Sample records for evidence

  1. Digital evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Tatjana


    Full Text Available Although computer makes human activities faster and easier, innovating and creating new forms of work and other kinds of activities, it also influenced the criminal activity. The development of information technology directly affects the development of computer forensics without which, it can not even imagine the discovering and proving the computer offences and apprehending the perpetrator. Information technology and computer forensic allows us to detect and prove the crimes committed by computer and capture the perpetrators. Computer forensics is a type of forensics which can be defined as a process of collecting, preserving, analyzing and presenting digital evidence in court proceedings. Bearing in mind, that combat against crime, in which computers appear as an asset or object of the offense, requires knowledge of digital evidence as well as specific rules and procedures, the author in this article specifically addresses the issues of digital evidence, forensic (computer investigation, specific rules and procedures for detecting, fixing and collecting digital evidence and use of this type of evidence in criminal proceedings. The author also delas with international standards regarding digital evidence and cyber-space investigation.

  2. Evidence and evidence gaps in tinnitus therapy (United States)

    Hesse, Gerhard


    A nearly endless number of procedures has been tried and in particular sold for the treatment of tinnitus, unfortunately they have not been evaluated appropriately in an evidence-based way. A causal therapy, omitting the tinnitus still does not exist, actually it cannot exist because of the various mechanisms of its origin. However or perhaps because of that, medical interventions appear and reappear like fashion trends that can never be proven by stable and reliable treatment success. This contribution will discuss and acknowledge all current therapeutic procedures and the existing or non-existing evidence will be assessed. Beside external evidence, the term of evidence also encompasses the internal evidence, i.e. the experience of the treating physician and the patient’s needs shall be included. While there is no evidence for nearly all direct procedures that intend modulating or stimulating either the cochlea or specific cervical regions such as the auditory cortex, there are therapeutic procedures that are acknowledged in clinical practice and have achieved at least a certain degree of evidence and generate measurable effect sizes. Those are in particular habituation therapy and psychotherapeutic measures, especially if they are combined with concrete measures for improved audio perception (hearing aids, CI, hearing therapies). PMID:28025604

  3. Some Thoughts on Evidence (United States)

    Cassidy, Michael; Medsker, Karen


    Evidence seems to be a particularly newsworthy topic these days, prominent in stories about weapons of mass destruction, the President's record in the National Guard, Martha Stewart's stock sales, global warming and the EPA, and so forth. "Evidence," not surprisingly, derives from "evident," which the American Heritage Dictionary defines as…

  4. Gait as evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Larsen, Peter Kastmand


    This study examines what in Denmark may constitute evidence based on forensic anthropological gait analyses, in the sense of pointing to a match (or not) between a perpetrator and a suspect, based on video and photographic imagery. Gait and anthropometric measures can be used when direct facial...... comparison is not possible because of perpetrators masking their faces. The nature of judicial and natural scientific forms of evidence is discussed, and rulings dealing with the admissibility of video footage and forensic evidence in general are given. Technical issues of video materials are discussed......, and the study also discusses how such evidence may be presented, both in written statements and in court....

  5. What is Evidence? (editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis


    Full Text Available Lately, I have been pondering what we really mean when we say “evidence based practice”? In LIS, we all know the definitions that have been proposed (Booth 2000, Eldredge 2000, Crumley and Koufogiannakis 2002, and which have not ever really been challenged. But have we ever said explicitly what qualifies as evidence in this model? The underlying assumption seems to be that evidence is research, hence, we are really talking about research-based practice, but we don’t actually use that term.Higgs and Jones (2000 note that evidence is “knowledge derived from a variety of sources that has been subjected to testing and has found to be credible.” The Oxford English Dictionary states that evidence is “something serving as a proof” (OED, 2011. Neither of these definitions of evidence notes that evidence equals research; research is only one form of evidence. It certainly isn’t the only form of evidence – so what, then, constitutes evidence?Rycroff-Malone et al. (2004 state that that in order for evidence based practice to create a broader evidence base in nursing, “the external, scientific and the internal, intuitive” need to be brought together. The external, scientific is what evidence based practice has been focused on, in the form of scientific research, but Rycroff-Malone et al. note that other elements such as clinical experience, patient experience, and information from the local context also need to be considered.In library and information practice, what are the other forms of evidence we need to consider? I propose that while research evidence is of high importance to our profession and knowledge, LIS practitioners need to first of all consider local evidence. Local evidence is found in our working environment and specific to the context in which we carry out our work. It includes such things as our experiences with patrons in particular contexts, and what we observe to work in such situations, assessment of programs

  6. Teaching with Evidence (United States)

    Crocco, Margaret; Halvorsen, Anne-Lise; Jacobsen, Rebecca; Segall, Avner


    In this age of real and fake news, students need to be able to assess the trustworthiness of evidence. The authors' current research examines students' use of evidence in secondary social studies classrooms as students deliberate contemporary public policy issues. The authors found that students shifted their evaluations of the trustworthiness of…

  7. Evidence based practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger


    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is an influential interdisciplinary movement that originated in medicine as evidence-based medicine (EBM) about 1992. EBP is of considerable interest to library and information science (LIS) because it focuses on a thorough documentation of the basis for the decision...

  8. Observational Evidence for Atoms. (United States)

    Jones, Edwin R., Jr.; Childers, Richard L.


    Discusses the development of the concept of atomicity and some of the many which can be used to establish its validity. Chemical evidence, evidence from crystals, Faraday's law of electrolysis, and Avogadro's number are among the areas which show how the concept originally developed from a purely philosophical idea. (JN)

  9. Evidence-based radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafslund, Bjorg [Institute of Radiography, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Bergen University College, P.O. Box 7030, N-5020 Bergen (Norway)], E-mail:; Clare, Judith; Graverholt, Birgitte; Wammen Nortvedt, Monica [Centre for Evidence Based Practice, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Bergen University College, Bergen (Norway)


    Evidence-based practice (EBP) offers the integration of the best research evidence with clinical knowledge and expertise and patient values. EBP is a well known term in health care. This paper discusses the implementation of EBP into radiography and introduces the term evidence-based radiography. Evidence-based radiography is radiography informed and based on the combination of clinical expertise and the best available research-based evidence, patient preferences and resources available. In Norway, EBP in radiography is being debated and radiographers are discussing the challenges of implementing EBP in both academic and clinical practice. This discussion paper explains why EBP needs to be a basis for a radiography curriculum and a part of radiographers' practice. We argue that Norwegian radiographers must increase participation in research and developing practice within their specific radiographic domain.

  10. [Evidence-based physiotherapy]. (United States)

    Bender, Tamás


    This article on physiotherapy presents some current evidence stating the strengths and weaknesses of the physiotherapeutic procedures. In the area of physiotherapy empirical data obtained during decades were overtaken by evidence from current studies. The author points out the great problem of physiotherapy, namely the heterogeneity of the applied parameters. Knowledge of current evidence may be very important and helpful for the physicians, but the author proposes, from the practical point of view, that physiotherapeutical procedures based on exprience and used for many years should not be entirely neglected. Nowadays physiotherapy plays an important role in the treament of locomotor diseases but its use is increasing in other fields of medicine, as well.

  11. Evidence-based dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chi Chi


    Full Text Available Evidence-based medicine (EBM has become a hot topic in medical practice, education, and research. However, a large number of senior doctors did not have an opportunity to learn EBM in medical schools. Firstly, this article addresses the history of EBM and the principle of practicing EBM, i.e., asking, acquiring, appraisal, application, and auditing. Secondly, this article also provides a brief introduction to evidence-based dermatology and compares the introduction of clinical practice guidelines between Europe, the UK, and the US. Finally, this article addresses the present condition and future perspective of evidence-based dermatology in Taiwan.

  12. Evidence-Based Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper


    Systems development is replete with projects that represent substantial resource investments but result in systems that fail to meet users’ needs. Evidence-based development is an emerging idea intended to provide means for managing customer-vendor relationships and working systematically toward...... and electronic patient records for diabetes patients, this paper reports research in progress regarding the prospects and pitfalls of evidence-based development....

  13. Accelerated Evidence Search Report (United States)


    Accelerated Evidence Search Report IMPORTANT INFORMATIVE STATEMENTS Accelerated Multi-Camera Evidence Search and Retrieval CSSP Project #: CSSP -2013...CD-1063 was supported by the Canadian Safety and Security Program ( CSSP ) which is led by Defence Research and Development Canada’s Centre for...Border Technology Division The CSSP is a federally-funded program to strengthen Canada’s ability to anticipate, prevent/mitigate, prepare for, respond to

  14. LTDNA Evidence on Trial


    Paul Roberts; Paul Roberts; Paul Roberts


    Adopting the interpretative/hermeneutical method typical of much legal scholarship, this article considers two sets of issues pertaining to LTDNA profiles as evidence in criminal proceedings. Section 1 addresses some rather large questions about the epistemic status and probative value of expert testimony in general. It sketches a theoretical model of expert evidence, highlighting five essential criteria: (1) expert competence; (2) disciplinary domain; (3) methodological validity; (4) materia...

  15. LTDNA Evidence on Trial. (United States)

    Roberts, Paul


    Adopting the interpretative/hermeneutical method typical of much legal scholarship, this article considers two sets of issues pertaining to LTDNA profiles as evidence in criminal proceedings. The section titled Expert Evidence as Forensic Epistemic Warrant addresses some rather large questions about the epistemic status and probative value of expert testimony in general. It sketches a theoretical model of expert evidence, highlighting five essential criteria: (1) expert competence; (2) disciplinary domain; (3) methodological validity; (4) materiality; and (5) legal admissibility. This generic model of expert authority, highlighting law's fundamentally normative character, applies to all modern forms of criminal adjudication, across Europe and farther afield. The section titled LTDNA Evidence in UK Criminal Trials then examines English and Northern Irish courts' attempts to get to grips with LTDNA evidence in recent cases. Better appreciating the ways in which UK courts have addressed the challenges of LTDNA evidence may offer some insights into parallel developments in other legal systems. Appellate court rulings follow a predictable judicial logic, which might usefully be studied and reflected upon by any forensic scientist or statistician seeking to operate effectively in criminal proceedings. Whilst each legal jurisdiction has its own unique blend of jurisprudence, institutions, cultures and historical traditions, there is considerable scope for comparative analysis and cross-jurisdictional borrowing and instruction. In the spirit of promoting more nuanced and sophisticated international interdisciplinary dialogue, this article examines UK judicial approaches to LTDNA evidence and begins to elucidate their underlying institutional logic. Legal argument and broader policy debates are not confined to considerations of scientific validity, contamination risks and evidential integrity, or associated judgments of legal admissibility or exclusion. They also crucially

  16. Evidence-Based Toxicology. (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sebastian; Hartung, Thomas; Stephens, Martin

    Evidence-based toxicology (EBT) was introduced independently by two groups in 2005, in the context of toxicological risk assessment and causation as well as based on parallels between the evaluation of test methods in toxicology and evidence-based assessment of diagnostics tests in medicine. The role model of evidence-based medicine (EBM) motivated both proposals and guided the evolution of EBT, whereas especially systematic reviews and evidence quality assessment attract considerable attention in toxicology.Regarding test assessment, in the search of solutions for various problems related to validation, such as the imperfectness of the reference standard or the challenge to comprehensively evaluate tests, the field of Diagnostic Test Assessment (DTA) was identified as a potential resource. DTA being an EBM discipline, test method assessment/validation therefore became one of the main drivers spurring the development of EBT.In the context of pathway-based toxicology, EBT approaches, given their objectivity, transparency and consistency, have been proposed to be used for carrying out a (retrospective) mechanistic validation.In summary, implementation of more evidence-based approaches may provide the tools necessary to adapt the assessment/validation of toxicological test methods and testing strategies to face the challenges of toxicology in the twenty first century.

  17. [Real-world evidence. (United States)

    De Fiore, Luca; Addis, Antonio


    Real-world evidence is among the most frequently discussed issues at professional medical conferences and meetings. It refers to data and information derived from sources such as electronic health records, disease or product registries, and observational research. Looking for an accelerated approval of new pharmaceutical products and devices, real-world evidence is considered a useful tool to confirm data collected for regulatory purposes. Anyway, randomised controlled trials still remain the gold standard of clinical research, in order to minimize bias and to evaluate the effectiveness of a clinical intervention. A pragmatic approach and quasi-randomised trials to shorten length and costs of the studies can be considered. The problem lies with the quality of data rather than with the context in which evidence is gathered.

  18. Fossil wood evidences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Climate has played a crucial role in assigning a different kind of topography to Rajasthan and Gujarat since the Cenozoic time. Evidently, three genera, namely, Dipterocarpus Gaert. f., Hopea Roxb. and. Shorea Roxb. of the Dipterocarpaceae are described from the Neogene sediments of western India. (Rajasthan and ...

  19. What Counts as Evidence? (United States)

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.


    Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…

  20. LTDNA Evidence on Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Roberts


    Full Text Available Adopting the interpretative/hermeneutical method typical of much legal scholarship, this article considers two sets of issues pertaining to LTDNA profiles as evidence in criminal proceedings. Section 1 addresses some rather large questions about the epistemic status and probative value of expert testimony in general. It sketches a theoretical model of expert evidence, highlighting five essential criteria: (1 expert competence; (2 disciplinary domain; (3 methodological validity; (4 materiality; and (5 legal admissibility. This generic model of expert authority, highlighting law’s fundamentally normative character, applies to all modern forms of criminal adjudication, across Europe and farther afield. Section 2 then examines English and Northern Irish courts’ attempts to get to grips with LTDNA evidence in recent cases. Better appreciating the ways in which UK courts have addressed the challenges of LTDNA evidence may offer some insights into parallel developments in other legal systems. Appellate court rulings follow a predictable judicial logic, which might usefully be studied and reflected upon by any forensic scientist or statistician seeking to operate effectively in criminal proceedings. Whilst each legal jurisdiction has its own unique blend of jurisprudence, institutions, cultures and historical traditions, there is considerable scope for comparative analysis and cross-jurisdictional borrowing and instruction. In the spirit of promoting more nuanced and sophisticated international interdisciplinary dialogue, this article examines UK judicial approaches to LTDNA evidence and begins to elucidate their underlying institutional logic. Legal argument and broader policy debates are not confined to considerations of scientific validity, contamination risks and evidential integrity, or associated judgments of legal admissibility or exclusion. They also crucially concern the manner in which LTDNA profiling results are presented and explained to

  1. The Evidence Missing from Evidence-Based Practice (United States)

    Stuart, Richard B.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.


    Comments on the report by the APA Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice (see record 2006-05893-001) entitled Evidence-based practice in psychology. Regrettably, the task force report was largely silent on three critical issues. As a consequence, it omitted much of the evidence necessary for a complete picture of evidence-based…

  2. Multiple Lines of Evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Venzin, Alexander M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bramer, Lisa M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    This paper discusses the process of identifying factors that influence the contamination level of a given decision area and then determining the likelihood that the area remains unacceptable. This process is referred to as lines of evidence. These lines of evidence then serve as inputs for the stratified compliance sampling (SCS) method, which requires a decision area to be divided into strata based upon contamination expectations. This is done in order to focus sampling efforts more within stratum where contamination is more likely and to use the domain knowledge about these likelihoods of the stratum remaining unacceptable to buy down the number of samples necessary, if possible. Two different building scenarios were considered as an example (see Table 3.1). SME expertise was elicited concerning four lines of evidence factors (see Table 3.2): 1) amount of contamination that was seen before decontamination, 2) post-decontamination air sampling information, 3) the applied decontaminant information, and 4) the surface material. Statistical experimental design and logistic regression modelling were used to help determine the likelihood that example stratum remained unacceptable for a given example scenario. The number of samples necessary for clearance was calculated by applying the SCS method to the example scenario, using the estimated likelihood of each stratum remaining unacceptable as was determined using the lines of evidence approach. The commonly used simple random sampling (SRS) method was also used to calculate the number of samples necessary for clearance for comparison purposes. The lines of evidence with SCS approach resulted in a 19% to 43% reduction in total number of samples necessary for clearance (see Table 3.6). The reduction depended upon the building scenario, as well as the level of percent clean criteria. A sensitivity analysis was also performed showing how changing the estimated likelihoods of stratum remaining unacceptable affect the number

  3. Evidence on acne therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Sousa Costa

    Full Text Available Among the current treatments available for acne vulgaris, many widely practiced options lack support from studies at the best level of scientific evidence. The aim of this narrative review was to present the very latest information on topical and systemic treatments for acne vulgaris. Information from systematic reviews and well-designed clinical trials, obtained through a systematic search of the major medical databases, is emphasized. There are important issues regarding the clinical management of acne that still lack consistent grounding in scientific evidence. Among these are the optimum dose and duration of treatment with oral antibiotics that can be given without inducing bacterial resistance, and the safety of oral isotretinoin.

  4. Ingratiation: Experimental Evidence


    Robin, Stéphane; Rusinowska, Agnieszka; Villeval, Marie Claire


    We investigate experimentally ingratiatory behavior expressed by opinion conformity. Both individuals' performance at a task and their opinions on various topics can be observed before unequal payoffs are assigned by a second mover. In some treatments, first movers can change their opinion after learning that held by the second mover. We find evidence of high ingratiation indices, as opinion conformity is rewarded. However, second movers reward conformity less when it is common knowledge that...

  5. [Evidence for exercise prescription]. (United States)

    Moritani, Toshio


    This brief review includes recent evidences regarding the etiology of obesity and metabolic syndrome with a special reference to autonomic nervous system activity. The role of exercise in prevention and treatment of obesity in adults and children is described in conjunction with MONA LISA Hypothesis put forth by Bray (1991). Finally, recent topics of myokines, i.e., muscle activity-derived cytokines are briefly discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlo Dika


    Full Text Available This paper examines the exclusion of specific means of evidence as instruments for determining the object of evidence, as well as the taking of evidence in the framework of the Croatian civil procedure law. The introduction lays the grounds for classifying and qualifying exclusion of evidence (general, special; absolute, relative; removable, irremovable; direct, indirect, after which greater attention is paid to the so called absolute and relative type; exclusionary evidence of the direct relative type pertaining to the establishing of facts, and evidence dismissals. With regard to the indirect relative type, the paper examines exclusionary evidence concerning the object of evidence. The remainder of the paper focuses on illegally obtained evidence, while outlining the constitutional, statutory, judicature and doctrinaire premises of bearing for such evidence. Subsequently, the question of evidence obtained in violation of the Constitutional guarantee of respect and legal protection of private and family life, dignity, reputation and honour, as well as evidence obtained by breach of the Constitutional guarantee of freedom and secrecy of correspondence and all other forms of communication, and in violation of the right to safety and privacy of personal data, are discussed too. In addition, the paper analyses the institutions of preclusion of evidence and the so called informative evidence. Concluding, the author points to a lacking regulation of inadmissible evidence within the Croatian civil procedure law, underlining the need to determine de lege ferenda legal requirements with a view to operationalizing inadmissible evidence within the Croatian civil procedure law.

  7. Evidence-based librarianship: searching for the needed EBL evidence. (United States)

    Eldredge, J D


    This paper discusses the challenges of finding evidence needed to implement Evidence-Based Librarianship (EBL). Focusing first on database coverage for three health sciences librarianship journals, the article examines the information contents of different databases. Strategies are needed to search for relevant evidence in the library literature via these databases, and the problems associated with searching the grey literature of librarianship. Database coverage, plausible search strategies, and the grey literature of library science all pose challenges to finding the needed research evidence for practicing EBL. Health sciences librarians need to ensure that systems are designed that can track and provide access to needed research evidence to support Evidence-Based Librarianship (EBL).

  8. Limitations of Expert Evidence


    Serpil Salaçin


    Limitations of Expert Evidence Edited by Stephen Leadbeatter MB ChB MCRPath ISBN 1 86016 029 8 Printed in Great Britain by Cathedral Print Services Ltd, Salisbury, 1996 Kitap 25 Ekim 1994 te The Royal College of Physicians ve The Royal College of Pathologists tarafından düzenlenen konferanstan sonra hekimlere ve avukatlara konuyu tartışmaya açmak için basılmış. Bilirkişi görüşünün temel filozofisinin, bu görevi yapanlar ve bu hizmeti alanların yapabileceklerin...

  9. Evidence Study Guide. (United States)


    present Fed.R.Evid. 410 may also be found at Federal Rule of Criminal Procedure ll(e)(6). For a complete history of the evolution of the Federal Rule...87 7-87 ~ ’~ -] NOTE: The following sections of this part of the chapter offer brief notes and outlines on trial procedures and evolutions involving...arrest even though it was conducted at FBI headquarters. (c) United States v. Birdsong , 446 F.2d 325 (5th Cir. 1971) (search of auto trunk upheld as

  10. Evidence for homosexuality gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pool, R.


    A genetic analysis of 40 pairs of homosexual brothers has uncovered a region on the X chromosome that appears to contain a gene or genes for homosexuality. When analyzing the pedigrees of homosexual males, the researcheres found evidence that the trait has a higher likelihood of being passed through maternal genes. This led them to search the X chromosome for genes predisposing to homosexuality. The researchers examined the X chromosomes of pairs of homosexual brothers for regions of DNA that most or all had in common. Of the 40 sets of brothers, 33 shared a set of five markers in the q28 region of the long arm of the X chromosome. The linkage has a LOD score of 4.0, which translates into a 99.5% certainty that there is a gene or genes in this area that predispose males to homosexuality. The chief researcher warns, however, that this one site cannot explain all instances of homosexuality, since there were some cases where the trait seemed to be passed paternally. And even among those brothers where there was no evidence that the trait was passed paternally, seven sets of brothers did not share the Xq28 markers. It seems likely that homosexuality arises from a variety of causes.

  11. Evidence informed decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Tarang; Choudhury, Moni; Kaur, Bindweep


    guidance producing programmes and at all stages of development. CE could range from information from experts and patient/carers, grey literature (including evidence from websites and policy reports) and testimony from stakeholders through consultation. Six tools for critical appraisal of CE were available...... scientific literature is sparse and to also capture the experience of all stakeholders in discussions, including that of experts and patients. We aimed to ascertain how CE was being used at the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). METHODS: Relevant data corresponding to the use of CE...... was extracted from all NICE technical and process manuals by two reviewers and quality assured and analyzed by a third reviewer. This was considered in light of the results of a focused literature review and a combined checklist for quality assessment was developed. RESULTS: At NICE, CE is utilised across all...

  12. Evidence on Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyssegaard, Camilla Brørup; Larsen, Michael Søgaard

    The purpose of this publication is to examine existing research on inclusion to identify strategies of inclusion that have generated positive effects. To do so it is necessary to understand the effect of the applied strategies. One approach, which is being discussed, is to use evidence to determine...... which methods have proven more effective than others. The desire to gain insight into research on inclusion forms the basis of the current systematic review. The task was to determine which strategies primary research has found to be most effective for inclusion purposes. We have solved this task...... by addressing the existing research with the following question: What is the effect of including children with special needs in mainstream teaching in basic school, and which of the applied educational methods have proved to have a positive effect?...

  13. Evidence for robots. (United States)

    Shenoy, Ravikiran; Nathwani, Dinesh


    Robots have been successfully used in commercial industry and have enabled humans to perform tasks which are repetitive, dangerous and requiring extreme force. Their role has evolved and now includes many aspects of surgery to improve safety and precision. Orthopaedic surgery is largely performed on bones which are rigid immobile structures which can easily be performed by robots with great precision. Robots have been designed for use in orthopaedic surgery including joint arthroplasty and spine surgery. Experimental studies have been published evaluating the role of robots in arthroscopy and trauma surgery. In this article, we will review the incorporation of robots in orthopaedic surgery looking into the evidence in their use. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  14. Corroborating evidence-based medicine. (United States)

    Mebius, Alexander


    Proponents of evidence-based medicine (EBM) have argued convincingly for applying this scientific method to medicine. However, the current methodological framework of the EBM movement has recently been called into question, especially in epidemiology and the philosophy of science. The debate has focused on whether the methodology of randomized controlled trials provides the best evidence available. This paper attempts to shift the focus of the debate by arguing that clinical reasoning involves a patchwork of evidential approaches and that the emphasis on evidence hierarchies of methodology fails to lend credence to the common practice of corroboration in medicine. I argue that the strength of evidence lies in the evidence itself, and not the methodology used to obtain that evidence. Ultimately, when it comes to evaluating the effectiveness of medical interventions, it is the evidence obtained from the methodology rather than the methodology that should establish the strength of the evidence. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Expert opinion vs. empirical evidence (United States)

    Herman, Rod A; Raybould, Alan


    Expert opinion is often sought by government regulatory agencies when there is insufficient empirical evidence to judge the safety implications of a course of action. However, it can be reckless to continue following expert opinion when a preponderance of evidence is amassed that conflicts with this opinion. Factual evidence should always trump opinion in prioritizing the information that is used to guide regulatory policy. Evidence-based medicine has seen a dramatic upturn in recent years spurred by examples where evidence indicated that certain treatments recommended by expert opinions increased death rates. We suggest that scientific evidence should also take priority over expert opinion in the regulation of genetically modified crops (GM). Examples of regulatory data requirements that are not justified based on the mass of evidence are described, and it is suggested that expertise in risk assessment should guide evidence-based regulation of GM crops. PMID:24637724

  16. Expert opinion vs. empirical evidence


    Herman, Rod A.; Raybould, Alan


    Expert opinion is often sought by government regulatory agencies when there is insufficient empirical evidence to judge the safety implications of a course of action. However, it can be reckless to continue following expert opinion when a preponderance of evidence is amassed that conflicts with this opinion. Factual evidence should always trump opinion in prioritizing the information that is used to guide regulatory policy. Evidence-based medicine has seen a dramatic upturn in recent years sp...

  17. Evidence-based clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Christian


    Evidence-based medicine combines the patient's preferences with clinical experience and the best research evidence. Randomized clinical trials are considered the most valid research design for evaluating health-care interventions. However, empirical research shows that intervention effects may...... practice. By investments in education, applied research, and The Cochrane Collaboration, evidence-based medicine may form a stronger basis for clinical practice....

  18. Evidence Searching for Evidence-based Psychology Practice


    Falzon, Louise; Davidson, Karina W.; Bruns, Daniel


    There is an increased awareness of evidence-based methodology among psychologists, but little exists in the literature about how to access the research. Moreover, the prohibitive cost of this information combined with limited time are barriers to the identification of evidence to answer clinical questions. This article presents an example of a question worked though in an evidence-based way. Methods are highlighted, including distinguishing background and foreground questions, breaking down q...

  19. Synthesizing Quantitative Evidence for Evidence-based Nursing: Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui Geum Oh, PhD, RN


    Full Text Available As evidence-based practice has become an important issue in healthcare settings, the educational needs for knowledge and skills for the generation and utilization of healthcare evidence are increasing. Systematic review (SR, a way of evidence generation, is a synthesis of primary scientific evidence, which summarizes the best evidence on a specific clinical question using a transparent, a priori protocol driven approach. SR methodology requires a critical appraisal of primary studies, data extraction in a reliable and repeatable way, and examination for validity of the results. SRs are considered hierarchically as the highest form of evidence as they are a systematic search, identification, and summarization of the available evidence to answer a focused clinical question with particular attention to the methodological quality of studies or the credibility of opinion and text. The purpose of this paper is to introduce an overview of the fundamental knowledge, principals and processes in SR. The focus of this paper is on SR especially for the synthesis of quantitative data from primary research studies that examines the effectiveness of healthcare interventions. To activate evidence-based nursing care in various healthcare settings, the best and available scientific evidence are essential components. This paper will include some examples to promote understandings.

  20. Evidence of me” in evidence based medicine?


    Lockwood, Susan


    Evidence based medicine provides independent, validated advice about treatment options, but does it take sufficient account of individual patients' values to provide them with an optimal health outcome?

  1. Evidence based medical imaging (EBMI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Tony [Senior Lecturer in Medical Radiation Science, University Department of Rural Health, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, Locked Bag 9783 NEMSC, Tamworth, NSW 2348 (Australia)], E-mail:


    Background: The evidence based paradigm was first described about a decade ago. Previous authors have described a framework for the application of evidence based medicine which can be readily adapted to medical imaging practice. Purpose: This paper promotes the application of the evidence based framework in both the justification of the choice of examination type and the optimisation of the imaging technique used. Methods: The framework includes five integrated steps: framing a concise clinical question; searching for evidence to answer that question; critically appraising the evidence; applying the evidence in clinical practice; and, evaluating the use of revised practices. Results: This paper illustrates the use of the evidence based framework in medical imaging (that is, evidence based medical imaging) using the examples of two clinically relevant case studies. In doing so, a range of information technology and other resources available to medical imaging practitioners are identified with the intention of encouraging the application of the evidence based paradigm in radiography and radiology. Conclusion: There is a perceived need for radiographers and radiologists to make greater use of valid research evidence from the literature to inform their clinical practice and thus provide better quality services.

  2. Evidence and Ethics (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Brettle


    Full Text Available Welcome to the December issue of EBLIP, the final issue of my first year as Editor-in-Chief. A year which I have thoroughly enjoyed and one where the fears over what to write in my editorials haven’t materialised. This quarter, ethics has featured quite heavily in my working life so I decided to make this the topic of the editorial, sharing some of my thoughts regarding evidence, ethics and how ethical principles are implemented within the EBLIP journal.Ethics are “principles of conduct or standards of behaviour governing an individual or profession” (Library and Information Science Editorial Committee, 2010, and as individuals or professionals we may be governed by various ethical codes. As I'm sure you know, EBLIP originated in the health domain, where ethical values and ethical research feature strongly. Indeed, by its formal definition, research cannot take place unless “ethical approval” from an appropriate committee has been granted. The practicalities of taking research through the ethical approval process can often be time consuming, and those involved in research need to bear this in mind when planning a project. Each committee will have a slightly different form and process (which can add to the frustration of the researcher, but basically will make their decision to approve on the basis that the research includes obtaining informed consent from participants (i.e., participants know what the research is about and what their involvement will mean; that the research will not cause harm to participants; that confidentiality will be maintained; and that the research undertaken is methodologically rigorous and worthwhile. Preparing a proposal for ethical approval, whilst time consuming, makes the researcher think about all aspects of the research and how it is going to be operationalized, which can save lots of time and effort in the long run and may well also improve the research design. These principles are the same whatever

  3. Limitations of Expert Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serpil Salaçin


    Full Text Available Limitations of Expert Evidence Edited by Stephen Leadbeatter MB ChB MCRPath ISBN 1 86016 029 8 Printed in Great Britain by Cathedral Print Services Ltd, Salisbury, 1996 Kitap 25 Ekim 1994 te The Royal College of Physicians ve The Royal College of Pathologists tarafından düzenlenen konferanstan sonra hekimlere ve avukatlara konuyu tartışmaya açmak için basılmış. Bilirkişi görüşünün temel filozofisinin, bu görevi yapanlar ve bu hizmeti alanların yapabileceklerinin sınırlarının tartışılması amaçlanmış.Seksen altı sayfadan oluşan kitabın fiatı on iki İngiliz Sterlini. Kitap üç bölüm ve bunların altında toplanan on ana başlıktan oluşmakta. Elinize aldığınızda küçük boyutu ve anlaşılır dili ile hemen okunup bitirelecek kitaplardan sanılıyor. En azından ben böyle düşünmüştüm. Ancak daha L A Tuınberg ve A J Bellinham’ın ön yazısında ben çarpıldım. Değerli yazarların kaleme aldığı başlıklar ve gündeme getirdiği tartışmaların tüm Adli Bilimlerle uğraşanların dikkatle okuması gereken cinsten olduğu kanısındayım. Birinci bölüm The Legal Perspective iki anabaşlıktan oluşuyor, The Criminal legal perspective Honour Judje Martin Stephens tarafından yazılmış,bilirkişi olarak görev yapabilmek için belgelenmiş bir eğitim olması gerektiği, mahkemelerde ya da yazılı raporlarda verilebilecek görüşlerin incelikleri tartışılmış. Bu bölümün ikinci anabaşlığı The civil legal perspective avukat Jennifer Cummin tarafından yazılmış. Toplum gözünde bilirkişinin anlamı ve mahkemenin bilirkişi görüşünü değişmez bilimsel doğru gibi algılayarak düştüğü bilimsel yanılgı ve raporlardaki kavram farkı dile getirilmiş. İkinci Bölüm The Medical And Scientific Perspective başlığı altında Roger C Evans MD Clinical evidence başlığında toplumun hasta tedavisi ve bilirkişilik hizmetinden beklentilerinin unrealistik olduğu ve

  4. Limits of Evidence within EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Pocora


    Full Text Available The issue of admissibility of evidence has been regulated only very scarcely in the EU. Judicial cooperation in criminal matters has been embracing the increasing number of instruments, covering plethora of aspects, however, the field of admissibility of evidence remains almost untouched. Can the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice be called the Common Evidence Area? From the national perspective, the issue of admissibility of evidence is still subject to divergent solutions in the Member States, concerning the common law and continental law systems, i.e. the right of access to a lawyer. Thus, the paper aims to take into account the tendencies of legal rule in matter of admissibility of evidence, the dynamic of evidence movement within EU area.

  5. Evidence-Based Medicine: Rhinoplasty. (United States)

    Lee, Matthew K; Most, Sam P


    Evidence-based medicine has become increasingly prominent in the climate of modern day healthcare. The practice of evidence-based medicine involves the integration of the best available evidence with clinical experience and expertise to help guide clinical decision-making. The essential tenets of evidence-based medicine can be applied to both functional and aesthetic rhinoplasty. Current outcome measures in functional and aesthetic rhinoplasty, including objective, subjective, and clinician-reported measures, is summarized and the current data is reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evidence-based clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garattini, Silvio; Jakobsen, Janus C; Wetterslev, Jørn


    Using the best quality of clinical research evidence is essential for choosing the right treatment for patients. How to identify the best research evidence is, however, difficult. In this narrative review we summarise these threats and describe how to minimise them. Pertinent literature was consi......Using the best quality of clinical research evidence is essential for choosing the right treatment for patients. How to identify the best research evidence is, however, difficult. In this narrative review we summarise these threats and describe how to minimise them. Pertinent literature...

  7. Evidence-based medicine, meer dan evidence alleen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortekaas, Marlous|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357299817; Bartelink, Marie Louise|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/100449069


    Aan de praktijk van evidence-based medicine (EBM) besteden we in de huisartsopleiding te weinig aandacht. Iedere huisarts die de adviezen uit een NHG-Standaard volgt, of ervan afwijkt, doet aan EBM: het wegen van beschikbare evidence met de eigen ervaring en met de voorkeuren van de patiënt.

  8. Evidence Searching for Evidence-based Psychology Practice (United States)

    Falzon, Louise; Davidson, Karina W.; Bruns, Daniel


    There is an increased awareness of evidence-based methodology among psychologists, but little exists in the literature about how to access the research. Moreover, the prohibitive cost of this information combined with limited time are barriers to the identification of evidence to answer clinical questions. This article presents an example of a question worked though in an evidence-based way. Methods are highlighted, including distinguishing background and foreground questions, breaking down questions into searchable statements, and adapting statements to suit both the question being asked and the resource being searched. A number of free, evidence-based resources are listed. Knowing how and where to access this information will enable practitioners to more easily use an evidence-based approach to their practice. PMID:21503266

  9. From Evidence Based Medicine to Medicine Based Evidence. (United States)

    Horwitz, Ralph I; Hayes-Conroy, Allison; Caricchio, Roberto; Singer, Burton H


    Evidence based medicine, using randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses as the major tools and sources of evidence about average results for heterogeneous groups of patients, developed as a reaction against poorly designed observational treatment research and physician reliance on personal experience with other patients as a guide to decision-making about a patient at hand. However, these tools do not answer the clinician's question: "Will a given therapeutic regimen help my patient at a given point in her/his clinical course?" We introduce fine-grained profiling of the patient at hand, accompanied by comparative evidence of responses from approximate matches to this patient on whom a contemplated treatment has/has not been administered. This represents medicine based evidence that is tuned to decision-making for the particular patient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Standardized description of scientific evidence using the Evidence Ontology (ECO). (United States)

    Chibucos, Marcus C; Mungall, Christopher J; Balakrishnan, Rama; Christie, Karen R; Huntley, Rachael P; White, Owen; Blake, Judith A; Lewis, Suzanna E; Giglio, Michelle


    The Evidence Ontology (ECO) is a structured, controlled vocabulary for capturing evidence in biological research. ECO includes diverse terms for categorizing evidence that supports annotation assertions including experimental types, computational methods, author statements and curator inferences. Using ECO, annotation assertions can be distinguished according to the evidence they are based on such as those made by curators versus those automatically computed or those made via high-throughput data review versus single test experiments. Originally created for capturing evidence associated with Gene Ontology annotations, ECO is now used in other capacities by many additional annotation resources including UniProt, Mouse Genome Informatics, Saccharomyces Genome Database, PomBase, the Protein Information Resource and others. Information on the development and use of ECO can be found at The ontology is freely available under Creative Commons license (CC BY-SA 3.0), and can be downloaded in both Open Biological Ontologies and Web Ontology Language formats at Also at this site is a tracker for user submission of term requests and questions. ECO remains under active development in response to user-requested terms and in collaborations with other ontologies and database resources. Database URL: Evidence Ontology Web site: © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. Dynamical evidence for Planet X (United States)

    Anderson, John D.; Standish, E. Myles, Jr.


    The dynamical evidence for a planet beyond the orbit of Neptune is reviewed. Three years of radio tracking data from Pioneer 10 can be fit to the noise level with no evidence for unmodelled acceleration at a level higher than 5 x 10 to the -14th km/sq s. The evidence does not place severe limits on the Planet X model, but does place a firm limit of five earth masses on a hypothetical comet belt just beyond the orbit of Neptune.

  12. Evidence, politics, and technological change. (United States)

    Gelijns, Annetine C; Brown, Lawrence D; Magnell, Corey; Ronchi, Elettra; Moskowitz, Alan J


    In few fields of public policy are the use and cost of services so powerfully driven by technological change as they are in medicine. To manage technology, policy-makers have expanded their investment in evaluative research. This paper addresses three underexamined challenges in using evidence: those inherent in the dynamics of technological change itself; those inherent in the analytical enterprise; and the ways in which political factors shape the translation of evidence into policy decisions. The design of institutional arrangements and processes that seek to blend evidence with politics merit closer attention, and existing cross-national arrangements deserve careful study.

  13. Evidence-based playground design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refshauge, Anne Dahl; Stigsdotter, Ulrika K.; Lamm, Bettina


    This paper develops, explores and evaluates an evidence-based approach to playground design, with a public park playground (playlab Cph) in Copenhagen as a case study. In the increasingly urbanised world, park playgrounds are valuable places that support healthy child development by providing...... opportunities for play, nature exploration and sensory stimulation. As it is increasingly expected that designers base their decisions on research evidence, there is a need to develop approaches to facilitate this, which also applies to playground design. The design of PlayLab Cph was based on relevant evidence...

  14. Combining Evidence from Homologous Datasets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feng, Ao; Allan, James


    .... We argue that combining evidence from these "homologous" datasets can give us better representation of the original data, and our experiments show that a model combining all sources outperforms each...

  15. Gravitational Waves: The Evidence Mounts (United States)

    Wick, Gerald L.


