermodynamics, heat transfer, fluid mechanics, and differential equations, Convective Heat Transfer, Third Edition provides an overview of phenomenological convective heat transfer. This book combines applications of engineering with the basic concepts of convection. It offers a clear and balanced presentation of essential topics using both traditional and numerical methods. The text addresses emerging science and technology matters, and highlights biomedical applications and energy technologies. What’s New in the Third Edition: Includes updated chapters and two new chapters on heat transfer in microchannels and heat transfer with nanofluids Expands problem sets and introduces new correlations and solved examples Provides more coverage of numerical/computer methods The third edition details the new research areas of heat transfer in microchannels and the enhancement of convective heat transfer with nanofluids....

  16. Convective aggregation in realistic convective-scale simulations (United States)

    Holloway, Christopher E.


    To investigate the real-world relevance of idealized-model convective self-aggregation, five 15 day cases of real organized convection in the tropics are simulated. These include multiple simulations of each case to test sensitivities of the convective organization and mean states to interactive radiation, interactive surface fluxes, and evaporation of rain. These simulations are compared to self-aggregation seen in the same model configured to run in idealized radiative-convective equilibrium. Analysis of the budget of the spatial variance of column-integrated frozen moist static energy shows that control runs have significant positive contributions to organization from radiation and negative contributions from surface fluxes and transport, similar to idealized runs once they become aggregated. Despite identical lateral boundary conditions for all experiments in each case, systematic differences in mean column water vapor (CWV), CWV distribution shape, and CWV autocorrelation length scale are found between the different sensitivity runs, particularly for those without interactive radiation, showing that there are at least some similarities in sensitivities to these feedbacks in both idealized and realistic simulations (although the organization of precipitation shows less sensitivity to interactive radiation). The magnitudes and signs of these systematic differences are consistent with a rough equilibrium between (1) equalization due to advection from the lateral boundaries and (2) disaggregation due to the absence of interactive radiation, implying disaggregation rates comparable to those in idealized runs with aggregated initial conditions and noninteractive radiation. This points to a plausible similarity in the way that radiation feedbacks maintain aggregated convection in both idealized simulations and the real world.Plain Language SummaryUnderstanding the processes that lead to the organization of tropical rainstorms is an important challenge for weather

  17. Coordination of storage lipid synthesis and membrane biogenesis: evidence for cross-talk between triacylglycerol metabolism and phosphatidylinositol synthesis. (United States)

    Gaspar, Maria L; Hofbauer, Harald F; Kohlwein, Sepp D; Henry, Susan A


    Despite the importance of triacylglycerols (TAG) and steryl esters (SE) in phospholipid synthesis in cells transitioning from stationary-phase into active growth, there is no direct evidence for their requirement in synthesis of phosphatidylinositol (PI) or other membrane phospholipids in logarithmically growing yeast cells. We report that the dga1Δlro1Δare1Δare2Δ strain, which lacks the ability to synthesize both TAG and SE, is not able to sustain normal growth in the absence of inositol (Ino(-) phenotype) at 37 °C especially when choline is present. Unlike many other strains exhibiting an Ino(-) phenotype, the dga1Δlro1Δare1Δare2Δ strain does not display a defect in INO1 expression. However, the mutant exhibits slow recovery of PI content compared with wild type cells upon reintroduction of inositol into logarithmically growing cultures. The tgl3Δtgl4Δtgl5Δ strain, which is able to synthesize TAG but unable to mobilize it, also exhibits attenuated PI formation under these conditions. However, unlike dga1Δlro1Δare1Δare2Δ, the tgl3Δtgl4Δtgl5Δ strain does not display an Ino(-) phenotype, indicating that failure to mobilize TAG is not fully responsible for the growth defect of the dga1Δlro1Δare1Δare2Δ strain in the absence of inositol. Moreover, synthesis of phospholipids, especially PI, is dramatically reduced in the dga1Δlro1Δare1Δare2Δ strain even when it is grown continuously in the presence of inositol. The mutant also utilizes a greater proportion of newly synthesized PI than wild type for the synthesis of inositol-containing sphingolipids, especially in the absence of inositol. Thus, we conclude that storage lipid synthesis actively influences membrane phospholipid metabolism in logarithmically growing cells.

  18. Evidence for the existence of multiple heparan sulfate proteoglycans in the human glomerular basement membrane and mesangial matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groffen, Alexander J A; Hop, Frank W H; Tryggvason, Karl; Dijkman, Henri; Assmann, Karel J M; Veerkamp, Jacques H.; Monnens, Leo A H; Van Den Heuvel, Lambert P W J


    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are essential components of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) carrying a strong anionic charge. A well- characterized extracellular HSPG is perlecan, ubiquitously expressed in basement membranes. A cDNA construct encoding domains I and II of human perlecan

  19. In vivo evidence of TonB shuttling between the cytoplasmic and outer membrane in Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Larsen, Ray A; Letain, Tracy E; Postle, Kathleen


    Gram-negative bacteria are able to convert potential energy inherent in the proton gradient of the cytoplasmic membrane into active nutrient transport across the outer membrane. The transduction of energy is mediated by TonB protein. Previous studies suggest a model in which TonB makes sequential and cyclic contact with proteins in each membrane, a process called shuttling. A key feature of shuttling is that the amino-terminal signal anchor must quit its association with the cytoplasmic membrane, and TonB becomes associated solely with the outer membrane. However, the initial studies did not exclude the possibility that TonB was artifactually pulled from the cytoplasmic membrane by the fractionation process. To resolve this ambiguity, we devised a method to test whether the extreme TonB amino-terminus, located in the cytoplasm, ever became accessible to the cys-specific, cytoplasmic membrane-impermeant molecule, Oregon Green(R) 488 maleimide (OGM) in vivo. A full-length TonB and a truncated TonB were modified to carry a sole cysteine at position 3. Both full-length TonB and truncated TonB (consisting of the amino-terminal two-thirds) achieved identical conformations in the cytoplasmic membrane, as determined by their abilities to cross-link to the cytoplasmic membrane protein ExbB and their abilities to respond conformationally to the presence or absence of proton motive force. Full-length TonB could be amino-terminally labelled in vivo, suggesting that it was periplasmically exposed. In contrast, truncated TonB, which did not associate with the outer membrane, was not specifically labelled in vivo. The truncated TonB also acted as a control for leakage of OGM across the cytoplasmic membrane. Further, the extent of labelling for full-length TonB correlated roughly with the proportion of TonB found at the outer membrane. These findings suggest that TonB does indeed disengage from the cytoplasmic membrane during energy transduction and shuttle to the outer membrane.

  20. Evidence for a role in growth and salt resistance of a plasma membrane H+-ATPase in the root endodermis (United States)

    Vitart, V.; Baxter, I.; Doerner, P.; Harper, J. F.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)


    The plasma membrane of plant cells is energized by an electrochemical gradient produced by P-type H+-ATPases (proton pumps). These pumps are encoded by at least 12 genes in Arabidopsis. Here we provide evidence that isoform AHA4 contributes to solute transport through the root endodermis. AHA4 is expressed most strongly in the root endodermis and flowers, as suggested by promoter-GUS reporter assays. A disruption of this pump (aha4-1) was identified as a T-DNA insertion in the middle of the gene (after VFP(574)). Truncated aha4-1 transcripts accumulate to approximately 50% of the level observed for AHA4 mRNA in wild-type plants. Plants homozygous for aha4-1 (-/-) show a subtle reduction in root and shoot growth compared with wild-type plants when grown under normal conditions. However, a mutant phenotype is very clear in plants grown under salt stress (e.g., 75 or 110 mM NaCl). In leaves of mutant plants subjected to Na stress, the ratio of Na to K increased 4-5-fold. Interestingly, the aha4-1 mutation appears to be semidominant and was only partially complemented by the introduction of additional wild-type copies of AHA4. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that aha4-1 may produce a dominant negative protein or RNA that partially disrupts the activity of other pumps or functions in the root endodermal tissue, thereby compromising the function of this cell layer in controlling ion homeostasis and nutrient transport.

  1. Lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids in a molluscan egg: Evidence for an animal/vegetal polarity


    Laat, S.W. de; Speksnijder, J.E.; Dohmen, M.R.; Zoelen, E. van; Tertoolen, L.G.J.; Bluemink, J.G.


    The lateral diffusion of the lipid analog C₁₄-diI (3', 3'-dihexadecylindocarbocyanine iodide) was measured in the plasma membrane of early embryos of the mollusc Nassarius reticulatus using the FPR-(Fluorescence Photobleaching Recovery) method. At almost all stages measured (from fertilized egg up to 8-cell stage) the diffusion coefficient (D) of the mobile fraction (MF) of C₁₄-diI is significantly higher in the plasma membrane of the polar lobe as compared to the plasma membrane of the anima...

  2. Direct evidence of ionic fluxes across ion-selective membranes: a scanning electrochemical microscopic and potentiometric study. (United States)

    Gyurcsányi, R E; Pergel, E; Nagy, R; Kapui, I; Lan, B T; Tóth, K; Bitter, I; Lindner, E


    Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) supplemented with potentiometric measurements was used to follow the time-dependent buildup of a steady-state diffusion layer at the aqueous-phase boundary of lead ion-selective electrodes (ISEs). Differential pulse voltammetry is adapted to SECM for probing the local concentration profiles at the sample side of solvent polymeric membranes. Major factors affecting the membrane transport-related surface concentrations were identified from SECM data and the potentiometric transients obtained under different experimental conditions (inner filling solution composition, membrane thickness, surface pretreatment). The amperometrically determined surface concentrations correlated well with the lower detection limits of the lead ion-selective electrodes.

  3. Simulating deep convection with a shallow convection scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hohenegger


    Full Text Available Convective processes profoundly affect the global water and energy balance of our planet but remain a challenge for global climate modeling. Here we develop and investigate the suitability of a unified convection scheme, capable of handling both shallow and deep convection, to simulate cases of tropical oceanic convection, mid-latitude continental convection, and maritime shallow convection. To that aim, we employ large-eddy simulations (LES as a benchmark to test and refine a unified convection scheme implemented in the Single-column Community Atmosphere Model (SCAM. Our approach is motivated by previous cloud-resolving modeling studies, which have documented the gradual transition between shallow and deep convection and its possible importance for the simulated precipitation diurnal cycle.

    Analysis of the LES reveals that differences between shallow and deep convection, regarding cloud-base properties as well as entrainment/detrainment rates, can be related to the evaporation of precipitation. Parameterizing such effects and accordingly modifying the University of Washington shallow convection scheme, it is found that the new unified scheme can represent both shallow and deep convection as well as tropical and mid-latitude continental convection. Compared to the default SCAM version, the new scheme especially improves relative humidity, cloud cover and mass flux profiles. The new unified scheme also removes the well-known too early onset and peak of convective precipitation over mid-latitude continental areas.

  4. Leghemoglobin-derived radicals. Evidence for multiple protein-derived radicals and the initiation of peribacteroid membrane damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, S; Davies, Michael Jonathan; Mathieu, C


    , with the consequent generation of lipid-derived radicals. The formation of such radicals may result in the depletion of membrane antioxidants and the initiation of lipid peroxidation. This transfer of damage from the heme center via the protein surface to neighboring membranes may be of considerable biological......-derived phenoxyl radical present at Tyr-133 in the soybean protein and Tyr-138 in the lupin protein. To obtain further information on these protein radicals and their potential interaction with the physiologically important peribacteroid membrane (which surrounds the microsymbiont in vivo), EPR spin trapping......); these radicals may be side chain- or alpha-carbon-derived, their exact sites have not been determined. Some of these radicals are on the protein surface and may be key intermediates in the formation of protein dimers. These radicals have been shown to be capable of reacting with peribacteroid membrane fractions...

  5. Evident?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter


    Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind......Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind...

  6. Convection and stellar oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarslev, Magnus Johan


    for asteroseismology, because of the challenges inherent in modelling turbulent convection in 1D stellar models. As a result of oversimplifying the physics near the surface, theoretical calculations systematically overestimate the oscillation frequencies. This has become known as the asteroseismic surface effect. Due...... to lacking better options, this frequency difference is typically corrected for with ad-hoc formulae. The topic of this thesis is the improvement of 1D stellar convection models and the effects this has on asteroseismic properties. The source of improvements is 3D simulations of radiation...... atmospheres to replace the outer layers of stellar models. The additional turbulent pressure and asymmetrical opacity effects in the atmosphere model, compared to convection in stellar evolution models, serve to expand the atmosphere. The enlarged acoustic cavity lowers the pulsation frequencies bringing them...

  7. Active control of convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bau, H.H. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)


    Using stability theory, numerical simulations, and in some instances experiments, it is demonstrated that the critical Rayleigh number for the bifurcation (1) from the no-motion (conduction) state to the motion state and (2) from time-independent convection to time-dependent, oscillatory convection in the thermal convection loop and Rayleigh-Benard problems can be significantly increased or decreased. This is accomplished through the use of a feedback controller effectuating small perturbations in the boundary data. The controller consists of sensors which detect deviations in the fluid`s temperature from the motionless, conductive values and then direct actuators to respond to these deviations in such a way as to suppress the naturally occurring flow instabilities. Actuators which modify the boundary`s temperature/heat flux are considered. The feedback controller can also be used to control flow patterns and generate complex dynamic behavior at relatively low Rayleigh numbers.

  8. Evidence for Amino Acid Snorkeling from a High-Resolution, In Vivo Analysis of Fis1 Tail-Anchor Insertion at the Mitochondrial Outer Membrane. (United States)

    Keskin, Abdurrahman; Akdoğan, Emel; Dunn, Cory D


    Proteins localized to mitochondria by a carboxyl-terminal tail anchor (TA) play roles in apoptosis, mitochondrial dynamics, and mitochondrial protein import. To reveal characteristics of TAs that may be important for mitochondrial targeting, we focused our attention upon the TA of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fis1 protein. Specifically, we generated a library of Fis1p TA variants fused to the Gal4 transcription factor, then, using next-generation sequencing, revealed which Fis1p TA mutations inhibited membrane insertion and allowed Gal4p activity in the nucleus. Prompted by our global analysis, we subsequently analyzed the ability of individual Fis1p TA mutants to localize to mitochondria. Our findings suggest that the membrane-associated domain of the Fis1p TA may be bipartite in nature, and we encountered evidence that the positively charged patch at the carboxyl terminus of Fis1p is required for both membrane insertion and organelle specificity. Furthermore, lengthening or shortening of the Fis1p TA by up to three amino acids did not inhibit mitochondrial targeting, arguing against a model in which TA length directs insertion of TAs to distinct organelles. Most importantly, positively charged residues were more acceptable at several positions within the membrane-associated domain of the Fis1p TA than negatively charged residues. These findings, emerging from the first high-resolution analysis of an organelle targeting sequence by deep mutational scanning, provide strong, in vivo evidence that lysine and arginine can "snorkel," or become stably incorporated within a lipid bilayer by placing terminal charges of their side chains at the membrane interface. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  9. Convective transport in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ippolito, D.A.; Myra, J.R.; Russell, D.A.; Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Pigarov, A.Yu.; Yu, G.Q.; Xu, X.Q.; Nevins, W.M.


    Scrape-off-layer (SOL) convection in fusion experiments appears to be a universal phenomenon that can 'short-circuit' the divertor in some cases. The theory of 'blob' transport provides a simple and robust physical paradigm for studying convective transport. This paper summarizes recent advances in the theory of blob transport and its comparison with 2D and 3D computer simulations. We also discuss the common physical basis relating radial transport of blobs, pellets, and ELMs and a new blob regime that may lead to a connection between blob transport and the density limit. (author)

  10. Physics of Stellar Convection (United States)

    Arnett, W. David


    We review recent progress using numerical simulations as a testbed for development of a theory of stellar convection, much as envisaged by John von Newmann. Necessary features of the theory, non-locality and fluctuations, are illustrated by computer movies. It is found that the common approximation of convection as a diffusive process presents the wrong physical picture, and improvements are suggested. New observational results discussed at the conference are gratifying in their validation of some of our theoretical ideas, especially the idea that SNIb and SNIc events are related to the explosion of massive star cores which have been stripped by mass loss and binary interactions [1

  11. Parameterizing convective organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Earle Mapes


    Full Text Available Lateral mixing parameters in buoyancy-driven deep convection schemes are among the most sensitive and important unknowns in atmosphere models. Unfortunately, there is not a true optimum value for plume mixing rate, but rather a dilemma or tradeoff: Excessive dilution of updrafts leads to unstable stratification bias in the mean state, while inadequate dilution allows deep convection to occur too easily, causing poor space and time distributions and variability. In this too-small parameter space, compromises are made based on competing metrics of model performance. We attempt to escape this “entrainment dilemma” by making bulk plume parameters (chiefly entrainment rate depend on a new prognostic variable (“organization,” org meant to reflect the rectified effects of subgrid-scale structure in meteorological fields. We test an org scheme in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5 with a new unified shallow-deep convection scheme (UW-ens, a 2-plume version of the University of Washington scheme. Since buoyant ascent involves natural selection, subgrid structure makes convection systematically deeper and stronger than the pure unorganized case: plumes of average (or randomly sampled air rising in the average environment. To reflect this, org is nonnegative, but we leave it dimensionless. A time scale characterizes its behavior (here ∼3 h for a 2o model. Currently its source is rain evaporation, but other sources can be added easily. We also let org be horizontally transported by advection, as a mass-weighted mean over the convecting layer. Linear coefficients link org to a plume ensemble, which it assists via: 1 plume base warmth above the mean temperature 2 plume radius enhancement (reduced mixing, and 3 increased probability of overlap in a multi-plume scheme, where interactions benefit later generations (this part has only been implemented in an offline toy column model. Since rain evaporation is a source for org, it functions as a time

  12. Mathematical models of convection

    CERN Document Server

    Andreev, Victor K; Goncharova, Olga N; Pukhnachev, Vladislav V


    Phenomena of convection are abundant in nature as well as in industry. This volume addresses the subject of convection from the point of view of both, theory and application. While the first three chapters provide a refresher on fluid dynamics and heat transfer theory, the rest of the book describes the modern developments in theory. Thus it brings the reader to the ""front"" of the modern research. This monograph provides the theoretical foundation on a topic relevant to metallurgy, ecology, meteorology, geo-and astrophysics, aerospace industry, chemistry, crystal physics, and many other fiel

  13. Convective aggregation in realistic convective-scale simulations


    Holloway, Christopher E.


    To investigate the real-world relevance of idealized-model convective self-aggregation, five 15-day cases of real organized convection in the tropics are simulated. These include multiple simulations of each case to test sensitivities of the convective organization and mean states to interactive radiation, interactive surface fluxes, and evaporation of rain. These simulations are compared to self-aggregation seen in the same model configured to run in idealized radiative-convective equilibriu...

  14. CDM Convective Forecast Planning guidance (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CDM Convective Forecast Planning (CCFP) guidance product provides a foreast of en-route aviation convective hazards. The forecasts are updated every 2 hours and...

  15. Two-dimensional turbulent convection (United States)

    Mazzino, Andrea


    We present an overview of the most relevant, and sometimes contrasting, theoretical approaches to Rayleigh-Taylor and mean-gradient-forced Rayleigh-Bénard two-dimensional turbulence together with numerical and experimental evidences for their support. The main aim of this overview is to emphasize that, despite the different character of these two systems, especially in relation to their steadiness/unsteadiness, turbulent fluctuations are well described by the same scaling relationships originated from the Bolgiano balance. The latter states that inertial terms and buoyancy terms balance at small scales giving rise to an inverse kinetic energy cascade. The main difference with respect to the inverse energy cascade in hydrodynamic turbulence [R. H. Kraichnan, "Inertial ranges in two-dimensional turbulence," Phys. Fluids 10, 1417 (1967)] is that the rate of cascade of kinetic energy here is not constant along the inertial range of scales. Thanks to the absence of physical boundaries, the two systems here investigated turned out to be a natural physical realization of the Kraichnan scaling regime hitherto associated with the elusive "ultimate state of thermal convection" [R. H. Kraichnan, "Turbulent thermal convection at arbitrary Prandtl number," Phys. Fluids 5, 1374-1389 (1962)].

  16. Presentation on Tropical Mesoscale convective Systems and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Shallow convection- 70% of the storm heights are below 6 km. ♢ Deep convection ... Decay convection, the convective top is found at a higher altitude than deep .... Stratospheric Fountain – Two step process. Warm tropopause- preferable for.

  17. Convective Propagation Characteristics Using a Simple Representation of Convective Organization (United States)

    Neale, R. B.; Mapes, B. E.


    Observed equatorial wave propagation is intimately linked to convective organization and it's coupling to features of the larger-scale flow. In this talk we a use simple 4 level model to accommodate vertical modes of a mass flux convection scheme (shallow, mid-level and deep). Two paradigms of convection are used to represent convective processes. One that has only both random (unorganized) diagnosed fluctuations of convective properties and one with organized fluctuations of convective properties that are amplified by previously existing convection and has an explicit moistening impact on the local convecting environment We show a series of model simulations in single-column, 2D and 3D configurations, where the role of convective organization in wave propagation is shown to be fundamental. For the optimal choice of parameters linking organization to local atmospheric state, a broad array of convective wave propagation emerges. Interestingly the key characteristics of propagating modes are the low-level moistening followed by deep convection followed by mature 'large-scale' heating. This organization structure appears to hold firm across timescales from 5-day wave disturbances to MJO-like wave propagation.

  18. Lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids in a molluscan egg: Evidence for an animal/vegetal polarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, S.W. de; Speksnijder, J.E.; Dohmen, M.R.; Zoelen, E. van; Tertoolen, L.G.J.; Bluemink, J.G.


    The lateral diffusion of the lipid analog C₁₄-diI (3', 3'-dihexadecylindocarbocyanine iodide) was measured in the plasma membrane of early embryos of the mollusc Nassarius reticulatus using the FPR-(Fluorescence Photobleaching Recovery) method. At almost all stages measured (from

  19. Is there evidence that barrier membranes prevent bone resorption in autologous bone grafts during the healing period? A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielkens, Pepijn F. M.; Bos, Ruud R. M.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Stegenga, Boudewijn


    Introduction: Autologous bone is considered the "reference standard" for bone-grafting procedures. A barrier membrane covering an autologous bone graft (guided bone regeneration [GBR]) is expected to prevent graft resorption. Good clinical results have been reported for GBR, although potential

  20. Convection heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Bejan, Adrian


    Written by an internationally recognized authority on heat transfer and thermodynamics, this second edition of Convection Heat Transfer contains new and updated problems and examples reflecting real-world research and applications, including heat exchanger design. Teaching not only structure but also technique, the book begins with the simplest problem solving method (scale analysis), and moves on to progressively more advanced and exact methods (integral method, self similarity, asymptotic behavior). A solutions manual is available for all problems and exercises.

  1. Moisture Vertical Structure, Deep Convective Organization, and Convective Transition in the Amazon (United States)

    Schiro, K. A.; Neelin, J. D.


    Constraining precipitation processes in climate models with observations is crucial to accurately simulating current climate and reducing uncertainties in future projections. Results from the Green Ocean Amazon (GOAmazon) field campaign (2014-2015) provide evidence that deep convection is strongly controlled by the availability of moisture in the free troposphere over the Amazon, much like over tropical oceans. Entraining plume buoyancy calculations confirm that CWV is a good proxy for the conditional instability of the environment, yet differences in convective onset as a function of CWV exist over land and ocean, as well as seasonally and diurnally over land. This is largely due to variability in the contribution of lower tropospheric humidity to the total column moisture. Boundary layer moisture shows a strong relationship to the onset during the day, which largely disappears during nighttime. Using S-Band radar, these transition statistics are examined separately for unorganized and mesoscale-organized convection, which exhibit sharp increases in probability of occurrence with increasing moisture throughout the column, particularly in the lower free troposphere. Retrievals of vertical velocity from a radar wind profiler indicate updraft velocity and mass flux increasing with height through the lower troposphere. A deep-inflow mixing scheme motivated by this — corresponding to deep inflow of environmental air into a plume that grows with height — provides a weighting of boundary layer and free tropospheric air that yields buoyancies consistent with the observed onset of deep convection across seasons and times of day, across land and ocean sites, and for all convection types. This provides a substantial improvement relative to more traditional constant mixing assumptions, and a dramatic improvement relative to no mixing. Furthermore, it provides relationships that are as strong or stronger for mesoscale-organized convection as for unorganized convection.

  2. Concepts of magnetospheric convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasyliunas, V.M.


    Magnetospheric physics, which grew out of attempts to understand the space environment of the Earth, is becoming increasingly applicable to other systems in the Universe. Among the planets, in addition to the Earth, Jupiter, Mercury, Mars and (in a somewhat different way) Venus are now known to have magnetospheres. The magnetospheres of pulsars have been regarded as an essential part of the pulsar phenomenon. Other astrophysical systems, such as supernova remnant shells or magnetic stars and binary star systems, may be describable as magnetospheres. The major concepts of magnetospheric physics thus need to be formulated in a general way not restricted to the geophysical context in which they may have originated. Magnetospheric convection has been one of the most important and fruitful concepts in the study of the Earth's magnetosphere. This paper describes the basic theoretical notions of convection in a manner applicable to magnetospheres generally and discusses the relative importance of convective corotational motions, with particular reference to the comparison of the Earth and Jupiter. (Auth.)

  3. Electrochemical evidences and consequences of significant differences in ions diffusion rate in polyacrylate-based ion-selective membranes. (United States)

    Woźnica, Emilia; Mieczkowski, Józef; Michalska, Agata


    The origin and effect of surface accumulation of primary ions within the ion-selective poly(n-butyl acrylate)-based membrane, obtained by thermal polymerization, is discussed. Using a new method, based on the relation between the shape of a potentiometric plot and preconditioning time, the diffusion of copper ions in the membrane was found to be slow (the diffusion coefficient estimated to be close to 10(-11) cm(2) s(-1)), especially when compared to ion-exchanger counter ions--sodium cations diffusion (a diffusion coefficient above 10(-9) cm(2) s(-1)). The higher mobility of sodium ions than those of the copper-ionophore complex results in exposed ion-exchanger role leading to undesirably exposed sensitivity to sodium or potassium ions.

  4. Binding of [125I]iodipine to parathyroid cell membranes: Evidence of a dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.I.; Fitzpatrick, L.A.


    The parathyroid cell is unusual, in that an increase in extracellular calcium concentrations inhibits PTH release. Calcium channels are glycoproteins that span cell membranes and allow entry of extracellular calcium into cells. We have demonstrated that the calcium channel agonist (+)202-791, which opens calcium channels, inhibits PTH release and that the antagonist (-)202-791, which closes calcium channels, stimulates PTH release. To identify the calcium channels responsible for these effects, we used a radioligand that specifically binds to calcium channels. Bovine parathyroid cell membranes were prepared and incubated under reduced lighting with [125I] iodipine (SA, 2000 Ci/mmol), which recognizes 1,4-dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels. Bound ligand was separated from free ligand by rapid filtration through Whatman GF/B filters. Nonspecific binding was measured by the inclusion of nifedipine at 10 microM. Specific binding represented approximately 40% of the total binding. The optimal temperature for [125I] iodipine binding was 4 C, and binding reached equilibrium by 30 min. The equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) was approximately 550 pM, and the maximum number of binding sites was 780 fmol/mg protein. Both the calcium channel agonist (+)202-791 and antagonist (-)202-791 competitively inhibited [125I] iodipine binding, with 50% inhibition concentrations of 20 and 300 nM, respectively. These data indicate the presence of dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels on parathyroid cell membranes

  5. Modulation of the heterogeneous membrane potential response of neutrophils to N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) by leukotriene B4: evidence for cell recruitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, M.P.


    Individual human neutrophils (PMN) isolated by Hypaque-Ficoll gradient sedimentation, dextran sedimentation, or buffy coat preparation were assessed for the effects of leukotriene B4 (5S,12R dihydroxy 6,14-cis-8, 10 trans eicosatetraenoic acid (LTB4)-pretreatment on N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP)-mediated membrane potential or oxidative responses by using flow cytometry and a lipophilic probe of membrane potential (di-pentyl-oxacarbocyanine, di-O-C(5)3), or the nitroblue tetrazolium dye (NBT) reduction test, respectively. Although exposure to LTB4 (10(-7) M) had no effect on the membrane potential of resting PMN and little effect on oxidant production, pretreating PMN with LTB4 followed by FMLP (10(-6) M) demonstrated a significant enhancement in the proportion of depolarizing PMN over that seen with FMLP alone (p = 0.0014, N = 9). This recruitment of previously unresponsive cells by LTB4 was dose and time dependent, with the maximal relative increase in the proportion of depolarizing cells occurring at LTB4 concentrations of 10(-8) to 10(-7) M and within 1 min of LTB4 addition. The recruitment effect persisted despite vigorous washing of the cells. LTB4 also increased the proportion of NBT-positive PMN in response to FMLP. Although LTB4 alone did not depolarize PMN it did induce a light scatter shift indicative of cell activation. 3 H-FMLP binding studied at 0 degree C comparing buffer and LTB4-treated PMN indicated no significant change in the number or affinity of FMLP binding. The data provide evidence for the recruitment of a greater proportion of cells into a FMLP-responsive state as a mechanism for the enhanced functional response of PMN pretreated with LTB4, as well as for a dissociation of the membrane potential and light scattering responses of cells to this pro-inflammatory LT

  6. Bidispersive-inclined convection (United States)

    Mulone, Giuseppe; Straughan, Brian


    A model is presented for thermal convection in an inclined layer of porous material when the medium has a bidispersive structure. Thus, there are the usual macropores which are full of a fluid, but there are also a system of micropores full of the same fluid. The model we employ is a modification of the one proposed by Nield & Kuznetsov (2006 Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 49, 3068–3074. (doi:10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2006.02.008)), although we consider a single temperature field only. PMID:27616934

  7. Antartic observations of plasma convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, H.J.


    This thesis is concerned with the use of whistler duct tracking as a diagnostic for the behaviour of plasma in the plasmasphere. As a setting for the results given in the thesis, a broad review is presented which embraces pertinent aspects of previous experimental and theoretical studies of the plasmasphere. From a study of 24 hours of continuous whistler data recorded at Sanae, (L = 3,98), it is shown that associated with quiet magnetic conditions (Av Ksub(p)=1), there exists two plasmasphere bulges centred on about 1700 and 0100 UT. There is evidence that these plasmasphere bulge structures are part of a ground-state or reference base drift pattern. Electric field measurements provide some evidence that quiet time plasmasphere drift behaviour is controlled by the internal ionospheric current systems of dynamo origin, rather than being controlled by magnetospheric convection. Finally, this thesis describes an application of the whistler duct tracking technique to whistler data recorded simultaneously at two ground-based stations (Sanae (L = 3,98) and Halley (L = 4,23)). The identification of common whistler components on each station's data set provides a means of estimating the lifetimes of the associated whistler ducts. Duct lifetimes of as little as 30 minutes are found. Such short lived ducts have important implications for current theories of duct formation

  8. Convergence behavior of idealized convection-resolving simulations of summertime deep moist convection over land (United States)

    Panosetti, Davide; Schlemmer, Linda; Schär, Christoph


    Convection-resolving models (CRMs) can explicitly simulate deep convection and resolve interactions between convective updrafts. They are thus increasingly used in numerous weather and climate applications. However, the truncation of the continuous energy cascade at scales of O (1 km) poses a serious challenge, as in kilometer-scale simulations the size and properties of the simulated convective cells are often determined by the horizontal grid spacing (Δ x ).In this study, idealized simulations of deep moist convection over land are performed to assess the convergence behavior of a CRM at Δ x = 8, 4, 2, 1 km and 500 m. Two types of convergence estimates are investigated: bulk convergence addressing domain-averaged and integrated variables related to the water and energy budgets, and structural convergence addressing the statistics and scales of individual clouds and updrafts. Results show that bulk convergence generally begins at Δ x =4 km, while structural convergence is not yet fully achieved at the kilometer scale, despite some evidence that the resolution sensitivity of updraft velocities and convective mass fluxes decreases at finer resolution. In particular, at finer grid spacings the maximum updraft velocity generally increases, and the size of the smallest clouds is mostly determined by Δ x . A number of different experiments are conducted, and it is found that the presence of orography and environmental vertical wind shear yields more energetic structures at scales much larger than Δ x , sometimes reducing the resolution sensitivity. Overall the results lend support to the use of kilometer-scale resolutions in CRMs, despite the inability of these models to fully resolve the associated cloud field.

  9. Convection and crystal settling in sills (United States)

    Gibb, Fergus G. F.; Henderson, C. Michael B.


    It has been advocated that convective and crystal settling processes play significant, and perhaps crucial, roles in magmatic differentiation. The fluid dynamics of magma chambers have been extensively studied in recent years, both theoretically and experimentally, but there is disagreement over the nature and scale of the convection, over its bearing on fractionation and possibly over whether it occurs at all. The differential distribution of modal olivine with height in differentiated alkaline basic sills provides critical evidence to resolve this controversy, at least for small to medium-large magma chambers. Our own and others' published data for such sills show that, irrespective of overall olivine content, modal olivine contents tend to increase in a roughly symmetrical manner inwards from the upper and lower margins of the sill, i.e. the distribution patterns are more often approximately D-shaped rather than the classic S-shape generally ascribed to gravity settling. We concur with the majority of other authors that this is an original feature of the filling process which has survived more or less unchanged since emplacement. We therefore conclude that the magmas have not undergone turbulent convection and that gravity settling has usually played only a minor modifying role since the intrusion of these sills. We offer a possible explanation for the apparent contradiction between fluid dynamical theory and the petrological evidence by suggesting that such sills rarely fill by the rapid injection of a single pulse of magma. Rather, they form from a series of pulses or a continuous pulsed influx over a protracted interval during which marginal cooling severely limits the potential for thermal convection.

  10. Evidence for in vitro and in vivo expression of the conserved VAR3 (type 3) plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Christian W; Lavstsen, Thomas; Bengtsson, Dominique C


    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Members of the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) adhesion antigen family are major contributors to the pathogenesis of P. falciparum malaria infections. The PfEMP1-encoding var genes are among the most diverse sequences in nature, but three genes......, var1, var2csa and var3 are found conserved in most parasite genomes. The most severe forms of malaria disease are caused by parasites expressing a subset of antigenically conserved PfEMP1 variants. Thus the ubiquitous and conserved VAR3 PfEMP1 is of particular interest to the research field. Evidence...... of VAR3 expression on the infected erythrocyte surface has never been presented, and var3 genes have been proposed to be transcribed and expressed differently from the rest of the var gene family members. METHODS: In this study, parasites expressing VAR3 PfEMP1 were generated using anti-VAR3 antibodies...

  11. Convection in Porous Media

    CERN Document Server

    Nield, Donald A


    Convection in Porous Media, 4th Edition, provides a user-friendly introduction to the subject, covering a wide range of topics, such as fibrous insulation, geological strata, and catalytic reactors. The presentation is self-contained, requiring only routine mathematics and the basic elements of fluid mechanics and heat transfer. The book will be of use not only to researchers and practicing engineers as a review and reference, but also to graduate students and others entering the field. The new edition features approximately 1,750 new references and covers current research in nanofluids, cellular porous materials, strong heterogeneity, pulsating flow, and more. Recognized as the standard reference in the field Includes a comprehensive, 250-page reference list Cited over 2300 times to date in its various editions Serves as an introduction for those entering the field and as a comprehensive reference for experienced researchers Features new sections on nanofluids, carbon dioxide sequestration, and applications...

  12. Temperature-Driven Convection (United States)

    Bohan, Richard J.; Vandegrift, Guy


    Warm air aloft is stable. This explains the lack of strong winds in a warm front and how nighttime radiative cooling can lead to motionless air that can trap smog. The stability of stratospheric air can be attributed to the fact that it is heated from above as ultraviolet radiation strikes the ozone layer. On the other hand, fluid heated from below is unstable and can lead to Bernard convection cells. This explains the generally turbulent nature of the troposphere, which receives a significant fraction of its heat directly from the Earth's warmer surface. The instability of cold fluid aloft explains the violent nature of a cold front, as well as the motion of Earth's magma, which is driven by radioactive heating deep within the Earth's mantle. This paper describes how both effects can be demonstrated using four standard beakers, ice, and a bit of food coloring.

  13. Convection in porous media

    CERN Document Server

    Nield, Donald A


    This book provides a user-friendly introduction to the topic of convection in porous media The authors as- sume that the reader is familiar with the basic elements of fluid mechanics and heat transfer, but otherwise the book is self-contained The book will be useful both as a review (for reference) and as a tutorial work, suitable as a textbook in a graduate course or seminar The book brings into perspective the voluminous research that has been performed during the last two decades The field has recently exploded because of worldwide concern with issues such as energy self-sufficiency and pollution of the environment Areas of application include the insulation of buildings and equipment, energy storage and recovery, geothermal reservoirs, nuclear waste disposal, chemical reactor engineering, and the storage of heat-generating materials such as grain and coal Geophysical applications range from the flow of groundwater around hot intrusions to the stability of snow against avalanches

  14. Evidence for the involvement of a 66 kDa membrane protein in the synthesis of sterolglucoside in ''Saccharomyces cerevisiae''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenart, U.; Palamarczyk, G.


    The membrane-bound sterolglucoside synthase from the yeast ''Saccharomyces cerevisiae'' has been solubilized by nonionic detergent, Nonidet P-40, Triton X-100, and partially purified by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography and ammonium sulfate fractionation. SDS/PAGE of the purified fraction revealed the presence of two protein bands of molecular mass 66 kDa and 54 kDa. In an attempt to identify further the polypeptide chain of sterolglucoside synthase, the partially purified enzyme was treated with [di- 125 I]-5-[3-(p-azidosalicylamide)]allyl-UDPglucose, a photoactive analogue of UDPglucose, which is a substrate for this enzyme. Upon photolysis the 125 I-labelled probe was shown to link covalently to the 66 kDa protein. The photoinsertion was competed out by the presence of unlabeled UDPglucose thus suggesting that this protein contains substrate binding site for UDPglucose. Since photoinsertion of the probe to protein of 66 kDa correlated with the molecular mass of the protein visualized upon enzyme purification we postulate that the 66 kDa protein is involved in sterolglucoside synthesis in yeast. (author). 10 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  15. Stellar convection and dynamo theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, R L


    In considering the large scale stellar convection problem the outer layers of a star are modelled as two co-rotating plane layers coupled at a fluid/fluid interface. Heating from below causes only the upper fluid to convect, although this convection can penetrate into the lower fluid. Stability analysis is then used to find the most unstable mode of convection. With parameters appropriate to the Sun the most unstable mode is steady convection in thin cells (aspect ratio {approx equal} 0.2) filling the convection zone. There is negligible vertical motion in the lower fluid, but considerable thermal penetration, and a large jump in helicity at the interface, which has implications for dynamo theory. An {alpha}{omega} dynamo is investigated in isolation from the convection problem. Complexity is included by allowing both latitudinal and time dependence in the magnetic fields. The nonlinear dynamics of the resulting partial differential equations are analysed in considerable detail. On varying the main control parameter D (the dynamo number), many transitions of behaviour are found involving many forms of time dependence, but not chaos. Further, solutions which break equatorial symmetry are common and provide a theoretical explanation of solar observations which have this symmetry. Overall the behaviour was more complicated than expected. In particular, there were multiple stable solutions at fixed D, meaning that similar stars can have very different magnetic patterns, depending upon their history. (author).

  16. The convection patterns in microemulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korneta, W.; Lopez Quintela, M.A.; Fernandez Novoa, A.


    The Rayleigh-Benard convection in the microemulsion consisting of water (7.5%), cyclohexan (oil-61.7%) and diethylenglycolmonobutylether (surfactant-30.8%) is studied from the onset of convection to the phase separation. The five classes of convection patterns are observed and recorded on the video: localized travelling waves, travelling waves, travelling waves and localized steady rolls, steady rolls and steady polygons. The Fourier transforms and histograms of these patterns are presented. The origin of any pattern is discussed. The intermittent behaviour close to the phase separation was observed. Possible applications of the obtained results are suggested. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs

  17. Membrane dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin


    Current topics include membrane-protein interactions with regard to membrane deformation or curvature sensing by BAR domains. Also, we study the dynamics of membrane tubes of both cells and simple model membrane tubes. Finally, we study membrane phase behavior which has important implications...... for the lateral organization of membranes as wells as for physical properties like bending, permeability and elasticity...

  18. Magnetic inhibition of convection and the fundamental properties of low-mass stars. II. Fully convective main-sequence stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feiden, Gregory A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Chaboyer, Brian, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)


    We examine the hypothesis that magnetic fields are inflating the radii of fully convective main-sequence stars in detached eclipsing binaries (DEBs). The magnetic Dartmouth stellar evolution code is used to analyze two systems in particular: Kepler-16 and CM Draconis. Magneto-convection is treated assuming stabilization of convection and also by assuming reductions in convective efficiency due to a turbulent dynamo. We find that magnetic stellar models are unable to reproduce the properties of inflated fully convective main-sequence stars, unless strong interior magnetic fields in excess of 10 MG are present. Validation of the magnetic field hypothesis given the current generation of magnetic stellar evolution models therefore depends critically on whether the generation and maintenance of strong interior magnetic fields is physically possible. An examination of this requirement is provided. Additionally, an analysis of previous studies invoking the influence of star spots is presented to assess the suggestion that star spots are inflating stars and biasing light curve analyses toward larger radii. From our analysis, we find that there is not yet sufficient evidence to definitively support the hypothesis that magnetic fields are responsible for the observed inflation among fully convective main-sequence stars in DEBs.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunguang; Deng Licai; Xiong Darun; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen


    Helioseismic inversions reveal a major discrepancy in sound speed between the Sun and the standard solar model just below the base of the solar convection zone. We demonstrate that this discrepancy is caused by the inherent shortcomings of the local mixing-length theory adopted in the standard solar model. Using a self-consistent nonlocal convection theory, we construct an envelope model of the Sun for sound-speed inversion. Our solar model has a very smooth transition from the convective envelope to the radiative interior, and the convective energy flux changes sign crossing the boundaries of the convection zone. It shows evident improvement over the standard solar model, with a significant reduction in the discrepancy in sound speed between the Sun and local convection models.

  20. Convection in the Labrador Sea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, R


    The long-term goal of this grant was to describe the process of deep oceanic convection well enough to provide critical tests of, and guidance to, models used to predict subsurface ocean conditions...

  1. Convective heat flow probe (United States)

    Dunn, James C.; Hardee, Harry C.; Striker, Richard P.


    A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packer-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

  2. Mantle Convection on Modern Supercomputers (United States)

    Weismüller, J.; Gmeiner, B.; Huber, M.; John, L.; Mohr, M.; Rüde, U.; Wohlmuth, B.; Bunge, H. P.


    Mantle convection is the cause for plate tectonics, the formation of mountains and oceans, and the main driving mechanism behind earthquakes. The convection process is modeled by a system of partial differential equations describing the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. Characteristic to mantle flow is the vast disparity of length scales from global to microscopic, turning mantle convection simulations into a challenging application for high-performance computing. As system size and technical complexity of the simulations continue to increase, design and implementation of simulation models for next generation large-scale architectures is handled successfully only in an interdisciplinary context. A new priority program - named SPPEXA - by the German Research Foundation (DFG) addresses this issue, and brings together computer scientists, mathematicians and application scientists around grand challenges in HPC. Here we report from the TERRA-NEO project, which is part of the high visibility SPPEXA program, and a joint effort of four research groups. TERRA-NEO develops algorithms for future HPC infrastructures, focusing on high computational efficiency and resilience in next generation mantle convection models. We present software that can resolve the Earth's mantle with up to 1012 grid points and scales efficiently to massively parallel hardware with more than 50,000 processors. We use our simulations to explore the dynamic regime of mantle convection and assess the impact of small scale processes on global mantle flow.

  3. Electromotive force and impedance studies of cellulose acetate membranes: Evidence for two binding sites for divalent cations and for an alveolar structure of the skin layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith Sørensen, T.; Jensen, J.B.; Malmgren-Hansen, B.


    asymmetic membranes. The skin layer in asymmetric membranes is assumed to have properties similar to dense membranes. The EMF measurements were interpreted by means of a Donnan-Nernst-Planck (Teorell-Meyer-Sievers) model, which functions quite well due to the low fixed charge in the membrane. The membrane...... diffusion potential is calculated by the Henderson method and in some cases by solving transcendental equations according to Planck, Pleijel and Schlogl. There is no great difference between the membrane potentials calculated by the two methods, but the ion profiles and the actual rates of electrodiffusion...... of ca. 30 in the alveolar phase is also supported by a simple dielectric calculation of the Nernst distribution of mono- and divalent ions between external water and the alveolar solution. Corrections for activity coefficients only seems important above 0.5 M. The Onsager-Samaras dielectric repulsion...

  4. Tropical convection regimes in climate models: evaluation with satellite observations (United States)

    Steiner, Andrea K.; Lackner, Bettina C.; Ringer, Mark A.


    High-quality observations are powerful tools for the evaluation of climate models towards improvement and reduction of uncertainty. Particularly at low latitudes, the most uncertain aspect lies in the representation of moist convection and interaction with dynamics, where rising motion is tied to deep convection and sinking motion to dry regimes. Since humidity is closely coupled with temperature feedbacks in the tropical troposphere, a proper representation of this region is essential. Here we demonstrate the evaluation of atmospheric climate models with satellite-based observations from Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO), which feature high vertical resolution and accuracy in the troposphere to lower stratosphere. We focus on the representation of the vertical atmospheric structure in tropical convection regimes, defined by high updraft velocity over warm surfaces, and investigate atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles. Results reveal that some models do not fully capture convection regions, particularly over land, and only partly represent strong vertical wind classes. Models show large biases in tropical mean temperature of more than 4 K in the tropopause region and the lower stratosphere. Reasonable agreement with observations is given in mean specific humidity in the lower to mid-troposphere. In moist convection regions, models tend to underestimate moisture by 10 to 40 % over oceans, whereas in dry downdraft regions they overestimate moisture by 100 %. Our findings provide evidence that RO observations are a unique source of information, with a range of further atmospheric variables to be exploited, for the evaluation and advancement of next-generation climate models.

  5. Convective behaviour in severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, C.F.


    The nature and magnitude of the hazard from radioactivity posed by a possible nuclear accident depend strongly on convective behaviour within and immediately adjacent to the plant in question. This behaviour depends upon the nature of the vapour-gas-aerosol mixture concerned, and can show unusual properties such as 'upside-down' convection in which hot mixtures fall and cold mixtures rise. Predictions and criteria as to the types of behaviour which could possibly occur are summarised. Possible applications to present reactors are considered, and ways in which presently expected convection could be drastically modified are described. In some circumstances these could be used to suppress the radioactive source term or to switch its effect between distant dilute contamination and severe local contamination. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  6. Topology Optimization for Convection Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Joe


    This report deals with the topology optimization of convection problems.That is, the aim of the project is to develop, implement and examine topology optimization of purely thermal and coupled thermomechanical problems,when the design-dependent eects of convection are taken into consideration.......This is done by the use of a self-programmed FORTRAN-code, which builds on an existing 2D-plane thermomechanical nite element code implementing during the course `41525 FEM-Heavy'. The topology optimizationfeatures have been implemented from scratch, and allows the program to optimize elastostatic mechanical...

  7. Experimental methods in natural convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koster, J.N.


    Some common experimental techniques to determine local velocities and to visualize temperature fields in natural convection research are discussed. First the physics and practice of anemometers are discussed with emphasis put on optical anemometers. In the second and third case the physics and practice of the most developed interferometers are discussed; namely differential interferometry for visualization of temperature gradient fields and holographic interferometry for visualization of temperature fields. At the Institut fuer Reaktorbauelemente these three measuring techniques are applied for convection and pipe flow studies. (orig.) [de

  8. Segregation and convection in dendritic alloys (United States)

    Poirier, D. R.


    Microsegregation in dentritic alloys is discussed, including solidification with and without thermal gradient, the convection of interdendritic liquid. The conservation of momentum, energy, and solute is considered. Directional solidification and thermosolutal convection are discussed.

  9. Membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin


    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  10. Plume structure in high-Rayleigh-number convection (United States)

    Puthenveettil, Baburaj A.; Arakeri, Jaywant H.


    Near-wall structures in turbulent natural convection at Rayleigh numbers of 10^{10} to 10^{11} at A Schmidt number of 602 are visualized by a new method of driving the convection across a fine membrane using concentration differences of sodium chloride. The visualizations show the near-wall flow to consist of sheet plumes. A wide variety of large-scale flow cells, scaling with the cross-section dimension, are observed. Multiple large-scale flow cells are seen at aspect ratio (AR)= 0.65, while only a single circulation cell is detected at AR= 0.435. The cells (or the mean wind) are driven by plumes coming together to form columns of rising lighter fluid. The wind in turn aligns the sheet plumes along the direction of shear. the mean wind direction is seen to change with time. The near-wall dynamics show plumes initiated at points, which elongate to form sheets and then merge. Increase in rayleigh number results in a larger number of closely and regularly spaced plumes. The plume spacings show a common log normal probability distribution function, independent of the rayleigh number and the aspect ratio. We propose that the near-wall structure is made of laminar natural-convection boundary layers, which become unstable to give rise to sheet plumes, and show that the predictions of a model constructed on this hypothesis match the experiments. Based on these findings, we conclude that in the presence of a mean wind, the local near-wall boundary layers associated with each sheet plume in high-rayleigh-number turbulent natural convection are likely to be laminar mixed convection type.

  11. Boiling Suppression in Convective Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aounallah, Y.


    The development of convective boiling heat transfer correlations and analytical models has almost exclusively been based on measurements of the total heat flux, and therefore on the overall two-phase heat transfer coefficient, when the well-known heat transfer correlations have often assumed additive mechanisms, one for each mode of heat transfer, convection and boiling. While the global performance of such correlations can readily be assessed, the predictive capability of the individual components of the correlation has usually remained elusive. This becomes important when, for example, developing mechanistic models for subcooled void formation based on the partitioning of the wall heat flux into a boiling and a convective component, or when extending a correlation beyond its original range of applications where the preponderance of the heat transfer mechanisms involved can be significantly different. A new examination of existing experimental heat transfer data obtained under fixed hydrodynamic conditions, whereby the local flow conditions are decoupled from the local heat flux, has allowed the unequivocal isolation of the boiling contribution over a broad range of thermodynamic qualities (0 to 0.8) for water at 7 MPa. Boiling suppression, as the quality increases, has consequently been quantified, thus providing valuable new insights on the functionality and contribution of boiling in convective flows. (author)

  12. Intensive probing of a clear air convective field by radar and instrumental drone aircraft. (United States)

    Rowland, J. R.


    An instrumented drone aircraft was used in conjunction with ultrasensitive radar to study the development of a convective field in the clear air. Radar data are presented which show an initial constant growth rate in the height of the convective field of 3.8 m/min, followed by a short period marked by condensation and rapid growth at a rate in excess of 6.1 m/min. Drone aircraft soundings show general features of a convective field including progressive lifting of the inversion at the top of the convection and a cooling of the air at the top of the field. Calculations of vertical heat flux as a function of time and altitude during the early stages of convection show a linear decrease in heat flux with altitude to near the top of the convective field and a negative heat flux at the top. Evidence is presented which supports previous observations that convective cells overshoot their neutral buoyancy level into a region where they are cool and moist compared to their surroundings. Furthermore, only that portion of the convective cell that has overshot its neutral buoyancy level is generally visible to the radar.

  13. A transilient matrix for moist convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romps, D.; Kuang, Z.


    A method is introduced for diagnosing a transilient matrix for moist convection. This transilient matrix quantifies the nonlocal transport of air by convective eddies: for every height z, it gives the distribution of starting heights z{prime} for the eddies that arrive at z. In a cloud-resolving simulation of deep convection, the transilient matrix shows that two-thirds of the subcloud air convecting into the free troposphere originates from within 100 m of the surface. This finding clarifies which initial height to use when calculating convective available potential energy from soundings of the tropical troposphere.

  14. Membrane fusion and exocytosis. (United States)

    Jahn, R; Südhof, T C


    Membrane fusion involves the merger of two phospholipid bilayers in an aqueous environment. In artificial lipid bilayers, fusion proceeds by means of defined transition states, including hourglass-shaped intermediates in which the proximal leaflets of the fusing membranes are merged whereas the distal leaflets are separate (fusion stalk), followed by the reversible opening of small aqueous fusion pores. Fusion of biological membranes requires the action of specific fusion proteins. Best understood are the viral fusion proteins that are responsible for merging the viral with the host cell membrane during infection. These proteins undergo spontaneous and dramatic conformational changes upon activation. In the case of the paradigmatic fusion proteins of the influenza virus and of the human immunodeficiency virus, an amphiphilic fusion peptide is inserted into the target membrane. The protein then reorients itself, thus forcing the fusing membranes together and inducing lipid mixing. Fusion of intracellular membranes in eukaryotic cells involves several protein families including SNAREs, Rab proteins, and Sec1/Munc-18 related proteins (SM-proteins). SNAREs form a novel superfamily of small and mostly membrane-anchored proteins that share a common motif of about 60 amino acids (SNARE motif). SNAREs reversibly assemble into tightly packed helical bundles, the core complexes. Assembly is thought to pull the fusing membranes closely together, thus inducing fusion. SM-proteins comprise a family of soluble proteins that bind to certain types of SNAREs and prevent the formation of core complexes. Rab proteins are GTPases that undergo highly regulated GTP-GDP cycles. In their GTP form, they interact with specific proteins, the effector proteins. Recent evidence suggests that Rab proteins function in the initial membrane contact connecting the fusing membranes but are not involved in the fusion reaction itself.