    Reviews the work of Weber and his colleagues in their attempts at detecting extraterrestial gravitational waves. Coincidence events recorded by special detectors provide the evidence for the existence of gravitational waves. Bibliography. (LC)

  16. NASA 2010 Pharmacology Evidence Review (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan


    In 2008, the Institute of Medicine reviewed NASA's Human Research Program Evidence in assessing the Pharmacology risk identified in NASA's Human Research Program Requirements Document (PRD). Since this review there was a major reorganization of the Pharmacology discipline within the HRP, as well as a re-evaluation of the Pharmacology evidence. This panel is being asked to review the latest version of the Pharmacology Evidence Report. Specifically, this panel will: (1) Appraise the descriptions of the human health-related risk in the HRP PRD. (2) Assess the relevance and comprehensiveness of the evidence in identifying potential threats to long-term space missions. (3) Assess the associated gaps in knowledge and identify additional areas for research as necessary.

  17. Evidence accumulation for spatial reasoning (United States)

    Matsuyama, T.; Hwang, V. S. S.; Davis, L. S.


    The evidence accumulation proces of an image understanding system is described enabling the system to perform top-down(goal-oriented) picture processing as well as bottom-up verification of consistent spatial relations among objects.

  18. Evidence-based cancer imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinagare, Atul B.; Khorasani, Ramin [Dept. of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston (Korea, Republic of)


    With the advances in the field of oncology, imaging is increasingly used in the follow-up of cancer patients, leading to concerns about over-utilization. Therefore, it has become imperative to make imaging more evidence-based, efficient, cost-effective and equitable. This review explores the strategies and tools to make diagnostic imaging more evidence-based, mainly in the context of follow-up of cancer patients.

  19. Evidence Corner: Evidence-based Care for Malignant Wounds. (United States)

    Bolton, Laura


    Malignant fungating wounds occur in 5% to 10% of individuals with cancer.1 They arise "when malignant tumour cells infiltrate and erode through the skin."2 Guidelines for treating these malignant wounds (MW) often lack randomized, clinical trial (RCT) evidence supporting local wound care interventions that meet patients' physical or psychosocial needs or facilitate healing.3 The rarity of RCTs exploring healing of MWs likely results from their very low expectation of complete closure.1 Affected patients and their professional and family caregivers rate pain, infection, and odor management among the most important challenges in minimizing distress.4-6 Though a recently updated Cochrane review3 reminds us that evidence remains insufficient for firm conclusions supporting management of MW, it does cite 2 recent RCTs described herein7,8 that can serve as "current best evidence"9 to inform clinical decisions for alleviating some aspects of these patients' distress.

  20. From evidence-based to evidence-reflected practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    , cost-efficiency and measurable quality. Thus, today, evidence-based practice has become an expectation and fashion, often used to emphasize the grounding of practice in research based knowledge that provides measurable evidence for best practice. But at the same time, there is a growing distrust......“Knowledge” is of the utmost significance for professional practice and learning. Today, though, the established knowledge base is changing in all areas of the labour market (Alvesson, 2004). Work and society are dominated by commitment to demands for high levels of demonstrable accountability...

  1. Evidence-based management reconsidered. (United States)

    Kovner, Anthony R; Rundall, Thomas G


    Reports of medical mistakes have splashed across newspapers and magazines in the United States. At the same time, instances of overuse, underuse, and misuse of management tactics and strategies receive far less attention. The sense of urgency associated with improving the quality of medical care does not exist with respect to improving the quality of management decision making. A more evidence-based approach would improve the competence of the decision-makers and their motivation to use more scientific methods when making a decision. The authors of this article consider a study of 68 U.S. health services managers that found a low level of evidence-based management behaviors. From the findings, four strategies are suggested to increase health systems managers' use of research evidence to improve decision making: focusing evidence-based decision making on strategically important issues, developing committees and other structures to diffuse management research throughout the organization, building a management culture that values research, and training managers in the competencies required to apply research evidence to health services management decisions. To aid the manager in understanding and applying an evidenced-based approach to decision making, the article provides practical tools, techniques, and resources for immediate use.

  2. 20 CFR 220.12 - Evidence considered. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence considered. 220.12 Section 220.12... § 220.12 Evidence considered. The regulations explaining the employee's responsibility to provide evidence of disability, the kind of evidence, what medical evidence consists of, and the consequences of...

  3. 42 CFR 498.61 - Evidence. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 498.61 Section 498.61 Public Health... PROGRAM Hearings § 498.61 Evidence. Evidence may be received at the hearing even though inadmissible under the rules of evidence applicable to court procedure. The ALJ rules on the admissibility of evidence. ...

  4. 42 CFR 423.1048 - Evidence. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 423.1048 Section 423.1048 Public Health....1048 Evidence. Evidence may be received at the hearing even though inadmissible under the rules of evidence applicable to court procedure. The ALJ rules on the admissibility of evidence. ...

  5. The two faces of medical evidence. (United States)

    Adler, Rolf H; von Uexküll, Thure; Herrmann, Jörg M


    The dictionary definition of "evidence" is given. The meaning of evidence in the history of science is described. Clinical examples are presented to illustrate different aspects of evidence, i.e. the mechanistic versus the semiotic points of view. Evidence is explained in the light of constructivism, and suggestions are presented as to how evidence can be applied in a biopsychosocial model of medicine.

  6. Evidence in the learning organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umscheid Craig A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organizational leaders in business and medicine have been experiencing a similar dilemma: how to ensure that their organizational members are adopting work innovations in a timely fashion. Organizational leaders in healthcare have attempted to resolve this dilemma by offering specific solutions, such as evidence-based medicine (EBM, but organizations are still not systematically adopting evidence-based practice innovations as rapidly as expected by policy-makers (the knowing-doing gap problem. Some business leaders have adopted a systems-based perspective, called the learning organization (LO, to address a similar dilemma. Three years ago, the Society of General Internal Medicine's Evidence-based Medicine Task Force began an inquiry to integrate the EBM and LO concepts into one model to address the knowing-doing gap problem. Methods During the model development process, the authors searched several databases for relevant LO frameworks and their related concepts by using a broad search strategy. To identify the key LO frameworks and consolidate them into one model, the authors used consensus-based decision-making and a narrative thematic synthesis guided by several qualitative criteria. The authors subjected the model to external, independent review and improved upon its design with this feedback. Results The authors found seven LO frameworks particularly relevant to evidence-based practice innovations in organizations. The authors describe their interpretations of these frameworks for healthcare organizations, the process they used to integrate the LO frameworks with EBM principles, and the resulting Evidence in the Learning Organization (ELO model. They also provide a health organization scenario to illustrate ELO concepts in application. Conclusion The authors intend, by sharing the LO frameworks and the ELO model, to help organizations identify their capacities to learn and share knowledge about evidence-based practice

  7. 7 CFR 15.117 - Evidence. (United States)


    ... and Administrative Review Under the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Hearing Procedures § 15.117 Evidence... evidence shall not apply but rules or principles designed to assure the most credible evidence available...

  8. The Comprehension Hypothesis: Recent Evidence. (United States)

    Krashen, Stephen


    Research published in recent years that deals with the Comprehension (Input) Hypothesis is reviewed, and evidence supporting the hypothesis is underlined. The research is from the areas of literacy development, second-language learning, and foreign-language learning and confirms the claim that development of language and literacy operate in much…

  9. The evidence for Allee effects (United States)

    Andrew M. Kramer; Brian Dennis; Andrew M. Liebhold; John M. Drake


    Allee effects are an important dynamic phenomenon believed to be manifested in several population processes, notably extinction and invasion. Though widely cited in these contexts, the evidence for their strength and prevalence has not been critically evaluated. We review results from 91 studies on Allee effects in natural animal populations. We focus on empirical...

  10. Learned Helplessness: Theory and Evidence (United States)

    Maier, Steven F.; Seligman, Martin E. P.


    Authors believes that three phenomena are all instances of "learned helplessness," instances in which an organism has learned that outcomes are uncontrollable by his responses and is seriously debilitated by this knowledge. This article explores the evidence for the phenomena of learned helplessness, and discussed a variety of theoretical…

  11. Physical evidence for dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scranton, Ryan; Connolly, Andrew J.; Nichol, Robert C.; Stebbins, Albert; Szapudi, Istvan; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Afshordi, Niayesh; Budavari, Tamas; Csabai, Istvan; Frieman, Joshua A.; Gunn, James E.; Johnston, David; Loh, Yeong-Shang; Lupton, Robert H.; Miller, Christopher J.; Sheldon, Erin Scott; Sheth, Ravi K.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Tegmark, Max; Xu, Yongzhong; Anderson, Scott F.; /Pittsburgh U. /Carnegie Mellon U. /Fermilab /Inst. Astron., Honolulu /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ. /Princeton U.


    The authors present measurements of the angular cross-correlation between luminous red galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the cosmic microwave background temperature maps from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. They find a statistically significant achromatic positive correlation between these two data sets, which is consistent with the expected signal from the late Integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect. they do not detect any anti-correlation on small angular scales as would be produced from a large Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect, although they do see evidence for some SZ effect for their highest redshift samples. Assuming a flat universe, their preliminary detection of the ISW effect provides independent physical evidence for the existence of dark energy.

  12. Evidence, Ethics & Social Policy Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven I. Miller


    Full Text Available Within the philosophy of the social sciences, the relationship between evidence, ethics, and social policy is in need of further analysis. The present paper is an attempt to argue that while important social policies can, and perhaps ought to be, grounded in ethical theory, they are seldom articulated in this fashion due to the ambiguity surrounding the "evidence condition." Using a consequentialist-utilitarian framework, and a case study of a policy dilemma, the authors analyze the difficulties associated with resolving policy-based dilemmas which must appeal to evidential support as a justification for an ethical stand. Implication for the relevance of ethics to social policy formulation are discussed in detail.

  13. Experimental Evidence on Transfer Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Quoc H.


    Full Text Available We use incentivized economics experiments to test both the point predictions and comparative static predictions of optimal transfer pricing models, comparing behavior under varying conditions, including wholly versus partially-owned subsidiaries and different tariff and tax rates. As predicted, we find that transfer prices are responsive to relative tax and tariff rates as well as ownership proportions. Additionally, we examine convergence and learning in this setting. While individuals do not choose optimal transfer prices, their choices converge to optimal levels with experience. This paper thus makes two important contributions. First, by comparing behavior with theoretical predictions it provides evidence of whether (and when individuals set transfer prices optimally. Second, by comparing behavior under conditions of full and partial ownership it provides evidence on the impact of policy interventions (like regulating ownership proportions by MNEs on tax revenues.

  14. Breastfeeding promotion: evidence and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bellù


    Full Text Available Although breastfeeding is associated with many health benefits in children and mothers, and World Health Organization (WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age and continued breastfeeding until 2 years of age, overall breastfeeding rates remain low. Italian rates of exclusive breastfeeding do not differ from international data. The aim of this review is to evaluate evidence of breastfeeding promotion interventions and the remaining problems to achieve them. We found that breastfeeding support is a complex system of interventions, including individual, structural and environmental factors. Many systematic reviews report evidence that breastfeeding support offered to women increases duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding, both in full term healthy newborns and in preterm infants. Political and economic efforts should be made to ensure breastfeeding support to all women in the different settings, assuming it as a collective target.

  15. Clean Evidence on Peer Pressure


    Falk, Armin; Ichino, Andrea


    While confounding factors typically jeopardize the possibility of using observational data to measure peer effects, field experiments over the potential for obtaining clean evidence. In this paper we measure the output of subjects who were asked to stuff letters into envelopes, with a remuneration completely independent of output. We study two treatments. In the 'pair' treatment two subjects work at the same time in the same room. Peer effects are possible in this situation and imply that out...

  16. A Technique: Examining the Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU


    Full Text Available Introduction: Cognitive therapy is based on the realistic epistemology which exerts that there is an objective reality beyond human experience. Cognitive models of psychopathology stipulate that the processing of external event or internal stimuli is biased and therefore systematically distorts the individual’s construction of his or her experiences, leading to a variety of cognitive errors. These distorted cognitions predispose or perpetuates mental disorders. If this bias that is also manifested in the automatic thoughts during specific instances can be attenuated by weakening the belief in these thoughts, it may lead into change in the accompanying emotion and dysfunctional behaviour. Objective: The aim of this review is to describe the basic technique of cognitive therapy namely “examining the evidence” and also present the clinical application of this technique. In order to perform this technique, first situation must be detailed. Then assessed emotion is graded according to its severity. After that, key automatic thought must be identified and phrased accordingly. After grading belief in the thought, evidence for and against the thought can be generated using appropriate questioning. In the end by using this evidence, the belief in the automatic thought and the emotion must be reviewed. Examining the evidence can also be used as a homework assignment to be done between sessions. In this text, steps of examining the evidence, which questions to be asked, and the points that must be attendant is reviewed and a sample interview is included. Conclusion: By its empirical nature “examining the evidence” is the most valuable technique of cognitive therapy and when it is applied properly long lasting change can occur in clients

  17. Ingratiation and Favoritism: Experimental Evidence


    Robin, Stéphane; Rusinowska, Agnieszka; Villeval, Marie Claire


    URL des Documents de travail :; Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 2012.32 - ISSN : 1955-611X; We provide experimental evidence of worker's ingratiation by opinion conformity and of managers' discrimination in favor of workers with whom they share similar opinions. In our Baseline, managers can observe both workers' performance at a task and opinions before assigning unequal payoffs. In the Ingrat...

  18. Indicators of Evidence for Bioequivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Morgenthaler


    Full Text Available Some equivalence tests are based on two one-sided tests, where in many applications the test statistics are approximately normal. We define and find evidence for equivalence in Z-tests and then one- and two-sample binomial tests as well as for t-tests. Multivariate equivalence tests are typically based on statistics with non-central chi-squared or non-central F distributions in which the non-centrality parameter λ is a measure of heterogeneity of several groups. Classical tests of the null λ ≥ λ 0 versus the equivalence alternative λ < λ 0 are available, but simple formulae for power functions are not. In these tests, the equivalence limit λ 0 is typically chosen by context. We provide extensions of classical variance stabilizing transformations for the non-central chi-squared and F distributions that are easy to implement and which lead to indicators of evidence for equivalence. Approximate power functions are also obtained via simple expressions for the expected evidence in these equivalence tests.

  19. Evidence for glaciation in Elysium (United States)

    Anderson, Duwayne M.


    Evidence for the existence of permafrost and the surface modification due to frost effects and the presence of ice on Mars dates from early observations. Later analysis of the Viking Orbiter imagery produced evidence suggesting the former presence of ice sheets that could have played a part in shaping the surface of Mars. Similarities were pointed out between a number of streamlined Martian channel features and similar streamlined landforms created by Antarctic ice sheet movement. A study of Viking Orbiter imagery of Granicus Valles and the surrounding terrain in Elysium has produced further evidence of glaciation on Mars. Volcanism has played an important role in developing the landscapes of the Elysium region. A possible explanation is that subsidence occurred during formation of the Martian moberg ridges due to the melting of ground ice near the eruption area while at a distance most of the ground ice in the permafrost is still present and the original elevation was preserved. Meltwater during and following eruptions might be suddenly released during subglacial volcanism into Granicus Valles in one case and into Hrad Valles in the other. Fluvial erosion thus could have played a role in shaping both.

  20. Evidence-Based Practice and School Nursing (United States)

    Adams, Susan; McCarthy, Ann Marie


    School nurses need to demonstrate that their practice is based on the best evidence available, which is usually data obtained from research. Evidence-based practice involves combining the best evidence available with nursing expertise and patient and family preferences to determine optimum care. Evidence-based practice guidelines are developed by…

  1. Best Available Evidence: Three Complementary Approaches (United States)

    Slocum, Timothy A.; Spencer, Trina D.; Detrich, Ronnie


    The best available evidence is one of the three critical features of evidence-based practice. Best available evidence is often considered to be synonymous with extremely high standards for research methodology. However, this notion may limit the scope and impact of evidence based practice to those educational decisions on which high quality…

  2. 49 CFR 821.38 - Evidence. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 821.38 Section 821.38 Transportation... PRACTICE IN AIR SAFETY PROCEEDINGS Hearing § 821.38 Evidence. Each party shall have the right to present a case-in-chief, or defense, by oral and documentary evidence, to submit evidence in rebuttal, and to...

  3. 46 CFR 502.156 - Evidence admissible. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence admissible. 502.156 Section 502.156 Shipping...; Presiding Officers; Evidence § 502.156 Evidence admissible. In any proceeding under the rules in this part, all evidence which is relevant, material, reliable and probative, and not unduly repetitious or...

  4. 17 CFR 201.320 - Evidence: Admissibility. (United States)


    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence: Admissibility. 201... PRACTICE Rules of Practice Rules Regarding Hearings § 201.320 Evidence: Admissibility. The Commission or the hearing officer may receive relevant evidence and shall exclude all evidence that is irrelevant...

  5. 42 CFR 422.678 - Evidence. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 422.678 Section 422.678 Public Health... PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Medicare Contract Determinations and Appeals § 422.678 Evidence. The hearing officer rules on the admissibility of evidence and may admit evidence that would be inadmissible...

  6. 42 CFR 423.659 - Evidence. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 423.659 Section 423.659 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE....659 Evidence. The hearing officer rules on the admissibility of evidence and may admit evidence that...

  7. 10 CFR 13.34 - Evidence. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 13.34 Section 13.34 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ shall not be bound by the Federal Rules of Evidence...

  8. 34 CFR 81.15 - Evidence. (United States)


    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 81.15 Section 81.15 Education Office of the... Evidence. (a) The Federal Rules of Evidence do not apply to proceedings under this part. However, the ALJ accepts only evidence that is— (1) Relevant; (2) Material; (3) Not unduly repetitious; and (4) Not...

  9. 22 CFR 18.16 - Evidence. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence. 18.16 Section 18.16 Foreign Relations... Enforcement Proceedings § 18.16 Evidence. The rules of evidence prevailing in courts of law and equity are not controlling in hearings under this part. However, the hearing examiner shall exclude evidence which is...

  10. 46 CFR 201.136 - Evidence admissible. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence admissible. 201.136 Section 201.136 Shipping... PROCEDURE Evidence (Rule 14) § 201.136 Evidence admissible. In any proceeding under the regulations in this part all evidence which is relevant, material, reliable and probative, and not unduly repetitious or...

  11. 42 CFR 422.1048 - Evidence. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 422.1048 Section 422.1048 Public Health... PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Appeal procedures for Civil Money Penalties § 422.1048 Evidence. Evidence may be received at the hearing even though inadmissible under the rules of evidence applicable to...

  12. 14 CFR 13.222 - Evidence. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 13.222 Section 13.222 Aeronautics... AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice in FAA Civil Penalty Actions § 13.222 Evidence. (a... evidence, to submit rebuttal evidence, and to conduct any cross-examination that may be required for a full...

  13. 29 CFR 1603.214 - Evidence. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 1603.214 Section 1603.214 Labor Regulations... GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEE RIGHTS ACT OF 1991 Hearings § 1603.214 Evidence. The administrative law judge shall accept relevant non-privileged evidence in accordance with the Federal Rules of Evidence (28 U.S.C...

  14. 24 CFR 180.620 - Evidence. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence. 180.620 Section 180.620 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development OFFICE OF ASSISTANT... Evidence. The Federal Rules of Evidence apply to the presentation of evidence in hearings under this part. ...

  15. 5 CFR 831.1109 - Evidence. (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 831.1109 Section 831.1109...) RETIREMENT Prohibition on Payments of Annuities § 831.1109 Evidence. (a) Rules of evidence are not strictly applied, but the presiding officer shall exclude irrelevant or unduly repetitious evidence. (b) Each...

  16. 40 CFR 27.34 - Evidence. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 27.34 Section 27.34... Evidence. (a) The presiding officer shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the presiding officer shall not be bound by the Federal Rules of Evidence. However, the...

  17. 22 CFR 224.34 - Evidence. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence. 224.34 Section 224.34 Foreign....34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ shall not be bound by the Federal Rules of Evidence. However, the ALJ may apply the...

  18. The evidence base for diabetes care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, D. R. R. (David Robert Rhys)


    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ix 1. The Evidence Base for Diabetes Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rhys Williams, William Herman, Ann-Louise Kinmonth...

  19. Hearsay Evidence | Abebe | Mizan Law Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hearsay evidence is the submission of evidence by a person based on what s/he has heard from another person who has not appeared in court. This article examines the extent to which hearsay evidence is admissible in common law and civil law. The core theme addressed in this article is whether hearsay evidence ...

  20. Hard evidence on soft skills. (United States)

    Heckman, James J; Kautz, Tim


    This paper summarizes recent evidence on what achievement tests measure; how achievement tests relate to other measures of "cognitive ability" like IQ and grades; the important skills that achievement tests miss or mismeasure, and how much these skills matter in life. Achievement tests miss, or perhaps more accurately, do not adequately capture, soft skills-personality traits, goals, motivations, and preferences that are valued in the labor market, in school, and in many other domains. The larger message of this paper is that soft skills predict success in life, that they causally produce that success, and that programs that enhance soft skills have an important place in an effective portfolio of public policies.

  1. Leading teaming: Evidence from Jazz


    Araújo, Francisco Maria Trigo da Roza Carvalho


    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics In this research we conducted qualitative analysis to study the team dynamics of jazz combos in order to explore deeper the leadership behaviors in a creative environment where teaming occurs. We found evidence of a dual leader, one that shifts his/her role between ‘leader as leader’ and ‘leader as member’, embracing both leaderfulness an...

  2. Evidence for a nonplanar amplituhedron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bern, Zvi [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA,Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Herrmann, Enrico [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Litsey, Sean; Stankowicz, James [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA,Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Trnka, Jaroslav [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Center for Quantum Mathematics and Physics (QMAP),Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)


    The scattering amplitudes of planar N=4 super-Yang-Mills exhibit a number of remarkable analytic structures, including dual conformal symmetry and logarithmic singularities of integrands. The amplituhedron is a geometric construction of the integrand that incorporates these structures. This geometric construction further implies the amplitude is fully specified by constraining it to vanish on spurious residues. By writing the amplitude in a dlog basis, we provide nontrivial evidence that these analytic properties and “zero conditions” carry over into the nonplanar sector. This suggests that the concept of the amplituhedron can be extended to the nonplanar sector of N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory.

  3. Best evidence continuous medical education. (United States)

    Raza, Amer; Coomarasamy, Arri; Khan, Khalid S


    Health care professionals need to approach their profession with a view to life long learning. They need to develop a strategy to meet their learning needs in a reflective and effective manner. Continuous medical educational (CME) is the traditional tool for learning and updating knowledge. Most of them are in the forms of courses, conferences, journal clubs and workshops. They are mostly didactic sessions and evidence suggests that they are not effective to improve the clinical skills and attitude. Systematic review of teaching evidence-based medicine shows that interactive and clinically integrated learning is the most effective form of learning. It enhances knowledge and skills. Professionals should view CME in a holistic manner in the context of continuous professional development (CPD) and even in the wider concept of knowledge translation, which encompasses both CME and CPD. e Learning is one of the most important forms of non-traditional CME. It provides an efficient and increasingly interactive delivery system that can handle complex and layered information. More work needs to be done to see its effectiveness for practising clinicians.

  4. Authentication of digital video evidence (United States)

    Beser, Nicholas D.; Duerr, Thomas E.; Staisiunas, Gregory P.


    In response to a requirement from the United States Postal Inspection Service, the Technical Support Working Group tasked The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) to develop a technique tha will ensure the authenticity, or integrity, of digital video (DV). Verifiable integrity is needed if DV evidence is to withstand a challenge to its admissibility in court on the grounds that it can be easily edited. Specifically, the verification technique must detect additions, deletions, or modifications to DV and satisfy the two-part criteria pertaining to scientific evidence as articulated in Daubert et al. v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals Inc., 43 F3d (9th Circuit, 1995). JHU/APL has developed a prototype digital video authenticator (DVA) that generates digital signatures based on public key cryptography at the frame level of the DV. Signature generation and recording is accomplished at the same time as DV is recorded by the camcorder. Throughput supports the consumer-grade camcorder data rate of 25 Mbps. The DVA software is implemented on a commercial laptop computer, which is connected to a commercial digital camcorder via the IEEE-1394 serial interface. A security token provides agent identification and the interface to the public key infrastructure (PKI) that is needed for management of the public keys central to DV integrity verification.

  5. Saccharin/cyclamates: epidemiological evidence. (United States)

    Armstrong, B K


    Adequate data on the carcinogenicity of saccharin and cyclamate to humans are available only for the urinary bladder. In the studies available, exposure to saccharin and to cyclamate cannot be distinguished readily. Descriptive studies have shown no evidence of time trends in bladder cancer that can be related to use of saccharin or cyclamate. Likewise, studies of diabetics, who have used more saccharin and cyclamate than other people, have shown no evidence of an increased risk of bladder cancer. This association, however, is probably confounded negatively by cigarette smoking. Thirteen case-control studies have addressed the relationship of saccharin and cyclamate intake to bladder cancer in individuals. While statistically significant positive associations have been observed, a similar number of significant negative associations has also been observed. Studies of the dose-response relationships have also shown no consistent pattern. Studies of saccharin and cyclamate use with smoking habits have shown no consistent interaction with heavy smoking, as might be expected from a promotional effect. In some studies, however, an increased risk with saccharin and cyclamate use has been observed in female non-smokers--a group otherwise at low risk for bladder cancer.

  6. Digital forensics digital evidence in criminal investigations

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Angus McKenzie


    The vast majority of modern criminal investigations involve some element of digital evidence, from mobile phones, computers, CCTV and other devices. Digital Forensics: Digital Evidence in Criminal Investigations provides the reader with a better understanding of how digital evidence complements "traditional" scientific evidence and examines how it can be used more effectively and efficiently in a range of investigations. Taking a new approach to the topic, this book presents digital evidence as an adjunct to other types of evidence and discusses how it can be deployed effectively in s

  7. Organizing the Evidence for Healthcare Design Projects. (United States)

    Davidson, Judy E


    This methodology column provides project leaders with helpful tools to organize the evidence analysis for healthcare design projects. Searching the evidence to support a design change is encouraged both to guide the development of a project and to determine whether the project is performance improvement, evidence-based design change, or novel research. A project charter, evidence summary grid, stem and leaf plot, and decision algorithm are presented as tools to guide evidence analysis at the start of a healthcare design project. Properly searching the evidence and analyzing results sets the stage for project development and may lead to the dissemination or generation of knowledge from which to set design standards.

  8. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy: the evidence. (United States)

    Underwood, S R; Anagnostopoulos, C; Cerqueira, M; Ell, P J; Flint, E J; Harbinson, M; Kelion, A D; Al-Mohammad, A; Prvulovich, E M; Shaw, L J; Tweddel, A C


    This review summarises the evidence for the role of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. It is the product of a consensus conference organised by the British Cardiac Society, the British Nuclear Cardiology Society and the British Nuclear Medicine Society and is endorsed by the Royal College of Physicians of London and the Royal College of Radiologists. It was used to inform the UK National Institute of Clinical Excellence in their appraisal of MPS in patients with chest pain and myocardial infarction. MPS is a well-established, non-invasive imaging technique with a large body of evidence to support its effectiveness in the diagnosis and management of angina and myocardial infarction. It is more accurate than the exercise ECG in detecting myocardial ischaemia and it is the single most powerful technique for predicting future coronary events. The high diagnostic accuracy of MPS allows reliable risk stratification and guides the selection of patients for further interventions, such as revascularisation. This in turn allows more appropriate utilisation of resources, with the potential for both improved clinical outcomes and greater cost-effectiveness. Evidence from modelling and observational studies supports the enhanced cost-effectiveness associated with MPS use. In patients presenting with stable or acute chest pain, strategies of investigation involving MPS are more cost-effective than those not using the technique. MPS also has particular advantages over alternative techniques in the management of a number of patient subgroups, including women, the elderly and those with diabetes, and its use will have a favourable impact on cost-effectiveness in these groups. MPS is already an integral part of many clinical guidelines for the investigation and management of angina and myocardial infarction. However, the technique is underutilised in the UK, as judged by the inappropriately long waiting times and by

  9. Hard evidence on soft skills✩ (United States)

    Heckman, James J.; Kautz, Tim


    This paper summarizes recent evidence on what achievement tests measure; how achievement tests relate to other measures of “cognitive ability” like IQ and grades; the important skills that achievement tests miss or mismeasure, and how much these skills matter in life. Achievement tests miss, or perhaps more accurately, do not adequately capture, soft skills—personality traits, goals, motivations, and preferences that are valued in the labor market, in school, and in many other domains. The larger message of this paper is that soft skills predict success in life, that they causally produce that success, and that programs that enhance soft skills have an important place in an effective portfolio of public policies. PMID:23559694

  10. Evidence for Mycobacteria in Sarcoidosis (United States)

    Brownell, Isaac; Ramírez-Valle, Francisco; Sanchez, Miguel


    Despite its recognition as a distinct granulomatous disease for over a century, the etiology of sarcoidosis remains to be defined. Since the early 1900s, infectious agents have been suspected in causing sarcoidosis. For much of this time, mycobacteria were considered a likely culprit, yet until recently, the supporting evidence has been tenuous at best. In this review, we evaluate the reported association between mycobacteria and sarcoidosis. Historically, mycobacterial infection has been investigated using histologic stains, cultures of lesional tissue or blood, and identification of bacterial nucleic acids or bacterial antigens. More recently, advances in biochemical, molecular, and immunological methods have produced a more rigorous analysis of the antigenic drivers of sarcoidosis. The result of these efforts indicates that mycobacterial products likely play a role in at least a subset of sarcoidosis cases. This information, coupled with a better understanding of genetic susceptibility to this complex disease, has therapeutic implications. PMID:21659662

  11. Innovation Promises and Evidence Realities. (United States)

    Maschke, Karen J


    Over the past year media outlets and scientific and bioethics journals have reported about several medical and scientific innovations touted as having the potential to fundamentally change not only how diseases and disorders are diagnosed and treated but even how to alter the genomes of future generations. The purported "miracle" blood-testing technology of Theranos and the potential use of the genome editing technology CRISPR-Cas9 to modify human and nonhuman organisms reflect dramatic advances in scientific understanding about the biological mechanisms of humans and other living organisms. Yet evidence about whether these and other innovative biomedical technologies are safe and effective and lead to improved health outcomes for patients young and old is often in dispute. How to assess the safety and effectiveness of innovative biomedical technologies, who should be involved in that effort, and how to define risks and benefits of those technologies are questions at the intersection of values, interests, and politics. © 2016 The Hastings Center.

  12. Evidence-based Science Communication (United States)

    Kahan, D.


    This presentation will describe a concrete strategy for bridging the gap between the *science* of science communication and the practice of it. In recent years, social scientists have made substantial progress in identifying the psychological influences that shape public receptivity to scientific information relating to climate change and other public policy issues. That work, however, has consisted nearly entirely of laboratory experiments and public opinion surveys; these methods identify general mechanisms of information processing but do not yield concrete prescriptions for communication in field settings. In order to integrate the findings of the science of science communication with the practice of it, field communication must now be made into a meaningful site of science communication research. "Evidence-based science communication" will involve collaborative work between social scientists and practitioners aimed at formulating and testing scientifically informed communication strategies in real-world contexts.

  13. Further evidence for mixed emotions. (United States)

    Larsen, Jeff T; McGraw, A Peter


    Emotion theorists have long debated whether valence, which ranges from pleasant to unpleasant states, is an irreducible aspect of the experience of emotion or whether positivity and negativity are separable in experience. If valence is irreducible, it follows that people cannot feel happy and sad at the same time. Conversely, if positivity and negativity are separable, people may be able to experience such mixed emotions. The authors tested several alternative interpretations for prior evidence that happiness and sadness can co-occur in bittersweet situations (i.e., those containing both pleasant and unpleasant aspects). One possibility is that subjects who reported mixed emotions merely vacillated between happiness and sadness. The authors tested this hypothesis in Studies 1-3 by asking subjects to complete online continuous measures of happiness and sadness. Subjects reported more simultaneously mixed emotions during a bittersweet film clip than during a control clip. Another possibility is that subjects in earlier studies reported mixed emotions only because they were explicitly asked whether they felt happy and sad. The authors tested this hypothesis in Studies 4-6 with open-ended measures of emotion. Subjects were more likely to report mixed emotions after the bittersweet clip than the control clip. Both patterns occurred even when subjects were told that they were not expected to report mixed emotions (Studies 2 and 5) and among subjects who did not previously believe that people could simultaneously feel happy and sad (Studies 3 and 6). These results provide further evidence that positivity and negativity are separable in experience. 2011 APA, all rights reserved


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo García Rillo


    Full Text Available In order to make the term analytical evidence to reveal the original meaning of its application to account for hermeneutical situations in the world of life, the study was conducted from philosophical hermeneutics stating the following: viewpoint, understanding horizon and fusion of horizons. In the viewpoint uses of evidence are described. The horizon of understanding traces the history of the concept of evidence highlighting the perspective of Husserl. In the fusion of horizons evidence described in three levels of reality: perceived (evidence from beliefs, known (evidence from knowledge and constructed (deliberative evidence. We conclude that the historicity of the world allows rehabilitate the tradition and gives meaning to the evidence as the fact that it gets in the eyes through the original experience of hermeneutics situation that exists in practice.

  15. Science and evidence: separating fact from fiction. (United States)

    Hess, Dean R


    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is the integration of individual clinical expertise with the best available research evidence from systematic research and the patient's values and expectations. A hierarchy of evidence can be used to assess the strength upon which clinical decisions are made. The efficient approach to finding the best evidence is to identify systematic reviews or evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Respiratory therapies that evidence supports include noninvasive ventilation for appropriately selected patients, lung-protective ventilation, and ventilator discontinuation protocols. Evidence does not support use of weaning parameters, albuterol for ARDS, and high frequency oscillatory ventilation for adults. Therapy with equivocal evidence includes airway clearance, selection of an aerosol delivery device, and PEEP for ARDS. Although all tenets of EBM are not universally accepted, the principles of EBM nonetheless provide a valuable approach to respiratory care practice.

  16. Evidence-based periodontal therapy: An overview (United States)

    Vijayalakshmi, R.; Anitha, V.; Ramakrishnan, T.; Sudhakar, Uma


    Dentists need to make clinical decisions based on limited scientific evidence. In clinical practice, a clinician must weigh a myriad of evidences every day. The goal of evidence-based dentistry is to help practitioners provide their patients with optimal care. This is achieved by integrating sound research evidence with personal clinical expertise and patient values to determine the best course of treatment. Periodontology has a rich background of research and scholarship. Therefore, efficient use of this wealth of research data needs to be a part of periodontal practice. Evidence-based periodontology aims to facilitate such an approach and it offers a bridge from science to clinical practice. The clinician must integrate the evidence with patient preference, scientific knowledge, and personal experience. Most important, it allows us to care for our patients. Therefore, evidence-based periodontology is a tool to support decision-making and integrating the best evidence available with clinical practice. PMID:20142947

  17. Evaluating the authenticity of smartphone evidence

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pieterse, Heloise


    Full Text Available The widespread use and rich functionality of smartphones have made them valuable sources of digital evidence. Malicious individuals are becoming aware of the importance of digital evidence found on smartphones and may be interested in deploying anti...

  18. Design of smartphone evidence awareness (SEAWARE) training

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlamini, Zama I


    Full Text Available This study focuses on the Smartphone Evidence Awareness skills of smartphone users with regard to collecting, preserving and handling such data. This paper presents the smartphone evidence awareness training program. This training program...

  19. What is the evidence based public health?


    Hernández F., Luis J.


    Evidence based Public Health is the execution and evaluation of the efficiency of interventions, plans, programs, projects and politics in public health through the application of the scientific principles of reasoning, including the systematic use of information and information systems. Evidence based public health involves the use of methodologies similar to those applied in evidence-based clinical medicine, but differs in its contents. In public health two types of evidence are described. ...

  20. Evidence and evidence gaps of laryngeal cancer surgery (United States)

    Wiegand, Susanne


    Surgical treatment of laryngeal cancer has been established for decades. In addition to total laryngectomy, which was first performed in 1873, a large number or organ preservation surgical techniques, like open partial laryngectomy, transoral laser microsurgery, and transoral robotic surgery have been developed. Studies on laryngeal cancer surgery are mainly retrospective case series and cohort studies. The evolution of chemoradiation protocols and their analysis in prospective randomized trials have led to an increasing acceptance of non-surgical treatment procedures. In addition to an improvement of prognosis, in recent years the preservation of function and maintenance of life quality after primary therapy of laryngeal cancer has increasingly become the focus of therapy planning. Significant late toxicity after chemoradiation has been identified as an important issue. This leads to a reassessment of surgical concepts and initiation of studies on laryngeal cancer surgery which was additionally stimulated by the advent of transoral robotic surgery in the US. Improving the evidence base of laryngeal cancer surgery by successful establishment of surgical trials should be the future goal. PMID:28025603

  1. Evidence-Based Reform in Education (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.


    Education policies should support the use of programs and practices with strong evidence of effectiveness. The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) contains evidence standards and incentives to use programs that meet them. This provides a great opportunity for evidence to play a stronger role in decisions about education programs and practices.…

  2. Using Science as Evidence in Public Policy (United States)

    Prewitt, Kenneth, Ed.; Schwandt, Thomas A., Ed.; Straf, Miron L., Ed.


    "Using Science as Evidence in Public Policy" encourages scientists to think differently about the use of scientific evidence in policy making. This report investigates why scientific evidence is important to policy making and argues that an extensive body of research on knowledge utilization has not led to any widely accepted explanation…

  3. 45 CFR 81.78 - Evidence. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 81.78 Section 81.78 Public Welfare... 80 OF THIS TITLE Hearing Procedures § 81.78 Evidence. Irrelevant, immaterial, unreliable, and unduly repetitious evidence will be excluded. ...

  4. Critical Dispositions: Evidence and Expertise in Education (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Greg


    Set against the current proliferation of global "difference" and economic realignment, "Critical Dispositions" explores the notions of "evidence" and "expertise" in times of material scarcity. Both have come to the forefront of national and international debate in education as "evidence" and "evidence-based" research and pedagogical practices…

  5. Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2006


    The evidence-based practice movement has become an important feature of health care systems and health care policy. Within this context, the APA 2005 Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice defines and discusses evidence-based practice in psychology (EBPP). In an integration of science and practice, the Task Force's report describes…

  6. [Evidence-based TEP technique]. (United States)

    Köckerling, F


    The guidelines of all international hernia societies recommend as procedures of choice the laparoendoscopic techniques total extraperitoneal patch plasty (TEP) and transabdominal preperitoneal patch plasty (TAPP) as well as the open Lichtenstein operation for elective inguinal hernia repair. The learning curve associated with the laparoendoscopic techniques, in particular TEP, is longer than that for the open Lichtenstein technique due to the complexity of the procedures. Accordingly, for laparoendoscopic techniques it is particularly important that the operations are conducted in a standardized manner in compliance with the evidence-based recommendations given for the technical details. When procedures are carried out in strict compliance with the guidelines of the international hernia societies, low rates of perioperative complications, complication-related reoperations, recurrences and chronic pain can be expected for TEP. Compliance with the guidelines can also positively impact mastery of the learning curve for TEP. The technical guidelines on TEP are based on study results and on the experiences of numerous experts; therefore, it is imperative that they are implemented in routine surgical practice.

  7. Museums? Evidence from two Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azilah Kasim


    Full Text Available This paper provides evidence on Young Adults’ motivations for visiting and not visiting museums. Using purposive sampling, self-administered questionnaires were distributed to respondents in Kedah, Malaysia and Eskisehir, Turkey. Both Kedah and Eskisehir share one similarity – they both have many museums. The findings revealed that in both study contexts, young people tended to visit museums for practical reasons such as to help them prepare homework or a project. They also visit for intrinsic reasons such as to satisfy their curiosity. Both samples also illustrate Davies (2001 contention that awareness is an important precursor to potential visits. On the other hand, both samples are different in reasons for not visiting. While young people in Eskisehir cite emotional reasons for deciding not to visit, young people in Kedah offered more practical ones such as lack of time and interest, or more interested in other activities. The study findings are useful for understanding reasons behind the generally low museum visits among youth. Several managerial implications of the study were also proposed.

  8. Mercury and autism: accelerating evidence? (United States)

    Mutter, Joachim; Naumann, Johannes; Schneider, Rainer; Walach, Harald; Haley, Boyd


    The causes of autism and neurodevelopmental disorders are unknown. Genetic and environmental risk factors seem to be involved. Because of an observed increase in autism in the last decades, which parallels cumulative mercury exposure, it was proposed that autism may be in part caused by mercury. We review the evidence for this proposal. Several epidemiological studies failed to find a correlation between mercury exposure through thimerosal, a preservative used in vaccines, and the risk of autism. Recently, it was found that autistic children had a higher mercury exposure during pregnancy due to maternal dental amalgam and thimerosal-containing immunoglobulin shots. It was hypothesized that children with autism have a decreased detoxification capacity due to genetic polymorphism. In vitro, mercury and thimerosal in levels found several days after vaccination inhibit methionine synthetase (MS) by 50%. Normal function of MS is crucial in biochemical steps necessary for brain development, attention and production of glutathione, an important antioxidative and detoxifying agent. Repetitive doses of thimerosal leads to neurobehavioral deteriorations in autoimmune susceptible mice, increased oxidative stress and decreased intracellular levels of glutathione in vitro. Subsequently, autistic children have significantly decreased level of reduced glutathione. Promising treatments of autism involve detoxification of mercury, and supplementation of deficient metabolites.

  9. Evidence based practice readiness: A concept analysis. (United States)

    Schaefer, Jessica D; Welton, John M


    To analyse and define the concept "evidence based practice readiness" in nurses. Evidence based practice readiness is a term commonly used in health literature, but without a clear understanding of what readiness means. Concept analysis is needed to define the meaning of evidence based practice readiness. A concept analysis was conducted using Walker and Avant's method to clarify the defining attributes of evidence based practice readiness as well as antecedents and consequences. A Boolean search of PubMed and Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature was conducted and limited to those published after the year 2000. Eleven articles met the inclusion criteria for this analysis. Evidence based practice readiness incorporates personal and organisational readiness. Antecedents include the ability to recognize the need for evidence based practice, ability to access and interpret evidence based practice, and a supportive environment. The concept analysis demonstrates the complexity of the concept and its implications for nursing practice. The four pillars of evidence based practice readiness: nursing, training, equipping and leadership support are necessary to achieve evidence based practice readiness. Nurse managers are in the position to address all elements of evidence based practice readiness. Creating an environment that fosters evidence based practice can improve patient outcomes, decreased health care cost, increase nurses' job satisfaction and decrease nursing turnover. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Evidence-Based ACL Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available There is controversy in the literature regarding a number of topics related to anterior cruciate ligament (ACLreconstruction. The purpose of this article is to answer the following questions: 1 Bone patellar tendon bone (BPTB reconstruction or hamstring reconstruction (HR; 2 Double bundle or single bundle; 3 Allograft or authograft; 4 Early or late reconstruction; 5 Rate of return to sports after ACL reconstruction; 6 Rate of osteoarthritis after ACL reconstruction. A Cochrane Library and PubMed (MEDLINE search of systematic reviews and meta-analysis related to ACL reconstruction was performed. The key words were: ACL reconstruction, systematic reviews and meta-analysis. The main criteria for selection were that the articles were systematic reviews and meta-analysesfocused on the aforementioned questions. Sixty-nine articles were found, but only 26 were selected and reviewed because they had a high grade (I-II of evidence. BPTB-R was associated with better postoperative knee stability but with a higher rate of morbidity. However, the results of both procedures in terms of functional outcome in the long-term were similar. The double-bundle ACL reconstruction technique showed better outcomes in rotational laxity, although functional recovery was similar between single-bundle and double-bundle. Autograft yielded better results than allograft. There was no difference between early and delayed reconstruction. 82% of patients were able to return to some kind of sport participation. 28% of patients presented radiological signs of osteoarthritis with a follow-up of minimum 10 years.

  11. Expert Evidence and International Criminal Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appazov, Artur

    The book is a comprehensive narration of the use of expertise in international criminal trials offering reflection on standards concerning the quality and presentation of expert evidence. It analyzes and critiques the rules governing expert evidence in international criminal trials...... and the strategies employed by counsel and courts relying upon expert evidence and challenges that courts face determining its reliability. In particular, the author considers how the procedural and evidentiary architecture of international criminal courts and tribunals influences the courts' ability to meaningfully...... incorporate expert evidence into the rational fact-finding process. The book provides analysis of the unique properties of expert evidence as compared with other forms of evidence and the challenges that these properties present for fact-finding in international criminal trials. It draws conclusions about...

  12. Evidence-Based Dentistry in Everyday Practice. (United States)

    Gudray, Kiran; Walmsley, Anthony Damien


    This article informs readers of a method of implementing evidence-based dentistry in practice. Following these steps, practitioners should be able to use this skill in an efficient manner. The importance of evidence-based dentistry and its relevance to situations encountered in everyday practice is also highlighted. Clinical relevance: This article highlights a series of steps to be followed by practitioners to ensure that treatment provided is supported by the most recent, good quality evidence.

  13. Case studies and evidence based nutrition. (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L


    The clinical nutrition case study is a neglected area of activity and publication. This may be in part because it is not regarded as a serious contributor to evidence-based nutrition (EBN). Yet it can play a valuable part in hypothesis formulation and in the cross-checking of evidence. Most of all, it is usually a point at which the operationalisation of nutrition evidence is granted best current practice status.

  14. What is the Best Evidence Medical Education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Masoomi


    Full Text Available Best Evidence Medical Education (BEME is defined as: “The implementation by teachers and educational bodies in their practice, of methods and approaches to education based on the best evidence available.” Five steps have been recognized in the practice of BEME. These are: framing the question, developing a search strategy, evaluating the evidence, implementing change and evaluating that change. In this paper, I described the concept of BEME, its steps, and challenges.

  15. Toward More Evidence-Based Practice


    Hotelling, Barbara A.


    Childbirth educators are responsible for providing expectant parents with evidence-based information. In this column, the author suggests resources where educators can find evidence-based research for best practices. Additionally, the author describes techniques for childbirth educators to use in presenting research-based information in their classes. A sample of Web sites and books that offer evidence-based resources for expectant parents is provided.

  16. Evidence, hierarchies, and typologies: horses for courses. (United States)

    Petticrew, M; Roberts, H


    Debate is ongoing about the nature and use of evidence in public health decision making, and there seems to be an emerging consensus that the "hierarchy of evidence" may be difficult to apply in other settings. It may be unhelpful however to simply abandon the hierarchy without having a framework or guide to replace it. One such framework is discussed. This is based around a matrix, and emphasises the need to match research questions to specific types of research. This emphasis on methodological appropriateness, and on typologies rather than hierarchies of evidence may be helpful in organising and appraising public health evidence.

  17. Evidence-Based Medicine in Facial Trauma. (United States)

    Dougherty, William M; Christophel, John Jared; Park, Stephen S


    This article provides the reader with a comprehensive review of high-level evidence-based medicine in facial trauma and highlights areas devoid of high-level evidence. The article is organized in the order one might approach a clinical problem: starting with the workup, followed by treatment considerations, operative decisions, and postoperative treatments. Individual injuries are discussed within each section, with an overview of the available high-level clinical evidence. This article not only provides a quick reference for the facial traumatologist, but also allows the reader to identify areas that lack high-level evidence, perhaps motivating future endeavors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Knee surgery and its evidence base. (United States)

    Sharma, A; Hasan, K; Carter, A; Zaidi, R; Cro, S; Briggs, T; Goldberg, A


    Evidence driven orthopaedics is gaining prominence. It enables better management decisions and therefore better patient care. The aim of our study was to review a selection of the leading publications pertaining to knee surgery to assess changes in levels of evidence over a decade. Articles from the years 2000 and 2010 in The Knee, the Journal of Arthroplasty, Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (American Volume) and the Bone and Joint Journal were analysed and ranked according to guidelines from the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. The intervening years (2003, 2005 and 2007) were also analysed to further define the trend. The percentage of high level evidence (level I and II) studies increased albeit without reaching statistical significance. Following a significant downward trend, the latter part of the decade saw a major rise in levels of published evidence. The most frequent type of study was therapeutic. Although the rise in levels of evidence across the decade was not statistically significant, there was a significant drop and then rise in these levels in the interim. It is therefore important that a further study is performed to assess longer-term trends. Recent developments have made clear that high quality evidence will be having an ever increasing influence on future orthopaedic practice. We suggest that journals implement compulsory declaration of a published study's level of evidence and that authors consider their study designs carefully to enhance the quality of available evidence.

  19. Sicily statement on evidence-based practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopayian Kevork


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A variety of definitions of evidence-based practice (EBP exist. However, definitions are in themselves insufficient to explain the underlying processes of EBP and to differentiate between an evidence-based process and evidence-based outcome. There is a need for a clear statement of what Evidence-Based Practice (EBP means, a description of the skills required to practise in an evidence-based manner and a curriculum that outlines the minimum requirements for training health professionals in EBP. This consensus statement is based on current literature and incorporating the experience of delegates attending the 2003 Conference of Evidence-Based Health Care Teachers and Developers ("Signposting the future of EBHC". Discussion Evidence-Based Practice has evolved in both scope and definition. Evidence-Based Practice (EBP requires that decisions about health care are based on the best available, current, valid and relevant evidence. These decisions should be made by those receiving care, informed by the tacit and explicit knowledge of those providing care, within the context of available resources. Health care professionals must be able to gain, assess, apply and integrate new knowledge and have the ability to adapt to changing circumstances throughout their professional life. Curricula to deliver these aptitudes need to be grounded in the five-step model of EBP, and informed by ongoing research. Core assessment tools for each of the steps should continue to be developed, validated, and made freely available. Summary All health care professionals need to understand the principles of EBP, recognise EBP in action, implement evidence-based policies, and have a critical attitude to their own practice and to evidence. Without these skills, professionals and organisations will find it difficult to provide 'best practice'.

  20. Evidence-based medicine: medical librarians providing evidence at the point of care. (United States)

    Yaeger, Lauren H; Kelly, Betsy


    Evidence-based medicine is the conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. .. by best available external clinical evidence we mean clinically relevant research.' Health care reform authorized by the Affordable Care Act is based on the belief that evidence-based practice (EBP) generates cost savings due to the delivery of more effective care.2 Medical librarians, skilled in identifying appropriate resources and working with multiple complex interfaces, can support clinicians' efforts to practice evidence based medicine by providing time and expertise in articulating the clinical question and identifying the best evidence.

  1. 20 CFR 220.46 - Medical evidence. (United States)


    ... DISABILITY Evidence of Disability § 220.46 Medical evidence. (a) Acceptable sources. The Board needs reports... optometrists for the measurement of visual acuity and visual fields (a report from a physician may be needed to...'s findings on the factors under paragraph (b)(1) through (5) of this section (except in disability...

  2. School Resegregation: A Synthesis of the Evidence (United States)

    Glenn, William J.


    This article examines the evidence that supports and rebuts the claims of school resegregation. By examining both types of evidence and considering them complementary (James 1986; Kelly and Miller 1989), the author gives the reader a deeper understanding of the current trends in school segregation. First, the literature on the topic of school…

  3. Evidence Pedagogy in the Age of Statutes. (United States)

    Imwinkelried, Edward J.


    Although statutes, not common law, have become the dominant source of law in the United States, the time and intellectual energy most law schools devote to legislation and interpretation is inadequate. Teachers of evidence courses are uniquely positioned to change this through creative instructional use of the Federal Rules of Evidence. (MSE)

  4. 7 CFR 1421.12 - Production evidence. (United States)


    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRAINS AND SIMILARLY HANDLED COMMODITIES... collateral such as: (i) Evidence of sales, (ii) Delivery evidence, (iii) Load summaries from warehouse, processor, or buyer, (iv) Warehouse receipts (v) Paid measurement service (vi) Spot check measurements with...

  5. 20 CFR 422.107 - Evidence requirements. (United States)


    ....107 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES General Procedures § 422.107 Evidence requirements. (a) General. An applicant for an original social security number card... evidence of age, U.S. citizenship or alien status, and true identity. An applicant for a replacement social...

  6. Legal Evidence and Proof : Statistics, Stories, Logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, H.; Prakken, H.; Verheij, B.


    As a result of recent scandals concerning evidence and proof in the administration of criminal justice – ranging from innocent people on death row in the United States to misuse of statistics leading to wrongful convictions in The Netherlands and elsewhere – inquiries into the logic of evidence and

  7. Evaluating Evidence Regarding Relationships with Criteria (United States)

    Balkin, Richard S.


    An overview of standards related to demonstrating evidence regarding relationships with criteria as it pertains to instrument development was presented, along with heuristic examples. Additional measures and a comprehensive design are necessary to establish evidence related to the use and interpretation of test scores for the validation of a…

  8. Evidence-based librarianship: an overview. (United States)

    Eldredge, J D


    To demonstrate how the core characteristics of both evidence-based medicine (EBM) and evidence-based health care (EBHC) can be adapted to health sciences librarianship. Narrative review essay involving development of a conceptual framework. The author describes the central features of EBM and EBHC. Following each description of a central feature, the author then suggests ways that this feature applies to health sciences librarianship. First, the decision-making processes of EBM and EBHC are compatible with health sciences librarianship. Second, the EBM and EBHC values of favoring rigorously produced scientific evidence in decision making are congruent with the core values of librarianship. Third, the hierarchical levels of evidence can be applied to librarianship with some modifications. Library researchers currently favor descriptive-survey and case-study methods over systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, or other higher levels of evidence. The library literature nevertheless contains diverse examples of randomized controlled trials, controlled-comparison studies, and cohort studies conducted by health sciences librarians. Health sciences librarians are confronted with making many practical decisions. Evidence-based librarianship offers a decision-making framework, which integrates the best available research evidence. By employing this framework and the higher levels of research evidence it promotes, health sciences librarians can lay the foundation for more collaborative and scientific endeavors.

  9. Careers in Forensics: Analysis, Evidence, and Law (United States)

    Torpey, Elka Maria


    In legal proceedings, a case is only as strong as its evidence. And whether that evidence is strong depends, in large part, on the work of forensic specialists. The field of forensics is broad and involves many kinds of workers. Some of them are involved in crimesolving. Others, such as forensic social workers or forensic economists, help to…

  10. Towards Evidence Based Usability in Health Informatics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcilly, Romaric; Peute, Linda W.; Beuscart-Zephir, Marie-Catherine; Jaspers, Monique W.


    In a Health Information Technology (HIT) regulatory context in which the usability of this technology is more and more a critical issue, there is an increasing need for evidence based usability practice. However, a clear definition of evidence based usability practice and how to achieve it is still

  11. [Evidence based surgery. A necessary tool]. (United States)

    Duran-Vega, Héctor César


    Evidence-based surgery is a tool that has been adopted worldwide by surgeons. As all decisions must be current and have a scientific basis, the approach for performing it must be standardised. Five important steps are required to perform surgery based on evidence. Convert the need for information into a question that can be answered, finding the best information to answer that question, critical evaluation of the evidence, and its validity, impact and applicability, integrating the evidence with your own experience, and with the evaluation of the patients. This should take into account their biology, values and specific circumstances, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of the execution of steps 1-4 and propose how to improve them. This article presents the main tools to perform surgery properly based on evidence. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  12. [Looking for evidence-based medical informatics]. (United States)

    Coiera, Enrico


    e-Health is experiencing a difficult time. On the one side, the forecast is for a bright digital health future created by precision medicine and smart devices. On the other hand, most large scale e-health projects struggle to make a difference and are often controversial. Both futures fail because they are not evidence-based. Medical informatics should follow the example of evidence-based medicine, i.e. conduct rigorous research that gives us evidence to solve real world problems, synthesise that evidence and then apply it strictly. We already have the tools for creating a different universe. What we need is evidence, will, a culture of learning, and hard work.

  13. Evidence-based policy as reflexive practice. What can we learn from evidence-based medicine? (United States)

    Bal, Roland


    The call for evidence-based policy is often accompanied by rather uncritical references to the success of evidence-based medicine, leading to often unsuccessful translation attempts. In this paper, I reflect on the practice of evidence-based medicine in an attempt to sketch a more productive approach to translating evidence into the practice of policy making. Discussing three episodes in the history of evidence-based medicine - clinical trials, and the production and use of clinical guidelines - I conclude that the success of evidence-based medicine is based on the creation of reflexive practices in which evidence and practice can be combined productively. In the conclusion, I discuss the prospects of such a practice for evidence-based policy.

  14. Evidence at a glance: error matrix approach for overviewing available evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keus, Frederik; Wetterslev, Jørn; Gluud, Christian


    Clinical evidence continues to expand and is increasingly difficult to overview. We aimed at conceptualizing a visual assessment tool, i.e., a matrix for overviewing studies and their data in order to assess the clinical evidence at a glance....

  15. Evidence-Based Practice: On the Function of Evidence in Practical Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone Kvernbekk


    Full Text Available There is a vast literature on evidence-based practice (EBP in education. What function does evidence have in practical deliberations toward decisions about what to do? Most writers on EBP seem to think of evidence largely as quantitative data, serving as a foundation from which practice could and should be directly derived. In this paper I argue that we are better served by according a different and more indirect function to evidence in practical reasoning. To establish this claim I employ Toulmin’s model of argumentation. On this model the evidence-as-foundation view amounts to evidence as data/grounds. The model also offers a different function for evidence, as backing of the warrant, and I argue in this paper that this is a more adequate understanding of the function of evidence in practical reasoning

  16. Evidence and Obesity Prevention: Developing Evidence Summaries to Support Decision Making (United States)

    Clark, Rachel; Waters, Elizabeth; Armstrong, Rebecca; Conning, Rebecca; Allender, Steven; Swinburn, Boyd


    Public health practitioners make decisions based on research evidence in combination with a variety of other influences. Evidence summaries are one of a range of knowledge translation options used to support evidence-informed decision making. The literature relevant to obesity prevention requires synthesis for it to be accessible and relevant to…

  17. Faculty Training in Evidence-Based Medicine: Improving Evidence Acquisition and Critical Appraisal (United States)

    Nicholson, Laura J.; Warde, Carole M.; Boker, John R.


    Introduction: Evidence-based medicine (EBM) integrates published clinical evidence with patient values and clinical expertise, the output of which is informed medical decision making. Key skills for evidence-based practice include acquisition and appraisal of clinical information. Faculty clinicians often lack expertise in these skills and are…

  18. Evidence-based policy as reflexive practice. : What can we learn from evidence-based medicine?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Bal (Roland)


    textabstractThe call for evidence-based policy is often accompanied by rather uncritical references to the success of evidence-based medicine, leading to often unsuccessful translation attempts. In this paper, I reflect on the practice of evidence-based medicine in an attempt to sketch a more

  19. Levels of Evidence in Orthopaedic Trauma Literature. (United States)

    Scheschuk, Joseph P; Mostello, Andrew J; Lombardi, Nicholas J; Maltenfort, Mitchell G; Freedman, Kevin B; Tjoumakaris, Fotios P


    To review and critically assess trends observed regarding the levels of evidence in published articles in orthopaedic traumatology literature. The Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma, Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American, and Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. All articles from the years 1998, 2003, 2008, and 2013 in The Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma (JOT) and orthopaedic trauma-related articles from The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American (JBJS-A) and Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research (CORR) were analyzed. Articles were categorized by type and ranked for level of evidence according to guidelines from the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. Study type and standardized level of evidence were determined for each article. Articles were subcategorized as high-level evidence (I, II), moderate-level evidence (III), and low-level evidence (IV, V). During the study period, Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American reduced its low-level studies from 80% to 40% (P = 0.00015), Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research decreased its low-level studies from 70% to 27%, and Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma decreased its low-level studies from 78% to 45%. Level IV and V therapeutic, prognostic, and diagnostic studies demonstrated significant decreases during the study period (P = 0.0046, P traumatology literature over the past 15 years.

  20. Weighing complex evidence in a democratic society. (United States)

    Douglas, Heather


    Weighing complex sets of evidence (i.e., from multiple disciplines and often divergent in implications) is increasingly central to properly informed decision-making. Determining "where the weight of evidence lies" is essential both for making maximal use of available evidence and figuring out what to make of such evidence. Weighing evidence in this sense requires an approach that can handle a wide range of evidential sources (completeness), that can combine the evidence with rigor, and that can do so in a way other experts can assess and critique (transparency). But the democratic context in need of weight-of-evidence analysis also places additional constraints on the process, including communicability of the process to the general public, the need for an approach that can be used across a broad range of contexts (scope), and timeliness of process (practicality). I will compare qualitative and quantitative approaches with respect to both traditional epistemic criteria and criteria that arise from the democratic context, and argue that a qualitative explanatory approach can best meet the criteria and elucidate how to utilize the other approaches. This should not be surprising, as the approach I argue for is the one that most closely tracks general scientific reasoning.

  1. History of evidence-based medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger L Sur


    Full Text Available This essay reviews the historical circumstances surrounding the introduction and evolution of evidence-based medicine. Criticisms of the approach are also considered. Weaknesses of existing standards of clinical practice and efforts to bring more certainty to clinical decision making were the foundation for evidence-based medicine, which integrates epidemiology and medical research. Because of its utility in designing randomized clinical trials, assessing the quality of the literature, and applying medical research at the bedside, evidence-based medicine will continue to have a strong influence on everyday clinical practice.

  2. Panspermia: Evidence from Astronomy to Meteorites (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, N. C.; Wallis, J.; Wallis, D. H.

    The theory of cometary panspermia is reviewed in relation to evidence from astronomy, biology, and recent studies of meteorites. The spectroscopic signatures in interstellar material within our galaxy and in external galaxies that have been known for many years most plausibly represent evidence for the detritus of life existing on a cosmic scale. Such spectral features discovered in galaxies of high redshift points to life arising at a very early stage in the history of the Universe. Evidence of fossils of microscopic life forms in meteorites that have been discussed over several decades, and augmented recently with new data, reaffirms the case for cometary panspermia.

  3. Communicating evidence for participatory decision making. (United States)

    Epstein, Ronald M; Alper, Brian S; Quill, Timothy E


    Informed patients are more likely to actively participate in their care, make wiser decisions, come to a common understanding with their physicians, and adhere more fully to treatment; however, currently there are no evidence-based guidelines for discussing clinical evidence with patients in the process of making medical decisions. To identify ways to communicate evidence that improve patient understanding, involvement in decisions, and outcomes. Systematic review of MEDLINE for the period 1966-2003 and review of reference lists of retrieved articles to identify original research dealing with communication between clinicians and patients and directly addressing methods of presenting clinical evidence to patients. Two investigators and a research assistant screened 367 abstracts and 2 investigators reviewed 51 full-text articles, yielding 8 potentially relevant articles. Methods for communicating clinical evidence to patients include nonquantitative general terms, numerical translation of clinical evidence, graphical representations, and decision aids. Focus-group data suggest presenting options and/or equipoise before asking patients about preferred decision-making roles or formats for presenting details. Relative risk reductions may be misleading; absolute risk is preferred. Order of information presented and time-frame of outcomes can bias patient understanding. Limited evidence supports use of human stick figure graphics or faces for single probabilities and vertical bar graphs for comparative information. Less-educated and older patients preferred proportions to percentages and did not appreciate confidence intervals. Studies of decision aids rarely addressed patient-physician communication directly. No studies addressed clinical outcomes of discussions of clinical evidence. There is a paucity of evidence to guide how physicians can most effectively share clinical evidence with patients facing decisions; however, basing our recommendations largely on related

  4. DNA evidence: wrong answers or wrong questions? (United States)

    Robertson, B; Vignaux, G A


    Much of the controversy over DNA evidence is due to the way in which forensic scientific evidence has classically been presented. The orthodox approach is to consider whether two samples match according to a predetermined criterion. If they do, the fact of match is reported along with an estimate of the frequency of the characteristics. This method fails to address the questions raised in court cases, diverts argument into irrelevancies and stultifies research. Presentation of evidence in the form of likelihood ratios, on the other hand, forces the witness to answer the questions the court is interested in and makes apparent lines of research required to increase our understanding.

  5. The religion of evidence-based practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian


    This chapter begins by outlining the challenges of preparing a chapter on evidence-based practice (EBP) to underpin the use of music as a therapeutic tool in treatment, in the overall frame of music, health, and wellbeing. It then reviews the terminology of EBP and evidence-based medicine...... practice as health, education, and social services tighten their belts and the demand on their resources grows, there is increasing interest in the value of music for health and wellbeing, despite even less ‘hard’ evidence that it is effective against illness and disability....

  6. Strengthening Chronic Disease Prevention Programming: The Toward Evidence-Informed Practice (TEIP) Program Evidence Tool (United States)

    Albert, Dayna; Fortin, Rebecca; Herrera, Christine; Hanning, Rhona; Lessio, Anne; Rush, Brian


    In public health and chronic disease prevention there is increasing priority for effective use of evidence in practice. In Ontario, Canada, despite various models being advanced, public health practitioners are seeking ways to identify and apply evidence in their work in practical and meaningful ways. In a companion article, “Strengthening Chronic Disease Prevention Programming: The Toward Evidence-Informed Practice (TEIP) Program Assessment Tool,” we describe use of a tool to assess and strengthen program planning and implementation processes using 19 criteria derived from best and promising practices literature. In this article, we describe use of a complementary Program Evidence Tool to identify, synthesize, and apply a range of evidence sources to strengthen the content of chronic disease prevention programming. The Program Evidence Tool adapts tools of evidence-based medicine to the unique contexts of community-based health promotion and chronic disease prevention. Knowledge management tools and a guided dialogue process known as an Evidence Forum enable community stakeholders to make appropriate use of evidence in diverse social, political, and structural contexts. Practical guidelines and worksheets direct users through 5 steps: 1) define an evidence question, 2) develop a search strategy, 3) collect and synthesize evidence, 4) interpret and adapt evidence, and 5) implement and evaluate. We describe the Program Evidence Tool’s benefits, strengths, challenges, and what was learned from its application in 4 Ontario public health departments. The Program Evidence Tool contributes to the development and understanding of the complex use of evidence in community-based chronic disease prevention. PMID:23721788

  7. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death. The best evidence of a person's death is— (1) A certified copy of or extract from the...

  8. The Evidence-Based Manifesto for School Librarians (United States)

    Todd, Ross


    School Library Journal's 2007 Leadership Summit, "Where's the Evidence? Understanding the Impact of School Libraries," focused on the topic of evidence-based practice. Evidence-based school librarianship is a systematic approach that engages research-derived evidence, school librarian-observed evidence, and user-reported evidence in the processes…

  9. 20 CFR 404.728 - Evidence a marriage has ended. (United States)


    ... you to explain why and to give us other convincing evidence the marriage has ended. Evidence for Child... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence a marriage has ended. 404.728... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.728 Evidence a marriage has...

  10. Evaluation of evidence-based methods used to teach nursing students to critically appraise evidence. (United States)

    Smith-Strøm, Hilde; Nortvedt, Monica W


    This study evaluated whether students can learn to critically appraise a scientific article through evidence-based teaching methods. The course trains students in three steps of evidence-based practice--formulating a question, searching the evidence, and critically appraising the evidence. We gave the students two scientific articles. The articles were divided into sections, and 1 to 2 days were spent on each section. Every day had the same structure: a brief lecture on the relevant part of the article, group work, and interactive plenary discussions. At the end of the course, the students had a group examination in which they critically appraised a new scientific article. Most students reported that having learned steps one, two, and three involved in evidence-based practice was useful in critically appraising a scientific article. The results from the examination supported this. Knowledge about evidence-based practice can increase students' critical attitudes toward the evidence and their own practice.

  11. Improving GRADE evidence tables part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langendam, Miranda; Carrasco-Labra, Alonso; Santesso, Nancy


    OBJECTIVES: The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) working group has developed GRADE evidence profiles (EP) and summary of findings (SoF) tables to present evidence summaries in systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, and health technology assessments....... Explanatory notes are used to explain choices and judgments in these summaries, for example, on rating of the quality of evidence. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A systematic survey of the explanations in SoF tables in 132 randomly selected Cochrane Intervention reviews and in EPs of 10 guidelines. We analyzed...... the content of 1,291 explanations using a predefined list of criteria. RESULTS: Most explanations were used to describe or communicate results and to explain downgrading of the quality of evidence, in particular for risk of bias and imprecision. Addressing the source of baseline risk (observational data...

  12. 20 CFR 404.1512 - Evidence. (United States)


    ... to us that you are blind or disabled. Therefore, you must bring to our attention everything that... must provide evidence about the existence of work in the national economy that you can do (see §§ 404...

  13. The evidence base for diabetes care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, D. R. R. (David Robert Rhys)


    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3. Evidence-Based Definition and Classification: A Commentary . . . . . . Steve O'Rahilly 37 PART II: PREVENTION OF DIABETES 4. Prevention of Type 1 Diabetes...

  14. IPJP 12(2) - Evidence.indb

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Galvin & Todres, 2010). It is these bodily and relational forms of understanding that are crucial in guiding humanly sensitive practice. The term 'presences' may be particularly relevant when considering a wider view of evidence within.

  15. Putting the Evidence into Preceptor Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Myrick


    Full Text Available The term evidence-based practice refers to the utilization of knowledge derived from research. Nursing practice, however, is not limited to clinical practice but also encompasses nursing education. It is, therefore, equally important that teaching preparation is derived from evidence also. The purpose of this study was to examine whether an evidence-based approach to preceptor preparation influenced preceptors in a assuming that role. A qualitative method using semistructured interviews was used to collect data. A total of 29 preceptors were interviewed. Constant comparative analysis facilitated examination of the data. Findings indicate that preceptors were afforded an opportunity to participate in a preparatory process that was engaging, enriching, and critically reflective/reflexive. This study has generated empirical evidence that can (a contribute substantively to effective preceptor preparation, (b promote best teaching practices in the clinical setting, and (c enhance the preceptorship experience for nursing students.

  16. Shaping accountabilities for erroneously enacted environmental evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Ingmar

    vignettes of situated work practice that (con)figured the company's accounting for their carbon emissions. Common to all these situations was that the environmental realities enacted have been categorised by some members as erroneous or as not good enough. In this paper I am interested, thence......Drawing on fieldwork in and around a transnational Fortune 50 company's "corporate social responsibility" unit, this paper opens up a range of situations that took part in enacting the company's evidence of its impact on global warming. This evidence was implicated in at least two significant modes...... of accountability: first, the company was performing itself as a socially and environmentally accountable and responsible "corporate citizen"; second, the company was inhabiting a discourse of evidence-based decision-making, requiring the evidence to be produced accountably. I analyse a limited set of ethnographic...

  17. Evidence based policy-making: A review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strydom, FW


    Full Text Available the engagement between science and policymaking. It is concluded that the issue of evidence-based policymaking remains unresolved and questions for future research on the science–policy interface are raised....

  18. Evidence-based management of recurrent miscarriages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadava B Jeve


    Full Text Available Recurrent miscarriages are postimplantation failures in natural conception; they are also termed as habitual abortions or recurrent pregnancy losses. Recurrent pregnancy loss is disheartening to the couple and to the treating clinician. There has been a wide range of research from aetiology to management of recurrent pregnancy loss. It is one of the most debated topic among clinicians and academics. The ideal management is unanswered. This review is aimed to produce an evidence-based guidance on clinical management of recurrent miscarriage. The review is structured to be clinically relevant. We have searched electronic databases (PubMed and Embase using different key words. We have combined the searches and arranged them with the hierarchy of evidences. We have critically appraised the evidence to produce a concise answer for clinical practice. We have graded the evidence from level I to V on which these recommendations are based.

  19. Practice-Based Evidence: Delivering What Works (United States)

    Brendtro, Larry K.; Mitchell, Martin L.


    Many methods claim to be Evidence-Based Practices. Yet success comes not from a particular practice, but principles that underlie all effective helping. This article uses the principle of consilience to tap knowledge from science, values, and practical experience.

  20. Evidence, hierarchies, and typologies: horses for courses


    Petticrew, M; Roberts, H


    Debate is ongoing about the nature and use of evidence in public health decision making, and there seems to be an emerging consensus that the "hierarchy of evidence" may be difficult to apply in other settings. It may be unhelpful however to simply abandon the hierarchy without having a framework or guide to replace it. One such framework is discussed. This is based around a matrix, and emphasises the need to match research questions to specific types of research. This emphasis on methodologi...

  1. Queer challenges to evidence-based practice. (United States)

    Zeeman, Laetitia; Aranda, Kay; Grant, Alec


    This paper aims to queer evidence-based practice by troubling the concepts of evidence, knowledge and mental illness. The evidence-based narrative that emerged within biomedicine has dominated health care. The biomedical notion of 'evidence' has been critiqued extensively and is seen as exclusive and limiting, and even though the social constructionist paradigm attempts to challenge the authority of biomedicine to legitimate what constitutes acceptable evidence or knowledge for those experiencing mental illness, biomedical notions of evidence appear to remain relatively intact. Queer theory offers theoretical tools to disrupt biomedical norms and challenges biomedical normativity to indicate how marginalisation occurs when normative truths about mental health classify those who differ from the norm as 'ill' or 'disordered'. Queer theory's emphasis on normativity serves the political aim to subvert marginalisation and bring about radical social and material change. Reference will be made to mental health subjects within each discourse by indicating how the body acts as a vehicle for knowing. Deleuzian notions of the rhizome are used as metaphor to suggest a relational approach to knowledge that does away with either/or positions in either biomedical, or queer knowledge to arrive at a both/and position where the biomedical, constructionist and queer are interrelated and entangled in needing the other for their own evolution. However, queer does not ask for assimilation but celebrates difference by remaining outside to disrupt that which is easily overlooked, assumed to be natural or represented as the norm. The task of queer knowledge is to do justice to the lives lived in the name of evidence-based practice and demands that we consider the relations of power where knowledge is produced. This pursuit creates different knowledge spaces where we identify new intersections that allow for socially just understandings of knowing or evidence to emerge. © 2013 John Wiley

  2. Physiotherapist Delivered Preparticipation Examination: Rationale and Evidence


    Maffey, Lorrie; Emery, Carolyn


    Preparticipation examinations are often performed based on the assumption that the exam contributes to the identification of risk factors for injury and, therefore, lead to the implementation of appropriate injury prevention strategies for athletes. Research evidence supporting the components, benefits, and limitations of the preparticipation examination performed by a physiotherapist is the focus of this paper. Evidence exists that some specific preparticipation examination components will i...

  3. Evidence-based therapy of diabetic retinopathy. (United States)

    Hoerle, S; Kroll, P


    Evidence-based medicine is often misunderstood as 'cookbook medicine with standard recipes' that does not take clinical experience into account. It is, however, supposed to be a basis for decision making in caring for individual patients under consideration of patients' preferences. This seems to be very important, since diabetic retinopathy continues to be the most frequent cause of vision loss in working age adults with negative consequences for patients' quality of life and for health economics. The most important evidence-based therapy for diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy is laser coagulation. Vitrectomy for proliferative stages has also been proven effective by clinical studies. For more recent treatment options like triamcinolone injection and vitrectomy for diabetic macular edema there is a lower level of evidence so far. The Diabetic Retinopathy Study was the first to show the effectiveness of panfundus laser coagulation for a larger group of patients. The Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study in turn serves as a basis for laser coagulation of retinopathy and maculopathy. The Diabetic Retinopathy Vitrectomy Study could show the advantages of timely vitrectomy. Both the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial and the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study could show the value of intensive blood glucose control. Evidence-based medicine on the basis of the studies mentioned above is practiced quite self-evidently in ophthalmo-diabetology. It should be regarded as a helpful tool for special therapeutic situations which still leaves room for one's personal clinical experience to be included. It is somewhat problematic that the term evidence-based medicine seems to be restricted to the results of large randomized studies, because even special problems and very individual, difficult therapeutic questions can be placed on an evidence-based foundation, although at a lower level of evidence, using today's modern means of literature research. Copyright (c

  4. Ethics, equality and evidence in health promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild


    -informed disease prevention and health promotion. Results: Despite declared intentions of prioritizing social equality in health, these intentions are largely absent from most of the packages.When health inequalities are mentioned, focus is on the disadvantaged or the marginalized. Several interventions...... are recommended, where there is no evidence to support them, notwithstanding the ambition of interventions being evidence-informed. Ethical considerations are scanty, scattered and unsystematically integrated. Further, although some packages mention the importance of avoiding stigmatization, there is little...

  5. What determines microenterprise growth? : evidence from Tanzania


    Matlary, Francis Haaland


    This study provides empirical evidence on the growth determinants of microenterprises funded by microfinance loans through the analysis of survey data of Tanzanian microentrepreneurs. We find strongly positive correlations between business loans and sales growth; however several factors prevent entrepreneurs from growing their businesses. Evidence of a gender divide and a business formality divide is found, with female entrepreneurs experiencing lower sales growth than their male counterparts...