  15. CRUCIB: an axisymmetric convection code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertram, L.A.


    The CRUCIB code was written in support of an experimental program aimed at measurement of thermal diffusivities of refractory liquids. Precise values of diffusivity are necessary to realistic analysis of reactor safety problems, nuclear waste disposal procedures, and fundamental metal forming processes. The code calculates the axisymmetric transient convective motions produced in a right circular cylindrical crucible, which is surface heated by an annular heat pulse. Emphasis of this report is placed on the input-output options of the CRUCIB code, which are tailored to assess the importance of the convective heat transfer in determining the surface temperature distribution. Use is limited to Prandtl numbers less than unity; larger values can be accommodated by replacement of a single block of the code, if desired. (U.S.)

  16. Forced-convection boiling tests performed in parallel simulated LMR fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, S.D.; Carbajo, J.J.; Levin, A.E.; Lloyd, D.B.; Montgomery, B.H.; Wantland, J.L.


    Forced-convection tests have been carried out using parallel simulated Liquid Metal Reactor fuel assemblies in an engineering-scale sodium loop, the Thermal-Hydraulic Out-of-Reactor Safety facility. The tests, performed under single- and two-phase conditions, have shown that for low forced-convection flow there is significant flow augmentation by thermal convection, an important phenomenon under degraded shutdown heat removal conditions in an LMR. The power and flows required for boiling and dryout to occur are much higher than decay heat levels. The experimental evidence supports analytical results that heat removal from an LMR is possible with a degraded shutdown heat removal system

  17. Fluid convection, constraint and causation (United States)

    Bishop, Robert C.


    Complexity—nonlinear dynamics for my purposes in this essay—is rich with metaphysical and epistemological implications but is receiving sustained philosophical analysis only recently. I will explore some of the subtleties of causation and constraint in Rayleigh–Bénard convection as an example of a complex phenomenon, and extract some lessons for further philosophical reflection on top-down constraint and causation particularly with respect to causal foundationalism. PMID:23386955

  18. Cryogenic helium gas convection research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, R.J.


    This is a report prepared by a group interested in doing research in thermal convection using the large scale refrigeration facilities available at the SSC Laboratories (SSCL). The group preparing this report consists of Michael McAshan at SSCL, Robert Behringer at Duke University, Katepalli Sreenivasan at Yale University, Xiao-Zhong Wu at Northern Illinois University and Russell Donnelly at the University of Oregon, who served as Editor for this report. This study reports the research and development opportunities in such a project, the technical requirements and feasibility of its construction and operation, and the costs associated with the needed facilities and support activities. The facility will be a unique national resource for studies of high-Reynolds-number and high-Rayleigh-number and high Rayleigh number turbulence phenomena, and is one of the six items determined as suitable for potential funding through a screening of Expressions of Interest. The proposed facility is possible only because of the advanced cryogenic technology available at the SSCL. Typical scientific issues to be addressed in the facility will be discussed. It devolved during our study, that while the main experiment is still considered to be the thermal convection experiment discussed in our original Expression of Interest, there are now a very substantial set of other, important and fundamental experiments which can be done with the large cryostat proposed for the convection experiment. We believe the facility could provide several decades of front-line research in turbulence, and shall describe why this is so

  19. Thermosolutal convection during dendritic solidification (United States)

    Heinrich, J. C.; Nandapurkar, P.; Poirier, D. R.; Felicelli, S.


    This paper presents a mathematical model for directional solidification of a binary alloy including a dendritic region underlying an all-liquid region. It is assumed initially that there exists a nonconvecting state with planar isotherms and isoconcentrates solidifying at a constant velocity. The stability of this system has been analyzed and nonlinear calculations are performed that show the effect of convection in the solidification process when the system is unstable. Results of calculations for various cases defined by the initial temperature gradient at the dendrite tips and varying strength of the gravitational field are presented for systems involving lead-tin alloys. The results show that the systems are stable for a gravitational constant of 0.0001 g(0) and that convection can be suppressed by appropriate choice of the container's size for higher values of the gravitational constant. It is also concluded that for the lead-tin systems considered, convection in the mushy zone is not significant below the upper 20 percent of the dendritic zone, if al all.

  20. Binding of two desmin derivatives to the plasma membrane and the nuclear envelope of avian erythrocytes: evidence for a conserved site-specificity in intermediate filament-membrane interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgatos, S.D.; Weber, K.; Geisler, N.; Blobel, G.


    Using solution binding assays, the authors found that a 45-kDa fragment of 125 I-labelled desmin, lacking 67 residues from the N terminus, could specifically associate with avian erythrocyte nuclear envelopes but not with plasma membranes from the same cells. It was also observed that a 50-kDa desmin peptide, missing 27 C-terminal residues, retained the ability to bind to both membrane preparations. Displacement experiments with an excess of purified vimentin suggested that the two desmin derivatives were interacting with a previously identified vimentin receptor at the nuclear envelope, the protein lamin B. Additional analysis by affinity chromatography confirmed this conclusion. Employing an overlay assay, they demonstrated that the 50-kDa fragment, but not the 45-kDa desmin peptide, was capable of interacting with the plasma membrane polypeptide ankyrin (a known vimentin attachment site), as was intact vimentin. Conversely, the nuclear envelope protein lamin B was recognized by both fragments but not by a chymotryptic peptide composed solely of the helical rod domain of desmin. These data imply that the lamin B-binding site on desmin resides within the 21 residues following its helical rod domain, whereas the ankyrin-associating region is localized within its N-terminal head domain, exactly as in the case of vimentin

  1. Nonlinear observer-based Lyapunov boundary control of distributed heat transfer mechanisms for membrane distillation plant

    KAUST Repository

    Eleiwi, Fadi; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem


    , and seeks to maintain the temperature difference along the membrane boundaries around a sufficient level to promote water production. MD process is modeled with advection diffusion equation model in two dimensions, where the diffusion and convection heat

  2. Membrane accessibility of glutathione

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Almudena; Eljack, N., D.; Sani, ND


    Regulation of the ion pumping activity of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase is crucial to the survival of animal cells. Recent evidence has suggested that the activity of the enzyme could be controlled by glutathionylation of cysteine residue 45 of the β-subunit. Crystal structures so far available indicate...... that this cysteine is in a transmembrane domain of the protein. Here we have analysed via fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy as well as molecular dynamics simulations whether glutathione is able to penetrate into the interior of a lipid membrane. No evidence for any penetration of glutathione into the membrane...

  3. Membrane Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Ashrafuzzaman, Mohammad


    Physics, mathematics and chemistry all play a vital role in understanding the true nature and functioning of biological membranes, key elements of living processes. Besides simple spectroscopic observations and electrical measurements of membranes we address in this book the phenomena of coexistence and independent existence of different membrane components using various theoretical approaches. This treatment will be helpful for readers who want to understand biological processes by applying both simple observations and fundamental scientific analysis. It provides a deep understanding of the causes and effects of processes inside membranes, and will thus eventually open new doors for high-level pharmaceutical approaches towards fighting membrane- and cell-related diseases.

  4. Convective overshoot at the solar tachocline (United States)

    Brown, Benjamin; Oishi, Jeffrey S.; Anders, Evan H.; Lecoanet, Daniel; Burns, Keaton; Vasil, Geoffrey M.


    At the base of the solar convection zone lies the solar tachocline. This internal interface is where motions from the unstable convection zone above overshoot and penetrate downward into the stiffly stable radiative zone below, driving gravity waves, mixing, and possibly pumping and storing magnetic fields. Here we study the dynamics of convective overshoot across very stiff interfaces with some properties similar to the internal boundary layer within the Sun. We use the Dedalus pseudospectral framework and study fully compressible dynamics at moderate to high Peclet number and low Mach number, probing a regime where turbulent transport is important, and where the compressible dynamics are similar to those of convective motions in the deep solar interior. We find that the depth of convective overshoot is well described by a simple buoyancy equilibration model, and we consider implications for dynamics at the solar tachocline and for the storage of magnetic fields there by overshooting convection.

  5. The convection electric field in auroral substorms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerløv, Jesper Wittendorff; Hoffman, R.A.


    Dynamics Explorer 2 (DE 2) electric field and ion drift data are used in a statistical study of the ionospheric convection electric field in bulge-type auroral substorms. Thirty-one individual DE 2 substorm crossings were carefully selected and organized by the use of global auroral images obtained...... this database enabled us to compile a model of the ionospheric convection electric field. The characteristics of the premidnight convection reversal show a pronounced local time dependency. Far west of the surge it is a fairly well defined point reversal or convection shear. Approaching the surge and within...... the surge it is a region of weak electric fields increasing in width toward midnight that separates regions of equatorward and poleward electric fields. Therefore we adopt the term Harang region rather than the Harang discontinuity for the premidnight convection reversal. A relatively narrow convection...

  6. Targeted Expression of Stromelysin-1 in Mammary Gland Provides Evidence for a Role of Proteinases in Branching Morphogenesis and the Requirement for an Intact Basement Membrane for Tissue-specific Gene Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sympson, Carolyn J; Talhouk, Rabih S; Alexander, Caroline M; Chin, Jennie R; Cliff, Shirley M; Bissell, Mina J; Werb, Zena


    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is an important regulator of the differentiated phenotype of mammary epithelial cells in culture. Despite the fact that ECM-degrading enzymes have been implicated in morphogenesis and tissue remodeling, there is little evidence for a direct role for such regulation in vivo. We generated transgenic mice that express autoactivated isoforms of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1, under the control of the whey acidic protein gene promoter, to examine the effect of inappropriate expression of this enzyme. Stromelysin-1 is implicated as the primary player in the loss of basement membrane and loss of function in the mammary gland during involution. The transgene was expressed at low levels in mammary glands of virgin female mice, leading to an unexpected phenotype: The primary ducts had supernumerary branches and showed precocious development of alveoli that expressed beta-casein at levels similar to that of an early- to mid-pregnant gland. Lactating glands showed high levels of transgene expression, with accumulation at the basement membrane, and a decrease in laminin and collagen IV, resulting in a loss of basement membrane integrity; this was accompanied by a dramatic alteration of alveolar morphology, with decreased size and shrunken lumina containing little beta-casein. During pregnancy, expression of endogenous whey acidic protein and beta-casein was reduced in transgenic glands, confirming the observed dependence of milk protein transcription of ECM in mammary epithelial cells in culture. These data provide direct evidence that stromelysin-1 activity can be morphogenic for mammary epithelial cells, inducing hyperproliferation and differentiation in virgin animals, and that its lytic activity can, indeed, disrupt membrane integrity and reduce mammary-specific function. We conclude that the balance of ECM-degrading enzymes with their inhibitors, and the associated regulation of ECM structure, is crucial for tissue-specific gene

  7. TRAIL death receptor 4 signaling via lysosome fusion and membrane raft clustering in coronary arterial endothelial cells: evidence from ASM knockout mice. (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Han, Wei-Qing; Boini, Krishna M; Xia, Min; Zhang, Yang; Li, Pin-Lan


    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and its receptor, death receptor 4 (DR4), have been implicated in the development of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. However, the signaling mechanism mediating DR4 activation leading to endothelial injury remains unclear. We recently demonstrated that ceramide production via hydrolysis of membrane sphingomyelin by acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) results in membrane raft (MR) clustering and the formation of important redox signaling platforms, which play a crucial role in amplifying redox signaling in endothelial cells leading to endothelial dysfunction. The present study aims to investigate whether TRAIL triggers MR clustering via lysosome fusion and ASM activation, thereby conducting transmembrane redox signaling and changing endothelial function. Using confocal microscopy, we found that TRAIL induced MR clustering and co-localized with DR4 in coronary arterial endothelial cells (CAECs) isolated from wild-type (Smpd1 (+/+)) mice. Furthermore, TRAIL triggered ASM translocation, ceramide production, and NADPH oxidase aggregation in MR clusters in Smpd1 ( +/+ ) CAECs, whereas these observations were not found in Smpd1 (-/-) CAECs. Moreover, ASM deficiency reduced TRAIL-induced O(2) (-[Symbol: see text]) production in CAECs and abolished TRAIL-induced impairment on endothelium-dependent vasodilation in small resistance arteries. By measuring fluorescence resonance energy transfer, we found that Lamp-1 (lysosome membrane marker protein) and ganglioside G(M1) (MR marker) were trafficking together in Smpd1 (+/+) CAECs, which was absent in Smpd1 (-/-) CAECs. Consistently, fluorescence imaging of living cells with specific lysosome probes demonstrated that TRAIL-induced lysosome fusion with membrane was also absent in Smpd1 (-/-) CAECs. Taken together, these results suggest that ASM is essential for TRAIL-induced lysosomal trafficking, membrane fusion and formation of MR redox signaling platforms

  8. Tropical convection regimes in climate models: evaluation with satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Steiner


    Full Text Available High-quality observations are powerful tools for the evaluation of climate models towards improvement and reduction of uncertainty. Particularly at low latitudes, the most uncertain aspect lies in the representation of moist convection and interaction with dynamics, where rising motion is tied to deep convection and sinking motion to dry regimes. Since humidity is closely coupled with temperature feedbacks in the tropical troposphere, a proper representation of this region is essential. Here we demonstrate the evaluation of atmospheric climate models with satellite-based observations from Global Positioning System (GPS radio occultation (RO, which feature high vertical resolution and accuracy in the troposphere to lower stratosphere. We focus on the representation of the vertical atmospheric structure in tropical convection regimes, defined by high updraft velocity over warm surfaces, and investigate atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles. Results reveal that some models do not fully capture convection regions, particularly over land, and only partly represent strong vertical wind classes. Models show large biases in tropical mean temperature of more than 4 K in the tropopause region and the lower stratosphere. Reasonable agreement with observations is given in mean specific humidity in the lower to mid-troposphere. In moist convection regions, models tend to underestimate moisture by 10 to 40 % over oceans, whereas in dry downdraft regions they overestimate moisture by 100 %. Our findings provide evidence that RO observations are a unique source of information, with a range of further atmospheric variables to be exploited, for the evaluation and advancement of next-generation climate models.

  9. Titan Balloon Convection Model, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This innovative research effort is directed at determining, quantitatively, the convective heat transfer coefficients applicable to a Montgolfiere balloon operating...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Vodinchar


    Full Text Available We describe the large-scale model geodynamo, which based on indirect data of inhomogeneities in the density of the Earth’s core. Convection structure is associated with spherical harmonic Y24 , which defines the basic poloidal component of velocity. Coriolis drift of this mode determines the toroidal component of velocity. Thus, 6 convective cells are formed. The model takes into account the feedback effect of the magnetic field on convection. It was ascertained that the model contains stable regimes of field generation. The velocity of convection and the dipole component of the magnetic field are close to the observed ones.

  11. Scale analysis of convective clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micha Gryschka


    Full Text Available The size distribution of cumulus clouds due to shallow and deep convection is analyzed using satellite pictures, LES model results and data from the German rain radar network. The size distributions found can be described by simple power laws as has also been proposed for other cloud data in the literature. As the observed precipitation at ground stations is finally determined by cloud numbers in an area and individual sizes and rain rates of single clouds, the cloud size distributions might be used for developing empirical precipitation forecasts or for validating results from cloud resolving models being introduced to routine weather forecasts.

  12. Characterizing Convection in Stellar Atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, Joel; Basu, Sarbani; Demarque, Pierre; Robinson, Frank


    We perform 3D radiative hydrodynamic simulations to study the properties of convection in the superadiabatic layer of stars. The simulations show differences in both the stratification and turbulent quantities for different types of stars. We extract turbulent pressure and eddy sizes, as well as the T-τ relation for different stars and find that they are sensitive to the energy flux and gravity. We also show that contrary to what is usually assumed in the field of stellar atmospheres, the structure and gas dynamics of simulations of turbulent atmospheres cannot be parameterized with T eff and log(g) alone.

  13. Ion selectivity of the cation transport system of isolated intact cattle rod outer segments: evidence for a direct communication between the rod plasma membrane and the rod disk membranes. (United States)

    Schnetkamp, P P


    The ion selectivity of cation transport through the plasma membrane of isolated intact cattle rod outer segments (rods) is investigated by means of 45Ca-exchange experiments and light-scattering experiments. These techniques appear to provide complementary information: the 45Ca experiments (45Ca fluxes in rods) describe electroneutral antiport, whereas the light-scattering experiments (shrinkage and swelling of rods upon hypertonic shocks with various electrolytes) reveal electrogenic uniport. Electroneutral symport of ions (salt transport) does not take place without addition of external ionophores and application of salts of weak acids. 1. Intact rods recover from a hypertonic shock in the presence of FCCP when lithium, sodium and potassium acetate are applied, but not when ammonium chloride, calcium and magnesium acetate are used. This indicates that the plasma membrane of isolated intact cattle rods is relatively permeable to net transport of Na+, Li+ and K+, and relatively impermeable to net transport of Cl-, Mg2+ and Ca2+ under conditions that do not give rise to diffusion potentials. 2. Rapid (t1/2 exchange diffusion of internal 45Ca with external Na+, Ca2+, Sr2+ and Ba2+, respectively. 3. All tested cations lower the rate of 45Ca uptake. The latter can be described by a single rate constant indicating a homogeneous rod preparation and a homogeneous endogenous Ca2+ pool. However, only those cations which stimulate 45Ca efflux from preloaded rods lower the final equilibrium of 45Ca uptake. Except for the effects of K+, Rb+ and Cs+ the reduction of the rate of 45Ca uptake by external cations appears to arise from competition for a common site on the plasms membrane. The observed affinities for this site do not correlate with actual transport (as indicated by the ability to stimulate 45Ca efflux). 4. K+ increases the affinity of the exchange diffusion system to Ca2+ from 1 microM to 0.15 microM and changes the relative affinities with respect to Ca2+ for the

  14. Substantial convection and precipitation enhancements by ultrafine aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Jiwen; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Zhang, Yuwei; Giangrande, Scott E.; Li, Zhanqing; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Martin, Scot T.; Yang, Yan; Wang, Jian; Artaxo, Paulo; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Braga, Ramon C.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Feng, Zhe; Gao, Wenhua; Gomes, Helber B.; Mei, Fan; Pöhlker, Christopher; Pöhlker, Mira L.; Pöschl, Ulrich; de Souza, Rodrigo A. F.


    Aerosol-cloud interaction remains the largest uncertainty in climate projections. Ultrafine aerosol particles (UAP; size <50nm) are considered too small to serve as cloud condensation nuclei conventionally. However, this study provides observational evidence to accompany insights from numerical simulations to support that deep convective clouds (DCCs) over Amazon have strong capability of nucleating UAP from an urban source and forming greater numbers of droplets, because fast drop coalescence in these DCCs reduces drop surface area available for condensation, leading to high vapor supersaturation. The additional droplets subsequently decrease supersaturation and release more condensational latent heating, a dominant contributor to convection intensification, whereas enhanced latent heat from ice-related processes plays a secondary role. Therefore, the addition of anthropogenic UAP may play a much greater role in modulating clouds than previously believed over the Amazon region and possibly in other relatively pristine regions such as maritime and forest locations.

  15. ICRF induced edge plasma convection in ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching/Greifswald (Germany); University of Ghent, Ghent (Belgium); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Feng, Yuehe; Lunt, Tilmann; Jacquot, Jonathan; Coster, David; Bilato, Roberto; Bobkov, Volodymyr; Ochoukov, Roman [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching/Greifswald (Germany); Noterdaeme, Jean-Marie [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching/Greifswald (Germany); University of Ghent, Ghent (Belgium); Colas, Laurent [CEA, IRFM, Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team


    Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating is one of the main auxiliary plasma heating methods in tokamaks. It relies on the fast wave to heat the plasma. However the slow wave can also be generated parasitically. The parallel electric field of the slow wave can induce large biased plasma potential through sheath rectification. The rapid variation of this rectified potential across the magnetic field can cause significant E x B convection in the Scrape-Off Layer (SOL). The ICRF induced convection can affect the SOL density, influence the ICRF power coupling and enhance the strength of plasma-wall interactions. To explore these physics, we not only show the experimental evidences in ASDEX Upgrade, but also present the associated simulation results with the 3D edge plasma fluid code EMC3-Eirene. Further simulations via combination of EMC3-Eirene and a sheath code SSWICH in an iterative and quasi self-consistent way can give good predictions for future experiments.

  16. First evidence of SGPL1 expression in the cell membrane silencing the extracellular S1P siren in mammary epithelial cells. (United States)

    Engel, Nadja; Adamus, Anna; Frank, Marcus; Kraft, Karin; Kühn, Juliane; Müller, Petra; Nebe, Barbara; Kasten, Annika; Seitz, Guido


    The bioactive lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a main regulator of cell survival, proliferation, motility, and platelet aggregation, and it is essential for angiogenesis and lymphocyte trafficking. In that S1P acts as a second messenger intra- and extracellularly, it might promote cancer progression. The main cause is found in the high S1P concentration in the blood, which encourage cancer cells to migrate through the endothelial barrier into the blood vessels. The irreversible degradation of S1P is solely caused by the sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase (SGPL1). SGPL1 overexpression reduces cancer cell migration and therefore silences the endogenous S1P siren, which promotes cancer cell attraction-the main reason for metastasis. Since our previous metabolomics studies revealed an increased SGPL1 activity in association with successful breast cancer cell treatment in vitro, we further investigated expression and localization of SGPL1. Expression analyses confirmed a very low SGPL1 expression in all breast cancer samples, regardless of their subtype. Additionally, we were able to prove a novel SGPL expression in the cytoplasm membrane of non-tumorigenic breast cells by fusing three independent methods. The general SGPL1 downregulation and the loss of the plasma membrane expression resulted in S1P dependent stimulation of migration in the breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and BT-20. Not only S1P stimulated migration could be repressed by overexpressing the natural SGPL1 variant not but also more general migratory activity was significantly reduced. Here, for the first time, we report on the SGPL1 plasma membrane location in human, non-malignant breast epithelial cell lines silencing the extracellular S1P siren in vitro, and thereby regulating pivotal cellular functions. Loss of this plasma membrane distribution as well as low SGPL1 expression levels could be a potential prognostic marker and a viable target for therapy. Therefore, the precise role of SGPL1 for cancer

  17. Benard convection in gaps and cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, U.


    The article contains two parts. In the first part a condensed review of the most striking phenomena in Benard convection in laterally confined fluid layers is given. In the second part recent experimental and theoretical work on Benard convection in gaps is presented an analysed. (orig.) [de

  18. Convective mixing and accretion in white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, D.


    The evolution of convection zones in cooling white dwarfs with helium envelopes and outer hydrogen layers is calculated with a complete stellar evolution code. It is shown that white dwarfs of spectral type DB cannot be formed from DA stars by convective mixing. However, for cooler temperatures (Tsub(e) [de

  19. Southern Ocean Convection and tropical telleconnections (United States)

    Marinov, I.; Cabre, A.; Gnanadesikan, A.


    We show that Southern Ocean (SO) temperatures in the latest generation of Earth System Models exhibit two major modes of variation, one driven by deep convection, the other by tropical variability. We perform a CMIP5 model intercomparison to understand why different climate models represent SO variability so differently in long, control simulations. We show that multiyear variability in Southern Ocean sea surface temperatures (SSTs) can in turn influence oceanic and atmospheric conditions in the tropics on short (atmospheric) time-scales. We argue that the strength and pattern of SO-tropical teleconnections depends on the intensity of SO deep convection. Periodic convection in the SO is a feature of most CMIP5 models under preindustrial forcing (deLavergne et al., 2014). Models show a wide distribution in the spatial extent, periodicity and intensity of their SO convection, with some models convecting most of the time, and some showing very little convection. In a highly convective coupled model, we find that multidecadal variability in SO and global SSTs, as well as SO heat storage are driven by Weddell Sea convective variability, with convective decades relatively warm due to the heat released from the deep southern ocean and non-convective decades cold due to the subsurface storage of heat. Furthermore, pulses of SO convection drive SST and sea ice variations, influencing absorbed shortwave and emitted longwave radiation, wind, cloud and precipitation patterns, with climatic implications for the low latitudes via fast atmospheric teleconnections. We suggest that these high-low latitude teleconnection mechanisms are relevant for understanding hiatus decades. Additionally, Southern Ocean deep convection varied significantly during past, natural climate changes such as during the last deglaciation. Weddell Sea open convection was recently weakened, likely as a consequence of anthropogenic forcing and the resulting surface freshening. Our study opens up the

  20. Topology Optimisation for Coupled Convection Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Joe

    This thesis deals with topology optimisation for coupled convection problems. The aim is to extend and apply topology optimisation to steady-state conjugate heat transfer problems, where the heat conduction equation governs the heat transfer in a solid and is coupled to thermal transport...... in a surrounding uid, governed by a convection-diffusion equation, where the convective velocity field is found from solving the isothermal incompressible steady-state Navier-Stokes equations. Topology optimisation is also applied to steady-state natural convection problems. The modelling is done using stabilised...... finite elements, the formulation and implementation of which was done partly during a special course as prepatory work for this thesis. The formulation is extended with a Brinkman friction term in order to facilitate the topology optimisation of fluid flow and convective cooling problems. The derived...

  1. Convective penetration in a young sun (United States)

    Pratt, Jane; Baraffe, Isabelle; Goffrey, Tom; MUSIC developers group


    To interpret the high-quality data produced from recent space-missions it is necessary to study convection under realistic stellar conditions. We describe the multi-dimensional, time implicit, fully compressible, hydrodynamic, implicit large eddy simulation code MUSIC. We use MUSIC to study convection during an early stage in the evolution of our sun where the convection zone covers approximately half of the solar radius. This model of the young sun possesses a realistic stratification in density, temperature, and luminosity. We approach convection in a stellar context using extreme value theory and derive a new model for convective penetration, targeted for one-dimensional stellar evolution calculations. This model provides a scenario that can explain the observed lithium abundance in the sun and in solar-like stars at a range of ages.

  2. Numerical simulations of convectively excited gravity waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glatzmaier, G.A.


    Magneto-convection and gravity waves are numerically simulated with a nonlinear, three-dimensional, time-dependent model of a stratified, rotating, spherical fluid shell heated from below. A Solar-like reference state is specified while global velocity, magnetic field, and thermodynamic perturbations are computed from the anelastic magnetohydrodynamic equations. Convective overshooting from the upper (superadiabatic) part of the shell excites gravity waves in the lower (subadiabatic) part. Due to differential rotation and Coriolis forces, convective cell patterns propagate eastward with a latitudinally dependent phase velocity. The structure of the excited wave motions in the stable region is more time-dependent than that of the convective motions above. The magnetic field tends to be concentrated over giant-cell downdrafts in the convective zone but is affected very little by the wave motion in the stable region

  3. Membrane paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Thorne, K.S.


    The membrane paradigm is a modified frozen star approach to modeling black holes, with particles and fields assuming a complex, static, boundary-layer type structure (membrane) near the event horizon. The membrane has no effects on the present or future evolution of particles and fields above itself. The mathematical representation is a combination of a formalism containing terms for the shear and bulk viscosity, surface pressure, momentum, temperature, entropy, etc., of the horizon and the 3+1 formalism. The latter model considers a family of three-dimensional spacelike hypersurfaces in one-dimensional time. The membrane model considers a magnetic field threading the hole and undergoing torque from the hole rotation. The field is cleaned by the horizon and distributed over the horizon so that ohmic dissipation is minimized. The membrane paradigm is invalid inside the horizon, but is useful for theoretically probing the properties of slowly evolving black holes

  4. Membrane processes (United States)

    Staszak, Katarzyna


    The membrane processes have played important role in the industrial separation process. These technologies can be found in all industrial areas such as food, beverages, metallurgy, pulp and paper, textile, pharmaceutical, automotive, biotechnology and chemical industry, as well as in water treatment for domestic and industrial application. Although these processes are known since twentieth century, there are still many studies that focus on the testing of new membranes' materials and determining of conditions for optimal selectivity, i. e. the optimum transmembrane pressure (TMP) or permeate flux to minimize fouling. Moreover the researchers proposed some calculation methods to predict the membrane processes properties. In this article, the laboratory scale experiments of membrane separation techniques, as well their validation by calculation methods are presented. Because membrane is the "heart" of the process, experimental and computational methods for its characterization are also described.

  5. Magnetic Fields in the Solar Convection Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yuhong


    Full Text Available Recent studies of the dynamic evolution of magnetic flux tubes in the solar convection zone are reviewed with focus on emerging flux tubes responsible for the formation of solar active regions. The current prevailing picture is that active regions on the solar surface originate from strong toroidal magnetic fields generated by the solar dynamo mechanism at the thin tachocline layer at the base of the solar convection zone. Thus the magnetic fields need to traverse the entire convection zone before they reach the photosphere to form the observed solar active regions. This review discusses results with regard to the following major topics: 1. the equilibrium properties of the toroidal magnetic fields stored in the stable overshoot region at the base of the convection zone, 2. the buoyancy instability associated with the toroidal magnetic fields and the formation of buoyant magnetic flux tubes, 3. the rise of emerging flux loops through the solar convective envelope as modeled by the thin flux tube calculations which infer that the field strength of the toroidal magnetic fields at the base of the solar convection zone is significantly higher than the value in equipartition with convection, 4. the minimum twist needed for maintaining cohesion of the rising flux tubes, 5. the rise of highly twisted kink unstable flux tubes as a possible origin of d -sunspots, 6. the evolution of buoyant magnetic flux tubes in 3D stratified convection, 7. turbulent pumping of magnetic flux by penetrative compressible convection, 8. an alternative mechanism for intensifying toroidal magnetic fields to significantly super-equipartition field strengths by conversion of the potential energy associated with the superadiabatic stratification of the solar convection zone, and finally 9. a brief overview of our current understanding of flux emergence at the surface and post-emergence evolution of the subsurface magnetic fields.

  6. The multifractal nature of plume structure in high-Rayleigh-number convection (United States)

    Puthenveettil, Baburaj A.; Ananthakrishna, G.; Arakeri, Jaywant H.


    The geometrically different planforms of near-wall plume structure in turbulent natural convection, visualized by driving the convection using concentration differences across a membrane, are shown to have a common multifractal spectrum of singularities for Rayleigh numbers in the range 1010-1011 at Schmidt number of 602. The scaling is seen for a length scale range of 25 and is independent of the Rayleigh number, the flux, the strength and nature of the large-scale flow, and the aspect ratio. Similar scaling is observed for the plume structures obtained in the presence of a weak flow across the membrane. This common non-trivial spatial scaling is proposed to be due to the same underlying generating process for the near-wall plume structures.

  7. Reconstitution of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein into lipid membranes and biophysical evidence for its detergent-driven association with the pro-apoptotic Bax protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Wallgren

    Full Text Available The anti-apoptotic B-cell CLL/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2 protein and its counterpart, the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax, are key players in the regulation of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. However, how they interact at the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM and there determine whether the cell will live or be sentenced to death remains unknown. Competing models have been presented that describe how Bcl-2 inhibits the cell-killing activity of Bax, which is common in treatment-resistant tumors where Bcl-2 is overexpressed. Some studies suggest that Bcl-2 binds directly to and sequesters Bax, while others suggest an indirect process whereby Bcl-2 blocks BH3-only proteins and prevents them from activating Bax. Here we present the results of a biophysical study in which we investigated the putative interaction of solubilized full-length human Bcl-2 with Bax and the scope for incorporating the former into a native-like lipid environment. Far-UV circular dichroism (CD spectroscopy was used to detect direct Bcl-2-Bax-interactions in the presence of polyoxyethylene-(23-lauryl-ether (Brij-35 detergent at a level below its critical micelle concentration (CMC. Additional surface plasmon resonance (SPR measurements confirmed this observation and revealed a high affinity between the Bax and Bcl-2 proteins. Upon formation of this protein-protein complex, Bax also prevented the binding of antimycin A2 (a known inhibitory ligand of Bcl-2 to the Bcl-2 protein, as fluorescence spectroscopy experiments showed. In addition, Bcl-2 was able to form mixed micelles with Triton X-100 solubilized neutral phospholipids in the presence of high concentrations of Brij-35 (above its CMC. Following detergent removal, the integral membrane protein was found to have been fully reconstituted into a native-like membrane environment, as confirmed by ultracentrifugation and subsequent SDS-PAGE experiments.

  8. First evidence of SGPL1 expression in the cell membrane silencing the extracellular S1P siren in mammary epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Engel

    Full Text Available The bioactive lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P is a main regulator of cell survival, proliferation, motility, and platelet aggregation, and it is essential for angiogenesis and lymphocyte trafficking. In that S1P acts as a second messenger intra- and extracellularly, it might promote cancer progression. The main cause is found in the high S1P concentration in the blood, which encourage cancer cells to migrate through the endothelial barrier into the blood vessels. The irreversible degradation of S1P is solely caused by the sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase (SGPL1. SGPL1 overexpression reduces cancer cell migration and therefore silences the endogenous S1P siren, which promotes cancer cell attraction-the main reason for metastasis. Since our previous metabolomics studies revealed an increased SGPL1 activity in association with successful breast cancer cell treatment in vitro, we further investigated expression and localization of SGPL1. Expression analyses confirmed a very low SGPL1 expression in all breast cancer samples, regardless of their subtype. Additionally, we were able to prove a novel SGPL expression in the cytoplasm membrane of non-tumorigenic breast cells by fusing three independent methods. The general SGPL1 downregulation and the loss of the plasma membrane expression resulted in S1P dependent stimulation of migration in the breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and BT-20. Not only S1P stimulated migration could be repressed by overexpressing the natural SGPL1 variant not but also more general migratory activity was significantly reduced. Here, for the first time, we report on the SGPL1 plasma membrane location in human, non-malignant breast epithelial cell lines silencing the extracellular S1P siren in vitro, and thereby regulating pivotal cellular functions. Loss of this plasma membrane distribution as well as low SGPL1 expression levels could be a potential prognostic marker and a viable target for therapy. Therefore, the precise role of

  9. One-dimensional model of oxygen transport impedance accounting for convection perpendicular to the electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mainka, J. [Laboratorio Nacional de Computacao Cientifica (LNCC), CMC 6097, Av. Getulio Vargas 333, 25651-075 Petropolis, RJ, Caixa Postal 95113 (Brazil); Maranzana, G.; Thomas, A.; Dillet, J.; Didierjean, S.; Lottin, O. [Laboratoire d' Energetique et de Mecanique Theorique et Appliquee (LEMTA), Universite de Lorraine, 2, avenue de la Foret de Haye, 54504 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); LEMTA, CNRS, 2, avenue de la Foret de Haye, 54504 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)


    A one-dimensional (1D) model of oxygen transport in the diffusion media of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) is presented, which considers convection perpendicular to the electrode in addition to diffusion. The resulting analytical expression of the convecto-diffusive impedance is obtained using a convection-diffusion equation instead of a diffusion equation in the case of classical Warburg impedance. The main hypothesis of the model is that the convective flux is generated by the evacuation of water produced at the cathode which flows through the porous media in vapor phase. This allows the expression of the convective flux velocity as a function of the current density and of the water transport coefficient {alpha} (the fraction of water being evacuated at the cathode outlet). The resulting 1D oxygen transport impedance neglects processes occurring in the direction parallel to the electrode that could have a significant impact on the cell impedance, like gas consumption or concentration oscillations induced by the measuring signal. However, it enables us to estimate the impact of convection perpendicular to the electrode on PEMFC impedance spectra and to determine in which conditions the approximation of a purely diffusive oxygen transport is valid. Experimental observations confirm the numerical results. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Actively convected liquid metal divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Michiya; Hirooka, Yoshi


    The use of actively convected liquid metals with j × B force is proposed to facilitate heat handling by the divertor, a challenging issue associated with magnetic fusion experiments such as ITER. This issue will be aggravated even more for DEMO and power reactors because the divertor heat load will be significantly higher and yet the use of copper would not be allowed as the heat sink material. Instead, reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel alloys with heat conductivities substantially lower than that of copper, will be used as the structural materials. The present proposal is to fill the lower part of the vacuum vessel with liquid metals with relatively low melting points and low chemical activities including Ga and Sn. The divertor modules, equipped with electrodes and cooling tubes, are immersed in the liquid metal. The electrode, placed in the middle of the liquid metal, can be biased positively or negatively with respect to the module. The j × B force due to the current between the electrode and the module provides a rotating motion for the liquid metal around the electrodes. The rise in liquid temperature at the separatrix hit point can be maintained at acceptable levels from the operation point of view. As the rotation speed increases, the current in the liquid metal is expected to decrease due to the v × B electromotive force. This rotating motion in the poloidal plane will reduce the divertor heat load significantly. Another important benefit of the convected liquid metal divertor is the fast recovery from unmitigated disruptions. Also, the liquid metal divertor concept eliminates the erosion problem. (letter)

  11. The role of polymer nanolayer architecture on the separation performance of anion-exchange membrane adsorbers: I. Protein separations. (United States)

    Bhut, Bharat V; Weaver, Justin; Carter, Andrew R; Wickramasinghe, S Ranil; Husson, Scott M


    This contribution describes the preparation of strong anion-exchange membranes with higher protein binding capacities than the best commercial resins. Quaternary amine (Q-type) anion-exchange membranes were prepared by grafting polyelectrolyte nanolayers from the surfaces of macroporous membrane supports. A focus of this study was to better understand the role of polymer nanolayer architecture on protein binding. Membranes were prepared with different polymer chain graft densities using a newly developed surface-initiated polymerization protocol designed to provide uniform and variable chain spacing. Bovine serum albumin and immunoglobulin G were used to measure binding capacities of proteins with different size. Dynamic binding capacities of IgG were measured to evaluate the impact of polymer chain density on the accessibility of large size protein to binding sites within the polyelectrolyte nanolayer under flow conditions. The dynamic binding capacity of IgG increased nearly linearly with increasing polymer chain density, which suggests that the spacing between polymer chains is sufficient for IgG to access binding sites all along the grafted polymer chains. Furthermore, the high dynamic binding capacity of IgG (>130 mg/mL) was independent of linear flow velocity, which suggests that the mass transfer of IgG molecules to the binding sites occurs primarily via convection. Overall, this research provides clear evidence that the dynamic binding capacities of large biologics can be higher for well-designed macroporous membrane adsorbers than commercial membrane or resin ion-exchange products. Specifically, using controlled polymerization leads to anion-exchange membrane adsorbers with high binding capacities that are independent of flow rate, enabling high throughput. Results of this work should help to accelerate the broader implementation of membrane adsorbers in bioprocess purification steps. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Magnetospheric convection and current system in the dayside polar cap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, A.; Mukai, T.; Tsuruda, K.; Hayakawa, H.


    Field and particle observations on EXOS-D (Akebono) have yielded new information on convection and current system in the dayside polar cap. Convection patterns are distinctly different depending upon whether IMF B z is northward or southward. The number of convection cells is two when B z is southward but four when B z is northward. Lobe cells in which plasma flows sunward in the region of open field lines are observed as a pair (of which one is in the dawn and the other in the dusk sector) for any polarity of IMF B y and B z . Ions in the keV range precipitate not only in the dayside cusp region but also along the sunward directed streamlines of the dawn and dusk lobe cells. These observations require reconsideration on the position and the extent of the reconnection region on the magnetopause. They also suggest that the magnetotail plays a vital role in some phenomena which have been ascribed to dayside magnetopause processes. We have not been able to find evidence to prove the presence of the viscous cell under southward IMF

  13. Primordial membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanczyc, Martin M; Monnard, Pierre-Alain


    Cellular membranes, which are self-assembled bilayer structures mainly composed of lipids, proteins and conjugated polysaccharides, are the defining feature of cell physiology. It is likely that the complexity of contemporary cells was preceded by simpler chemical systems or protocells during...... the various evolutionary stages that led from inanimate to living matter. It is also likely that primitive membranes played a similar role in protocell 'physiology'. The composition of such ancestral membranes has been proposed as mixtures of single hydrocarbon chain amphiphiles, which are simpler versions...

  14. A thermodynamically general theory for convective vortices (United States)

    Renno, Nilton O.


    Convective vortices are common features of atmospheres that absorb lower-entropy-energy at higher temperatures than they reject higher-entropy-energy to space. These vortices range from small to large-scale and play an important role in the vertical transport of heat, momentum, and tracer species. Thus, the development of theoretical models for convective vortices is important to our understanding of some of the basic features of planetary atmospheres. The heat engine framework is a useful tool for studying convective vortices. However, current theories assume that convective vortices are reversible heat engines. Since there are questions about how reversible real atmospheric heat engines are, their usefulness for studying real atmospheric vortices is somewhat controversial. In order to reduce this problem, a theory for convective vortices that includes irreversible processes is proposed. The paper's main result is that the proposed theory provides an expression for the pressure drop along streamlines that includes the effects of irreversible processes. It is shown that a simplified version of this expression is a generalization of Bernoulli's equation to convective circulations. It is speculated that the proposed theory not only explains the intensity, but also sheds light on other basic features of convective vortices such as their physical appearance.

  15. Boundary Layer Control of Rotating Convection Systems (United States)

    King, E. M.; Stellmach, S.; Noir, J.; Hansen, U.; Aurnou, J. M.


    Rotating convection is ubiquitous in the natural universe, and is likely responsible for planetary processes such magnetic field generation. Rapidly rotating convection is typically organized by the Coriolis force into tall, thin, coherent convection columns which are aligned with the axis of rotation. This organizational effect of rotation is thought to be responsible for the strength and structure of magnetic fields generated by convecting planetary interiors. As thermal forcing is increased, the relative influence of rotation weakens, and fully three-dimensional convection can exist. It has long been assumed that rotational effects will dominate convection dynamics when the ratio of buoyancy to the Coriolis force, the convective Rossby number, Roc, is less than unity. We investigate the influence of rotation on turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection via a suite of coupled laboratory and numerical experiments over a broad parameter range: Rayleigh number, 10310; Ekman number, 10-6≤ E ≤ ∞; and Prandtl number, 1≤ Pr ≤ 100. In particular, we measure heat transfer (as characterized by the Nusselt number, Nu) as a function of the Rayleigh number for several different Ekman and Prandtl numbers. Two distinct heat transfer scaling regimes are identified: non-rotating style heat transfer, Nu ~ Ra2/7, and quasigeostrophic style heat transfer, Nu~ Ra6/5. The transition between the non-rotating regime and the rotationally dominant regime is described as a function of the Ekman number, E. We show that the regime transition depends not on the global force balance Roc, but on the relative thicknesses of the thermal and Ekman boundary layers. The transition scaling provides a predictive criterion for the applicability of convection models to natural systems such as Earth's core.

  16. Measuring Convective Mass Fluxes Over Tropical Oceans (United States)

    Raymond, David


    Deep convection forms the upward branches of all large-scale circulations in the tropics. Understanding what controls the form and intensity of vertical convective mass fluxes is thus key to understanding tropical weather and climate. These mass fluxes and the corresponding conditions supporting them have been measured by recent field programs (TPARC/TCS08, PREDICT, HS3) in tropical disturbances considered to be possible tropical storm precursors. In reality, this encompasses most strong convection in the tropics. The measurements were made with arrays of dropsondes deployed from high altitude. In some cases Doppler radar provided additional measurements. The results are in some ways surprising. Three factors were found to control the mass flux profiles, the strength of total surface heat fluxes, the column-integrated relative humidity, and the low to mid-tropospheric moist convective instability. The first two act as expected, with larger heat fluxes and higher humidity producing more precipitation and stronger lower tropospheric mass fluxes. However, unexpectedly, smaller (but still positive) convective instability produces more precipitation as well as more bottom-heavy convective mass flux profiles. Furthermore, the column humidity and the convective instability are anti-correlated, at least in the presence of strong convection. On spatial scales of a few hundred kilometers, the virtual temperature structure appears to be in dynamic balance with the pattern of potential vorticity. Since potential vorticity typically evolves on longer time scales than convection, the potential vorticity pattern plus the surface heat fluxes then become the immediate controlling factors for average convective properties. All measurements so far have taken place in regions with relatively flat sea surface temperature (SST) distributions. We are currently seeking funding for a measurement program in the tropical east Pacific, a region that exhibits strong SST gradients and

  17. Transient Mixed Convection Validation for NGNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Barton [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Schultz, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    The results of this project are best described by the papers and dissertations that resulted from the work. They are included in their entirety in this document. They are: (1) Jeff Harris PhD dissertation (focused mainly on forced convection); (2) Blake Lance PhD dissertation (focused mainly on mixed and transient convection). This dissertation is in multi-paper format and includes the article currently submitted and one to be submitted shortly; and, (3) JFE paper on CFD Validation Benchmark for Forced Convection.

  18. Convective cells and transport in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassam, A.B.; Kulsrud, R.M.


    The properties of convective cells and the diffusion resulting from such cells are significantly influenced by an inhomogeneity in the extermal confining magnetic field, such as that in toroidal plasmas. The convective diffusion in the presence of a field inhomogeneity is estimated. For a thermal background, this diffusion is shown to be substantially smaller than classical collisional diffusion. For a model nonthermal background, the diffusion is estimated, for typical parameters, to be at most of the order of collisional diffusion. The model background employed is based on spectra observed in numerical simulations of drift-wave-driven convective cells

  19. Transient Mixed Convection Validation for NGNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Barton; Schultz, Richard


    The results of this project are best described by the papers and dissertations that resulted from the work. They are included in their entirety in this document. They are: (1) Jeff Harris PhD dissertation (focused mainly on forced convection); (2) Blake Lance PhD dissertation (focused mainly on mixed and transient convection). This dissertation is in multi-paper format and includes the article currently submitted and one to be submitted shortly; and, (3) JFE paper on CFD Validation Benchmark for Forced Convection.

  20. Membranous nephropathy (United States)

    ... skin-lightening creams Systemic lupus erythematosus , rheumatoid arthritis, Graves disease, and other autoimmune disorders The disorder occurs at ... diagnosis. The following tests can help determine the cause of membranous nephropathy: Antinuclear antibodies test Anti-double- ...

  1. Evidence that the assembly of the yeast cytochrome bc1 complex involves the formation of a large core structure in the inner mitochondrial membrane. (United States)

    Zara, Vincenzo; Conte, Laura; Trumpower, Bernard L


    The assembly status of the cytochrome bc(1) complex has been analyzed in distinct yeast deletion strains in which genes for one or more of the bc(1) subunits were deleted. In all the yeast strains tested, a bc(1) sub-complex of approximately 500 kDa was found when the mitochondrial membranes were analyzed by blue native electrophoresis. The subsequent molecular characterization of this sub-complex, carried out in the second dimension by SDS/PAGE and immunodecoration, revealed the presence of the two catalytic subunits, cytochrome b and cytochrome c(1), associated with the noncatalytic subunits core protein 1, core protein 2, Qcr7p and Qcr8p. Together, these bc(1) subunits build up the core structure of the cytochrome bc(1) complex, which is then able to sequentially bind the remaining subunits, such as Qcr6p, Qcr9p, the Rieske iron-sulfur protein and Qcr10p. This bc(1) core structure may represent a true assembly intermediate during the maturation of the bc(1) complex; first, because of its wide distribution in distinct yeast deletion strains and, second, for its characteristics of stability, which resemble those of the intact homodimeric bc(1) complex. By contrast, the bc(1) core structure is unable to interact with the cytochrome c oxidase complex to form respiratory supercomplexes. The characterization of this novel core structure of the bc(1) complex provides a number of new elements clarifying the molecular events leading to the maturation of the yeast cytochrome bc(1) complex in the inner mitochondrial membrane.

  2. Evidence that assembly of the yeast cytochrome bc1 complex involves formation of a large core structure in the inner mitochondrial membrane (United States)

    Zara, Vincenzo; Conte, Laura; Trumpower, Bernard L.


    The assembly status of the cytochrome bc1 complex has been analyzed in distinct yeast deletion strains in which genes for one or more of the bc1 subunits had been deleted. In all the yeast strains tested a bc1 sub-complex of about 500 kDa was found when the mitochondrial membranes were analyzed by blue native electrophoresis. The subsequent molecular characterization of this sub-complex, carried out in the second dimension by SDS-PAGE and immunodecoration, revealed the presence of the two catalytic subunits cytochrome b and cytochrome c1, associated with the non catalytic subunits core protein 1, core protein 2, Qcr7p and Qcr8p. Altogether these bc1 subunits build up the core structure of the cytochrome bc1 complex which is then able to sequentially bind the remaining subunits, such as Qcr6p, Qcr9p, the Rieske iron-sulfur protein and Qcr10p. This bc1 core structure may represent a true assembly intermediate during the maturation of the bc1 complex, first because of its wide distribution in distinct yeast deletion strains and second for its characteristics of stability which resemble those of the intact homodimeric bc1 complex. Differently from this latter, however, the bc1 core structure is not able to interact with the cytochrome c oxidase complex to form respiratory supercomplexes. The characterization of this novel core structure of the bc1 complex provides a number of new elements for clarification of the molecular events leading to the maturation of the yeast cytochrome bc1 complex in the inner mitochondrial membrane. PMID:19236481

  3. Introducing Membrane Charge and Membrane Potential to T Cell Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanqing Ma


    Full Text Available While membrane models now include the heterogeneous distribution of lipids, the impact of membrane charges on regulating the association of proteins with the plasma membrane is often overlooked. Charged lipids are asymmetrically distributed between the two leaflets of the plasma membrane, resulting in the inner leaflet being negatively charged and a surface potential that attracts and binds positively charged ions, proteins, and peptide motifs. These interactions not only create a transmembrane potential but they can also facilitate the formation of charged membrane domains. Here, we reference fields outside of immunology in which consequences of membrane charge are better characterized to highlight important mechanisms. We then focus on T cell receptor (TCR signaling, reviewing the evidence that membrane charges and membrane-associated calcium regulate phosphorylation of the TCR–CD3 complex and discuss how the immunological synapse exhibits distinct patterns of membrane charge distribution. We propose that charged lipids, ions in solution, and transient protein interactions form a dynamic equilibrium during T cell activation.

  4. Convection in complex shaped vessel; Convection dans des enceintes de forme complexe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The 8 november 2000, the SFT (Societe Francaise de Thermique) organized a technical day on the convection in complex shaped vessels. Nine papers have been presented in the domains of the heat transfers, the natural convection, the fluid distribution, the thermosyphon effect, the steam flow in a sterilization cycle and the transformers cooling. Eight papers are analyzed in ETDE and one paper dealing with the natural convection in spent fuels depository is analyzed in INIS. (A.L.B.)

  5. Steady, three-dimensional, internally heated convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, G.; Glatzmaier, G.A.; Travis, B.


    Numerical calculations have been carried out of steady, symmetric, three-dimensional modes of convection in internally heated, infinite Prandtl number, Boussinesq fluids at a Rayleigh number of 1.4x10 4 in a spherical shell with inner/outer radius of 0.55 and in a 3x3x1 rectangular box. Multiple patterns of convection occur in both geometries. In the Cartesian geometry the patterns are dominated by cylindrical cold downflows and a broad hot upwelling. In the spherical geometry the patterns consist of cylindrical cold downwellings centered either at the vertices of a tetrahedron or the centers of the faces of a cube. The cold downflow cylinders are immersed in a background of upwelling within which there are cylindrical hot concentrations (plumes) and hot halos around the downflows. The forced hot upflow return plumes of internally heated spherical convection are fundamentally different from the buoyancy-driven plumes of heated from below convection

  6. Convective Radio Occultations Final Campaign Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biondi, R. [Atmospheric Radiation Measurement, Washington, DC (United States)


    Deep convective systems are destructive weather phenomena that annually cause many deaths and injuries as well as much damage, thereby accounting for major economic losses in several countries. The number and intensity of such phenomena have increased over the last decades in some areas of the globe. Damage is mostly caused by strong winds and heavy rain parameters that are strongly connected to the structure of the particular storm. Convection over land is usually stronger and deeper than over the ocean and some convective systems, known as supercells, also develop tornadoes through processes that remain mostly unclear. The intensity forecast and monitoring of convective systems is one of the major challenges for meteorology because in situ measurements during extreme events are too sparse or unreliable and most ongoing satellite missions do not provide suitable time/space coverage.

  7. Ignition in Convective-Diffusive Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Law, Chung


    ... efficiency as well as the knock and emission characteristics. The ignition event is clearly controlled by the chemical reactions of fuel oxidation and the fluid mechanics of convective and diffusive transport...

  8. Understanding and controlling plasmon-induced convection (United States)

    Roxworthy, Brian J.; Bhuiya, Abdul M.; Vanka, Surya P.; Toussaint, Kimani C.