  6. Evidence Study Guide. Revision (Naval Justice School) (United States)


    Procedure 11(e)(6). For a complete history of the evolution of the Federal Rule, see S. Saltzburg and K. Redden, Federal Rules of Evidence Manual 370-371...sections of this part of the chapter offer brief notes and outlines on trial procedures and evolutions involving witnesses. The Mil.R.Evid. offer little...briefcase. The search was upheld as being incident to an arrest even though it was conducted at FBI headquarters. (c) United States v. Birdsong , 446 F

  7. Naval Justice School Evidence Study Guide. Revision (United States)


    e)(6). For a complete history of the evolution of the Federal Rule, see S. Saltzburg and K. Redden, Federal Rules of Evidence Manual 202-206 (3d ed...the chapter offer brief notes and outlines on trial procedures and evolutions involving witnesses. The Mil. R. Evid. offer little guidance in this...briefcase. The search was upheld as being incident to an arrest even though it was conducted at FBI headquarters. (c) United States v. Birdsong , 446 F.2d

  8. Is probabilistic evidence a source of knowledge? (United States)

    Friedman, Ori; Turri, John


    We report a series of experiments examining whether people ascribe knowledge for true beliefs based on probabilistic evidence. Participants were less likely to ascribe knowledge for beliefs based on probabilistic evidence than for beliefs based on perceptual evidence (Experiments 1 and 2A) or testimony providing causal information (Experiment 2B). Denial of knowledge for beliefs based on probabilistic evidence did not arise because participants viewed such beliefs as unjustified, nor because such beliefs leave open the possibility of error. These findings rule out traditional philosophical accounts for why probabilistic evidence does not produce knowledge. The experiments instead suggest that people deny knowledge because they distrust drawing conclusions about an individual based on reasoning about the population to which it belongs, a tendency previously identified by "judgment and decision making" researchers. Consistent with this, participants were more willing to ascribe knowledge for beliefs based on probabilistic evidence that is specific to a particular case (Experiments 3A and 3B). Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  9. Extending the Reach of Evidence-Based Medicine: A Proposed Categorization of Lower-Level Evidence. (United States)

    Detterbeck, Frank C; Gould, Michael K; Lewis, Sandra Zelman; Patel, Sheena


    Clinical practice involves making many treatment decisions for which only limited formal evidence exists. While the methodology of evidence-based medicine (EBM) has evolved tremendously, there is a need to better characterize lower-level evidence. This should enhance the ability to appropriately weigh the evidence against other considerations, and counter the temptation to think it is more robust than it actually is. A framework to categorize lower-level evidence is proposed, consisting of nonrandomized comparisons, extrapolation using indirect evidence, rationale, and clinical experience (ie, an accumulated general impression). Subtypes are recognized within these categories, based on the degree of confounding in nonrandomized comparisons, the uncertainty involved in extrapolation from indirect evidence, and the plausibility of a rationale. Categorizing the available evidence in this way can promote a better understanding of the strengths and limitations of using such evidence as the basis for treatment decisions in clinically relevant areas that are devoid of higher-level evidence. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Context-aware grading of quality evidences for evidence-based decision-making. (United States)

    Afzal, Muhammad; Hussain, Maqbool; Haynes, Robert Brian; Lee, Sungyoung


    Processing huge repository of medical literature for extracting relevant and high-quality evidences demands efficient evidence support methods. We aim at developing methods to automate the process of finding quality evidences from a plethora of literature documents and grade them according to the context (local condition). We propose a two-level methodology for quality recognition and grading of evidences. First, quality is recognized using quality recognition model; second, context-aware grading of evidences is accomplished. Using 10-fold cross-validation, the proposed quality recognition model achieved an accuracy of 92.14 percent and improved the baseline system accuracy by about 24 percent. The proposed context-aware grading method graded 808 out of 1354 test evidences as highly beneficial for treatment purpose. This infers that around 60 percent evidences shall be given more importance as compared to the other 40 percent evidences. The inclusion of context in recommendation of evidence makes the process of evidence-based decision-making "situation-aware."

  11. Evidence, temperature, and the laws of thermodynamics. (United States)

    Vieland, Veronica J


    A primary purpose of statistical analysis in genetics is the measurement of the strength of evidence for or against hypotheses. As with any type of measurement, a properly calibrated measurement scale is necessary if we want to be able to meaningfully compare degrees of evidence across genetic data sets, across different types of genetic studies and/or across distinct experimental modalities. In previous papers in this journal and elsewhere, my colleagues and I have argued that geneticists ought to care about the scale on which statistical evidence is measured, and we have proposed the Kelvin temperature scale as a template for a context-independent measurement scale for statistical evidence. Moreover, we have claimed that, mathematically speaking, evidence and temperature may be one and the same thing. On first blush, this might seem absurd. Temperature is a property of systems following certain laws of nature (in particular, the 1st and 2nd Law of Thermodynamics) involving very physical quantities (e.g., energy) and processes (e.g., mechanical work). But what do the laws of thermodynamics have to do with statistical systems? Here I address that question. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Promoting evidence-based practice in pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toklu HZ


    Full Text Available Hale Zerrin Toklu Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Abstract: Evidence-based medicine aims to optimize decision-making by using evidence from well-designed and conducted research. The concept of reliable evidence is essential, since the number of electronic information resources is increasing in parallel to the increasing number and type of drugs on the market. The decision-making process is a complex and requires an extensive evaluation as well as the interpretation of the data obtained. Different sources provide different levels of evidence for decision-making. Not all the data have the same value as the evidence. Rational use of medicine requires that the patients receive “medicines appropriate to their clinical needs, in doses that meet their own individual requirements, for an adequate period of time, and at the lowest cost to them and their community.” Pharmacists have a crucial role in the health system to maintain the rational use of medicine and provide pharmaceutical care to patients, because they are the drug experts who are academically trained for this purpose. The rational use of the pharmacist's workforce will improve the outcome of pharmacotherapy as well as decreasing the global health costs. Keywords: pharmacist, rational use of medicine, pharmacotherapy, pharmaceutical, outcome


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sh. Rzaeva


    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to systematize the data available in the modern literature on the diagnosis and treatment of metastatic melanoma without clinically evident primary tumor. Materials and methods. The results of laboratory-instrumental diagnostics, surgical and drug treatment presented in randomized clinical trials, published over the past 10 years in Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library were analyzed. Results. Despite continuous improvement in imaging techniques, melanoma accounts for up to 12.6 % of all cases of metastatic cancer with an unknown primary site. Metastatic melanoma without clinical evidence of primary tumor accounts for approximately 1% to 8% of all melanoma cases. Conclusion. Metastatic melanoma without clinically evident primary tumor has not been extensively studied. Until now, only a few reports on metastatic melanoma without clinically evident primary tumor have been available. Therefore, further prospective studies of clinical course and optimization of diagnosis and treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma without clinically evident primary tumor are needed. 

  14. Evidence based practice: perspectives of Iranian urologists. (United States)

    Hajebrahimi, Sakineh; Sadeghi-Ghyassi, Fatemeh; Olfati, Nahid; Dastgiri, Saeed; Maghbouli, Leili


    To determine the attitudes and beliefs of Iranian urologists toward Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) and investigation of the barriers of evidence based practice (EBP). A self- administrated, Likert scale questionnaire designed in Persian and filled up by censuses selected urologist from Iranian Urology Association (IUA). Data were entered to Predictive Analytics Soft Ware version 18.0 and descriptive statistics were obtained for all parts of the questionnaire. A total of 111 out of 500 Iranian urologists who attended in IUA annual meeting, responded to the questionnaires. Mean attitude score of respondents was 30.4 (SD: 5.7, range 16-40). Attitude score showed statistically significant association to previous participation in EBM workshops (P = .01). Of participants 96% believed EBP will improve patient care and 76.2% of them appreciated the impact of use of research utilization and application of evidence based guidelines on clinical decision making and the outcome of surgery. The main barriers to EBP stated as lack of time (64.8%), facilities (53.4%), and training in EBM (29.4%). The urologists have positive attitudes towards EBP. However, regarding lack of time, pre-appraised databases or EBP guidelines can be helpful. Evidence based workshops and familiarity with evidence databases is recommended for Iranian urologists. In addition, health care system and policy makers could play a major role to provide a culture of EBP.

  15. Hierarchy of evidence: a framework for ranking evidence evaluating healthcare interventions. (United States)

    Evans, David


    A number of hierarchies of evidence have been developed to enable different research methods to be ranked according to the validity of their findings. However, most have focused on evaluation of the effectiveness of interventions. When the evaluation of healthcare addresses its appropriateness or feasibility, then existing hierarchies are inadequate. This paper reports the development of a hierarchy for ranking of evidence evaluating healthcare interventions. The aims of this hierarchy are twofold. Firstly, it is to provide a means by which the evidence from a range of methodologically different types of research can be graded. Secondly, it is to provide a logical framework that can be used during the development of systematic review protocols to help determine the study designs which can contribute valid evidence when the evaluation extends beyond effectiveness. The proposed hierarchy was developed based on a review of literature, investigation of existing hierarchies and examination of the strengths and limitations of different research methods. The proposed hierarchy of evidence focuses on three dimensions of the evaluation: effectiveness, appropriateness and feasibility. Research that can contribute valid evidence to each is suggested. To address the varying strengths of different research designs, four levels of evidence are proposed: excellent, good, fair and poor. The strength of the proposed hierarchy is that it acknowledges the valid contribution of evidence generated by a range of different types of research. However, hierarchies only provide a guide to the strength of the available evidence and other issues such as the quality of research also have an important influence.

  16. Underdetermination in evidence-based medicine. (United States)

    Chin-Yee, Benjamin H


    This article explores the philosophical implications of evidence-based medicine's (EBM's) epistemology in terms of the problem of underdetermination of theory by evidence as expounded by the Duhem-Quine thesis. EBM hierarchies of evidence privilege clinical research over basic science, exacerbating the problem of underdetermination. Because of severe underdetermination, EBM is unable to meaningfully test core medical beliefs that form the basis of our understanding of disease and therapeutics. As a result, EBM adopts an epistemic attitude that is sceptical of explanations from the basic biological sciences, and is relegated to a view of disease at a population level. EBM's epistemic attitude provides a limited research heuristic by preventing the development of a theoretical framework required for understanding disease mechanism and integrating knowledge to develop new therapies. Medical epistemology should remain pluralistic and include complementary approaches of basic science and clinical research, thus avoiding the limited epistemic attitude entailed by EBM hierarchies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. ECHM Consensus Conference and levels of evidence. (United States)

    Sherlock, Susannah


    The ECHM Consensus Conference on indications for hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) was a welcome update of the evidence for HBOT use. However, clarification is requested in relation to how the GRADE system (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) was modified and how levels of evidence were applied in the case of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL). GRADE has a low kappa value for inter-observer agreement, so is modification valid? The original GRADE criteria, using consensus, grades evidence (defined as high, low and very low) and uses this to adjust the strength of recommendations. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) score highly. The ECHM have modified the GRADE system without explanation, assigning grades as levels 1 to 4 and have asserted that RCTs which are double-blinded constitute level 1 or 2 evidence. This has important implications for HBOT research. The term double-blinded is not used in the abstract, which leads the reader to wonder; where do RCTs which are not double-blinded fit in? The ECHM, by including the term double blinded as a requirement for level 1 or 2, has lifted the evidence bar. Does this constitute a form of research "bracket creep"? Double-blinding is viewed by many to require a 'sham' treatment in hyperbaric research. Many conditions require multiple doses requiring daily hospital attendance with associated costs of lost time from work and daily transport costs. Even with a crossover after the sham, a requirement of many ethics committees, the lost time for a patient is a considerable burden. Delaying HBOT until crossover in those randomised to the control group in a disease that has a narrow therapeutic temporal window, such as idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL), may affect the chance of recovery. Double blinding is logistically difficult with HBOT. A sham treatment may be achieved by using air instead of oxygen; however, this exposes the non-intervention group to a risk

  18. Evidence over barriers: important but not enough. (United States)

    Sinclair, Duncan G


    Overcoming the boundary conditions that impede the flow of evidence derived from research from academia to healthcare decision-makers in government and their agencies continues to be a challenge. But even the reduction/elimination of all such barriers and perfect collaboration are unlikely to yield what those of us in the "real world" yearn for, doing the right things right - policy and other decisions perfectly informed by evidence of what works and what doesn't to achieve a defined outcome. For that to happen, the calculus of decision-makers would have to exclude or evidence would have to trump political considerations, both large P and small p, an unlikely accomplishment in British Columbia or anywhere in our so-called healthcare system. That's reality!

  19. Evidence on Self-Fitting Hearing Aids (United States)


    The research on self-fitting hearing aids is reviewed using evidence-based principles. The evaluation begins with a definition of the research questions followed by a detailed search of the literature and then a review of the relevant studies. Four features of self-fitting hearing aids are reviewed: in-situ threshold measurement, whether an initial fitting prescribed using standard prescription formulae will approximate user preferences, outcomes with training of hearing aids for preferred responses, and assembly and use of the aids. There is at least good quality evidence suggesting that in-situ thresholds can be reliably obtained, that prescribed initial fittings approximate preferred responses, and that users are able to train the hearing aids and would prefer the trained responses. However, evidence on other outcomes and the ability of users to assemble and use such instruments is limited. Gaps in research with self-fitting hearing aids are identified. PMID:22528820

  20. The fallacy of evidence based policy

    CERN Document Server

    Saltelli, Andrea


    The use of science for policy is at the core of a perfect storm generated by the insurgence of several concurrent crises: of science, of trust, of sustainability. The modern positivistic model of science for policy, known as evidence based policy, is based on dramatic simplifications and compressions of available perceptions of the state of affairs and possible explanations (hypocognition). This model can result in flawed prescriptions. The flaws become more evident when dealing with complex issues characterized by concomitant uncertainties in the normative, descriptive and ethical domains. In this situation evidence-based policy may concur to the fragility of the social system. Science plays an important role in reducing the feeling of vulnerability of humans by projecting a promise of protection against uncertainties. In many applications quantitative science is used to remove uncertainty by transforming it into probability, so that mathematical modelling can play the ritual role of haruspices. This epistem...

  1. Organizational readiness for evidence-based practice. (United States)

    Gale, Barbara Van Patter; Schaffer, Marjorie A


    This study explored factors that affect the adoption or rejection of evidence-based practice (EBP) changes and differences in nurse manager and staff nurse perceptions about those factors. Roger's Diffusion of Innovations Theory explains relevant organizational strategies for guiding practice change. The primary author developed the Evidence-Based Practice Changes Survey consisting of 12 items, completed by 92 nurses at a level 1 trauma center. Top barriers to EBP were insufficient time, lack of staff, and not having the right equipment and supplies. Top reasons to adopt EBP were having personal interest in the practice change, avoiding risk of negative consequences to the patient, and personally valuing the evidence. Several statistically significant differences emerged for demographic variables. Planning for EBP change must address barriers and facilitators to practice change and emphasize the benefit for patients and value of the practice change to nurses.

  2. Professionalism and evidence-based practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle


    The idea of evidence- based practice is influential in public welfare services, including education. The idea is controversial, however, not least because it involves a poten tial redefinition of the relation ship between knowledge, authority and professionalism. This is discussed based on a study...... of evidence- based methods in Danish pre-school education and care. The management sees the use of these methods as strengthening pre- school teacher professionalism, but the actual practices in the day-careinstitutions are ambiguous. In some cases, using the methods becomes an end in itself and tends...... to displace important educational objectives. In other cases, the methods are reflectively adjusted to a given context. Used in this way only, evid ence-based practice and methodology is a valuable resource for professional practice in education. From such a perspective, at least some types of research based...

  3. Evidence-based policymaking: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Nortje


    Full Text Available The process of facilitating the uptake of evidence, for example, scientific research findings, into the policymaking process is multifaceted and thus complex. It is therefore important for scientists to understand this process in order to influence it more effectively. Similarly, policymakers need to understand the complexities of the scientific process to improve their interaction with the scientific sphere. This literature review addresses those factors that influence the uptake of scientific evidence into policymaking, the barriers to using science in policymaking, as well as recommendations for improved science–policymaking interaction. A visual diagram of the gears of a car is used to convey the message of the complexities around the engagement between science and policymaking. It is concluded that the issue of evidence-based policymaking remains unresolved and questions for future research on the science–policy interface are raised.

  4. Intencionalidade e evidência em Heidegger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Aurélio Fernandes


    Full Text Available O presente artigo visa expor a fenomenologia da evidência no pensamento de Heidegger. Toma-se como ponto de partida e fio condutor a intencionalidade. O conhecer é um relacionamento intencional que pode apresentar diversos graus de plenitude intuitiva. O grau mais pleno é o da percepção. Com o perceber se dá o preenchimento das intenções vazias e se realiza o ato de identificação: a coincidência entre o presumido e o intuído. Evidência é o ato de identificação que se clareia a si mesmo. Não é um sentimento de uma consciência fechada em si mesma. O clarear da evidência pressupõe a abertura da clareira do ser na qual o homem demora como ser-no-mundo.

  5. Evidence based practice of chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Garg


    Full Text Available The patients with chronic pain are increasingly reporting to the physicians for its management. Chronic pain are associated with head, neck and shoulder pain, spinal pain, pain in the joints and extremities, complex regional pain syndrome and phantom pain. The chronic pain is being managed worldwide. The different specialty of medicine is producing a lot of evidence through the published literature but the same is not being published in the field of chronic pain management. Though some evidence is being reported as to different aspects of pain management from different parts of the world but same is lacking from Indian subcontinent. This is in contrast to much done clinical work in this field as well. We present here the available evidence in relation to chronic pain management.

  6. 20 CFR 219.57 - Evidence of a parent's support. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of a parent's support. 219.57... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Other Evidence Requirements § 219.57 Evidence of a parent's support. (a) The... Board will require other convincing evidence that the parent is receiving one-half of his or her support...

  7. 20 CFR 404.720 - Evidence of a person's death. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of a person's death. 404.720 Section... INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.720 Evidence of a person's death. (a) When evidence of death is required. If you apply for benefits on the record of a deceased person, we...

  8. 20 CFR 219.24 - Evidence of presumed death. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of presumed death. 219.24 Section... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.24 Evidence of presumed death. When a person cannot be proven dead but evidence of death is needed, the Board may presume he or she died at a certain...

  9. Lessons to be Learned from Evidence-based Medicine: Practice and Promise of Evidence-based Medicine and Evidence-based Education. (United States)

    Wolf, Fredric M.


    Presents statistics of deaths caused by medical errors and argues the effects of misconceptions in diagnosis and treatment. Suggests evidence-based medicine to enhance the quality of practice and minimize error rates. Presents 10 evidence-based lessons and discusses the possible benefits of evidence-based medicine to evidence-based education and…

  10. Evidence-based dentistry and esthetics. (United States)

    Small, B W


    Separating hype from the truth in dental marketing can be frustrating and it is difficult at best for the average dentist to evaluate the safety and efficacy of new products and techniques. Keynote clinicians are presenting information and influencing other dentists without the scientific evidence to support their claims. For the benefit of our patients, the system needs to change. It will not come soon, but until more evidence-based testing is commonplace and made readily available to the practicing dentist, most dentists will continue tradition-based practices.

  11. Observation, Sherlock Holmes, and Evidence Based Medicine. (United States)

    Osborn, John


    Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, the creator of the fictional detective Sherlock Holmes, studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh between 1876 and 1881 under Doctor Joseph Bell who emphasised in his teaching the importance of observation, deduction and evidence. Sherlock Holmes was modelled on Joseph Bell. The modern notions of Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) are not new. A very brief indication of some of the history of EBM is presented including a discussion of the important and usually overlooked contribution of statisticians to the Popperian philosophy of EBM.

  12. Autism and vaccination-the current evidence. (United States)

    Miller, Lisa; Reynolds, Joni


    The purpose of this article is to review relevant background literature regarding the evidence linking thimerosal-containing vaccine and the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine to autism. Rigorous scientific studies have not identified links between autism and either thimerosal-containing vaccine or the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine. Nurses are often in the position of providing advice regarding vaccines in their formal practice areas as well as in their daily lives. Families need current and credible evidence to make decisions for their children. Excellent vaccine information resources are available online.

  13. Utility-driven evidence for healthy cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Leeuw, Evelyne; Skovgaard, Thomas


    The question whether the WHO Healthy Cities project 'works' has been asked ever since a number of novel ideas and actions related to community health, health promotion and healthy public policy in the mid 1980s came together in the Healthy Cities Movement initiated by the World Health Organization...... challenges for further development and evidence-oriented evaluations of Healthy Cities. There are problems with (1) the communication of evidence, (2) the tension between the original intention of the Healthy Cities Movement and its current operations, and (3) the complex nature of Healthy Cities...

  14. Evidence Based Practice: Science? Or Art? (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis


    Full Text Available Evidence based library and information practice (EBLIP is a strategy to bridge research and practice. Generally EBLIP is seen as a movement to encourage and give practitioners the means to incorporate research into their practice, where it previously may have been lacking. The widely accepted definition of EBLIP (Booth, 2000 stresses three aspects that contribute to a practice that is evidence based: 1 "the best available evidence;" 2 "moderated by user needs and preferences;" 3 "applied to improve the quality of professional judgements." The area that the EBLIP movement has focused on is how to create and understand the best available research evidence. CE courses, critical appraisal checklists, and many articles have been written to address a need for librarian education in this area, and it seems that strides have been made.But very little in the EBLIP literature talks about how we make professional judgements, or moderate evidence based on our user needs and preferences. Likewise, how do we make good evidence based decisions when our evidence base is weak. These things seem to be elements we just take for granted or can’t translate into words. It is in keeping with tacit knowledge that librarians just seem to have or acquire skills with education and on the job experience. Tacit knowledge is "knowledge that is not easily articulated, and frequently involves knowledge of how to do things. We can infer its existence only by observing behaviour and determining that this sort of knowledge is a precondition for effective performance" (Patel, Arocha, & Kaufman, 1999, p.78. It is something that is difficult to translate into an article or guideline for how we work. I think of this area as the "art" of evidence based practice. And the art is crucial to being an evidence based practitioner.Science = systematized knowledge, explicit research, methodological examination, investigation, dataArt = professional knowledge of your craft, intuition

  15. [Evidence of dermatological effects of chamomile]. (United States)

    Rügge, Simone Danty; Nielsen, Maiken; Jacobsen, Andreas Skovgård; Vang, Ole; Jemec, Gregor B E


    Recent years have seen a rise in the demand for dermatological herbal and plant products as well as products containing chamomile. Extracts and decoctions made from this plant are often recommended by laymen for treatment of a number of skin diseases e.g. inflammation, wounds and itching. This systematic review explores the evidence base of the dermatological effects of chamomile. While numerous beneficial effects of chamomile have been suggested no studies have so far been able to substantiate these claims significantly. The absence of evidence is primarily caused by the design and quality of the studies identified.

  16. Evidence-based medicine Training: Kazakhstan experience. (United States)

    Kamalbekova, G; Kalieva, M


    Understanding principles of evidence-based medicine is of vital importance for improving quality of care, promoting public health and health system development. Understanding principles of evidence-based medicine allows using the most powerful information source, which have ever existed in medicine. To evaluate the effectiveness of teaching Evidence-Based Medicine, including long-term outcomes of training. The study was conducted at the Medical University of Astana, where the Scientific and Educational Center of Evidence-Based Medicine was established in 2010 with the help of the corresponding project of the World Bank. The participants of the study were the faculty trained in Evidence-Based Medicine at the workshop "Introduction to Evidence-Based Medicine" for the period of 2010-2015 years. There were a total of 16 workshops during the period, and 323 employees were trained. All participants were asked to complete our questionnaire two times: before the training - pre-training (to determine the initial level of a listener) and after the training - post-training (to determine the acquired level and get the feedback). Questionnaires were prepared in such a way, that the majority of questions before and after training were identical. Thus, it provided a clear picture of the effectiveness of training. Questions in the survey were open-ended so that the respondents had the opportunity to freely and fully express their views. The main part of the questionnaires included the following questions: "Do you understand what evidence-based medicine is", "how do you understand what the study design means", "what is randomization", "how research is classified", "do you know the steps of decision-making according to Evidence-Based Medicine, list them", "what literature do you prefer to use when searching for information (print, electronic, etc.)", "what resources on the Internet do you prefer to use". Only 30-35% of respondents gave correct answers to the questions on

  17. The GRADE approach is reproducible in assessing the quality of evidence of quantitative evidence syntheses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Reem A; Santesso, Nancy; Brozek, Jan


    We evaluated the inter-rater reliability (IRR) of assessing the quality of evidence (QoE) using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach.......We evaluated the inter-rater reliability (IRR) of assessing the quality of evidence (QoE) using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach....

  18. Leveraging Evidence-Based Practice through Partnerships Based on Practice-Based Evidence (United States)

    Cook, Bryan G.; Cook, Lysandra


    Evidence-based practice is among the most influential and compelling reforms in contemporary education. Despite their potential to improve the outcomes of students with disabilities, adoption and implementation of evidence-based reforms have been disappointing, with the gap between research and practice remaining wide. Practice-based evidence…

  19. Incorporating Evidence and Politics in Health Policy: Can Institutionalising Evidence Review Make a Difference? (United States)

    Flitcroft, Kathy; Gillespie, James; Carter, Stacy; Salkeld, Glenn; Trevena, Lyndal


    Much of the evidence translation literature focuses narrowly on the use of evidence in the initial policy formulation stages, and downplays the crucial role of institutions and the inherently political nature of policy making. More recent approaches acknowledge the importance of institutional and political factors, but make no attempt to…

  20. Evidence at a glance: error matrix approach for overviewing available evidence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keus, F.; Wetterslev, J.; Gluud, C.; Laarhoven, C.J.H.M. van


    BACKGROUND: Clinical evidence continues to expand and is increasingly difficult to overview. We aimed at conceptualizing a visual assessment tool, i.e., a matrix for overviewing studies and their data in order to assess the clinical evidence at a glance. METHODS: A four-step matrix was constructed

  1. Evidence and evidence gaps in the treatment of Eustachian tube dysfunction and otitis media (United States)

    Teschner, Magnus


    Evidence-based medicine is an approach to medical treatment intended to optimize patient-oriented decision-making on the basis of empirically proven effectiveness. For this purpose, a classification system has been established to categorize studies – and hence therapy options – in respect of associated evidence according to defined criteria. The Eustachian tube connects the nasopharynx with the middle ear cavity. Its key function is to ensure middle ear ventilation. Compromised ventilation results in inflammatory middle ear disorders. Numerous evidence-based therapy options are available for the treatment of impaired middle ear ventilation and otitis media, the main therapeutic approach being antibiotic treatment. More recent procedures such as balloon dilation of the Eustachian tube have also shown initial success but must undergo further evaluation with regard to evidence. There is, as yet, no evidence for some of the other long-established procedures. Owing to the multitude of variables, the classification of evidence levels for various treatment approaches calls for highly diversified assessment. Numerous evidence-based studies are therefore necessary in order to evaluate the evidence pertaining to existing and future therapy solutions for impaired middle ear ventilation and otitis media. If this need is addressed, a wealth of implications can be expected for therapeutic approaches in the years to come. PMID:28025605

  2. How to proceed when evidence-based practice is required but very little evidence available?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Lanlo, Olivier; Walker, Bruce F


    All clinicians of today know that scientific evidence is the base on which clinical practice should rest. However, this is not always easy, in particular in those disciplines, where the evidence is scarce. Although the last decades have brought an impressive production of research that is of inte...

  3. A population perspective to evidence based medicine: "evidence for population health"


    Heller, R; Page, J


    We explore the notion that the public health community could learn lessons from the success of evidence based medicine (EBM) and develop a public health counterpart called "Evidence for Population Health". While EBM focuses on individual patients, its public health counterpart would aim to improve the health of communities effectively and efficiently.

  4. Towards Trustable Digital Evidence with PKIDEV: PKI Based Digital Evidence Verification Model (United States)

    Uzunay, Yusuf; Incebacak, Davut; Bicakci, Kemal

    How to Capture and Preserve Digital Evidence Securely? For the investigation and prosecution of criminal activities that involve computers, digital evidence collected in the crime scene has a vital importance. On one side, it is a very challenging task for forensics professionals to collect them without any loss or damage. On the other, there is the second problem of providing the integrity and authenticity in order to achieve legal acceptance in a court of law. By conceiving digital evidence simply as one instance of digital data, it is evident that modern cryptography offers elegant solutions for this second problem. However, to our knowledge, there is not any previous work proposing a systematic model having a holistic view to address all the related security problems in this particular case of digital evidence verification. In this paper, we present PKIDEV (Public Key Infrastructure based Digital Evidence Verification model) as an integrated solution to provide security for the process of capturing and preserving digital evidence. PKIDEV employs, inter alia, cryptographic techniques like digital signatures and secure time-stamping as well as latest technologies such as GPS and EDGE. In our study, we also identify the problems public-key cryptography brings when it is applied to the verification of digital evidence.

  5. Evidence-Based Policy or Policy-Based Evidence? Reflections on Scottish Experience (United States)

    Sanderson, Ian


    Devolved government in Scotland is maturing and seeking new policy approaches to complex economic and social problems. A recent shift of focus towards outcomes signals potential strengthening of the role of evidence in policy making and the development of strategic policy frameworks has involved extensive use of evidence. The way in which evidence…

  6. Competency, confidence and conflicting evidence: key issues affecting health visitors' use of research evidence in practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calnan Michael


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health visitors play a pivotal position in providing parents with up-to-date evidence-based care on child health. The recent controversy over the safety of the MMR vaccine has drawn attention to the difficulties they face when new research which raises doubts about current guidelines and practices is published. In the aftermath of the MMR controversy, this paper investigates the sources health visitors use to find out about new research evidence on immunisation and examines barriers and facilitators to using evidence in practice. It also assesses health visitors' confidence in using research evidence. Methods Health visitors were recruited from the 2007 UK Community Practitioners' and Health Visitors' Association conference. All delegates were eligible to complete the questionnaire if in their current professional role they advise parents about childhood immunisation or administer vaccines to children. Of 228 who were eligible, 185 completed the survey (81.1%. Results These health visitors used a wide range of resources to find out about new research evidence on childhood immunisation. Popular sources included information leaflets and publications, training days, nursing journals and networking with colleagues. A lack of time was cited as the main barrier to searching for new evidence. The most common reason given for not using research in practice was a perception of conflicting research evidence. Understanding the evidence was a key facilitator. Health visitors expressed less confidence about searching and explaining research on childhood immunisation than evidence on weaning and a baby's sleep position. Conclusion Even motivated health visitors feel they lack the time and, in some cases, the skills to locate and appraise research evidence. This research suggests that of the provision of already-appraised research would help to keep busy health professionals informed, up-to-date and confident in responding to public

  7. Justifying Physical Education Based on Neuroscience Evidence (United States)

    Berg, Kris


    Research has shown that exercise improves cognitive function and psychological traits that influence behavior (e.g., mood, level of motivation). The evidence in the literature also shows that physical education may enhance learning or that academic performance is at least maintained despite a reduction in classroom time in order to increase time…

  8. Income Aspirations and Cooperation : Experimental Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalton, P.S.


    This article is the first attempt to study the empirical link between income aspirations and cooperation in a one shot public good game. By combining experimental with survey data, we find evidence that the more frustrated people are with their income, the lower is their propensity to cooperate with

  9. Comment on "Evidence for mesothermy in dinosaurs". (United States)

    Myhrvold, Nathan P


    Grady et al. (Reports, 13 June 2014, p. 1268) studied dinosaur metabolism by comparison of maximum somatic growth rate allometry with groups of known metabolism. They concluded that dinosaurs exhibited mesothermy, a metabolic rate intermediate between endothermy and ectothermy. Multiple statistical and methodological issues call into question the evidence for dinosaur mesothermy. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Evidence-based care and the curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winning, T.; Needleman, I.; Rohlin, M.; Carrassi, A.; Chadwick, B.; Eaton, K.; Hardwick, K.; Ivancakova, R.; Jallaludin, R.L.; Johnsen, D.; Kim, J.G.; Lekkas, D.; Li, D.; Onisei, D.; Pissiotis, A.; Reynolds, P.; Tonni, I.; Vanobbergen, J.; Vassileva, R.; Virtanen, J.; Wesselink, P.R.; Wilson, N.


    An evidence-based (EB) approach has been a significant driver in reforming healthcare over the past two decades. This change has extended across a broad range of health professions, including oral healthcare. A key element in achieving an EB approach to oral healthcare is educating our

  11. Competent in evidence-based practice (EBP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Spek; M. Wieringa-de Waard; C. Lucas; N. van Dijk


    BACKGROUND: Worldwide speech-language therapy (SLT) students are educated in evidence-based practice (EBP). For students to use EBP in their future day-to-day clinical practice, they must value EBP as positive and must feel confident in using it. For curricula developers it is therefore important to

  12. Evidence for Future Cognition in Animals (United States)

    Roberts, William A.


    Evidence concerning the possibility of mental time travel into the future by animals was reviewed. Both experimental laboratory studies and field observations were considered. Paradigms for the study of future anticipation and planning included inhibition of consumption of current food contingent on future receipt of either a larger quantity or…

  13. IPJP 12(2) - Evidence.indb

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    relationships, the notion of body-world unity, and the phenomenological understanding that the intra- personal, interpersonal, and social agency are a single ongoing process as well as the notion of evidence in phenomenological thought. Additionally, there is discussion around how the human condition can be understood ...

  14. Linking anthropological analysis and epidemiological evidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of Pierre Bourdieu is “violence which is exercised upon a social agent with his or her complicity”. (Bourdieu & Wacquant 2004, p. 272). Bourdieu. Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS. VOL. 4 NO. 2 AUGUST 2007. 594. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Linking anthropological analysis and epidemiological evidence: Formulating a ...

  15. Spatial inequalities explained: evidence from Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Gräb (Johannes); M. Grimm (Michael)


    textabstractEmpirical evidence suggests that regional disparities in incomes are often very high, that these disparities do not necessarily disappear as economies grow and that these disparities are itself an important driver of growth. We use a novel approach based on multilevel modeling to

  16. 49 CFR 511.43 - Evidence. (United States)


    ... cumulative evidence. (e) Official notice—(1) Definition. Official notice means use by the Presiding Officer... is, whether to limit the party to presentation of written materials, whether to allow presentation of... are based. Rulings on all objections, and the bases therefore, shall appear on the record. Formal...

  17. Environment and Happiness: New Evidence for Spain (United States)

    Cunado, Juncal; Perez de Gracia, Fernando


    This paper explores the relationship between air pollution, climate and reported subjective well-being (or happiness) in Spanish regions. The results show that, after controlling for most of the socio-economic variables affecting happiness, there are still significant regional differences in subjective well-being. Evidence also suggests that…

  18. Digital Natives: Where Is the Evidence? (United States)

    Helsper, Ellen Johanna; Eynon, Rebecca


    Generational differences are seen as the cause of wide shifts in our ability to engage with technologies and the concept of the digital native has gained popularity in certain areas of policy and practice. This paper provides evidence, through the analysis of a nationally representative survey in the UK, that generation is only one of the…

  19. Learning From Others About Research Evidence (editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Brettle


    Full Text Available Welcome to the June issue of EBLIP, our firstto be published with an HTML version as wellas PDFs for each article. I hope you enjoy andfind the alternative formats useful. As usualthe issue comprises an interesting range ofevidence summaries and articles that I hopeyou will find useful in applying evidence toyour practice.When considering evidence, two recent trips toEdinburgh got me thinking about the widerange of study designs or methods that areuseful for generating evidence, and also howwe can learn about their use from otherprofessions.The first trip was as part of the cadre of the LISDREaM project ( has been set up by the LISResearch Coalition to develop a sustainableLIS research network in the UK. As part ofthis, a series of workshops aims to introduceLIS practitioners to a wider range of researchmethods, thus expanding the methods used inLIS research. Indeed, a quick scan of thecontents of this issue show a preponderance ofsurveys, interviews, and citation analysis,suggesting that broadening our knowledge ofmethods may well be a useful idea. Theworkshops are highly interactive and, at eachsession experts from outside the LIS disciplineintroduce particular research methods andoutline how they could be used in LISapplications. As a result, I can see the valueand understand when to use research methodssuch as social network analysis, horizonscanning, ethnography, discourse analysis, andrepertory grids – as well as knowing that datamining is something I’m likely to avoid! So farI’ve shared my new knowledge with a PhDstudent who was considering her methodologyand incorporated my new knowledge ofhorizon scanning into a bid for researchfunding. The next (and more exciting step isto think of a situation where I can apply one ofthese methods to examining an aspect of LIS practice.The second trip was the British Association ofCounselling and Psychotherapy ResearchConference, an event which I

  20. Current Evidence Supporting Obstetric Fistula Prevention Strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grey literature provided context. Evidences from the articles were linked to prevention strategies retrieved from grey literature. The strategies were classified using an innovative target-focused method. Gaps in the literature show the need for fistula prevention research to aim at systematically measuring incidence and ...

  1. 16 CFR 3.43 - Evidence. (United States)


    ... required to sustain the burden of proof with respect thereto. (b) Admissibility. Relevant, material, and... constitutes hearsay may be admitted if it is relevant, material, and bears satisfactory indicia of reliability... introduce evidence to rebut a presumption that such documents are authentic and kept in the regular course...

  2. Evidence-based recommendation on toothpaste use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Aparecido Cury


    Full Text Available Toothpaste can be used as a vehicle for substances to improve the oral health of individuals and populations. Therefore, it should be recommended based on the best scientific evidence available, and not on the opinion of authorities or specialists. Fluoride is the most important therapeutic substance used in toothpastes, adding to the effect of mechanical toothbrushing on dental caries control. The use of fluoride toothpaste to reduce caries in children and adults is strongly based on evidence, and is dependent on the concentration (minimum of 1000 ppm F and frequency of fluoride toothpaste use (2'/day or higher. The risk of dental fluorosis due to toothpaste ingestion by children has been overestimated, since there is no evidence that: 1 fluoride toothpaste use should be postponed until the age of 3-4 or older, 2 low-fluoride toothpaste avoids fluorosis and 3 fluorosis has a detrimental effect on the quality of life of individuals exposed to fluoridated water and toothpaste. Among other therapeutic substances used in toothpastes, there is evidence that triclosan/copolymer reduce dental biofilm, gingivitis, periodontitis, calculus and halitosis, and that toothpastes containing stannous fluoride reduce biofilm and gingivitis.

  3. Supporting graduation programs through empirical evidence and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Supporting graduation programs through empirical evidence and leadership promotion. This project will support the scaling up of locally-tested interventions aimed at improving the livelihoods of women and youth in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. It targets special interventions for people who have fallen through the cracks ...

  4. Evidence Based Complementary Intervention for Insomnia


    Lopez, Dr. Hassen H.; Bracha, Adam S.; Bracha, Dr. Stefan


    Increasing scientific evidence point to a non-pharmacological complementary treatment for insomnia: white noise. Its presentation has been shown to induce sleep in human neonates and adults, probably by reducing the signal-to-noise ratio of ambient sound. White noise may be a simple, safe, cost-effective alternative to hypnotic medication in many psychiatric disorders, especially acute stress disorder and PTSD.

  5. Evidence based complementary intervention for insomnia. (United States)

    López, Hassan H; Bracha, Adam S; Bracha, H Stefan


    Increasing scientific evidence point to a non-pharmacological complementary treatment for insomnia: white noise. Its presentation has been shown to induce sleep in human neonates and adults, probably by reducing the signal-to-noise ratio of ambient sound. White noise may be a simple, safe, cost-effective alternative to hypnotic medication in many psychiatric disorders, especially acute stress disorder and PTSD.

  6. Anchored Narratives in Reasoning about Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bex, F.J.; Prakken, H; Verheij, B; van Engers, T M


    This paper concerns the reasoning with stories, evidence and generalisations in a legal context. We will make some notions from the existing Anchored Narratives theory more clear by making use of two formal techniques from Al. namely causal-abductive reasoning and default-style argumentation. We

  7. Anchored narratives in reasoning about evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bex, F.J.; Prakken, H.; Verheij, B.


    This paper concerns the reasoning with stories, evidence and generalisations in a legal context. We will make some notions from the existing Anchored Narratives theory more clear by making use of two formal techniques from AI, namely causal-abductive reasoning and default-style argumentation. We


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Botha. 1. This paper deals at two levels with the question of whether there is a separate component of the grammar that is specifically concerned with the structure of words.1 At a more concrete level, the paper presents semantic evidence.

  9. Mobilising the "F" in CFSP: written evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blockmans, S.


    Written evidence for the House of Lords, EU External Affairs Sub-Committee, 11 Nov 2015. The June 2015 European Council tasked the High Representative Federica Mogherini with preparing, in close cooperation with Member States, an EU global strategy on foreign and security policy, to be submitted to

  10. When general practitioners meet new evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ole


    , 2011–2013, while the author tried to set up formal focus group interviews. Dialogues about the evidence, personal experiences, values and other issues unavoidably occurred. Field notes were written concomitantly. Setting: Danish GPs, primarily in Copenhagen. Subjects: Fifty Danish GPs. Results: The GPs...

  11. Evidence, Analysis and Advocacy for Equity- The

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evidence, Analysis and Advocacy for Equity- The. Perspective of the Malawi Health Equity Network. John Njunga', Alinafe Kasiya2. ' Malawi Health Equity Network. 2 Care International Malawi, Board Member Malawi Health Equity Network. Introduction. This paper presents a synopsis of experiences of Malawi Health.

  12. On data transformations and evidence of nonlinearity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. de Bruin (Paul); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)


    textabstractIn this paper we examine the interaction between data transformation and the empirical evidence obtained when testing for (non-)linearity. For this purpose we examine nonlinear features in 64 monthly and 53 quarterly US macroeconomic variables for a range of Box-Cox data

  13. Wellness programs: a review of the evidence


    Watt, D.; Verma, S; Flynn, L


    OBJECTIVE: To review studies that have examined an association between wellness programs and improvements in quality of life and to assess the strength of the scientific evidence. DATA SOURCES: A MEDLINE search was constructed with the following medical subject headings: "psychoneuroimmunology," "chronic disease" and "health promotion," "chronic disease" and "health behaviour," "relaxation techniques," "music therapy," "laughter," "anger," "mediation" and "behavioural medicine." Searches usin...

  14. Assessing School Turnaround: Evidence from Ohio (United States)

    Player, Daniel; Katz, Veronica


    Policy makers have struggled to find successful approaches to address concentrated, persistent low school achievement. While NCLB and the School Improvement Grant (SIG) program have devoted significant time and attention to turnaround, very little empirical evidence substantiates whether and how these efforts work. This study employs a comparative…

  15. African American Homeschooling Practices: Empirical Evidence (United States)

    Mazama, Ama


    Despite a significant increase in scholarly interest for homeschooling, some of its most critical aspects, such as instructional daily practices, remain grossly understudied. This essay thus seeks to fill that void by presenting empirical evidence regarding the homeschooling practices of a specific group, African Americans. Most specifically, the…

  16. An evidence-based view on hyperbilirubinaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Peter H.; Hulzebos, Christian V.

    Introduction: We conducted a review of the evidence which contributes to the current care of jaundiced newborn infants. Methods: Literature was searched for reviews and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Results: Six Cochrane reviews and eight other reviews and eighteen recent RCTs are discussed.

  17. 39 CFR 3001.31 - Evidence. (United States)


    ... variables; (c) A description of input and output data file organization; (d) A hard copy of all data bases... shall be deemed evidence in the proceeding or any questions are put to them. (b) Documentary material—(1) General. Documents and detailed data and information shall be presented as exhibits. Exhibits should be...

  18. Engaging Utopia through Evidence | Seedat | African Safety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 1 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Engaging Utopia through Evidence.

  19. Finding Evidence for Updates in Medical Guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Roelof; ten Teije, Annette; Huang, Zisheng


    Medical guidelines are documents that describe optimal treatment for patients by medical practitioners based on current medical research (evidence), in the form of step-by-step recommendations. Because the field of medical research is very large and always evolving, keeping these guidelines

  20. Linking anthropological analysis and epidemiological evidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attempting to formulate a clearer narrative of HIV transmission in Acholiland, this paper jointly analyses the historical and political context of the Acholi people and the war, the epidemiologic evidence of HIV prevalence patterns, and the ethnographic perspectives of Acholi healthcare workers and patients living with ...

  1. Theory- and evidence-based Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Poul


    In this paper, a model for assessment and intervention is presented. This model explains how to perform theory- and evidence-based as well as practice-based assessment and intervention. The assessment model applies a holistic approach to treatment planning which includes recognition...

  2. Evidence-Based Practices and Autism (United States)

    Mesibov, Gary B.; Shea, Victoria


    Interventions for autism are increasing being held to standards such as "evidence-based practice" in psychology and "scientifically-based research" in education. When these concepts emerged in the context of adult psychotherapy and regular education, they caused considerable controversy. Application of the concepts to autism treatments and special…

  3. Specializing CRISP-DM for evidence mining

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venter, JP


    Full Text Available the specialization of CRISP-DM, a cross-industry standard process for data mining, to CRISP-EM, an evidence mining methodology designed specifically for digital forensics. In addition to supporting forensic analysis, the CRISP-EM methodology offers a structured...

  4. [Psychosis and addiction: The evidence cemetery]. (United States)

    Potvin, Stéphane; Lalonde, Martin


    Objectives The comorbidity between psychosis and substance use has attracted wide attention over the years, and a vast literature is now available for meta-analytic treatment. In the field, a majority of authors assume that cannabis smoking is a risk factor for psychosis, that substance abuse is highly prevalent in schizophrenia, that substance abuse worsens the prognosis of schizophrenia, and that integrated treatments have greater efficacy than treatment-as-usual for this complex population. The objective of the current article is to review the meta-analyses that have been published in the comorbidity field in order to determine if the above-mentioned assumptions are substantiated by evidence or not. Methods A search of the literature was performed using PubMed, PsycINFO and EMBASE. The literature search retrieved a total of 25 systematic quantitative reviews, addressing the following issues: etiology, age at onset, prevalence rates, cognition, treatment, as well as psychiatric, neurologic and functional outcomes. Results Evidence shows that the prevalence of tobacco smoking, cannabis smoking and alcohol use is elevated in psychosis. However, this prevalence is likely to be over-estimated since studies have been performed in clinical settings rather than the general population. Reliable evidence also suggests that cannabis smoking is a risk factor for psychosis outcomes. However, the association is rather small and it remains difficult to draw an unequivocal public health message from this literature. In the same vein, evidence suggests that cannabis smoking is associated with an earlier age at onset of psychosis. However, this observation is derived from cross-sectional studies, not longitudinal ones; thus, no undisputable claims on causality can be made from them. On clinical grounds, some evidence also suggests that substance use is associated with self-harm, increased positive and depressive symptoms in psychosis patients, but this evidence is derived from

  5. Employing Evidence Evidence: Does it Have a Job in Vocational Libraries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad Jones


    Full Text Available Objective - Evidence-based librarianship (EBL springs ffrom medical and academic origins. As librarians are tertiary educated (only occasionally with supplementary qualifications covering research and statistics EBL has an academic focus. The EBL literature has significant content from school and university perspectives, but has had little, if any, vocational content. This paper suggests a possible Evidence Based Librarianship context for vocational libraries. Methods - A multidisciplinary scan of evidence based literature was undertaken, covering medicine and allied health, librarianship, law, science and education. National and international vocational education developments were examined. The concept and use of evidence in vocational libraries was considered. Results - Library practice can generally benefit from generic empirical science methodologies used elsewhere. Different areas, however, may have different concepts of what constitutes evidence and appropriate methodologies. Libraries also need to reflect the evidence used in their host organisations. The Australian vocational librarian has been functioning in an evidence based educational sector: national, transportable, prescriptive, competancy based and outcomes drived Training Packages. These require a qualitatively different concept of evidence compared to the other educational sectors as they reflect pragmatic, economic, employability outcomes. Conclusions - Vocational and other librarians have been doing research but need to be more systematic about design and analysis. Librarians need to develop 'evidence literacy' as one of their professional evaluation skills. Libraries will need to utilise evidence relevant to their host organisations to esablish and maintain credibility, and in the vocational sector this is set in a competency based framework. Competancy based measures are becoming increasingly relevant in school and university(including medical education.

  6. Cellulite: an evidence-based review. (United States)

    Luebberding, Stefanie; Krueger, Nils; Sadick, Neil S


    Cellulite is a multifactorial condition that is present in 80-90 % of post-pubertal women. Despite its high prevalence, it remains a major cosmetic concern for women. A wide range of products and treatments for cellulite reduction is available; however, no systematic review has been performed so far to evaluate the efficacy of the available treatment options for cellulite. The objective of this review is to provide a systematic evaluation of the scientific evidence of the efficacy of treatments for cellulite reduction. This systematic review followed the PRISMA guidelines for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Only original articles in English or German reporting data on the efficacy of cellulite treatments from in vivo human studies were considered. In total, 67 articles were analyzed for the following information: therapy, presence of a control group, randomization, blinding, sample size, description of statistical methods, results, and level of evidence. Most of the evaluated studies, including laser- and light-based modalities, radiofrequency, and others had important methodological flaws; some did not use cellulite severity as an endpoint or did not provide sufficient statistical analyses. Of the 67 studies analyzed in this review, only 19 were placebo-controlled studies with randomization. Some evidence for potential benefit was only seen for acoustic wave therapy (AWT) and the 1440 nm Nd:YAG minimally invasive laser. This article provides a systematic evaluation of the scientific evidence of the efficacy of treatment for cellulite reduction. No clear evidence of good efficacy could be identified in any of the evaluated cellulite treatments.

  7. Evidence-based radiology: why and how?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardanelli, Francesco; Di Leo, Giovanni [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze Medico-Chirurgiche, Unita di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Via Morandi 30, San Donato Milanese, Milan (Italy); Hunink, Myriam G. [Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Harvard School of Public Health, Program for Health Decision Science, Boston, MA (United States); Gilbert, Fiona J. [University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen Biomedical Imaging Centre, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Krestin, Gabriel P. [Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands)


    To provide an overview of evidence-based medicine (EBM) in relation to radiology and to define a policy for adoption of this principle in the European radiological community. Starting from Sackett's definition of EBM we illustrate the top-down and bottom-up approaches to EBM as well as EBM's limitations. Delayed diffusion and peculiar features of evidence-based radiology (EBR) are defined with emphasis on the need to shift from the demonstration of the increasing ability to see more and better, to the demonstration of a significant change in treatment planning or, at best, of a significant gain in patient outcome. The ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) principle is thought as a dimension of EBR while EBR is proposed as part of the core curriculum of radiology residency. Moreover, we describe the process of health technology assessment in radiology with reference to the six-level scale of hierarchy of studies on diagnostic tests, the main sources of bias in studies on diagnostic performance, and levels of evidence and degrees of recommendations according to the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (Oxford, UK) as well as the approach proposed by the GRADE working group. Problems and opportunities offered by evidence-based guidelines in radiology are considered. Finally, we suggest nine points to be actioned by the ESR in order to promote EBR. Radiology will benefit greatly from the improvement in practice that will result from adopting this more rigorous approach to all aspects of our work. (orig.)

  8. Nutrition and sarcopenia: evidence for an interaction. (United States)

    Millward, D Joe


    Nutritional interventions that might influence sarcopenia, as indicated by literature reporting on sarcopenia per se as well as dynapenia and frailty, are reviewed in relation to potential physiological aetiological factors, i.e. inactivity, anabolic resistance, inflammation, acidosis and vitamin D deficiency. As sarcopenia occurs in physically active and presumably well-nourished populations, it is argued that a simple nutritional aetiology is unlikely and unequivocal evidence for any nutritional influence is extremely limited. Dietary protein is probably the most widely researched nutrient but only for frailty is there one study showing evidence of an aetiological influence and most intervention studies with protein or amino acids have proved ineffective with only a very few exceptions. Fish oil has been shown to attenuate anabolic resistance of muscle protein synthesis in one study. There is limited evidence for a protective influence of antioxidants and inducers of phase 2 proteins on sarcopenia, dynapenia and anabolic resistance in human and animal studies. Also fruit and vegetables may protect against acidosis-induced sarcopenia through their provision of dietary potassium. While severe vitamin D deficiency is associated with dynapenia and sarcopenia, the evidence for a beneficial influence of increasing vitamin D status above the severe deficiency level is limited and controversial, especially in men. On this basis there is insufficient evidence for any more specific nutritional advice than that contained in the general healthy lifestyle-healthy diet message: i.e. avoiding inactivity and low intakes of food energy and nutrients and maintain an active lifestyle with a diet providing a rich supply of fruit and vegetables and frequent oily fish.

  9. Can Scholarly Communication be Evidence Based? (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis


    Full Text Available This issue of Evidence Based Library and Information Practice includes three papers from the Evidence Based Scholarly Communication Conference (EBSCC that took place in March 2010i. Kroth, Philips and Eldredge have written a commentary that gives an overview of the conference, and introduces us to the research papers that were presented. As well, two research presentations from the conference appear in this issue, an article by Donahue about a potential new method of communicating between scholars, and a paper by Gilliland in our Using Evidence in Practice section, detailing a library’s Open Access Day preparations.Kroth, Philips and Eldredge note that “The EBSCC brought together librarians and information specialists to share evidence-based strategies for developing effective local scholarly communication support and training and, hopefully, form new coalitions to address this topic at a local and national level.” (p 108. This conference focused on translational medicine, and looked at how to promote new methods of scholarly communication, partially through the inclusion of research papers at the conference.The inclusion of these articles and the evidence based focus of the EBSCC conference, made me ask myself, can scholarly communication be evidence based? At its core, scholarly communication is anything but a scientific issue. It is charged with emotion; from authors, publishers, librarians and others involved in the business of publishing. The recent shift to look at new models of scholarly communication has been a threat to many of the established models and sparked much debate in the academic world, especially in relation to open access. In her 2006 EBLIP commentary on evidence based practice and open access, Morrison notes, “Open Access and evidence based librarianship are a natural combination” (p. 49, and outlines her perspective on many of the reasons why. Debate continues to rage, however, regarding how authors should

  10. Putting evidence into nursing practice: four traditional practices not supported by the evidence. (United States)

    Makic, Mary Beth Flynn; Martin, Sarah A; Burns, Suzanne; Philbrick, Dinah; Rauen, Carol


    Evidence-based nursing practice is essential to the delivery of high-quality care that optimizes patients' outcomes. Studies continue to show improved outcomes when best evidence is used in the delivery of patient care. Despite awareness of the importance of practicing by using best evidence, achieving and sustaining evidence-based practice within practice environments can be challenging, and research suggests that integration of evidence-based practice into daily clinical practice remains inconsistent. This article addresses 4 practice issues that, first, are within the realm of nursing and if changed might improve care of patients and, second, are areas in which the tradition and the evidence do not agree and practice continues to follow tradition. The topics addressed are (1) noninvasive measurement of blood pressure in children, (2) oxygen administration for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, (3) intravenous catheter size and blood administration, and (4) infection control practices to prevent infections. The related beliefs, current evidence, and recommendations for practice related to each topic are described.

  11. Limited Evidence for Robot-assisted Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Malene; Onsberg Hansen, Iben; Rosenberg, Jacob


    PURPOSE: To evaluate available evidence on robot-assisted surgery compared with open and laparoscopic surgery. METHOD: The databases Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials comparing robot-assisted surgery with open and laparoscopic...... surgery regardless of surgical procedure. Meta-analyses were performed on each outcome with appropriate data material available. Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias was used to evaluate risk of bias on a study level. The GRADE approach was used to evaluate the quality of evidence...... of the meta-analyses. RESULTS: This review included 20 studies comprising 981 patients. The meta-analyses found no significant differences between robot-assisted and laparoscopic surgery regarding blood loss, complication rates, and hospital stay. A significantly longer operative time was found for robot...

  12. Evidence-based medicine: Metacarpal fractures. (United States)

    Bloom, Jacob M P; Hammert, Warren C


    After studying this article, the participant should be able to: (1) Determine the need for operative treatment of metacarpal fractures. (2) Describe the position of immobilization for nonoperative treatment of fifth metacarpal fractures. (3) Assess the differences between intramedullary pinning and transverse pinning of displaced metacarpal fractures. (4) Compare the advantages of plating and pinning for treatment of displaced metacarpal fractures. (5) Recognize appropriate timing and treatment of open metacarpal fractures. The body of evidence regarding the treatment of metacarpal fractures continues to grow. Conservative management, closed reduction with percutaneous Kirschner wire fixation, intramedullary fixation, and open reduction and internal fixation with plates and/or screws are all accepted treatment modalities. The goal of this review is to highlight the most recent literature and the best evidence available for the management of metacarpal fractures.

  13. Evidence Based Education: un quadro storico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Vivanet


    Full Text Available Nel corso dell’ultimo decennio, nel pensiero pedagogico anglosassone, si è affermata una cultura dell’evidenza cui ci si riferisce con l’espressione “evidence based education” (EBE. Secondo tale prospettiva, le decisioni in ambito educativo dovrebbero essere assunte sulla base delle conoscenze che la ricerca empirica offre in merito alla minore o maggiore efficacia delle differenti opzioni didattiche. Si tratta di un approccio (denominato “evidence based practice” che ha origine in ambito medico e che in seguito ha trovato applicazione in differenti domini delle scienze sociali. L’autore presenta un quadro introduttivo all’EBE, dando conto delle sue origini e dei differenti significati di cui è portatrice.

  14. Creative teaching an evidence-based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Sale, Dennis


    This book contains an evidence-based pedagogic guide to enable any motivated teaching/training professional to be able to teach effectively and creatively. It firstly summarises the extensive research field on human psychological functioning relating to learning and how this can be fully utilised in the design and facilitation of quality learning experiences. It then demonstrates what creativity actually 'looks like' in terms of teaching practices, modelling the underpinning processes of creative learning design and how to apply these in lesson planning. The book, having established an evidence-based and pedagogically driven approach to creative learning design, extensively focuses on key challenges facing teaching professionals today. These include utilising information technologies in blended learning formats, differentiating instruction, and developing self-directed learners who can think well. The main purpose of the book is to demystify what it means to teach creatively, explicitly demonstrating the pr...

  15. Evidence for criticality in financial data (United States)

    Ruiz, G.; de Marcos, A. F.


    We provide evidence that cumulative distributions of absolute normalized returns for the 100 American companies with the highest market capitalization, uncover a critical behavior for different time scales Δt. Such cumulative distributions, in accordance with a variety of complex - and financial - systems, can be modeled by the cumulative distribution functions of q-Gaussians, the distribution function that, in the context of nonextensive statistical mechanics, maximizes a non-Boltzmannian entropy. These q-Gaussians are characterized by two parameters, namely ( q, β), that are uniquely defined by Δt. From these dependencies, we find a monotonic relationship between q and β, which can be seen as evidence of criticality. We numerically determine the various exponents which characterize this criticality.

  16. [Communication problems in evidence-based medicine]. (United States)

    Sachs, Lisbeth


    From a humanistic, social scientific perspective, the most complex task in evidence-based medicine lies in the communication of specialized medical knowledge to non-professionals. Information is never simply the neutral transmission of facts, not even when dealing with scientific knowledge and research. It is always interpreted and evaluated from a particular perspective in a specific context. That information can be neutral is thus a myth. In all medical consultations the process of communication is not just a matter of transmitting information from one who knows to one who does not. Knowledge created and formulated in a scientific context is thus recontextualised first in a clinical situation and then as an interpreted version in people's real lives. Furthermore there are difficulties when practice must be based on current research, in a situation in which no prior clinical experience exists and in which results are interpreted and used regardless of the relative certainty of current evidence.

  17. Evidence-based hypnotherapy for depression. (United States)

    Alladin, Assen


    Cognitive hypnotherapy (CH) is a comprehensive evidence-based hypnotherapy for clinical depression. This article describes the major components of CH, which integrate hypnosis with cognitive-behavior therapy as the latter provides an effective host theory for the assimilation of empirically supported treatment techniques derived from various theoretical models of psychotherapy and psychopathology. CH meets criteria for an assimilative model of psychotherapy, which is considered to be an efficacious model of psychotherapy integration. The major components of CH for depression are described in sufficient detail to allow replication, verification, and validation of the techniques delineated. CH for depression provides a template that clinicians and investigators can utilize to study the additive effects of hypnosis in the management of other psychological or medical disorders. Evidence-based hypnotherapy and research are encouraged; such a movement is necessary if clinical hypnosis is to integrate into mainstream psychotherapy.

  18. Digital Evidence Education in Schools of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Alva


    Full Text Available An examination of State of Connecticut v. Julie Amero provides insight into how a general lack of understanding of digital evidence can cause an innocent defendant to be wrongfully convicted. By contrast, the 101-page opinion in Lorraine v. Markel American Insurance Co. provides legal precedence and a detailed consideration for the admission of digital evidence. An analysis of both cases leads the authors to recommend additions to Law School curricula designed to raise the awareness of the legal community to ensure such travesties of justice, as in the Amero case, don’t occur in the future. Work underway at the University of Washington designed to address this deficiency is discussed.

  19. Apparent skepticism: capital punishment and medical evidence. (United States)

    Helminski, F


    In recent cases on the constitutionality of sentencing to death criminals who were younger than 18 years of age at the time of their crimes or who are mentally retarded, the US Supreme Court has rejected medical evidence that such persons categorically possess diminished culpability. Rather, the Court has accepted the public's "apparent skepticism" of such a scientific consensus in upholding the execution of capital offenders who are 16 years of age or older. The 1952 English case of Craig and Bentley sparked discussion of similar issues in the United Kingdom and contributed to the abolition of capital punishment for murder in that country. US courts should have more deference for such medical evidence, despite perceived widespread resistance to the conclusions of researchers that adolescents and mentally retarded persons categorically lack sufficient maturity, judgment, and deliberation to receive capital punishment and that they are not deterred from murder by the threat of execution.

  20. Reciprocity in organisations: Evidence from the UK


    Englmaier, Florian; Kolaska, Thomas; Leider, Stephen


    Recent laboratory evidence suggests that personality traits, in particular social preferences, may affect contractual outcomes under moral hazard. Using the British Workplace Employment Relations Survey 2004 we find that behaviour of employers and employees is consistent with the presence of gift-exchange motives: firms that screen applicants for personality are less likely to pay low wages and more likely to provide (non-pecuniary) benefits. Firms likewise benefit from employee screening as ...

  1. Reciprocity in Organisations - Evidence from the WERS


    Florian Englmaier; Thomas Kolaska; Stephen G. Leider


    Recent laboratory evidence suggests that social preferences may affect contractual outcomes under moral hazard. In accordance with previous research, this paper uses written personality tests for job candidates as a proxy for whether firms care about personality traits of employees, in particular whether these employees are inclined towards reciprocity. Using the British Workplace Employment Relations Survey 2004 (WERS) we find that behavior of employers and employees is consistent with the p...

  2. ‘Fantastic hands' - But no evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Kryger; Baarts, Charlotte


    Both in the Scandinavian welfare states and elsewhere the private CAM market acts as a health provider alongside the state. There is very limited established scientific evidence for the effects of treatments and often they are non-authorised. How, then, do users construct and attribute expertise ...... can offer to a democratised and customer-sensitive system of health care as an area of inquiry that holds promise for providing a sociological approach to the domain of expertise....

  3. Standardised Packaging of Tobacco Products Evidence Review


    Department of Health (Ireland)


    The current report reviews the scientific evidence on standardised or “plain” packaging, and the extent to which plain packaging regulations would help Ireland to achieve its tobacco control objectives.   Plain packaging is a form of marketing restriction that prohibits the use of logos, colours, brand images and promotional information on tobacco packaging. Under plain packaging regulations, the colour of the pack is uniform across different brands and varieties. Regulations ma...

  4. What's Wrong with Evidence-Based Medicine? (United States)

    Fins, Joseph J


    Medicine in the last decades of the twentieth century was ripe for a data sweep that would bring systematic analysis to treatment strategies that seemingly had stood the test of time but were actually unvalidated. Coalescing under the banner of evidence-based medicine, this process has helped to standardize care, minimize error, and promote patient safety. But with this advancement, something of the art of medicine has been lost. © 2016 The Hastings Center.

  5. Evidence for a general species time arearelationship


    Adler, P. B.; White, Ethan P.; Lauenroth, W. K.; Kaufman, D. M.; Rassweiler, A.; Rusak, J. A.


    The species-area relationship (SAR) plays a central role in biodiversity research, and recent work has increased awareness of its temporal analog, the species-time relationship (STR). Here we provide evidence for a general species-time-area-relationship (STAR), in which species number is a function of the area and time span of sampling, as well as their interaction. For eight assemblages ranging from lake zooplankton to desert rodents, this model outperformed a sampling-based model and two si...

  6. Dust to Dust: Evidence for Planet Formation?


    Schneider, G.; Hines, D. C.; Silverstone, M. D.; Weinberger, A J; Becklin, E. E.; Smith, B. A.


    We discuss the properties of several circumstellar debris disk systems imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer in a survey of young stars with known far-IR excesses. These dusty disks around young ($\\sim$ 5--8 Myr) unembedded stars exhibit morphological anisotropies and other characteristics which are suggestive of recent or on-going planet formation. We consider evidence for the evolution of populations of collisionally produced disk grains...

  7. The Evidence Base of Czech Health Policy


    Jan Klusáček; Marie Klusáčková


    The article deals with the evidence base of health policy in the Czech Republic. It focuses on articles published in peer-reviewed scholarly journals. It builds on a quantitative analysis of articles published between 2005 and 2010 in scholarly journals in the fields of social science, management and administration, public health and other relevant fields. The main finding is that almost half of the 161 articles with potential use for health policy were published in a single journal, Zdravotn...



    Aishath Najiha; Jagatheesan Alagesan; Vandana J. Rathod; Poongundran Paranthaman


    The aim of this review was to identify and summarize the existing evidences on mirror box therapy for the management of various musculoskeletal conditions. A systemic literature search was performed to identify studies concerning mirror therapy. The included journal articles were reviewed and assessed for its significance. Fifty one studies were identified and reviewed. Five different patient categories were studied: 24 studies focussed on mirror therapy after stroke, thirteen studies focusse...

  9. When Are Chiasms Admissible as Evidence?


    Edwards, Boyd F.; Edwards, W. F.


    Since John Welch’s discovery of chiasmus in the Book of Mormon in 1967, many critics have attempted to show how chiasmus appears in just about every type of literature, from Dr. Seuss to Strangite scripture. This article discusses the authors’ statistical admissibility tests to verify whether a chiasmus in a work shows strong evidence of intentionality by the original author. Their results indicate that certain passages in the Old Testament and in the Book of Mormon show deliberate chias...

  10. Human Capital Convergence: Evidence from the Punjab


    Uzma Afzal


    While the literature on economic growth provides mixed evidence on convergence across different countries and regions, a large number of studies point toward the widening income gap between rich and poor. In the development literature, a broader range of national welfare indicators beyond income per capita—health and education in particular—are considered important instruments for measuring progress in human development. This article examines education and other selective welfare indicators t...

  11. A reverse evidence of rotavirus vaccines impact


    Martinón-Torres, Federico; Aramburo, Angela; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Cebey, Miriam; Seoane-Pillado, María Teresa; Redondo-Collazo, Lorenzo; Martinón-Sánchez, Jose Maria


    In 2010, and due to a quality problem identified in the vaccine manufacture, the rotavirus (RV) vaccination was withheld in Spain during 5 months. Our study aimed to evaluate the impact that this sudden cease had on rotavirus acute gastroenteritis (RAGE) hospitalizations. An increase in RAGE hospitalization was observed in parallel to the drop in vaccine coverage. Here, we report the first reverse evidence of rotavirus vaccine impact.

  12. Computational mate choice: theory and empirical evidence. (United States)

    Castellano, Sergio; Cadeddu, Giorgia; Cermelli, Paolo


    The present review is based on the thesis that mate choice results from information-processing mechanisms governed by computational rules and that, to understand how females choose their mates, we should identify which are the sources of information and how they are used to make decisions. We describe mate choice as a three-step computational process and for each step we present theories and review empirical evidence. The first step is a perceptual process. It describes the acquisition of evidence, that is, how females use multiple cues and signals to assign an attractiveness value to prospective mates (the preference function hypothesis). The second step is a decisional process. It describes the construction of the decision variable (DV), which integrates evidence (private information by direct assessment), priors (public information), and value (perceived utility) of prospective mates into a quantity that is used by a decision rule (DR) to produce a choice. We make the assumption that females are optimal Bayesian decision makers and we derive a formal model of DV that can explain the effects of preference functions, mate copying, social context, and females' state and condition on the patterns of mate choice. The third step of mating decision is a deliberative process that depends on the DRs. We identify two main categories of DRs (absolute and comparative rules), and review the normative models of mate sampling tactics associated to them. We highlight the limits of the normative approach and present a class of computational models (sequential-sampling models) that are based on the assumption that DVs accumulate noisy evidence over time until a decision threshold is reached. These models force us to rethink the dichotomy between comparative and absolute decision rules, between discrimination and recognition, and even between rational and irrational choice. Since they have a robust biological basis, we think they may represent a useful theoretical tool for

  13. [Acupressure and Evidence-Based Nursing]. (United States)

    Chen, Li-Li; Lin, Jun-Dai


    Acupressure is a traditional Chinese medicine approach to disease prevention and treatment that may be operated by nurses independently. Therefore, acupressure is being increasingly applied in clinical nursing practice and research. Recently, the implementation of evidence-based nursing (EBN) in clinical practice has been encouraged to promote nursing quality. Evidence-based nursing is a method-ology and process of implementation that applies the best-available evidence to clinical practice, which is acquired through the use of empirical nursing research. Therefore, in this paper, we address the topic of acupressure within the context of empirical nursing practice. We first introduce the current status of acupressure research and provide the locations of common acupoints in order to guide future empirical nursing research and to help nurses use these acupoints in clinical practice. Finally, we describe the steps that are necessary to apply the current empirical information on acupressure as well as provide suggestions to promote safety and efficacy in order to guide nurses in the accurate application of acupressure in nursing practice.

  14. Epidemiology of osteoarthritis: state of the evidence (United States)

    Allen, Kelli D.; Golightly, Yvonne M.


    Purpose of review This review focuses on recent studies of osteoarthritis epidemiology, including research on prevalence, incidence, and a broad array of potential risk factors at the person level and joint level. Recent findings Studies continue to illustrate the high impact of osteoarthritis worldwide, with increasing incidence. Person-level risk factors with strong evidence regarding osteoarthritis incidence and/or progression include age, sex, socioeconomic status, family history, and obesity. Joint-level risk factors with strong evidence for incident osteoarthritis risk include injury and occupational joint loading; the associations of injury and joint alignment with osteoarthritis progression are compelling. Moderate levels of physical activity have not been linked to increased osteoarthritis risk. Some topics of high recent interest or emerging evidence for association with osteoarthritis include metabolic pathways, vitamins, joint shape, bone density, limb length inequality, muscle strength and mass, and early structural damage. Summary Osteoarthritis is a complex, multifactorial disease, and there is still much to learn regarding mechanisms underlying incidence and progression. However, there are several known modifiable and preventable risk factors, including obesity and joint injury; efforts to mitigate these risks can help to lessen the impact of osteoarthritis. PMID:25775186

  15. Coverage with Evidence Development: applications and issues. (United States)

    Trueman, Paul; Grainger, David L; Downs, Kristen E


    The aim of this study was to describe the current issues surrounding Coverage with Evidence Development (CED). CED is characterized by restricted coverage for a new technology in parallel with targeted research when the stated goal of the research or data collection is to provide definitive evidence for the clinical or cost-effectiveness impact of the new technology. Presented here is information summarized and interpreted from presentations and discussions at the 2008 Health Technology Assessment International (HTAi) meeting and additional information from the medical literature. This study describes the differences between CED and other conditional coverage agreements, provides a brief history of CED, describes real-world examples of CED, describes the areas of consensus between the stakeholders, discusses the areas for future negotiation between stakeholders, and proposes criteria to assist stakeholders in determining when CED could be appropriate. Payers could interpret the evidence obtained from a CED program either positively or negatively, and a range of possible changes to the reimbursement status of the new technology may result. Striking an appropriate balance between the demands for prompt access to new technology and acknowledging that some degree of uncertainty will always exist is a critical challenge to the uptake of this innovative form of conditional coverage. When used selectively for innovative procedures, pharmaceuticals, or devices in the appropriate disease areas, CED may provide patients access to promising medicines or technologies while data to minimize uncertainty are collected.

  16. Physical evidence of child sexual abuse. (United States)

    Hobbs, Christopher J


    Child sexual abuse is increasingly recognised in all societies, affecting boys and girls alike in all age groups and often involving oral, anal and vaginal penetration. The presence of physical evidence following suspected child sexual abuse is important in confirming the diagnosis and providing legal corroboration that abuse has occurred. Whilst many children have no physical evidence, its presence should be carefully sought and documented by skilled examination, regardless of the time interval between any suspected abuse and the examination. When examination is close to the time of the abuse, forensic sampling may be required. Although many children have no physical findings, understanding the significance of physical findings has increased with both experience and research, although certainty and agreement is lacking in some areas. There are few case control studies of abused and non-abused children where standard terminology, examination method and description allow for meaningful comparison. Physical findings rarely provide conclusive evidence of sexual abuse in isolation but may offer important pieces of the diagnostic "jigsaw picture".

  17. Evidence-based pathology: umbilical cord coiling. (United States)

    Khong, T Y


    The generation of a pathology test result must be based on criteria that are proven to be acceptably reproducible and clinically relevant to be evidence-based. This review de-constructs the umbilical cord coiling index to illustrate how it can stray from being evidence-based. Publications related to umbilical cord coiling were retrieved and analysed with regard to how the umbilical coiling index was calculated, abnormal coiling was defined and reference ranges were constructed. Errors and other influences that can occur with the measurement of the length of the umbilical cord or of the number of coils can compromise the generation of the coiling index. Definitions of abnormal coiling are not consistent in the literature. Reference ranges defining hypocoiling or hypercoiling have not taken those potential errors or the possible effect of gestational age into account. Even the way numerical test results in anatomical pathology are generated, as illustrated by the umbilical coiling index, warrants a critical analysis into its evidence base to ensure that they are reproducible or free from errors.

  18. Evidence for Inflammation-Associated Depression. (United States)

    Liu, Celina S; Adibfar, Alexander; Herrmann, Nathan; Gallagher, Damien; Lanctôt, Krista L

    This chapter explores the evidence supporting inflammation-associated depression. Data to date suggest a bidirectional relationship between inflammation and depression wherein one process can drive the other. A wealth of animal and clinical studies have demonstrated an association between concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines - specifically interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α - and depressive symptoms. There is also evidence that this pro-inflammatory state is accompanied by aberrant inflammation-related processes including platelet activation factor hyperactivity, oxidative and nitrosative stress, and damage to mitochondria. These complex and interrelated mechanisms can collectively contribute to negative neurobiological outcomes that may, in part, underlie the etiopathology of depression. Mounting evidence has shown a concomitant reduction in both depressive symptoms and pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations following treatment with pharmacological anti-inflammatory interventions. Taken together, the reviewed preclinical and clinical findings may suggest the existence of a distinct inflammatory subtype of depression in which these patients exhibit unique biochemical and clinical features and may potentially experience improved clinical outcomes with inflammation-targeted pharmacotherapy.

  19. Sequential evidence accumulation in decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hausmann


    Full Text Available Judgments and decisions under uncertainty are frequently linked to a prior sequential search for relevant information. In such cases, the subject has to decide when to stop the search for information. Evidence accumulation models from social and cognitive psychology assume an active and sequential information search until enough evidence has been accumulated to pass a decision threshold. In line with such theories, we conceptualize the evidence threshold as the ``desired level of confidence'' (DLC of a person. This model is tested against a fixed stopping rule (one-reason decision making and against the class of multi-attribute information integrating models. A series of experiments using an information board for horse race betting demonstrates an advantage of the proposed model by measuring the individual DLC of each subject and confirming its correctness in two separate stages. In addition to a better understanding of the stopping rule (within the narrow framework of simple heuristics, the results indicate that individual aspiration levels might be a relevant factor when modelling decision making by task analysis of statistical environments.

  20. [Evidence-Based Knowledge Translation: From Scientific Evidence to Clinical Nursing Practice]. (United States)

    Chen, Kee-Hsin; Kao, Ching-Chiu; Chen, Chiehfeng


    In 1992, Gordon Guyatt coined the term "evidence-based medicine", which has since attracted worldwide attention. In 2007, the Institute of Medicine's Roundtable on Evidence-Based Medicine set the goal that 90% of clinical decisions would be supported by accurate, timely, and up-to-date clinical information and would reflect the best available evidence by 2020. However, the chasm between knowing and doing remains palpable. In 2000, the Canadian Institute of Health Research applied the term "knowledge translation" to describe the bridge that is necessary to cross the gap between research knowledge and clinical practice. The present paper outlines the conceptual framework, barriers, and promotion strategies for evidence-based knowledge translation and shares clinical experience related to overcoming the seven layers of leakage (aware, accepted, applicable, able, acted on, agreed, and adhered to). We hope that this paper can enhance the public well-being and strengthen the future health care system.

  1. Why evidence-based medicine failed in patient care and medicine-based evidence will succeed. (United States)

    Horwitz, Ralph I; Singer, Burton H


    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has succeeded in strengthening the evidence base for population medicine. Where EBM has failed is in answering the practicing doctor's question of what a likely outcome would be when a given treatment is administered to a particular patient with her own distinctive biological and biographical (life experience) profile. We propose Medicine-based evidence (MBE), based on the profiles of individual patients, as the evidence base for individualized or personalized medicine. MBE will build an archive of patient profiles using data from all study types and data sources, and will include both clinical and socio-behavioral information. The clinician seeking guidance for the management of an individual patient will start with the patient's longitudinal profile and find approximate matches in the archive that describes how similar patients responded to a contemplated treatment and alternative treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Science and Pseudoscience in Medicine: Evidence-Based vs. Evidence-Biased Medicine. (United States)

    Jakovljević, Miro; Ostojić, Ljerka


    The concept of evidence-based medicine (EBM), as the highest standard of health care, came into existence in 1990s to promote a systematic approach to helping clinicians in their practice to be guided by the best available scientific evidence. However, there has been an increasing number of warning reports that in modern research, misrepresented, false and unuseful findings may be the majority or even the vast majority of published research claims In spite of the huge scientific progress, pseudoscience and associated evidence biased medicine represent a serious threat to the concept of the EBM. Effective education in medicine, proper research motivation, sound systems and creative thinking and culture of scientific dialogue may significantly contribute to better science and evidence-based medicine. The seven key words of good science, research and publishing are: integrity, motivation, capacity, understanding, knowledge, experience, and creativity.

  3. 2013 Nutrition Risk Evidence Review Panel. Evidence Review for: The Risk Factor of Inadequate Nutrition (United States)


    The 2013 Nutrition Risk Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met for a site visit in Houston, TX on November 20 - 21, 2013. The SRP reviewed the new Evidence Report for the Risk Factor of Inadequate Nutrition (from here on referred to as the 2013 Nutrition Evidence Report), as well as the Research Plan for this Risk. Overall, the SRP thinks the well-qualified research team has compiled an excellent summary of background information in the 2013 Nutrition Evidence Report. The SRP would like to commend the authors in general and particularly note that while the 2013 Nutrition Evidence Report has been written using a single nutrient approach, the research plan takes a much more integrated and physiologically based approach.