    The heat generation and fluid convection induced by plasmonic nanostructures is attractive for optofluidic applications. However, previously published theoretical studies predict only nanometre per second fluid velocities that are inadequate for microscale mass transport. Here we show both theoretically and experimentally that an array of plasmonic nanoantennas coupled to an optically absorptive indium-tin-oxide (ITO) substrate can generate >micrometre per second fluid convection. Crucially, the ITO distributes thermal energy created by the nanoantennas generating an order of magnitude increase in convection velocities compared with nanoantennas on a SiO2 base layer. In addition, the plasmonic array alters absorption in the ITO, causing a deviation from Beer-Lambert absorption that results in an optimum ITO thickness for a given system. This work elucidates the role of convection in plasmonic optical trapping and particle assembly, and opens up new avenues for controlling fluid and mass transport on the micro- and nanoscale.

  9. What favors convective aggregation and why? (United States)

    Muller, Caroline; Bony, Sandrine


    The organization of convection is ubiquitous, but its physical understanding remains limited. One particular type of organization is the spatial self-aggregation of convection, taking the form of cloud clusters, or tropical cyclones in the presence of rotation. We show that several physical processes can give rise to self-aggregation and highlight the key features responsible for it, using idealized simulations. Longwave radiative feedbacks yield a "radiative aggregation." In that case, sufficient spatial variability of radiative cooling rates yields a low-level circulation, which induces the upgradient energy transport and radiative-convective instability. Not only do vertically integrated radiative budgets matter but the vertical profile of cooling is also crucial. Convective aggregation is facilitated when downdrafts below clouds are weak ("moisture-memory aggregation"), and this is sufficient to trigger aggregation in the absence of longwave radiative feedbacks. These results shed some light on the sensitivity of self-aggregation to various parameters, including resolution or domain size.

  10. Dynamics of acoustic-convective drying of sunflower cake (United States)

    Zhilin, A. A.


    The dynamics of drying sunflower cake by a new acoustic-convective method has been studied. Unlike the conventional (thermal-convective) method, the proposed method allows moisture to be extracted from porous materials without applying heat to the sample to be dried. Kinetic curves of drying by the thermal-convective and acoustic-convective methods were obtained and analyzed. The advantages of the acoustic-convective extraction of moisture over the thermal-convective method are discussed. The relaxation times of drying were determined for both drying methods. An intermittent drying mode which improves the efficiency of acoustic-convective extraction of moisture is considered.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, F. [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Pierrehumbert, R. T., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)


    Condensible substances are nearly ubiquitous in planetary atmospheres. For the most familiar case—water vapor in Earth’s present climate—the condensible gas is dilute, in the sense that its concentration is everywhere small relative to the noncondensible background gases. A wide variety of important planetary climate problems involve nondilute condensible substances. These include planets near or undergoing a water vapor runaway and planets near the outer edge of the conventional habitable zone, for which CO{sub 2} is the condensible. Standard representations of convection in climate models rely on several approximations appropriate only to the dilute limit, while nondilute convection differs in fundamental ways from dilute convection. In this paper, a simple parameterization of convection valid in the nondilute as well as dilute limits is derived and used to discuss the basic character of nondilute convection. The energy conservation properties of the scheme are discussed in detail and are verified in radiative-convective simulations. As a further illustration of the behavior of the scheme, results for a runaway greenhouse atmosphere for both steady instellation and seasonally varying instellation corresponding to a highly eccentric orbit are presented. The latter case illustrates that the high thermal inertia associated with latent heat in nondilute atmospheres can damp out the effects of even extreme seasonal forcing.

  12. Relationships Between Tropical Deep Convection, Tropospheric Mean Temperature and Cloud-Induced Radiative Fluxes on Intraseasonal Time Scales (United States)

    Ramey, Holly S.; Robertson, Franklin R.


    Intraseasonal variability of deep convection represents a fundamental mode of variability in the organization of tropical convection. While most studies of intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs) have focused on the spatial propagation and dynamics of convectively coupled circulations, we examine the projection of ISOs on the tropically-averaged temperature and energy budget. The area of interest is the global oceans between 20degN/S. Our analysis then focuses on these questions: (i) How is tropospheric temperature related to tropical deep convection and the associated ice cloud fractional amount (ICF) and ice water path (IWP)? (ii) What is the source of moisture sustaining the convection and what role does deep convection play in mediating the PBL - free atmospheric temperature equilibration? (iii) What affect do convectively generated upper-tropospheric clouds have on the TOA radiation budget? Our methodology is similar to that of Spencer et al., (2007) with some modifications and some additional diagnostics of both clouds and boundary layer thermodynamics. A composite ISO time series of cloud, precipitation and radiation quantities built from nearly 40 events during a six-year period is referenced to the atmospheric temperature signal. The increase of convective precipitation cannot be sustained by evaporation within the domain, implying strong moisture transports into the tropical ocean area. While there is a decrease in net TOA radiation that develops after the peak in deep convective rainfall, there seems little evidence that an "Infrared Iris"- like mechanism is dominant. Rather, the cloud-induced OLR increase seems largely produced by weakened convection with warmer cloud tops. Tropical ISO events offer an accessible target for studying ISOs not just in terms of propagation mechanisms, but on their global signals of heat, moisture and radiative flux feedback processes.

  13. Axionic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurilia, A.; Spallucci, E.


    A metal ring removed from a soap-water solution encloses a film of soap which can be mathematically described as a minimal surface having the ring as its only boundary. This is known to everybody. In this letter we suggest a relativistic extension of the above fluidodynamic system where the soap film is replaced by a Kalb-Ramand gauge potential B μν (x) and the ring by a closed string. The interaction between the B μν field and the string current excites a new configuration of the system consisting of a relativistic membrane bounded by the string. We call such a classical solution of the equation of motion an axionic membrane. As a dynamical system, the axionic membrane admits a Hamilton-Jacobi formulation which is an extension of the HJ theory of electromagnetic strings. (orig.)

  14. Metamaterial membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo-Flórez, Juan Manuel; Maldovan, Martin


    We introduce a new class of metamaterial device to achieve separation of compounds by using coordinate transformations and metamaterial theory. By rationally designing the spatial anisotropy for mass diffusion, we simultaneously concentrate different compounds in different spatial locations, leading to separation of mixtures across a metamaterial membrane. The separation of mixtures into their constituent compounds is critically important in biophysics, biomedical, and chemical applications. We present a practical case where a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen diffusing through a polymeric planar matrix is separated. This work opens doors to new paradigms in membrane separations via coordinate transformations and metamaterials by introducing novel properties and unconventional mass diffusion phenomena. (paper)

  15. Vertical natural convection: application of the unifying theory of thermal convection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng, C.S.; Ooi, A.; Lohse, Detlef; Chung, D.


    Results from direct numerical simulations of vertical natural convection at Rayleigh numbers 1.0×10 5 –1.0×10 9 and Prandtl number 0.709 support a generalised applicability of the Grossmann–Lohse (GL) theory, which was originally developed for horizontal natural (Rayleigh–Bénard) convection. In

  16. Chelating polymeric membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor; Villalobos Vazquez de la Parra, Luis Francisco; Hilke, Roland


    microporous chelating polymeric membrane. Embodiments include, but are not limited to, microporous chelating polymeric membranes, device comprising the membranes, and methods of using and making the same.

  17. Recent advances in computational-analytical integral transforms for convection-diffusion problems (United States)

    Cotta, R. M.; Naveira-Cotta, C. P.; Knupp, D. C.; Zotin, J. L. Z.; Pontes, P. C.; Almeida, A. P.


    An unifying overview of the Generalized Integral Transform Technique (GITT) as a computational-analytical approach for solving convection-diffusion problems is presented. This work is aimed at bringing together some of the most recent developments on both accuracy and convergence improvements on this well-established hybrid numerical-analytical methodology for partial differential equations. Special emphasis is given to novel algorithm implementations, all directly connected to enhancing the eigenfunction expansion basis, such as a single domain reformulation strategy for handling complex geometries, an integral balance scheme in dealing with multiscale problems, the adoption of convective eigenvalue problems in formulations with significant convection effects, and the direct integral transformation of nonlinear convection-diffusion problems based on nonlinear eigenvalue problems. Then, selected examples are presented that illustrate the improvement achieved in each class of extension, in terms of convergence acceleration and accuracy gain, which are related to conjugated heat transfer in complex or multiscale microchannel-substrate geometries, multidimensional Burgers equation model, and diffusive metal extraction through polymeric hollow fiber membranes. Numerical results are reported for each application and, where appropriate, critically compared against the traditional GITT scheme without convergence enhancement schemes and commercial or dedicated purely numerical approaches.

  18. Convective transport resistance in the vitreous humor (United States)

    Penkova, Anita; Sadhal, Satwindar; Ratanakijsuntorn, Komsan; Moats, Rex; Tang, Yang; Hughes, Patrick; Robinson, Michael; Lee, Susan


    It has been established by MRI visualization experiments that the convection of nanoparticles and large molecules with high rate of water flow in the vitreous humor will experience resistance, depending on the respective permeabilities of the injected solute. A set of experiments conducted with Gd-DTPA (Magnevist, Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany) and 30 nm gadolinium-based particles (Gado CELLTrackTM, Biopal, Worcester, MA) as MRI contrast agents showed that the degree of convective transport in this Darcy-type porous medium varies between the two solutes. These experiments consisted of injecting a mixture of the two (a 30 μl solution of 2% Magnevist and 1% nanoparticles) at the middle of the vitreous of an ex vivo whole bovine eye and subjecting the vitreous to water flow rate of 100 μl/min. The water (0.9% saline solution) was injected at the top of the eye, and was allowed to drain through small slits cut at the bottom of the eyeball. After 50 minutes of pumping, MRI images showed that the water flow carried the Gd-DTPA farther than the nanoparticles, even though the two solutes, being mixed, were subjected to the same convective flow conditions. We find that the convected solute lags the water flow, depending on the solute permeability. The usual convection term needs to be adjusted to allow for the filtration effect on the larger particles in the form (1- σ) u . ∇ c with important implications for the modeling of such systems.

  19. The ionospheric signature of transient dayside reconnection and the associated pulsed convection return flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Milan

    Full Text Available Three SuperDARN coherent HF radars are employed to investigate the excitation of convection in the dayside high-latitude ionosphere in response to transient reconnection occurring in the cusp region. This study demonstrates the existence of transient antisunward-propagating backscatter features at the expected location of the ionospheric footprint of the cusp region, which have a repetition rate near 10 min. These are interpreted as the ionospheric signature of flux transfer events. Moreover, transient sunward-propagating regions of backscatter are observed in the convection return flow regions of both the pre- and post-noon sectors. These patches are observed to propagate towards the noon sector from at least as far around the auroral zone as 07 MLT in the pre-noon sector and 17 MLT in the post-noon sector, travelling with a velocity of approximately 1.5 to 2 km s-1. These return flow patches have a repetition rate similar to that of the transient features observed at local noon. While providing supporting evidence for the impulsive nature of convection flow, the observation of sunward-propagating features in the return flow region is not consistent with current conceptual models of the excitation of convection.

    Key words. Ionosphere (plasma convection · Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause · cusp · and boundary layers; magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions

  20. Convective mixing in helium white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vauclair, G.; Fontaine, G.


    The conditions under which convective mixing episodes take place between the helium envelopes and the underlying carbon layers in helium-rich white dwarfs are investigated. It is found that, for essentially any value of the initial helium content less than the maximum mass a helium convection zone can have, mixing does occur, and leads, in the vast majority of cases, to an almost pure carbon superficial composition. Mixing products that show only traces of carbon while retaining helium-dominated envelopes are possible only if the initial helium content is quite close to the maximum possible mass of the helium convection zone. In the presence of turbulence, this restriction could be relaxed, however, and the helium-rich lambda4670 stars may possibly be explained in this fashion

  1. The impact of convection in the West African monsoon region on global weather forecasts - explicit vs. parameterised convection simulations using the ICON model (United States)

    Pante, Gregor; Knippertz, Peter


    the lower troposphere. Outside Africa over the Atlantic or in Europe the effect of the 2-way nesting becomes visible after some days of simulation. The changes in error measures are not as clear as in the nesting region itself but still improvements for some variables at different altitudes are evident, most likely due to a better representation of African easterly waves and Rossby waves. This work shows the importance of the West African region for global weather forecasts and the potential of convective permitting modelling in this region to improve the forecasts even far away from Africa in the future.

  2. Natural Convective Heat Transfer from Narrow Plates

    CERN Document Server

    Oosthuizen, Patrick H


    Natural Convective Heat Transfer from Narrow Plates deals with a heat transfer situation that is of significant practical importance but which is not adequately dealt with in any existing textbooks or in any widely available review papers. The aim of the book is to introduce the reader to recent studies of natural convection from narrow plates including the effects of plate edge conditions, plate inclination, thermal conditions at the plate surface and interaction of the flows over adjacent plates. Both numerical and experimental studies are discussed and correlation equations based on the results of these studies are reviewed.

  3. Introductory analysis of Benard-Marangoni convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroto, J A; Perez-Munuzuri, V; Romero-Cano, M S


    We describe experiments on Benard-Marangoni convection which permit a useful understanding of the main concepts involved in this phenomenon such as, for example, Benard cells, aspect ratio, Rayleigh and Marangoni numbers, Crispation number and critical conditions. In spite of the complexity of convection theory, we carry out a simple and introductory analysis which has the additional advantage of providing very suggestive experiments. As a consequence, we recommend our device for use as a laboratory experiment for undergraduate students of the thermodynamics of nonlinear and fluid physics

  4. Might electrical earthing affect convection of light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budrikis, Z.L.


    Partial convection of light by moving media was predicted by Fresnel and verified by Fizeau, Zeeman and others. It is accepted as an important argument in favour of the Special Theory of Relativity. The suggestion is made here that the convection is partial only when the propagating medium is moved with respect to its electrically earthed surroundings and that it would be total if an earthed shield was co-moving with the medium. This is based on a reinterpretation of Maxwell's equations wherein they are seen as macroscopic relationships that are in each case valid only in respect of a particular inertial frame of reference, the local electrical earth frame. (Auth.)

  5. Introductory analysis of Benard-Marangoni convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroto, J A [Group of Physics and Chemistry of Linares, Escuela Politecnica Superior, St Alfonso X El Sabio, 28, University of Jaen, E-23700 Linares, Jaen (Spain); Perez-Munuzuri, V [Group of Nonlinear Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Romero-Cano, M S [Group of Complex Fluids Physics, Department of Applied Physics, University of Almeria, E-04120 Almeria (Spain)


    We describe experiments on Benard-Marangoni convection which permit a useful understanding of the main concepts involved in this phenomenon such as, for example, Benard cells, aspect ratio, Rayleigh and Marangoni numbers, Crispation number and critical conditions. In spite of the complexity of convection theory, we carry out a simple and introductory analysis which has the additional advantage of providing very suggestive experiments. As a consequence, we recommend our device for use as a laboratory experiment for undergraduate students of the thermodynamics of nonlinear and fluid physics.

  6. Topology Optimisation for Coupled Convection Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Joe; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe; Aage, Niels

    stabilised finite elements implemented in a parallel multiphysics analysis and optimisation framework DFEM [1], developed and maintained in house. Focus is put on control of the temperature field within the solid structure and the problems can therefore be seen as conjugate heat transfer problems, where heat...... conduction governs in the solid parts of the design domain and couples to convection-dominated heat transfer to a surrounding fluid. Both loosely coupled and tightly coupled problems are considered. The loosely coupled problems are convection-diffusion problems, based on an advective velocity field from...

  7. Lattice BGK simulation of natural convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yu; Ohashi, Hirotada; Akiyama, Mamoru


    Recently a new thermal lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook fluid model was suggested by the authors. In this study, this new model was applied into the numerical simulation of natural convection, namely the Rayleigh Benard flow. The critical number for the onset of convective phenomenon was numerically measured and compared with that of theoretical prediction. A gravity dependent deviation was found in the numerical simulation, which is explained as an unavoidable consequence of the incorporation of gravity force in the lattice BGK system. (author)

  8. Comparing convective heat fluxes derived from thermodynamics to a radiative-convective model and GCMs (United States)

    Dhara, Chirag; Renner, Maik; Kleidon, Axel


    The convective transport of heat and moisture plays a key role in the climate system, but the transport is typically parameterized in models. Here, we aim at the simplest possible physical representation and treat convective heat fluxes as the result of a heat engine. We combine the well-known Carnot limit of this heat engine with the energy balances of the surface-atmosphere system that describe how the temperature difference is affected by convective heat transport, yielding a maximum power limit of convection. This results in a simple analytic expression for convective strength that depends primarily on surface solar absorption. We compare this expression with an idealized grey atmosphere radiative-convective (RC) model as well as Global Circulation Model (GCM) simulations at the grid scale. We find that our simple expression as well as the RC model can explain much of the geographic variation of the GCM output, resulting in strong linear correlations among the three approaches. The RC model, however, shows a lower bias than our simple expression. We identify the use of the prescribed convective adjustment in RC-like models as the reason for the lower bias. The strength of our model lies in its ability to capture the geographic variation of convective strength with a parameter-free expression. On the other hand, the comparison with the RC model indicates a method for improving the formulation of radiative transfer in our simple approach. We also find that the latent heat fluxes compare very well among the approaches, as well as their sensitivity to surface warming. What our comparison suggests is that the strength of convection and their sensitivity in the climatic mean can be estimated relatively robustly by rather simple approaches.

  9. Membrane microparticles and diseases. (United States)

    Wu, Z-H; Ji, C-L; Li, H; Qiu, G-X; Gao, C-J; Weng, X-S


    Membrane microparticles (MPs) are plasma membrane-derived vesicles shed by various types of activated or apoptotic cells including platelets, monocytes, endothelial cells, red blood cells, and granulocytes. MPs are being increasingly recognized as important regulators of cell-to-cell interactions. Recent evidences suggest they may play important functions not only in homeostasis but also in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases such as vascular diseases, cancer, infectious diseases and diabetes mellitus. Accordingly, inhibiting the production of MPs may serve as a novel therapeutic strategy for these diseases. Here we review recent advances on the mechanism underlying the generation of MPs and the role of MPs in vascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, inflammation, and pathogen infection.

  10. High Ra, high Pr convection with viscosity gradients

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. High Ra, high Pr convection with viscosity gradients. Weak upward flow through mesh. Top fluid more viscous. Unstable layer Instability Convection.

  11. Stretched flow of Carreau nanofluid with convective boundary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. January 2016 physics pp. 3–17. Stretched flow of Carreau nanofluid with ... fluid over a flat plate subjected to convective surface condition. ... the steady laminar boundary layer flow over a permeable plate with a convective boundary.

  12. Thermal convection of liquid sodium in inclined cylinders (United States)

    Khalilov, Ruslan; Kolesnichenko, Ilya; Pavlinov, Alexander; Mamykin, Andrey; Shestakov, Alexander; Frick, Peter


    The effect of inclination on the low Prandtl number turbulent convection in a cylinder of unit aspect ratio was studied experimentally. The working fluid was sodium (Prandtl number Pr =0.0094 ), the measurements were performed for a fixed Rayleigh number Ra =(1.47 ±0.03 ) ×107 , and the inclination angle varied from β =0∘ (the Rayleigh-Bénard convection, the temperature gradient is vertical) up to β =90∘ (the applied temperature gradient is horizontal) with a step Δ β =10∘ . The effective axial heat flux characterized by the Nusselt number is minimal at β =0∘ and demonstrates a smooth growth with the increase of the cylinder inclination, reaching a maximum at angle β ≈70∘ and decreasing with a further increase of β . The maximal value of the normalized Nusselt number Nu (β )/Nu (0 ) was 1.21. In general, the dependence of Nu (β ) in a cylinder with unit aspect ratio is similar to what was observed in sodium convection in inclined long cylinders but is much weaker. The structure of the flow undergoes a significant transformation with inclination. Under moderate inclination (β ≲30∘ ), the fluctuations are strong and are provided by regular oscillations of large-scale circulation (LSC) and by turbulence. Under large inclination (β >60∘ ), the LSC is regular and the turbulence is weak, while in transient regimes (30∘border of transient and large inclinations. We find the first evidence of strong LSC fluctuations in low Prandtl number convective flow under moderate inclination. The rms azimuthal fluctuations of LSC, about 27∘ at β =0∘ , decrease almost linearly up to β =30∘ , where they are about 9∘. The angular fluctuations in the vicinity of the end faces are much stronger (about 37∘ at β =0∘ ) and weakly decrease up to β =20∘ . The strong anticorrelation of the fluctuations in two halves of the cylinder indicates the torsional character of LSC fluctuations. At β =30∘ , the intensity of the oscillations at the

  13. Impact of Aerosols on Convective Clouds and Precipitation (United States)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Chen, Jen-Ping; Li, Zhanqing; Wang, Chien; Zhang, Chidong; Li, Xiaowen


    Aerosols are a critical.factor in the atmospheric hydrological cycle and radiation budget. As a major agent for clouds to form and a significant attenuator of solar radiation, aerosols affect climate in several ways. Current research suggests that aerosols have a major impact on the dynamics, microphysics, and electrification properties of continental mixed-phase convective clouds. In addition, high aerosol concentrations in urban environments could affect precipitation variability by providing a significant source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Such pollution . effects on precipitation potentially have enormous climatic consequences both in terms of feedbacks involving the land surface via rainfall as well as the surface energy budget and changes in latent heat input to the atmosphere. Basically, aerosol concentrations can influence cloud droplet size distributions, the warm-rain process, the cold-rain process, cloud-top heights, the depth of the mixed-phase region, and the occurrence of lightning. Recently, many cloud resolution models (CRMs) have been used to examine the role of aerosols on mixed-phase convective clouds. These modeling studies have many differences in terms of model configuration (two- or three-dimensional), domain size, grid spacing (150-3000 m), microphysics (two-moment bulk, simple or sophisticated spectral-bin), turbulence (1st or 1.5 order turbulent kinetic energy (TKE)), radiation, lateral boundary conditions (i.e., closed, radiative open or cyclic), cases (isolated convection, tropical or midlatitude squall lines) and model integration time (e.g., 2.5 to 48 hours). Among these modeling studies, the most striking difference is that cumulative precipitation can either increase or decrease in response to higher concentrations of CCN. In this presentation, we review past efforts and summarize our current understanding of the effect of aerosols on convective precipitation processes. Specifically, this paper addresses the following topics

  14. Finite Volume Scheme for Double Convection-Diffusion Exchange of Solutes in Bicarbonate High-Flux Hollow-Fiber Dialyzer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodwo Annan


    Full Text Available The efficiency of a high-flux dialyzer in terms of buffering and toxic solute removal largely depends on the ability to use convection-diffusion mechanism inside the membrane. A two-dimensional transient convection-diffusion model coupled with acid-base correction term was developed. A finite volume technique was used to discretize the model and to numerically simulate it using MATLAB software tool. We observed that small solute concentration gradients peaked and were large enough to activate solute diffusion process in the membrane. While CO2 concentration gradients diminished from their maxima and shifted toward the end of the membrane, concentration gradients peaked at the same position. Also, CO2 concentration decreased rapidly within the first 47 minutes while optimal concentration was achieved within 30 minutes of the therapy. Abnormally high diffusion fluxes were observed near the blood-membrane interface that increased diffusion driving force and enhanced the overall diffusive process. While convective flux dominated total flux during the dialysis session, there was a continuous interference between convection and diffusion fluxes that call for the need to seek minimal interference between these two mechanisms. This is critical for the effective design and operation of high-flux dialyzers.

  15. An infinite-dimensional model of free convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iudovich, V.I. (Rostovskii Gosudarstvennyi Universitet, Rostov-on-Don (USSR))


    An infinite-dimensional model is derived from the equations of free convection in the Boussinesq-Oberbeck approximation. The velocity field is approximated by a single mode, while the heat-conduction equation is conserved fully. It is shown that, for all supercritical Rayleigh numbers, there exist exactly two secondary convective regimes. The case of ideal convection with zero viscosity and thermal conductivity is examined. The averaging method is used to study convection regimes at high Reynolds numbers. 10 refs.

  16. Education: DNA replication using microscale natural convection. (United States)

    Priye, Aashish; Hassan, Yassin A; Ugaz, Victor M


    There is a need for innovative educational experiences that unify and reinforce fundamental principles at the interface between the physical, chemical, and life sciences. These experiences empower and excite students by helping them recognize how interdisciplinary knowledge can be applied to develop new products and technologies that benefit society. Microfluidics offers an incredibly versatile tool to address this need. Here we describe our efforts to create innovative hands-on activities that introduce chemical engineering students to molecular biology by challenging them to harness microscale natural convection phenomena to perform DNA replication via the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Experimentally, we have constructed convective PCR stations incorporating a simple design for loading and mounting cylindrical microfluidic reactors between independently controlled thermal plates. A portable motion analysis microscope enables flow patterns inside the convective reactors to be directly visualized using fluorescent bead tracers. We have also developed a hands-on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) exercise based on modeling microscale thermal convection to identify optimal geometries for DNA replication. A cognitive assessment reveals that these activities strongly impact student learning in a positive way.

  17. Evolution of Excited Convective Cells in Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Sugai, H.


    Convective cells are excited externally in a fully ionized magnetized plasma and their space-time evolution is investigated by two-dimensional potential measurements. A positive cell is excited externally by control of the end losses in the 'scrape off' layer of a plasma column produced by surface...

  18. Free convection film flows and heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Shang, Deyi


    Presents development of systematic studies for hydrodynamics and heat and mass transfer in laminar free convection, accelerating film boiling and condensation of Newtonian fluids, and accelerating film flow of non-Newtonian power-law fluids. This book provides a system of analysis models with a developed velocity component method.

  19. Penetrative convection at high Rayleigh numbers (United States)

    Toppaladoddi, Srikanth; Wettlaufer, John S.


    We study penetrative convection of a fluid confined between two horizontal plates, the temperatures of which are such that a temperature of maximum density lies between them. The range of Rayleigh numbers studied is Ra=[0.01 ,4 ]106,108 and the Prandtl numbers are Pr=1 and 11.6. An evolution equation for the growth of the convecting region is obtained through an integral energy balance. We identify a new nondimensional parameter, Λ , which is the ratio of temperature difference between the stable and unstable regions of the flow; larger values of Λ denote increased stability of the upper stable layer. We study the effects of Λ on the flow field using well-resolved lattice Boltzmann simulations and show that the characteristics of the flow depend sensitively upon it. For the range Λ = , we find that for a fixed Ra the Nusselt number, Nu, increases with decreasing Λ . We also investigate the effects of Λ on the vertical variation of convective heat flux and the Brunt-Väisälä frequency. Our results clearly indicate that in the limit Λ →0 the problem reduces to that of the classical Rayleigh-Bénard convection.

  20. Radiative-convective equilibrium model intercomparison project (United States)

    Wing, Allison A.; Reed, Kevin A.; Satoh, Masaki; Stevens, Bjorn; Bony, Sandrine; Ohno, Tomoki


    RCEMIP, an intercomparison of multiple types of models configured in radiative-convective equilibrium (RCE), is proposed. RCE is an idealization of the climate system in which there is a balance between radiative cooling of the atmosphere and heating by convection. The scientific objectives of RCEMIP are three-fold. First, clouds and climate sensitivity will be investigated in the RCE setting. This includes determining how cloud fraction changes with warming and the role of self-aggregation of convection in climate sensitivity. Second, RCEMIP will quantify the dependence of the degree of convective aggregation and tropical circulation regimes on temperature. Finally, by providing a common baseline, RCEMIP will allow the robustness of the RCE state across the spectrum of models to be assessed, which is essential for interpreting the results found regarding clouds, climate sensitivity, and aggregation, and more generally, determining which features of tropical climate a RCE framework is useful for. A novel aspect and major advantage of RCEMIP is the accessibility of the RCE framework to a variety of models, including cloud-resolving models, general circulation models, global cloud-resolving models, single-column models, and large-eddy simulation models.

  1. Vortex statistics in turbulent rotating convection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunnen, R.P.J.; Clercx, H.J.H.; Geurts, B.J.


    The vortices emerging in rotating turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection in water at Rayleigh number Ra=6.0×108 are investigated using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry and by direct numerical simulation. The so-called Q criterion is used to detect the vortices from velocity fields. This

  2. Phenomenology of convection-parameterization closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-I. Yano


    Full Text Available Closure is a problem of defining the convective intensity in a given parameterization. In spite of many years of efforts and progress, it is still considered an overall unresolved problem. The present article reviews this problem from phenomenological perspectives. The physical variables that may contribute in defining the convective intensity are listed, and their statistical significances identified by observational data analyses are reviewed. A possibility is discussed for identifying a correct closure hypothesis by performing a linear stability analysis of tropical convectively coupled waves with various different closure hypotheses. Various individual theoretical issues are considered from various different perspectives. The review also emphasizes that the dominant physical factors controlling convection differ between the tropics and extra-tropics, as well as between oceanic and land areas. Both observational as well as theoretical analyses, often focused on the tropics, do not necessarily lead to conclusions consistent with our operational experiences focused on midlatitudes. Though we emphasize the importance of the interplays between these observational, theoretical and operational perspectives, we also face challenges for establishing a solid research framework that is universally applicable. An energy cycle framework is suggested as such a candidate.

  3. Oscillatory Convection in Rotating Liquid Metals (United States)

    Bertin, Vincent; Grannan, Alex; Aurnou, Jonathan


    We have performed laboratory experiments in a aspect ratio Γ = 2 cylinder using liquid gallium (Pr = 0 . 023) as the working fluid. The Ekman number varies from E = 4 ×10-5 to 4 ×10-6 and the Rayleigh number varies from Ra = 3 ×105 to 2 ×107 . Using heat transfer and temperature measurements within the fluid, we characterize the different styles of low Pr rotating convective flow. The convection threshold is first overcome in the form of a container scale inertial oscillatory mode. At stronger forcing, wall-localized modes develop, coexisting with the inertial oscillatory modes in the bulk. When the strength of the buoyancy increases further, the bulk flow becomes turbulent while the wall modes remain. Our results imply that rotating convective flows in liquid metals do not develop in the form of quasi-steady columns, as in Pr = 1 planetary and stellar dynamo models, but in the form of oscillatory motions. Therefore, convection driven dynamo action in low Pr fluids can differ substantively than that occurring in typical Pr = 1 numerical models. Our results also suggest that low wavenumber, wall modes may be dynamically and observationally important in liquid metal dynamo systems. We thank the NSF Geophysics Program for support of this project.

  4. Natural convection in horizontal fluid layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suo-Antilla, A.J.


    The experimental work includes developing and using a thermal convection cell to obtain measurements of the heat flux and turbulent core temperature of a horizontal layer of fluid heated internally and subject to both stabilizing and destabilizing temperature differences. The ranges of Rayleigh numbers tested were 10 7 equal to or less than R/sub I/ equal to or less than 10 13 and -10 10 equal to or less than R/sub E/ equal to or less than 10 10 . Power integral methods were found to be adequate for interpolating and extrapolating the data. The theoretical work consists of the derivation, solution and use of the mean field equations for study of thermally driven convection in horizontal layers of infinite extent. The equations were derived by a separation of variables technique where the horizontal directions were described by periodic structures and the vertical being some function of z. The derivation resulted in a coupled set of momentum and energy equations. The equations were simplified by using the infinite Prandtl number limit and neglecting direct intermodal interaction. Solutions to these equations are used to predict the existence of multi-wavenumber flows at all supercritical Rayleigh numbers. Subsequent inspection of existing experimental photographs of convecting fluids confirms their existence. The onset of time dependence is found to coincide with the onset of the second convective mode. Each mode is found to consist of two wavenumbers and typically the velocity and temperature fields of the right modal branch are found to be out of phase

  5. Unstable mixed convective transport in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schincariol, R.A.; Schwartz, F.W.


    This study is an experimental investigation of variable density groundwater flow in homogeneous and lenticular porous media. A solution of 500 mg/l Rhodamine WT dye served as the carrier for various concentrations of solute (NaCl) introduced into a two-dimensional flow tank at concentrations ranging from 1000 to 100,000 mg/l. At the scale of the experiments, mass transport depends upon both forced and free convection. In addition, density differences as low as 0.008 g/cm 3 (1000 mg/l NaCl) between a plume of dense water and ambient groundwater in homogeneous medium produces gravitational instabilities at realistic groundwater velocities. These instabilities are manifest by lobe-shaped protuberances that formed first along the bottom edge of the plume and later within the plume. As the density difference increases to 0.0015 g/cm 3 (2000 mg/l NaCl), 0.0037 g/cm 3 (5000 mg/l NaCl) or higher, this unstable mixing due to convective dispersion significantly alters the spreading process, resulting in a large degree of vertical spreading of the plume. In a lenticular medium the combination of convective dispersion and nonuniform flow due to heterogeneities results in relatively large dispersion. Scale considerations indicate that convective dispersion may provide an important component of mixing at the field scale. (Author) (30 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.)

  6. Solar Hot Water Heating by Natural Convection. (United States)

    Noble, Richard D.


    Presents an undergraduate laboratory experiment in which a solar collector is used to heat water for domestic use. The working fluid is moved by natural convection so no pumps are required. Experimental apparatus is simple in design and operation so that data can be collected quickly and easily. (Author/JN)

  7. A 'backward' free-convective boundary layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiken, H.K.


    In this paper the cooling of a low-heat-resistance sheet that moves downwards is considered. The free-convective velocities are assumed to be much larger than the velocity of the sheet. As a result the motion of the fluid is mainly towards the point where the sheet enters the system and a ‘backward’

  8. Natural convection inside an irregular porous cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltran, Jorge I. LLagostera; Trevisan, Osvair Vidal


    Natural convection flow induced by heating from below in a irregular porous cavity is investigated numerically. The influence of the modified Rayleigh number and geometric ratios on heat transfer and fluid flow is studied. Global and local Nusselt for Rayleigh numbers covering the range 0 - 1600 and for several geometric ratios. The fluid flow and the temperature field are illustrated by contour maps. (author)

  9. Convection in Slab and Spheroidal Geometries (United States)

    Porter, David H.; Woodward, Paul R.; Jacobs, Michael L.


    Three-dimensional numerical simulations of compressible turbulent thermally driven convection, in both slab and spheroidal geometries, are reviewed and analyzed in terms of velocity spectra and mixing-length theory. The same ideal gas model is used in both geometries, and resulting flows are compared. The piecewise-parabolic method (PPM), with either thermal conductivity or photospheric boundary conditions, is used to solve the fluid equations of motion. Fluid motions in both geometries exhibit a Kolmogorov-like k(sup -5/3) range in their velocity spectra. The longest wavelength modes are energetically dominant in both geometries, typically leading to one convection cell dominating the flow. In spheroidal geometry, a dipolar flow dominates the largest scale convective motions. Downflows are intensely turbulent and up drafts are relatively laminar in both geometries. In slab geometry, correlations between temperature and velocity fluctuations, which lead to the enthalpy flux, are fairly independent of depth. In spheroidal geometry this same correlation increases linearly with radius over the inner 70 percent by radius, in which the local pressure scale heights are a sizable fraction of the radius. The effects from the impenetrable boundary conditions in the slab geometry models are confused with the effects from non-local convection. In spheroidal geometry nonlocal effects, due to coherent plumes, are seen as far as several pressure scale heights from the lower boundary and are clearly distinguishable from boundary effects.

  10. Preserving Symmetry in Convection-Diffusion Schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstappen, R.W.C.P.; Veldman, A.E.P.; Drikakis, D.; Geurts, B.J.


    We propose to perform turbulent flow simulations in such manner that the difference operators do have the same symmetry properties as the corresponding differential operators. That is, the convective operator is represented by a skew-symmetric difference operator and the diffusive operator is

  11. Theories for convection in stellar atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordlund, Aa.


    A discussion of the fundamental differences between laboratory convection in a stellar atmosphere is presented. The shortcomings of laterally homogeneous model atmospheres are analysed, and the extent to which these shortcoming are avoided in the two-component representation is discussed. Finally a qualitative discussion on the scaling properties of stellar granulation is presented. (Auth.)

  12. Terminal project heat convection in thin cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Corona, J.


    Heat convection in thin cylinders and analysis about natural convection for straight vertical plates, and straight vertical cylinders submersed in a fluid are presented some works carry out by different authors in the field of heat transfer. In the part of conduction, deduction of the equation of heat conduction in cylindrical coordinates by means of energy balance in a control volume is presented. Enthalpy and internal energy are used for the outlining of the equation and finally the equation in its vectorial form is obtained. In the convection part development to calculate the Nusselt number for a straight vertical plate by a forces analysis, an energy balance and mass conservation over a control volume is outlined. Several empiric correlations to calculate the Nusselt number and its relations with other dimensionless numbers are presented. In the experimental part the way in which a prototype rode is assembled is presented measurements of temperatures attained in steady state and in free convection for working fluids as air and water are showed in tables. Also graphs of Nusselt numbers obtained in the experimental way through some empiric correlations are showed (Author)

  13. Influence of convective conditions on three dimensional mixed convective hydromagnetic boundary layer flow of Casson nanofluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauf, A., E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Siddiq, M.K. [Centre for Advanced Studies in Pure and Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 63000 (Pakistan); Abbasi, F.M. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Meraj, M.A. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Ashraf, M. [Centre for Advanced Studies in Pure and Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 63000 (Pakistan); Shehzad, S.A. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan)


    The present work deals with the steady laminar three-dimensional mixed convective magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow of Casson nanofluid over a bidirectional stretching surface. A uniform magnetic field is applied normal to the flow direction. Similarity variables are implemented to convert the non-linear partial differential equations into ordinary ones. Convective boundary conditions are utilized at surface of the sheet. A numerical technique of Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg (RFK45) is used to obtain the results of velocity, temperature and concentration fields. The physical dimensionless parameters are discussed through tables and graphs. - Highlights: • Mixed convective boundary layer flow of Casson nanofluid is taken into account. • Impact of magnetic field is examined. • Convective heat and mass conditions are imposed. • Numerical solutions are presented and discussed.

  14. Testing particle filters on convective scale dynamics (United States)

    Haslehner, Mylene; Craig, George. C.; Janjic, Tijana


    Particle filters have been developed in recent years to deal with highly nonlinear dynamics and non Gaussian error statistics that also characterize data assimilation on convective scales. In this work we explore the use of the efficient particle filter (P.v. Leeuwen, 2011) for convective scale data assimilation application. The method is tested in idealized setting, on two stochastic models. The models were designed to reproduce some of the properties of convection, for example the rapid development and decay of convective clouds. The first model is a simple one-dimensional, discrete state birth-death model of clouds (Craig and Würsch, 2012). For this model, the efficient particle filter that includes nudging the variables shows significant improvement compared to Ensemble Kalman Filter and Sequential Importance Resampling (SIR) particle filter. The success of the combination of nudging and resampling, measured as RMS error with respect to the 'true state', is proportional to the nudging intensity. Significantly, even a very weak nudging intensity brings notable improvement over SIR. The second model is a modified version of a stochastic shallow water model (Würsch and Craig 2013), which contains more realistic dynamical characteristics of convective scale phenomena. Using the efficient particle filter and different combination of observations of the three field variables (wind, water 'height' and rain) allows the particle filter to be evaluated in comparison to a regime where only nudging is used. Sensitivity to the properties of the model error covariance is also considered. Finally, criteria are identified under which the efficient particle filter outperforms nudging alone. References: Craig, G. C. and M. Würsch, 2012: The impact of localization and observation averaging for convective-scale data assimilation in a simple stochastic model. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.,139, 515-523. Van Leeuwen, P. J., 2011: Efficient non-linear data assimilation in geophysical

  15. Novel Natural Convection Heat Sink Design Concepts From First Principles (United States)



  16. International symposium on transient convective heat transfer: book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The international symposium on convective heat transfer was held on 19-23 August 1996, in Cesme, Izmir, Turkey. The spesialists discussed forced convection, heat exchangers, free convection and multiphase media and phase change at the meeting. Almost 53 papers were presented in the meeting

  17. Basal melting driven by turbulent thermal convection (United States)

    Rabbanipour Esfahani, Babak; Hirata, Silvia C.; Berti, Stefano; Calzavarini, Enrico


    Melting and, conversely, solidification processes in the presence of convection are key to many geophysical problems. An essential question related to these phenomena concerns the estimation of the (time-evolving) melting rate, which is tightly connected to the turbulent convective dynamics in the bulk of the melt fluid and the heat transfer at the liquid-solid interface. In this work, we consider a convective-melting model, constructed as a generalization of the Rayleigh-Bénard system, accounting for the basal melting of a solid. As the change of phase proceeds, a fluid layer grows at the heated bottom of the system and eventually reaches a turbulent convection state. By means of extensive lattice-Boltzmann numerical simulations employing an enthalpy formulation of the governing equations, we explore the model dynamics in two- and three-dimensional configurations. The focus of the analysis is on the scaling of global quantities like the heat flux and the kinetic energy with the Rayleigh number, as well as on the interface morphology and the effects of space dimensionality. Independently of dimensionality, we find that the convective-melting system behavior shares strong resemblances with that of the Rayleigh-Bénard one, and that the heat flux is only weakly enhanced with respect to that case. Such similarities are understood, at least to some extent, considering the resulting slow motion of the melting front (with respect to the turbulent fluid velocity fluctuations) and its generally little roughness (compared to the height of the fluid layer). Varying the Stefan number, accounting for the thermodynamical properties of the material, also seems to have only a mild effect, which implies the possibility of extrapolating results in numerically delicate low-Stefan setups from more convenient high-Stefan ones. Finally, we discuss the implications of our findings for the geophysically relevant problem of modeling Arctic ice melt ponds.

  18. Convective mass transfer around a dissolving bubble (United States)

    Duplat, Jerome; Grandemange, Mathieu; Poulain, Cedric


    Heat or mass transfer around an evaporating drop or condensing vapor bubble is a complex issue due to the interplay between the substrate properties, diffusion- and convection-driven mass transfer, and Marangoni effects, to mention but a few. In order to disentangle these mechanisms, we focus here mainly on the convective mass transfer contribution in an isothermal mass transfer problem. For this, we study the case of a millimetric carbon dioxide bubble which is suspended under a substrate and dissolved into pure liquid water. The high solubility of CO2 in water makes the liquid denser and promotes a buoyant-driven flow at a high (solutal) Rayleigh number (Ra˜104 ). The alteration of p H allows the concentration field in the liquid to be imaged by laser fluorescence enabling us to measure both the global mass flux (bubble volume, contact angle) and local mass flux around the bubble along time. After a short period of mass diffusion, where the boundary layer thickens like the square root of time, convection starts and the CO2 is carried by a plume falling at constant velocity. The boundary layer thickness then reaches a plateau which depends on the bubble cross section. Meanwhile the plume velocity scales like (dV /d t )1 /2 with V being the volume of the bubble. As for the rate of volume loss, we recover a constant mass flux in the diffusion-driven regime followed by a decrease in the volume V like V2 /3 after convection has started. We present a model which agrees well with the bubble dynamics and discuss our results in the context of droplet evaporation, as well as high Rayleigh convection.

  19. Species transport mechanisms governing capacity loss in vanadium flow batteries: Comparing Nafion® and sulfonated Radel membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agar, Ertan; Knehr, K.W.; Chen, D.; Hickner, M.A.; Kumbur, E.C.


    Highlights: • Species transport mechanisms are investigated in Nafion ® and s-Radel for VRFBs. • Unlike diffusion in Nafion ® , crossover in s-Radel is dominated by convection. • In particular, electro-osmotic convection is the dominant mode in s-Radel. • Change in direction of convection causes a lower crossover in s-Radel. • Hydraulic and electrokinetic permeability are as important as vanadium permeability. -- Abstract: In this study, a 2-D, transient vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) model was used to investigate and compare the ion transport mechanisms responsible for vanadium crossover in Nafion ® 117 and sulfonated Radel (s-Radel) membranes. Specifically, the model was used to distinguish the relative contribution of diffusion, migration, osmotic and electro-osmotic convection to the net vanadium crossover in Nafion ® and s-Radel. Model simulations indicate that diffusion is the dominant mode of vanadium transport in Nafion ® , whereas convection dominates the vanadium transport through s-Radel due to the lower vanadium permeability, and thus diffusivity of s-Radel. Among the convective transport modes, electro-osmotic convection (i.e., electro-osmotic drag) is found to govern the species crossover in s-Radel due to its higher fixed acid concentration and corresponding free ions in the membrane. Simulations also show that vanadium crossover in s-Radel changes direction during charge and discharge due to the change in the direction of electro-osmotic convection. This reversal in the direction of crossover during charge and discharge is found to result in significantly lower “net” crossover for s-Radel when compared to Nafion ® . Comparison of these two membranes also provides guidance for minimizing crossover in VRFB systems and underscores the importance of measuring the hydraulic and the electro-kinetic permeability of a membrane in addition to vanadium diffusion characteristics, when evaluating new membranes for VRFB applications

  20. Selective effect of cell membrane on synaptic neurotransmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postila, Pekka A.; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Róg, Tomasz


    Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations were performed with 13 non-peptidic neurotransmitters (NTs) in three different membrane environments. The results provide compelling evidence that NTs are divided into membrane-binding and membrane-nonbinding molecules. NTs adhere to the postsynaptic membr...... the importance of cell membrane and specific lipids for neurotransmission, should to be of interest to neuroscientists, drug industry and the general public alike.......Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations were performed with 13 non-peptidic neurotransmitters (NTs) in three different membrane environments. The results provide compelling evidence that NTs are divided into membrane-binding and membrane-nonbinding molecules. NTs adhere to the postsynaptic...... membrane surface whenever the ligand-binding sites of their synaptic receptors are buried in the lipid bilayer. In contrast, NTs that have extracellular ligand-binding sites do not have a similar tendency to adhere to the membrane surface. This finding is a seemingly simple yet important addition...

  1. Meridional flow in the solar convection zone. I. Measurements from gong data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kholikov, S. [National Solar Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Serebryanskiy, A. [Ulugh Beg Astronomical Institute, Uzbek Academy of Science, Tashkent 100052 (Uzbekistan); Jackiewicz, J., E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)


    Large-scale plasma flows in the Sun's convection zone likely play a major role in solar dynamics on decadal timescales. In particular, quantifying meridional motions is a critical ingredient for understanding the solar cycle and the transport of magnetic flux. Because the signal of such features can be quite small in deep solar layers and be buried in systematics or noise, the true meridional velocity profile has remained elusive. We perform time-distance helioseismology measurements on several years worth of Global Oscillation Network Group Doppler data. A spherical harmonic decomposition technique is applied to a subset of acoustic modes to measure travel-time differences to try to obtain signatures of meridional flows throughout the solar convection zone. Center-to-limb systematics are taken into account in an intuitive yet ad hoc manner. Travel-time differences near the surface that are consistent with a poleward flow in each hemisphere and are similar to previous work are measured. Additionally, measurements in deep layers near the base of the convection zone suggest a possible equatorward flow, as well as partial evidence of a sign change in the travel-time differences at mid-convection zone depths. This analysis on an independent data set using different measurement techniques strengthens recent conclusions that the convection zone may have multiple 'cells' of meridional flow. The results may challenge the common understanding of one large conveyor belt operating in the solar convection zone. Further work with helioseismic inversions and a careful study of systematic effects are needed before firm conclusions of these large-scale flow structures can be made.

  2. Spatio-Temporal Variability of Western Central African Convection from Infrared Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derbetini A. Vondou


    Full Text Available The present study has used Meteosat infrared brightness temperature images to investigate the regional and interannual variability of Central African cloudiness. Spatial and temporal variability were investigated using half–hourly data from the Meteosat-7 during June–July–August (JJA of 1998–2002. The full domain of study (1.5E–17E, 1N–15N was divided into six regions and statistics in each region were derived. Analysis of the dependence of cloud fraction to the brightness temperature threshold is explored both over land and ocean. Three diurnal cycle regimes (continental, oceanic, and coastal are depicted according to the amplitude and peak time. Over regions of relatively flat terrain, results indicate enhancement of deep convection in the afternoon followed by a gradual decrease in the night. The diurnal cycle of convection is characterised by afternoon and early evening (around 15:00–18:00 LST maxima located mainly downwind of the major mountain chains, and a more rapid nighttime decay. In terms of the harmonic amplitude, the diurnal signal shows significant regional contrast with the strongest manifestation over the Adamaoua Plateau and the weakest near the South Cameroon Plateau. This remarkable spatial dependence is clear evidence of orographic and heterogeneous land-surface impacts on convective development. Oceanic region exhibits weak activity of convective cloudiness with a maximum at noon. It is suggested that daytime heating of the land surface and moist environment may play a role in determining the spatial distribution of cloud fraction. This study further demonstrates the importance of the Cameroon coastline concavity and coastal mountains in regulating regional frequencies of convection and their initialization. The strength of the diurnal cycle of convective activity depends on mountain height, mean flow, coastal geometry.

  3. Modelling the possible interaction between edge-driven convection and the Canary Islands mantle plume (United States)

    Negredo, A. M.; Rodríguez-González, J.; Fullea, J.; Van Hunen, J.


    The close location between many hotspots and the edges of cratonic lithosphere has led to the hypothesis that these hotspots could be explained by small-scale mantle convection at the edge of cratons (Edge Driven Convection, EDC). The Canary Volcanic Province hotspot represents a paradigmatic example of this situation due to its close location to the NW edge of the African Craton. Geochemical evidence, prominent low seismic velocity anomalies in the upper and lower mantle, and the rough NE-SW age-progression of volcanic centers consistently point out to a deep-seated mantle plume as the origin of the Canary Volcanic Province. It has been hypothesized that the plume material could be affected by upper mantle convection caused by the thermal contrast between thin oceanic lithosphere and thick (cold) African craton. Deflection of upwelling blobs due to convection currents would be responsible for the broader and more irregular pattern of volcanism in the Canary Province compared to the Madeira Province. In this study we design a model setup inspired on this scenario to investigate the consequences of possible interaction between ascending mantle plumes and EDC. The Finite Element code ASPECT is used to solve convection in a 2D box. The compositional field and melt fraction distribution are also computed. Free slip along all boundaries and constant temperature at top and bottom boundaries are assumed. The initial temperature distribution assumes a small long-wavelength perturbation. The viscosity structure is based on a thick cratonic lithosphere progressively varying to a thin, or initially inexistent, oceanic lithosphere. The effects of assuming different rheologies, as well as steep or gradual changes in lithospheric thickness are tested. Modelling results show that a very thin oceanic lithosphere (models assuming temperature-dependent viscosity and large viscosity variations evolve to large-scale (upper mantle) convection cells, with upwelling of hot material being

  4. A continuous and prognostic convection scheme based on buoyancy, PCMT (United States)

    Guérémy, Jean-François; Piriou, Jean-Marcel


    A new and consistent convection scheme (PCMT: Prognostic Condensates Microphysics and Transport), providing a continuous and prognostic treatment of this atmospheric process, is described. The main concept ensuring the consistency of the whole system is the buoyancy, key element of any vertical motion. The buoyancy constitutes the forcing term of the convective vertical velocity, which is then used to define the triggering condition, the mass flux, and the rates of entrainment-detrainment. The buoyancy is also used in its vertically integrated form (CAPE) to determine the closure condition. The continuous treatment of convection, from dry thermals to deep precipitating convection, is achieved with the help of a continuous formulation of the entrainment-detrainment rates (depending on the convective vertical velocity) and of the CAPE relaxation time (depending on the convective over-turning time). The convective tendencies are directly expressed in terms of condensation and transport. Finally, the convective vertical velocity and condensates are fully prognostic, the latter being treated using the same microphysics scheme as for the resolved condensates but considering the convective environment. A Single Column Model (SCM) validation of this scheme is shown, allowing detailed comparisons with observed and explicitly simulated data. Four cases covering the convective spectrum are considered: over ocean, sensitivity to environmental moisture (S. Derbyshire) non precipitating shallow convection to deep precipitating convection, trade wind shallow convection (BOMEX) and strato-cumulus (FIRE), together with an entire continental diurnal cycle of convection (ARM). The emphasis is put on the characteristics of the scheme which enable a continuous treatment of convection. Then, a 3D LAM validation is presented considering an AMMA case with both observations and a CRM simulation using the same initial and lateral conditions as for the parameterized one. Finally, global

  5. Thermomechanical characterization of a membrane deformable mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, Kathleen A.; McHugh, Stuart L.; Fixler, Jeff


    A membrane deformable mirror has been investigated for its potential use in high-energy laser systems. Experiments were performed in which the deformable mirror was heated with a 1 kW incandescent lamp and the thermal profile, the wavefront aberrations, and the mechanical displacement of the membrane were measured. A finite element model was also developed. The wavefront characterization experiments showed that the wavefront degraded with heating. Above a temperature of 35 deg. C, the wavefront characterization experiments indicated a dramatic increase in the high-order wavefront modes before the optical beam became immeasurable in the sensors. The mechanical displacement data of the membrane mirror showed that during heating, the membrane initially deflected towards the heat source and then deflected away from the heat source. Finite element analysis (FEA) predicted a similar displacement behavior as shown by the mechanical displacement data but over a shorter time scale and a larger magnitude. The mechanical displacement data also showed that the magnitude of membrane displacement increased with the experiments that involved higher temperatures. Above a temperature of 35 deg. C, the displacement data showed that random deflections as a function of time developed and that the magnitude of these deflections increased with increased temperature. We concluded that convection, not captured in the FEA, likely played a dominant role in mirror deformation at temperatures above 35 deg. C

  6. Behaviors and transitions along the path to magnetostrophic convection (United States)

    Grannan, A. M.; Vogt, T.; Horn, S.; Hawkins, E. K.; Aggarwal, A.; Aurnou, J. M.