  4. When Evidence Doesn’t Work (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Glynn


    Full Text Available I was listening intently to a discussion on the radio recently between Newfoundland and Labrador’s Minister of Education and aprofessor from Memorial University’s Math Department. They were debating the efficacy of the math curriculum in the province’s school system. As a parent of a grade 3 student, I have my own thoughts on how the curriculum is affecting kids’ math skills (and their anxiety levels, but let’s not go there. The professor echoed the concern that parents, teachers and students have been expressing: quite simply, it’s not working. Far too many children are failing math and are struggling with the both the content and pace of the required modules. Why am I telling you this? One particular comment made by the Minister of Education struck me. She said that there was evidence to suggest that this curriculum should work. While I’m always delighted to see the evidence based practice model being used, particularly for the betterment of my kids’education, it is dismaying to see that it is not always applied well. In this particular case, evidence was collected from somewhere and a decision was made to implement a new math curriculum based on the gathered evidence. Assuming that this truly was good evidence upon which to base such a decision, then I would have to concede that the appropriate steps were taken up until that point. Unfortunately, it appears that the entire process stopped there. As we know, one of the most important components of a thorough ebp‐based implementation is an internal evaluation. What might work somewhere else is not guaranteed to work in another environment, and it is essential to determine why an implementation or intervention worked or didn’t work. It would seem, in this case, that formal evaluations of the effectiveness of the new math curriculum have not been performed and therefore, the powers that be rely solely on the fact that it worked somewhere else. This is not evidence based

  5. Empirical methods for systematic reviews and evidence-based medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Enst, W.A.


    Evidence-Based Medicine is the integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values. Systematic reviews have become the cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, which is reflected in the position systematic reviews have in the pyramid of evidence-based medicine. Systematic

  6. Evidence-Based Practice Guidelines and School Nursing (United States)

    Adams, Susan; McCarthy, Ann Marie


    The use of evidence-based practice (EBP) has become the standard of health care practice. Nurses are expected to use best evidence on a wide range of topics, yet most nurses have limited time, resources, and/or skills to access and evaluate the quality of research and evidence needed to practice evidence-based nursing. EBP guidelines allow nurses…

  7. 33 CFR 25.115 - Evidence supporting a claim. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence supporting a claim. 25... GENERAL CLAIMS General § 25.115 Evidence supporting a claim. The claimant shall present independent evidence to support a claim. This evidence may include, if available, statements of witnesses, accident or...

  8. 29 CFR 2700.63 - Evidence; presentation of case. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence; presentation of case. 2700.63 Section 2700.63... PROCEDURAL RULES Hearings § 2700.63 Evidence; presentation of case. (a) Relevant evidence, including hearsay evidence, that is not unduly repetitious or cumulative is admissible. (b) The proponent of an order has the...

  9. 46 CFR 4.23-1 - Evidence of criminal liability. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence of criminal liability. 4.23-1 Section 4.23-1... AND INVESTIGATIONS Evidence of Criminal Liability § 4.23-1 Evidence of criminal liability. If, as a result of any investigation or other proceeding conducted hereunder, evidence of criminal liability on...

  10. 42 CFR 405.1823 - Evidence at intermediary hearing. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence at intermediary hearing. 405.1823 Section... Determinations and Appeals § 405.1823 Evidence at intermediary hearing. Evidence may be received at the intermediary hearing even though inadmissible under the rules of evidence applicable to court procedure. The...

  11. 32 CFR 1615.7 - Evidence of registration. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence of registration. 1615.7 Section 1615.7... REGISTRATION § 1615.7 Evidence of registration. The Director of Selective Service Shall issue to each registrant written evidence of his registration. The Director of Selective Service will replace that evidence...

  12. 42 CFR 405.1855 - Evidence at Board hearing. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence at Board hearing. 405.1855 Section 405... and Appeals § 405.1855 Evidence at Board hearing. Evidence may be received at the Board hearing even though inadmissible under the rules of evidence applicable to court procedure. The Board shall give the...

  13. Information provision in medical libraries: An evidence based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined information provision in special libraries such as medical libraries. It provides an overview of evidence based practice as a concept for information provision by librarians. It specifically proffers meaning to the term evidence as used in evidence based practice and to evidence based medicine from where ...

  14. Evidence-based Dental Practice: Part I. Formulating Clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This first of three articles on evidence-based dental practice discusses the historical background of evidence-based medicine/evidence-based dentistry, how to formulate clear clinical questions and how to track down (search) the available evidence in the literature databases. Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine ...

  15. 20 CFR 219.43 - Evidence of child's dependency. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of child's dependency. 219.43... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Relationship § 219.43 Evidence of child's dependency. (a) When the dependency requirement must be met. Usually the dependency requirement must be met at one of the...

  16. 20 CFR 220.45 - Providing evidence of disability. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Providing evidence of disability. 220.45... DETERMINING DISABILITY Evidence of Disability § 220.45 Providing evidence of disability. (a) General. The claimant for a disability annuity is responsible for providing evidence of the claimed disability and the...

  17. Developing Traditional Chinese Medicine in the Era of Evidence-Based Medicine: Current Evidences and Challenges


    Fung, Foon Yin; Linn, Yeh Ching


    Evidence-based medicine (EBM), by integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available clinical evidence from systematic research, has in recent years been established as the standard of modern medical practice for greater treatment efficacy and safety. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), on the other hand, evolved as a system of medical practice from ancient China more than 2000 years ago based on empirical knowledge as well as theories and concepts which are yet to be mapped by...

  18. Common pitfalls in statistical analysis: "No evidence of effect" versus "evidence of no effect"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Ranganathan


    Full Text Available This article is the first in a series exploring common pitfalls in statistical analysis in biomedical research. The power of a clinical trial is the ability to find a difference between treatments, where such a difference exists. At the end of the study, the lack of difference between treatments does not mean that the treatments can be considered equivalent. The distinction between "no evidence of effect" and "evidence of no effect" needs to be understood.

  19. Employing Evidence Evidence: Does it Have a Job in Vocational Libraries?


    Brad Jones; Cecily Martina


    Objective - Evidence-based librarianship (EBL) springs ffrom medical and academic origins. As librarians are tertiary educated (only occasionally with supplementary qualifications covering research and statistics) EBL has an academic focus. The EBL literature has significant content from school and university perspectives, but has had little, if any, vocational content. This paper suggests a possible Evidence Based Librarianship context for vocational libraries. Methods - A multidisciplin...

  20. Evidence mapping: illustrating an emerging methodology to improve evidence-based practice in youth mental health. (United States)

    Hetrick, Sarah E; Parker, Alexandra G; Callahan, Patrick; Purcell, Rosemary


    Within the field of evidence-based practice, a process termed 'evidence mapping' is emerging as a less exhaustive yet systematic and replicable methodology that allows an understanding of the extent and distribution of evidence in a broad clinical area, highlighting both what is known and where gaps in evidence exist. This article describes the general principles of mapping methodology by using illustrations derived from our experience conducting an evidence map of interventions for youth mental-health disorders. Evidence maps are based on an explicit research question relating to the field of enquiry, which may vary in depth, but should be informed by end-users. The research question then drives the search for, and collection of, appropriate studies utilizing explicit and reproducible methods at each stage. This includes clear definition of components of the research question, development of a thorough and reproducible search strategy, development of explicit inclusion and exclusion criteria, and transparent decisions about the level of information to be obtained from each study. Evidence mapping is emerging as a rigorous methodology for gathering and disseminating up-to-date information to end-users. Thoughtful planning and assessment of available resources (e.g. staff, time, budget) are required by those applying this methodology to their particular field of clinical enquiry given the potential scope of the work. The needs of the end-user need to be balanced with available resources. Information derived needs to be effectively communicated, with the uptake of that evidence into clinical practice the ultimate aim. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.



    Angela Čuk


    Background. Evidence-based medicine is a method that helps physicians find and critically evaluate evidences from the medical literature, and apply the evidences in clinical decision-making. In clinical practice the method supplements core medical skills, clinical experience and emphasizes the importance of clinical research evidence. Evidencebased medicine is characterised by two fundamental principles: first, the scientific evidences alone do not suffice for clinical decision-making, second...

  2. False-evidence ploys and interrogations: mock jurors' perceptions of false-evidence ploy type, deception, coercion, and justification. (United States)

    Forrest, Krista D; Woody, William Douglas; Brady, Sara E; Batterman, Keller C; Stastny, Bradley J; Bruns, Jennifer A


    We studied mock jurors' evaluations of police false-evidence ploys across two false-evidence ploy information conditions (true or false confession). Study 1 participants evaluated lists of demeanor, testimonial, and scientific ploys and rated testimonial false-evidence ploys as more coercive than demeanor false-evidence ploys. Participants in the false-confession condition rated false-evidence ploys as more deceptive than did participants in the true-confession condition. Study 2 participants evaluated false-evidence ploy types within interrogation transcripts. Participants rated testimonial false-evidence ploys as more deceptive and coercive than demeanor false-evidence ploys; participants in the true-confession condition rated false-evidence ploys as more justified. Across studies, participants reading realistic transcripts rated false-evidence ploys as more deceptive and coercive. We discuss implications for scholars, attorneys, and interrogators. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Obesity and prostate cancer: weighing the evidence. (United States)

    Allott, Emma H; Masko, Elizabeth M; Freedland, Stephen J


    Obesity and prostate cancer (PCa) affect substantial proportions of Western society. Mounting evidence, both epidemiologic and mechanistic, for an association between the two is of public health interest. An improved understanding of the role of this modifiable risk factor in PCa etiology is imperative to optimize screening, treatment, and prevention. To consolidate and evaluate the evidence for an epidemiologic link between obesity and PCa, in addition to examining the proposed underlying molecular mechanisms. A PubMed search for relevant articles published between 1991 and July 2012 was performed by combining the following terms: obesity, BMI, body mass index and prostate cancer risk, prostate cancer incidence, prostate cancer mortality, radical prostatectomy, androgen-deprivation therapy, external-beam radiation, brachytherapy, prostate cancer and quality of life, prostate cancer and active surveillance, in addition to obesity, BMI, body mass index and prostate cancer and insulin, insulin-like growth factor, androgen, estradiol, leptin, adiponectin, and IL-6. Articles were selected based on content, date of publication, and relevancy, and their references were also searched for relevant articles. Increasing evidence suggests obesity is associated with elevated incidence of aggressive PCa, increased risk of biochemical failure following radical prostatectomy and external-beam radiotherapy, higher frequency of complications following androgen-deprivation therapy, and increased PCa-specific mortality, although perhaps a lower overall PCa incidence. These results may in part relate to difficulties in detecting and treating obese men. However, multiple molecular mechanisms could explain these associations as well. Weight loss slows PCa in animal models but has yet to be fully tested in human trials. Obesity appears to be linked with aggressive PCa. We suggest clinical tips to better diagnose and treat obese men with PCa. Whether reversing obesity slows PCa growth is

  4. Negative evidence in L2 acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Dahl


    Full Text Available This article deals with the L2 acquisition of differences between Norwegian and English passives, and presents data to show that the acquisition of these differences by Norwegian L2 acquirers of English cannot be fully explained by positive evidence, cues, conservativism or economy. Rather, it is argued, it is natural to consider whether indirect negative evidence may facilitate acquisition by inferencing. The structures in focus are impersonal passive constructions with postverbal NPs and passive constructions with intransitive verbs. These sentences are ungrammatical in English. Chomsky (1981 proposes that this is a result of passive morphology absorbing objective case in English. There is no such case to be assigned to the postverbal NP in impersonal passives. In passive constructions with intransitive verbs, the verb does not assign objective case, so that there is no case for the passive morphology to absorb. Thus, impersonal passives have to be changed into personal passives, where the NP receives nominative case, and the objective case is free to go to the passive morphology. Intransitive verbs, however, cannot be used in the passive voice at all. Both the structures discussed in this article, i.e. are grammatical in Norwegian. However, the options available in English, viz. personal passives and active sentences, are equally possible. Åfarli (1992 therefore proposes that Norwegian has optional case absorption (passive morphology optionally absorbs case. On the basis on such observations, we may propose a parameter with the settings [+case absorption] for English, and [-case absorption], signifying optional case absorption, for Norwegian. This means that none of the structures that are grammatical in English can function as positive evidence for the [+case absorption] setting, since they are also grammatical in optional case absorption languages. The question is how this parameter is set.

  5. How to synthesize evidence for imaging guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matowe, L. E-mail:; Gilbert, F. J


    AIM: To provide guidance on how to gather and evaluate evidence from the literature on the efficacy of imaging, using as an example the assessment of the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis. This method was adopted for evaluating evidence for the musculoskeletal section of the 5th edition of the Royal College of Radiologists' (RCR) guidelines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of the literature published between 1966 and July 2001 was carried out. Eligible articles described studies in patients with suspected osteomyelitis and who were diagnosed using MRI. Search strategies were developed to identify relevant imaging studies. Studies included in the systematic review were selected using predefined criteria. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and likelihood ratios for MRI reported in the studies were used to evaluate the value of the procedure in osteomyelitis. Where the above were not reported, they were calculated by the reviewers. RESULTS: The average sensitivity of MRI in osteomyelitis was 91% (range 76-100%), the average specificity was 82% (range 65-96%), average accuracy was 88% (range 71-97%), and the average positive likelihood ratio was 7.8 (range 2.3-21.1). Four studies evaluated the use of MRI in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis in the diabetic foot, two in osteomyelitis of the lower extremities, while four each evaluated the use of MRI in vertebral osteomyelitis, in the diagnosis of any form of osteomyelitis, osteomyelitis in spinal cord-injured patients and in cranial osteomyelitis. CONCLUSION: Systematic reviews of literature can be used to obtain evidence on the value of imaging procedures. The quality of the studies included in the review should always be considered when selecting studies to limit bias. In our example, MRI appears sensitive, specific and accurate in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis at different sites.

  6. Cancer chemoprevention by dietary phytochemicals: Epidemiological evidence. (United States)

    Baena Ruiz, Raúl; Salinas Hernández, Pedro


    In recent years, natural compounds called "phytochemicals", which are present in fruits, vegetables, and plants, have received special attention due to their potential to interfere with tumour formation and development. Many of these phytochemicals are being used in chemoprevention strategies. However, the scientific evidence regarding the modification of cancer risk continues to be debated. The aim of this paper is to review the current scientific evidence and the most relevant epidemiological studies regarding the consumption or use of phytochemicals and their effects on the incidence of cancer. A search for relevant articles was conducted in EMBASE and PubMed-NCBI through to May 2016 to identify potential interactions between the consumption or use of phytochemicals and cancer risk. The use or consumption of carotenoids, such as lycopene, alpha-carotene, and betacarotene, leads to a reduction in the risk of cancer, such as breast and prostate tumours. For breast cancer, beta-carotene even reduces the risk of recurrence. The use or consumption of soybean isoflavones has led to a reduction in the risk of lung, prostate, colon (in women only), and breast cancers, although this has depended on menopausal and oestrogen receptor status. The use or consumption of isothiocyanates and indole-3-carbinol also seems to reduce the risk of cancer, such as breast, stomach, colorectal, or prostate tumours. The adoption of a diet rich in phytochemicals is associated with a modification of cancer risk. However, the scientific data supporting its use come mainly from in vitro and in vivo studies (especially in animal models). The epidemiological evidence is inconclusive for many of these phytochemicals, so further studies are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Wellness programs: a review of the evidence. (United States)

    Watt, D; Verma, S; Flynn, L


    To review studies that have examined an association between wellness programs and improvements in quality of life and to assess the strength of the scientific evidence. A MEDLINE search was constructed with the following medical subject headings: "psychoneuroimmunology," "chronic disease" and "health promotion," "chronic disease" and "health behaviour," "relaxation techniques," "music therapy," "laughter," "anger," "mediation" and "behavioural medicine." Searches using the text words "wellness" and "wellness program" were also carried out. References from the primary articles identified in the search and contemporary writing on wellness were also considered. Selection was limited to randomized controlled trials or prospective studies published in English that involved human subjects and that took place between 1980 and 1996. All studies with an intervention aimed at promoting wellness and measuring outcomes were included, except studies of patients with cancer and HIV and studies of health promotion programs in the workplace. Of the 1082 references initially identified, 11 met the criteria for inclusion in the critical appraisal. The following information was extracted from the 11 studies: characteristics of the study population, number of participants (and number followed to completion), length of follow-up, type of intervention, outcome measures and results. All 11 studies were assessed for the quality of their evidence. All studies reported some positive outcomes following the intervention in question, although many had limitations precluding applicability of the results to a wider population. Despite the suggested benefit associated with wellness programs, the evidence was inconclusive. Whether the composition of the target group or the type of intervention has a role in determining outcomes is unknown. Although trends suggest that wellness programs may be cost-effective, further research is needed for confirmation.

  8. GARCH Option Valuation: Theory and Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Ornthanalai, Chayawat

    We survey the theory and empirical evidence on GARCH option valuation models. Our treatment includes the range of functional forms available for the volatility dynamic, multifactor models, nonnormal shock distributions as well as style of pricing kernels typically used. Various strategies...... for empirical implementation are laid out and we also discuss the links between GARCH and stochastic volatility models. In the appendix we provide Matlab computer code for option pricing via Monte Carlo simulation for nonaffine models as well as Fourier inversion for affine models....

  9. The health consequences of unemployment: the evidence. (United States)

    Mathers, C D; Schofield, D J


    Mathers and Schofield, from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, review recent studies, including Australian research, on the health effects of unemployment and the mechanisms by which unemployment causes adverse health outcomes. The relationship is complex: ill-health also causes unemployment, and confounding factors include socioeconomic status and lifestyle. However, longitudinal studies with a range of designs provide reasonably good evidence that unemployment itself is detrimental to health and has an impact on health outcomes--increasing mortality rates, causing physical and mental ill-health and greater use of health services.

  10. Leading change: evidence-based transition. (United States)

    Lewis, Brennan; Allen, Stephanie


    The purpose of this article was to provide a framework for evidence-based transition of patient populations within an acute care pediatric institution. Transition within a hospital is foreseeable, given the ever-changing needs of the patients within an evolving healthcare system. These changes include moving patient populations because of expansion, renovation, or cohorting similar patient diagnoses to provide care across a continuum. Over the past 1 to 2 years, Children's Health Children's Medical Center Dallas has experienced a wide variety of transition. To provide a smooth transition for patients and families into new care areas resulting in a healthy work environment for all team members. The planning phase for patient population moves, and transition should address key aspects to include physical location and care flow, supplies and equipment, staffing model and human resources (HR), education and orientation, change process and integrating teams, and family preparation. It is imperative to consider these aspects in order for transitions within a healthcare system to be successful. During a time of such transitions, the clinical nurse specialist (CNS) is a highly valuable team member offering a unique perspective and methodological approach, which is central to the new initiative's overall success. The themes addressed in this article on evidence-based transition are organized according to the CNS spheres of influence: system/organization, patient/family, and nursing. An evidence-based transition plan was developed and implemented successfully with the support from the CNS for 3 patient populations. Organizational leadership gained an increased awareness of the CNS role at the conclusion of each successful transition. The CNS plays a pivotal role as clinical experts and proponents of evidence-based practice and effects change in the system/organization, nursing, and patient/family spheres of influence. While transitions can be a source of stress for leaders

  11. Further evidence for “extra push” (United States)

    Westmeier, W.; Esterlund, R. A.; Rox, A.; Patzelt, P.


    Measured fusion yields as a function of energy for the systems 132Xe + natFe and 56Fe + 238U are found to be in very good agreement with phenomenological capture model (“extra push”) calculations, and not at all in agreement with classical-trajectory predictions. Furthermore, evidence is found in the system 132Xe + natFe for the capture model implication that systems with similar effective fissilities are dynamically equivalent. The 56Fe + 238U data are consistent with a large fusion barrier shift of ca. 35 MeV over and above the reaction barrier.

  12. Evidence-Based Advances in Rodent Medicine. (United States)

    Jekl, Vladimir; Hauptman, Karel; Knotek, Zdenek


    The number of exotic companion pet rodents seen in veterinary practices is growing very rapidly. According to the American Veterinary Medical Association's surveys, more than 2,093,000 pet rodents were kept in US households in 2007 and in 2012 it was more than 2,349,000 animals. This article summarizes the most important evidence-based knowledge in exotic pet rodents (diagnostics of the hyperadrenocorticism in guinea pigs, pituitary tumors in rats, urolithiasis in guinea pigs, use of itopride as prokinetics, use of deslorelin acetate in rodents, cause of dental disease, and prevention of mammary gland tumors in rats). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Recent Evidence Regarding Triclosan and Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Dinwiddie


    Full Text Available Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antibacterial commonly used in cosmetics, dentifrices, and other consumer products. The compound’s widespread use in consumer products and its detection in breast milk, urine, and serum have raised concerns regarding its potential association with various human health outcomes.  Recent evidence suggests that triclosan may play a role in cancer development, perhaps through its estrogenicity or ability to inhibit fatty acid synthesis. Our aims here are to review studies of human exposure levels, to evaluate the results of studies examining the effects of triclosan on cancer development, and to suggest possible directions for future research.

  14. Evidence-based practice within nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laville, Martine; Segrestin, Berenice; Alligier, Maud


    BACKGROUND: Evidence-based clinical research poses special barriers in the field of nutrition. The present review summarises the main barriers to research in the field of nutrition that are not common to all randomised clinical trials or trials on rare diseases and highlights opportunities...... as patient-centred outcomes may occur decennia into the future. The methodologies and regulations for drug trials are, however, applicable to nutrition trials. CONCLUSIONS: Research on clinical nutrition should start by collecting clinical data systematically in databases and registries. Measurable patient...

  15. Evidence of tampering in watermark identification (United States)

    McLauchlan, Lifford; Mehrübeoglu, Mehrübe


    In this work, watermarks are embedded in digital images in the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) domain. Principal component analysis (PCA) is performed on the DWT coefficients. Next higher order statistics based on the principal components and the eigenvalues are determined for different sets of images. Feature sets are analyzed for different types of attacks in m dimensional space. The results demonstrate the separability of the features for the tampered digital copies. Different feature sets are studied to determine more effective tamper evident feature sets. The digital forensics, the probable manipulation(s) or modification(s) performed on the digital information can be identified using the described technique.

  16. Evidence for multiple photosystems in jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders Lydik; Ekström, Peter


    Cnidarians are often used as model animals in studies of eye and photopigment evolution. Most cnidarians display photosensitivity at some point in their lifecycle ranging from extraocular photoreception to image formation in camera-type eyes. The available information strongly suggests that some...... cnidarians even possess multiple photosystems. The evidence is strongest within Cubomedusae where all known species posses 24 eyes of four morphological types. Physiological experiments show that each cubomedusan eye type likely constitutes a separate photosystem controlling separate visually guided...... had evolved already in early eumetazoans and that their original level of organization was discrete sets of special-purpose eyes and/or photosensory cells...

  17. Evidence-Based Medicine: Breast Augmentation. (United States)

    Schwartz, Michael R


    After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Understand the key decisions in patient evaluation for cosmetic breast augmentation. 2. Cite key decisions in preoperative planning. 3. Discuss the risks and complications, and key patient education points in breast augmentation. Breast augmentation remains one of the most popular procedures in plastic surgery. The integral information necessary for proper patient selection, preoperative assessment, and surgical approaches are discussed. Current data regarding long term safety and complications are presented to guide the plastic surgeon to an evidence-based approach to the patient seeking breast enhancement to obtain optimal results.

  18. Evidence for weight effects in Russian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kizach, Johannes


    It is well-known that factors such as weight, pronominality, animacy and newness influence word order in several languages, but whereas newness repeatedly has been argued to be a relevant factor for Russian, little or no attention has been paid to weight. In this paper, which is based on evidence...... from corpus data, weight is demonstrated to have a very significant influence on word order in Russian. Specifically, four constructions are tested: Postverbal PPs, the double object construction, adversity impersonals and the order of S, V and O. In all cases the same pattern emerges: The heavier...

  19. Evidence-Based Advances in Avian Medicine. (United States)

    Summa, Noémie M; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon


    This article presents relevant advances in avian medicine and surgery over the past 5 years. New information has been published to improve clinical diagnosis in avian diseases. This article also describes new pharmacokinetic studies. Advances in the understanding and treatment of common avian disorders are presented in this article, as well. Although important progress has been made over the past years, there is still much research that needs to be done regarding the etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of avian diseases and evidence-based information is still sparse in the literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evidence-Based Advances in Rabbit Medicine. (United States)

    Summa, Noémie M; Brandão, João


    Rabbit medicine has been continuously evolving over time with increasing popularity and demand. Tremendous advances have been made in rabbit medicine over the past 5 years, including the use of imaging tools for otitis and dental disease management, the development of laboratory testing for encephalitozoonosis, or determination of prognosis in rabbits. Recent pharmacokinetic studies have been published, providing additional information on commonly used antibiotics and motility-enhancer drugs, as well as benzimidazole toxicosis. This article presents a review of evidence-based advances for liver lobe torsions, thymoma, and dental disease in rabbits and controversial and new future promising areas in rabbit medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Improving the use of research evidence in guideline development: 9. Grading evidence and recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxman Andrew D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO, like many other organisations around the world, has recognised the need to use more rigorous processes to ensure that health care recommendations are informed by the best available research evidence. This is the ninth of a series of 16 reviews that have been prepared as background for advice from the WHO Advisory Committee on Health Research to WHO on how to achieve this. Objectives We reviewed the literature on grading evidence and recommendations in guidelines. Methods We searched PubMed and three databases of methodological studies for existing systematic reviews and relevant methodological research. We did not conduct a full systematic review ourselves. Our conclusions are based on the available evidence, consideration of what WHO and other organisations are doing and logical arguments. Key questions and answers Should WHO grade the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations? • Users of recommendations need to know how much confidence they can place in the underlying evidence and the recommendations. The degree of confidence depends on a number of factors and requires complex judgments. These judgments should be made explicitly in WHO recommendations. A systematic and explicit approach to making judgments about the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations can help to prevent errors, facilitate critical appraisal of these judgments, and can help to improve communication of this information. What criteria should be used to grade evidence and recommendations? • Both the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations should be graded. The criteria used to grade the strength of recommendations should include the quality of the underlying evidence, but should not be limited to that. • The approach to grading should be one that has wide international support and is suitable for a wide range of different types of recommendations. The Grading of

  2. Developing traditional chinese medicine in the era of evidence-based medicine: current evidences and challenges. (United States)

    Fung, Foon Yin; Linn, Yeh Ching


    Evidence-based medicine (EBM), by integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available clinical evidence from systematic research, has in recent years been established as the standard of modern medical practice for greater treatment efficacy and safety. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), on the other hand, evolved as a system of medical practice from ancient China more than 2000 years ago based on empirical knowledge as well as theories and concepts which are yet to be mapped by scientific equivalents. Despite the expanding TCM usage and the recognition of its therapeutic benefits worldwide, the lack of robust evidence from the EBM perspective is hindering acceptance of TCM by the Western medicine community and its integration into mainstream healthcare. For TCM to become an integral component of the healthcare system so that its benefits can be rationally harnessed in the best interests of patients, it is essential for TCM to demonstrate its efficacy and safety by high-level evidence in accordance with EBM, though much debate remains on the validity and feasibility of applying the EBM model on this traditional practice. This review aims to discuss the current status of research in TCM, explore the evidences available on its efficacy and safety, and highlight the issues and challenges faced in applying EBM to TCM.

  3. Evidence, discovery and justification: the case of evidence-based medicine. (United States)

    Gaeta, Rodolfo; Gentile, Nelida


    The purpose of this paper is to develop some thoughts on philosophical issues surrounding evidence-based medicine (EBM), especially related to its epistemological dimensions. After considering the scope of several philosophical concepts that are relevant to the discussion, and drawing some distinctions among different aspects of EBM, we evaluate the status of EBM and suggest that EBM is mainly a meta-methodology. Then, we outline an evaluation of the thesis that EBM is a 'new paradigm' in the practice of medicine. We argue that EBM does not seem to have arisen in the way Kuhn imagined paradigms to arise but as a conscious, deliberate proposal, more as programme than as a reality. Furthermore, there is something paradoxical about appealing to evidence or to the best evidence as a way of promoting a new paradigm. For the proposal seems to assume that there is something that by its own virtue is the best evidence for a given time. But this idea would have been rejected by Kuhn. If EBM involves a genuine new alternative in the field of medicine and shows a way in which the discipline will endure henceforth, this indicates that it is not what Kuhn once called a 'paradigm' and even, paradoxically, it is good evidence that scientific paradigms do not exist, at least in medicine. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. "Evidence" Under a Magnifying Glass: Thoughts on Safety Argument Epistemology (United States)

    Graydon, P. J.; Holloway, C. M.


    Common definitions of "safety case" emphasize that evidence is the basis of a safety argument, yet few widely referenced works explicitly define "evidence". Their examples suggest that similar things can be regarded as evidence. But the category evidence seems to contain (1) processes for finding things out, (2) information resulting from such processes, and (3) relevant documents. Moreover, any item of evidence could be replaced by further argument. Normative models of informal argumentation do not offer clear guidance on when a safety argument should cite evidence rather than appeal to a more detailed argument. Disciplines such as the law address the problem with a practical, domain-specific epistemology. In this paper, we explore these problems associated with evidence citations in safety arguments, identify goals for a theory of safety argument evidence and a practical safety argument epistemology, propose a model of safety evidence citation that advances the identified goals, and present a related extension to the Goal Structuring Notation (GSN).

  5. Uma visão evidente da prática baseada em evidências na medicina perinatal: ausência de evidência não é evidência de ausência An evident view of evidence-based pratice in perinatal medicine: absence of evidence is not evidence of absence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Sola


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Proporcionar elementos valiosos e um pouco de humor nesta chamada era da "prática baseada em evidências" com o objetivo de ajudar os clínicos a fazer escolhas melhores no cuidado que eles provêem com base em evidências, e não simples ou exclusivamente com base em um ensaio clínico randomizado (ECR ou meta-análise (o que pode não ser evidência. FONTE DOS DADOS: Livros e artigos com revisão por pares são citados e listados na bibliografia. Evidências de vida, aprendizado através de nossos próprios erros e muitos outros fatos evidentes que sustentam esta revisão não são citados. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: 1 "Ausência de evidência não é evidência de ausência" e "falta de evidência de efeito não significa evidência de nenhum efeito". 2 Os ECR com resultado "negativo" e aqueles com resultado "positivo", mas sem os resultados importantes, muitas vezes não podem concluir o que concluem. 3 Os ensaios clínicos não-randomizados e os estudos práticos podem ser importantes. 4 A pesquisa em busca de provas é diferente da pesquisa em busca de aperfeiçoamento. 5 A escolha clínica deve avaliar os efeitos nos desfechos importantes para os pacientes e seus pais. 6 A quantificação de desfechos adversos, do número necessário para causar dano e do número necessário para tratamento não é assim tão simples. CONCLUSÕES: Desafios importantes inerentes à pesquisa em serviços de saúde devem ser correlacionados a possíveis aplicações clínicas usando ferramentas que permitam uma "visão mais clara da prática baseada em evidências" na medicina perinatal, lembrando que a ausência de evidência não é evidência de ausência.OBJECTIVE: To provide valuable elements and some humor in this so-called era of "evidence-based practice" with the aim of helping clinicians make better choices in the care they deliver based on evidence, not simply or exclusively based on a randomized clinical trial (RCT or meta-analysis (which may

  6. The Solar Photosphere: Evidence for Condensed Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P. M.


    Full Text Available The stellar equations of state treat the Sun much like an ideal gas, wherein the photosphere is viewed as a sparse gaseous plasma. The temperatures inferred in the solar interior give some credence to these models, especially since it is counterintuitive that an object with internal temperatures in excess of 1 MK could be existing in the liquid state. Nonetheless, extreme temperatures, by themselves, are insufficient evidence for the states of matter. The presence of magnetic fields and gravity also impact the expected phase. In the end, it is the physical expression of a state that is required in establishing the proper phase of an object. The photosphere does not lend itself easily to treatment as a gaseous plasma. The physical evidence can be more simply reconciled with a solar body and a photosphere in the condensed state. A discussion of each physical feature follows: (1 the thermal spectrum, (2 limb darkening, (3 solar collapse, (4 the solar density, (5 seismic activity, (6 mass displacement, (7 the chromosphere and critical opalescence, (8 shape, (9 surface activity, (10 photospheric/coronal flows, (11 photospheric imaging, (12 the solar dynamo, and (13 the presence of Sun spots. The explanation of these findings by the gaseous models often requires an improbable combination of events, such as found in the stellar opacity problem. In sharp contrast, each can be explained with simplicity by the condensed state. This work is an invitation to reconsider the phase of the Sun.


    Pasleau, F


    The fundamentals of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) are the clinical experience, the application of best evidences from research and the consideration of patient expectations. It enabled significant progresses in the management of diseases with a low or multifactorial causality. But it has also led to unintended negative consequences, partly related to conflicts of interest. The objective of this article is to bring the attention back to the scientific rigor that must sustain the medical practice, namely in the occurrence : 1) formulating a question that addresses all the elements of an individual clinical situation; 2) exploring the literature systematically; 3) estimating the degree of confidence in the conclusions of clinical trials. EBM provides intuitive tools to address some uncomfortable concepts of biostatistics and to identify the biases and the embellished data that invalidate many studies. However, it is difficult to decide of the care of a single patient from observations issued from the comparison of'heterogeneous groups. Personalized medicine should help to overcome this difficulty and should facilitate clinical decision making by targeting the patients who are most likely to benefit from an intervention without much inconvenience.

  8. Evidence-Based Interactive Management of Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Fleischmann


    Full Text Available Evidence-based interactive management of change means hands-on experience of modified work processes, given evidence of change. For this kind of pro-active organizational development support we use an organisational process memory and a communication-based representation technique for role-specific and task-oriented process execution. Both are effective means for organizations becoming agile through interactively modelling the business at the process level and re-constructing or re-arranging process representations according to various needs. The tool allows experiencing role-specific workflows, as the communication-based refinement of work models allows for executable process specifications. When presenting the interactive processes to individuals involved in the business processes, changes can be explored interactively in a context-sensitive way before re-implementing business processes and information systems. The tool is based on a service-oriented architecture and a flexible representation scheme comprising the exchange of message between actors, business objects and actors (roles. The interactive execution of workflows does not only enable the individual reorganization of work but also changes at the level of the entire organization due to the represented interactions.

  9. Body selectivity in occipitotemporal cortex: Causal evidence. (United States)

    Downing, Paul E; Peelen, Marius V


    Perception of others' bodies provides information that is useful for a number of important social-cognitive processes. Evidence from neuroimaging methods has identified focal cortical regions that are highly selective for perceiving bodies and body parts, including the extrastriate body area (EBA) and fusiform body area (FBA). Our understanding of the functional properties of these regions, and their causal contributions to behavior, has benefitted from the study of neuropsychological patients and particularly from investigations using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We review this evidence, focusing on TMS studies that are revealing of how (and when) activity in EBA contributes to detecting people in natural scenes; to resolving their body shape, movements, actions, individual parts, and identities; and to guiding goal-directed behavior. These findings are considered in reference to a framework for body perception in which the patterns of neural activity in EBA and FBA jointly serve to make explicit the elements of the visual scene that correspond to the body and its parts. These representations are modulated by other sources of information such as prior knowledge, and are shared with wider brain networks involved in many aspects of social cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Tendinopathy treatment: where is the evidence? (United States)

    Skjong, Christian C; Meininger, Alexander K; Ho, Sherwin S W


    Tendinopathy is a common and debilitating condition that results in significant deficits in performance and prolonged time away from activity. For this reason, much effort has been placed in defining beneficial and cost-effective treatments. This review has outlined the current literature on some of the most widely used therapies for cases of tendinopathy. As such, recommendations remain limited by the evidence available. The variability in both quantity and quality of research into tendinopathy treatments makes it difficult to make definitive treatment recommendations. In general, however, a reasonable first line of treatment for tendinopathy should include a course of NSAIDs and eccentric exercise-based physical therapy. Corticosteroid injections seem to offer excellent short-term pain relief but lack long term efficacy. Alternative injections, such as PRP, have shown short-term efficacy for tendinopathy sufferers; data are lacking to support sclerosing agents and proteinase inhibitors. Operative management seems to offer some benefit in symptomatic relief but carries a higher complication rate than other treatment options and should be reserved only for patients recalcitrant to other more conservative options. Although the inability to make definitive therapeutic recommendations in some instances is discouraging, it is important to note that a lack of high-quality evidence supporting specific treatments does not necessarily imply that they are inherently ineffective. Given the growing prevalence of tendinopathy and the impact it has on the general public, it is more important now than ever to continue the search for the most effective and accessible treatment modalities.

  11. Program Spectra Analysis with Theory of Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattikorn Hewett


    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach to automatically analyzing program spectra, an execution profile of program testing results for fault localization. Using a mathematical theory of evidence for uncertainty reasoning, the proposed approach estimates the likelihood of faulty locations based on evidence from program spectra. Our approach is theoretically grounded and can be computed online. Therefore, we can predict fault locations immediately after each test execution is completed. We evaluate the approach by comparing its performance with the top three performing fault localizers using a benchmark set of real-world programs. The results show that our approach is at least as effective as others with an average effectiveness (the reduction of the amount of code examined to locate a fault of 85.6% over 119 versions of the programs. We also study the quantity and quality impacts of program spectra on our approach where the quality refers to the spectra support in identifying that a certain unit is faulty. The results show that the effectiveness of our approach slightly improves with a larger number of failed runs but not with a larger number of passed runs. Program spectra with support quality increases from 1% to 100% improves the approach's effectiveness by 3.29%.

  12. Novel oral anticoagulants and exodontia: the evidence. (United States)

    Nathwani, S; Wanis, C


    Background Haemostasis is crucial for the success of oral surgical treatment as bleeding problems can cause complications both pre- and post-operatively. Patients on anticoagulant drugs present a challenge due to their increased risk of bleeding.Aims To review the evidence for the management of oral surgery patients on novel oral anticoagulant therapy.Methods A literature review was conducted in May 2016 of free-text and MESH searches (keywords: apixaban, dabigatran, rivaroxaban and dental extractions) in the Cochrane Library, PubMed and CINAHL. Trial registers, professional bodies for guidelines and OpenGrey for unpublished literature were also searched. Studies were selected for appraisal after limits were applied (adult, human and English only studies) and inclusion/exclusion criteria imposed.Results Five studies were identified for critical appraisal using the CASP tools. These were a combination of systematic reviews and case series. Two case series were excluded due to low quality evidence. Curtin et al., Davis et al. and Constantinides et al. together with guidelines from the Scottish Dental Clinical Effectiveness Programme, have highlighted a protocol in managing these patients in a dental surgical setting.Conclusion Patients on novel anticoagulant therapy requiring dental surgery can be managed appropriately either without discontinuation of therapy or a delay in dose. For those patients at higher risks of postoperative bleeding complications, it is advised to liaise with the specialist physician.