    The generation of magnetic fields in planetary and stellar interiors are believed to be controlled primarily by turbulent convection constrained by Coriolis and Lorentz forces in their electrically conducting fluid layers. Yet relatively few laboratory experiments are capable of investigating the different regimes of turbulent magnetohydrodynamic convection. In this work, we perform one laboratory experiment in a cylinder at a fixed heat flux using the liquid metal gallium in order to investigate, sequentially: Rayleigh-Bènard convection without any imposed constraints, magnetoconvection with a Lorentz constraint imposed by vertical magnetic field, rotating convection with a Coriolis constraint imposed by rotation, and finally the magnetostrophic convective regime where both Coriolis and Lorentz are imposed and equal. Using an array of internal and external temperature probes, we show that each regime along the path to magnetostrophic convection is unique. The behaviors and transitions in the dominant modes of convection as well as their fundamental frequencies and wavenumbers are investigated.

  7. Convective equilibrium and mixing-length theory for stellarator reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, D.D.M.; Kulsrud, R.M.


    In high β stellarator and tokamak reactors, the plasma pressure gradient in some regions of the plasma may exceed the critical pressure gradient set by ballooning instabilities. In these regions, convective cells break out to enhance the transport. As a result, the pressure gradient can rise only slightly above the critical gradient and the plasma is in another state of equilibrium - ''convective equilibrium'' - in these regions. Although the convective transport cannot be calculated precisely, it is shown that the density and temperature profiles in the convective region can still be estimated. A simple mixing-length theory, similar to that used for convection in stellar interiors, is introduced in this paper to provide a qualitative description of the convective cells and to show that the convective transport is highly efficient. A numerical example for obtaining the density and temperature profiles in a stellarator reactor is given

  8. Tensile strain mapping in flat germanium membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhead, S. D.; Halpin, J. E.; Myronov, M.; Patchett, D. H.; Allred, P. S.; Wilson, N. R.; Leadley, D. R.; Shah, V. A.; Kachkanov, V.; Dolbnya, I. P.; Reparaz, J. S.; Sotomayor Torres, C. M.


    Scanning X-ray micro-diffraction has been used as a non-destructive probe of the local crystalline quality of a thin suspended germanium (Ge) membrane. A series of reciprocal space maps were obtained with ∼4 μm spatial resolution, from which detailed information on the strain distribution, thickness, and crystalline tilt of the membrane was obtained. We are able to detect a systematic strain variation across the membranes, but show that this is negligible in the context of using the membranes as platforms for further growth. In addition, we show evidence that the interface and surface quality is improved by suspending the Ge

  9. Tensile strain mapping in flat germanium membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhead, S. D., E-mail:; Halpin, J. E.; Myronov, M.; Patchett, D. H.; Allred, P. S.; Wilson, N. R.; Leadley, D. R. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Shah, V. A. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Department of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Kachkanov, V.; Dolbnya, I. P. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Reparaz, J. S. [ICN2 - Institut Catala de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Sotomayor Torres, C. M. [ICN2 - Institut Catala de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)


    Scanning X-ray micro-diffraction has been used as a non-destructive probe of the local crystalline quality of a thin suspended germanium (Ge) membrane. A series of reciprocal space maps were obtained with ∼4 μm spatial resolution, from which detailed information on the strain distribution, thickness, and crystalline tilt of the membrane was obtained. We are able to detect a systematic strain variation across the membranes, but show that this is negligible in the context of using the membranes as platforms for further growth. In addition, we show evidence that the interface and surface quality is improved by suspending the Ge.

  10. Robotic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette


    The relationship between digital and analogue is often constructed as one of opposition. The perception that the world is permeated with underlying patterns of data, describing events and matter alike, suggests that information can be understood apart from the substance to which it is associated......, and that its encoded logic can be constructed and reconfigured as an isolated entity. This disembodiment of information from materiality implies that an event like a thunderstorm, or a material like a body, can be described equally by data, in other words it can be read or written. The following prototypes......, Vivisection and Strange Metabolisms, were developed at the Centre for Information Technology and Architecture (CITA) at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen as a means of engaging intangible digital data with tactile physical material. As robotic membranes, they are a dual examination...

  11. Coupling of convection and circulation at various resolutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Hohenegger


    Full Text Available A correct representation of the coupling between convection and circulation constitutes a prerequisite for a correct representation of precipitation at all scales. In this study, the coupling between convection and a sea breeze is investigated across three main resolutions: large-eddy resolution where convection is fully explicit, convection-permitting resolution where convection is partly explicit and coarse resolution where convection is parameterised. The considered models are the UCLA-LES, COSMO and ICON. Despite the use of prescribed surface fluxes, comparison of the simulations reveals that typical biases associated with a misrepresentation of convection at convection-permitting and coarser resolutions significantly alter the characteristics of the sea breeze. The coarse-resolution simulations integrated without convective parameterisation and the convection-permitting simulations simulate a too slow propagation of the breeze front as compared to the large-eddy simulations. From the various factors affecting the propagation, a delayed onset and intensification of cold pools primarily explains the differences. This is a direct consequence of a delayed development of convection when the grid spacing is coarsened. Scaling the time the sea breeze reaches the centre of the land patch by the time precipitation exceeds 2 mm day−1, used as a measure for significant evaporation, yields a collapse of the simulations onto a simple linear relationship although subtle differences remain due to the use of different turbulence and microphysical schemes. Turning on the convection scheme significantly disrupts the propagation of the sea breeze due to a misrepresented timing (too early triggering and magnitude (too strong precipitation evaporation in one of the tested convection schemes of the convective processes.

  12. Natural convection in heat-generating fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bol'shov, Leonid A; Kondratenko, Petr S; Strizhov, Valerii F


    Experimental and theoretical studies of convective heat transfer from a heat-generating fluid confined to a closed volume are reviewed. Theoretical results are inferred from analytical estimates based on the relevant conservation laws and the current understanding of the convective heat-transfer processes. Four basic and one asymptotic regime of heat transfer are identified depending on the heat generation rate. Limiting heat-transfer distribution patterns are found for the lower boundary. Heat transfer in a quasi-two-dimensional geometry is analyzed. Quasi-steady-state heat transfer from a cooling-down fluid without internal heat sources is studied separately. Experimental results and theoretical predictions are compared. (reviews of topical problems)

  13. Topology optimisation of natural convection problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Joe; Aage, Niels; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe


    This paper demonstrates the application of the density-based topology optimisation approach for the design of heat sinks and micropumps based on natural convection effects. The problems are modelled under the assumptions of steady-state laminar flow using the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations...... coupled to the convection-diffusion equation through the Boussinesq approximation. In order to facilitate topology optimisation, the Brinkman approach is taken to penalise velocities inside the solid domain and the effective thermal conductivity is interpolated in order to accommodate differences...... in thermal conductivity of the solid and fluid phases. The governing equations are discretised using stabilised finite elements and topology optimisation is performed for two different problems using discrete adjoint sensitivity analysis. The study shows that topology optimisation is a viable approach...

  14. Convective instabilities in SN 1987A (United States)

    Benz, Willy; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl


    Following Bandiera (1984), it is shown that the relevant criterion to determine the stability of a blast wave, propagating through the layers of a massive star in a supernova explosion, is the Schwarzschild (or Ledoux) criterion rather than the Rayleigh-Taylor criterion. Both criteria coincide only in the incompressible limit. Results of a linear stability analysis are presented for a one-dimensional (spherical) explosion in a realistic model for the progenitor of SN 1987A. When applying the Schwarzschild criterion, unstable regions get extended considerably. Convection is found to develop behind the shock, with a characteristic growth rate corresponding to a time scale much smaller than the shock traversal time. This ensures that efficient mixing will take place. Since the entire ejected mass is found to be convectively unstable, Ni can be transported outward, even into the hydrogen envelope, while hydrogen can be mixed deep into the helium core.

  15. Natural convection heat transfer in SIGMA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Dong; Lee, Gang Hee; Suh, Kune Yull


    A loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) results in core melt formation and relocation at various locations within the reactor core over a considerable period of time. If there is no effective cooling mechanism, the core debris may heat up and commence natural circulation. The high temperature pool of molten core material will threaten the structural integrity of the reactor vessel. The extent and urgency of this threat depend primarily upon the intensity of the internal heat sources and upon the consequent distribution of the heat fluxes on the vessel walls in contact with the molten core material pools. In such a steady molten pool convection state, the thermal loads against the vessel would be determined by the in-vessel heat transfer distribution involving convective and conductive heat transfer from the decay-heated core material pool to the lower head wall in contact with the core material. In this study, upward and downward heat transfer fraction ratio is focused on

  16. An experimental study of mixed convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez, Manuel


    The aim of our study is to establish a reliable data base for improving thermal-hydraulic codes, in the field of turbulent flows with buoyancy forces. The flow considered is mixed convection in the Reynolds and Richardson number range: Re=10"3 to 6*10"4 and Ri=10"-"4 to 1. Experiments are carried out in an upward turbulent flow between vertical parallel plates at different wall temperatures. Part 1 gives a detailed data base of turbulent mixed flow of free and forced convection. Part II presents the installation and the calibration system intended for probes calibration. Part III describes the measurement technique (constant-temperature probe and cold-wire probe) and the method for measuring the position of the hot-wire anemometer from the wall surface. The measurement accuracy is within 0.001 mm in the present system. Part IV relates the development of a method for near wall measurements. This correction procedure for hot-wire anemometer close to wall has been derived on the basis of a two-dimensional numerical study. The method permits to obtain a quantitative correction of the wall influence on hot-wires and takes into account the velocity profile and the effects the wall material has on the heat loss. Part V presents the experimental data obtained in the channel in forced and mixed convection. Results obtained in the forced convection regime serve as a verification of the measurement technique close to the wall and give the conditions at the entrance of the test section. The effects of the buoyancy force on the mean velocity and temperature profiles are confirmed. The buoyancy strongly affects the flow structure and deforms the distribution of mean velocity. The velocity profiles are asymmetric. The second section of part V gives an approach of analytical wall functions with buoyancy forces, on the basis of the experimental data obtained in the test section. (author) [fr

  17. Nonlinear Convective Models of RR Lyrae Stars (United States)

    Feuchtinger, M.; Dorfi, E. A.

    The nonlinear behavior of RR Lyrae pulsations is investigated using a state-of-the-art numerical technique solving the full time-dependent system of radiation hydrodynamics. Grey radiative transfer is included by a variable Eddington-factor method and we use the time-dependent turbulent convection model according to Kuhfuss (1986, A&A 160, 116) in the version of Wuchterl (1995, Comp. Phys. Comm. 89, 19). OPAL opacities extended by the Alexander molecule opacities at temperatures below 6000 K and an equation of state according to Wuchterl (1990, A&A 238, 83) close the system. The resulting nonlinear system is discretized on an adaptive mesh developed by Dorfi & Drury (1987, J. Comp. Phys. 69, 175), which is important to provide the necessary spatial resolution in critical regions like ionization zones and shock waves. Additionally, we employ a second order advection scheme, a time centered temporal discretizaton and an artificial tensor viscosity in order to treat discontinuities. We compute fundamental as well first overtone models of RR Lyrae stars for a grid of stellar parameters both with and without convective energy transport in order to give a detailed picture of the pulsation-convection interaction. In order to investigate the influence of the different features of the convection model calculations with and without overshooting, turbulent pressure and turbulent viscosity are performed and compared with each other. A standard Fourier decomposition is used to confront the resulting light and radial velocity variations with recent observations and we show that the well known RR Lyrae phase discrepancy problem (Simon 1985, ApJ 299, 723) can be resolved with these stellar pulsation computations.

  18. Natural convective heat transfer from square cylinder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novomestský, Marcel, E-mail:; Smatanová, Helena, E-mail:; Kapjor, Andrej, E-mail: [University of Žilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Power Engineering, Univerzitná 1, 010 26 Žilina (Slovakia)


    This article is concerned with natural convective heat transfer from square cylinder mounted on a plane adiabatic base, the cylinders having an exposed cylinder surface according to different horizontal angle. The cylinder receives heat from a radiating heater which results in a buoyant flow. There are many industrial applications, including refrigeration, ventilation and the cooling of electrical components, for which the present study may be applicable.

  19. Ultrasonographic identification of the cricothyroid membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M S; Teoh, W H; Rudolph, S S


    Inability to identify the cricothyroid membrane by inspection and palpation contributes substantially to the high failure rate of cricothyrotomy. This narrative review summarizes the current evidence for application of airway ultrasonography for identification of the cricothyroid membrane compare...... ultrasonographic identification; a service that we should aim at making available in all locations where anaesthesia is undertaken and where patients with difficult airways could be encountered.......Inability to identify the cricothyroid membrane by inspection and palpation contributes substantially to the high failure rate of cricothyrotomy. This narrative review summarizes the current evidence for application of airway ultrasonography for identification of the cricothyroid membrane compared...... with the clinical techniques. We identified the best-documented techniques for bedside use, their success rates, and the necessary training for airway-ultrasound-naïve clinicians. After a short but structured training, the cricothyroid membrane can be identified using ultrasound in difficult patients by previously...

  20. Study of mixed convection in sodium pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhou; Chen Yan


    The mixed convection phenomena in the sodium pool of fast reactor have been studied systematically by the two dimensional modeling method. A generalized concept of circumferential line in the cylindrical coordinates was proposed to overcome the three dimensional effect induced by the pool geometry in an analysis of two dimensional modeling. A method of sub-step in time was developed for solving the turbulent equations. The treatments on the boundary condition for the auxiliary velocity field have been proposed, and the explanation of allowing the flow function method to be used in the flow field in presence of a mass source term was given. As examples of verification, the experiments were conducted with water flow in a rectangular cavity. The results from theoretical analysis were applied to the numerical computation for the mixed convection in the cavity. The mechanism of stratified flow in the cavity was studied. A numerical calculation was carried out for the mixed convection in hot plenum of a typical fast reactor

  1. Heat transport in bubbling turbulent convection. (United States)

    Lakkaraju, Rajaram; Stevens, Richard J A M; Oresta, Paolo; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef; Prosperetti, Andrea


    Boiling is an extremely effective way to promote heat transfer from a hot surface to a liquid due to numerous mechanisms, many of which are not understood in quantitative detail. An important component of the overall process is that the buoyancy of the bubble compounds with that of the liquid to give rise to a much-enhanced natural convection. In this article, we focus specifically on this enhancement and present a numerical study of the resulting two-phase Rayleigh-Bénard convection process in a cylindrical cell with a diameter equal to its height. We make no attempt to model other aspects of the boiling process such as bubble nucleation and detachment. The cell base and top are held at temperatures above and below the boiling point of the liquid, respectively. By keeping this difference constant, we study the effect of the liquid superheat in a Rayleigh number range that, in the absence of boiling, would be between 2 × 10(6) and 5 × 10(9). We find a considerable enhancement of the heat transfer and study its dependence on the number of bubbles, the degree of superheat of the hot cell bottom, and the Rayleigh number. The increased buoyancy provided by the bubbles leads to more energetic hot plumes detaching from the cell bottom, and the strength of the circulation in the cell is significantly increased. Our results are in general agreement with recent experiments on boiling Rayleigh-Bénard convection.

  2. Modeling mantle convection in the spherical annulus (United States)

    Hernlund, John W.; Tackley, Paul J.


    Most methods for modeling mantle convection in a two-dimensional (2D) circular annular domain suffer from innate shortcomings in their ability to capture several characteristics of the spherical shell geometry of planetary mantles. While methods such as rescaling the inner and outer radius to reduce anomalous effects in a 2D polar cylindrical coordinate system have been introduced and widely implemented, such fixes may have other drawbacks that adversely affect the outcome of some kinds of mantle convection studies. Here we propose a new approach that we term the "spherical annulus," which is a 2D slice that bisects the spherical shell and is quantitatively formulated at the equator of a spherical polar coordinate system after neglecting terms in the governing equations related to variations in latitude. Spherical scaling is retained in this approximation since the Jacobian function remains proportional to the square of the radius. We present example calculations to show that the behavior of convection in the spherical annulus compares favorably against calculations performed in other 2D annular domains when measured relative to those in a fully three-dimensional (3D) spherical shell.

  3. Topological defects after a quench in a Bénard-Marangoni convection system. (United States)

    Casado, S; González-Viñas, W; Mancini, H; Boccaletti, S


    We report experimental evidence of the fact that, in a Bénard-Marangoni conduction-convection transition, the density of defects in the emerging structure scales as a power law in the quench time needed for the control parameter to ramp through the threshold. The obtained scaling exponents differ from the ones predicted and observed in the case in which the defects correspond to zeros in the amplitude of the global two-dimensional field.

  4. Natural convection of nanofluids over a convectively heated vertical plate embedded in a porous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghalambaz, M.; Noghrehabadi, A.; Ghanbarzadeh, A., E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    In this paper, the natural convective flow of nanofluids over a convectively heated vertical plate in a saturated Darcy porous medium is studied numerically. The governing equations are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations by using appropriate similarity variables, and they are numerically solved using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method associated with the Gauss-Newton method. The effects of parametric variation of the Brownian motion parameter (Nb), thermophoresis parameter (Nt) and the convective heating parameter (Nc) on the boundary layer profiles are investigated. Furthermore, the variation of the reduced Nusselt number and reduced Sherwood number, as important parameters of heat and mass transfer, as a function of the Brownian motion, thermophoresis and convective heating parameters is discussed in detail. The results show that the thickness of the concentration profiles is much lower than the temperature and velocity profiles. For low values of the convective heating parameter (Nc), as the Brownian motion parameter increases, the non-dimensional wall temperature increases. However, for high values of Nc, the effect of the Brownian motion parameter on the non-dimensional wall temperature is not significant. As the Brownian motion parameter increases, the reduced Sherwood number increases and the reduced Nusselt number decreases. (author)

  5. A model for near-wall dynamics in turbulent Rayleigh Bénard convection (United States)

    Theerthan, S. Ananda; Arakeri, Jaywant H.


    Experiments indicate that turbulent free convection over a horizontal surface (e.g. Rayleigh Bénard convection) consists of essentially line plumes near the walls, at least for moderately high Rayleigh numbers. Based on this evidence, we propose here a two-dimensional model for near-wall dynamics in Rayleigh Bénard convection and in general for convection over heated horizontal surfaces. The model proposes a periodic array of steady laminar two-dimensional plumes. A plume is fed on either side by boundary layers on the wall. The results from the model are obtained in two ways. One of the methods uses the similarity solution of Rotem & Classen (1969) for the boundary layer and the similarity solution of Fuji (1963) for the plume. We have derived expressions for mean temperature and temperature and velocity fluctuations near the wall. In the second approach, we compute the two-dimensional flow field in a two-dimensional rectangular open cavity. The number of plumes in the cavity depends on the length of the cavity. The plume spacing is determined from the critical length at which the number of plumes increases by one. The results for average plume spacing and the distribution of r.m.s. temperature and velocity fluctuations are shown to be in acceptable agreement with experimental results.

  6. Membrane microdomains, rafts, and detergent-resistant membranes in plants and fungi. (United States)

    Malinsky, Jan; Opekarová, Miroslava; Grossmann, Guido; Tanner, Widmar


    The existence of specialized microdomains in plasma membranes, postulated for almost 25 years, has been popularized by the concept of lipid or membrane rafts. The idea that detergent-resistant membranes are equivalent to lipid rafts, which was generally abandoned after a decade of vigorous data accumulation, contributed to intense discussions about the validity of the raft concept. The existence of membrane microdomains, meanwhile, has been verified by unequivocal independent evidence. This review summarizes the current state of research in plants and fungi with respect to common aspects of both kingdoms. In these organisms, principally immobile microdomains large enough for microscopic detection have been visualized. These microdomains are found in the context of cell-cell interactions (plant symbionts and pathogens), membrane transport, stress, and polarized growth, and the data corroborate at least three mechanisms of formation. As documented in this review, modern methods of visualization of lateral membrane compartments are also able to uncover the functional relevance of membrane microdomains.

  7. Tides on Europa: The membrane paradigm (United States)

    Beuthe, Mikael


    Jupiter's moon Europa has a thin icy crust which is decoupled from the mantle by a subsurface ocean. The crust thus responds to tidal forcing as a deformed membrane, cold at the top and near melting point at the bottom. In this paper I develop the membrane theory of viscoelastic shells with depth-dependent rheology with the dual goal of predicting tidal tectonics and computing tidal dissipation. Two parameters characterize the tidal response of the membrane: the effective Poisson's ratio ν bar and the membrane spring constant Λ, the latter being proportional to the crust thickness and effective shear modulus. I solve membrane theory in terms of tidal Love numbers, for which I derive analytical formulas depending on Λ, ν bar , the ocean-to-bulk density ratio and the number k2∘ representing the influence of the deep interior. Membrane formulas predict h2 and k2 with an accuracy of a few tenths of percent if the crust thickness is less than one hundred kilometers, whereas the error on l2 is a few percents. Benchmarking with the thick-shell software SatStress leads to the discovery of an error in the original, uncorrected version of the code that changes stress components by up to 40%. Regarding tectonics, I show that different stress-free states account for the conflicting predictions of thin and thick shell models about the magnitude of tensile stresses due to nonsynchronous rotation. Regarding dissipation, I prove that tidal heating in the crust is proportional to Im (Λ) and that it is equal to the global heat flow (proportional to Im (k2)) minus the core-mantle heat flow (proportional to Im (k2∘)). As an illustration, I compute the equilibrium thickness of a convecting crust. More generally, membrane formulas are useful in any application involving tidal Love numbers such as crust thickness estimates, despinning tectonics or true polar wander.

  8. Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients of the Human Body under Forced Convection from Ceiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Rezgals, Lauris; Melikov, Arsen Krikor


    The average convective heat transfer coefficient for a seated human body exposed to downward flow from above was determined. Thermal manikin with complex body shape and size of an average Scandinavian female was used. The surface temperature distribution of the manikin’s body was as the skin...... of the convective heat transfer coefficient of the whole body (hc [W/(m2•K)]) was proposed: hc=4.088+6.592V1.715 for a seated naked body at 20ºC and hc=2.874+7.427V1.345 for a seated naked body at 26ºC. Differences in the convective heat transfer coefficient of the whole body in low air velocity range, V

  9. Recent advances on polymeric membranes for membrane reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Buonomenna, M. G.; Choi, Seung Hak


    . The successful use of membranes in membrane reactors is primary the result of two developments concerning: (i) membrane materials and (ii) membrane structures. The selection of a suited material and preparation technique depends on the application the membrane

  10. Vorticity imbalance and stability in relation to convection (United States)

    Read, W. L.; Scoggins, J. R.


    A complete synoptic-scale vorticity budget was related to convection storm development in the eastern two-thirds of the United States. The 3-h sounding interval permitted a study of time changes of the vorticity budget in areas of convective storms. Results of analyses revealed significant changes in values of terms in the vorticity equation at different stages of squall line development. Average budgets for all areas of convection indicate systematic imbalance in the terms in the vorticity equation. This imbalance resulted primarily from sub-grid scale processes. Potential instability in the lower troposphere was analyzed in relation to the development of convective activity. Instability was related to areas of convection; however, instability alone was inadequate for forecast purposes. Combinations of stability and terms in the vorticity equation in the form of indices succeeded in depicting areas of convection better than any one item separately.

  11. A Thermodynamically General Theory for Convective Circulations and Vortices (United States)

    Renno, N. O.


    Convective circulations and vortices are common features of atmospheres that absorb low-entropy-energy at higher temperatures than they reject high-entropy-energy to space. These circulations range from small to planetary-scale and play an important role in the vertical transport of heat, momentum, and tracer species. Thus, the development of theoretical models for convective phenomena is important to our understanding of many basic features of planetary atmospheres. A thermodynamically general theory for convective circulations and vortices is proposed. The theory includes irreversible processes and quantifies the pressure drop between the environment and any point in a convective updraft. The article's main result is that the proposed theory provides an expression for the pressure drop along streamlines or streamtubes that is a generalization of Bernoulli's equation to convective circulations. We speculate that the proposed theory not only explains the intensity, but also shed light on other basic features of convective circulations and vortices.

  12. Thermo-electro-hydrodynamic convection under microgravity: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutabazi, Innocent; Yoshikawa, Harunori N; Fogaing, Mireille Tadie; Travnikov, Vadim; Crumeyrolle, Olivier [Laboratoire Ondes et Milieux Complexes, UMR 6294, CNRS-Université du Havre, CS 80450, F-76058 Le Havre Cedex (France); Futterer, Birgit; Egbers, Christoph, E-mail: [Department of Aerodynamics and Fluid Mechanics, Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg, Cottbus (Germany)


    Recent studies on thermo-electro-hydrodynamic (TEHD) convection are reviewed with focus on investigations motivated by the analogy with natural convection. TEHD convection originates in the action of the dielectrophoretic force generated by an alternating electric voltage applied to a dielectric fluid with a temperature gradient. This electrohydrodynamic force is analogous to Archimedean thermal buoyancy and can be regarded as a thermal buoyancy force in electric effective gravity. The review is concerned with TEHD convection in plane, cylindrical, and spherical capacitors under microgravity conditions, where the electric gravity can induce convection without any complexities arising from geometry or the buoyancy force due to the Earth’s gravity. We will highlight the convection in spherical geometry, comparing developed theories and numerical simulations with the GEOFLOW experiments performed on board the International Space Station (ISS). (paper)

  13. Lipids and membrane lateral organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro eSonnino


    Full Text Available Shortly after the elucidation of the very basic structure and properties of cellular membranes, it became evident that cellular membranes are highly organized structures with multiple and multi-dimensional levels of order. Very early observations suggested that the lipid components of biological membranes might be active players in the creations of these levels of order. In the late 80’s, several different and diverse experimental pieces of evidence coalesced together giving rise to the lipid raft hypothesis. Lipid rafts became enormously (and, in the opinion of these authors, sometimes acritically popular, surprisingly not just within the lipidologist community (who is supposed to be naturally sensitive to the fascination of lipid rafts. Today, a PubMed search using the key word lipid rafts returned a list of 3767 papers, including 690 reviews (as a term of comparison, searching over the same time span for a very hot lipid-related key word, ceramide returned 6187 hits with 799 reviews, and a tremendous number of different cellular functions have been described as lipid raft-dependent. However, a clear consensus definition of lipid raft has been proposed only in recent times, and the basic properties, the ruling forces, and even the existence of lipid rafts in living cells have been recently matter of intense debate. The scenario that is gradually emerging from the controversies elicited by the lipid raft hypothesis emphasize multiple roles for membrane lipids in determining membrane order, that encompasses their tendency to phase separation but are clearly not limited to this. In this review, we would like to re-focus the attention of the readers on the importance of lipids in organizing the fine structure of cellular membranes.

  14. Mechanisms of mineral membrane fouling growth modulated by pulsed modes of current during electrodialysis: evidences of water splitting implications in the appearance of the amorphous phases of magnesium hydroxide and calcium carbonate. (United States)

    Cifuentes-Araya, Nicolás; Astudillo-Castro, Carolina; Bazinet, Laurent


    Experiments revealed the fouling nature evolutions along different electrodialysis (ED) trials, and how it disappears when current pulsation acts repetitively on the interfaces of ion-exchange membranes (IEMs). Fouling was totally controlled on the diluate side of cation-exchange membrane (CEM) by the repetitive pulsation frequency of the higher on-duty ratios applied. They created steady water splitting proton-barriers that neutralized OH(-) leakage through the membrane, decreasing the interfacial pH, and fouling of the concentrate side. The anion-exchange membrane (AEM) on the diluate side was similarly protected, but it was fouled once water splitting OH(-) generation became either intense enough or excessively weak. Interestingly, amorphous magnesium hydroxide (AMH) stemmed on the CEM-diluate side from brucite under intense water splitting OH(-) generation, and/or strong OH(-) leakage electromigration through the membrane. Water dissociation and overlimiting current regimes triggered drastic water molecule removal from crystal lattices through an accelerated cascade water splitting reaction. Also, amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) appeared on CEM under intense water splitting reaction, and disappeared once intense OH(-) leakage was allowed by the water splitting proton-barrier dissipation. Our findings have implications for membrane fouling control, as well as for the understanding of the growth behavior of CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 species on electromembrane interfaces. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Primary Issues of Mixed Convection Heat Transfer Phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Myeong-Seon; Chung, Bum-Jin [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)


    The computer code analyzing the system operating and transient behavior must distinguish flow conditions involved with convective heat transfer flow regimes. And the proper correlations must be supplied to those flow regimes. However the existing safety analysis codes are focused on the Light Water Reactor and they are skeptical to be applied to the GCRs (Gas Cooled Reactors). One of the technical issues raise by the development of the VHTR is the mixed convection, which occur when the driving forces of both forced and natural convection are of comparable magnitudes. It can be encountered as in channel of the stacked with fuel elements and a decay heat removal system and in VHTR. The mixed convection is not intermediate phenomena with natural convection and forced convection but independent complicated phenomena. Therefore, many researchers have been studied and some primary issues were propounded for phenomena mixed convection. This paper is to discuss some problems identified through reviewing the papers for mixed convection phenomena. And primary issues of mixed convection heat transfer were proposed respect to thermal hydraulic problems for VHTR. The VHTR thermal hydraulic study requires an indepth study of the mixed convection phenomena. In this study we reviewed the classical flow regime map of Metais and Eckert and derived further issues to be considered. The following issues were raised: (1) Buoyancy aided an opposed flows were not differentiated and plotted in a map. (2) Experimental results for UWT and UHF condition were also plotted in the same map without differentiation. (3) The buoyancy coefficient was not generalized for correlating with buoyancy coefficient. (4) The phenomenon analysis for laminarization and returbulization as buoyancy effects in turbulent mixed convection was not established. (5) The defining to transition in mixed convection regime was difficult.

  16. Some problems of free convection in a macrocapillary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luikov, A V; Berkovsky, B M; Kolpashchikov, V L


    Solution is given to a number of problems of free convection in incompressible viscous fluid in elementary macrocapillaries with nonuniform temperature distribution at the boundary. The fluid flow structure and effect of a magnetic field on convection in the case of conducting fluid has been studied in detail. The influence of macrocapillary properties on the flow structure, rate of convection, and temperature distribution has been estimated.

  17. Convective Cold Pool Structure and Boundary Layer Recovery in DYNAMO (United States)

    Savarin, A.; Chen, S. S.; Kerns, B. W.; Lee, C.; Jorgensen, D. P.


    One of the key factors controlling convective cloud systems in the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) over the tropical Indian Ocean is the property of the atmospheric boundary layer. Convective downdrafts and precipitation from the cloud systems produce cold pools in the boundary layer, which can inhibit subsequent development of convection. The recovery time is the time it takes for the boundary layer to return to pre convective conditions. It may affect the variability of the convection on various time scales during the initiation of MJO. This study examines the convective cold pool structure and boundary layer recovery using the NOAA WP-3D aircraft observations, include the flight-level, Doppler radar, and GPS dropsonde data, collected during the Dynamics of MJO (DYNAMO) field campaign from November-December 2011. The depth and strength of convective cold pools are defined by the negative buoyancy, which can be computed from the dropsonde data. Convective downdraft can be affected by environmental water vapor due to entrainment. Mid-level dry air observed during the convectively suppressed phase of MJO seems to enhance convective downdraft, making the cold pools stronger and deeper. Recovery of the cold pools in the boundary layer is determined by the strength and depth of the cold pools and also the air-sea heat and moisture fluxes. Given that the water vapor and surface winds are distinct for the convectively active and suppressed phases of MJO over the Indian Ocean, the aircraft data are stratified by the two different large-scale regimes of MJO. Preliminary results show that the strength and depth of the cold pools are inversely correlated with the surrounding mid-level moisture. During the convectively suppressed phase, the recovery time is ~5-20 hours in relative weak wind condition with small air-sea fluxes. The recovery time is generally less than 6 hours during the active phase of MJO with moist mid-levels and stronger surface wind and air-sea fluxes.

  18. Strategic Repositioning for Convection Business Case Study: AR Vendor


    Anindita, Pratisara Satwika; Toha, Mohamad


    The study aims to determine suitable position and strategy in order to reach superiority in convection business based on the company strengths and weaknesses. A study conducted in late 2012 at AR Vendor, a home-based convection company which focus on the t-shirt screen printing service. In response to the issue of the below average profit margin, the company has to rethink their position and strategy in handling the convection business environment. While AR Vendor business may growth in accor...

  19. Anomalously weak Labrador Sea convection and Atlantic overturning during the past 150 years. (United States)

    Thornalley, David J R; Oppo, Delia W; Ortega, Pablo; Robson, Jon I; Brierley, Chris M; Davis, Renee; Hall, Ian R; Moffa-Sanchez, Paola; Rose, Neil L; Spooner, Peter T; Yashayaev, Igor; Keigwin, Lloyd D


    The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is a system of ocean currents that has an essential role in Earth's climate, redistributing heat and influencing the carbon cycle 1, 2 . The AMOC has been shown to be weakening in recent years 1 ; this decline may reflect decadal-scale variability in convection in the Labrador Sea, but short observational datasets preclude a longer-term perspective on the modern state and variability of Labrador Sea convection and the AMOC 1, 3-5 . Here we provide several lines of palaeo-oceanographic evidence that Labrador Sea deep convection and the AMOC have been anomalously weak over the past 150 years or so (since the end of the Little Ice Age, LIA, approximately AD 1850) compared with the preceding 1,500 years. Our palaeoclimate reconstructions indicate that the transition occurred either as a predominantly abrupt shift towards the end of the LIA, or as a more gradual, continued decline over the past 150 years; this ambiguity probably arises from non-AMOC influences on the various proxies or from the different sensitivities of these proxies to individual components of the AMOC. We suggest that enhanced freshwater fluxes from the Arctic and Nordic seas towards the end of the LIA-sourced from melting glaciers and thickened sea ice that developed earlier in the LIA-weakened Labrador Sea convection and the AMOC. The lack of a subsequent recovery may have resulted from hysteresis or from twentieth-century melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet 6 . Our results suggest that recent decadal variability in Labrador Sea convection and the AMOC has occurred during an atypical, weak background state. Future work should aim to constrain the roles of internal climate variability and early anthropogenic forcing in the AMOC weakening described here.

  20. Magnetically controlled permeability membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jurgen


    A bioactive material delivery system can include a thermoresponsive polymer membrane and nanowires distributed within the thermoresponsive polymer membrane. Magnetic activation of a thermoresponsive polymer membrane can take place via altering the magnetization or dimensions of nanowires dispersed or ordered within the membrane matrix.

  1. Magnetically controlled permeability membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jü rgen; Khashab, Niveen M.; Zaher, Amir


    A bioactive material delivery system can include a thermoresponsive polymer membrane and nanowires distributed within the thermoresponsive polymer membrane. Magnetic activation of a thermoresponsive polymer membrane can take place via altering the magnetization or dimensions of nanowires dispersed or ordered within the membrane matrix.

  2. Convection Cells in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (United States)

    Fodor, Katherine; Mellado, Juan-Pedro


    In dry, shear-free convective boundary layers (CBLs), the turbulent flow of air is known to organise itself on large scales into coherent, cellular patterns, or superstructures, consisting of fast, narrow updraughts and slow, wide downdraughts which together form circulations. Superstructures act as transport mechanisms from the surface to the top of the boundary layer and vice-versa, as opposed to small-scale turbulence, which only modifies conditions locally. This suggests that a thorough investigation into superstructure properties may help us better understand transport across the atmospheric boundary layer as a whole. Whilst their existence has been noted, detailed studies into superstructures in the CBL have been scarce. By applying methods which are known to successfully isolate similar large-scale patterns in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection, we can assess the efficacy of those detection techniques in the CBL. In addition, through non-dimensional analysis, we can systematically compare superstructures in various convective regimes. We use direct numerical simulation of four different cases for intercomparison: Rayleigh-Bénard convection (steady), Rayleigh-Bénard convection with an adiabatic top lid (quasi-steady), a stably-stratified CBL (quasi-steady) and a neutrally-stratified CBL (unsteady). The first two are non-penetrative and the latter two penetrative. We find that although superstructures clearly emerge from the time-mean flow in the non-penetrative cases, they become obscured by temporal averaging in the CBL. This is because a rigid lid acts to direct the flow into counter-rotating circulation cells whose axis of rotation remains stationary, whereas a boundary layer that grows in time and is able to entrain fluid from above causes the circulations to not only grow in vertical extent, but also to move horizontally and merge with neighbouring circulations. Spatial filtering is a useful comparative technique as it can be performed on boundary

  3. Fatty acid profiles from the plasma membrane and detergent resistant membranes of two plant species. (United States)

    Carmona-Salazar, Laura; El Hafidi, Mohammed; Gutiérrez-Nájera, Nora; Noyola-Martínez, Liliana; González-Solís, Ariadna; Gavilanes-Ruíz, Marina


    It is essential to establish the composition of the plant plasma membrane in order to understand its organization and behavior under continually changing environments. Knowledge of the lipid phase, in particular the fatty acid (FA) complex repertoire, is important since FAs determine many of the physical-chemical membrane properties. FAs are constituents of the membrane glycerolipid and sphingolipid backbones and can also be linked to some sterols. In addition, FAs are components of complex lipids that can constitute membrane micro-domains, and the use of detergent-resistant membranes is a common approach to study their composition. The diversity and cellular allocation of the membrane lipids containing FAs are very diverse and the approaches to analyze them provide only general information. In this work, a detailed FA analysis was performed using highly purified plasma membranes from bean leaves and germinating maize embryos and their respective detergent-resistant membrane preparations. The analyses showed the presence of a significant amount of very long chain FAs (containing 28C, 30C and 32C), in both plasma membrane preparations from bean and maize, that have not been previously reported. Herein is demonstrated that a significant enrichment of very long chain saturated FAs and saturated FAs can occur in detergent-resistant membrane preparations, as compared to the plasma membranes from both plant species. Considering that a thorough analysis of FAs is rarely performed in purified plasma membranes and detergent-resistant membranes, this work provides qualitative and quantitative evidence on the contributions of the length and saturation of FAs to the organization of the plant plasma membrane and detergent-resistant membranes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Transitions in rapidly rotating convection dynamos (United States)

    Tilgner, A.


    It is commonly assumed that buoyancy in the fluid core powers the geodynamo. We study here the minimal model of a convection driven dynamo, which is a horizontal plane layer in a gravity field, filled with electrically conducting fluid, heated from below and cooled from above, and rotating about a vertical axis. Such a plane layer may be viewed as a local approximation to the geophysically more relevant spherical geometry. The numerical simulations have been run on graphics processing units with at least 960 cores. If the convection is driven stronger and stronger at fixed rotation rate, the flow behaves at some point as if it was not rotating. This transition shows in the scaling of the heat transport which can be used to distinguish slow from rapid rotation. One expects dynamos to behave differently in these two flow regimes. But even within the convection flows which are rapidly rotating according to this criterion, it will be shown that different types of dynamos exist. In one state, the magnetic field strength obeys a scaling indicative of a magnetostrophic balance, in which the Lorentz force is in equilibrium with the Coriolis force. The flow in this case is helical. A different state exists at higher magnetic Reynolds numbers, in which the magnetic energy obeys a different scaling law and the helicity of the flow is much reduced. As one increases the Rayleigh number, all other parameters kept constant, one may find both types of dynamos separated by an interval of Rayleigh numbers in which there are no dynamos at all. The effect of these transitions on energy dissipation and mean field generation have also been studied.

  5. What Determines Upscale Growth of Oceanic Convection into MCSs? (United States)

    Zipser, E. J.


    Over tropical oceans, widely scattered convection of various depths may or may not grow upscale into mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). But what distinguishes the large-scale environment that favors such upscale growth from that favoring "unorganized", scattered convection? Is it some combination of large-scale low-level convergence and ascending motion, combined with sufficient instability? We recently put this to a test with ERA-I reanalysis data, with disappointing results. The "usual suspects" of total column water vapor, large-scale ascent, and CAPE may all be required to some extent, but their differences between large MCSs and scattered convection are small. The main positive results from this work (already published) demonstrate that the strength of convection is well correlated with the size and perhaps "organization" of convective features over tropical oceans, in contrast to tropical land, where strong convection is common for large or small convective features. So, important questions remain: Over tropical oceans, how should we define "organized" convection? By size of the precipitation area? And what environmental conditions lead to larger and better organized MCSs? Some recent attempts to answer these questions will be described, but good answers may require more data, and more insights.

  6. Natural convection in superposed fluid-porous layers

    CERN Document Server

    Bagchi, Aniruddha


    Natural Convection in Composite Fluid-Porous Domains provides a timely overview of the current state of understanding on the phenomenon of convection in composite fluid-porous layers. Natural convection in horizontal fluid-porous layers has received renewed attention because of engineering problems such as post-accident cooling of nuclear reactors, contaminant transport in groundwater, and convection in fibrous insulation systems. Because applications of the problem span many scientific domains, the book serves as a valuable resource for a wide audience.

  7. Urban Influences on Convection and Lightning Over Houston

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gauthier, Michael L


    The research presented in this dissertation addresses a fundamental question regarding urban, ultimately anthropogenic, influences on convection as it relates to lightning production and precipitation structure...

  8. Effects of variable thermal diffusivity on the structure of convection (United States)

    Shcheritsa, O. V.; Getling, A. V.; Mazhorova, O. S.


    The structure of multiscale convection in a thermally stratified plane horizontal fluid layer is investigated by means of numerical simulations. The thermal diffusivity is assumed to produce a thin boundary sublayer convectively much more unstable than the bulk of the layer. The simulated flow is a superposition of cellular structures with three different characteristic scales. In contrast to the largest convection cells, the smaller ones are localised in the upper portion of the layer. The smallest cells are advected by the larger-scale convective flows. The simulated flow pattern qualitatively resembles that observed on the Sun.

  9. Cumulus convection and the terrestrial water-vapor distribution (United States)

    Donner, Leo J.


    Cumulus convection plays a significant role in determining the structure of the terrestrial water vapor field. Cumulus convection acts directly on the moisture field by condensing and precipitating water vapor and by redistributing water vapor through cumulus induced eddy circulations. The mechanisms by which cumulus convection influences the terrestrial water vapor distribution is outlined. Calculations using a theory due to Kuo is used to illustrate the mechanisms by which cumulus convection works. Understanding of these processes greatly aids the ability of researchers to interpret the seasonal and spatial distribution of atmospheric water vapor by providing information on the nature of sources and sinks and the global circulation.

  10. Mixing in heterogeneous internally-heated convection (United States)

    Limare, A.; Kaminski, E. C.; Jaupart, C. P.; Farnetani, C. G.; Fourel, L.; Froment, M.


    Past laboratory experiments of thermo chemical convection have dealt with systems involving fluids with different intrinsic densities and viscosities in a Rayleigh-Bénard setup. Although these experiments have greatly improved our understanding of the Earth's mantle dynamics, they neglect a fundamental component of planetary convection: internal heat sources. We have developed a microwave-based method in order to study convection and mixing in systems involving two layers of fluid with different densities, viscosities, and internal heat production rates. Our innovative laboratory experiments are appropriate for the early Earth, when the lowermost mantle was likely enriched in incompatible and heat producing elements and when the heat flux from the core probably accounted for a small fraction of the mantle heat budget. They are also relevant to the present-day mantle if one considers that radioactive decay and secular cooling contribute both to internal heating. Our goal is to quantify how two fluid layers mix, which is still very difficult to resolve accurately in 3-D numerical calculations. Viscosities and microwave absorptions are tuned to achieve high values of the Rayleigh-Roberts and Prandtl numbers relevant for planetary convection. We start from a stably stratified system where the lower layer has higher internal heat production and density than the upper layer. Due to mixing, the amount of enriched material gradually decreases to zero over a finite time called the lifetime. Based on more than 30 experiments, we have derived a scaling law that relates the lifetime of an enriched reservoir to the layer thickness ratio, a, to the density and viscosity contrasts between the two layers, and to their two different internal heating rates in the form of an enrichment factor beta=1+2*a*H1/H, where H1 is the heating rate of the lower fluid and H is the average heating rate. We find that the lifetime of the lower enriched reservoir varies as beta**(-7/3) in the low

  11. Natural convection between two concentric spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blondel-Roux, Marie


    After an overview of researches on natural convection in a confined or semi-confined environment, this research thesis reports the use of the Caltagirone and Mojtabi numerical model and the study of its validity for different values of the Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers. Results obtained with this model are compared with experimental ones. Thermal transfer curves are presented and discussed, as well as the different temperature fields numerically obtained, flow function fields, velocities in the fluid layer, and temperature profiles with respect to the Rayleigh number [fr

  12. Measurement of natural convection by speckle photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wernekinck, U.; Merzkirch, W.


    The principle of speckle photography can be applied to the measurement of density variations in fluids. A modification of existing experimental arrangements allows for the measurement of large values of the light deflection angles as they may occur in heat and mass transfer situations. The method is demonstrated for the case of a helium jet exhausting into still air and the natural convective flow along a heated plate. The obtained data are compared with results measured with classical optical interferometers, and good agreement is found. The advantages of the new technique over the classical optical methods are briefly discussed. 11 references

  13. Hamiltonian Description of Convective-cell Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krommes, J.A.; Kolesnikov, R.A.


    The nonlinear statistical growth rate eq for convective cells driven by drift-wave (DW) interactions is studied with the aid of a covariant Hamiltonian formalism for the gyrofluid nonlinearities. A statistical energy theorem is proven that relates eq to a second functional tensor derivative of the DW energy. This generalizes to a wide class of systems of coupled partial differential equations a previous result for scalar dynamics. Applications to (i) electrostatic ion-temperature-gradient-driven modes at small ion temperature, and (ii) weakly electromagnetic collisional DW's are noted

  14. Sunspots and the physics of magnetic flux tubes. VI - Convective propulsion. VII - Heat flow in a convective downdraft (United States)

    Parker, E. N.


    The effect of negative aerodynamic drag in an ideal fluid subject to convective instability is considered. It is shown that a cylinder moving in such a fluid is propelled forward in its motion by the convective forces and that the characteristic acceleration time is comparable to the onset time of convective motions in the fluid. It is suggested that convective propulsion plays an important role in the dynamics of flux tubes extending through the surface of the sun. The suppression of the upward heat flow in a Boussinesq convective cell with free upper and lower boundaries by a downdraft is then analyzed. Application to the solar convection zone indicates that downdrafts of 1 to 2 km/s at depths of 1000 to 4000 km beneath the visible surface of the sun are sufficient to reduce the upward heat flux to a small fraction of the ambient value.

  15. Convectively coupled Kelvin waves in aquachannel simulations: 2. Life cycle and dynamical-convective coupling (United States)

    Blanco, Joaquín. E.; Nolan, David S.; Mapes, Brian E.


    This second part of a two-part study uses Weather Research and Forecasting simulations with aquachannel and aquapatch domains to investigate the time evolution of convectively coupled Kelvin waves (CCKWs). Power spectra, filtering, and compositing are combined with object-tracking methods to assess the structure and phase speed propagation of CCKWs during their strengthening, mature, and decaying phases. In this regard, we introduce an innovative approach to more closely investigate the wave (Kelvin) versus entity (super cloud cluster or "SCC") dualism. In general, the composite CCKW structures represent a dynamical response to the organized convective activity. However, pressure and thermodynamic fields in the boundary layer behave differently. Further analysis of the time evolution of pressure and low-level moist static energy finds that these fields propagate eastward as a "moist" Kelvin wave (MKW), faster than the envelope of organized convection or SCC. When the separation is sufficiently large the SCC dissipates, and a new SCC generates to the east, in the region of strongest negative pressure perturbations. We revisit the concept itself of the "coupling" between convection and dynamics, and we also propose a conceptual model for CCKWs, with a clear distinction between the SCC and the MKW components.

  16. An application of the unifying theory of thermal convection in vertical natural convection (United States)

    Ng, Chong Shen; Ooi, Andrew; Lohse, Detlef; Chung, Daniel


    Using direct numerical simulations of vertical natural convection (VNC) at Rayleigh numbers 1 . 0 ×105 - 1 . 0 ×109 and Prandtl number 0 . 709 , we provide support for a generalised applicability of the Grossmann-Lohse (GL) theory, originally developed for horizontal natural (Rayleigh-Bénard) convection. In accordance with the theory, the boundary-layer thicknesses of the velocity and temperature fields in VNC obey laminar-like scaling, whereas away from the walls, the dissipation of the turbulent fluctuations obey the scaling for fully developed turbulence. In contrast to Rayleigh-Bénard convection, the direction of gravity in VNC is parallel to the mean flow. Thus, there no longer exists an exact relation linking the normalised global dissipations to the Nusselt, Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers. Nevertheless, we show that the unclosed term, namely the global-averaged buoyancy flux, also exhibits laminar and turbulent scaling, consistent with the GL theory. The findings suggest that, similar to Rayleigh-Bénard convection, a pure power-law relationship between the Nusselt, Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers is not the best description for VNC and existing empirical power-law relationships should be recalibrated to better reflect the underlying physics.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In the present paper, the effect of solar radiation on automobiles has been studied by both experimentally and numerically. The numerical solution is done by an operation friendly and fast CFD code – SC/Tetra with a full scale model of a SM3 car and turbulence is modeled by the standard k-ε equation. Numerical analysis of the three-dimensional model predicts a detailed description of fluid flow and temperature distribution in the passenger compartment during both the natural convection due to the incoming solar radiation and mixed convection due to the flow from defrost nozzle and radiation. It can be seen that solar radiation is an important parameter to raise the compartment temperature above the ambient temperature during summer. During natural convection, the rate of heat transfer is fast at the initial period. In the mixed convection analyses, it is found that the temperature drops down to a comfortable range almost linearly at the initial stage. Experimental investigations are performed to determine the temperature contour on the windshield and the local temperature at a particular point for further validation of the numerical results.

  18. From convection rolls to finger convection in double-diffusive turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Yantao; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef


    Double-diffusive convection (DDC), which is the buoyancy-driven flow with fluid density depending on two scalar components, is ubiquitous in many natural and engineering environments. Of great interests are scalars’ transfer rate and flow structures. Here we systematically investigate DDC flow

  19. Low-frequency oscillations in radiative-convective models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Qi; Randall, D.A.


    Although eastward propagation is usually regarded as an essential feature of the low-frequency ``Madden-Julian oscillation`` observed in the tropical atmosphere, many observations indicate that there is an important stationary or quasi-stationary component of the oscillation. Yasunari (1979), for example, investigated the stationary 30--60 day variation in upper tropospheric cloudiness in the Asian summer monsoon region. In a case study of the 30--60 day oscillation. Hsu et al. (1990) found a strong stationary oscillation of the divergence, outgoing longwave mdiadon and other fields. A recent observational study by Weickmann and Khalsa (1990) offers further evidence that the Madden-Julian oscillation has an important stationary component. In this paper, we present evidence that intraseasonal oscillations can be produced by local radiative and convective processes. This suggests that the observed propagating Madden-Julian wave is produced by interactions between these local processes and the large scale motion field, and is not essential for the existence of the observed oscillation.

  20. Low-frequency oscillations in radiative-convective models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Qi; Randall, D.A.


    Although eastward propagation is usually regarded as an essential feature of the low-frequency Madden-Julian oscillation'' observed in the tropical atmosphere, many observations indicate that there is an important stationary or quasi-stationary component of the oscillation. Yasunari (1979), for example, investigated the stationary 30--60 day variation in upper tropospheric cloudiness in the Asian summer monsoon region. In a case study of the 30--60 day oscillation. Hsu et al. (1990) found a strong stationary oscillation of the divergence, outgoing longwave mdiadon and other fields. A recent observational study by Weickmann and Khalsa (1990) offers further evidence that the Madden-Julian oscillation has an important stationary component. In this paper, we present evidence that intraseasonal oscillations can be produced by local radiative and convective processes. This suggests that the observed propagating Madden-Julian wave is produced by interactions between these local processes and the large scale motion field, and is not essential for the existence of the observed oscillation.

  1. Upscale Impact of Mesoscale Disturbances of Tropical Convection on Convectively Coupled Kelvin Waves (United States)

    Yang, Q.; Majda, A.


    Tropical convection associated with convectively coupled Kelvin waves (CCKWs) is typically organized by an eastward-moving synoptic-scale convective envelope with numerous embedded westward-moving mesoscale disturbances. It is of central importance to assess upscale impact of mesoscale disturbances on CCKWs as mesoscale disturbances propagate at various tilt angles and speeds. Here a simple multi-scale model is used to capture this multi-scale structure, where mesoscale fluctuations are directly driven by mesoscale heating and synoptic-scale circulation is forced by mean heating and eddy transfer of momentum and temperature. The two-dimensional version of the multi-scale model drives the synoptic-scale circulation, successfully reproduces key features of flow fields with a front-to-rear tilt and compares well with results from a cloud resolving model. In the scenario with an elevated upright mean heating, the tilted vertical structure of synoptic-scale circulation is still induced by the upscale impact of mesoscale disturbances. In a faster propagation scenario, the upscale impact becomes less important, while the synoptic-scale circulation response to mean heating dominates. In the unrealistic scenario with upward/westward tilted mesoscale heating, positive potential temperature anomalies are induced in the leading edge, which will suppress shallow convection in a moist environment. In its three-dimensional version, results show that upscale impact of mesoscale disturbances that propagate at tilt angles (110o 250o) induces negative lower-tropospheric potential temperature anomalies in the leading edge, providing favorable conditions for shallow convection in a moist environment, while the remaining tilt angle cases have opposite effects. Even in the presence of upright mean heating, the front-to-rear tilted synoptic-scale circulation can still be induced by eddy terms at tilt angles (120o 240o). In the case with fast propagating mesoscale heating, positive

  2. Interaction of abscisic acid with phospholipid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stillwell, W.; Brengle, B.; Hester, P.; Wassall, S.T.


    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is shown, under certain conditions, to greatly enhance the permeability of phospholipid bilayer membranes to the nonelectrolyte erythritol (followed spectrophotometrically by osmotic swelling) and the anion carboxyfluorescein (followed by fluorescence). The hormone is ineffective with single- and mixed-component phosphatidylcholine membranes in the liquid-crystalline or gel states. In contrast, substantial ABA-induced permeability is measured for two-component membranes containing lipids with different polar head groups or containing phosphatidylcholines with different acyl chains at temperatures where gel and liquid-crystalline phases coexist. Despite the large ABA-induced enhancement in bilayer permeability, no evidence for a substantial change at the molecular level was seen in the membranes by magnetic resonance techniques. 13 C NMR spin-lattice relaxation times, T 1 , in sonicated unilamellar vesicles and ESR of spin-labeled fatty acids intercalated into membranes showed negligible effect on acyl chain order and dynamics within the bilayer, while 31 P NMR of sonicated unilamellar vesicles indicated negligible effect on molecular motion and conformation in the head-group region. The authors propose that, instead of causing a general nonspecific perturbation to the membrane, the hormone acts at membrane defects formed due to mismatch in molecular packing where two different head groups or acyl chain states interface. Increased membrane disruption by ABA at these points of membrane instability could then produce an enhancement in permeability

  3. The effect of convection and semi-convection on the C/O yield of massive stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearborn, D.S.


    The C/O ratio produced during core helium burning affects the future evolution and nucleosynthetic yield of massive stars. This ratio is shown to be sensitive to the treatment of convection as well as uncertainties in nuclear rates. By minimizing the effect of semi-convection and reducing the size of the convective core, mass loss in OB stars increases the C/O ratio. (Author)

  4. Changes in the convective population and thermodynamic environments in convection-permitting regional climate simulations over the United States (United States)

    Rasmussen, K. L.; Prein, A. F.; Rasmussen, R. M.; Ikeda, K.; Liu, C.


    Novel high-resolution convection-permitting regional climate simulations over the US employing the pseudo-global warming approach are used to investigate changes in the convective population and thermodynamic environments in a future climate. Two continuous 13-year simulations were conducted using (1) ERA-Interim reanalysis and (2) ERA-Interim reanalysis plus a climate perturbation for the RCP8.5 scenario. The simulations adequately reproduce the observed precipitation diurnal cycle, indicating that they capture organized and propagating convection that most climate models cannot adequately represent. This study shows that weak to moderate convection will decrease and strong convection will increase in frequency in a future climate. Analysis of the thermodynamic environments supporting convection shows that both convective available potential energy (CAPE) and convective inhibition (CIN) increase downstream of the Rockies in a future climate. Previous studies suggest that CAPE will increase in a warming climate, however a corresponding increase in CIN acts as a balancing force to shift the convective population by suppressing weak to moderate convection and provides an environment where CAPE can build to extreme levels that may result in more frequent severe convection. An idealized investigation of fundamental changes in the thermodynamic environment was conducted by shifting a standard atmospheric profile by ± 5 °C. When temperature is increased, both CAPE and CIN increase in magnitude, while the opposite is true for decreased temperatures. Thus, even in the absence of synoptic and mesoscale variations, a warmer climate will provide more CAPE and CIN that will shift the convective population, likely impacting water and energy budgets on Earth.

  5. Simulating the convective precipitation diurnal cycle in a North American scale convection-permitting model (United States)

    Scaff, L.; Li, Y.; Prein, A. F.; Liu, C.; Rasmussen, R.; Ikeda, K.


    A better representation of the diurnal cycle of convective precipitation is essential for the analysis of the energy balance and the water budget components such as runoff, evaporation and infiltration. Convection-permitting regional climate modeling (CPM) has been shown to improve the models' performance of summer precipitation, allowing to: (1) simulate the mesoscale processes in more detail and (2) to provide more insights in future changes in convective precipitation under climate change. In this work we investigate the skill of the Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF) in simulating the summer precipitation diurnal cycle over most of North America. We use 4 km horizontal grid spacing in a 13-years long current and future period. The future scenario is assuming no significant changes in large-scale weather patterns and aims to answer how the weather of the current climate would change if it would reoccur at the end of the century under a high-end emission scenario (Pseudo Global Warming). We emphasize on a region centered on the lee side of the Canadian Rocky Mountains, where the summer precipitation amount shows a regional maximum. The historical simulations are capable to correctly represent the diurnal cycle. At the lee-side of the Canadian Rockies the increase in the convective available potential energy as well as pronounced low-level moisture flux from the southeast Prairies explains the local maximum in summer precipitation. The PGW scenario shows an increase in summer precipitation amount and intensity in this region, consistently with a stronger source of moisture and convective energy.

  6. Surface properties, more than size, limiting convective distribution of virus-sized particles and viruses in the central nervous system. (United States)

    Chen, Michael Y; Hoffer, Alan; Morrison, Paul F; Hamilton, John F; Hughes, Jeffrey; Schlageter, Kurt S; Lee, Jeongwu; Kelly, Brandon R; Oldfield, Edward H


    Achieving distribution of gene-carrying vectors is a major barrier to the clinical application of gene therapy. Because of the blood-brain barrier, the distribution of genetic vectors to the central nervous system (CNS) is even more challenging than delivery to other tissues. Direct intraparenchymal microinfusion, a minimally invasive technique, uses bulk flow (convection) to distribute suspensions of macromolecules widely through the extracellular space (convection-enhanced delivery [CED]). Although acute injection into solid tissue is often used for delivery of oligonucleotides, viruses, and liposomes, and there is preliminary evidence that certain of these large particles can spread through the interstitial space of the brain by the use of convection, the use of CED for distribution of viruses in the brain has not been systematically examined. That is the goal of this study. Investigators used a rodent model to examine the influence of size, osmolarity of buffering solutions, and surface coating on the volumetric distribution of virus-sized nanoparticles and viruses (adeno-associated viruses and adenoviruses) in the gray matter of the brain. The results demonstrate that channels in the extracellular space of gray matter in the brain are large enough to accommodate virus-sized particles and that the surface characteristics are critical determinants for distribution of viruses in the brain by convection. These results indicate that convective distribution can be used to distribute therapeutic viral vectors in the CNS.

  7. Biomass Smoke Influences on Deep Convection during the 2011 Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) (United States)

    Dong, X.; Logan, T.; Xi, B.


    Three deep convective cloud cases were selected during the 2011 Mid-Latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E). Although biomass burning smoke advected from Mexico and Central America was the dominant source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) for deep convective cloud formation, the 11 May, 20 May, and 23 May cases exhibited different convective characteristics. The convection in the 11 May and 23 May cases formed in smoke laden environments in the presence of convective available potential energy (CAPE) values exceeding 1000 m2 s-2 and 3000 m2 s-2 along with low-level (0-1 km) shear of 10.3 m s-1 and 5.1 m s-1, respectively. The 11 May case had linear convection while the 23 May case featured discrete supercells. The 20 May case featured elevated linear convection that formed in a more moist environment with cleaner aerosol conditions, weak CAPE (9 km) suggesting a warm rain suppression mechanism caused by a combination of strong aerosol loading, large CAPE, and weak low-level wind shear. The observed results for the 20 May and 23 May cases agree well with recent modeling studies that simulated the convection and precipitation in these cases. Furthermore, the modeling of the 11 May case is suggested since the abundant amount of smoke CCN did not greatly enhance the overall precipitation amount and could be a possible aerosol-induced precipitation suppression case.

  8. Observations of Convectively Coupled Kelvin Waves forced by Extratropical Wave Activity (United States)

    Kiladis, G. N.; Biello, J. A.; Straub, K. H.


    It is well established by observations that deep tropical convection can in certain situations be forced by extratropical Rossby wave activity. Such interactions are a well-known feature of regions of upper level westerly flow, and in particular where westerlies and equatorward wave guiding by the basic state occur at low enough latitudes to interact with tropical and subtropical moisture sources. In these regions convection is commonly initiated ahead of upper level troughs, characteristic of forcing by quasi-geostrophic dynamics. However, recent observational evidence indicates that extratropical wave activity is also associated with equatorial convection even in regions where there is a "critical line" to Rossby wave propagation at upper levels, that is, where the zonal phase speed of the wave is equal to the zonal flow speed. A common manifestation of this type of interaction involves the initiation of convectively coupled Kelvin waves, as well as mixed Rossby-gravity (MRG) waves. These waves are responsible for a large portion of the convective variability within the ITCZ over the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic sectors, as well as within the Amazon Basin of South America. For example, Kelvin waves originating within the western Pacific ITCZ are often triggered by Rossby wave activity propagating into the Australasian region from the South Indian Ocean extratropics. At other times, Kelvin waves are seen to originate along the eastern slope of the Andes. In the latter case the initial forcing is sometimes linked to a low-level "pressure surge," initiated by wave activity propagating equatorward from the South Pacific storm track. In yet other cases, such as over Africa, the forcing appears to be related to wave activity in the extratropics which is not necessarily propagating into low latitudes, but appears to "project" onto the Kelvin structure, in line with past theoretical and modeling studies. Observational evidence for extratropical forcing of Kelvin and MRG

  9. Examining hemodialyzer membrane performance using proteomic technologies. (United States)

    Bonomini, Mario; Pieroni, Luisa; Di Liberato, Lorenzo; Sirolli, Vittorio; Urbani, Andrea


    The success and the quality of hemodialysis therapy are mainly related to both clearance and biocompatibility properties of the artificial membrane packed in the hemodialyzer. Performance of a membrane is strongly influenced by its interaction with the plasma protein repertoire during the extracorporeal procedure. Recognition that a number of medium-high molecular weight solutes, including proteins and protein-bound molecules, are potentially toxic has prompted the development of more permeable membranes. Such membrane engineering, however, may cause loss of vital proteins, with membrane removal being nonspecific. In addition, plasma proteins can be adsorbed onto the membrane surface upon blood contact during dialysis. Adsorption can contribute to the removal of toxic compounds and governs the biocompatibility of a membrane, since surface-adsorbed proteins may trigger a variety of biologic blood pathways with pathophysiologic consequences. Over the last years, use of proteomic approaches has allowed polypeptide spectrum involved in the process of hemodialysis, a key issue previously hampered by lack of suitable technology, to be assessed in an unbiased manner and in its full complexity. Proteomics has been successfully applied to identify and quantify proteins in complex mixtures such as dialysis outflow fluid and fluid desorbed from dialysis membrane containing adsorbed proteins. The identified proteins can also be characterized by their involvement in metabolic and signaling pathways, molecular networks, and biologic processes through application of bioinformatics tools. Proteomics may thus provide an actual functional definition as to the effect of a membrane material on plasma proteins during hemodialysis. Here, we review the results of proteomic studies on the performance of hemodialysis membranes, as evaluated in terms of solute removal efficiency and blood-membrane interactions. The evidence collected indicates that the information provided by proteomic

  10. Forced convection heat transfer in He II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashani, A.


    An investigation of forced convection heat transfer in He II is conducted. The study includes both experimental and theoretical treatments of the problem. The experiment consists of a hydraulic pump and a copper flow tube, 3 mm in ID and 2m long. The system allows measurements of one-dimensional heat and mass transfer in He II. The heat transfer experiments are performed by applying heat at the midpoint along the length of the flow tube. Two modes of heat input are employed, i.e., step function heat input and square pulse heat input. The heat transfer results are discussed in terms of temperature distribution in the tube. The experimental temperature profiles are compared with numerical solutions of an analytical model developed from the He II energy equation. The bath temperature is set at three different values of 1.65, 1.80, and 1.95 K. The He II flow velocity is varied up to 90 cm/s. Pressure is monitored at each end of the flow tube, and the He II pressure drop is obtained for different flow velocities. Results indicate that He II heat transfer by forced convention is considerably higher than that by internal convection. The theoretical model is in close agreement with the experiment. He II pressure drop and friction factor are very similar to those of an ordinary fluid

  11. Vertical Slot Convection: A linear study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAllister, A.; Steinolfson, R.; Tajima, T.


    The linear stability properties of fluid convection in a vertical slot were studied. We use a Fourier-Chebychev decomposition was used to set up the linear eigenvalue problems for the Vertical Slot Convection and Benard problems. The eigenvalues, neutral stability curves, and critical point values of the Grashof number, G, and the wavenumber were determined. Plots of the real and imaginary parts of the eigenvalues as functions of G and α are given for a wide range of the Prandtl number, Pr, and special note is made of the complex mode that becomes linearly unstable above Pr ∼ 12.5. A discussion comparing different special cases facilitates the physical understanding of the VSC equations, especially the interaction of the shear-flow and buoyancy induced physics. Making use of the real and imaginary eigenvalues and the phase properties of the eigenmodes, the eigenmodes were characterized. One finds that the mode structure becomes progressively simpler with increasing Pr, with the greatest complexity in the mid ranges where the terms in the heat equation are of roughly the same size

  12. Land surface sensitivity of mesoscale convective systems (United States)

    Tournay, Robert C.

    Mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) are important contributors to the hydrologic cycle in many regions of the world as well as major sources of severe weather. MCSs continue to challenge forecasters and researchers alike, arising from difficulties in understanding system initiation, propagation, and demise. One distinct type of MCS is that formed from individual convective cells initiated primarily by daytime heating over high terrain. This work is aimed at improving our understanding of the land surface sensitivity of this class of MCS in the contiguous United States. First, a climatology of mesoscale convective systems originating in the Rocky Mountains and adjacent high plains from Wyoming southward to New Mexico is developed through a combination of objective and subjective methods. This class of MCS is most important, in terms of total warm season precipitation, in the 500 to 1300m elevations of the Great Plains (GP) to the east in eastern Colorado to central Nebraska and northwest Kansas. Examining MCSs by longevity, short lasting MCSs (15 hrs) reveals that longer lasting systems tend to form further south and have a longer track with a more southerly track. The environment into which the MCS is moving showed differences across commonly used variables in convection forecasting, with some variables showing more favorable conditions throughout (convective inhibition, 0-6 km shear and 250 hPa wind speed) ahead of longer lasting MCSs. Other variables, such as convective available potential energy, showed improving conditions through time for longer lasting MCSs. Some variables showed no difference across longevity of MCS (precipitable water and large-scale vertical motion). From subsets of this MCS climatology, three regions of origin were chosen based on the presence of ridgelines extending eastward from the Rocky Mountains known to be foci for convection initiation and subsequent MCS formation: Southern Wyoming (Cheyenne Ridge), Colorado (Palmer divide) and

  13. Conjugate Problems in Convective Heat Transfer: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abram Dorfman


    Full Text Available A review of conjugate convective heat transfer problems solved during the early and current time of development of this modern approach is presented. The discussion is based on analytical solutions of selected typical relatively simple conjugate problems including steady-state and transient processes, thermal material treatment, and heat and mass transfer in drying. This brief survey is accompanied by the list of almost two hundred publications considering application of different more and less complex analytical and numerical conjugate models for simulating technology processes and industrial devices from aerospace systems to food production. The references are combined in the groups of works studying similar problems so that each of the groups corresponds to one of selected analytical solutions considered in detail. Such structure of review gives the reader the understanding of early and current situation in conjugate convective heat transfer modeling and makes possible to use the information presented as an introduction to this area on the one hand, and to find more complicated publications of interest on the other hand.

  14. Mass transport in propagating patterns of convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, E.; Steinberg, V.


    Recent studies of propagating waves in an oscillatory convection of binary mixtures arise questions about transport properties of this flow. Optical visualization of a field of refraction index due to a shadowgraph technique gives information on the temperature and concentration fields. However, experimental observation of rolls propagating along the cell as travelling waves (TW) does not necessarily imply that mass is transferred hydrodynamically by the convective motion along the cell. One of the possibilities discussed, e.g., is that TW observed is only a phase propagation. The traditional examples of such situations come from the domain of linear, superposition-oriented physics. Acoustic waves transfer momentum and energy, but do not cause the mass to make excursions for their equilibrium point that are larger than the oscillation amplitude. In the case of nonlinear physics we were aware that small amplitude surface waves cause only small oscillatory motion round the equilibrium point, while larger amplitudes can cause the mass to start moving in the direction of the TW. This paper discussed the different possibilities of mass transfer by TW. 27 refs., 20 figs

  15. Benard convection in liquid sodium layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kek, V.


    In a sodium layer heated from below and cooled from above, the integral Nusselt numbers are determined in a range of Rayleigh numbers 1.5x10 3 5 . The experiments are performed in containers with dimensions of 500 mm in diameter and 15 mm and 45 mm in height. The relevant quantities are evaluated from measured temperature and heating power data. The experiments show that the heat transfer across the layer is determined mainly by heat conduction up to Rayleigh number Ra ≅ 10 4 . Beyond this value a significant increase of the convective heat transport is observed. At a Rayleigh number of 4x10 4 the Nusselt number achieves the value Nu = 1.7. This result differs from values given by Nusselt-Rayleigh number correlations reported in the literature for liquids with higher Prandtl number. A regression analysis of the experimental data results empirical correlations for the Nusselt number. A time series analysis of the time dependent temperature signals shows that the measured temperature fluctuations exhibit predominantly stochastic features. However, in the lower range of Rayleigh numbers 1.5x10 3 4 certain regular frequencies can be identified from peaks in broadband power density spectra. These frequencies correspond to fluctuations of a period of 80 to 200 seconds. These regular frequencies are explained by instabilities of the cellular pattern in the convection layer reported in the literature. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Effective diffusion in laminar convective flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenbluth, M.N.; Berk, H.L.; Doxas, I.; Horton, W.


    The effective diffusion coefficient D* of a passive component, such as test particles, dye, temperature, magnetic flux, etc., is derived for motion in periodic two-dimensional incompressible convective flow with characteristic velocity v and size d in the presence of an intrinsic local diffusivity D. Asymptotic solutions for effective diffusivity D*(P) in the large P limit, with P ∼ vd/D, is shown to be of the form D* = cDP/sup 1/2/ with c being a coefficient that is determined analytically. The constant c depends on the geometry of the convective cell and on an average of the flow speed along the separatrix. The asymptotic method of evaluation applies to both free boundary and rough boundary flow patterns and it is shown that the method can be extended to more complicated patterns such as the flows generated by rotating cylinders, as in the problem considered by Nadim, Cox, and Brenner [J. Fluid Mech., 164: 185 (1986)]. The diffusivity D* is readily calculated for small P, but the evaluation for arbitrary P requires numerical methods. Monte Carlo particle simulation codes are used to evaluate D* at arbitrary P, and thereby describe the transition for D* between the large and small P limits

  17. Multienzyme Immobilized Polymeric Membrane Reactor for the Transformation of a Lignin Model Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupam Sarma


    Full Text Available We have developed an integrated, multienzyme functionalized membrane reactor for bioconversion of a lignin model compound involving enzymatic catalysis. The membrane bioreactors were fabricated through the layer-by-layer assembly approach to immobilize three different enzymes (glucose oxidase, peroxidase and laccase into pH-responsive membranes. This novel membrane reactor couples the in situ generation of hydrogen peroxide (by glucose oxidase to oxidative conversion of a lignin model compound, guaiacylglycerol-β-guaiacyl ether (GGE. Preliminary investigation of the efficacy of these functional membranes towards GGE degradation is demonstrated under convective flow mode. Over 90% of the initial feed could be degraded with the multienzyme immobilized membranes at a residence time of approximately 22 s. GGE conversion product analysis revealed the formation of oligomeric oxidation products upon reaction with peroxidase, which may be a potential hazard to membrane bioreactors. These oxidation products could further be degraded by laccase enzymes in the multienzymatic membranes, explaining the potential of multi enzyme membrane reactors. The multienzyme incorporated membrane reactors were active for more than 30 days of storage time at 4 °C. During this time span, repetitive use of the membrane reactor was demonstrated involving 5–6 h of operation time for each cycle. The membrane reactor displayed encouraging performance, losing only 12% of its initial activity after multiple cycles of operation.

  18. Convective losses through an air-filled gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, V A; Ovezsakhatov, N


    Simplified formulas for the heat fluxes with given parameters of the air are used to calculate the specific heat losses by convection in a number of solar-energy systems (water heater, thermal generator, double-glazed window, and still). Heat losses by convection and radiation are compared.

  19. Unravelling convective heat transfer in the Rotated Arc Mixer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speetjens, M.F.M.; Baskan, O.; Metcalfe, G.; Clercx, H.J.H.


    Thermal homogenization is essentially a transient problem and convective heat transfer by (chaotic) advection is known to accelerate this process. Convective heat transfer traditionally is examined in terms of heat-transfer coefficients at domain walls and characterised by Nusselt relations.

  20. Solar wind effects on ionospheric convection: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, G.; Cowley, S.W.H.; Milan, S.E.


    ), and travelling convection vortices (TCVs). Furthermore, the large-scale ionospheric convection configuration has also demonstrated a strong correspondence to variations in the interplanetary medium and substorm activity. This report briefly discusses the progress made over the past decade in studies...

  1. Modulated convection at high frequencies and large modulation amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, J.B.; Hohenberg, P.C.


    Modulated Rayleigh-Benard convection is analyzed for high frequencies and large modulation amplitudes. The linear theory of Gershuni and Zhukhovitskii is generalized to the nonlinear domain, and a subcritical bifurcation to convection is found in agreement with the experiments of Niemela and Donnelly. The crossover between the high-frequency (''Stokes layer'') regime and the low-frequency regime studied previously is analyzed

  2. Measurements of convective and radiative heating in wildland fires (United States)

    David Frankman; Brent W. Webb; Bret W. Butler; Daniel Jimenez; Jason M. Forthofer; Paul Sopko; Kyle S. Shannon; J. Kevin Hiers; Roger D. Ottmar


    Time-resolved irradiance and convective heating and cooling of fast-response thermopile sensors were measured in 13 natural and prescribed wildland fires under a variety of fuel and ambient conditions. It was shown that a sensor exposed to the fire environment was subject to rapid fluctuations of convective transfer whereas irradiance measured by a windowed sensor was...

  3. Natural convection and vapor loss during underground waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plys, M.G.; Epstein, M.; Turner, D.


    Natural convection and vapor loss from underground waste storage tanks is examined here. Stability criteria are provided for the onset of natural convection flow within the headspace of a tank, and between tanks and the environment. The flowrate is quantified and used to predict vapor losses during storage

  4. Heat removal by natural convection in a RPR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampaio, P.A.B. de


    In this paper natural convection in RPR reactor is analysed. The effect of natural convection valves size on cladding temperature is studied. The reactor channel heat transfer problem is solved using finite elements in a two-dimensional analysis. Results show that two valves with Φ = 0.16 m are suited to keep coolant and cladding temperatures below 73 0 C. (author) [pt

  5. Interaction of externally-driven acoustic waves with compressible convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.; Merryfield, W.


    Two-dimensional numerical simulations are used to examine the interaction of acoustic waves with a compressible convecting fluid. Acoustic waves are forced at the lower boundary of the computational domain and propagate through a three-layer system undergoing vigorous penetrative convection. Energy exchange between the wave and the fluid is analyzed using a work integral formulation

  6. Efficiency of Heat Transfer in Turbulent Rayleigh-Benard Convection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urban, Pavel; Musilová, Věra; Skrbek, L.


    Roč. 107, č. 1 (2011), 014302:1-4 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB200650902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : natural convection * thermal convection Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 7.370, year: 2011

  7. Boundary-modulated Thermal Convection Model in the Mantle (United States)

    Kurita, K.; Kumagai, I.


    Analog experiments have played an important role in the constructing ideas of mantle dynamics. The series of experiments by H. Ramberg is one of the successful examples. Recently, however the realm of the analog experiments seems to be overwhelmed by steady progress of computer simulations. Is there still room for the analog experiments? This might be a main and hidden subject of this session. Here we propose a working hypothesis how the convecting mantle behaves based on the analog experiments in the system of viscous fluid and particles. The essential part is the interaction of convecting flow with heterogeneities existing in the boundaries. It is proposed the preexisting topographical heterogeneity in the boundary could control the flow pattern of convecting fluid. If this kind of heterogeneity can be formed as a consequence of convective motion and mobilized by the flow, the convection also can control the heterogeneity. We can expect interactions in two ways, by which the system behaves in a self-organize fashion. To explore the mutual interactions between convection flow and heterogeneity the system of viscous fluid and particles with slightly higher density is selected as 2D Rayleigh-Benard type convection. The basic structure consists of a basal particulate layer where permeable convection transports heat and an upper viscous fluid layer. By reducing the magnitude of the density difference the convective flow can mobilize the particles and can erode the basal layer. The condition of this erosion can be identified in the phase diagram of the particle Shields"f and the Rayleigh numbers. At Ra greater than 107 the convection style drastically changed before and after the erosion. Before the erosion where the flat interface of the boundary is maintained small scaled turbulent convection pattern is dominant. After the erosion where the interface becomes bumpy the large scale convective motion is observed. The structure is coherent to that of the boundary. This

  8. Do tropical wetland plants possess a convective gas flow mechanism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dennis Konnerup; Sorrell, Brian Keith; Brix, Hans


    Internal pressurization and convective gas flow, which can aerate wetland plants more efficiently than diffusion, are common in temperate species. Here, we present the first survey of convective flow in a range of tropical plants. The occurrence of pressurization and convective flow was determined...... in 20 common wetland plants from the Mekong Delta in Vietnam. The diel variation in pressurization in culms and the convective flow and gas composition from stubbles were examined for Eleocharis dulcis, Phragmites vallatoria and Hymenachne acutigluma, and related to light, humidity and air temperature....... Nine of the 20 species studied were able to build up a static pressure of >50Pa, and eight species had convective flow rates higher than 1mlmin-1. There was a clear diel variation, with higher pressures and flows during the day than during the night, when pressures and flows were close to zero...

  9. Heat transfer of laminar mixed convection of liquid

    CERN Document Server

    Shang, De-Yi


    This book presents a new algorithm to calculate fluid flow and heat transfer of laminar mixed convection. It provides step-by-step tutorial help to learn quickly how to set up the theoretical and numerical models of laminar mixed convection, to consider the variable physical properties of fluids, to obtain the system of numerical solutions, to create a series of formalization equations for the convection heat transfer by using a curve-fitting approach combined with theoretical analysis and derivation. It presents the governing ordinary differential equations of laminar mixed convection, equivalently transformed by an innovative similarity transformation with the description of the related transformation process. A system of numerical calculations of the governing ordinary differential equations is presented for the water laminar mixed convection. A polynomial model is induced for convenient and reliable treatment of variable physical properties of liquids. The developed formalization equations of mixed convec...

  10. Natural Convection Analysis with Various Turbulent Models Using FLUENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yu Sun


    The buoyancy driven convective flow fields are steady circulatory flows which were made between surfaces maintained at two fixed temperatures. They are ubiquitous in nature and play an important role in many engineering applications. Especially, in last decades, natural convection in a close loop or cavity becomes the main issue in the molecular biology for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Application of a natural convection can reduce the costs and efforts remarkably. This paper focuses on the sensitivity study of turbulence analysis using CFD for a natural convection in a closed rectangular cavity. Using commercial CFD code, FLUENT, various turbulent models were applied to the turbulent flow. Results from each CFD model will be compared each other in the viewpoints of flow characteristics. This work will suggest the best turbulent model of CFD for analyzing turbulent flows of the natural convection in an enclosure system

  11. The influence of convective current generator on the global current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Morozov


    Full Text Available The mathematical generalization of classical model of the global circuit with taking into account the convective current generator, working in the planetary boundary layer was considered. Convective current generator may be interpreted as generator, in which the electromotive force is generated by processes, of the turbulent transport of electrical charge. It is shown that the average potential of ionosphere is defined not only by the thunderstorm current generators, working at the present moment, but by the convective current generator also. The influence of the convective processes in the boundary layer on the electrical parameters of the atmosphere is not only local, but has global character as well. The numerical estimations, made for the case of the convective-unstable boundary layer demonstrate that the increase of the average potential of ionosphere may be of the order of 10% to 40%.

  12. Neutral beam injection and plasma convection in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, H.; Hiroe, S.


    Injection of a neutral beam into a plasma in a magnetic field has been studied by means of numerical plasma simulations. It is found that, in the absence of a rotational transform, the convection electric field arising from the polarization charges at the edges of the beam is dissipated by turbulent plasma convection, leading to anomalous plasma diffusion across the magnetic field. The convection electric field increases with the beam density and beam energy. In the presence of a rotational transform, polarization charges can be neutralized by the electron motion along the magnetic field. Even in the presence of a rotational transform, a steady-state convection electric field and, hence, anomalous plasma diffusion can develop when a neutral beam is constantly injected into a plasma. Theoretical investigations on the convection electric field are described for a plasma in the presence of rotational transform. 11 refs., 19 figs

  13. The sensitivity of Alpine summer convection to surrogate climate change: an intercomparison between convection-parameterizing and convection-resolving models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Keller


    Full Text Available Climate models project an increase in heavy precipitation events in response to greenhouse gas forcing. Important elements of such events are rain showers and thunderstorms, which are poorly represented in models with parameterized convection. In this study, simulations with 12 km horizontal grid spacing (convection-parameterizing model, CPM and 2 km grid spacing (convection-resolving model, CRM are employed to investigate the change in the diurnal cycle of convection with warmer climate. For this purpose, simulations of 11 days in June 2007 with a pronounced diurnal cycle of convection are compared with surrogate simulations from the same period. The surrogate climate simulations mimic a future climate with increased temperatures but unchanged relative humidity and similar synoptic-scale circulation. Two temperature scenarios are compared: one with homogeneous warming (HW using a vertically uniform warming and the other with vertically dependent warming (VW that enables changes in lapse rate.The two sets of simulations with parameterized and explicit convection exhibit substantial differences, some of which are well known from the literature. These include differences in the timing and amplitude of the diurnal cycle of convection, and the frequency of precipitation with low intensities. The response to climate change is much less studied. We can show that stratification changes have a strong influence on the changes in convection. Precipitation is strongly increasing for HW but decreasing for the VW simulations. For cloud type frequencies, virtually no changes are found for HW, but a substantial reduction in high clouds is found for VW. Further, we can show that the climate change signal strongly depends upon the horizontal resolution. In particular, significant differences between CPM and CRM are found in terms of the radiative feedbacks, with CRM exhibiting a stronger negative feedback in the top-of-the-atmosphere energy budget.

  14. The sensitivity of Alpine summer convection to surrogate climate change: an intercomparison between convection-parameterizing and convection-resolving models (United States)

    Keller, Michael; Kröner, Nico; Fuhrer, Oliver; Lüthi, Daniel; Schmidli, Juerg; Stengel, Martin; Stöckli, Reto; Schär, Christoph


    Climate models project an increase in heavy precipitation events in response to greenhouse gas forcing. Important elements of such events are rain showers and thunderstorms, which are poorly represented in models with parameterized convection. In this study, simulations with 12 km horizontal grid spacing (convection-parameterizing model, CPM) and 2 km grid spacing (convection-resolving model, CRM) are employed to investigate the change in the diurnal cycle of convection with warmer climate. For this purpose, simulations of 11 days in June 2007 with a pronounced diurnal cycle of convection are compared with surrogate simulations from the same period. The surrogate climate simulations mimic a future climate with increased temperatures but unchanged relative humidity and similar synoptic-scale circulation. Two temperature scenarios are compared: one with homogeneous warming (HW) using a vertically uniform warming and the other with vertically dependent warming (VW) that enables changes in lapse rate. The two sets of simulations with parameterized and explicit convection exhibit substantial differences, some of which are well known from the literature. These include differences in the timing and amplitude of the diurnal cycle of convection, and the frequency of precipitation with low intensities. The response to climate change is much less studied. We can show that stratification changes have a strong influence on the changes in convection. Precipitation is strongly increasing for HW but decreasing for the VW simulations. For cloud type frequencies, virtually no changes are found for HW, but a substantial reduction in high clouds is found for VW. Further, we can show that the climate change signal strongly depends upon the horizontal resolution. In particular, significant differences between CPM and CRM are found in terms of the radiative feedbacks, with CRM exhibiting a stronger negative feedback in the top-of-the-atmosphere energy budget.

  15. Laminar Mixed Convection Heat Transfer Correlation for Horizontal Pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Myeong Seon; Chung, Bum Jin


    This study aimed at producing experimental results and developing a new heat transfer correlation based upon a semi-empirical buoyancy coefficient. Mixed convection mass transfers inside horizontal pipe were investigated for the pipe of various length-to-diameters with varying Re. Forced convection correlation was developed using a very short cathode. With the length of cathode increase and Re decrease, the heat transfer rates were enhanced and becomes higher than that of forced convection. An empirical buoyancy coefficient was derived from correlation of natural convection and forced convection with the addition of L/D. And the heat transfer correlation for laminar mixed convection was developed using the buoyancy coefficient, it describes not only current results, but also results of other studies. Mixed convection occurs when the driving forces of both forced and natural convections are of comparable magnitude (Gr/Re 2 ∼1). It is classical problem but is still an active area of research for various thermal applications such as flat plate solar collectors, nuclear reactors and heat exchangers. The effect of buoyancy on heat transfer in a forced flow is varied by the direction of the buoyancy force. In a horizontal pipe the direction of the forced and buoyancy forces are perpendicular. The studies on the mixed convections of the horizontal pipes were not investigated very much due to the lack of practical uses compared to those of vertical pipes. Even the definitions on the buoyancy coefficient that presents the relative influence of the forced and the natural convections, are different by scholars. And the proposed heat transfer correlations do not agree

  16. A model of the solar cycle driven by the dynamo action of the global convection in the solar convection zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, H.


    Extensive numerical studies of the dynamo equations due to the global convection are presented to simulate the solar cycle and to open the way to study general stellar magnetic cycles. The dynamo equations which represent the longitudinally-averaged magnetohydrodynamical action (mean magnetohydrodynamics) of the global convection under the influence of the rotation in the solar convection zone are considered here as an initial boundary-value problem. The latitudinal and radial structure of the dynamo action consisting of a generation action due to the differential rotation and a regeneration action due to the global convection is parameterized in accordance with the structure of the rotation and of the global convection. This is done especially in such a way as to represent the presence of the two cells of the regeneration action in the radial direction in which the action has opposite signs, which is typical of the regeneration action of the global convection. The effects of the dynamics of the global convection (e.g., the effects of the stratification of the physical conditions in the solar convection zone) are presumed to be all included in those parameters used in the model and they are presumed not to alter the results drastically since these effects are only to change the structure of the regeneration action topologically. (Auth.)

  17. Oxygen Transport Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay


    small polaron conduction mechanism. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to develop strategies to detect and characterize vacancy creation, dopant segregations and defect association in the oxygen conducting membrane material. The pO{sub 2} and temperature dependence of the conductivity, non-stoichiometry and thermal-expansion behavior of compositions with increasing complexity of substitution on the perovskite A and B sites were studied. Studies with the perovskite structure show anomalous behavior at low oxygen partial pressures (<10{sup -5} atm). The anomalies are due to non-equilibrium effects and can be avoided by using very strict criteria for the attainment of equilibrium. The slowness of the oxygen equilibration kinetics arises from two different mechanisms. In the first, a two phase region occurs between an oxygen vacancy ordered phase such as brownmillerite SrFeO{sub 2.5} and perovskite SrFeO{sub 3-x}. The slow kinetics is associated with crossing the two phase region. The width of the miscibility gap decreases with increasing temperature and consequently the effect is less pronounced at higher temperature. The preferred kinetic pathway to reduction of perovskite ferrites when the vacancy concentration corresponds to the formation of significant concentrations of Fe{sup 2+} is via the formation of a Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases as clearly observed in the case of La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3-x} where LaSrFeO{sub 4} is found together with Fe. In more complex compositions, such as LSFTO, iron or iron rich phases are observed locally with no evidence for the presence of discrete RP phase. Fracture strength of tubular perovskite membranes was determined in air and in reducing atmospheric conditions. The strength of the membrane decreased with temperature and severity of reducing conditions although the strength distribution (Weibull parameter, m) was relatively unaltered. Surface and volume

  18. Modes of convection in the magnetotail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumjohann, Wolfgang


    The flow of plasma in the Earth's magnetotail cannot reach a steady state, since adiabatic convection would lead to exceedingly high pressure of the associated magnetic flux tubes closer to the Earth, the so-called pressure catastrophe. The natural way to avoid the pressure catastrophe is to significantly reduce the flux tube volume by reconnection, and observations show a near-Earth reconnection line typically around 20-25 Earth radii down tail. Earthward flows from this reconnection line are rather bursty and typically seen outside of 10 Earth radii. At this point they are strongly braked by the here dominant dipolar magnetic field. The pressure gradients piled up by the flow lead to the substorm current wedge, and possibly other substorm phenomena observed in the Earth's ionosphere. When more and more flux tubes are piled up, the dipolarization front moves tailward and finally shuts off near-Earth reconnection

  19. Mixed convection flow past a horizontal plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Lj.


    Full Text Available The mixed convection flow past a horizontal plate being aligned through a small angle of attack to a uniform free stream will be considered in the limit of large Reynolds number and small Richardson number. Even a small angle of inclination of the wake is sufficient for the buoyancy force to accelerate the flow in the wake which causes a velocity overshoot in the wake. Moreover a hydrostatic pressure difference across the wake induces a correction to the potential flow which influences the inclination of the wake. Thus the wake and the correction of the potential flow have to be determined simultaneously. However, it turns out that solutions exist only if the angle of attack is sufficiently large. Solutions are computed numerically and the influence of the buoyancy on the lift coefficient is determined.

  20. Imaging convection and magnetism in the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Hanasoge, Shravan


    This book reviews the field of helioseismology and its outstanding challenges and also offers a detailed discussion of the latest computational methodologies. The focus is on the development and implementation of techniques to create 3-D images of convection and magnetism in the solar interior and to introduce the latest computational and theoretical methods to the interested reader. With the increasing availability of computational resources, demand for greater accuracy in the interpretation of helioseismic measurements and the advent of billion-dollar instruments taking high-quality observations, computational methods of helioseismology that enable probing the 3-D structure of the Sun have increasingly become central. This book will benefit students and researchers with proficiency in basic numerical methods, differential equations and linear algebra who are interested in helioseismology.

  1. Design Aspects of the Rayleigh Convection Code (United States)

    Featherstone, N. A.


    Understanding the long-term generation of planetary or stellar magnetic field requires complementary knowledge of the large-scale fluid dynamics pervading large fractions of the object's interior. Such large-scale motions are sensitive to the system's geometry which, in planets and stars, is spherical to a good approximation. As a result, computational models designed to study such systems often solve the MHD equations in spherical geometry, frequently employing a spectral approach involving spherical harmonics. We present computational and user-interface design aspects of one such modeling tool, the Rayleigh convection code, which is suitable for deployment on desktop and petascale-hpc architectures alike. In this poster, we will present an overview of this code's parallel design and its built-in diagnostics-output package. Rayleigh has been developed with NSF support through the Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics and is expected to be released as open-source software in winter 2017/2018.

  2. Prediction of flow instability during natural convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhadi, Kazem


    The occurrence of flow excursion instability during passive heat removal for Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) has been analyzed at low-pressure and low-mass rate of flow conditions without boiling taking place. Pressure drop-flow rate characteristics in the general case are determined upon a developed code for this purpose. The code takes into account variations of different pressure drop components caused by different powers as well as different core inlet temperatures. The analysis revealed the fact that the instability can actually occur in the natural convection mode for a range of powers per fuel plates at a predetermined inlet temperature with fixed geometry of the core. Low mass rate of flow and high sub-cooling are the two important conditions for the occurrence of static instability in the TRR. The calculated results are compared with the existing data in the literature. (author)

  3. Translation and convection of Earth's inner core (United States)

    Monnereau, M.; Calvet, M.; Margerin, L.; Mizzon, H.; Souriau, A.


    The image of the inner core growing slowly at the center of the Earth by gradual cooling and solidification of the surrounding liquid outer core is being replaced by the more vigorous image of a ``deep foundry'', where melting and crystallization rates exceed by many times the net growth rate. Recently, a particular mode of convection, called translation, has been put forward as an important mode of inner core dynamics because this mechanism is able to explain the observed East-West asymmetry of P-wave velocity and attenuation (Monnereau et al. 2010). Translation is a pure solid displacement of the inner core material (solid iron) within its envelop, implying crystallization of entering iron on one side of the inner core and melting on the opposite side. Translation is consistent with multiple scattering models of wave propagation. If they do not experience deformation, iron crystals grow as they transit from one hemisphere to the other. Larger crystals constituting a faster and more attenuating medium, a translation velocity of some cm/yr (about ten times the growth rate) is enough to account for the superficial asymmetry observed for P-wave velocity and attenuation, with grains of a few hundred meters on the crystallizing side (West) growing up to a few kilometers before melting on the East side, and a drift direction located in the equatorial plane. Among all hypotheses that have been proposed to account for the seismic asymmetry, translation is the only one based on a demonstrated link between the seismic data and the proposed dynamics, notably through a model of seismic wave propagation. This mechanism was also proposed to be responsible for the formation of a dense layer at the bottom of the outer core, since the high rate of melting and crystallization would release a liquid depleted in light elements at the surface of the inner core (Alboussiere et al 2010). This would explain the anomalously low gradient of P wave velocity in the lowermost 200 km of the

  4. Mixed convection in fluid superposed porous layers

    CERN Document Server

    Dixon, John M


    This Brief describes and analyzes flow and heat transport over a liquid-saturated porous bed. The porous bed is saturated by a liquid layer and heating takes place from a section of the bottom. The effect on flow patterns of heating from the bottom is shown by calculation, and when the heating is sufficiently strong, the flow is affected through the porous and upper liquid layers. Measurements of the heat transfer rate from the heated section confirm calculations. General heat transfer laws are developed for varying porous bed depths for applications to process industry needs, environmental sciences, and materials processing. Addressing a topic of considerable interest to the research community, the brief features an up-to-date literature review of mixed convection energy transport in fluid superposed porous layers.

  5. Convective heat transfer and infrared thermography. (United States)

    Carlomagno, Giovanni M; Astarita, Tommaso; Cardone, Gennaro


    Infrared (IR) thermography, because of its two-dimensional and non-intrusive nature, can be exploited in industrial applications as well as in research. This paper deals with measurement of convective heat transfer coefficients (h) in three complex fluid flow configurations that concern the main aspects of both internal and external cooling of turbine engine components: (1) flow in ribbed, or smooth, channels connected by a 180 degrees sharp turn, (2) a jet in cross-flow, and (3) a jet impinging on a wall. The aim of this study was to acquire detailed measurements of h distribution in complex flow configurations related to both internal and external cooling of turbine components. The heated thin foil technique, which involves the detection of surface temperature by means of an IR scanning radiometer, was exploited to measure h. Particle image velocimetry was also used in one of the configurations to precisely determine the velocity field.

  6. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T [Huntington Beach, CA; Sahimi, Muhammad [Altadena, CA; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak [Richmond, CA; Harale, Aadesh [Los Angeles, CA; Park, Byoung-Gi [Yeosu, KR; Liu, Paul K. T. [Lafayette Hill, PA


    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  7. Premature rupture of membranes (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000512.htm Premature rupture of membranes To use the sharing features on this page, ... water that surrounds your baby in the womb. Membranes or layers of tissue hold in this fluid. ...

  8. Oxygen transport membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof.......The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof....

  9. Membrane with integrated spacer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balster, J.H.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Wessling, Matthias


    Many membrane processes are severely influenced by concentration polarisation. Turbulence promoting spacers placed in between the membranes can reduce the diffusional resistance of concentration polarisation by inducing additional mixing. Electrodialysis (ED) used for desalination suffers from

  10. Convectively Induced Meanflow in a Long Channel. (United States)

    Grimm, Th.; Maxworthy, T.


    The similarity theory of Phillips (Deep Sea Res. 13, 1966) for the convectively induced motion in the Red Sea, predicts that the outflow buoyancy difference should scale as (B _0L) ^2/3/h :: , where B 0 is the surface buoyancy flux and L and h are the length and height of the channel above the sill crest, respectively. A friction-buoyancy balance leads to a modified expression [(B _0L) ^2/3/h][fracLh]^1/3 :: (2). The results can be applied also to a number of other natural flows including freezing-induced convection in fjords and polar seas. A series of Experiments have been conducted to check the predictions. A channel 300 cm long and 21 cm wide has been constructed. Within it segmented salt-water sources have been placed over a length of 250 cm. Their depth varied from 2 to 12 cm. A sill was placed in the exit region and its height was at least half the total depth of water in the channel. Density data were taken by withdrawing samples while velocity profiles were found by a DPIV technique. The meanflow consists of a two-layer stratification over a large fraction of the length of the channel. Our results suggest that the scaling (2) above is most closely realized with a constant of value 1.1. Analysis of the Red Sea data suggests a constant between 1.1 and 1.4 depending on the data set used. The exit Fr-number is unity. The amount of mixing within the channel is less than that predicted for the 'overmixed' state. Supported by the German Acad. Exchge. Serv. and the NSF Polar Programs.

  11. Engineering photochemical smog through convection towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, S.; Prueitt, M.L.; Bossert, J.E.; Mroz, E.J.; Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Jacobson, M.Z.; Turco, R.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Dept.


    Reverse convection towers have attracted attention as a medium for cleansing modern cities. Evaporation of an aqueous mist injected at the tower opening could generate electrical power by creating descent, and simultaneously scavenge unsightly and unhealthful particulates. The study offered here assesses the influence to tower water droplets on the photochemical component of Los Angeles type smog. The primary radical chain initiator OH is likely removed into aqueous phases well within the residence time of air in the tower, and then reacts away rapidly. Organics do not dissolve, but nighttime hydrolysis of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} depletes the nitrogen oxides. A lack of HOx would slow hydrocarbon oxidation and so also ozone production. Lowering of NOx would also alter ozone production rates, but the direction is uncertain. SO{sub 2} is available in sufficient quantities in some urban areas to react with stable oxidants, and if seawater were the source of the mist, the high pH would lead to fast sulfur oxidation kinetics. With an accommodation coefficient of 10{sup {minus}3}, however, ozone may not enter the aqueous phase efficiently. Even if ozone is destroyed or its production suppressed, photochemical recovery times are on the order of hours, so that tower processing must be centered on a narrow midday time window. The cost of building the number of structures necessary for this brief turnover could be prohibitive. The increase in humidity accompanying mist evaporation could be controlled with condensers, but might otherwise counteract visibility enhancements by recreating aqueous aerosols. Quantification of the divergent forcings convection towers must exert upon the cityscape would call for coupled three dimensional modeling of transport, microphysics, and photochemistry. 112 refs.

  12. Electroviscous Effects in Ceramic Nanofiltration Membranes. (United States)

    Farsi, Ali; Boffa, Vittorio; Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard


    Membrane permeability and salt rejection of a γ-alumina nanofiltration membrane were studied and modeled for different salt solutions. Salt rejection was predicted by using the Donnan-steric pore model, in which the extended Nernst-Planck equation was applied to predict ion transport through the pores. The solvent flux was modeled by using the Hagen-Poiseuille equation by introducing electroviscosity instead of bulk viscosity. γ-Alumina particles were used for ζ-potential measurements. The ζ-potential measurements show that monovalent ions did not adsorb on the γ-alumina surface, whereas divalent ions were highly adsorbed. Thus, for divalent ions, the model was modified, owing to pore shrinkage caused by ion adsorption. The ζ-potential lowered the membrane permeability, especially for membranes with a pore radius lower than 3 nm, a ζ-potential higher than 20 mV, and an ionic strength lower than 0.01 m. The rejection model showed that, for a pore radius lower than 3 nm and for solutions with ionic strengths lower than 0.01 m, there is an optimum ζ-potential for rejection, because of the concurrent effects of electromigration and convection. Hence, the model can be used as a prediction tool to optimize membrane perm-selectivity by designing a specific pore size and surface charge for application at specific ionic strengths and pH levels. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Gel layer formation on membranes in Membrane Bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Brink, P.F.H.


    The widespread application of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for municipal wastewater treatment is hampered by membrane fouling. Fouling increases energy demand, reduces process performance and creates the need for more frequent (chemical) membrane cleaning or replacement. Membrane fouling in MBRs is

  14. Smart membranes for monitoring membrane based desalination processes

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Karam, Ayman M.


    Various examples are related to smart membranes for monitoring membrane based process such as, e.g., membrane distillation processes. In one example, a membrane, includes a porous surface and a plurality of sensors (e.g., temperature, flow and

  15. True polar wander on convecting planets (United States)

    Rose, Ian Robert

    Rotating planets are most stable when spinning around their maximum moment of inertia, and will tend to reorient themselves to achieve this configuration. Geological activity redistributes mass in the planet, making the moment of inertia a function of time. As the moment of inertia of the planet changes, the spin axis shifts with respect to a mantle reference frame in order to maintain rotational stability. This process is known as true polar wander (TPW). Of the processes that contribute to a planet's moment of inertia, convection in the mantle generates the largest and longest-period fluctuations, with corresponding shifts in the spin axis. True polar wander has been hypothesized to explain several physiographic features on planets and moons in our solar system. On Earth, TPW events have been invoked in some interpretations of paleomagnetic data. Large swings in the spin axis could have enormous ramifications for paleogeography, paleoclimate, and the history of life. Although the existence of TPW is well-verified, it is not known whether its rate and magnitude have been large enough for it to be an important process in Earth history. If true polar wander has been sluggish compared to plate tectonic speeds, then it would be difficult to detect and its consequences would be minor. I investigate rates of true polar wander on convecting planets using scaling, numerics, and inverse problems. I perform a scaling analysis of TPW on a convecting planet, identifying a minimal set of nondimensional parameters which describe the problem. The primary nondimensional numbers that control the rate of TPW are the ratio of centrifugal to gravitational forces m and the Rayleigh number Ra. The parameter m sets the size of a planet's rotational bulge, which determines the amount of work that needs to be done to move the spin axis. The Rayleigh number controls the size, distribution, and rate of change of moment of inertia anomalies, all of which affect the rate of TPW. I find that

  16. Electrical Resistivity Imaging and Hydrodynamic Modeling of Convective Fingering in a Sabkha Aquifer (United States)

    Van Dam, Remke; Eustice, Brian; Hyndman, David; Wood, Warren; Simmons, Craig


    into the aquifer from a surficial source and that the finite nature of this brine and dispersive mixing led to the decay of the complex fingers with time. Our work provides direct field measurements in a discipline where such data are quite rare. This work is likely the first to provide such direct evidence, coupled with time series data from numerical modeling, to allow quantification of the speed and the dynamics of complex free convective fingering in a field setting. This is a major step forward for this field.

  17. Model cell membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günther-Pomorski, Thomas; Nylander, Tommy; Cardenas Gomez, Marite


    The high complexity of biological membranes has motivated the development and application of a wide range of model membrane systems to study biochemical and biophysical aspects of membranes in situ under well defined conditions. The aim is to provide fundamental understanding of processes control...

  18. Idiopathic epiretinal membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bu, Shao-Chong; Kuijer, Roelof; Li, Xiao-Rong; Hooymans, Johanna M M; Los, Leonoor I


    Background: Idiopathic epiretinal membrane (iERM) is a fibrocellular membrane that proliferates on the inner surface of the retina at the macular area. Membrane contraction is an important sight-threatening event and is due to fibrotic remodeling. Methods: Analysis of the current literature

  19. Meniscus Membranes For Separation (United States)

    Dye, Robert C.; Jorgensen, Betty; Pesiri, David R.


    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  20. Meniscus membranes for separations (United States)

    Dye, Robert C [Irvine, CA; Jorgensen, Betty [Jemez Springs, NM; Pesiri, David R [Aliso Viejo, CA


    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  1. A review on regional convection-permitting climate modeling: Demonstrations, prospects, and challenges. (United States)

    Prein, Andreas F; Langhans, Wolfgang; Fosser, Giorgia; Ferrone, Andrew; Ban, Nikolina; Goergen, Klaus; Keller, Michael; Tölle, Merja; Gutjahr, Oliver; Feser, Frauke; Brisson, Erwan; Kollet, Stefan; Schmidli, Juerg; van Lipzig, Nicole P M; Leung, Ruby


    Regional climate modeling using convection-permitting models (CPMs; horizontal grid spacing 10 km). CPMs no longer rely on convection parameterization schemes, which had been identified as a major source of errors and uncertainties in LSMs. Moreover, CPMs allow for a more accurate representation of surface and orography fields. The drawback of CPMs is the high demand on computational resources. For this reason, first CPM climate simulations only appeared a decade ago. In this study, we aim to provide a common basis for CPM climate simulations by giving a holistic review of the topic. The most important components in CPMs such as physical parameterizations and dynamical formulations are discussed critically. An overview of weaknesses and an outlook on required future developments is provided. Most importantly, this review presents the consolidated outcome of studies that addressed the added value of CPM climate simulations compared to LSMs. Improvements are evident mostly for climate statistics related to deep convection, mountainous regions, or extreme events. The climate change signals of CPM simulations suggest an increase in flash floods, changes in hail storm characteristics, and reductions in the snowpack over mountains. In conclusion, CPMs are a very promising tool for future climate research. However, coordinated modeling programs are crucially needed to advance parameterizations of unresolved physics and to assess the full potential of CPMs.