  13. Infection and childhood leukemia: review of evidence (United States)

    Maia, Raquel da Rocha Paiva; Wünsch, Victor


    OBJECTIVE To analyze studies that evaluated the role of infections as well as indirect measures of exposure to infection in the risk of childhood leukemia, particularly acute lymphoblastic leukemia. METHODS A search in Medline, Lilacs, and SciELO scientific publication databases initially using the descriptors "childhood leukemia" and "infection" and later searching for the words "childhood leukemia" and "maternal infection or disease" or "breastfeeding" or "daycare attendance" or "vaccination" resulted in 62 publications that met the following inclusion criteria: subject aged ≤ 15 years; specific analysis of cases diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia or total leukemia; exposure assessment of mothers' or infants' to infections (or proxy of infection), and risk of leukemia. RESULTS Overall, 23 studies that assessed infections in children support the hypothesis that occurrence of infection during early childhood reduces the risk of leukemia, but there are disagreements within and between studies. The evaluation of exposure to infection by indirect measures showed evidence of reduced risk of leukemia associated mainly with daycare attendance. More than 50.0% of the 16 studies that assessed maternal exposure to infection observed increased risk of leukemia associated with episodes of influenza, pneumonia, chickenpox, herpes zoster, lower genital tract infection, skin disease, sexually transmitted diseases, Epstein-Barr virus, and Helicobacter pylori. CONCLUSIONS Although no specific infectious agent has been identified, scientific evidence suggests that exposure to infections has some effect on childhood leukemia etiology. PMID:24626555

  14. Evidence-based interventions of threatened miscarriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Li


    Full Text Available Threatened miscarriage is the commonest complication of early pregnancy and affects about 20% of pregnancies. It presents with vaginal bleeding with or without abdominal cramps. Increasing age of women, smoking, obesity or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and a previous history of miscarriage are risk factors for threatened miscarriage. The pathophysiology has been associated with changes in levels of cytokines or maternal immune dysfunction. Clinical history and examination, maternal serum biochemistry and ultrasound findings are important to determine the treatment options and provide valuable information for the prognosis. Bed rest is the commonest advice, but there is little evidence of its value. Other options include progesterone, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG and muscle relaxants. The complementary and alternative medicine (CAM therapies such as acupuncture and Chinese herbs have also been tried. There is some evidence from clinical studies indicating that CAM therapies may reduce the rate of miscarriage, but the quality of studies is poor. Thus, further double-blind, randomized-controlled trials are necessary to confirm its effectiveness, especially acupuncture and Chinese herbs.

  15. Infection and childhood leukemia: review of evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel da Rocha Paiva Maia


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To analyze studies that evaluated the role of infections as well as indirect measures of exposure to infection in the risk of childhood leukemia, particularly acute lymphoblastic leukemia. METHODS : A search in Medline, Lilacs, and SciELO scientific publication databases initially using the descriptors “childhood leukemia” and “infection” and later searching for the words “childhood leukemia” and “maternal infection or disease” or “breastfeeding” or “daycare attendance” or “vaccination” resulted in 62 publications that met the following inclusion criteria: subject aged ≤ 15 years; specific analysis of cases diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia or total leukemia; exposure assessment of mothers’ or infants’ to infections (or proxy of infection, and risk of leukemia. RESULTS : Overall, 23 studies that assessed infections in children support the hypothesis that occurrence of infection during early childhood reduces the risk of leukemia, but there are disagreements within and between studies. The evaluation of exposure to infection by indirect measures showed evidence of reduced risk of leukemia associated mainly with daycare attendance. More than 50.0% of the 16 studies that assessed maternal exposure to infection observed increased risk of leukemia associated with episodes of influenza, pneumonia, chickenpox, herpes zoster, lower genital tract infection, skin disease, sexually transmitted diseases, Epstein-Barr virus, and Helicobacter pylori . CONCLUSIONS : Although no specific infectious agent has been identified, scientific evidence suggests that exposure to infections has some effect on childhood leukemia etiology.

  16. Brain and language: evidence for neural multifunctionality. (United States)

    Cahana-Amitay, Dalia; Albert, Martin L


    This review paper presents converging evidence from studies of brain damage and longitudinal studies of language in aging which supports the following thesis: the neural basis of language can best be understood by the concept of neural multifunctionality. In this paper the term "neural multifunctionality" refers to incorporation of nonlinguistic functions into language models of the intact brain, reflecting a multifunctional perspective whereby a constant and dynamic interaction exists among neural networks subserving cognitive, affective, and praxic functions with neural networks specialized for lexical retrieval, sentence comprehension, and discourse processing, giving rise to language as we know it. By way of example, we consider effects of executive system functions on aspects of semantic processing among persons with and without aphasia, as well as the interaction of executive and language functions among older adults. We conclude by indicating how this multifunctional view of brain-language relations extends to the realm of language recovery from aphasia, where evidence of the influence of nonlinguistic factors on the reshaping of neural circuitry for aphasia rehabilitation is clearly emerging.

  17. Normative evidence accumulation in unpredictable environments (United States)

    Glaze, Christopher M; Kable, Joseph W; Gold, Joshua I


    In our dynamic world, decisions about noisy stimuli can require temporal accumulation of evidence to identify steady signals, differentiation to detect unpredictable changes in those signals, or both. Normative models can account for learning in these environments but have not yet been applied to faster decision processes. We present a novel, normative formulation of adaptive learning models that forms decisions by acting as a leaky accumulator with non-absorbing bounds. These dynamics, derived for both discrete and continuous cases, depend on the expected rate of change of the statistics of the evidence and balance signal identification and change detection. We found that, for two different tasks, human subjects learned these expectations, albeit imperfectly, then used them to make decisions in accordance with the normative model. The results represent a unified, empirically supported account of decision-making in unpredictable environments that provides new insights into the expectation-driven dynamics of the underlying neural signals. DOI: PMID:26322383

  18. Evidence-based resources and the role of librarians in developing evidence-based practice curricula. (United States)

    Klem, Mary L; Weiss, Patricia M


    The implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) requires acquisition and use of a complex set of skills, including the ability to locate and critically evaluate clinically relevant research literature. In this article, we discuss information resources and tools that may be of value to educators faced with the task of teaching students to search for and evaluate research-based evidence. In addition, we discuss how health sciences librarians, with the use of new models of information instruction and delivery, can work with nursing faculty in developing curricula for training students in EBP.

  19. Evidence Based Practice Outside the Box (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Glynn


    Full Text Available I love food. I love cooking, baking, testing, and eating. I read about food preparation, food facts, and food service. Over the years I’ve developed my fair share of knowledge about cooking and I’m a decent cook, but I’m no chef. I guess I’m what you’d call a “foodie”. However, I have the good fortune to have a friend who is a chef and owns one of the best, and certainly the most innovative, restaurants in town. During this summer I hosted a cooking class in my home for my family with my chef friend as instructor. The Tex-Mex barbecue theme was a big hit (you can contact me for recipes, if you like, but much more fascinating was the explanation of the science behind the cooking. It turns out that there is a term for this: molecular gastronomy. Another term, and hence the genesis of my “Eureka!” moment of the summer, is evidence based cooking. Good cooking is not just following a recipe (not all of which are evidence based but at its best is the culmination of heaps of tested information regarding why and how chemical and environmental factors work together to result in a gastronomical delight. For example, will brining or marinating a pork chop make it moister? And, if brining, what temperature should the water be, how long should it soak, and how much salt is needed? Why does pounding meat increase its tenderness? What will keep guacamole from browning better – the pit or lime juice? What does baking soda do in a chocolate cake? Eggs or no eggs in fresh pasta? Like most librarians, I tend not to take information at face value. I want to know where information comes from and whether or not it is valid, based on specific factors. I’ve come to notice that evidence based, or evidence informed, practice is everywhere and has a tremendous impact on our lives. Why do you rotate the tires on your car? Evidence shows that the front tires wear more quickly (think about all those 3-pointturns, the braking, etc and therefore

  20. Evidence-based treatment of metabolic myopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan LIN


    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the current treatments and possible adverse reactions of metabolic myopathy, and to develop the best solution for evidence-based treatment.  Methods Taking metabolic myopathy, mitochondrial myopathy, lipid storage myopathy, glycogen storage diseases, endocrine myopathy, drug toxicity myopathy and treatment as search terms, retrieve in databases such as PubMed, Cochrane Library, ClinicalKey database, National Science and Technology Library (NSTL, in order to collect the relevant literature database including clinical guidelines, systematic reviews (SR, randomized controlled trials (RCT, controlled clinical trials, retrospective case analysis and case study. Jadad Scale was used to evaluate the quality of literature.  Results Twenty-eight related articles were selected, including 6 clinical guidelines, 5 systematic reviews, 10 randomized controlled trials and 7 clinical controlled trials. According to Jadad Scale, 23 articles were evaluated as high-quality literature (≥ 4, and the remaining 5 were evaluated as low-quality literature (< 4. Treatment principles of these clinical trials, efficacy of different therapies and drug safety evaluation suggest that: 1 Acid α-glycosidase (GAA enzyme replacement therapy (ERT is the main treatment for glycogen storage diseases, with taking a high-protein diet, exercising before taking a small amount of fructose orally and reducing the patient's physical activity gradually. 2 Carnitine supplementation is used in the treatment of lipid storage myopathy, with carbohydrate and low fat diet provided before exercise or sports. 3 Patients with mitochondrial myopathy can take coenzyme Q10, vitamin B, vitamin K, vitamin C, etc. Proper aerobic exercise combined with strength training is safe, and it can also enhance the exercise tolerance of patients effectively. 4 The first choice to treat the endocrine myopathy is treating primary affection. 5 Myopathies due to drugs and toxins should

  1. How to understand and conduct evidence-based medicine. (United States)

    Kang, Hyun


    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is the conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions regarding the care of individual patients. This concept has gained popularity recently, and its applications have been steadily expanding. Nowadays, the term "evidence-based" is used in numerous situations and conditions, such as evidence-based medicine, evidence-based practice, evidence-based health care, evidence-based social work, evidence-based policy, and evidence-based education. However, many anesthesiologists and their colleagues have not previously been accustomed to utilizing EBM, and they have experienced difficulty in understanding and applying the techniques of EBM to their practice. In this article, the author discusses the brief history, definition, methods, and limitations of EBM. As EBM also involves making use of the best available information to answer questions in clinical practice, the author emphasizes the process of performing evidence-based medicine: generate the clinical question, find the best evidence, perform critical appraisal, apply the evidence, and then evaluate. Levels of evidence and strength of recommendation were also explained. The author expects that this article may be of assistance to readers in understanding, conducting, and evaluating EBM.

  2. Spectroscopic evidence for the formation of goldfingers. (United States)

    Franzman, Matthew A; Barrios, Amy M


    Gold(I) has long been used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, but the therapeutically relevant biological targets of gold(I) are not well understood. Here, we report the results of a spectroscopic investigation into the formation of goldfingers. By exploiting a thiolate to gold charge-transfer band in the UV, we observed that gold(I) interacts with zinc finger peptides with a stoichiometry of one gold ion for each two cysteine residues, forming 1:1, 1.5:1, and 2:1 adducts with zinc finger peptides containing CCHH, CCHC, and CCCC donor sets, respectively. In addition, circular dichroism experiments provided evidence that goldfingers are more ordered than the corresponding metal-free peptides but do not exhibit the canonical zinc finger structure.

  3. Examining the evidence for dynamical dark energy. (United States)

    Zhao, Gong-Bo; Crittenden, Robert G; Pogosian, Levon; Zhang, Xinmin


    We apply a new nonparametric Bayesian method for reconstructing the evolution history of the equation of state w of dark energy, based on applying a correlated prior for w(z), to a collection of cosmological data. We combine the latest supernova (SNLS 3 year or Union 2.1), cosmic microwave background, redshift space distortion, and the baryonic acoustic oscillation measurements (including BOSS, WiggleZ, and 6dF) and find that the cosmological constant appears consistent with current data, but that a dynamical dark energy model which evolves from w-1 at higher redshift is mildly favored. Estimates of the Bayesian evidence show little preference between the cosmological constant model and the dynamical model for a range of correlated prior choices. Looking towards future data, we find that the best fit models for current data could be well distinguished from the ΛCDM model by observations such as Planck and Euclid-like surveys.

  4. Manual hyperinflation: technical and clinical evidence review


    Nunes, Guilherme S.; Botelho, Guilherme Varela; Schivinski, Camila Isabel Santos


    INTRODUÇÃO: A técnica de hiperinsuflação manual (HM), também conhecida como "bag squeezing" ou "bagging", foi inicialmente descrita como um recurso para melhorar a oxigenação pré e pós-aspiração traqueal, mobilizar o excesso de secreção brônquica e reexpandir áreas pulmonares colapsadas. OBJETIVO: Apresentar evidências científicas sobre os efeitos da manobra de HM como recurso fisioterapêutico, bem como suas indicações clínicas. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Realizou-se uma busca nas bases de dados el...

  5. Fiscal Reaction Function: Evidences from CESEE countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Zdravković


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to improve on the methodology set in previous attempts to estimate the impact of gross government debt to primary balances in a wide set of 21 CESEE countries. Since the result of the long-lasting crisis in those countries is rising imbalance of public finances it is necessary to analyze what factors are causing such effects. Running the fixed effect, pooled and GMM regression it was found that both lagged government debt and output gap are positively related to primary balance. Moreover there was found evidence of non-linear relationship between primary balance and lagged debt, with fiscal fatigue occurrence at 70% threshold. Estimation of the augmented model shows that countercyclical response of primary balance is more pronounced in economic downturn relative to boom in cycle.

  6. [Treatment recommendations based on best evidences]. (United States)

    Catalano, Hugo N; Mella, José M


    The fact of making recommendations about treatments demands for a systematic analysis of the different variables involved. The direction of these variables will become a recommendation into a strong one, when the benefits outweigh the harms, or into a weak one, when profits and losses are balanced. In this way, evidence based medicine analyzes this variables: 1) the quality of the literature; 2) the importance of clinical effect; 3) the magnitude of the effect; 4) the risks of the disease to treat; 5) the risks of treatment; 6) the costs; 7) the preferences of the patients; 8) the inconvenience to patients; 9) the minimum and maximum effect and 10 ) if the recommendation is strong or weak. This ten steps strategy will lead us to the construction of a scientifically based recommendation.

  7. Evidence for strategic cooperation in humans. (United States)

    Burton-Chellew, Maxwell N; El Mouden, Claire; West, Stuart A


    Humans may cooperate strategically, cooperating at higher levels than expected from their short-term interests, to try and stimulate others to cooperate. To test this hypothesis, we experimentally manipulated the extent an individual's behaviour is known to others, and hence whether or not strategic cooperation is possible. In contrast with many previous studies, we avoided confounding factors by preventing individuals from learning during the game about either pay-offs or about how other individuals behave. We found clear evidence for strategic cooperators-just telling some individuals that their groupmates would be informed about their behaviour led to them tripling their initial level of cooperation, from 17 to 50%. We also found that many individuals play as if they do not understand the game, and their presence obscures the detection of strategic cooperation. Identifying such players allowed us to detect and study strategic motives for cooperation in novel, more powerful, ways. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Current clinical evidence for remote patient management. (United States)

    Guédon-Moreau, Laurence; Mabo, Philippe; Kacet, Salem


    Pacemaker (PM) and implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) patients are ideally suited to remote management in the form of remote follow-up as well as of remote monitoring, which are both acts of telemedicine. Large randomized trials, such as TRUST, COMPAS, CONNECT, ECOST and EVOLVO, and the huge ALTITUDE registry provided a high level of evidence for the multiple advantages of remote management. These trials demonstrated the capability of early detection of events, the ability to reduce the incidence of inappropriate shocks and also of all charged shocks and this despite fewer in-clinic visits for the patients. The studies also demonstrated the safety of remote management of ICD and PM patients and moreover its positive impact on the survival of patients. Thereby, remote monitoring is clinically much more effective and efficient than conventional follow-up.

  9. Numerical evidence for thermally induced monopoles. (United States)

    Wirnsberger, Peter; Fijan, Domagoj; Lightwood, Roger A; Šarić, Anđela; Dellago, Christoph; Frenkel, Daan


    Electric charges are conserved. The same would be expected to hold for magnetic charges, yet magnetic monopoles have never been observed. It is therefore surprising that the laws of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, combined with Maxwell's equations, suggest that colloidal particles heated or cooled in certain polar or paramagnetic solvents may behave as if they carry an electric/magnetic charge. Here, we present numerical simulations that show that the field distribution around a pair of such heated/cooled colloidal particles agrees quantitatively with the theoretical predictions for a pair of oppositely charged electric or magnetic monopoles. However, in other respects, the nonequilibrium colloidal particles do not behave as monopoles: They cannot be moved by a homogeneous applied field. The numerical evidence for the monopole-like fields around heated/cooled colloidal particles is crucial because the experimental and numerical determination of forces between such colloidal particles would be complicated by the presence of other effects, such as thermophoresis.

  10. Prostate cancer and inflammation: the evidence (United States)

    Sfanos, Karen S; De Marzo, Angelo M


    Chronic inflammation is now known to contribute to several forms of human cancer, with an estimated 20% of adult cancers attributable to chronic inflammatory conditions caused by infectious agents, chronic noninfectious inflammatory diseases and / or other environmental factors. Indeed, chronic inflammation is now regarded as an ‘enabling characteristic’ of human cancer. The aim of this review is to summarize the current literature on the evidence for a role for chronic inflammation in prostate cancer aetiology, with a specific focus on recent advances regarding the following: (i) potential stimuli for prostatic inflammation; (ii) prostate cancer immunobiology; (iii) inflammatory pathways and cytokines in prostate cancer risk and development; (iv) proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA) as a risk factor lesion to prostate cancer development; and (v) the role of nutritional or other antiinflammatory compounds in reducing prostate cancer risk. PMID:22212087

  11. Bayesian Evidence Framework for Decision Tree Learning (United States)

    Chatpatanasiri, Ratthachat; Kijsirikul, Boonserm


    This work is primary interested in the problem of, given the observed data, selecting a single decision (or classification) tree. Although a single decision tree has a high risk to be overfitted, the induced tree is easily interpreted. Researchers have invented various methods such as tree pruning or tree averaging for preventing the induced tree from overfitting (and from underfitting) the data. In this paper, instead of using those conventional approaches, we apply the Bayesian evidence framework of Gull, Skilling and Mackay to a process of selecting a decision tree. We derive a formal function to measure `the fitness' for each decision tree given a set of observed data. Our method, in fact, is analogous to a well-known Bayesian model selection method for interpolating noisy continuous-value data. As in regression problems, given reasonable assumptions, this derived score function automatically quantifies the principle of Ockham's razor, and hence reasonably deals with the issue of underfitting-overfitting tradeoff.

  12. Evidence of rheumatoid arthritis in ancient India. (United States)

    Sturrock, R D; Sharma, J N; Buchanan, W W


    The scarcity of references in ancient medical literature to any disease resembling rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has led many Western rheumatologists to believe that rheumatoid arthritis is a disease of relatively recent origin. In a recent paper on this problem, Short traces the first adequate description of what was probably rheumatoid arthritis to Thomas Sydenham (1624-1689) and emphasizes that European and Greek medical literature before Sydenham's time may have confused gout and other forms of polyarthritis as manifestations of the same disease (1). Studies in human paleopathology have as yet produced no convincing evidence for the existenct of RA in ancient human remains, but Short suggested that a study of the ancient medical literature of the Eastern civilizations may provide some new information on the true antiquity of rheumatoid arthritis.

  13. Numerical evidence for thermally induced monopoles (United States)

    Wirnsberger, Peter; Fijan, Domagoj; Lightwood, Roger A.; Šarić, Anđela; Dellago, Christoph; Frenkel, Daan


    Electric charges are conserved. The same would be expected to hold for magnetic charges, yet magnetic monopoles have never been observed. It is therefore surprising that the laws of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, combined with Maxwell’s equations, suggest that colloidal particles heated or cooled in certain polar or paramagnetic solvents may behave as if they carry an electric/magnetic charge. Here, we present numerical simulations that show that the field distribution around a pair of such heated/cooled colloidal particles agrees quantitatively with the theoretical predictions for a pair of oppositely charged electric or magnetic monopoles. However, in other respects, the nonequilibrium colloidal particles do not behave as monopoles: They cannot be moved by a homogeneous applied field. The numerical evidence for the monopole-like fields around heated/cooled colloidal particles is crucial because the experimental and numerical determination of forces between such colloidal particles would be complicated by the presence of other effects, such as thermophoresis.

  14. Evidence-based medicine: Dupuytren contracture. (United States)

    Eaton, Charles


    After studying this article, the participant should be able to: (1) Describe features and clinical importance of Dupuytren diathesis. (2) Explain the difference between the new definition of recurrence used in collagenase studies compared with prior definitions of recurrence. (3) Compare and list the main advantage/main disadvantage of fasciectomy versus minimally invasive treatment (collagenase injection or needle aponeurotomy) of Dupuytren contracture. The large body of existing literature on Dupuytren disease is spread across many journals in many specialties. It is thus a daunting task for practitioners to follow trends and practice recommendations. It is also a testimony to the lack of an acceptable solution to this common problem. Recent publications provide evidence to highlight controversies and challenge some traditional teachings. Literature from 2010 to 2012 was reviewed with the intent of clarifying some of these issues.

  15. Evidence-Based Medicine: Mandible Fractures. (United States)

    Pickrell, Brent B; Hollier, Larry H


    After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Explain the epidemiology of mandible fractures. 2. Discuss preoperative evaluation of the patient with a mandible fracture. 3. Compare the various modalities of fracture fixation. 4. Identify common complications after fracture repair. In this Maintenance of Certification/Continuing Medical Education article, the reader is provided with a review of the epidemiology, preoperative evaluation, perioperative management, and surgical outcomes of mandible fractures. The objective of this series is to present a review of the literature so that the practicing physician can remain up-to-date on key evidence-based guidelines to enhance management and improve outcomes. The physician can also seek further in-depth study of the topic through the references provided.

  16. Evidence for collective phenomena in pp collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhenyu


    Observation of long-range ridge-like correlations in high-multiplicity pp collisions opened up new opportunities for exploring novel QCD dynamics in small collision systems. Based on data collected in 2015 and 2016 with the CMS detector at the LHC, the second-order ($v_{2}$) and third-order ($v_{3}$) azimuthal anisotropy harmonics of $K_{s}^{0}$, $\\Lambda$ and inclusive charged particles are extracted from long-range two-particle correlations as functions of particle multiplicity and transverse momentum. For the first time in pp collisions, the $v_{2}$ signals are also extracted from multi-particle correlations, providing direct evidence of the collective nature of observed particle correlations. These results provide new insights on the origin of observed long-range correlations in pp collisions, and may shed light on how quantum fluctuations affect the proton structure at a very short time scale.

  17. Weighing the evidence for clustering in nuclei (United States)

    Jenkins, David; Courtin, Sandrine


    Clustering in nuclei is a long-standing topic in nuclear physics. While it has attracted much experimental and theoretical attention over the years, it is a model which is still controversial in terms of whether such clustering can be clearly delineated and separated from the complexity of nuclear structure described within more conventional nuclear models. In this sense, there is still ambiguity in terms of the uniqueness and relevance of the clustering description. What is often not clearly articulated is what would provide the most compelling evidence for clustering in different contexts. As a means of illustrating these issues, two strands of this topic will be discussed: alpha clustering in light nuclei and clustering in the 12C+12C system. Recent work in these areas will be reviewed and scope for future work will be highlighted.

  18. Experimental evidence for circular inference in schizophrenia (United States)

    Jardri, Renaud; Duverne, Sandrine; Litvinova, Alexandra S.; Denève, Sophie


    Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a complex mental disorder that may result in some combination of hallucinations, delusions and disorganized thinking. Here SCZ patients and healthy controls (CTLs) report their level of confidence on a forced-choice task that manipulated the strength of sensory evidence and prior information. Neither group's responses can be explained by simple Bayesian inference. Rather, individual responses are best captured by a model with different degrees of circular inference. Circular inference refers to a corruption of sensory data by prior information and vice versa, leading us to `see what we expect' (through descending loops), to `expect what we see' (through ascending loops) or both. Ascending loops are stronger for SCZ than CTLs and correlate with the severity of positive symptoms. Descending loops correlate with the severity of negative symptoms. Both loops correlate with disorganized symptoms. The findings suggest that circular inference might mediate the clinical manifestations of SCZ.

  19. An information gap in DNA evidence interpretation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W Perlin

    Full Text Available Forensic DNA evidence often contains mixtures of multiple contributors, or is present in low template amounts. The resulting data signals may appear to be relatively uninformative when interpreted using qualitative inclusion-based methods. However, these same data can yield greater identification information when interpreted by computer using quantitative data-modeling methods. This study applies both qualitative and quantitative interpretation methods to a well-characterized DNA mixture and dilution data set, and compares the inferred match information. The results show that qualitative interpretation loses identification power at low culprit DNA quantities (below 100 pg, but that quantitative methods produce useful information down into the 10 pg range. Thus there is a ten-fold information gap that separates the qualitative and quantitative DNA mixture interpretation approaches. With low quantities of culprit DNA (10 pg to 100 pg, computer-based quantitative interpretation provides greater match sensitivity.

  20. Lasers In Physical Evidence Examination: An Overview (United States)

    Menzel, E. R.


    A recent application of fluorescence that is perhaps largely unknown outside law enforcement involves the utilization of laser excited fluorescence (LEF) in forensic science. In this overview, the focus is on LEF applicaton to development of latent fingerprints. Other areas of criminalistics, such as document examination and fiber analysis will be dealt with briefly only. To bring the technical reader, who likely has little familiarity with the fingerprint field, up to stream, a historical introduction precedes the description of current procedures for laser detection of latent fingerprints which is followed by a brief outline of current areas of research in the fingerprint area and application of lasers to other types of evidence examination. The overview concludes with an assessment of the current state and utilization growth prognosis of lasers in criminalistics.

  1. Intellectual capital: Evidence from banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Boostani


    Full Text Available This paper investigates different components on intellectual capital including human capital, structural capital and customer capital in banking industry in city of Salmas, Iran. The study uses the questionnaire developed by Bontis (1998 [Bontis, N. (1998. Intellectual capital: an exploratory study that develops measures and models. Management Decision, 36(2, 63-76.] to measure the effects of human capital. The questionnaire consists of 42 questions and all of them are designed in Likert scale. Cronbach alphas for human capital, structural capital and relationship capital were calculated as 0.79, 0.76 and 0.72, respectively. The implementation of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test has indicated that the data were normally distributed. Using t-student test, the study determined that while management team did not pay enough attention on human capital, there were some statistically significant evidence that social and relationship capitals gained good attention.

  2. Dairy propionibacteria as probiotics: recent evidences. (United States)

    Altieri, Clelia


    Nowdays there is evidence that dairy propionibacteria display probiotic properties, which as yet have been underestimated. The aim of this paper is to review the recent highlights of data representing the probiotic potential of dairy propionibacteria, studied both by general selection criteria (useful for all probiotic potentials), and by more specific and innovative approach. Dairy propionibacteria show a robust nature, that makes them able to overcome technological hurdles, allowing their future use in various fermented probiotic foods. In addition to the general selection criteria for probiotics in areas such as food safety, technological and digestive stress tolerance, many potential health benefits have been recently described for dairy propionibacteria, including, production of several active molecules and adhesion capability, that can mean a steady action in modulation of microbiota and of metabolic activity in the gut; their impact on intestinal inflammation, modulation of the immune system, potential modulation of risk factors for cancer development modulation of intestinal absorption.

  3. Inflation and growth: the international evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Philip Thirlwall


    Full Text Available Although in the current climate of inflation most are concerned with its negative repercussions, its virtues as a means of growth were once extolled by the likes of Robertson, Kaldor and Rostow. Moreover, the notion of growth via inflation was an attractive proposition to less developed countries in the 1950s as they sought to accelerate the growth of output in the face of inadequate voluntary saving and inelastic tax revenue. Although there are many reasons why in theory mild inflation may be conducive to growth, this hypothesis has yet to be empirically tested. The author analyses a broad cross-section of countries with growth as an independent variable. For both developed and developing countries the hypothesis is supported by the evidence. However, for the latter there is a negative relation between inflation and growth when annual rates of inflation exceed 10 percent.

  4. Ancient bacteria show evidence of DNA repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Hebsgaard, Martin B; Christensen, Torben R


    Recent claims of cultivable ancient bacteria within sealed environments highlight our limited understanding of the mechanisms behind long-term cell survival. It remains unclear how dormancy, a favored explanation for extended cellular persistence, can cope with spontaneous genomic decay over...... geological timescales. There has been no direct evidence in ancient microbes for the most likely mechanism, active DNA repair, or for the metabolic activity necessary to sustain it. In this paper, we couple PCR and enzymatic treatment of DNA with direct respiration measurements to investigate long...... that this long-term survival is closely tied to cellular metabolic activity and DNA repair that over time proves to be superior to dormancy as a mechanism in sustaining bacteria viability....

  5. Religion and stock price crash risk: Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfei Li


    Full Text Available This paper investigates whether religious traditions influence firm-specific crash risk in China. Using a sample of A-share listed firms from 2003 to 2013, we provide evidence that the more intense the religious environment, the lower the stock price crash risk, implying that religion plays an important role in Chinese corporate governance. Further, we find that (1 religion affects stock price crash risk by reducing earnings management and the management perk problem; (2 different religions have different effects, and Taoism, in particular, is unrelated to crash risk; and (3 the effects of religion are more pronounced with higher quality corporate governance and a stronger legal environment. Religion constrains the management agency problem, thus reducing stock price crash risk in China. Our paper enriches the literature on stock price crash risk and religion, and on new economic geography.

  6. Evidence-based pharmacogenetics: Is it possible? (United States)

    Sychev, D A; Malova, E U


    interest not only among scientists, but also among practitioners. However evidence that is actually available on some key topics may not be of sufficiently high quality to support confident conclusions. As a rule, retrospective cohort studies, also known as historical cohort studies, are carried out. The number of randomized, prospective studies is not large, though in recent years, there has been an increase in their number. However, surrogate outcomes are commonly used in the mentioned studies as trial end points. The main reason for this is the lack of sponsorship. Quite often studies are not interesting for pharmaceutical companies and are carried out within the confines of the small grants. Nevertheless, systematic reviews and meta-analyses of some pharmacogenetic tests provide the high level of evidence (pharmacogenetic testing for clopidogrel, abacavir and antineoplastic drugs) so they appear even in clinical guidelines with the evidence level IIb. It is important to mention that for certain drugs FDA has already approved pharmacogenetic testing [5]. Evidence is often inconsistent. This leads to the fact that clinical use of pharmacogenetic testing seems to be most appropriate for the management of patients with high risk of adverse drug reactions.

  7. Polarization in astronomical spectra - Theoretical evidence (United States)

    Fymat, A. L.


    Theoretical evidence for the existence and behavior of polarization in astronomical spectra is provided. The theory for the study of spectral multiple scattering of arbitrarily polarized light is first developed, and the detailed and integrated spectropolarimetry of a planetary atmosphere is then studied for cases in which the spectra are formed in the presence of either very small nonspherical particles (Rayleigh-Cabannes scattering) or large polydisperse spherical particles (Mie scattering). It is shown in both cases that polarization is indeed present; it increases with the line strength but decreases afterwards as the line becomes very strong and tends to saturation. A polarization reversal is also predicted during latitudinal (pole-to-equator) scan and possibly also during longitudinal (terminator-to-limb) scan of the planet. The reversal happened at all phase angles considered. Our companion article (Forbes and Fymat) will provide observational substantiation to these theoretical predictions.

  8. Dinosaur physiology. Evidence for mesothermy in dinosaurs. (United States)

    Grady, John M; Enquist, Brian J; Dettweiler-Robinson, Eva; Wright, Natalie A; Smith, Felisa A


    Were dinosaurs ectotherms or fast-metabolizing endotherms whose activities were unconstrained by temperature? To date, some of the strongest evidence for endothermy comes from the rapid growth rates derived from the analysis of fossil bones. However, these studies are constrained by a lack of comparative data and an appropriate energetic framework. Here we compile data on ontogenetic growth for extant and fossil vertebrates, including all major dinosaur clades. Using a metabolic scaling approach, we find that growth and metabolic rates follow theoretical predictions across clades, although some groups deviate. Moreover, when the effects of size and temperature are considered, dinosaur metabolic rates were intermediate to those of endotherms and ectotherms and closest to those of extant mesotherms. Our results suggest that the modern dichotomy of endothermic versus ectothermic is overly simplistic. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Estonian Middle Semantics with Evidence from Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virve-Anneli Vihman


    Full Text Available This paper presents arguments for recognizing a middle voice in Estonian. The claim that the semantics of middle-marked verbs differs in a substantial way from the semantics of other intransitive constructions leads to the examination of the discourse pragmatics of these constructions, and the relationship between discourse patterns and their valency and argument properties. Various topicality measures show that the argument participant in middle clauses lies between that of the sole participant (S in intransitive clauses and the O of active transitive clauses. The results regarding the discourse behaviour of middle arguments constitute new evidence for the view that middle constructions differ from ordinary intransitive verbs, despite structural similarities, and mark a unique range on the scale of transitivity exhibited by verbs in Estonian.

  10. Modelling Stock Market Volatility: Evidence from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunanithy Banumathy


    Full Text Available This study empirically investigates the volatility pattern of Indian stock market based on time series data which consists of daily closing prices of S&P CNX Nifty Index for ten years period from 1st January 2003 to 31st December 2012. The analysis has been done using both symmetric and asymmetric models of Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedastic (GARCH. As per Akaike Information Criterion (AIC and Schwarz Information Criterion (SIC, the study proves that GARCH (1,1 and TGARCH (1,1 estimations are found to be most appropriate model to capture the symmetric and asymmetric volatility respectively. The study also provides evidence for the existence of a positive and insignificant risk premium as per GARCH-M (1,1 model. The asymmetric effect (leverage captured by the parameter of EGARCH (1,1 and TGARCH (1,1 models show that negative shocks have significant effect on conditional variance (volatility.

  11. Evidence Base Update for Autism Spectrum Disorder. (United States)

    Smith, Tristram; Iadarola, Suzannah


    This evidence base update examines the level of empirical support for interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) younger than 5 years old. It focuses on research published since a previous review in this journal (Rogers & Vismara, 2008 ). We identified psychological or behavioral interventions that had been manualized and evaluated in either (a) experimental or quasi-experimental group studies or (b) systematic reviews of single-subject studies. We extracted data from all studies that met these criteria and were published after the previous review. Interventions were categorized across two dimensions. First, primary theoretical principles included applied behavior analysis (ABA), developmental social-pragmatic (DSP), or both. Second, practice elements included scope (comprehensive or focused), modality (individual intervention with the child, parent training, or classrooms), and intervention targets (e.g., spoken language or alternative and augmentative communication). We classified two interventions as well-established (individual, comprehensive ABA and teacher-implemented, focused ABA + DSP), 3 as probably efficacious (individual, focused ABA for augmentative and alternative communication; individual, focused ABA + DSP; and focused DSP parent training), and 5 as possibly efficacious (individual, comprehensive ABA + DSP; comprehensive ABA classrooms; focused ABA for spoken communication; focused ABA parent training; and teacher-implemented, focused DSP). The evidence base for ASD interventions has grown substantially since 2008. An increasing number of interventions have some empirical support; others are emerging as potentially efficacious. Priorities for future research include improving outcome measures, developing interventions for understudied ASD symptoms (e.g., repetitive behaviors), pinpointing mechanisms of action in interventions, and adapting interventions for implementation with fidelity by community providers.

  12. Current clinical evidence on pioglitazone pharmacogenomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina eKawaguchi-Suzuki


    Full Text Available Pioglitazone is the most widely used thiazolidinedione and acts as an insulin-sensitizer through activation of the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ (PPARγ. Pioglitazone is approved for use in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus, but its use in other therapeutic areas is increasing due to pleiotropic effects. In this hypothesis article, the current clinical evidence on pioglitazone pharmacogenomics is summarized and related to variability in pioglitazone response. How genetic variation in the human genome affects the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of pioglitazone was examined. For pharmacodynamic effects, hypoglycemic and anti-atherosclerotic effects, risks of fracture or edema, and the increase in body mass index in response to pioglitazone based on genotype were examined. The genes CYP2C8 and PPARG are the most extensively studied to date and selected polymorphisms contribute to respective variability in pioglitazone pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. We hypothesized that genetic variation in pioglitazone pathway genes contributes meaningfully to the clinically observed variability in drug response. To test the hypothesis that genetic variation in PPARG associates with variability in pioglitazone response, we conducted a meta-analysis to synthesize the currently available data on the PPARG p.Pro12Ala polymorphism. The results showed that PPARG 12Ala carriers had a more favorable change in fasting blood glucose from baseline as compared to patients with the wild-type Pro12Pro genotype (p=0.018. Unfortunately, findings for many other genes lack replication in independent cohorts to confirm association; further studies are needed. Also, the biological functionality of these polymorphisms is unknown. Based on current evidence, we propose that pharmacogenomics may provide an important tool to individualize pioglitazone therapy and better optimize therapy in patients with T2DM or other conditions for which pioglitazone

  13. Empirical evidence about recovery and mental health. (United States)

    Slade, Mike; Longden, Eleanor


    Two discourses exist in mental health research and practice. The first focuses on the limitations associated with disability arising from mental disorder. The second focuses on the possibilities for living well with mental health problems. This article was prompted by a review to inform disability policy. We identify seven findings from this review: recovery is best judged by experts or using standardised assessment; few people with mental health problems recover; if a person no longer meets criteria for a mental illness, they are in remission; diagnosis is a robust basis for characterising groups and predicting need; treatment and other supports are important factors for improving outcome; the barriers to receiving effective treatment are availability, financing and client awareness; and the impact of mental illness, in particular schizophrenia, is entirely negative. We selectively review a wider range of evidence which challenge these findings, including the changing understanding of recovery, national mental health policies, systematic review methodology and undertainty, epidemiological evidence about recovery rates, reasoning biased due to assumptions about mental illness being an illness like any other, the contested nature of schizophrenia, the social construction of diagnoses, alternative explanations for psychosis experiences including the role of trauma, diagnostic over-shadowing, stigma, the technological paradigm, the treatment gap, social determinants of mental ill-health, the prevalence of voice-hearing in the general population, and the sometimes positive impact of psychosis experience in relation to perspective and purpose. We propose an alternative seven messages which are both empirically defensible and more helpful to mental health stakeholders: Recovery is best judged by the person living with the experience; Many people with mental health problems recover; If a person no longer meets criteria for a mental illness, they are not ill; Diagnosis is

  14. Evidence of Historical Supernovae in Ice Cores (United States)

    Young, Donna


    Within the framework of the U.S. Greenland Ice Core Science Project (GISP2), an ice core, known as the GISP H-Core, was collected in June, 1992 adjacent to the GISP2 summit drill site. The project scientists, Gisela A.M. Dreschhoff and Edward J. Zeller, were interested in dating solar proton events with volcanic eruptions. The GISP2-H 122-meter firn and ice core is a record of 415 years of liquid electrical conductivity (LEC) and nitrate concentrations, spanning the years 1992 at the surface through 1577 at the bottom. At the National Ice Core Laboratory in Denver, Colorado, the core (beneath the 12-meter firn) was sliced into 1.5 cm sections and analyzed. The resulting data set consisted of 7,776 individual analyses. The ultrahigh resolution sampling technique resulted in a time resolution of one week near the surface and one month at depth. The liquid electrical conductivity (LEC) sequence contains signals from a number of known volcanic eruptions and provides a dating system at specific locations along the core. The terrestrial and solar background nitrate records show seasonal and annual variations, respectively. However, major nitrate anomalies within the record do not correspond to any known terrestrial or solar events. There is evidence that these nitrate anomalies could be a record of supernovae events. Cosmic X-rays ionize atmospheric nitrogen, producing excess nitrate that is then deposited in the Polar Regions. The GISP2-H ice core has revealed nitrate anomalies at the times of the Tycho and Kepler supernovae. The Cassiopeia A supernova event may be documented in the core as well. We have developed a classroom activity for high school and college students, in which they examine several lines of evidence in the Greenland ice core, discriminating among nearby and mid-latitude volcanic activity, solar proton events, and supernovae. Students infer the date of the Cassiopeia A supernova.