  2. Improved nowcasting of precipitation based on convective analysis fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Haiden


    Full Text Available The high-resolution analysis and nowcasting system INCA (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis developed at the Austrian national weather service provides three-dimensional fields of temperature, humidity, and wind on an hourly basis, and two-dimensional fields of precipitation rate in 15 min intervals. The system operates on a horizontal resolution of 1 km and a vertical resolution of 100–200 m. It combines surface station data, remote sensing data (radar, satellite, forecast fields of the numerical weather prediction model ALADIN, and high-resolution topographic data. An important application of the INCA system is nowcasting of convective precipitation. Based on fine-scale temperature, humidity, and wind analyses a number of convective analysis fields are routinely generated. These fields include convective boundary layer (CBL flow convergence and specific humidity, lifted condensation level (LCL, convective available potential energy (CAPE, convective inhibition (CIN, and various convective stability indices. Based on the verification of areal precipitation nowcasts it is shown that the pure translational forecast of convective cells can be improved by using a decision algorithm which is based on a subset of the above fields, combined with satellite products.

  3. Convective effects in a regulatory and proposed fire model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wix, S.D.; Hohnstreiter, G.F.


    Radiation is the dominant mode of heat transfer in large fires. However, convection can be as much as 10 to 20 percent of the total heat transfer to an object in a large fire. The current radioactive material transportation packaging regulations include convection as a mode of heat transfer in the accident condition scenario. The current International Atomic Energy Agency Safety Series 6 packaging regulation states ''the convection coefficient shall be that value which the designer can justify if the package were exposed to the specified fire''. The current Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10CFR71) packaging regulation states ''when significant, convection heat input must be included on the basis of still, ambient air at 800 degrees C (1475 degrees F)''. Two questions that can arise in an analysts mind from an examination of the packaging regulations is whether convection is significant and whether convection should be included in the design analysis of a radioactive materials transportation container. The objective of this study is to examine the convective effects on an actual radioactive materials transportation package using a regulatory and a proposed thermal boundary condition

  4. Modeling of plasma-sheet convection: implications for substorms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, G.M.


    An answer is suggested to the question of why plasma and magnetic energy accumulate in the Earth's magnetotail to be released in sporadic events, namely substorms. It is shown that the idea of steady convection is inconsistent with the idea of slow, approximately lossless, plasma convection in a long, closed-field-line region that extends into a long magnetotail, such as occurs during Earthward convection in the Earth's plasma sheet. This inconsistency is argued generally and demonstrated specifically using several quantitative models of the Earth's magnetospheric magnetic field. These results suggest that plasma-sheet convection is necessarily time dependent. If flux tubes are to convect adiabatically earthward, the confining magnetic pressure in the tail lobes must increase with time, and the magnetotail must evolve into a more stretched configuration. Eventually, the magnetosphere must find some way to release plasma from inner-plasma-sheet flux tubes. This suggests an obvious role for the magnetospheric substorm in the convection process. To probe this process further, a two-dimensional, self-consistent, quasi-static convection model was developed. This model self consistently includes a dipole field and can reasonably account for the effects of inner-magnetospheric shielding

  5. Scaling of Convection and Plate Tectonics in Super-Earths (United States)

    Valencia, D. C.; O'Connell, R. J.; Sasselov, D. D.


    The discovery of three Super-Earths around different stars, possible only in the last year, prompts us to study the characteristics of our planet within a general context. The Earth, being the most massive terrestrial object in the solar system is the only planet that exhibits plate tectonics. We think this might not be a coincidence and explore the role that mass plays in determining the mode of convection. We use the scaling of convective vigor with Rayleigh number commonly used in parameterized convection. We study how the parameters controlling convection: Rayleigh number (Ra), boundary layer thickness (δ), internal temperature (T_i) and convective velocities (u) scale with mass. This is possible from the scaling of heat flux, mantle density, size and gravity with mass which we reported in Valencia, et. al 2006. The extrapolation to massive rocky planets is done from our knowledge of the Earth. Even though uncertainties arise from extrapolation and assumptions are needed we consider this simple scaling to be a first adequate step. As the mass of a planet increases, Ra increases, yielding a decrease in δ and an increase in u, while T_i increases very slightly. This is true for an isoviscous case and is more accentuated in a temperature dependent viscosity scenario. In a planet with vigorous convection (high u), a thin lithosphere (low δ) is easier to subduct and hence, initiate plate tectonics. The lithosphere also has to be dense enough (cold and thick) to have the bouyancy necessary for subduction. We calculate that a convective cycle for an isoviscous planet is τ ~ M^{-0.3} considering whole mantle convection. Meaning that if these planets have continents, the timescale for continental rearrangement is shorter (about half the Earth's for a 5 earth-mass planet). Additionally, we explore the negative feedback cycle between convection and temperature dependent viscosity and estimate a timescale for this effect.

  6. Separation membrane development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.W. [Savannah River Technology Center, Aiken, SC (United States)


    A ceramic membrane has been developed to separate hydrogen from other gases. The method used is a sol-gel process. A thin layer of dense ceramic material is coated on a coarse ceramic filter substrate. The pore size distribution in the thin layer is controlled by a densification of the coating materials by heat treatment. The membrane has been tested by permeation measurement of the hydrogen and other gases. Selectivity of the membrane has been achieved to separate hydrogen from carbon monoxide. The permeation rate of hydrogen through the ceramic membrane was about 20 times larger than Pd-Ag membrane.

  7. Double Diffusive Natural Convection in a Nuclear Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Y. Hao; J. Nitao; T.A. Buscheck; Y. Sun


    In this study, we conduct a two-dimensional numerical analysis of double diffusive natural convection in an emplacement drift for a nuclear waste repository. In-drift heat and moisture transport is driven by combined thermal- and compositional-induced buoyancy forces. Numerical results demonstrate buoyancy-driven convective flow patterns and configurations during both repository heat-up and cool-down phases. It is also shown that boundary conditions, particularly on the drip-shield surface, have strong impacts on the in-drift convective flow and transport

  8. Anomalous Convection Reversal due to Turbulence Transition in Tokamak Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Tian-Tian; Chen Shao-Yong; Huang Jie; Mou Mao-Lin; Tang Chang-Jian; Wang Zhan-Hui; Peng Xiao-Dong


    A critical physical model, based on the ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode and the trapped electron mode (TEM), trying to explain the spatio-temporal dynamics of anomalous particle convection reversal (i.e., the particle convective flux reverses from inward to outward), is developed numerically. The dependence of density peaking and profile shape on the particle convection is studied. Only the inward pinch could lead to the increase of the density peaking. The validation of the critical model is also analyzed. A comparison of the estimates calculated by the model and the experimental results from the Tore Supra tokamak shows that they are qualitatively both consistent. (paper)

  9. Convection with local thermal non-equilibrium and microfluidic effects

    CERN Document Server

    Straughan, Brian


    This book is one of the first devoted to an account of theories of thermal convection which involve local thermal non-equilibrium effects, including a concentration on microfluidic effects. The text introduces convection with local thermal non-equilibrium effects in extraordinary detail, making it easy for readers newer to the subject area to understand. This book is unique in the fact that it addresses a large number of convection theories and provides many new results which are not available elsewhere. This book will be useful to researchers from engineering, fluid mechanics, and applied mathematics, particularly those interested in microfluidics and porous media.

  10. Confinement and dynamical regulation in two-dimensional convective turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bian, N.H.; Garcia, O.E.


    In this work the nature of confinement improvement implied by the self-consistent generation of mean flows in two-dimensional convective turbulence is studied. The confinement variations are linked to two distinct regulation mechanisms which are also shown to be at the origin of low......-frequency bursting in the fluctuation level and the convective heat flux integral, both resulting in a state of large-scale intermittency. The first one involves the control of convective transport by sheared mean flows. This regulation relies on the conservative transfer of kinetic energy from tilted fluctuations...

  11. Tests for removal of decay heat by natural convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwagi, E.; Wataru, M.; Gomi, Y.; Hattori, Y.; Ozaki, S.


    Interim storage technology for spent fuel by dry storage casks have been investigated. The casks are vertically placed in a storage building. The decay heat is removed from the outer cask surface by natural convection of air entering from the building wall to the roof. The air flow pattern in the storage building was governed by the natural driving pressure difference and circulating flow. The purpose of this study is to understand the mechanism of the removal of decay heat from casks by natural convection. The simulated flow conditions in the building were assumed as a natural and forced combined convection and were investigated by the turbulent quantities near wall. (author)

  12. Microporous silica membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boffa, Vittorio; Yue, Yuanzheng


    Hydrothermal stability is a crucial factor for the application of microporous silica-based membranes in industrial processes. Indeed, it is well established that steam exposure may cause densification and defect formation in microporous silica membranes, which are detrimental to both membrane...... permeability and selectivity. Numerous previous studies show that microporous transition metal doped-silica membranes are hydrothermally more stable than pure silica membranes, but less permeable. Here we present a quantitative study on the impact of type and concentration of transition metal ions...... on the microporous structure, stability and permeability of amorphous silica-based membranes, providing information on how to design chemical compositions and synthetic paths for the fabrication of silica-based membranes with a well accessible and highly stabile microporous structure....

  13. Clustering on Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannes, Ludger; Pezeshkian, Weria; Ipsen, John H


    Clustering of extracellular ligands and proteins on the plasma membrane is required to perform specific cellular functions, such as signaling and endocytosis. Attractive forces that originate in perturbations of the membrane's physical properties contribute to this clustering, in addition to direct...... protein-protein interactions. However, these membrane-mediated forces have not all been equally considered, despite their importance. In this review, we describe how line tension, lipid depletion, and membrane curvature contribute to membrane-mediated clustering. Additional attractive forces that arise...... from protein-induced perturbation of a membrane's fluctuations are also described. This review aims to provide a survey of the current understanding of membrane-mediated clustering and how this supports precise biological functions....

  14. Application of dynamic membranes in anaerobic membranes in anaerobic membrane bioreactor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erşahin, M.E.


    Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) physically ensure biomass retention by the application of a membrane filtration process. With growing application experiences from aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs), the combination of membrane and anaerobic processes has received much attention and become

  15. Investigation of tropical diurnal convection biases in a climate model using TWP-ICE observations and convection-permitting simulations (United States)

    Lin, W.; Xie, S.; Jackson, R. C.; Endo, S.; Vogelmann, A. M.; Collis, S. M.; Golaz, J. C.


    Climate models are known to have difficulty in simulating tropical diurnal convections that exhibit distinct characteristics over land and open ocean. While the causes are rooted in deficiencies in convective parameterization in general, lack of representations of mesoscale dynamics in terms of land-sea breeze, convective organization, and propagation of convection-induced gravity waves also play critical roles. In this study, the problem is investigated at the process-level with the U.S. Department of Energy Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) model in short-term hindcast mode using the Cloud Associated Parameterization Testbed (CAPT) framework. Convective-scale radar retrievals and observation-driven convection-permitting simulations for the Tropical Warm Pool-International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) cases are used to guide the analysis of the underlying processes. The emphasis will be on linking deficiencies in representation of detailed process elements to the model biases in diurnal convective properties and their contrast among inland, coastal and open ocean conditions.

  16. Tectonic predictions with mantle convection models (United States)

    Coltice, Nicolas; Shephard, Grace E.


    Over the past 15 yr, numerical models of convection in Earth's mantle have made a leap forward: they can now produce self-consistent plate-like behaviour at the surface together with deep mantle circulation. These digital tools provide a new window into the intimate connections between plate tectonics and mantle dynamics, and can therefore be used for tectonic predictions, in principle. This contribution explores this assumption. First, initial conditions at 30, 20, 10 and 0 Ma are generated by driving a convective flow with imposed plate velocities at the surface. We then compute instantaneous mantle flows in response to the guessed temperature fields without imposing any boundary conditions. Plate boundaries self-consistently emerge at correct locations with respect to reconstructions, except for small plates close to subduction zones. As already observed for other types of instantaneous flow calculations, the structure of the top boundary layer and upper-mantle slab is the dominant character that leads to accurate predictions of surface velocities. Perturbations of the rheological parameters have little impact on the resulting surface velocities. We then compute fully dynamic model evolution from 30 and 10 to 0 Ma, without imposing plate boundaries or plate velocities. Contrary to instantaneous calculations, errors in kinematic predictions are substantial, although the plate layout and kinematics in several areas remain consistent with the expectations for the Earth. For these calculations, varying the rheological parameters makes a difference for plate boundary evolution. Also, identified errors in initial conditions contribute to first-order kinematic errors. This experiment shows that the tectonic predictions of dynamic models over 10 My are highly sensitive to uncertainties of rheological parameters and initial temperature field in comparison to instantaneous flow calculations. Indeed, the initial conditions and the rheological parameters can be good enough

  17. Time dependent convection electric fields and plasma injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, S.M.; Kivelson, M.G.


    Large-scale electric fields associated with storms or substorms are responsible for inward convection and energization of plasma sheet plasma. Calculations based on steady state convection theory show that the response to such electric fields qualitatively accounts for many features of the injected particle distribution, but quantitative agreement with the theory has not yet been obtained. It is known that the predictions can be improved by introducing the concept of convection in response to a time dependent electric field. On the other hand, time dependent calculations are sensitive to the choice of initial conditions, and most models have failed to incorporate these conditions in a realistic and self-consistent manner. In this paper we present a more complete model consisting of realisic initial conditions and time dependent convection to explain a typical substorm-associated electron injection event. We find very good agreement between the observed electron flux changes and those predicted by our model

  18. Boundary layers and scaling relations in natural thermal convection (United States)

    Shishkina, Olga; Lohse, Detlef; Grossmann, Siegfried


    We analyse the boundary layer (BL) equations in natural thermal convection, which includes vertical convection (VC), where the fluid is confined between two differently heated vertical walls, horizontal convection (HC), where the fluid is heated at one part of the bottom plate and cooled at some other part, and Rayleigh-Benard convection (RBC). For BL dominated regimes we derive the scaling relations of the Nusselt and Reynolds numbers (Nu, Re) with the Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers (Ra, Pr). For VC the scaling relations are obtained directly from the BL equations, while for HC they are derived by applying the Grossmann-Lohse theory to the case of VC. In particular, for RBC with large Pr we derive Nu Pr0Ra1/3 and Re Pr-1Ra2/3. The work is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) under the Grant Sh 405/4 - Heisenberg fellowship.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, Joel D.; Basu, Sarbani; Demarque, Pierre


    We examine how metallicity affects convection and overshoot in the superadiabatic layer of main sequence stars. We present results from a grid of three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations with four metallicities (Z = 0.040, 0.020, 0.010, 0.001), and spanning a range in effective temperature (4950 eff < 6230). We show that changing the metallicity alters properties of the convective gas dynamics, and the structure of the superadiabatic layer and atmosphere. Our grid of simulations shows that the amount of superadiabaticity, which tracks the transition from efficient to inefficient convection, is sensitive to changes in metallicity. We find that increasing the metallicity forces the location of the transition region to lower densities and pressures, and results in larger mean and turbulent velocities throughout the superadiabatic region. We also quantify the degree of convective overshoot in the atmosphere, and show that it increases with metallicity as well.

  20. Convective heat and mass transfer in rotating disk systems

    CERN Document Server

    Shevchuk, Igor V


    The book describes results of investigations of a series of convective heat and mass transfer problems in rotating-disk systems. Methodology used included integral methods, self-similar and approximate analytical solutions, as well as CFD.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traxler, A.; Garaud, P.; Stellmach, S.


    We present the first three-dimensional simulations of fingering convection performed at parameter values approaching those relevant for astrophysics. Our simulations reveal the existence of simple asymptotic scaling laws for turbulent heat and compositional transport, which can be straightforwardly extrapolated from our numerically tractable values to the true astrophysical regime. Our investigation also indicates that thermo-compositional 'staircases', a key consequence of fingering convection in the ocean, cannot form spontaneously in the fingering regime in stellar interiors. Our proposed empirically determined transport laws thus provide simple prescriptions for mixing by fingering convection in a variety of astrophysical situations, and should, from here on, be used preferentially over older and less accurate parameterizations. They also establish that fingering convection does not provide sufficient extra-mixing to explain observed chemical abundances in red giant branch stars.

  2. Convective behaviour in vapour-gas-aerosol mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, C.F.


    Unusual convective behaviour can occur in mixtures of gases and heavy vapour, including stabilization of mixtures hot at the base and 'upside-down' convection in mixtures hot at the top. Previous work produced a criterion for this behaviour which ignored the necessary presence of an aerosol. Modification arising from aerosol condensation is derived and is shown to involve the Lewis and condensation numbers of the mixture, as well as a quantity involving the temperature drop across a boundary layer. It becomes negligible at high temperatures, but can crucially affect the temperature for the onset of unusual behaviour. Aerosol formation produces an asymmetry between the convective forces in boundary layers in which the mixture is being heated and cooled, respectively, for example at the base and roof of a cavity. The convective behaviour discussed could occur in situations relevant to nuclear safety. (author)

  3. Effect of Chemical Reaction on Unsteady MHD Free Convective Two

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Joseph et al.

    radiation effects on mixed convection heat and mass transfer over a vertical plate in ... numerically by finite difference method and analytically by perturbation. ... Brinkman equation was used to model the flow in the porous region. The.

  4. Convectively driven flow past an infinite moving vertical cylinder with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Oct 1, 2013 ... tical cylinder with combined effects of heat and mass transfer is an ... presented a numerical study of free convective flow of a viscous ... models. The simultaneous effects of thermal and mass stratifications have application.

  5. Turbulent convection in liquid metal with and without rotation. (United States)

    King, Eric M; Aurnou, Jonathan M


    The magnetic fields of Earth and other planets are generated by turbulent, rotating convection in liquid metal. Liquid metals are peculiar in that they diffuse heat more readily than momentum, quantified by their small Prandtl numbers, Pr rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection experiments in the liquid metal gallium (Pr = 0.025) over a range of nondimensional buoyancy forcing (Ra) and rotation periods (E). Our primary diagnostic is the efficiency of convective heat transfer (Nu). In general, we find that the convective behavior of liquid metal differs substantially from that of moderate Pr fluids, such as water. In particular, a transition between rotationally constrained and weakly rotating turbulent states is identified, and this transition differs substantially from that observed in moderate Pr fluids. This difference, we hypothesize, may explain the different classes of magnetic fields observed on the Gas and Ice Giant planets, whose dynamo regions consist of Pr 1 fluids, respectively.

  6. Convective Self-Aggregation in Numerical Simulations: A Review (United States)

    Wing, Allison A.; Emanuel, Kerry; Holloway, Christopher E.; Muller, Caroline

    Organized convection in the tropics occurs across a range of spatial and temporal scales and strongly influences cloud cover and humidity. One mode of organization found is ``self-aggregation,'' in which moist convection spontaneously organizes into one or several isolated clusters despite spatially homogeneous boundary conditions and forcing. Self-aggregation is driven by interactions between clouds, moisture, radiation, surface fluxes, and circulation, and occurs in a wide variety of idealized simulations of radiative-convective equilibrium. Here we provide a review of convective self-aggregation in numerical simulations, including its character, causes, and effects. We describe the evolution of self-aggregation including its time and length scales and the physical mechanisms leading to its triggering and maintenance, and we also discuss possible links to climate and climate change.

  7. Mixing properties of thermal convection in the earth's mantle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmalzl, J.T.


    The structure of mantle convection will greatly influence the generation and the survival of compositional heterogeneities. Conversely, geochemical observations can be used to obtain information about heterogeneities in the mantle and then, with certain model assumptions, information about the

  8. Lattice Boltzmann model for melting with natural convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, Christian; Parmigiani, Andrea; Chopard, Bastien; Manga, Michael; Bachmann, Olivier


    We develop a lattice Boltzmann method to couple thermal convection and pure-substance melting. The transition from conduction-dominated heat transfer to fully-developed convection is analyzed and scaling laws and previous numerical results are reproduced by our numerical method. We also investigate the limit in which thermal inertia (high Stefan number) cannot be neglected. We use our results to extend the scaling relations obtained at low Stefan number and establish the correlation between the melting front propagation and the Stefan number for fully-developed convection. We conclude by showing that the model presented here is particularly well-suited to study convection melting in geometrically complex media with many applications in geosciences

  9. Using naive Bayes classifier for classification of convective rainfall ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the rainfall intensity in the convective clouds is evaluated using weather radar over the northern Algeria. The results indicate an ... tropical and extratropical regions, are dominated .... MSG is a new series of European geostationary satellites ...

  10. Large Eddy Simulations of Severe Convection Induced Turbulence (United States)

    Ahmad, Nash'at; Proctor, Fred


    Convective storms can pose a serious risk to aviation operations since they are often accompanied by turbulence, heavy rain, hail, icing, lightning, strong winds, and poor visibility. They can cause major delays in air traffic due to the re-routing of flights, and by disrupting operations at the airports in the vicinity of the storm system. In this study, the Terminal Area Simulation System is used to simulate five different convective events ranging from a mesoscale convective complex to isolated storms. The occurrence of convection induced turbulence is analyzed from these simulations. The validation of model results with the radar data and other observations is reported and an aircraft-centric turbulence hazard metric calculated for each case is discussed. The turbulence analysis showed that large pockets of significant turbulence hazard can be found in regions of low radar reflectivity. Moderate and severe turbulence was often found in building cumulus turrets and overshooting tops.

  11. Regime-dependent forecast uncertainty of convective precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keil, Christian; Craig, George C. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.


    Forecast uncertainty of convective precipitation is influenced by all scales, but in different ways in different meteorological situations. Forecasts of the high resolution ensemble prediction system COSMO-DE-EPS of Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) are used to examine the dominant sources of uncertainty of convective precipitation. A validation with radar data using traditional as well as spatial verification measures highlights differences in precipitation forecast performance in differing weather regimes. When the forecast uncertainty can primarily be associated with local, small-scale processes individual members run with the same variation of the physical parameterisation driven by different global models outperform all other ensemble members. In contrast when the precipitation is governed by the large-scale flow all ensemble members perform similarly. Application of the convective adjustment time scale confirms this separation and shows a regime-dependent forecast uncertainty of convective precipitation. (orig.)

  12. Probing lipid membrane electrostatics (United States)

    Yang, Yi

    The electrostatic properties of lipid bilayer membranes play a significant role in many biological processes. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is highly sensitive to membrane surface potential in electrolyte solutions. With fully characterized probe tips, AFM can perform quantitative electrostatic analysis of lipid membranes. Electrostatic interactions between Silicon nitride probes and supported zwitterionic dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayer with a variable fraction of anionic dioleoylphosphatidylserine (DOPS) were measured by AFM. Classical Gouy-Chapman theory was used to model the membrane electrostatics. The nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation was numerically solved with finite element method to provide the potential distribution around the AFM tips. Theoretical tip-sample electrostatic interactions were calculated with the surface integral of both Maxwell and osmotic stress tensors on tip surface. The measured forces were interpreted with theoretical forces and the resulting surface charge densities of the membrane surfaces were in quantitative agreement with the Gouy-Chapman-Stern model of membrane charge regulation. It was demonstrated that the AFM can quantitatively detect membrane surface potential at a separation of several screening lengths, and that the AFM probe only perturbs the membrane surface potential by external field created by the internai membrane dipole moment. The analysis yields a dipole moment of 1.5 Debye per lipid with a dipole potential of +275 mV for supported DOPC membranes. This new ability to quantitatively measure the membrane dipole density in a noninvasive manner will be useful in identifying the biological effects of the dipole potential. Finally, heterogeneous model membranes were studied with fluid electric force microscopy (FEFM). Electrostatic mapping was demonstrated with 50 nm resolution. The capabilities of quantitative electrostatic measurement and lateral charge density mapping make AFM a unique and powerful

  13. Emulsification using microporous membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran T. Vladisavljević


    Full Text Available Membrane emulsification is a process of injecting a pure dispersed phase or pre-emulsion through a microporous membrane into the continuous phase. As a result of the immiscibility of the two phases, droplets of the dispersed phase are formed at the outlets of membrane pores. The droplets formed in the process are removed from the membrane surface by applying cross-flow or stirring of the continuous phase or using a dynamic (rotating or vibrating membrane. The most commonly used membrane for emulsification is the Shirasu Porous Glass (SPG membrane, fabricated through spinodal decomposition in a melt consisting of Japanese volcanic ash (Shirasu, boric acid and calcium carbonate. Microsieve membranes are increasingly popular as an alternative to highly tortuous glass and ceramic membranes. Microsieves are usually fabricated from nickel by photolithography and electroplating or they can be manufactured from silicon nitride via Reactive Ion Etching (RIE. An advantage of microsieves compared to the SPG membrane is in much higher transmembrane fluxes and higher tolerance to fouling by the emulsion ingredients due to the existence of short, straight through pores. Unlike conventional emulsification devices such as high-pressure valve homogenisers and rotor-stator devices, membrane emulsification devices permit a precise control over the mean pore size over a wide range and during the process insignificant amount of energy is dissipated as heat. The drop size is primarily determined by the pore size, but it depends also on other parameters, such as membrane wettability, emulsion formulation, shear stress on the membrane surface, transmembrane pressure, etc.

  14. Performance of a convective, infrared and combined infrared- convective heated conveyor-belt dryer. (United States)

    El-Mesery, Hany S; Mwithiga, Gikuru


    A conveyor-belt dryer was developed using a combined infrared and hot air heating system that can be used in the drying of fruits and vegetables. The drying system having two chambers was fitted with infrared radiation heaters and through-flow hot air was provided from a convective heating system. The system was designed to operate under either infrared radiation and cold air (IR-CA) settings of 2000 W/m(2) with forced ambient air at 30 °C and air flow of 0.6 m/s or combined infrared and hot air convection (IR-HA) dryer setting with infrared intensity set at 2000 W/m(2) and hot at 60 °C being blown through the dryer at a velocity of 0.6 m/s or hot air convection (HA) at an air temperature of 60 °C and air flow velocity 0.6 m/s but without infrared heating. Apple slices dried under the different dryer settings were evaluated for quality and energy requirements. It was found that drying of apple (Golden Delicious) slices took place in the falling rate drying period and no constant rate period of drying was observed under any of the test conditions. The IR-HA setting was 57.5 and 39.1 % faster than IR-CA and HA setting, respectively. Specific energy consumption was lower and thermal efficiency was higher for the IR-HA setting when compared to both IR-CA and HA settings. The rehydration ratio, shrinkage and colour properties of apples dried under IR-HA conditions were better than for either IR-CA or HA.

  15. Wavelet Scale Analysis of Mesoscale Convective Systems for Detecting Deep Convection From Infrared Imagery (United States)

    Klein, Cornelia; Belušić, Danijel; Taylor, Christopher M.


    Mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) are frequently associated with rainfall extremes and are expected to further intensify under global warming. However, despite the significant impact of such extreme events, the dominant processes favoring their occurrence are still under debate. Meteosat geostationary satellites provide unique long-term subhourly records of cloud top temperatures, allowing to track changes in MCS structures that could be linked to rainfall intensification. Focusing on West Africa, we show that Meteosat cloud top temperatures are a useful proxy for rainfall intensities, as derived from snapshots from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission 2A25 product: MCSs larger than 15,000 km2 at a temperature threshold of -40°C are found to produce 91% of all extreme rainfall occurrences in the study region, with 80% of the storms producing extreme rain when their minimum temperature drops below -80°C. Furthermore, we present a new method based on 2-D continuous wavelet transform to explore the relationship between cloud top temperature and rainfall intensity for subcloud features at different length scales. The method shows great potential for separating convective and stratiform cloud parts when combining information on temperature and scale, improving the common approach of using a temperature threshold only. We find that below -80°C, every fifth pixel is associated with deep convection. This frequency is doubled when looking at subcloud features smaller than 35 km. Scale analysis of subcloud features can thus help to better exploit cloud top temperature data sets, which provide much more spatiotemporal detail of MCS characteristics than available rainfall data sets alone.

  16. Universality in quasiperiodic Rayleigh-Benard convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecke, R.E.; Mainieri, R.; Sullivan, T.S.


    We study universal scaling properties of quasiperiodic Rayleigh-Benard convection in a 3 He--superfluid- 4 He mixture. The critical line is located in a parameter space of Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers using a transient-Poincare-section technique to identify transitions from nodal periodic points to spiral periodic points within resonance horns. We measure the radial and angular contraction rates and extract the linear-stability eigenvalues (Flouquet multipliers) of the periodic point. At the crossings of the critical line with the lines of fixed golden-mean-tail winding number we determine the universality class of our experimental dynamics using f(α) and trajectory-scaling-function analyses. A technique is used to obtain a robust five-scale approximation to the universal trajectory scaling function. Different methods of multifractal analysis are employed and an understanding of statistical and systematic errors in these procedures is developed. The power law of the inflection point of the map, determined for three golden-mean-tail winding numbers, is 2.9±0.3, corresponding to the universality class of the sine map

  17. Free convective condensation in a vertical enclosure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, R.J.; Peterson, P.F. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Corradini, M.L.; Pernsteiner, A.P. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)


    Free convective condensation in a vertical enclosure was studied numerically and the results were compared with experiments. In both the numerical and experimental investigations, mist formation was observed to occur near the cooling wall, with significant droplet concentrations in the bulk. Large recirculation cells near the end of the condensing section were generated as the heavy noncondensing gas collecting near the cooling wall was accelerated downward. Near the top of the enclosure the recirculation cells became weaker and smaller than those below, ultimately disappearing near the top of the condenser. In the experiment the mist density was seen to be highest near the wall and at the bottom of the condensing section, whereas the numerical model predicted a much more uniform distribution. The model used to describe the formation of mist was based on a Modified Critical Saturation Model (MCSM), which allows mist to be generated once the vapor pressure exceeds a critical value. Equilibrium, nonequilibrium, and MCSM calculations were preformed, showing the experimental results to lie somewhere in between the equilibrium and nonequilibrium predictions of the numerical model. A single adjustable constant (indicating the degree to which equilibrium is achieved) is used in the model in order to match the experimental results.

  18. A novel approach to modeling atmospheric convection (United States)

    Goodman, A.


    The inadequate representation of clouds continues to be a large source of uncertainty in the projections from global climate models (GCMs). With continuous advances in computational power, however, the ability for GCMs to explicitly resolve cumulus convection will soon be realized. For this purpose, Jung and Arakawa (2008) proposed the Vector Vorticity Model (VVM), in which vorticity is the predicted variable instead of momentum. This has the advantage of eliminating the pressure gradient force within the framework of an anelastic system. However, the VVM was designed for use on a planar quadrilateral grid, making it unsuitable for implementation in global models discretized on the sphere. Here we have proposed a modification to the VVM where instead the curl of the horizontal vorticity is the primary predicted variable. This allows us to maintain the benefits of the original VVM while working within the constraints of a non-quadrilateral mesh. We found that our proposed model produced results from a warm bubble simulation that were consistent with the VVM. Further improvements that can be made to the VVM are also discussed.

  19. Non-linear thermal convection in a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Shaw


    Full Text Available Casson fluid flow has many practical applications such as food processing, metallurgy, drilling operations and bio-engineering operations. In this paper, we study Casson fluid flow through a plate with a convective boundary condition at the surface and quantify the effects of suction/injection, velocity ratio, and Soret and Dufour effects. Firstly we used a similarity transformation to change the governing equations to ordinary differential equations which were then solved numerically. The effect of the rheological parameters on the velocity, temperature, and concentration with skin friction, and heat and mass transfer are shown graphically and discussed briefly. It is observed that the velocity of the fluid at the surface decreases with increase of the velocity ratio while the nature of the flow is in opposite characteristics. The local Nusselt number decreases with increase in the velocity ratio. Skin friction at the surface is enhanced by buoyancy ratio and Casson number. Due to injection of the fluid in the system, the mass transfer rate at the surface increases while it decreases with the velocity ratio parameter.

  20. Heat transfer characteristics of induced mixed convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Y.; Lahav, C.; Szanto, M.; Shai, I.


    In the present work we focus our attention on the opposed Induced Mixed Convection case, i.e. the flow field structure in a vertical cylinder, closed at its bottom, opens at the top, and being heated circumferentially. The paper reports an experimental study of this complex heat transfer process. For a better understanding of the flow field and the related heat transfer process, two different experimental systems were built. The first was a flow visualization system, with water as the working fluid, while the second system enabled quantitative measurements of the temperature field in air. All the experiments were performed in the turbulent flow regime. In order to learn about all possible flow regimes, the visualization tests were conducted in three different length-to-diameter ratios (1/d=1,5,10). Quantitative measurements of the cylindrical wall temperature, as well as the radial and axial temperature profiles in the flow field, were taken in the air system. Based on the visualization observation and the measured wall temperature profile, it was found that the OIMC can be characterized by three main regimes: a mixing regime at the top, a central turbulent core and a boundary layer type of flow adjacent to the heated wall. (authors)

  1. Striation and convection in penumbral filaments (United States)

    Spruit, H. C.; Scharmer, G. B.; Löfdahl, M. G.


    Observations with the 1-m Swedish Solar Telescope of the flows seen in penumbral filaments are presented. Time sequences of bright filaments show overturning motions strikingly similar to those seen along the walls of small isolated structures in the active regions. The filaments show outward propagating striations with inclination angles suggesting that they are aligned with the local magnetic field. We interpret it as the equivalent of the striations seen in the walls of small isolated magnetic structures. Their origin is then a corrugation of the boundary between an overturning convective flow inside the filament and the magnetic field wrapping around it. The outward propagation is a combination of a pattern motion due to the downflow observed along the sides of bright filaments, and the Evershed flow. The observed short wavelength of the striation argues against the existence of a dynamically significant horizontal field inside the bright filaments. Its intensity contrast is explained by the same physical effect that causes the dark cores of filaments, light bridges and “canals”. In this way striation represents an important clue to the physics of penumbral structure and its relation with other magnetic structures on the solar surface. We put this in perspective with results from the recent 3-D radiative hydrodynamic simulations. 4 movies are only available in electronic form at

  2. Thermal turbulent convection: thermal plumes and fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibert, M.


    In this study we investigate the phenomenon of thermal turbulent convection in new and unprecedented ways. The first system we studied experimentally is an infinite vertical channel, where a constant vertical mean gradient of temperature exists. Inside this channel the average mass flux is null. The results obtained from our measurements reveal that the flow is mainly inertial; indeed the dissipative coefficients (here the viscosity) play a role only to define a coherence length L. This length is the distance over which the thermal plumes can be considered as 'free falling' objects. The horizontal transport, of heat and momentum, is entirely due to fluctuations. The associated 'mixing length' is small compared to the channel width. In the other hand, the vertical heat transport is due to coherent structures: the heat plumes. Those objects were also investigated in a Lagrangian study of the flow in the bulk of a Rayleigh-Benard cell. The probe, which has the same density as the fluid used in this experiment, is a sphere of 2 cm in diameter with embarked thermometers and radio-emitter. The heat plumes transport it, which allows a statistical study of such objects. (author)

  3. Influence of convection on eutectic microstructure (United States)

    Baskaran, V.; Eisa, G. F.; Wilcox, W. R.


    When the MnBi-Bi eutectic is directionally solidified, it forms fibers of MnBi in a matrix of bismuth. When the material solidified in space at rates of 30 and 50 cm/hr, the average fiber spacing lambda was about one half of the value obtained in cases in which the same material solidified on earth. Neither an altered temperature gradient nor a fluctuating freezing rate are apparently responsible for the change in lambda, and the possibility is studied that natural convection increases lambda on earth by perturbing the compositional field in the melt ahead of the growing solid. A theoretical analysis is conducted along with some experiments. On the basis of the theoretical results for lamellar growth, it is concluded that the spacing lambda increases with increasing stirring, especially at small freezing rates. The experiments indicate that at low growth rates the cross-sectional area of the MnBi blades increases with increased stirring and with decreased growth rate.

  4. Solar Convective Furnace for Metals Processing (United States)

    Patidar, Deepesh; Tiwari, Sheetanshu; Sharma, Piyush; Pardeshi, Ravindra; Chandra, Laltu; Shekhar, Rajiv


    Metals processing operations, primarily soaking, heat treatment, and melting of metals are energy-intensive processes using fossil fuels, either directly or indirectly as electricity, to operate furnaces at high temperatures. Use of concentrated solar energy as a source of heat could be a viable "green" option for industrial heat treatment furnaces. This paper introduces the concept of a solar convective furnace which utilizes hot air generated by an open volumetric air receiver (OVAR)-based solar tower technology. The potential for heating air above 1000°C exists. Air temperatures of 700°C have already been achieved in a 1.5-MWe volumetric air receiver demonstration plant. Efforts to retrofit an industrial aluminium soaking furnace for integration with a solar tower system are briefly described. The design and performance of an OVAR has been discussed. A strategy for designing a 1/15th-scale model of an industrial aluminium soaking furnace has been presented. Preliminary flow and thermal simulation results suggest the presence of recirculating flow in existing furnaces that could possibly result in non-uniform heating of the slabs. The multifarious uses of concentrated solar energy, for example in smelting, metals processing, and even fuel production, should enable it to overcome its cost disadvantage with respect to solar photovoltaics.

  5. Multicomponent droplet vaporization in a convecting environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megaridis, C.M.; Sirignano, W.A.


    In this paper a parametric study of the fundamental exchange processes for energy, mass and momentum between the liquid and gas phases of multicomponent liquid vaporizing droplets is presented. The model, which examines an isolated, vaporizing, multicomponent droplet in an axisymmetric, convecting environment, considers the different volatilities of the liquid components, the alteration of the liquid-phase properties due to the spatial/temporal variations of the species concentrations and also the effects of multicomponent diffusion. In addition, the model accounts for variable thermophysical properties, surface blowing and droplet surface regression due to vaporization, transient droplet heating with internal liquid circulation, and finally droplet deceleration with respect to the free flow due to drag. The numerical calculation employs finite-difference techniques and an iterative solution procedure that provides time-varying spatially-resolved data for both phases. The effects of initial droplet composition, ambient temperature, initial Reynolds number (based on droplet diameter), and volatility differential between the two liquid components are investigated for a liquid droplet consisting of two components with very different volatilities. It is found that mixtures with higher concentration of the less volatile substance actually vaporize faster on account of intrinsically higher liquid heating rates

  6. Heating-insensitive scale increase caused by convective precipitation (United States)

    Haerter, Jan; Moseley, Christopher; Berg, Peter


    The origin of intense convective extremes and their unusual temperature dependence has recently challenged traditional thermodynamic arguments, based on the Clausius-Clapeyron relation. In a sequence of studies (Lenderink and v. Mejgaard, Nat Geosc, 2008; Berg, Haerter, Moseley, Nat Geosc, 2013; and Moseley, Hohenegger, Berg, Haerter, Nat Geosc, 2016) the argument of convective-type precipitation overcoming the 7%/K increase in extremes by dynamical, rather than thermodynamic, processes has been promoted. How can the role of dynamical processes be approached for precipitating convective cloud? One-phase, non-precipitating Rayleigh-Bénard convection is a classical problem in complex systems science. When a fluid between two horizontal plates is sufficiently heated from below, convective rolls spontaneously form. In shallow, non-precipitating atmospheric convection, rolls are also known to form under specific conditions, with horizontal scales roughly proportional to the boundary layer height. Here we explore within idealized large-eddy simulations, how the scale of convection is modified, when precipitation sets in and intensifies in the course of diurnal solar heating. Before onset of precipitation, Bénard cells with relatively constant diameter form, roughly on the scale of the atmospheric boundary layer. We find that the onset of precipitation then signals an approximately linear (in time) increase in horizontal scale. This scale increase progresses at a speed which is rather insensitive to changes in surface temperature or changes in the rate at which boundary conditions change, hinting at spatial characteristics, rather than temperature, as a possible control on spatial scales of convection. When exploring the depth of spatial correlations, we find that precipitation onset causes a sudden disruption of order and a subsequent complete disintegration of organization —until precipitation eventually ceases. Returning to the initial question of convective

  7. Forced heat convection in annular spaces; Convection forcee de la chaleur dans les espaces annulaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelce, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    This report deals with the experimental study of forced heat convection in annular spaces through which flow of air is passing when a uniform heat flux is dissipated across the inner wall. These observations took place chiefly in the region where thermal equilibrium are not yet established. Amongst other things it became apparent that, both in the region where thermal equilibrium conditions are on the way to establishment and where they are already established, the following relationship held good: the longitudinal temperature gradient, either on the wall or in the fluid stream, is proportional to the heat flux dissipated q, and inversely proportional to the average flow rate V: dT/dx = B (q/V). From this result the next step is to express the variations of the local convection coefficient {alpha} (or of the Margoulis number M) in a relationship of the form: 1/M = {psi}(V) + F(x). If this relationship is compared with the classical empirical relationship {alpha} = KV{sup n} (where n is close to 0.8), the relationship: 1/M = {xi}V{sup 1-n} + F(x) is obtained ({xi} is a constant for a given annular space); from this it was possible to coordinate the whole set of experimental results. (author) [French] Il s'agit precisement de l'etude experimentale de la convection forcee de la chaleur dans des espaces annulaires parcourus par de l'air en ecoulement turbulent, lorsqu'on dissipe a travers la paroi interieure un flux de chaleur uniforme. Ces observations ont eu lieu principalement dans la region ou le regime thermique n'est pas encore etabli. Il est apparu, entre autre, qu'il existait, tant dans la region ou le regime thermique est en voie d'etablissement qu'en regime etabli, la relation suivante: le gradient longitudinal des temperatures, que ce soit sur la paroi ou dans l'ecoulement fluide, est proportionnel au flux de la chaleur dissipee q, et inversement proportionnel a la vitesse moyenne V de l'ecoulement: dT/dx = B (q/V). Ce resultat a pour consequence de traduire

  8. Regional modelling of tracer transport by tropical convection – Part 1: Sensitivity to convection parameterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Arteta


    Full Text Available The general objective of this series of papers is to evaluate long duration limited area simulations with idealised tracers as a tool to assess tracer transport in chemistry-transport models (CTMs. In this first paper, we analyse the results of six simulations using different convection closures and parameterizations. The simulations are using the Grell and Dévényi (2002 mass-flux framework for the convection parameterization with different closures (Grell = GR, Arakawa-Shubert = AS, Kain-Fritch = KF, Low omega = LO, Moisture convergence = MC and an ensemble parameterization (EN based on the other five closures. The simulations are run for one month during the SCOUT-O3 field campaign lead from Darwin (Australia. They have a 60 km horizontal resolution and a fine vertical resolution in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere. Meteorological results are compared with satellite products, radiosoundings and SCOUT-O3 aircraft campaign data. They show that the model is generally in good agreement with the measurements with less variability in the model. Except for the precipitation field, the differences between the six simulations are small on average with respect to the differences with the meteorological observations. The comparison with TRMM rainrates shows that the six parameterizations or closures have similar behaviour concerning convection triggering times and locations. However, the 6 simulations provide two different behaviours for rainfall values, with the EN, AS and KF parameterizations (Group 1 modelling better rain fields than LO, MC and GR (Group 2. The vertical distribution of tropospheric tracers is very different for the two groups showing significantly more transport into the TTL for Group 1 related to the larger average values of the upward velocities. Nevertheless the low values for the Group 1 fluxes at and above the cold point level indicate that the model does not simulate significant overshooting. For stratospheric tracers

  9. Predictions of laminar natural convection in heated cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, K.H.


    Several examples of laminar, natural convection in heated cavities are discussed with illustrative calculations. These include convection in a square cavity at high Rayleigh number; in a narrow cavity at moderate aspect ratio; in a rectangular cavity heated from below; in a trapezoidal cavity, and in a rectangular cavity containing a conducting obstruction. The steady equations for the velocity, pressure and temperature are solved in the Boussinesq approximation, using a standard Galerkin formulation of the finite-element method. (author)

  10. Turbulent convection in liquid metal with and without rotation


    King, Eric M.; Aurnou, Jonathan M.


    The magnetic fields of Earth and other planets are generated by turbulent, rotating convection in liquid metal. Liquid metals are peculiar in that they diffuse heat more readily than momentum, quantified by their small Prandtl numbers, . Most analog models of planetary dynamos, however, use moderate fluids, and the systematic influence of reducing is not well understood. We perform rotating Rayleigh–Bénard convection experiments in the liquid metal gallium over a range of nondimensional bu...

  11. Analysis and modeling of tropical convection observed by CYGNSS (United States)

    Lang, T. J.; Li, X.; Roberts, J. B.; Mecikalski, J. R.


    The Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) is a multi-satellite constellation that utilizes Global Positioning System (GPS) reflectometry to retrieve near-surface wind speeds over the ocean. While CYGNSS is primarily aimed at measuring wind speeds in tropical cyclones, our research has established that the mission may also provide valuable insight into the relationships between wind-driven surface fluxes and general tropical oceanic convection. Currently, we are examining organized tropical convection using a mixture of CYGNSS level 1 through level 3 data, IMERG (Integrated Multi-satellite Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement), and other ancillary datasets (including buoys, GPM level 1 and 2 data, as well as ground-based radar). In addition, observing system experiments (OSEs) are being performed using hybrid three-dimensional variational assimilation to ingest CYGNSS observations into a limited-domain, convection-resolving model. Our focus for now is on case studies of convective evolution, but we will also report on progress toward statistical analysis of convection sampled by CYGNSS. Our working hypothesis is that the typical mature phase of organized tropical convection is marked by the development of a sharp gust-front boundary from an originally spatially broader but weaker wind speed change associated with precipitation. This increase in the wind gradient, which we demonstrate is observable by CYGNSS, likely helps to focus enhanced turbulent fluxes of convection-sustaining heat and moisture near the leading edge of the convective system where they are more easily ingested by the updraft. Progress on the testing and refinement of this hypothesis, using a mixture of observations and modeling, will be reported.

  12. Analysis of natural convection in volumetrically-heated melt pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Dinh, T.N.; Nourgaliev, R.R.


    Results of series of studies on natural convection heat transfer in decay-heated core melt pools which form in a reactor lower plenum during the progression of a core meltdown accident are described. The emphasis is on modelling and prediction of turbulent heat transfer characteristics of natural convection in a liquid pool with an internal energy source. Methods of computational fluid dynamics, including direct numerical simulation, were applied for investigation

  13. Modeling approaches to natural convection in porous media

    CERN Document Server

    Su, Yan


    This book provides an overview of the field of flow and heat transfer in porous medium and focuses on presentation of a generalized approach to predict drag and convective heat transfer within porous medium of arbitrary microscopic geometry, including reticulated foams and packed beds. Practical numerical methods to solve natural convection problems in porous media will be presented with illustrative applications for filtrations, thermal storage and solar receivers.

  14. The impact of parametrized convection on cloud feedback (United States)

    Webb, Mark J.; Lock, Adrian P.; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Bony, Sandrine; Cole, Jason N. S.; Idelkadi, Abderrahmane; Kang, Sarah M.; Koshiro, Tsuyoshi; Kawai, Hideaki; Ogura, Tomoo; Roehrig, Romain; Shin, Yechul; Mauritsen, Thorsten; Sherwood, Steven C.; Vial, Jessica; Watanabe, Masahiro; Woelfle, Matthew D.; Zhao, Ming


    We investigate the sensitivity of cloud feedbacks to the use of convective parametrizations by repeating the CMIP5/CFMIP-2 AMIP/AMIP + 4K uniform sea surface temperature perturbation experiments with 10 climate models which have had their convective parametrizations turned off. Previous studies have suggested that differences between parametrized convection schemes are a leading source of inter-model spread in cloud feedbacks. We find however that ‘ConvOff’ models with convection switched off have a similar overall range of cloud feedbacks compared with the standard configurations. Furthermore, applying a simple bias correction method to allow for differences in present-day global cloud radiative effects substantially reduces the differences between the cloud feedbacks with and without parametrized convection in the individual models. We conclude that, while parametrized convection influences the strength of the cloud feedbacks substantially in some models, other processes must also contribute substantially to the overall inter-model spread. The positive shortwave cloud feedbacks seen in the models in subtropical regimes associated with shallow clouds are still present in the ConvOff experiments. Inter-model spread in shortwave cloud feedback increases slightly in regimes associated with trade cumulus in the ConvOff experiments but is quite similar in the most stable subtropical regimes associated with stratocumulus clouds. Inter-model spread in longwave cloud feedbacks in strongly precipitating regions of the tropics is substantially reduced in the ConvOff experiments however, indicating a considerable local contribution from differences in the details of convective parametrizations. In both standard and ConvOff experiments, models with less mid-level cloud and less moist static energy near the top of the boundary layer tend to have more positive tropical cloud feedbacks. The role of non-convective processes in contributing to inter-model spread in cloud

  15. Convective parameters in fuel elements for research nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Martinez, C.D.


    The study of a prototype for the simulation of fuel elements for research nuclear reactors by natural convection in water is presented in this paper. This project is carry out in the thermofluids laboratory of National Institute of Nuclear Research. The fuel prototype has already been test for natural convection in air, and the first results in water are presented in this work. In chapter I, a general description of Triga Mark III is made, paying special atention to fuel-moderator components. In chapter II and III an approach to convection subject in its global aspects is made, since the intention is to give a general idea of the events occuring around fuel elements in a nuclear reactor. In chapter II, where an emphasis on forced convection is made, some basic concepts for forced convection as well as for natural convection are included. The subject of flow through cylinders is annotated only as a comparative reference with natural convection in vertical cylinders, noting the difference between used correlations and the involved variables. In chapter III a compilation of correlation found in the bibliography about natural convection in vertical cylinders is presented, since its geometry is the more suitable in the analysis of a fuel rod. Finally, in chapter IV performed experiments in the test bench are detailed, and the results are presented in form of tables and graphs, showing the used equations for the calculations and the restrictions used in each case. For the analysis of the prototypes used in the test bench, a constant and uniform flow of heat in the whole length of the fuel rod is considered. At the end of this chapter, the work conclusions and a brief explanation of the results are presented (Author)

  16. Environmental Characteristics of Convective Systems During TRMM-LBA (United States)

    Halverson, Jeffrey B.; Rickenbach, Thomas; Roy, Biswadev; Pierce, Harold; Williams, Earle; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)


    In this paper, data collected from 51 days of continual upper atmospheric soundings and TOGA radar at ABRACOS Hill during the TRMM-LBA experiment are used to describe the mean thermodynamic and kinematic airmass properties of wet season convection over Rondonia, Brazil. Distinct multi-day easterly and westerly lower tropospheric wind regimes occurred during the campaign with contrasting airmass characteristics. Westerly wind periods featured modest CAPE (1000 J/kg), moist conditions (>90% RH) extending through 700 mb and shallow (900 mb) speed shear on the order of 10(exp -4)/s. This combination of characteristics promoted convective systems that featured a relatively large fraction of stratiform rainfall and weak convection nearly devoid of lightning. The environment is very similar to the general airmass conditions experienced during the Darwin, Australia monsoon convective regime. In contrast, easterly regime convective systems were more strongly electrified and featured larger convective rain rates and reduced stratiform rainfall fraction. These systems formed in an environment with significantly larger CAPE (1500 J/kg), drier lower and middle level humidities (in the lowest 1-2 km, thus contributing to a more explosive growth of convection. The time series of low- and mid-level averaged humidity exhibited marked variability between westerly and easterly regimes and was characterized by low frequency (i.e., multi-day to weekly) oscillations. The synoptic scale origins of these moisture fluctuations are examined, which include the effects of variable low-level airmass trajectories and upper-level, westward migrating cyclonic vortices. The results reported herein provide an environmental context for ongoing dual Doppler analyses and numerical modeling case studies of individual TRMM-LBA convective systems.

  17. Micro-Physical characterisation of Convective & Stratiform Rainfall at Tropics (United States)

    Sreekanth, T. S.

    Large Micro-Physical characterisation of Convective & Stratiform Rainfall at Tropics begin{center} begin{center} Sreekanth T S*, Suby Symon*, G. Mohan Kumar (1) , and V Sasi Kumar (2) *Centre for Earth Science Studies, Akkulam, Thiruvananthapuram (1) D-330, Swathi Nagar, West Fort, Thiruvananthapuram 695023 (2) 32. NCC Nagar, Peroorkada, Thiruvananthapuram ABSTRACT Micro-physical parameters of rainfall such as rain drop size & fall speed distribution, mass weighted mean diameter, Total no. of rain drops, Normalisation parameters for rain intensity, maximum & minimum drop diameter from different rain intensity ranges, from both stratiform and convective rain events were analysed. Convective -Stratiform classification was done by the method followed by Testud et al (2001) and as an additional information electrical behaviour of clouds from Atmospheric Electric Field Mill was also used. Events which cannot be included in both types are termed as 'mixed precipitation' and identified separately. For the three years 2011, 2012 & 2013, rain events from both convective & stratiform origin are identified from three seasons viz Pre-Monsoon (March-May), Monsoon (June-September) and Post-Monsoon (October-December). Micro-physical characterisation was done for each rain events and analysed. Ground based and radar observations were made and classification of stratiform and convective rainfall was done by the method followed by Testud et al (2001). Radar bright band and non bright band analysis was done for confimation of stratifom and convective rain respectievely. Atmospheric electric field data from electric field mill is also used for confirmation of convection during convective events. Statistical analyses revealed that the standard deviation of rain drop size in higher rain rates are higher than in lower rain rates. Normalised drop size distribution is ploted for selected events from both forms. Inter relations between various precipitation parameters were analysed in three

  18. Analysis of natural convection in volumetrically-heated melt pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Dinh, T.N.; Nourgaliev, R.R. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Power Safety


    Results of series of studies on natural convection heat transfer in decay-heated core melt pools which form in a reactor lower plenum during the progression of a core meltdown accident are described. The emphasis is on modelling and prediction of turbulent heat transfer characteristics of natural convection in a liquid pool with an internal energy source. Methods of computational fluid dynamics, including direct numerical simulation, were applied for investigation. Refs, figs, tabs.

  19. Assumed Probability Density Functions for Shallow and Deep Convection


    Steven K Krueger; Peter A Bogenschutz; Marat Khairoutdinov


    The assumed joint probability density function (PDF) between vertical velocity and conserved temperature and total water scalars has been suggested to be a relatively computationally inexpensive and unified subgrid-scale (SGS) parameterization for boundary layer clouds and turbulent moments. This paper analyzes the performance of five families of PDFs using large-eddy simulations of deep convection, shallow convection, and a transition from stratocumulus to trade wind cumulus. Three of the PD...

  20. Is Convection Sensitive to Model Vertical Resolution and Why? (United States)

    Xie, S.; Lin, W.; Zhang, G. J.


    Model sensitivity to horizontal resolutions has been studied extensively, whereas model sensitivity to vertical resolution is much less explored. In this study, we use the US Department of Energy (DOE)'s Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) atmosphere model to examine the sensitivity of clouds and precipitation to the increase of vertical resolution of the model. We attempt to understand what results in the behavior change (if any) of convective processes represented by the unified shallow and turbulent scheme named CLUBB (Cloud Layers Unified by Binormals) and the Zhang-McFarlane deep convection scheme in ACME. A short-term hindcast approach is used to isolate parameterization issues from the large-scale circulation. The analysis emphasizes on how the change of vertical resolution could affect precipitation partitioning between convective- and grid-scale as well as the vertical profiles of convection-related quantities such as temperature, humidity, clouds, convective heating and drying, and entrainment and detrainment. The goal is to provide physical insight into potential issues with model convective processes associated with the increase of model vertical resolution. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Tyler D.; Catling, David C.


    We present an analytic one-dimensional radiative-convective model of the thermal structure of planetary atmospheres. Our model assumes that thermal radiative transfer is gray and can be represented by the two-stream approximation. Model atmospheres are assumed to be in hydrostatic equilibrium, with a power-law scaling between the atmospheric pressure and the gray thermal optical depth. The convective portions of our models are taken to follow adiabats that account for condensation of volatiles through a scaling parameter to the dry adiabat. By combining these assumptions, we produce simple, analytic expressions that allow calculations of the atmospheric-pressure-temperature profile, as well as expressions for the profiles of thermal radiative flux and convective flux. We explore the general behaviors of our model. These investigations encompass (1) worlds where atmospheric attenuation of sunlight is weak, which we show tend to have relatively high radiative-convective boundaries; (2) worlds with some attenuation of sunlight throughout the atmosphere, which we show can produce either shallow or deep radiative-convective boundaries, depending on the strength of sunlight attenuation; and (3) strongly irradiated giant planets (including hot Jupiters), where we explore the conditions under which these worlds acquire detached convective regions in their mid-tropospheres. Finally, we validate our model and demonstrate its utility through comparisons to the average observed thermal structure of Venus, Jupiter, and Titan, and by comparing computed flux profiles to more complex models.

  2. Convective heat transfer around vertical jet fires: An experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozanoglu, Bulent, E-mail: [Universidad de las Americas, Puebla (Mexico); Zarate, Luis [Universidad Popular Autonoma del Estado de Puebla (Mexico); Gomez-Mares, Mercedes [Universita di Bologna (Italy); Casal, Joaquim [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (Spain)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experiments were carried out to analyze convection around a vertical jet fire. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Convection heat transfer is enhanced increasing the flame length. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nusselt number grows with higher values of Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In subsonic flames, Nusselt number increases with Froude number. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Convection and radiation are equally important in causing a domino effect. - Abstract: The convection heat transfer phenomenon in vertical jet fires was experimentally analyzed. In these experiments, turbulent propane flames were generated in subsonic as well as sonic regimes. The experimental data demonstrated that the rate of convection heat transfer increases by increasing the length of the flame. Assuming the solid flame model, the convection heat transfer coefficient was calculated. Two equations in terms of adimensional numbers were developed. It was found out that the Nusselt number attains greater values for higher values of the Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers. On the other hand, the Froude number was analyzed only for the subsonic flames where the Nusselt number grows by this number and the diameter of the orifice.

  3. On the mapping of ionospheric convection into the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesse, M.; Birn, J.; Hoffman, R.A.


    Under steady state conditions and in the absence of parallel electric fields, ionospheric convection is a direct map of plasma and magnetic flux convection in the magnetosphere, and quantitative estimates can be obtained from the mapping along magnetic field lines of electrostatic ionospheric electric fields. The resulting magnetospheric electrostatic potential distribution then provides the convection electric field in various magnetospheric regions. We present a quantitative framework for the investigation of the applicability and limitations of this approach based on an analytical theory derived from first principles. Particular emphasis is on the role of parallel electric field regions and on inductive effects, such as expected during the growth and expansive phases of magnetospheric substorms. We derive quantitative estimates for the limits in which either effect leads to a significant decoupling between ionospheric and magnetospheric convection and provide an interpretation of ionospheric convection which is independent of the presence of inductive electric fields elsewhere in the magnetosphere. Finally, we present a study of the relation between average and instantaneous convection, using two periodic dynamical models. The models demonstrate and quantify the potential mismatch between the average electric fields in the ionosphere and the magnetosphere in strongly time-dependent cases that may exist even when they are governed entirely by ideal MHD

  4. Induced convection cylindrical probe conductivity measurements on permeable media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodemesi, S.P.; Beck, A.E.


    This chapter presents results from a program of investigation using the transient needle probe thermal conductivity technique on fluid saturated permeable media with a glass bead matrix. Uses eight additional radially located sensors in order to correlate the convection effects on the temperature sensor in the heater probe with convection behavior in the medium; all were scanned frequently with a data acquisition system, from the start of the experiment through a few hours of experimental time. Points out that with typical conditions encountered in oceanic heat flow work, induced convection may commence as early as 60 s from the start of the experiment. Finds that the convection effects are worse when the needle probe is oriented horizontally than when it is oriented vertically (gradients orthogonal to the gravitational field), and a correlation is made between permeability and the time of onset and the extent of convective effects. Indicates errors in conductivity as large as 40%. Suggests empirical techniques for detecting and correcting for thermal convection using probe sensor data alone

  5. Natural convection heat transfer within horizontal spent nuclear fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canaan, R.E.


    Natural convection heat transfer is experimentally investigated in an enclosed horizontal rod bundle, which characterizes a spent nuclear fuel assembly during dry storage and/or transport conditions. The basic test section consists of a square array of sixty-four stainless steel tubular heaters enclosed within a water-cooled rectangular copper heat exchanger. The heaters are supplied with a uniform power generation per unit length while the surrounding enclosure is maintained at a uniform temperature. The test section resides within a vacuum/pressure chamber in order to subject the assembly to a range of pressure statepoints and various backfill gases. The objective of this experimental study is to obtain convection correlations which can be used in order to easily incorporate convective effects into analytical models of horizontal spent fuel systems, and also to investigate the physical nature of natural convection in enclosed horizontal rod bundles in general. The resulting data consist of: (1) measured temperatures within the assembly as a function of power, pressure, and backfill gas; (2) the relative radiative contribution for the range of observed temperatures; (3) correlations of convective Nusselt number and Rayleigh number for the rod bundle as a whole; and (4) correlations of convective Nusselt number as a function of Rayleigh number for individual rods within the array

  6. Quantifying near-wall coherent structures in turbulent convection (United States)

    Gunasegarane, G. S.; A Puthenveettil, Baburaj; K Agrawal, Yogesh; Schmeling, Daniel; Bosbach, Johannes; Arakeri, Jaywant; IIT Madras-DLR-IISc Collaboration


    We present planforms of line plumes formed on horizontal surfaces in turbulent convection, along with the length of near- wall line plumes measured from these planforms, in a six decade range of Rayleigh numbers (105 < Ra <1011) and at three Prandtl numbers (Pr = 0 . 7 , 6 , 602). Using geometric constraints on the relations for the mean plume spacings, we obtain expressions for the total length of these near-wall plumes in turbulent convection. The plume length per unit area (Lp / A), made dimensionless by the near-wall length scale in turbulent convection (Zw) remains a constant for a given fluid. The Nusselt number is shown to be directly proportional to Lp H / A for a given fluid layer of height H. Increase in Pr has a weak influence in decreasing Lp / A . These expressions match the measurements, thereby showing that the assumption of laminar natural convection boundary layers in turbulent convection is consistent with the observed total length of line plumes. We then show that similar relationships are obtained based on the assumption that the line plumes are the outcome of the instability of laminar natural convection boundary layers on the horizontal surfaces.

  7. Evidence for a Role for the Plasma Membrane in the Nanomechanical Properties of the Cell Wall as Revealed by an Atomic Force Microscopy Study of the Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Ethanol Stress. (United States)

    Schiavone, Marion; Formosa-Dague, Cécile; Elsztein, Carolina; Teste, Marie-Ange; Martin-Yken, Helene; De Morais, Marcos A; Dague, Etienne; François, Jean M


    A wealth of biochemical and molecular data have been reported regarding ethanol toxicity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae However, direct physical data on the effects of ethanol stress on yeast cells are almost nonexistent. This lack of information can now be addressed by using atomic force microscopy (AFM) technology. In this report, we show that the stiffness of glucose-grown yeast cells challenged with 9% (vol/vol) ethanol for 5 h was dramatically reduced, as shown by a 5-fold drop of Young's modulus. Quite unexpectedly, a mutant deficient in the Msn2/Msn4 transcription factor, which is known to mediate the ethanol stress response, exhibited a low level of stiffness similar to that of ethanol-treated wild-type cells. Reciprocally, the stiffness of yeast cells overexpressing MSN2 was about 35% higher than that of the wild type but was nevertheless reduced 3- to 4-fold upon exposure to ethanol. Based on these and other data presented herein, we postulated that the effect of ethanol on cell stiffness may not be mediated through Msn2/Msn4, even though this transcription factor appears to be a determinant in the nanomechanical properties of the cell wall. On the other hand, we found that as with ethanol, the treatment of yeast with the antifungal amphotericin B caused a significant reduction of cell wall stiffness. Since both this drug and ethanol are known to alter, albeit by different means, the fluidity and structure of the plasma membrane, these data led to the proposition that the cell membrane contributes to the biophysical properties of yeast cells. Ethanol is the main product of yeast fermentation but is also a toxic compound for this process. Understanding the mechanism of this toxicity is of great importance for industrial applications. While most research has focused on genomic studies of ethanol tolerance, we investigated the effects of ethanol at the biophysical level and found that ethanol causes a strong reduction of the cell wall rigidity (or

  8. Evidence for a Role for the Plasma Membrane in the Nanomechanical Properties of the Cell Wall as Revealed by an Atomic Force Microscopy Study of the Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Ethanol Stress (United States)

    Schiavone, Marion; Formosa-Dague, Cécile; Elsztein, Carolina; Teste, Marie-Ange; Martin-Yken, Helene; De Morais, Marcos A.; Dague, Etienne


    ABSTRACT A wealth of biochemical and molecular data have been reported regarding ethanol toxicity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, direct physical data on the effects of ethanol stress on yeast cells are almost nonexistent. This lack of information can now be addressed by using atomic force microscopy (AFM) technology. In this report, we show that the stiffness of glucose-grown yeast cells challenged with 9% (vol/vol) ethanol for 5 h was dramatically reduced, as shown by a 5-fold drop of Young's modulus. Quite unexpectedly, a mutant deficient in the Msn2/Msn4 transcription factor, which is known to mediate the ethanol stress response, exhibited a low level of stiffness similar to that of ethanol-treated wild-type cells. Reciprocally, the stiffness of yeast cells overexpressing MSN2 was about 35% higher than that of the wild type but was nevertheless reduced 3- to 4-fold upon exposure to ethanol. Based on these and other data presented herein, we postulated that the effect of ethanol on cell stiffness may not be mediated through Msn2/Msn4, even though this transcription factor appears to be a determinant in the nanomechanical properties of the cell wall. On the other hand, we found that as with ethanol, the treatment of yeast with the antifungal amphotericin B caused a significant reduction of cell wall stiffness. Since both this drug and ethanol are known to alter, albeit by different means, the fluidity and structure of the plasma membrane, these data led to the proposition that the cell membrane contributes to the biophysical properties of yeast cells. IMPORTANCE Ethanol is the main product of yeast fermentation but is also a toxic compound for this process. Understanding the mechanism of this toxicity is of great importance for industrial applications. While most research has focused on genomic studies of ethanol tolerance, we investigated the effects of ethanol at the biophysical level and found that ethanol causes a strong reduction of the cell

  9. Antibiotics after preterm premature rupture of the membranes. (United States)

    Singh, Katherine; Mercer, Brian


    Preterm premature rupture of the membranes remains a common cause of preterm deliveries and neonatal morbidities. The goal of this study is to review the evidence with regard to the antibiotic treatment after preterm premature rupture of the membranes, long-term outcomes related to antibiotic treatment, and possible complications with treatment. Future research goals are also discussed.

  10. Ion-conducting membranes (United States)

    Masel, Richard I.; Sajjad, Syed Dawar; Gao, Yan; Liu, Zengcai; Chen, Qingmei


    An anion-conducting polymeric membrane comprises a terpolymer of styrene, vinylbenzyl-R.sub.s and vinylbenzyl-R.sub.x. R.sub.s is a positively charged cyclic amine group. R.sub.x is at least one constituent selected from the group consisting Cl, OH and a reaction product between an OH or Cl and a species other than a simple amine or a cyclic amine. The total weight of the vinylbenzyl-R.sub.x groups is greater than 0.3% of the total weight of the membrane. In a preferred embodiment, the membrane is a Helper Membrane that increases the faradaic efficiency of an electrochemical cell into which the membrane is incorporated, and also allows product formation at lower voltages than in cells without the Helper Membrane.

  11. Gas separation with membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, G.; Michele, H.; Werner, U.


    Gas separation with membranes has already been tested in numerous fields of application, e.g. uranium enrichment of H 2 separation. In many of these processes the mass transfer units, so-called permeators, have to be connected in tandem in order to achieve high concentrations. A most economical operating method provides for each case an optimization of the cascades with regard to the membrane materials, construction and design of module. By utilization of the concentration gradient along the membrane a new process development has been accomplished - the continuously operating membrane rectification unit. Investment and operating costs can be reduced considerably for a number of separating processes by combining a membrane rectification unit with a conventional recycling cascade. However, the new procedure requires that the specifications for the module construction, flow design, and membrane properties be reconsidered. (orig.) [de

  12. Chelating polymeric membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor


    The present application offers a solution to the current problems associated with recovery and recycling of precious metals from scrap material, discard articles, and other items comprising one or more precious metals. The solution is premised on a microporous chelating polymeric membrane. Embodiments include, but are not limited to, microporous chelating polymeric membranes, device comprising the membranes, and methods of using and making the same.

  13. Membrane reinforcement in concrete shells: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.K.


    A historical evolution of the membrane reinforcement design in concrete shells is presented. Theoretical developments, experimental verifications and the history of US codes and standards have been traced. For two decades now, the evidence is converging towards application of the principle of minimum resistance. This principle is rational, and it can reasonably explain the experimental results. (orig.)

  14. Gas separation membranes (United States)

    Schell, William J.


    A dry, fabric supported, polymeric gas separation membrane, such as cellulose acetate, is prepared by casting a solution of the polymer onto a shrinkable fabric preferably formed of synthetic polymers such as polyester or polyamide filaments before washing, stretching or calendering (so called griege goods). The supported membrane is then subjected to gelling, annealing, and drying by solvent exchange. During the processing steps, both the fabric support and the membrane shrink a preselected, controlled amount which prevents curling, wrinkling or cracking of the membrane in flat form or when spirally wound into a gas separation element.

  15. Anion exchange membrane (United States)

    Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus


    An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

  16. Photoresponsive nanostructured membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Madhavan, Poornima


    The perspective of adding stimuli-response to isoporous membranes stimulates the development of separation devices with pores, which would open or close under control of environment chemical composition, temperature or exposure to light. Changes in pH and temperature have been previously investigated. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time the preparation of photoresponsive isoporous membranes, applying self-assembly non-solvent induced phase separation to a new light responsive block copolymer. First, we optimized the membrane formation by using poly(styrene-b-anthracene methyl methacrylate-b-methylmethacrylate) (PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA) copolymer, identifying the most suitable solvent, copolymer block length, and other parameters. The obtained final triblock copolymer membrane morphologies were characterized using atomic force and electron microscopy. The microscopic analysis reveals that the PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA copolymer can form both lamellar and ordered hexagonal nanoporous structures on the membrane top layer in appropriate solvent compositions. The nanostructured membrane emits fluorescence due to the presence of the anthracene mid-block. On irradiation of light the PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA copolymer membranes has an additional stimuli response. The anthracene group undergoes conformational changes by forming [4 + 4] cycloadducts and this alters the membrane\\'s water flux and solute retention. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  17. Lagrangian evaluation of convective shower characteristics in a convection-permitting model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwan Brisson


    Full Text Available Convection-permitting models (CPMs have proven their usefulness in representing precipitation on a sub-daily scale. However, investigations on sub-hourly scales are still lacking, even though these are the scales for which showers exhibit the most variability. A Lagrangian approach is implemented here to evaluate the representation of showers in a CPM, using the limited-area climate model COSMO-CLM. This approach consists of tracking 5‑min precipitation fields to retrieve different features of showers (e.g., temporal pattern, horizontal speed, lifetime. In total, 312 cases are simulated at a resolution of 0.01 ° over Central Germany, and among these cases, 78 are evaluated against a radar dataset. The model is able to represent most observed features for different types of convective cells. In addition, the CPM reproduced well the observed relationship between the precipitation characteristics and temperature indicating that the COSMO-CLM model is sophisticated enough to represent the climatological features of showers.

  18. Natural convection heat transfer coefficient for newborn baby - Thermal manikin assessed convective heat loses (United States)

    Ostrowski, Ziemowit; Rojczyk, Marek


    The energy balance and heat exchange for newborn baby in radiant warmer environment are considered. The present study was performed to assess the body dry heat loss from an infant in radiant warmer, using copper cast anthropomorphic thermal manikin and controlled climate chamber laboratory setup. The total body dry heat losses were measured for varying manikin surface temperatures (nine levels between 32.5 °C and 40.1 °C) and ambient air temperatures (five levels between 23.5 °C and 29.7 °C). Radiant heat losses were estimated based on measured climate chamber wall temperatures. After subtracting radiant part, resulting convective heat loses were compared with computed ones (based on Nu correlations for common geometries). Simplified geometry of newborn baby was represented as: (a) single cylinder and (b) weighted sum of 5 cylinders and sphere. The predicted values are significantly overestimated relative to measured ones by: 28.8% (SD 23.5%) for (a) and 40.9% (SD 25.2%) for (b). This showed that use of adopted general purpose correlations for approximation of convective heat losses of newborn baby can lead to substantial errors. Hence, new Nu number correlating equation is proposed. The mean error introduced by proposed correlation was reduced to 1.4% (SD 11.97%), i.e. no significant overestimation. The thermal manikin appears to provide a precise method for the noninvasive assessment of thermal conditions in neonatal care.

  19. Natural convection between parallel vertical plates; Convection naturelle entre plaques paralleles verticales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin, M; Schwab, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    In the thermal study of a 'swimming-pool' type of pile, the flow of water between vertical plates of 'combustible' material must be investigated. Therefore starting from general equations of natural convection, we have determined, the law of distribution of velocities, then that of temperatures, and finally the value of the Biot-Nusselt number, assuming steady-state conditions (both dynamic and thermal) and a constant heat flow at the surface. An abacus (fig. 7, 8 and 9) allows working power to be related to the average velocity and to the heating of the water which passes through the pile. For purposes of comparison, the curves on the calculation presented by S. GLASSTONE (31) have been drawn. (author) [French] L'etude thermique d'une pile du type 'piscine' necessite l'etude de l'ecoulement de l'eau entre les plaques verticales de materiau 'combustible'. Nous avons donc, a partir des equations generales de la convection naturelle, determine la loi de repartition des vitesses, puis celle des temperatures et enfin la valeur du nombre de Biot-Niisselt, en supposant les regimes, dynamique et thermique, etablis et la densite de flux calorifique a la paroi constante. Un abaque (fig. 7, 8 et 9) permet de relier a la puissance de fonctionnement, la vitesse moyenne de l'echauffement de l'eau qui traverse la pile. On a trace a titre de comparaison, les courbes du calcul presente par S. GLASSTONE (3). (auteur)

  20. Super Resolution Fluorescence Microscopy and Tracking of Bacterial Flotillin (Reggie Paralogs Provide Evidence for Defined-Sized Protein Microdomains within the Bacterial Membrane but Absence of Clusters Containing Detergent-Resistant Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Dempwolff


    Full Text Available Biological membranes have been proposed to contain microdomains of a specific lipid composition, in which distinct groups of proteins are clustered. Flotillin-like proteins are conserved between pro-and eukaryotes, play an important function in several eukaryotic and bacterial cells, and define in vertebrates a type of so-called detergent-resistant microdomains. Using STED microscopy, we show that two bacterial flotillins, FloA and FloT, form defined assemblies with an average diameter of 85 to 110 nm in the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Interestingly, flotillin microdomains are of similar size in eukaryotic cells. The soluble domains of FloA form higher order oligomers of up to several hundred kDa in vitro, showing that like eukaryotic flotillins, bacterial assemblies are based in part on their ability to self-oligomerize. However, B. subtilis paralogs show significantly different diffusion rates, and consequently do not colocalize into a common microdomain. Dual colour time lapse experiments of flotillins together with other detergent-resistant proteins in bacteria show that proteins colocalize for no longer than a few hundred milliseconds, and do not move together. Our data reveal that the bacterial membrane contains defined-sized protein domains rather than functional microdomains dependent on flotillins. Based on their distinct dynamics, FloA and FloT confer spatially distinguishable activities, but do not serve as molecular scaffolds.

  1. Preliminary three-dimensional model of mantle convection with deformable, mobile continental lithosphere (United States)

    Yoshida, Masaki


    Characteristic tectonic structures such as young orogenic belts and suture zones in a continent are expected to be mechanically weaker than the stable part of the continental lithosphere with the cratonic root (or cratonic lithosphere) and yield lateral viscosity variations in the continental lithosphere. In the present-day Earth's lithosphere, the pre-existing, mechanically weak zones emerge as a diffuse plate boundary. However, the dynamic role of a weak (low-viscosity) continental margin (WCM) in the stability of continental lithosphere has not been understood in terms of geophysics. Here, a new numerical simulation model of mantle convection with a compositionally and rheologically heterogeneous, deformable, mobile continental lithosphere is presented for the first time by using three-dimensional regional spherical-shell geometry. A compositionally buoyant and highly viscous continental assemblage with pre-existing WCMs, analogous to the past supercontinent, is modeled and imposed on well-developed mantle convection whose vigor of convection, internal heating rate, and rheological parameters are appropriate for the Earth's mantle. The visco-plastic oceanic lithosphere and the associated subduction of oceanic plates are incorporated. The time integration of the advection of continental materials with zero chemical diffusion is performed by a tracer particle method. The time evolution of mantle convection after setting the model supercontinent is followed over 800 Myr. Earth-like continental drift is successfully reproduced, and the characteristic thermal interaction between the mantle and the continent/supercontinent is observed in my new numerical model. Results reveal that the WCM protects the cratonic lithosphere from being stretched by the convecting mantle and may play a significant role in the stability of the cratonic lithosphere during the geological timescale because it acts as a buffer that prevents the cratonic lithosphere from undergoing global

  2. Potential indirect effects of aerosol on tropical cyclone intensity: convective fluxes and cold-pool activity (United States)

    Krall, G. M.; Cottom, W. R.


    Observational and model evidence suggest that a 2008 Western Pacific typhoon (NURI) ingested elevated concentrations of aerosol as it neared the Chinese coast. This study uses a regional model with two-moment bin-emulating microphysics to simulate the typhoon as it enters the field of elevated aerosol concentrations. A clean maritime field of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) was prescribed as marine background CCN concentrations and then based on satellite and global aerosol model output, increased to pollution levels and further enhanced in sensitivity tests. The typhoon was simulated for 96 h beginning 17 August 2008. During the final 60 h CCN concentrations were enhanced as it neared the Philippines and coastal China. The model was initialized with both global reanalysis model data and irregularly spaced dropsonde data from the 2008 T-PARC observational campaign using an objective analysis routine. At 36 h, the internal nudging of the model was switched off and allowed to freely evolve on its own. As the typhoon encountered the elevated CCN in the sensitivity tests, a significant perturbation of windspeed, convective fluxes, and hydrometeor species behavior was simulated. Early during the ingestion of enhanced CCN, precipitation was reduced due to suppressed collision and coalescence, and storm winds increased in strength. Subsequently, owing to reduced fall speeds of the smaller drops, greater amounts of condensate were thrust into supercooled levels where the drops froze releasing greater amounts of latent heat of freezing. Convection thereby intensified which resulted in enhanced rainfall and more vigorous convectively-produced downdrafts. As the convection intensified in the outer rainbands the storm drifted over the developing cold-pools. The enhanced cold-pools blocked the inflow of warm, moist air into the core of the typhoon which led to a weakening of the typhoon with significantly reduced low level wind speeds. The very high amounts of pollution

  3. Comparative numerical study of kaolin clay with three drying methods: Convective, convective–microwave and convective infrared modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammouda, I.; Mihoubi, D.


    Highlights: • Modelling of drying of deformable media. • Theoretical study of kaolin clay with three drying methods: convective, convective–microwave and convective infrared mode. • The stresses generated during convective, microwave/convective drying and infrared/convective drying. • The combined drying decrease the intensity of stresses developed during drying. - Abstract: A mathematical model is developed to simulate the response of a kaolin clay sample when subjected to convective, convective–microwave and convective–infrared mode. This model is proposed to describe heat, mass, and momentum transfers applied to a viscoelastic medium described by a Maxwell model with two branches. The combined drying methods were investigated to examine whether these types of drying may minimize cracking that can be generated in the product and to know whether the best enhancement is developed by the use of infra-red or microwave radiation. The numerical code allowed us to determine, and thus, compare the effect of the drying mode on drying rate, temperature, moisture content and mechanical stress evolutions during drying. The numerical results show that the combined drying decrease the intensity of stresses developed during drying and that convective–microwave drying is the best method that gives a good quality of dried product

  4. Impacts of initial convective structure on subsequent squall line evolution (United States)

    Varble, A.; Morrison, H.; Zipser, E. J.


    A Weather Research and Forecasting simulation of the 20 May 2011 MC3E squall line using 750-m horizontal grid spacing produces wide convective regions with strongly upshear tilted convective updrafts and mesoscale bowing segments that are not produced in radar observations. Similar features occur across several different bulk microphysics schemes, despite surface observations exhibiting cold pool equivalent potential temperature drops that are similar to and pressure rises that are greater than those in the simulation. Observed rear inflow remains more elevated than simulated, partly counteracting the cold pool circulation, whereas the simulated rear inflow descends to low levels, maintaining its strength and reinforcing the cold pool circulation that overpowers the pre-squall line low level vertical wind shear. The descent and strength of the simulated rear inflow is fueled by strong latent cooling caused by large ice water contents detrained from upshear tilted convective cores that accumulate at the rear of the stratiform region. This simulated squall evolution is sensitive to model resolution, which is too coarse to resolve individual convective drafts. Nesting a 250-m horizontal grid spacing domain into the 750-m domain substantially alters the initial convective cells with reduced latent cooling, weaker convective downdrafts, and a weaker initial cold pool. As the initial convective cells develop into a squall line, the rear inflow remains more elevated in the 250-m domain with a cold pool that eventually develops to be just as strong and deeper than the one in the 750-m run. Despite this, the convective cores remain more upright in the 250-m run with the rear inflow partly counteracting the cold pool circulation, whereas the 750-m rear inflow near the surface reinforces the shallower cold pool and causes bowing in the squall line. The different structure in the 750-m run produces excessive mid-level front-to-rear detrainment that widens the convective region

  5. Fusing Multiple Satellite Datasets Toward Defining and Understanding Organized Convection (United States)

    Elsaesser, G.; Del Genio, A. D.


    How do we differentiate unorganized from organized convection? We might think of organized convection as being long lasting (at least longer than the lifetime of any individual cumulus cell), clustered at larger spatial scales (>100 km), and responsible for substantial rainfall accumulation. Organized convection is sustained on such scales due to the arrangement of moist/dry and buoyant/non-buoyant mesoscale circulations. The nature of these circulations is tied to system diabatic heating profiles; in particular, the 2nd baroclinic (top-heavy), stratiform heating mode is thought to be important for organized convection maintenance/propagation. We investigate the extent to which these characteristics are jointly found in propagating convective systems. Lifecycle information comes from hi-res IR data. Diabatic heating profiles, convective fractions and rainfall are provided by GPM retrievals mapped to convective system tracks. Moisture is provided by AIRS/AMSU and passive microwave retrievals. Instead of compositing heating profile information along a system track, where information is smoothed out, we sort system heating profile structures according to their "top heaviness" and then analyze PDFs of system rainfall, system sizes, durations, convective/stratiform ratios, etc. as a function of diabatic heating structure. Perhaps contrary to expectation, we find only small differences in PDFs of rainfall rates, system sizes, and system duration for different heating profile structures. If organization is defined according to heating structures, then one possible interpretation of these results is that organization is independent of system size, duration, and many times, even lifecycle stage. Is it possible that most systems "hobble" along and exhibit varying degrees of organization, dependent on local environment moisture/buoyancy variations, unlike the archetypical MCS paradigm? This presentation will also discuss the questions posed above within the context of

  6. Project "Convective Wind Gusts" (ConWinG) (United States)

    Mohr, Susanna; Richter, Alexandra; Kunz, Michael; Ruck, Bodo


    Convectively-driven strong winds usually associated with thunderstorms frequently cause substantial damage to buildings and other structures in many parts of the world. Decisive for the high damage potential are the short-term wind speed maxima with duration of a few seconds, termed as gusts. Several studies have shown that convectively-driven gusts can reach even higher wind speeds compared to turbulent gusts associated with synoptic-scale weather systems. Due to the small-scale and non-stationary nature of convective wind gusts, there is a considerable lack of knowledge regarding their characteristics and statistics. Furthermore, their interaction with urban structures and their influence on buildings is not yet fully understood. For these two reasons, convective wind events are not included in the present wind load standards of buildings and structures, which so far have been based solely on the characteristics of synoptically-driven wind gusts in the near-surface boundary layer (e. g., DIN EN 1991-1-4:2010-12; ASCE7). However, convective and turbulent gusts differ considerably, e.g. concerning vertical wind-speed profiles, gust factors (i.e., maximum to mean wind speed), or exceedance probability curves. In an effort to remedy this situation, the overarching objective of the DFG-project "Convective Wind Gusts" (ConWinG) is to investigate the characteristics and statistics of convective gusts as well as their interaction with urban structures. Based on a set of 110 climate stations of the German Weather Service (DWD) between 1992 and 2014, we analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution, intensity, and occurrence probability of convective gusts. Similar to thunderstorm activity, the frequency of convective gusts decreases gradually from South to North Germany. A relation between gust intensity/probability to orography or climate conditions cannot be identified. Rather, high wind speeds, e.g., above 30 m/s, can be expected everywhere in Germany with almost

  7. Vertical Transport by Coastal Mesoscale Convective Systems (United States)

    Lombardo, K.; Kading, T.


    This work is part of an ongoing investigation of coastal mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), including changes in vertical transport of boundary layer air by storms moving from inland to offshore. The density of a storm's cold pool versus that of the offshore marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL), in part, determines the ability of the storm to successfully cross the coast, the mechanism driving storm propagation, and the ability of the storm to lift air from the boundary layer aloft. The ability of an MCS to overturn boundary layer air can be especially important over the eastern US seaboard, where warm season coastal MCSs are relatively common and where large coastal population centers generate concentrated regions of pollution. Recent work numerically simulating idealized MCSs in a coastal environment has provided some insight into the physical mechanisms governing MCS coastal crossing success and the impact on vertical transport of boundary layer air. Storms are simulated using a cloud resolving model initialized with atmospheric conditions representative of a Mid-Atlantic environment. Simulations are run in 2-D at 250 m horizontal resolution with a vertical resolution stretched from 100 m in the boundary layer to 250 m aloft. The left half of the 800 km domain is configured to represent land, while the right half is assigned as water. Sensitivity experiments are conducted to quantify the influence of varying MABL structure on MCS coastal crossing success and air transport, with MABL values representative of those observed over the western Mid-Atlantic during warm season. Preliminary results indicate that when the density of the cold pool is much greater than the MABL, the storm successfully crosses the coastline, with lifting of surface parcels, which ascend through the troposphere. When the density of the cold pool is similar to that of the MABL, parcels within the MABL remain at low levels, though parcels above the MABL ascend through the troposphere.

  8. Deep convective clouds at the tropopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Aumann


    Full Text Available Data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS on the EOS Aqua spacecraft each day show tens of thousands of Cold Clouds (CC in the tropical oceans with 10 μm window channel brightness temperatures colder than 225 K. These clouds represent a mix of cold anvil clouds and Deep Convective Clouds (DCC. This mix can be separated by computing the difference between two channels, a window channel and a channel with strong CO2 absorption: for some cold clouds this difference is negative, i.e. the spectra for some cold clouds are inverted. We refer to cold clouds with spectra which are more than 2 K inverted as DCCi2. Associated with DCCi2 is a very high rain rate and a local upward displacement of the tropopause, a cold "bulge", which can be seen directly in the brightness temperatures of AIRS and Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU temperature sounding channels in the lower stratosphere. The very high rain rate and the local distortion of the tropopause indicate that DCCi2 objects are associated with severe storms. Significant long-term trends in the statistical properties of DCCi2 could be interesting indicators of climate change. While the analysis of the nature and physical conditions related to DCCi2 requires hyperspectral infrared and microwave data, the identification of DCCi2 requires only one good window channel and one strong CO2 sounding channel. This suggests that improved identification of severe storms with future advanced geostationary satellites could be accomplished with the addition of one or two narrow band channels.

  9. International benchmark on the natural convection test in Phenix reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenchine, D.; Pialla, D.; Fanning, T.H.; Thomas, J.W.; Chellapandi, P.; Shvetsov, Y.; Maas, L.; Jeong, H.-Y.; Mikityuk, K.; Chenu, A.; Mochizuki, H.; Monti, S.


    Highlights: ► Phenix main characteristics, instrumentation and natural convection test are described. ► “Blind” calculations and post-test calculations from all the participants to the benchmark are compared to reactor data. ► Lessons learned from the natural convection test and the associated calculations are discussed. -- Abstract: The French Phenix sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) started operation in 1973 and was stopped in 2009. Before the reactor was definitively shutdown, several final tests were planned and performed, including a natural convection test in the primary circuit. During this natural convection test, the heat rejection provided by the steam generators was disabled, followed several minutes later by reactor scram and coast-down of the primary pumps. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) launched a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) named “control rod withdrawal and sodium natural circulation tests performed during the Phenix end-of-life experiments”. The overall purpose of the CRP was to improve the Member States’ analytical capabilities in the field of SFR safety. An international benchmark on the natural convection test was organized with “blind” calculations in a first step, then “post-test” calculations and sensitivity studies compared with reactor measurements. Eight organizations from seven Member States took part in the benchmark: ANL (USA), CEA (France), IGCAR (India), IPPE (Russian Federation), IRSN (France), KAERI (Korea), PSI (Switzerland) and University of Fukui (Japan). Each organization performed computations and contributed to the analysis and global recommendations. This paper summarizes the findings of the CRP benchmark exercise associated with the Phenix natural convection test, including blind calculations, post-test calculations and comparisons with measured data. General comments and recommendations are pointed out to improve future simulations of natural convection in SFRs

  10. Plasma membrane ATPases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmgren, Michael Broberg; Bækgaard, Lone; Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura


    The plasma membrane separates the cellular contents from the surrounding environment. Nutrients must enter through the plasma membrane in order to reach the cell interior, and toxic metabolites and several ions leave the cell by traveling across the same barrier. Biological pumps in the plasma me...

  11. Polymide gas separation membranes (United States)

    Ding, Yong; Bikson, Benjamin; Nelson, Joyce Katz


    Soluble polyamic acid salt (PAAS) precursors comprised of tertiary and quaternary amines, ammonium cations, sulfonium cations, or phosphonium cations, are prepared and fabricated into membranes that are subsequently imidized and converted into rigid-rod polyimide articles, such as membranes with desirable gas separation properties. A method of enhancing solubility of PAAS polymers in alcohols is also disclosed.

  12. Enantioseparation with liquid membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gössi, Angelo; Riedl, Wolfgang; Schuur, Boelo

    Chiral resolution of racemic products is a challenging and important task in the pharmaceutical, agrochemical, flavor, polymer and fragrances industries. One of the options for these challenging separations is to use liquid membranes. Although liquid membranes have been known for almost four decades

  13. Silicon nitride nanosieve membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tong, D.H.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Gadgil, V.J.; Bostan, C.G.; Berenschot, Johan W.; van Rijn, C.J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt


    An array of very uniform cylindrical nanopores with a pore diameter as small as 25 nm has been fabricated in an ultrathin micromachined silicon nitride membrane using focused ion beam (FIB) etching. The pore size of this nanosieve membrane was further reduced to below 10 nm by coating it with

  14. Membrane capacitive deionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Wal, van der A.


    Membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) is an ion-removal process based on applying an electrical potential difference across an aqueous solution which flows in between oppositely placed porous electrodes, in front of which ion-exchange membranes are positioned. Due to the applied potential, ions

  15. Photoresponsive nanostructured membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Madhavan, Poornima; Sutisna, Burhannudin; Sougrat, Rachid; Nunes, Suzana Pereira


    The perspective of adding stimuli-response to isoporous membranes stimulates the development of separation devices with pores, which would open or close under control of environment chemical composition, temperature or exposure to light. Changes in pH and temperature have been previously investigated. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time the preparation of photoresponsive isoporous membranes, applying self-assembly non-solvent induced phase separation to a new light responsive block copolymer. First, we optimized the membrane formation by using poly(styrene-b-anthracene methyl methacrylate-b-methylmethacrylate) (PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA) copolymer, identifying the most suitable solvent, copolymer block length, and other parameters. The obtained final triblock copolymer membrane morphologies were characterized using atomic force and electron microscopy. The microscopic analysis reveals that the PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA copolymer can form both lamellar and ordered hexagonal nanoporous structures on the membrane top layer in appropriate solvent compositions. The nanostructured membrane emits fluorescence due to the presence of the anthracene mid-block. On irradiation of light the PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA copolymer membranes has an additional stimuli response. The anthracene group undergoes conformational changes by forming [4 + 4] cycloadducts and this alters the membrane's water flux and solute retention. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  16. Examining hemodialyzer membrane performance using proteomic technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonomini M


    thus provide an actual functional definition as to the effect of a membrane material on plasma proteins during hemodialysis. Here, we review the results of proteomic studies on the performance of hemodialysis membranes, as evaluated in terms of solute removal efficiency and blood–membrane interactions. The evidence collected indicates that the information provided by proteomic investigations yields improved molecular and functional knowledge and may lead to the development of more efficient membranes for the potential benefit of the patient. Keywords: mass spectrometry, hemodialysis, end-stage renal disease, protein adsorption, biocompatibility, uremic toxin

  17. Single histidine residue in head-group region is sufficient to impart remarkable gene transfection properties to cationic lipids: evidence for histidine-mediated membrane fusion at acidic pH. (United States)

    Kumar, V V; Pichon, C; Refregiers, M; Guerin, B; Midoux, P; Chaudhuri, A


    Presence of endosome-disrupting multiple histidine functionalities in the molecular architecture of cationic polymers, such as polylysine, has previously been demonstrated to significantly enhance their in vitro gene delivery efficiencies. Towards harnessing improved transfection property through covalent grafting of endosome-disrupting single histidine functionality in the molecular structure of cationic lipids, herein, we report on the design, the synthesis and the transfection efficiency of two novel nonglycerol-based histidylated cationic amphiphiles. We found that L-histidine-(N,N-di-n-hexadecylamine)ethylamide (lipid 1) and L-histidine-(N,N-di-n-hexadecylamine,-N-methyl)ethylamide (lipid 2) in combination with cholesterol gave efficient transfections into various cell lines. The transfection efficiency of Chol/lipid 1 lipoplexes into HepG2 cells was two order of magnitude higher than that of FuGENE(TM)6 and DC-Chol lipoplexes, whereas it was similar into A549, 293T7 and HeLa cells. A better efficiency was obtained with Chol/lipid 2 lipoplexes when using the cytosolic luciferase expression vector (pT7Luc) under the control of the bacterial T7 promoter. Membrane fusion activity measurements using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique showed that the histidine head-groups of Chol/lipid 1 liposomes mediated membrane fusion in the pH range 5-7. In addition, the transgene expression results using the T7Luc expression vector convincingly support the endosome-disrupting role of the presently described mono-histidylated cationic transfection lipids and the release of DNA into the cytosol. We conclude that covalent grafting of a single histidine amino acid residue to suitable twin-chain hydrophobic compounds is able to impart remarkable transfection properties on the resulting mono-histidylated cationic amphiphile, presumably via the endosome-disrupting characteristics of the histidine functionalities.

  18. Effects of pressure and electrical charge on macromolecular transport across bovine lens basement membrane. (United States)

    Ferrell, Nicholas; Cameron, Kathleen O; Groszek, Joseph J; Hofmann, Christina L; Li, Lingyan; Smith, Ross A; Bian, Aihua; Shintani, Ayumi; Zydney, Andrew L; Fissell, William H


    Molecular transport through the basement membrane is important for a number of physiological functions, and dysregulation of basement membrane architecture can have serious pathological consequences. The structure-function relationships that govern molecular transport in basement membranes are not fully understood. The basement membrane from the lens capsule of the eye is a collagen IV-rich matrix that can easily be extracted and manipulated in vitro. As such, it provides a convenient model for studying the functional relationships that govern molecular transport in basement membranes. Here we investigate the effects of increased transmembrane pressure and solute electrical charge on the transport properties of the lens basement membrane (LBM) from the bovine eye. Pressure-permeability relationships in LBM transport were governed primarily by changes in diffusive and convective contributions to solute flux and not by pressure-dependent changes in intrinsic membrane properties. The solute electrical charge had a minimal but statistically significant effect on solute transport through the LBM that was opposite of the expected electrokinetic behavior. The observed transport characteristics of the LBM are discussed in the context of established membrane transport modeling and previous work on the effects of pressure and electrical charge in other basement membrane systems. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Polymer Inclusion Membranes with Strip Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Hsien Li


    Full Text Available The present work investigated the permeation of indium ions through a polymer inclusion membrane (PIM, prepared with cellulose triacetate (CTA as the base polymer, tris(2-butoxyethyl phosphate (TBEP as the plasticizer and di-(2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (D2EHPA as the extractant. With 5 M HCl aqueous solution as the strip solution, we observed an initial indium permeability of 2.4 × 10−4 m/min. However, the permeability decreases with time, dropping to about 3.4 × 10−5 m/min after 200 min of operation. Evidence was obtained showing that hydrolysis of CTA occurred, causing a dramatic decrease in the feed pH (protons transported from strip to feed solutions and a loss of extractant and plasticizer from the membrane, and then leading to the loss of indium permeability. To alleviate the problem of hydrolysis, we proposed an operation scheme called polymer inclusion membranes with strip dispersion: dispersing the strip solution in extractant-containing oil and then bringing the dispersion to contact with the polymer membrane. Since the strong acid was dispersed in oil, the membrane did not directly contact the strong acid at all times, and membrane hydrolysis was thus alleviated and the loss of indium permeability was effectively prevented. With the proposed scheme, a stable indium permeability of 2.5 × 10−4 m/min was obtained during the whole time period of the permeation experiment.

  20. Molecular Interactions at Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagalski, Vivien

    . Today, we know more than ever before about the properties of biological membranes. Advanced biophysical techniques and sophisticated membrane models allow us to answer specific questions about the structure of the components within membranes and their interactions. However, many detailed structural...... the surface-immobilization of LeuT by exchanging the detergent with natural phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipids. Various surface sensitive techniques, including neutron reflectometry (NR), are employed and finally enabled us to confirm the gross structure of LeuT in a lipid environment as predicted by molecular...... dynamic simulations. In a second study, the co-localization of three toxic plant-derived diterpene resin acids (RAs) within DPPC membranes was investigated. These compounds are reported to disrupt the membrane and increase its fluidity. The RAs used in this study vary in their toxicity while...

  1. Membrane technology and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, F.H.


    The main purpose of this dissertation is to prepare and characterize some synthetic membranes obtained by radiation-induced graft copolymerization of and A Am unitary and binary system onto nylon-6 films. The optimum conditions at which the grafting process proceeded homogeneously were determined. Some selected properties of the prepared membranes were studied. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), x-ray diffraction (XRD), mechanical properties and U.V./vis, instruments and techniques were used to characterize the prepared membranes. The use of such membranes for the decontamination of radioactive waste and some heavy metal ions as water pollutants were investigated. These grafted membranes showed good cation exchange properties and may be of practical interest in waste water treatment whether this water was radioactive or not. 4 tabs., 68 figs., 146 refs

  2. The interaction of a magnetic cloud with the Earth - Ionospheric convection in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres for a wide range of quasi-steady interplanetary magnetic field conditions (United States)

    Freeman, M. P.; Farrugia, C. J.; Burlaga, L. F.; Hairston, M. R.; Greenspan, M. E.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Lepping, R. P.


    Observations are presented of the ionospheric convection in cross sections of the polar cap and auroral zone as part of the study of the interaction of the Earth's magnetosphere with the magnetic cloud of January 13-15, 1988. For strongly northward IMF, the convection in the Southern Hemisphere is characterized by a two-cell convection pattern comfined to high latitudes with sunward flow over the pole. The strength of the flows is comparable to that later seen under southward IMF. Superimposed on this convection pattern there are clear dawn-dusk asymmetries associated with a one-cell convection component whose sense depends on the polarity of the magnetic cloud's large east-west magnetic field component. When the cloud's magnetic field turns southward, the convection is characterized by a two-cell pattern extending to lower latitude with antisunward flow over the pole. There is no evident interhemispheric difference in the structure and strength of the convection. Superimposed dawn-dusk asymmetries in the flow patterns are observed which are only in part attributable to the east-west component of the magnetic field.

  3. A hybrid convection scheme for use in non-hydrostatic numerical weather prediction models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Kuell


    Full Text Available The correct representation of convection in numerical weather prediction (NWP models is essential for quantitative precipitation forecasts. Due to its small horizontal scale convection usually has to be parameterized, e.g. by mass flux convection schemes. Classical schemes originally developed for use in coarse grid NWP models assume zero net convective mass flux, because the whole circulation of a convective cell is confined to the local grid column and all convective mass fluxes cancel out. However, in contemporary NWP models with grid sizes of a few kilometers this assumption becomes questionable, because here convection is partially resolved on the grid. To overcome this conceptual problem we propose a hybrid mass flux convection scheme (HYMACS in which only the convective updrafts and downdrafts are parameterized. The generation of the larger scale environmental subsidence, which may cover several grid columns, is transferred to the grid scale equations. This means that the convection scheme now has to generate a net convective mass flux exerting a direct dynamical forcing to the grid scale model via pressure gradient forces. The hybrid convection scheme implemented into the COSMO model of Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD is tested in an idealized simulation of a sea breeze circulation initiating convection in a realistic manner. The results are compared with analogous simulations with the classical Tiedtke and Kain-Fritsch convection schemes.

  4. Climatology and Impact of Convection on the Tropical Tropopause Layer (United States)

    Robertson, Franklin; Pittman, Jasna


    Water vapor plays an important role in controlling the radiative balance and the chemical composition of the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL). Mechanisms ranging from slow transport and dehydration under thermodynamic equilibrium conditions to fast transport in convection have been proposed as regulators of the amount of water vapor in this layer. However,.details of these mechanisms and their relative importance remain poorly understood, The recently completed Tropical Composition, Cloud, and Climate Coupling (TC4) campaign had the opportunity to sample the.TTL over the Eastern Tropical Pacific using ground-based, airborne, and spaceborne instruments. The main goal of this study is to provide the climatological context for this campaign of deep and overshooting convective activity using various satellite observations collected during the summertime. We use the Microwave Humidity Sensor (MRS) aboard the NOAA-18 satellite to investigate the horizontal extent.and the frequency of convection reaching and penetrating into the TTL. We use the Moderate Resolution I1l1aging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Aqua satellite to investigate the frequency distribution of daytime cirrus clouds. We use the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission(TRMM) and CloudSat to investigate the vertical structure and distribution of hydrometeors in the convective cells, In addition to cloud measurements; we investigate the impact that convection has on the concentration of radiatively important gases such as water vapor and ozone in the TTL by examining satellite measurement obtained from the Microwave Limb Sounder(MLS) aboard the Aura satellite.

  5. Convection and Overshoot in Models of Doradus and Scuti Stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovekin, Catherine C.


    We investigate the pulsation properties of stellar models that are representative of δ Scuti and γ Doradus variables. Here we have calculated a grid of stellar models from 1.2 to 2.2 M ⊙, including the effects of both rotation and convective overshoot using MESA, and we investigate the pulsation properties of these models using GYRE. We discuss the observable patterns in the frequency spacing for p modes and the period spacings for g modes. Using the observable patterns in the g mode period spacings, it may be possible to observationally constrain the convective overshoot and rotation of a model. We also calculate the pulsation constant (Q) for all models in our grid and investigate the variation with convective overshoot and rotation. The variation in the Q values of the radial modes can be used to place constraints on the convective overshoot and rotation of stars in this region. Finally, as a test case, we apply this method to a sample of 22 High-Amplitude δ Scuti stars (HADS) and provide estimates for the convective overshoot of the sample.

  6. Convective aggregation in idealised models and realistic equatorial cases (United States)

    Holloway, Chris


    Idealised explicit convection simulations of the Met Office Unified Model are shown to exhibit spontaneous self-aggregation in radiative-convective equilibrium, as seen previously in other models in several recent studies. This self-aggregation is linked to feedbacks between radiation, surface fluxes, and convection, and the organization is intimately related to the evolution of the column water vapour (CWV) field. To investigate the relevance of this behaviour to the real world, these idealized simulations are compared with five 15-day cases of real organized convection in the tropics, including multiple simulations of each case testing sensitivities of the convective organization and mean states to interactive radiation, interactive surface fluxes, and evaporation of rain. Despite similar large-scale forcing via lateral boundary conditions, systematic differences in mean CWV, CWV distribution shape, and the length scale of CWV features are found between the different sensitivity runs, showing that there are at least some similarities in sensitivities to these feedbacks in both idealized and realistic simulations.

  7. Natural convection in a porous medium: External flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, P.


    Early theoretical work on heat transfer in porous media focussed its attention on the onset of natural convection and cellular convection in rectangular enclosures with heating from below. Recently, increased attention has been directed to the study of natural convection in a porous medium external to heated surfaces and bodies. Boundary layer approximations were introduced, and similarly solutions have been obtained for steady natural convection boundary layers adjacent to a heated flat plate, a horizontal cylinder and a sphere as well as other two-dimensional and axisymmetric bodies of arbitrary shape. Higher order boundary layer theories have been carried out to assess the accuracy of the boundary layer approximation. The effects of entrainments at the edge of the boundary layer, the inclination angle of the heated inclined plate, and the upstream geometry on the heat transfer characteristics have been investigated based on the method of matched asymptotic expansions. The conditions for the onset of vortex instability in porous layers heated from below were determined based on linear stability analyses. The effects of no-slip boundary conditions, non-Darcy and thermal dispersion, which were neglected in all of the previous theoretical investigations, have recently been re-examined. Experimental investigations on natural convection about a vertical and inclined heated plate, a horizontal cylinder, as well as plume rise from a horizontal line source of heat have been conducted. All of this work is reviewed in this paper

  8. Parametric modulation of thermomagnetic convection in magnetic fluids. (United States)

    Engler, H; Odenbach, S


    Previous theoretical investigations on thermal flow in a horizontal fluid layer have shown that the critical temperature difference, where heat transfer changes from diffusion to convective flow, depends on the frequency of a time-modulated driving force. The driving force of thermal convection is the buoyancy force resulting from the interaction of gravity and the density gradient provided by a temperature difference in the vertical direction of a horizontal fluid layer. An experimental investigation of such phenomena fails because of technical problems arising if buoyancy is to be changed by altering the temperature difference or gravitational acceleration. The possibility of influencing convective flow in a horizontal magnetic fluid layer by magnetic forces might provide us with a means to solve the problem of a time-modulated magnetic driving force. An experimental setup to investigate the dependence of the critical temperature difference on the frequency of the driving force has been designed and implemented. First results show that the time modulation of the driving force has significant influence on the strength of the convective flow. In particular a pronounced minimum in the strength of convection has been found for a particular frequency.

  9. Oscillatory magneto-convection under magnetic field modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palle Kiran


    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate an oscillatory mode of nonlinear magneto-convection under time dependant magnetic field. The time dependant magnetic field consists steady and oscillatory parts. The oscillatory part of the imposed magnetic field is assumed to be of third order. An externally imposed vertical magnetic field in an electrically conducting horizontal fluid layer is considered. The finite amplitude analysis is discussed while perturbing the system. The complex Ginzburg-Landau model is used to derive an amplitude of oscillatory convection for weakly nonlinear mode. Heat transfer is quantified in terms of the Nusselt number, which is governed by the Landau equation. The variation of the modulation excitation of the magnetic field alternates heat transfer in the layer. The modulation excitation of the magnetic field is used either to enhance or diminish the heat transfer in the system. Further, it is found that, oscillatory mode of convection enhances the heat transfer and than stationary convection. The results have possible technological applications in magnetic fluid based systems involving energy transmission. Keywords: Weakly nonlinear theory, Oscillatory convection, Complex Ginzburg Landau model, Magnetic modulation

  10. Extended Subadiabatic Layer in Simulations of Overshooting Convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Käpylä, Petri J.; Arlt, Rainer [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Rheinhardt, Matthias; Käpylä, Maarit J.; Olspert, Nigul [ReSoLVE Centre of Excellence, Department of Computer Science, P.O. Box 15400, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Brandenburg, Axel [NORDITA, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Lagg, Andreas; Warnecke, Jörn [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)


    We present numerical simulations of hydrodynamic overshooting convection in local Cartesian domains. We find that a substantial fraction of the lower part of the convection zone (CZ) is stably stratified according to the Schwarzschild criterion while the enthalpy flux is outward directed. This occurs when the heat conduction profile at the bottom of the CZ is smoothly varying, based either on a Kramers-like opacity prescription as a function of temperature and density or a static profile of a similar shape. We show that the subadiabatic layer arises due to nonlocal energy transport by buoyantly driven downflows in the upper parts of the CZ. Analysis of the force balance of the upflows and downflows confirms that convection is driven by cooling at the surface. We find that the commonly used prescription for the convective enthalpy flux being proportional to the negative entropy gradient does not hold in the stably stratified layers where the flux is positive. We demonstrate the existence of a non-gradient contribution to the enthalpy flux, which is estimated to be important throughout the convective layer. A quantitative analysis of downflows indicates a transition from a tree-like structure where smaller downdrafts merge into larger ones in the upper parts to a structure in the deeper parts where a height-independent number of strong downdrafts persist. This change of flow topology occurs when a substantial subadiabatic layer is present in the lower part of the CZ.

  11. Improving microphysics in a convective parameterization: possibilities and limitations (United States)

    Labbouz, Laurent; Heikenfeld, Max; Stier, Philip; Morrison, Hugh; Milbrandt, Jason; Protat, Alain; Kipling, Zak


    The convective cloud field model (CCFM) is a convective parameterization implemented in the climate model ECHAM6.1-HAM2.2. It represents a population of clouds within each ECHAM-HAM model column, simulating up to 10 different convective cloud types with individual radius, vertical velocities and microphysical properties. Comparisons between CCFM and radar data at Darwin, Australia, show that in order to reproduce both the convective cloud top height distribution and the vertical velocity profile, the effect of aerodynamic drag on the rising parcel has to be considered, along with a reduced entrainment parameter. A new double-moment microphysics (the Predicted Particle Properties scheme, P3) has been implemented in the latest version of CCFM and is compared to the standard single-moment microphysics and the radar retrievals at Darwin. The microphysical process rates (autoconversion, accretion, deposition, freezing, …) and their response to changes in CDNC are investigated and compared to high resolution CRM WRF simulations over the Amazon region. The results shed light on the possibilities and limitations of microphysics improvements in the framework of CCFM and in convective parameterizations in general.

  12. Vigorous convection as the explanation for Pluto's polygonal terrain. (United States)

    Trowbridge, A J; Melosh, H J; Steckloff, J K; Freed, A M


    Pluto's surface is surprisingly young and geologically active. One of its youngest terrains is the near-equatorial region informally named Sputnik Planum, which is a topographic basin filled by nitrogen (N2) ice mixed with minor amounts of CH4 and CO ices. Nearly the entire surface of the region is divided into irregular polygons about 20-30 kilometres in diameter, whose centres rise tens of metres above their sides. The edges of this region exhibit bulk flow features without polygons. Both thermal contraction and convection have been proposed to explain this terrain, but polygons formed from thermal contraction (analogous to ice-wedges or mud-crack networks) of N2 are inconsistent with the observations on Pluto of non-brittle deformation within the N2-ice sheet. Here we report a parameterized convection model to compute the Rayleigh number of the N2 ice and show that it is vigorously convecting, making Rayleigh-Bénard convection the most likely explanation for these polygons. The diameter of Sputnik Planum's polygons and the dimensions of the 'floating mountains' (the hills of of water ice along the edges of the polygons) suggest that its N2 ice is about ten kilometres thick. The estimated convection velocity of 1.5 centimetres a year indicates a surface age of only around a million years.

  13. Heat transfer by natural convection into an horizontal cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arevalo J, P.


    At this thesis it is studied the heat transfer by natural convection in an horizontal cavity, it is involved a boiling's part that is described the regimes and correlations differences for boiling's curve. It is designed a horizontal cavity for realize the experimental part and it's mention from equipment or instrumentation to succeed in a experimentation that permits to realize the analysis of heat transfer, handling as water fluid at atmospheric pressure and where it's present process from natural convection involving part boiling's subcooled. The system consists of heater zone submerged in a horizontal cavity with water. Once part finished experimental with information to obtained it's proceeded to obtain a correlation, realized starting from analysis dimensionless such as: Jakob, Bond and Grasoft (Boiling) besides of knows in natural convection: Prandtl and Nusselt. The mathematical model explains the behavior for natural convection continued part boiling's subcooled. It is realize analysis graphics too where it's show comparing with Globe Dropkin and Catton equations by natural convection with bottom heating. (Author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Sabodash


    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the achievability of recommended convection volumes in hemodiafiltration (HDF and impeding factors. Materials and methods. In short interventional one-center study among 67 stable prevalent dialysis patients we succeeded in achieving convection volume of more than 24 l/session in 60 patients (90%. Results. Substitution volume rose in the whole group from 21.1 ± 1.6 to 23.8 ± 1.2 l/session (p < 0.01. 12 patients, who didn`t achieve target volume had similar age, duration of renal replacement therapy and ultrafiltration rate as those who did. They differed from 55 patients who achieved target volume by substitution volume at first session in evaluation period (22.2 ± 1.7 vs. 23.6 ± 1.5 liters, р = 0.004, by transmembrane pressure (170 ± 40 vs. 146 ± 24 mmHg, р = 0.009 and by session duration (248 ± 15 vs. 262 ± 17 min, р = 0.0017. Blood flow rate also differed at the start of the study between the achievers and non-achievers: 353 ± 21 vs. 339 ± 19 ml/min, р = 0.035. The pressure in venous segment was lower in the achievers (154 ± 25 vs. 176 ± 36, р = 0.02 as well as transmembrane pressure (144 ± 24 vs. 164 ± 36, р = 0.014 which has been rising session by session in nonachievers. In non-achievers the membrane surface area was lower: 1.75 ± 0.2 vs. 1.91 ± 0.2 m2 (p = 0.02. In the multiple binary logistic regression model the session duration and membrane surface area were positive factors while the transmembrane pressure was negative one. Session prolonged by 15 min was associated with increase in relative chance to achieve target volume by 39% (95% CI 5–82%; р = 0.02. The membrane surface area enlarged by 0.1 m2 was linked with increase of chance by 4.2% (95% CI 0.2–8.4%; р = 0.04. The transmembrane pressure increased by 10 mmHg was associated with decreased chance to achieve target volume by 17% (95% CI 0–70%; р = 0.05. Conclusion. To achieve convection volume of 24 l/session one needs to afford

  15. Dynamic Model of the High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Stack Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen


    The present work involves the development of a model for predicting the dynamic temperature of a high temperature proton exchange membrane (HTPEM) fuel cell stack. The model is developed to test different thermal control strategies before implementing them in the actual system. The test system co...... elements for start-up, heat conduction through stack insulation, cathode air convection, and heating of the inlet gases in the manifold. Various measurements are presented to validate the model predictions of the stack temperatures....

  16. Nuclide separation modeling through reverse osmosis membranes in radioactive liquid waste


    Lee, Byung-Sik


    The aim of this work is to investigate the transport mechanism of radioactive nuclides through the reverse osmosis (RO) membrane and to estimate its effectiveness for nuclide separation from radioactive liquid waste. An analytical model is developed to simulate the RO separation, and a series of experiments are set up to confirm its estimated separation behavior. The model is based on the extended Nernst–Plank equation, which handles the convective flux, diffusive flux, and electromigration f...

  17. Membrane phospholipids and radiation-induced death of mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolters, H.


    Radiation-induced cell killing is generally believed to be a consequence of residual DNA damage or damage that is mis-repaired. However, besides this DNA damage, damage to other molecules or structures of the cell may be involved in the killing. Especially membranes have been suggested as a determinant in cellular radiosensitivity. In this thesis experiments are described, dealing with the possible involvement of membranes in radiation-induced killing of mammalian cells. A general treatise of membrane structure is followed by information concerning deleterious effects of radiation on membranes. Consequences of damage to structure and function of membranes are reviewed. Thereafter evidence relating to the possible involvement of membranes in radiation-induced cell killing is presented. (Auth.)

  18. [Membrane-bound cytokine and feedforward regulation]. (United States)

    Wu, Ke-Fu; Zheng, Guo-Guang; Ma, Xiao-Tong; Song, Yu-Hua


    Feedback and feedforward widely exist in life system, both of them are the basic processes of control system. While the concept of feedback has been widely used in life science, feedforward regulation was systematically studied in neurophysiology, awaiting further evidence and mechanism in molecular biology and cell biology. The authors put forward a hypothesis about the feedforward regulation of membrane bound macrophage colony stimulation factor (mM-CSF) on the basis of their previous work. This hypothesis might provide a new direction for the study on the biological effects of mM-CSF on leukemia and solid tumors, and contribute to the study on other membrane bound cytokines.

  19. Macrovoid Defect Growth during Evaporative Casting of Polymeric Membranes (United States)

    Greenberg, A. R.; Khare, V. P.; Zartman, J.; Krantz, W. B.; Todd, P.


    Macrovoid (MV) formation is a significant problem in evaporatively cast polymeric membranes. MVs are large, elongated or teardrop-shaped pores (10-50 micron) that can impair membrane structural integrity. Although MVs have been extensively studied, there is no general agreement on the mechanisms governing MV growth. Recently, our research group has formulated the solutocapillary convection (SC) hypothesis, which contends that MV growth involves three principal forces: a Marangoni force generated by surface tension gradients within the MV interface, a viscous drag force, and a gravitationally induced body force. Two sets of complementary experiments were conducted to test the SC hypothesis. Ground-based videomicroscopy flow-visualization (VMFV) was utilized to measure the flow velocities at the MV-casting solution interface and deep within the casting solution. The measurements were performed with casting solutions containing 10 wt% cellulose acetate (CA), 30 wt% H2O, 60 wt% acetone, and 200- ppm TiO2 particles for flow visualization, and the surface tension was controlled by surfactant addition. Qualitatively, the experiments indicated that MV growth occurs in three distinct phases: (1) a very rapid initial growth period, (2) a much slower growth phase, and (3) absorption of selected MVs into the expanding demixed region. The presence of tracer particles inside the MVs suggests the presence of a convective flow, which transfers the particles from the bulk solution to the MV interior. Although the VMFV experiments did not establish any surfactant effect on the interfacial velocities, a statistically significant effect on the MV number density was observed. In the second set of experiments, membranes were cast aboard a KC-135 aircraft under 0-g and 2-g conditions. Despite careful attention to the design and fabrication of the membrane casting apparatus (MCA), several problems were encountered, the most significant of which was the contamination of the casting

  20. Modelling multiphase flow inside the porous media of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berning, Torsten; Kær, Søren Knudsen


    Transport processes inside polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC’s) are highly complex and involve convective and diffusive multiphase, multispecies flow through porous media along with heat and mass transfer and electrochemical reactions in conjunction with water transport through...... an electrolyte membrane. We will present a computational model of a PEMFC with focus on capillary transport of water through the porous layers and phase change and discuss the impact of the liquid phase boundary condition between the porous gas diffusion layer and the flow channels, where water droplets can...

  1. Mechanisms affecting the transition from shallow to deep convection over land: Inferences from observations collected at the ARM Southern Great Plains site (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Klein, S. A.


    11 years of summertime observations at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are used to investigate mechanisms controlling the transition from shallow to deep convection over land. A more humid environment above the boundary layer favors the occurrence of late-afternoon heavy precipitation events. The higher moisture content is brought by wind from south. Greater boundary layer inhomogeneity in moist static energy (MSE) is correlated to larger rain rates at the initial stage of precipitation. MSE inhomogeneity is attributed to both moisture and temperature fields, and is correlated with westerly winds. In an examination of afternoon rain statistics, higher relative humidity above the boundary layer is correlated to an earlier onset and longer duration of precipitation, while greater boundary layer inhomogeneity and atmospheric instability are positively correlated to the total rain amount and the maximum rain rate. On balance, these observations favor theories for the transition that involve a moist free troposphere and boundary layer heterogeneity in preference to those that involve convective available potential energy or convective inhibition. Thus the evidence presented here supports the current emphasis in the modeling community on the entraining nature of convection and the role of boundary layer cold pools in triggering new convection.

  2. Microfabricated hydrogen sensitive membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naddaf, A.; Kraetz, L. [Lehrstuhl fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik, Technische Universitaet Kaiserslautern (Germany); Detemple, P.; Schmitt, S.; Hessel, V. [Institut fuer Mikrotechnik Mainz GmbH, Mainz (Germany); Faqir, N. [University of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Bart, H.J.


    Thin, defect-free palladium, palladium/copper and palladium/silver hydrogen absorbing membranes were microfabricated. A dual sputtering technique was used to deposit the palladium alloy membranes of only 1 {mu}m thickness on a nonporous silicon substrate. Advanced silicon etching (ASE) was applied on the backside to create a mechanically stable support structure for the thin films. Performance evaluation was carried out for different gases in a temperature range of 20 C to 298 C at a constant differential pressure of 110 kPa at the two sides of the membrane. The composite membranes show an excellent permeation rate of hydrogen, which appears to be 0.05 Pa m{sup 3} s{sup -1} and 0.01.10{sup -3} Pa m{sup 3} s{sup -1} at 20 C for the microfabricated 23 % silver and the 53 % copper composite membranes, respectively. The selectivity to hydrogen over a gas mixture containing, in addition to hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen was measured. The mass spectrometer did not detect any CO{sub 2} or CO, showing that the membrane is completely hydrogen selective. The microfabricated membranes exhibit both high mechanical strength (they easily withstand pressures up to 4 bar) and high thermal stability (up to 650 C). (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. Catalytic nanoporous membranes (United States)

    Pellin, Michael J; Hryn, John N; Elam, Jeffrey W


    A nanoporous catalytic membrane which displays several unique features Including pores which can go through the entire thickness of the membrane. The membrane has a higher catalytic and product selectivity than conventional catalysts. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes serve as the catalyst substrate. This substrate is then subjected to Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), which allows the controlled narrowing of the pores from 40 nm to 10 nm in the substrate by deposition of a preparatory material. Subsequent deposition of a catalytic layer on the inner surfaces of the pores reduces pore sizes to less than 10 nm and allows for a higher degree of reaction selectivity. The small pore sizes allow control over which molecules enter the pores, and the flow-through feature can allow for partial oxidation of reactant species as opposed to complete oxidation. A nanoporous separation membrane, produced by ALD is also provided for use in gaseous and liquid separations. The membrane has a high flow rate of material with 100% selectivity. Also provided is a method for producing a catalytic membrane having flow-through pores and discreet catalytic clusters adhering to the inside surfaces of the pores.

  4. Interfacial Water-Transport Effects in Proton-Exchange Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienitz, Brian; Yamada, Haruhiko; Nonoyama, Nobuaki; Weber, Adam


    It is well known that the proton-exchange membrane is perhaps the most critical component of a polymer-electrolyte fuel cell. Typical membranes, such as Nafion(R), require hydration to conduct efficiently and are instrumental in cell water management. Recently, evidence has been shown that these membranes might have different interfacial morphology and transport properties than in the bulk. In this paper, experimental data combined with theoretical simulations will be presented that explore the existence and impact of interfacial resistance on water transport for Nafion(R) 21x membranes. A mass-transfer coefficient for the interfacial resistance is calculated from experimental data using different permeation cells. This coefficient is shown to depend exponentially on relative humidity or water activity. The interfacial resistance does not seem to exist for liquid/membrane or membrane/membrane interfaces. The effect of the interfacial resistance is to flatten the water-content profiles within the membrane during operation. Under typical operating conditions, the resistance is on par with the water-transport resistance of the bulk membrane. Thus, the interfacial resistance can be dominant especially in thin, dry membranes and can affect overall fuel-cell performance.

  5. Diffusion in membranes: Toward a two-dimensional diffusion map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toppozini Laura


    Full Text Available For decades, quasi-elastic neutron scattering has been the prime tool for studying molecular diffusion in membranes over relevant nanometer distances. These experiments are essential to our current understanding of molecular dynamics of lipids, proteins and membrane-active molecules. Recently, we presented experimental evidence from X-ray diffraction and quasi-elastic neutron scattering demonstrating that ethanol enhances the permeability of membranes. At the QENS 2014/WINS 2014 conference we presented a novel technique to measure diffusion across membranes employing 2-dimensional quasi-elastic neutron scattering. We present results from our preliminary analysis of an experiment on the cold neutron multi-chopper spectrometer LET at ISIS, where we studied the self-diffusion of water molecules along lipid membranes and have the possibility of studying the diffusion in membranes. By preparing highly oriented membrane stacks and aligning them horizontally in the spectrometer, our aim is to distinguish between lateral and transmembrane diffusion. Diffusion may also be measured at different locations in the membranes, such as the water layer and the hydrocarbon membrane core. With a complete analysis of the data, 2-dimensional mapping will enable us to determine diffusion channels of water and ethanol molecules to quantitatively determine nanoscale membrane permeability.

  6. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Buoyant Convection in Geophysical Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Fedorovich, E; Viegas, D; Wyngaard, J


    Studies of convection in geophysical flows constitute an advanced and rapidly developing area of research that is relevant to problems of the natural environment. During the last decade, significant progress has been achieved in the field as a result of both experimental studies and numerical modelling. This led to the principal revision of the widely held view on buoyancy-driven turbulent flows comprising an organised mean component with superimposed chaotic turbulence. An intermediate type of motion, represented by coherent structures, has been found to play a key role in geophysical boundary layers and in larger scale atmospheric and hydrospheric circulations driven by buoyant forcing. New aspects of the interaction between convective motions and rotation have recently been discovered and investigated. Extensive experimental data have also been collected on the role of convection in cloud dynamics and microphysics. New theoretical concepts and approaches have been outlined regarding scaling and parameteriz...

  7. Suppression of saturated nucleate boiling by forced convective flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.L.; Davis, M.W.; Hertzler, B.L.


    Tube-side forced convective boiling nitrogen and oxygen and thin film shell-side forced convective boiling R-11 data demonstrate a reduction in the heat transfer coefficient associated with nucleate boiling as the two-phase friction pressure drop increases. Techniques proposed in the literature to account for nucleate boiling during forced convective boiling are discussed. The observed suppression of nucleate boiling for the tube-side data is compared against the Chen correlation. Although general agreement is exhibited, supporting the interactive heat transfer mechanism theory, better agreement is obtained by defining a bubble growth region within the thermal boundary layer. The data suggests that the size of the bubble growth region is independent of the friction drop, but is only a function of the physical properties of the boiling liquid. 15 refs

  8. Development of a parameterization scheme of mesoscale convective systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton, W.R.


    The goal of this research is to develop a parameterization scheme of mesoscale convective systems (MCS) including diabatic heating, moisture and momentum transports, cloud formation, and precipitation. The approach is to: Perform explicit cloud-resolving simulation of MCSs; Perform statistical analyses of simulated MCSs to assist in fabricating a parameterization, calibrating coefficients, etc.; Test the parameterization scheme against independent field data measurements and in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models emulating general circulation model (GCM) grid resolution. Thus far we have formulated, calibrated, implemented and tested a deep convective engine against explicit Florida sea breeze convection and in coarse-grid regional simulations of mid-latitude and tropical MCSs. Several explicit simulations of MCSs have been completed, and several other are in progress. Analysis code is being written and run on the explicitly simulated data

  9. Large-scale patterns in Rayleigh-Benard convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardenberg, J. von; Parodi, A.; Passoni, G.; Provenzale, A.; Spiegel, E.A.


    Rayleigh-Benard convection at large Rayleigh number is characterized by the presence of intense, vertically moving plumes. Both laboratory and numerical experiments reveal that the rising and descending plumes aggregate into separate clusters so as to produce large-scale updrafts and downdrafts. The horizontal scales of the aggregates reported so far have been comparable to the horizontal extent of the containers, but it has not been clear whether that represents a limitation imposed by domain size. In this work, we present numerical simulations of convection at sufficiently large aspect ratio to ascertain whether there is an intrinsic saturation scale for the clustering process when that ratio is large enough. From a series of simulations of Rayleigh-Benard convection with Rayleigh numbers between 10 5 and 10 8 and with aspect ratios up to 12π, we conclude that the clustering process has a finite horizontal saturation scale with at most a weak dependence on Rayleigh number in the range studied

  10. Heat Transfer Correlations for Free Convection from Suspended Microheaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David GOSSELIN


    Full Text Available Portability and autonomy for biomedical diagnostic devices are two rising requirements. It is recognized that low-energy heating of such portable devices is of utmost importance for molecular recognition. This work focuses on screen-printed microheaters based on on Joule effect, which constitute an interesting solution for low-energy heating. An experimental study of the natural convection phenomena occurring with such microheaters is conducted. When they are suspended in the air, and because of the thinness of the supporting film, it is shown that the contributions of both the upward and downward faces have to be taken into account. A total Nusselt number and a total convective heat transfer coefficient have been used to describe the natural convection around these microheaters. In addition a relation between the Nusselt number and the Rayleigh number is derived, leading to an accurate prediction of the heating temperature (MRE< 2 %.

  11. Generalized drying curves in conductive/convective paper drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.C. Motta Lima


    Full Text Available This work presents a study related to conductive/convective drying of paper (cellulose sheets over heated surfaces, under natural and forced air conditions. The experimental apparatus consists in a metallic box heated by a thermostatic bath containing an upper surface on which the paper samples (about 1 mm thick are placed. The system is submitted to ambient air under two different conditions: natural convection and forced convection provide by an adjustable blower. The influence of initial paper moisture content, drying (heated surface temperature and air velocity on drying curves behavior is observed under different drying conditions. Hence, these influence is studied through the proposal of generalized drying curves. Those curves are analyzed individually for each air condition exposed above and for both together. A set of equations to fit them is proposed and discussed.

  12. Numerical Simulation on Natural Convection Cooling of a FM Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Pil; Park, Su Ki [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The irradiated FM(Fission-Molly) target is unloaded from the irradiation hole during normal operation, and then cooled down in the reactor pool for a certain period of time. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the minimum decay time needed to cool down FM target sufficiently by natural convection. In the present work, numerical simulations are performed to predict cooling capability of a FM target cooled by natural convection using commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, CFX. The present study is carried out using CFD code to investigate cooling capability of a FM target cooled by natural convection. The steady state simulation as well as transient simulation is performed in the present work. Based on the transient simulation (T1), the minimum decay time that the maximum fuel temperature does not reach the design limit temperature (TONB-3 .deg. C) is around 15.60 seconds.

  13. Natural convection and wall radiation in tall cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balaji, C [Regional Engineering College, Tiruchirapalli (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Venkateshan, S P [Indian Inst. of Tech., Madras (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    The problem of combined natural convection and wall radiation in tall cavities has been taken up for a detailed numerical investigation. The governing equations for fluid flow have been solved by a finite volume method and the radiation has been treated by the radiosity-irradiation method. The analysis has been specifically made for the case where the emissivity of the hot left wall is different from that of the cold right wall. For this case it was found that decoupling radiation from free convection can lead to considerable error. Correlations have been suggested for predicting both the convective as well as the radiative heat transfer rates across the cavity. (author). 7 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Natural convection and wall radiation in tall cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaji, C.; Venkateshan, S.P.


    The problem of combined natural convection and wall radiation in tall cavities has been taken up for a detailed numerical investigation. The governing equations for fluid flow have been solved by a finite volume method and the radiation has been treated by the radiosity-irradiation method. The analysis has been specifically made for the case where the emissivity of the hot left wall is different from that of the cold right wall. For this case it was found that decoupling radiation from free convection can lead to considerable error. Correlations have been suggested for predicting both the convective as well as the radiative heat transfer rates across the cavity. (author). 7 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  15. An Experimental Study on Rayleigh-Benard Natural Convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Je Young; Chung, Bum Jin


    Core melt in a severe accident condition, forms a molten pool in the reactor vessel lower head. The molten pool is divided by a metallic pool (top) and an oxide pool (bottom) by the density difference. Due to the decay heat generated in oxide pool, Rayleigh- Benard natural convection heated from below and cooled from above occurs in the metallic pool. Experiments were performed to investigate Rayleigh- Benard natural convection as a preparatory study before an in-depth severe accident study. The natural convection heat transfers were measured varying the plate separation distance and the area of plate with and without the side wall. Using the analogy concept, heat transfer experiments were replaced by mass transfer experiments. A cupric acid.copper sulfate (H 2 SO 4 -CuSO 4 ) electroplating system was adopted as the mass transfer system and the electric currents were measured rather than the heat

  16. Time-Distance Analysis of Deep Solar Convection (United States)

    Duvall, T. L., Jr.; Hanasoge, S. M.


    Recently it was shown by Hanasoge, Duvall, and DeRosa (2010) that the upper limit to convective flows for spherical harmonic degrees ldeep-focusing Lime-distance technique used to develop the upper limit was applied to linear acoustic simulations of a solar interior perturbed by convective flows in order to calibrate the technique. This technique has been applied to other depths in the convection zone and the results will be presented. The deep-focusing technique has considerable sensitivity to the flow ' signals at the desired subsurface location ' However, as shown by Birch {ref}, there is remaining much sensitivity to near-surface signals. Modifications to the technique using multiple bounce signals have been examined in a search for a more refined sensitivity, or kernel function. Initial results are encouraging and results will be presented'

  17. A stochastic parameterization for deep convection using cellular automata (United States)

    Bengtsson, L.; Steinheimer, M.; Bechtold, P.; Geleyn, J.


    Cumulus parameterizations used in most operational weather and climate models today are based on the mass-flux concept which took form in the early 1970's. In such schemes it is assumed that a unique relationship exists between the ensemble-average of the sub-grid convection, and the instantaneous state of the atmosphere in a vertical grid box column. However, such a relationship is unlikely to be described by a simple deterministic function (Palmer, 2011). Thus, because of the statistical nature of the parameterization challenge, it has been recognized by the community that it is important to introduce stochastic elements to the parameterizations (for instance: Plant and Craig, 2008, Khouider et al. 2010, Frenkel et al. 2011, Bentsson et al. 2011, but the list is far from exhaustive). There are undoubtedly many ways in which stochastisity can enter new developments. In this study we use a two-way interacting cellular automata (CA), as its intrinsic nature possesses many qualities interesting for deep convection parameterization. In the one-dimensional entraining plume approach, there is no parameterization of horizontal transport of heat, moisture or momentum due to cumulus convection. In reality, mass transport due to gravity waves that propagate in the horizontal can trigger new convection, important for the organization of deep convection (Huang, 1988). The self-organizational characteristics of the CA allows for lateral communication between adjacent NWP model grid-boxes, and temporal memory. Thus the CA scheme used in this study contain three interesting components for representation of cumulus convection, which are not present in the traditional one-dimensional bulk entraining plume method: horizontal communication, memory and stochastisity. The scheme is implemented in the high resolution regional NWP model ALARO, and simulations show enhanced organization of convective activity along squall-lines. Probabilistic evaluation demonstrate an enhanced spread in

  18. Transition from boiling to two-phase forced convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroti, L.


    The paper presents a method for the prediction of the boundary points of the transition region between fully developed boiling and two-phase forced convection. It is shown that the concept for the determination of the onset of fully developed boiling can also be applied for the calculation of the point where the heat transfer is effected again by the forced convection. Similarly, the criterion for the onset of nucleate boiling can be used for the definition of the point where boiling is completely suppressed and pure two-phase forced convection starts. To calculate the heat transfer coefficient for the transition region, an equation is proposed that applies the boundary points and a relaxation function ensuring the smooth transition of the heat transfer coefficient at the boundaries

  19. Convection Effects During Bulk Transparent Alloy Solidification in DECLIC-DSI and Phase-Field Simulations in Diffusive Conditions (United States)

    Mota, F. L.; Song, Y.; Pereda, J.; Billia, B.; Tourret, D.; Debierre, J.-M.; Trivedi, R.; Karma, A.; Bergeon, N.


    To study the dynamical formation and evolution of cellular and dendritic arrays under diffusive growth conditions, three-dimensional (3D) directional solidification experiments were conducted in microgravity on a model transparent alloy onboard the International Space Station using the Directional Solidification Insert in the DEvice for the study of Critical LIquids and Crystallization. Selected experiments were repeated on Earth under gravity-driven fluid flow to evidence convection effects. Both radial and axial macrosegregation resulting from convection are observed in ground experiments, and primary spacings measured on Earth and microgravity experiments are noticeably different. The microgravity experiments provide unique benchmark data for numerical simulations of spatially extended pattern formation under diffusive growth conditions. The results of 3D phase-field simulations highlight the importance of accurately modeling thermal conditions that strongly influence the front recoil of the interface and the selection of the primary spacing. The modeling predictions are in good quantitative agreements with the microgravity experiments.

  20. Rotating bubble membrane radiator (United States)

    Webb, Brent J.; Coomes, Edmund P.


    A heat radiator useful for expelling waste heat from a power generating system aboard a space vehicle is disclosed. Liquid to be cooled is passed to the interior of a rotating bubble membrane radiator, where it is sprayed into the interior of the bubble. Liquid impacting upon the interior surface of the bubble is cooled and the heat radiated from the outer surface of the membrane. Cooled liquid is collected by the action of centrifical force about the equator of the rotating membrane and returned to the power system. Details regarding a complete space power system employing the radiator are given.

  1. The Oscillatory Nature of Rotating Convection in Liquid Metal (United States)

    Aurnou, J. M.; Bertin, V. L.; Grannan, A. M.


    Earth's magnetic field is assumed to be generated by fluid motions in its liquid metal core. In this fluid, the heat diffuses significantly more than momentum and thus, the ratio of these two diffusivities, the Prandtl number Pr=ν/Κ, is well below unity. The convective flow dynamics of liquid metal is very different from Pr ≈ 1 fluids like water and those used in current dynamo simulations. In order to characterize rapidly rotating thermal convection in low Pr number fluids, we have performed laboratory experiments in a cylinder using liquid gallium (Pr ≈ 0.023) as the working fluid. The Ekman number, which characterizes the effect of rotation, varies from E = 4 10-5 to 4 10-6 and the dimensionless buoyancy forcing (Rayleigh number, Ra) varies from Ra =3 105 to 2 107. Using heat transfer measurements (Nusselt number, Nu) as well as temperature measurements within the fluid, we characterize the different styles of low Pr rotating convective flow. The convection threshold is first overcome in the form of a container scale inertial oscillatory mode. At stronger forcing, wall-localized modes are identified for the first time in liquid metal laboratory experiments. These wall modes coexist with the bulk inertial oscillatory modes. When the strengh of the buoyancy increases, the bulk flow becomes turbulent while the wall modes remain. Our results imply that rotating convective flows in liquid metals do not develop in the form of quasi-steady columns, as in Pr ≈ 1 dynamo models, but in the form of oscillatory motions. Therefore, the flows that drive thermally-driven dynamo action in low Pr geophysical and astrophysical fluids can differ substantively than those occuring in current-day Pr ≈ 1 numerical models. In addition, our results suggest that relatively low wavenumber, wall-attached modes may be dynamically important in rapidly-rotating convection in liquid metals.

  2. Crystalline heterogeneities and instabilities in thermally convecting magma chamber (United States)

    Culha, C.; Suckale, J.; Qin, Z.


    A volcanic vent can supply different densities of crystals over an eruption time period. This has been seen in Hawai'i's Kilauea Iki 1959 eruption; however it is not common for all Kilauea or basaltic eruptions. We ask the question: Under what conditions can homogenous magma chamber cultivate crystalline heterogeneities? In some laboratory experiments and numerical simulations, a horizontal variation is observed. The region where crystals reside is identified as a retention zone: convection velocity balances settling velocity. Simulations and experiments that observe retention zones assume crystals do not alter the convection in the fluid. However, a comparison of experiments and simulations of convecting magma with crystals suggest that large crystal volume densities and crystal sizes alter fluid flow considerably. We introduce a computational method that fully resolves the crystalline phase. To simulate basaltic magma chambers in thermal convection, we built a numerical solver of the Navier-Stoke's equation, continuity equation, and energy equation. The modeled magma is assumed to be a viscous, incompressible fluid with a liquid and solid phase. Crystals are spherical, rigid bodies. We create Rayleigh-Taylor instability through a cool top layer and hot bottom layer and update magma density while keeping crystal temperature and size constant. Our method provides a detailed picture of magma chambers, which we compare to other models and experiments to identify when and how crystals alter magma chamber convection. Alterations include stratification, differential settling and instabilities. These characteristics are dependent on viscosity, convection vigor, crystal volume density and crystal characteristics. We reveal that a volumetric crystal density variation may occur over an eruption time period, if right conditions are met to form stratifications and instabilities in magma chambers. These conditions are realistic for Kilauea Iki's 1959 eruption.

  3. Convection and waves on Small Earth and Deep Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine Semane


    Full Text Available A scaled version of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF spectral hydrostatic forecast model (IFS has been developed with full physics using an Aqua planet configuration. This includes Kuang et al.'s Small Earth Diabatic Acceleration and REscaling (DARE/SE approach bringing the synoptic scale a factor γ closer to the convective scale by reducing the Earth radius by γ, and increasing the rotation rate and all diabatic processes by the same factor. Furthermore, the scaled version also provides an alternative system to DARE/SE, dubbed ‘Deep Atmosphere Diabatic Acceleration and REscaling’ (DARE/DA, which reduces gravity by a factor γ and thereby increases the horizontal scale of convection by γ, while only weakly affecting the large-scale flow. The two approaches have been evaluated using a T159 spectral truncation and γ = 8 with the deep convection scheme switched off. The evaluation is against the baseline unscaled model at T1279 spectral resolution without deep convection parametrisation, as well as the unscaled T159 model using the deep convection parametrisation. It is shown that the DARE/SE and DARE/DA systems provide fairly equivalent results, while the DARE/DA system seems to be the preferred choice as it damps divergent modes, providing a better climatology, and is technically easier to implement. However, neither of the systems could reproduce the motion range and modes of the high-resolution spectral model. Higher equivalent horizontal resolution in the 1–10 km range and the full non-hydrostatic system might be necessary to successfully simulate the convective and large-scale explicitly at reduced cost.

  4. Hydrothermal convection and uranium deposits in abnormally radioactive plutons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Hydrothermal uranium deposits are often closely associated with granites of abnormally high uranium content. We have studied the question whether the heat generated within such granites can cause fluid convection of sufficient magnitude to develop hydrothermal uranium deposits. Numerical models of flow through porous media were used to calculate temperatures and fluid flow in and around plutons similar to the Conway Granite, New Hampshire, i.e. with a halfwidth of 17 km, a thickness of 6.25 km, and with a uniform internal heat generation rate of 20 x 10 -13 cal/cm 3 -sec. Fluid convection was computed for plutons with permeabilities between 0.01 and 5 millidarcies (1 x10 -13 cm 2 to 5 x 10 -11 cm 2 . Flow rates and the size and location of convection cells in and around radioactive plutons like the Conway Granite were found to depend critically on the permeability distribution within the pluton and in adjacent country rocks. The depth of burial, the distribution of heat sources within the pluton, and small rates of heat generation in the country rock are only of minor importance. Topographic relief is unlikely to effect flow rates significantly, but can have a major influence on the distribution of recharge and discharge areas. Within a few million years, the mass of water transported by steady state convection through such radioactive plutons can equal the mass of water which can convect through them during initial cooling from magmatic temperatures. If the permeability in a Conway-type pluton is on the order of 0.5 millidarcies, the rate of fluid convection is probably sufficient to develop a hydrothermal ore deposit containing 10,000 tons of uranium in a period of two million years. Such a uranium deposit is most likely to develop in an area of strong upwelling or strong downwelling flow

  5. Water-induced convection in the Earth's mantle transition zone (United States)

    Richard, Guillaume C.; Bercovici, David


    Water enters the Earth's mantle by subduction of oceanic lithosphere. Most of this water immediately returns to the atmosphere through arc volcanism, but a part of it is expected as deep as the mantle transition zone (410-660 km depth). There, slabs can be deflected and linger before sinking into the lower mantle. Because it lowers the density and viscosity of the transition zone minerals (i.e., wadsleyite and ringwoodite), water is likely to affect the dynamics of the transition zone mantle overlying stagnant slabs. The consequences of water exchange between a floating slab and the transition zone are investigated. In particular, we focus on the possible onset of small-scale convection despite the adverse thermal gradient (i.e., mantle is cooled from below by the slab). The competition between thermal and hydrous effects on the density and thus on the convective stability of the top layer of the slab is examined numerically, including water-dependent density and viscosity and temperature-dependent water solubility. For plausible initial water content in a slab (≥0.5 wt %), an episode of convection is likely to occur after a relatively short time delay (5-20 Ma) after the slab enters the transition zone. However, water induced rheological weakening is seen to be a controlling parameter for the onset time of convection. Moreover, small-scale convection above a stagnant slab greatly enhances the rate of slab dehydration. Small-scale convection also facilitates heating of the slab, which in itself may prolong the residence time of the slab in the transition zone.

  6. Mapping high-latitude plasma convection with coherent HF radars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruohoniemi, J.M.; Greenwald, R.A.; Baker, K.B.; Villain, J.-P.; Hanuise, C.; Kelly, J.


    In this decade, a new technique for the study of ionosphere electrodynamics has been implemented in an evolving generation of high-latitude HF radars. Coherent backscatter from electron density irregularities at F region altitudes is utilized to observe convective plasma motion. The electronic beam forming and scanning capabilities of the radars afford an excellent combination of spatial (∼50 km) and temporal (∼1 min) resolution of the large-scale (∼10 6 km 2 ) convection pattern. In this paper, we outline the methods developed to synthesize the HF radar data into two-dimensional maps of convection velocity. Although any single radar can directly measure only the line-of-sight, or radial, component of the plasma motion, the convection pattern is sometimes so uniform and stable that scanning in azimuth serves to determine the transverse component as well. Under more variable conditions, data from a second radar are necessary to unambiguously resolve velocity vectors. In either case, a limited region of vector solution can be expanded into contiguous areas of single-radar radial velocity data by noting that the convection must everywhere be divergence-free, i.e., ∇·v=0. It is thus often possible to map velocity vectors without extensive second-radar coverage. We present several examples of two-dimensional velocity maps. These show instances of L shell-aligned flow in the dusk sector, the reversal of convection near magnetic midnight, and counterstreaming in the dayside cleft. We include a study of merged coherent and incoherent radar data that illustrates the applicability of these methods to other ionospheric radar systems. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  7. Seasonal Scale Convective-Stratiform Pricipitation Variabilities at Tropics (United States)

    S, Sreekanth T.

    begin{center} Large Seasonal Scale Convective-Stratiform Pricipitation Variabilities at Tropics Sreekanth T S*, Suby Symon*, G. Mohan Kumar (1) and V Sasi Kumar (2) *Centre for Earth Science Studies, Akkulam, Thiruvananthapuram (1) D-330, Swathi Nagar, West Fort, Thiruvananthapuram 695023 (2) 32. NCC Nagar Peroorkada, Thiruvananthapuram ABSTRACT This study investigates the variabilities of convective and stratiform rainfall from 2011 to 2013 at a tropical coastal station in three seasons viz Pre-Monsoon (March-May), Monsoon (June-September) and Post-Monsoon (October-December). Understanding the climatological variability of these two dominant forms of precipitation and their implications in the total rainfall were the main objectives of this investigation. Variabilities in the frequency & duration of events, rain rate & total number of rain drops distribution in different events and the accumulated amount of rain water were analysed. Based on the ground & radar observations from optical & impact disdrometers, Micro Rain Radar and Atmospheric Electric Field Mill, precipitation events were classified into convective and stratiform in three seasons. Classification was done by the method followed by Testud et al (2001) and as an additional information electrical behaviour of clouds from Atmospheric Electric Field Mill is also used. Events which could not be included in both types were termed as 'mixed precipitation' and were included separately. Diurnal variability of the total rainfall in each seasons were also examined. For both convective and stratiform rainfall there exist distinct day-night differences. During nocturnal hours convective rain draged more attention. In all seasons almost 70% of rain duration and 60% of rain events of convective origin were confined to nocturnal hours. But stratiform rain was not affected by diurnal variations greatly because night time occurrences of stratiform duration and events were less than 50%. Also in Monsoon above 35% of

  8. Removal of glyphosate herbicide from water using biopolymer membranes. (United States)

    Carneiro, Rafael T A; Taketa, Thiago B; Gomes Neto, Reginaldo J; Oliveira, Jhones L; Campos, Estefânia V R; de Moraes, Mariana A; da Silva, Camila M G; Beppu, Marisa M; Fraceto, Leonardo F


    Enormous amounts of pesticides are manufactured and used worldwide, some of which reach soils and aquatic systems. Glyphosate is a non-selective herbicide that is effective against all types of weeds and has been used for many years. It can therefore be found as a contaminant in water, and procedures are required for its removal. This work investigates the use of biopolymeric membranes prepared with chitosan (CS), alginate (AG), and a chitosan/alginate combination (CS/AG) for the adsorption of glyphosate present in water samples. The adsorption of glyphosate by the different membranes was investigated using the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models, as well as the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The membranes were characterized regarding membrane solubility, swelling, mechanical, chemical and morphological properties. The results of kinetics experiments showed that adsorption equilibrium was reached within 4 h and that the CS membrane presented the best adsorption (10.88 mg of glyphosate/g of membrane), followed by the CS/AG bilayer (8.70 mg of glyphosate/g of membrane). The AG membrane did not show any adsorption capacity for this herbicide. The pseudo-second order model provided good fits to the glyphosate adsorption data on CS and CS/AG membranes, with high correlation coefficient values. Glyphosate adsorption by the membranes could be fitted by the Freundlich isotherm model. There was a high affinity between glyphosate and the CS membrane and moderate affinity in the case of the CS/AG membrane. Physico-chemical characterization of the membranes showed low values of solubility in water, indicating that the membranes are stable and not soluble in water. The SEM and AFM analysis showed evidence of the presence of glyphosate on CS membranes and on chitosan face on CS/AG membranes. The results showed that the glyphosate herbicide can be adsorbed by chitosan membranes and the proposed membrane-based methodology was successfully used to

  9. Heat Flux Sensors for Infrared Thermography in Convective Heat Transfer (United States)

    Carlomagno, Giovanni Maria; de Luca, Luigi; Cardone, Gennaro; Astarita, Tommaso


    This paper reviews the most dependable heat flux sensors, which can be used with InfraRed (IR) thermography to measure convective heat transfer coefficient distributions, and some of their applications performed by the authors' research group at the University of Naples Federico II. After recalling the basic principles that make IR thermography work, the various heat flux sensors to be used with it are presented and discussed, describing their capability to investigate complex thermo-fluid-dynamic flows. Several applications to streams, which range from natural convection to hypersonic flows, are also described. PMID:25386758

  10. Solution of heat removal from nuclear reactors by natural convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zitek Pavel


    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the basis for the solution of heat removal by natural convection from both conventional nuclear reactors and reactors with fuel flowing coolant (such as reactors with molten fluoride salts MSR.The possibility of intensification of heat removal through gas lift is focused on. It might be used in an MSR (Molten Salt Reactor for cleaning the salt mixture of degassed fission products and therefore eliminating problems with iodine pitting. Heat removal by natural convection and its intensification increases significantly the safety of nuclear reactors. Simultaneously the heat removal also solves problems with lifetime of pumps in the primary circuit of high-temperature reactors.

  11. Convection in a colloidal suspension in a closed horizontal cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smorodin, B. L.; Cherepanov, I. N.


    The experimentally detected [1] oscillatory regimes of convection in a colloidal suspension of nanoparticles with a large anomalous thermal diffusivity in a closed horizontal cell heated from below have been simulated numerically. The concentration inhomogeneity near the vertical cavity boundaries arising from the interaction of thermal-diffusion separation and convective mixing has been proven to serve as a source of oscillatory regimes (traveling waves). The dependence of the Rayleigh number at the boundary of existence of the traveling-wave regime on the aspect ratio of the closed cavity has been established. The spatial characteristics of the emerging traveling waves have been determined

  12. Models of surface convection and dust clouds in brown dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freytag, B; Allard, F; Ludwig, H-G; Homeier, D; Steffen, M


    The influence of dust grains on the atmospheres of brown dwarfs is visible in observed spectra. To investigate what prevents the dust grains from falling down, or how fresh condensable material is mixed up in the atmosphere to allow new grains to form, we performed 2D radiation-hydrodynamics simulations with CO5BOLD of the upper part of the convection zone and the atmosphere containing the dust cloud layers. We find that unlike in models of Cepheids, the convective overshoot does not play a major role. Instead, the mixing in the dust clouds is controlled by gravity waves.

  13. Heat Flux Sensors for Infrared Thermography in Convective Heat Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Maria Carlomagno


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the most dependable heat flux sensors, which can be used with InfraRed (IR thermography to measure convective heat transfer coefficient distributions, and some of their applications performed by the authors’ research group at the University of Naples Federico II. After recalling the basic principles that make IR thermography work, the various heat flux sensors to be used with it are presented and discussed, describing their capability to investigate complex thermo-fluid-dynamic flows. Several applications to streams, which range from natural convection to hypersonic flows, are also described.

  14. A meshless method for modeling convective heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrington, David B [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    A meshless method is used in a projection-based approach to solve the primitive equations for fluid flow with heat transfer. The method is easy to implement in a MATLAB format. Radial basis functions are used to solve two benchmark test cases: natural convection in a square enclosure and flow with forced convection over a backward facing step. The results are compared with two popular and widely used commercial codes: COMSOL, a finite element model, and FLUENT, a finite volume-based model.

  15. 10,000 - A reason to study granular heat convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einav, I.; Rognon, P.; Gan, Y.; Miller, T.; Griffani, D. [Particles and Grains Laboratory, School of Civil Engineering, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)


    In sheared granular media, particle motion is characterized by vortex-like structures; here this is demonstrated experimentally for disks system undergoing indefinite deformation during simple shear, as often imposed by the rock masses hosting earthquake fault gouges. In traditional fluids it has been known for years that vortices represent a major factor of heat transfer enhancement via convective internal mixing, but in analyses of heat transfer through earthquake faults and base planes of landslides this has been continuously neglected. Can research proceed by neglecting heat convection by internal mixing? Our answer is astonishingly far from being yes.

  16. Mining key elements for severe convection prediction based on CNN (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Pan, Ning; Zhang, Changan; Sha, Hongzhou; Zhang, Bolei; Liu, Liang; Zhang, Meng


    Severe convective weather is a kind of weather disasters accompanied by heavy rainfall, gust wind, hail, etc. Along with recent developments on remote sensing and numerical modeling, there are high-volume and long-term observational and modeling data accumulated to capture massive severe convective events over particular areas and time periods. With those high-volume and high-variety weather data, most of the existing studies and methods carry out the dynamical laws, cause analysis, potential rule study, and prediction enhancement by utilizing the governing equations from fluid dynamics and thermodynamics. In this study, a key-element mining method is proposed for severe convection prediction based on convolution neural network (CNN). It aims to identify the key areas and key elements from huge amounts of historical weather data including conventional measurements, weather radar, satellite, so as numerical modeling and/or reanalysis data. Under this manner, the machine-learning based method could help the human forecasters on their decision-making on operational weather forecasts on severe convective weathers by extracting key information from the real-time and historical weather big data. In this paper, it first utilizes computer vision technology to complete the data preprocessing work of the meteorological variables. Then, it utilizes the information such as radar map and expert knowledge to annotate all images automatically. And finally, by using CNN model, it cloud analyze and evaluate each weather elements (e.g., particular variables, patterns, features, etc.), and identify key areas of those critical weather elements, then help forecasters quickly screen out the key elements from huge amounts of observation data by current weather conditions. Based on the rich weather measurement and model data (up to 10 years) over Fujian province in China, where the severe convective weathers are very active during the summer months, experimental tests are conducted with

  17. Frequency of Deep Convective Clouds and Global Warming (United States)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Teixeira, Joao


    This slide presentation reviews the effect of global warming on the formation of Deep Convective Clouds (DCC). It concludes that nature responds to global warming with an increase in strong convective activity. The frequency of DCC increases with global warming at the rate of 6%/decade. The increased frequency of DCC with global warming alone increases precipitation by 1.7%/decade. It compares the state of the art climate models' response to global warming, and concludes that the parametrization of climate models need to be tuned to more closely emulate the way nature responds to global warming.

  18. Reynolds analogy for subcooled surface boiling under forced convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avdeev, A.A.


    For the case of subcooled surface boiling under forced convection the analytic expression of analogy between the heat transfer and carry pulse (Reynolds analogy) is derived. It is concluded that the obtained dependence creates the basis for solution of a series of problems of surface boiling physics. On the basis of the performed analysis the method of coordinate calculation of the origin of intensive vapour generation is developed and the formula for calculation of the broken-off-bubble radius under forced convection is derived [ru

  19. Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, MP; Petersen, WA; Del Genio, AD; Giangrande, SE; Heymsfield, A; Heymsfield, G; Hou, AY; Kollias, P; Orr, B; Rutledge, SA; Schwaller, MR; Zipser, E


    Convective processes play a critical role in the Earth’s energy balance through the redistribution of heat and moisture in the atmosphere and subsequent impacts on the hydrologic cycle. Global observation and accurate representation of these processes in numerical models is vital to improving our current understanding and future simulations of Earth’s climate system. Despite improvements in computing power, current operational weather and global climate models are unable to resolve the natural temporal and spatial scales that are associated with convective and stratiform precipitation processes; therefore, they must turn to parameterization schemes to represent these processes. In turn, the physical basis for these parameterization schemes needs to be evaluated for general application under a variety of atmospheric conditions. Analogously, space-based remote sensing algorithms designed to retrieve related cloud and precipitation information for use in hydrological, climate, and numerical weather prediction applications often rely on physical “parameterizations” that reliably translate indirectly related instrument measurements to the physical quantity of interest (e.g., precipitation rate). Importantly, both spaceborne retrieval algorithms and model convective parameterization schemes traditionally rely on field campaign data sets as a basis for evaluating and improving the physics of their respective approaches. The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) will take place in central Oklahoma during the April–May 2011 period. The experiment is a collaborative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission Ground Validation (GV) program. The field campaign leverages the unprecedented observing infrastructure currently available in the central United States

  20. Thermal computations for electronics conductive, radiative, and convective air cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Ellison, Gordon


    IntroductionPrimary mechanisms of heat flowConductionApplication example: Silicon chip resistance calculationConvectionApplication example: Chassis panel cooled by natural convectionRadiationApplication example: Chassis panel cooled only by radiation 7Illustrative example: Simple thermal network model for a heat sinked power transistorIllustrative example: Thermal network circuit for a printed circuit boardCompact component modelsIllustrative example: Pressure and thermal circuits for a forced air cooled enclosureIllustrative example: A single chip package on a printed circuit board-the proble