  15. Automatic evidence retrieval for systematic reviews. (United States)

    Choong, Miew Keen; Galgani, Filippo; Dunn, Adam G; Tsafnat, Guy


    Snowballing involves recursively pursuing relevant references cited in the retrieved literature and adding them to the search results. Snowballing is an alternative approach to discover additional evidence that was not retrieved through conventional search. Snowballing's effectiveness makes it best practice in systematic reviews despite being time-consuming and tedious. Our goal was to evaluate an automatic method for citation snowballing's capacity to identify and retrieve the full text and/or abstracts of cited articles. Using 20 review articles that contained 949 citations to journal or conference articles, we manually searched Microsoft Academic Search (MAS) and identified 78.0% (740/949) of the cited articles that were present in the database. We compared the performance of the automatic citation snowballing method against the results of this manual search, measuring precision, recall, and F1 score. The automatic method was able to correctly identify 633 (as proportion of included citations: recall=66.7%, F1 score=79.3%; as proportion of citations in MAS: recall=85.5%, F1 score=91.2%) of citations with high precision (97.7%), and retrieved the full text or abstract for 490 (recall=82.9%, precision=92.1%, F1 score=87.3%) of the 633 correctly retrieved citations. The proposed method for automatic citation snowballing is accurate and is capable of obtaining the full texts or abstracts for a substantial proportion of the scholarly citations in review articles. By automating the process of citation snowballing, it may be possible to reduce the time and effort of common evidence surveillance tasks such as keeping trial registries up to date and conducting systematic reviews.

  16. 3. Neurological & Psychiatric Society of Zambia's Evidence-Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ”. No evidence provided. Not evidence-based and impractical for a resource .... European Federation of. Neurological Sciences. Task Force[18]. Non-acute headache. EEG is not routinely indicated in the diagnostic evaluation of headache.

  17. Authoritarianism and Recall of Evidence about Criminal Behavior (United States)

    Berg, Kathleen Stirrett; Vidmar, Neil


    The present research hypothesized that high and low authoritarian jurors would focus on different aspects of the evidence in simulated criminal trial settings and that these tendencies would be reflected in differential recall of evidence. (Author/RK)

  18. Evidence-Based Clinical Decision: Key to Improved Patients Care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    religious acts of the prehistoric era to empirical-rational decisions of the Egyptian civilization, to modern day evidence-based medicine. Evidence-based medicine requires that clinical decisions and health policies on the prevention, diagnosis and ...

  19. The smartphone evidence awareness framework for the users

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlamini, ZI


    Full Text Available growth in the use of these devices. This paper presents the smartphone evidence awareness (SEAware) training framework for smartphone users. This framework focuses on enhancing smartphone evidence awareness skills of smartphone users with regard...

  20. [Evidence-based management of medical disposable materials]. (United States)

    Yang, Hai


    Evidence-based management of medical disposable materials pays attention to collect evidence comprehensively and systematically, accumulate and create evidence through its own work and also evaluate evidence strictly. This can be used as a function to guide out job. Medical disposable materials evidence system contains product register qualification, product quality certification, supplier's behavior, internal and external communication evidence. Managers can find different ways in creating and using evidence referring to specific inside and outside condition. Evidence-based management can help accelerating the development of management of medical disposable materials from traditional experience pattern to a systematic and scientific pattern. It also has the very important meaning to improve medical quality, control the unreasonable growth of medical expense and make purchase and supply chain be more efficient.

  1. Towards evidence-based critical thinking medicine? Uses of best evidence in flawless argumentations. (United States)

    Jenicek, Milos


    Uses of informal logic and critical thinking methodology are increasingly taught, learnt and advantageously applied in such diverse domains as law, the military, business, and education. Health sciences are also following this trend. However, production and critical appraisal of evidence as already practiced in Evidence-Based Medicine must be coupled with equally rigorous uses in order to ensure appropriate health problem understanding and decision-making. Making most proposals and decisions in medicine is the conclusion of an argumentation process that lies behind any communication between health professionals working with patients, performing research or sharing ideas about health problems, their interpretations and solutions with numerous stakeholders in public life. Modern critical thinking and decision making in medicine is not instantly mastered, but is instead a learnt experience as anything else in professional and social interactions. The modern argument as outlined, illustrated and applied to health problems in this essay is an extension of a previously established way of thinking in Evidence-Based Medicine. Ideally, health professionals, their patients and all other stakeholders should speak the same language and it is up to us to make this possible. Evidence and critical thinking - based medicine might be a solution. As modern critical thinkers, we are at the forefront and we must see to it that patients and professional and general communities benefit from this more so even than from other remarkable historical and current contributions to the well-being of those under our care.

  2. Is There Neural Evidence for an Evidence Accumulation Process in Memory Decisions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, Marieke K; Beulen, Marijke A; Taatgen, Niels A


    Models of evidence accumulation have been very successful at describing human decision making behavior. Recent years have also seen the first reports of neural correlates of this accumulation process. However, these studies have mostly focused on perceptual decision making tasks, ignoring the role

  3. Crossing the Evidence Chasm: Building Evidence Bridges from Process Changes to Clinical Outcomes (United States)

    Kendrick, David C.; Bu, Davis; Pan, Eric; Middleton, Blackford


    Objective Although demand for information about the effectiveness and efficiency of health care information technology grows, large-scale resource-intensive randomized controlled trials of health care information technology remain impractical. New methods are needed to translate more commonly available clinical process measures into potential impact on clinical outcomes. Design The authors propose a method for building mathematical models based on published evidence that provides an evidence bridge between process changes and resulting clinical outcomes. This method combines tools from systematic review, influence diagramming, and health care simulations. Measurements The authors apply this method to create an evidence bridge between retinopathy screening rates and incidence of blindness in diabetic patients. Results The resulting model uses changes in eye examination rates and other evidence-based population parameters to generate clinical outcomes and costs in a Markov model. Conclusion This method may serve as an alternative to more expensive study designs and provide useful estimates of the impact of health care information technology on clinical outcomes through changes in clinical process measures. PMID:17329720

  4. Autism as a Contingency-Shaped Disorder of Verbal Behavior: Evidence Obtained and Evidence Needed (United States)

    Hixson, Michael D.


    Drash and Tudor's argument that autism is a contingency-shaped disorder of verbal behavior is logical and consistent with behavioral principles, but the argument's premises have no direct empirical support and some conflicting evidence. The quantity and quality of research needed to support such a theory is compared to that found in the area of…

  5. Claiming Evidence from Non-Evidence: A Reply to Morton and Harper (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen


    Morton and Harper (2007 ) argue that research presented in support of a bilingual advantage in the development of executive control has been confounded with social class, the actual mechanism for group differences. As evidence, they report a study in which a small group of monolingual and bilingual 6- and 7-year-olds performed similarly on a Simon…

  6. Wood evidence : proper collection, documentation, and storage of wood evidence from a crime scene (United States)

    Alex Wiedenhoeft


    Wood can be found at crime scenes in many forms: as a murder weapon, as material used to hide a body, or as trace evidence from forced entry or vandalism. In the course of my work at the Forest Products Laboratory, Center for Wood Anatomy Research, I have been part of several forensic investigations that were adversely affected by inappropriate procedures used to...

  7. Searching for evidence-based geriatrics: Tips and tools for finding evidence in the medical literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Munster, B. C.; van de Glind, E. M. M.; Hooft, L.


    Introduction: Information to treat geriatric patients evidence-based is hard to find. Recently, a sensitive and a specific search filter to improve searching for literature relevant to geriatric medicine were developed in a research setting. The aim of this study is to determine whether these

  8. The use of illegally gathered evidence in the criminal trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brkić Snežana


    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the illegally gathered evidence in Serbian criminal trial. The paper consists of three parts: 1 the general theory of admissibility of illegally gathered evidence; 2 rules of admissibility of evidence in relation to violation of the right to privacy; 3 rules of admissibility of evidence in relation to illegal interrogations. There is also conclusion. There are four aspects from which those problems are reviewed: constitutional rules, statutory rules, court jurisprudence and law theory.

  9. Query-oriented evidence extraction to support evidence-based medicine practice. (United States)

    Sarker, Abeed; Mollá, Diego; Paris, Cecile


    Evidence-based medicine practice requires medical practitioners to rely on the best available evidence, in addition to their expertise, when making clinical decisions. The medical domain boasts a large amount of published medical research data, indexed in various medical databases such as MEDLINE. As the size of this data grows, practitioners increasingly face the problem of information overload, and past research has established the time-associated obstacles faced by evidence-based medicine practitioners. In this paper, we focus on the problem of automatic text summarisation to help practitioners quickly find query-focused information from relevant documents. We utilise an annotated corpus that is specialised for the task of evidence-based summarisation of text. In contrast to past summarisation approaches, which mostly rely on surface level features to identify salient pieces of texts that form the summaries, our approach focuses on the use of corpus-based statistics, and domain-specific lexical knowledge for the identification of summary contents. We also apply a target-sentence-specific summarisation technique that reduces the problem of underfitting that persists in generic summarisation models. In automatic evaluations run over a large number of annotated summaries, our extractive summarisation technique statistically outperforms various baseline and benchmark summarisation models with a percentile rank of 96.8%. A manual evaluation shows that our extractive summarisation approach is capable of selecting content with high recall and precision, and may thus be used to generate bottom-line answers to practitioners' queries. Our research shows that the incorporation of specialised data and domain-specific knowledge can significantly improve text summarisation performance in the medical domain. Due to the vast amounts of medical text available, and the high growth of this form of data, we suspect that such summarisation techniques will address the time

  10. The "Good Governance" of Evidence in Health Policy (United States)

    Hawkins, Benjamin; Parkhurst, Justin


    Calls for evidence-based policy often fail to recognise the fundamentally political nature of policy making. Policy makers must identify, evaluate and utilise evidence to solve policy problems in the face of competing priorities and political agendas. Evidence should inform but cannot determine policy choices. This paper draws on theories of…

  11. Evidence-Based Health Policy: A Preliminary Systematic Review (United States)

    Morgan, Gareth


    Objective: The development of evidence-based health policy is challenging. This study has attempted to identify some of the underpinning factors that promote the development of evidence based health policy. Methods: A preliminary systematic literature review of published reviews with "evidence based health policy" in their title was conducted…

  12. Health care managers' perspectives on the sources of evidence in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Evidence-based management (EBMgt) has been developed as a management framework for improving the quality of management decisions. To use that, we need to identify the source of evidence in decision-making. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify the sources of evidence in managing ...

  13. Evidence-Based Medicine in the Education of Psychiatrists (United States)

    Srihari, Vinod


    Objective: Evidence-based medicine has an important place in the teaching and practice of psychiatry. Attempts to teach evidence-based medicine skills can be weakened by conceptual confusions feeding a false polarization between traditional clinical skills and evidence-based medicine. Methods: The author develops a broader conception of clinical…

  14. E-Learning and Evidence Based Practice in Schools (United States)

    Quong, Terrence


    JCTIC has used open source software to develop a unique school online environment that has made evidence based practice viable in their school. In this paper the proposition is made that eLearning enables evidence based practice which in turn leads to improved student outcomes. Much has been written about evidence based practice in schools, but…

  15. Comment: The standards in admitting expert evidence in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Judges render justice based on the presented evidence justifying their decisions. In criminal cases, these decisions can have ramifications on an individual's right to liberty, life and property. Correctness of conviction much depends on the evidence presented to the courtroom and the interpretation of the evidence by judges.

  16. 46 CFR 67.101 - Waiver of evidence of build. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Waiver of evidence of build. 67.101 Section 67.101... DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Build Requirements for Vessel Documentation § 67.101 Waiver of evidence of build. (a) A vessel owner applying for documentation unable to obtain the evidence of build required by § 67.99 may...

  17. 46 CFR 67.99 - Evidence of build. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence of build. 67.99 Section 67.99 Shipping COAST... DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Build Requirements for Vessel Documentation § 67.99 Evidence of build. (a) Evidence of the facts of build may be either a completed original form CG-1261, or other original document...

  18. Evidence-based medicine in general practice specialty training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwolsman, S.E.


    Aio’s huisartsgeneeskunde hebben adequate kennis ten aanzien van evidence-based medicine (geneeskunde op basis van bewijs). In de huisartspraktijk is evidence-based gedrag vaak niet direct zichtbaar, maar artsen kunnen wel aangeven op welk aspect van evidence-based medicine de voorgeschreven

  19. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Evidence-based obstetric care in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Feb 5, 2004 ... reliable research evidence available in the World Health. Organisation Reproductive Health Library (RHL)/2 the BBI aims to ensure that clinical practices used in essential obstetric services are grounded in reliable research evidence. The BBI targets practices where there is good evidence from systematic.

  20. How Do Dentists Understand Evidence and Adopt It in Practice? (United States)

    Sbaraini, Alexandra; Carter, Stacy M.; Evans, R. Wendell


    Although there is now a large evidence-based dentistry literature, previous investigators have shown that dentists often consider research evidence irrelevant to their practice. To understand why this is the case, we conducted a qualitative study. Objective: Our aim was to identify how dentists define evidence and how they adopt it in practice.…

  1. 38 CFR 10.32 - Evidence of dependency. (United States)


    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence of dependency... COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.32 Evidence of dependency. Evidence of a whole or entire dependency shall not be required. The mother or father shall be considered dependent for the purposes of the...

  2. The Standards in Admitting Expert Evidence in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abreha Mesele Zinabu

    Abstract. Judges render justice based on the presented evidence justifying their decisions. In criminal cases, these decisions can have ramifications on an individual's right to liberty, life and property. Correctness of conviction much depends on the evidence presented to the courtroom and the interpretation of the evidence ...

  3. On Evidence and Argument in Phenomenological Research | Walsh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Set against a background of calls for evidence-based practice, this paper explores the role of evidence and argument in phenomenological research. Drawing on Smith's (1998) analysis of original argument, the author considers how evidence can be discerned, understood, and communicated, and the resulting kinds and ...

  4. Evidence based medicine and the plastic surgery literature in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The principles of evidence-based medicine places case reports in the lower level of the hierarchy of scientific evidence. With the increased advocacy of evidence-based medicine, the survival of the case report has been threatened, prompting several authors to call for its preservation. Materials and methods: ...

  5. School Librarianship and Evidence Based Practice: Progress, Perspectives, and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross J. Todd


    Full Text Available Objective – This paper provides an overview of progress and developments surrounding evidence based practice in school librarianship, and seeks to provide a picture of current thinking about evidence based practice as it relates to the field. It addresses current issues and challenges facing the adoption of evidence based practice in school librarianship.Methods – The paper is based on a narrative review of a small but growing body of literature on evidence based practice in school librarianship, set within a broader perspective of evidence based education. In addition, it presents the outcomes of a collaborative process of input from 200 school libraries leaders collected at a School Library summit in 2007 specifically to address the emerging arena of evidence based practice in this field.Results – A holistic model of evidence based practice for school libraries is presented, centering on three integrated dimensions of evidence: evidence for practice, evidence in practice, and evidence of practice.Conclusion – The paper identifies key challenges ahead if evidence based school librarianship is to develop further. These include: building research credibility within the broader educational environment; the need for ongoing review and evaluation of the diverse body of research in education, librarianship and allied fields to make quality evidence available in ways that can enable practicing school librarians to build a culture of evidence based practice; development of tools, strategies, and exemplars to use to facilitate evidence based decision-making; and, ensuring that the many and diverse advances in education and librarianship become part of the practice of school librarianship.

  6. Evidence that humans can taste glucose polymers. (United States)

    Lapis, Trina J; Penner, Michael H; Lim, Juyun


    The sense of taste is essential for identifying potential nutrients and poisons. Accordingly, specialized taste receptor cells are activated by food-derived chemicals. Because of its importance in the human diet, oral detection of starch, or its degradation products, would presumably be highly beneficial. Yet, it has long been assumed that simple sugars are the only class of carbohydrates that humans can taste. There is, however, considerable evidence that rodents can taste starch degradation products (i.e., glucose polymers composed of maltooligosaccharides with 3-10 glucose units and maltopolysaccharides with >10 glucose units) and that their detection is independent of the sweet taste receptor, T1R2/T1R3. The present study was designed 1) to measure individual differences in human taste perception of glucose polymers, 2) to understand individual differences in the activity of salivary α-amylase, and 3) to investigate the role that salivary α-amylase may play in the taste perception of glucose polymers. In the first experiment, subjects rated taste intensity of glucose, sucrose, NaCl, and glucose polymers of various chain lengths, while their noses were clamped. Saliva samples from the subjects were also collected and their salivary α-amylase activity was assayed. Results showed that the perceived intensities of glucose, sucrose, and NaCl were significantly correlated (r = 0.75-0.85, P glucose polymers, whereas intensity ratings of all glucose polymers were highly correlated with one another (r = 0.69-0.82, P glucose polymers did not significantly differ between individuals with high and low α-amylase activity. A follow up experiment was conducted to quantify the concentrations of glucose and maltose that were inherently present in the glucose polymer stimuli and to determine whether the amounts were within a perceptually detectable range. Results revealed that the amounts of simple sugars present in the test stimuli were trivial and were mostly at an

  7. Geochemical Evidence for a Terrestrial Magma Ocean (United States)

    Agee, Carl B.


    The aftermath of phase separation and crystal-liquid fractionation in a magma ocean should leave a planet geochemically differentiated. Subsequent convective and other mixing processes may operate over time to obscure geochemical evidence of magma ocean differentiation. On the other hand, core formation is probably the most permanent, irreversible part of planetary differentiation. Hence the geochemical traces of core separation should be the most distinct remnants left behind in the mantle and crust, In the case of the Earth, core formation apparently coincided with a magma ocean that extended to a depth of approximately 1000 km. Evidence for this is found in high pressure element partitioning behavior of Ni and Co between liquid silicate and liquid iron alloy, and with the Ni-Co ratio and the abundance of Ni and Co in the Earth's upper mantle. A terrestrial magma ocean with a depth of 1000 km will solidify from the bottom up and first crystallize in the perovskite stability field. The largest effect of perovskite fractionation on major element distribution is to decrease the Si-Mg ratio in the silicate liquid and increase the Si-Mg ratio in the crystalline cumulate. Therefore, if a magma ocean with perovskite fractionation existed, then one could expect to observe an upper mantle with a lower than chondritic Si-Mg ratio. This is indeed observed in modern upper mantle peridotites. Although more experimental work is needed to fully understand the high-pressure behavior of trace element partitioning, it is likely that Hf is more compatible than Lu in perovskite-silicate liquid pairs. Thus, perovskite fractionation produces a molten mantle with a higher than chondritic Lu-Hf ratio. Arndt and Blichert-Toft measured Hf isotope compositions of Barberton komatiites that seem to require a source region with a long-lived, high Lu-Hf ratio. It is plausible that that these Barberton komatiites were generated within the majorite stability field by remelting a perovskite

  8. Badapple: promiscuity patterns from noisy evidence. (United States)

    Yang, Jeremy J; Ursu, Oleg; Lipinski, Christopher A; Sklar, Larry A; Oprea, Tudor I; Bologa, Cristian G


    methods reliant on expert curation of chemical substructure patterns, Badapple is fully evidence-driven, automated, self-improving via integration of additional data, and focused on scaffolds. Badapple is robust with respect to noise and errors, and skeptical of scanty evidence.

  9. Evidence-based health care: A roadmap for knowledge translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Yu Chen


    Full Text Available Evidence-based health care informs clinicians of choices regarding the most effective care based on the best available research evidence. However, concepts or instruments of evidence-based medicine are still fragmented for most clinicians. Substantial gaps between evidence and clinical practice remain. A knowledge translation roadmap may help clinicians to improve the quality of care by integration of various concepts in evidence-based health care. Improving research transparency and accuracy, conducting an updated systematic review, and shared decision making are the key points to diminish the gaps between research and practice.

  10. Evidence-based medicine: a commentary on common criticisms


    Straus, Sharon E.; McAlister, Finlay A.


    Discussions about evidence-based medicine engender both negative and positive reactions from clinicians and academics. Ways to achieve evidence-based practice are reviewed here and the most common criticisms described. The latter can be classified as ”limitations universal to the practice of medicine,” ”limitations unique to evidence-based medicine” and ”misperceptions of evidence-based medicine.” Potential solutions to the true limitations of evidence-based medicine are discussed and areas f...

  11. Evidence for endocrine disruption in invertebrates. (United States)

    Oetken, Matthias; Bachmann, Jean; Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Oehlmann, Jörg


    The issue of endocrine disruption (ED) in invertebrates has generated remarkably little interest in the past compared to research with aquatic vertebrates in this area. However, with more than 95% of all known species in the animal kingdom, invertebrates constitute a very important part of the global biodiversity with key species for the structure and function of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Despite the fact that ED in invertebrates has been investigated on a smaller scale than in vertebrates, invertebrates provide some of the best documented examples for deleterious effects in wildlife populations following an exposure to endocrine-active substances. The article provides an overview of the diversity in endocrine systems of invertebrates. The principal susceptibility of invertebrates to endocrine-active compounds is demonstrated with the case studies of tributyltin effects in mollusks and of insect growth regulators, the latter as purposely synthesized endocrine disrupters. The additional evidence for ED in invertebrates from laboratory and field studies is summarized as an update and amendment of the EDIETA report from 1998. Finally, conclusions about the scale and implications of the observed effects are drawn and research needs are defined.

  12. Morphological evidence for phages in Xylella fastidiosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Civerolo Edwin L


    Full Text Available Abstract Presumptive phage particles associated with Xylella fastidiosa strain Temecula-1 grown in PW broth were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM in ultrathin sections of bacterial cell-containing low speed centrifugation pellets and in partially purified preparations from CsCl equilibrium centrifugation density gradients. Ultrathin-sectioned cell pellets contained icosahedral particles of about 45 nm in diameter. Samples collected from CsCl density gradients revealed mostly non-tailed icosahedral but also tailed particles. The icosahedral particles could be divided into two types: a large type (about 45 nm and a small type (about 30 nm. Filamentous phage-like particles (17 × 120 to 6,300 nm were also observed. The presence of different types of phage-like particles resembling to those in several bacteriophage families provides new physical evidence, in addition to X. fastidiosa genomic information, that X. fastidiosa possesses active phages. This is the first report of phage particles released in X. fastidiosa cultures.

  13. Evidence for non-acetylcholinesterase mechanisms in ... (United States)

    Acetylcholinesterase inhibition is a well-established mode of action for adverse effects of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides, and the use of this endpoint in regulatory considerations has been assumed to be protective of downstream cholinergic effects. It has been questioned whether neurodevelopmental outcomes are also a consequence of this enzyme inhibition, or whether there are alternative non-cholinesterase mechanisms by which these chemicals alter key events in nervous system development. There is a growing body of literature in laboratory animals indicating that gestational and/or postnatal exposure may cause persistent behavioral effects into adulthood, as well as emerging epidemiological reports of neurodevelopmental outcomes in children. Common experimental findings are alterations in motor activity, cognitive function, and affective and social behaviors in rats or mice, as well as disrupted neuromotor and cognitive development in children. However, the data do not provide evidence for a characteristic pattern of effects. This may suggest nonspecific alterations in neurobehavioral function, but it may also be the result of considerable differences in exposure parameters, experimental designs, test methods and equipment, populations and animal models, and a host of other variables. A number of pesticides have been implicated, but the database for chlorpyrifos is the largest and thus those studies influence any evaluations of trend. Specific attri

  14. Evidence of photosymbiosis in Palaeozoic tabulate corals. (United States)

    Zapalski, Mikolaj K


    Coral reefs form the most diverse of all marine ecosystems on the Earth. Corals are among their main components and owe their bioconstructing abilities to a symbiosis with algae (Symbiodinium). The coral-algae symbiosis had been traced back to the Triassic (ca 240 Ma). Modern reef-building corals (Scleractinia) appeared after the Permian-Triassic crisis; in the Palaeozoic, some of the main reef constructors were extinct tabulate corals. The calcium carbonate secreted by extant photosymbiotic corals bears characteristic isotope (C and O) signatures. The analysis of tabulate corals belonging to four orders (Favositida, Heliolitida, Syringoporida and Auloporida) from Silurian to Permian strata of Europe and Africa shows these characteristic carbon and oxygen stable isotope signatures. The δ(18)O to δ(13)C ratios in recent photosymbiotic scleractinians are very similar to those of Palaeozoic tabulates, thus providing strong evidence of such symbioses as early as the Middle Silurian (ca 430 Ma). Corals in Palaeozoic reefs used the same cellular mechanisms for carbonate secretion as recent reefs, and thus contributed to reef formation.

  15. Fuzzy Evidence in Identification, Forecasting and Diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Rotshtein, Alexander P


    The purpose of this book is to present a methodology for designing and tuning fuzzy expert systems in order to identify nonlinear objects; that is, to build input-output models using expert and experimental information. The results of these identifications are used for direct and inverse fuzzy evidence in forecasting and diagnosis problem solving. The book is organised as follows: Chapter 1 presents the basic knowledge about fuzzy sets, genetic algorithms and neural nets necessary for a clear understanding of the rest of this book. Chapter 2 analyzes direct fuzzy inference based on fuzzy if-then rules. Chapter 3 is devoted to the tuning of fuzzy rules for direct inference using genetic algorithms and neural nets. Chapter 4 presents models and algorithms for extracting fuzzy rules from experimental data. Chapter 5 describes a method for solving fuzzy logic equations necessary for the inverse fuzzy inference in diagnostic systems. Chapters 6 and 7 are devoted to inverse fuzzy inference based on fu...

  16. Recent evidence on the management of bronchiolitis (United States)

    Schroeder, Alan R.; Mansbach, Jonathan M.


    Purpose of Review Bronchiolitis is a common condition in children infant hospitalization. While there is significant variability in testing and treatment of children with bronchiolitis, diagnostic testing rarely improves care, and no currently available pharmacologic options have been proven to provide meaningful benefit or improve outcomes. Recent Findings Beta-agonists continue to be used frequently despite evidence that they do not reduce hospital admissions or length-of-stay. In general, therapies initially considered promising were subsequently proven ineffective, a pattern seen in studies on corticosteroids, and more recently with nebulized racemic epinephrine and hypertonic saline. Recent research has improved our understanding of the viral epidemiology of bronchiolitis, with increasing recognition of viruses other than respiratory syncytial virus and better awareness of the role of viral co-infections. How these findings will translate into improved outcomes remains uncertain. Summary Much of the emphasis of the last few decades of bronchiolitis clinical care and research has centered on the identification and testing of novel therapies. Future quality improvement efforts should focus more on the limitation of unnecessary testing and treatments. Future research should include identification of subgroups of children with bronchiolitis that may benefit from focused clinical interventions. PMID:24739493

  17. Ticagrelor: molecular discovery to clinical evidence (United States)

    Sinha, Nakul


    Cardiovascular (CV) deaths are one of the leading cause of death, both in developed and developing countries, with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) accounting for about 50% of all CV deaths. Atherothrombosis formation is the prime reason behind ACS and platelets play a central role in formation of thrombus. Antiplatelet drugs, particularly dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with Aspirin and Clopidogrel play a vital role and are widely used in the management of ACS for the past decade. However in spite of currently available options for antiplatelet therapy there remains a significant risk of arterial thrombosis and post ACS mortality grows over a period of time. Thus, there is a need for novel antiplatelet agents which can overcome some limitations of current antiplatelet therapies. Ticagrelor is a novel antiplatelet agent which has a faster onset of action, produces high level of platelet inhibition with minimal inter patient variability. This review summarizes the pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic characteristics and clinical evidence of ticagrelor in the management of ACS. PMID:23102389

  18. [Evidence-based treatment of canine demodicosis]. (United States)

    Mueller, R S


    This article briefly reviews pathogenesis, clinics and diagnosis of canine demodicosis and summarizes treatment options for this disease based on published evidence. The disease is caused by excessive proliferation of Demodex mites in the hair follicles that may be due to genetic factors or immunosuppressive diseases or treatments. The disease is characterized by alopecia, papules, pustules and crusts. Diagnosis is confirmed by detection of several mites in deep skin scrapings or trichograms. Based on published studies, licensed successful treatments for many patients are weekly amitraz rinses in a concentration of 0.05% and (in dogs with mild to moderate clinical signs) weekly spot-ons containing moxidectin. In severe, treatment-resistant cases, daily oral macrocyclic lactones such as milbemycin oxim (1-2 mg/kg), ivermectin or moxidectin (0.3 mg/kg after daily gradual dose increases from 0.05mg/kg) may be used. Doramectin orally or subcutaneously at 0.6 mg/kg has also been reported as successful therapy. Secondary bacterial skin infections are common and should be treated with antimicrobial shampoos and possibly oral antibiotics.

  19. Effectiveness of Evidence-Based Asthma Interventions. (United States)

    Kennedy, Suzanne; Bailey, Ryan; Jaffee, Katy; Markus, Anne; Gerstein, Maya; Stevens, David M; Lesch, Julie Kennedy; Malveaux, Floyd J; Mitchell, Herman


    Researchers often struggle with the gap between efficacy and effectiveness in clinical research. To bridge this gap, the Community Healthcare for Asthma Management and Prevention of Symptoms (CHAMPS) study adapted an efficacious, randomized controlled trial that resulted in evidence-based asthma interventions in community health centers. Children (aged 5-12 years; N = 590) with moderate to severe asthma were enrolled from 3 intervention and 3 geographically/capacity-matched control sites in high-risk, low-income communities located in Arizona, Michigan, and Puerto Rico. The asthma intervention was tailored to the participant's allergen sensitivity and exposure, and it comprised 4 visits over the course of 1 year. Study visits were documented and monitored prospectively via electronic data capture. Asthma symptoms and health care utilization were evaluated at baseline, and at 6 and 12 months. A total of 314 intervention children and 276 control children were enrolled in the study. Allergen sensitivity testing (96%) and home environmental assessments (89%) were performed on the majority of intervention children. Overall study activity completion (eg, intervention visits, clinical assessments) was 70%. Overall and individual site participant symptom days in the previous 4 weeks were significantly reduced compared with control findings (control, change of -2.28; intervention, change of -3.27; difference, -0.99; P asthma in these high-need populations. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony D. Myers


    Full Text Available MuayThai is a combat sport with a growing international profile but limited research conducted into judging practices and processes. Problems with judging of other subjectively judged combat sports have caused controversy at major international tournaments that have resulted in changes to scoring methods. Nationalistic bias has been central to these problems and has been identified across a range of sports. The aim of this study was to examine nationalistic bias in MuayThai. Data were collected from the International Federation of MuayThai Amateur (IFMA World Championships held in Almaty, Kazakhstan September 2003 and comprised of tournament results from 70 A-class MuayThai bouts each judged by between five and nine judges. Bouts examined featured 62 competitors from 21 countries and 25 judges from 11 countries. Results suggested that nationalistic bias was evident. The bias observed equated to approximately one round difference between opposing judges over the course of a bout (a mean of 1.09 (SE=0.50 points difference between judges with opposing affilations. The number of neutral judges used meant that this level of bias generally did not influence the outcome of bouts. Future research should explore other ingroup biases, such as nearest neighbour bias and political bias as well as investigating the feasibility adopting an electronic scoring system

  1. [Soya isoflavones and evidences on cardiovascular protection]. (United States)

    González Cañete, Natalia; Durán Agüero, Samuel


    Soya isoflavones represent a group of non-nutritive, bioactive compounds, of non-steroidal phenolic nature that are present in soy bean and derived foods. They share with other compounds the capacity of binding to estrogenic receptors from different cells and tissues so that they may act as phytoestrogens. The current interest in these compounds comes from the knowledge that in Asian populations with high levels of their consumption the prevalence of cancer and cardiovascular disease is lower, as compared to the Western countries populations. This cardiovascular benefit would be the result not only of the modulation of plasma lipids, which is a widely studied mechanism. This paper reviews the published evidence about the beneficial effects of soya isoflavones and the different mechanisms of action that would benefit cardiovascular health and that surpass the mechanisms traditionally approached such as the modulation of plasma lipids, and that implicate the regulation of cellular and enzymatic functions in situations such as inflammation, thrombosis, and atherosclerotic progression. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  2. Motivation modulates visual attention: evidence from pupillometry. (United States)

    Wykowska, Agnieszka; Anderl, Christine; Schubö, Anna; Hommel, Bernhard


    Increasing evidence suggests that action planning does not only affect the preparation and execution of overt actions but also "works back" to tune the perceptual system toward action-relevant information. We investigated whether the amount of this impact of action planning on perceptual selection varies as a function of motivation for action, which was assessed online by means of pupillometry (Experiment 1) and visual analog scales (VAS, Experiment 2). Findings replicate the earlier observation that searching for size-defined targets is more efficient in the context of grasping than in the context of pointing movements (Wykowska et al., 2009). As expected, changes in tonic pupil size (reflecting changes in effort and motivation) across the sessions, as well as changes in motivation-related scores on the VAS were found to correlate with changes in the size of the action-perception congruency effect. We conclude that motivation and effort might play a crucial role in how much participants prepare for an action and activate action codes. The degree of activation of action codes in turn influences the observed action-related biases on perception.

  3. Motivation modulates visual attention: Evidence from pupillometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka eWykowska


    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that action planning does not only affect the preparation and execution of overt actions but also works back to tune the perceptual system towards action-relevant information. We investigated whether the amount of this impact of action planning on perceptual selection varies as a function of motivation for action, which was assessed online by means of pupillometry (Experiment 1 and visual analogue scales (VAS, Experiment 2. Findings replicate the earlier observation that searching for size-defined targets is more efficient in the context of grasping than in the context of pointing movements (Wykowska, Schubö, & Hommel, 2009. As expected, changes in tonic pupil size (reflecting changes in effort and motivation across the sessions, as well as changes in motivation-related scores on the VAS were found to correlate with changes in the size of the action-perception congruency effect. We conclude that motivation and effort might play a crucial role in how much participants prepare for an action and activate action codes. The degree of activation of action codes in turn influence the observed action-related biases on perception.

  4. 'Home Plate' Evidence for an Explosive Past (United States)


    This view of layers around the edge of a low plateau called 'Home Plate' inside Mars' Gusev Crater includes a feature that may be what geologists call a 'bomb sag' and interpret as evidence of an explosive event, such as a volcanic eruption. The layers seen here are generally straight and parallel except in the lower right, where they dip around a greyish rock that is about 4 centimeters (about 1.5 inches) in diameter. When layered deposits are struck by a falling rock while the layers are still soft, this type of pattern can be created. The rock might have been lofted by a volcanic burst or as part of the material ejected by the crater-forming impact of a meteorite. The panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit acquired the exposures for this image on Spirit's 754th Martian day (Feb. 15, 2006). This view is an approximately true-color rendering mathematically generated from separate images taken through all of the left Pancam's 432-nanometer to 753-nanometer filters.

  5. The hydrogeology of Sellafield. Proof of evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, S. [Aspinwall and Company, Leeds (United Kingdom)


    Proof of Evidence by an expert witness is presented in support of the case by Friends of the Earth (FOE) against the proposed construction by UK Nirex Ltd of an underground Rock Characterisation Facility (RCF) at a site in the Sellafield area. The RCF is part of an investigation by Nirex into a suitable site for an underground repository for the disposal of radioactive waste. The objections were raised at a Planning Inquiry in 1995. The preliminary hydrogeological conceptual model developed by Nirex for the Sellafield site has been examined together with recent field measurements. It is concluded that: the site is hydrogeologically complex and potentially unsuitable for deep radioactive waste disposal; existing numerical groundwater flow models do not represent observed conditions; baseline hydrogeological conditions have not been established; the impact of the RCF on the baseline conditions and on the long-term safety case for a repository has not been quantified; further investigation and groundwater modelling is required if the benefits of the RCF are to be weighed against its possible impacts. (43 references). (UK).


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The first observation of the decay K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{nu}{ovr {nu}} has been reported. The E787 experiment presented evidence for the K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{nu}{ovr {nu}} decay, based on the observation of a single clean event from data collected during the 1995 run of the AGS (Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory). The branching ratio indicated by this observation, B(K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{nu}{ovr {nu}}) = 4.2{sub -3.5}{sup +9.7} x 10{sup -10}, is consistent with the Standard Model expectation although the central experimental value is four times larger. The final E7878 data sample, from the 1995-98 runs, should reach a sensitivity of about five times that of the 1995 run alone. A new experiment, E949, has been given scientific approval and should start data collected in 2001. It is expected to achieve a sensitivity of more than an order of magnitude below the prediction of the Standard Model.

  7. Environmental control for asthma: recent evidence. (United States)

    Matsui, Elizabeth C


    To review and interpret recent literature related to the role of environmental control in prevention and treatment of asthma. Environmental control has a clearly established role in the management of asthma, but its role as a primary prevention tool is not supported by recent clinical trials. Although some of the interventions tested in these trials reduced the risk of asthma, the interventions often included dietary modification and those trials intervening only on environmental exposures were largely negative. Environmental interventions that target multiple asthma triggers, such as a laminar airflow device and relocation to high altitude, continue to demonstrate efficacy in asthma. Several studies highlight the efficacy of portable HEPA purifiers in reduction of indoor particulate matter and improving asthma outcomes. Several recently published practice parameters provide evidence-based recommendations for environmental control practices targeting furry pet, rodent, and cockroach allergens. Emerging work highlights the potential impact of spatial-temporal aspects of exposure and the shape of the dose-response relationships on the indoor allergen exposure-asthma relationship. Environmental interventions likely have no effect on the risk of developing atopic disease, but multifaceted interventions are generally of benefit in the management of asthma, particularly in children.

  8. Microspectrophotometric evidence for cone monochromacy in sharks (United States)

    Hart, Nathan Scott; Theiss, Susan Michelle; Harahush, Blake Kristin; Collin, Shaun Patrick


    Sharks are apex predators, and their evolutionary success is in part due to an impressive array of sensory systems, including vision. The eyes of sharks are well developed and function over a wide range of light levels. However, whilst close relatives of the sharks—the rays and chimaeras—are known to have the potential for colour vision, an evolutionary trait thought to provide distinct survival advantages, evidence for colour vision in sharks remains equivocal. Using single-receptor microspectrophotometry, we measured the absorbance spectra of visual pigments located in the retinal photoreceptors of 17 species of shark. We show that, while the spectral tuning of the rod (wavelength of maximum absorbance, λmax 484-518 nm) and cone (λmax 532-561 nm) visual pigments varies between species, each shark has only a single long-wavelength-sensitive cone type. This suggests that sharks may be cone monochromats and, therefore, potentially colour blind. Whilst cone monochromacy on land is rare, it may be a common strategy in the marine environment: many aquatic mammals (whales, dolphins and seals) also possess only a single, green-sensitive cone type. It appears that both sharks and marine mammals may have arrived at the same visual design by convergent evolution. The spectral tuning of the rod and cone pigments of sharks is also discussed in relation to their visual ecology.

  9. Emerging evidence of hepatitis C virus neuroinvasion. (United States)

    Laskus, Tomasz; Radkowski, Marek; Adair, Debra M; Wilkinson, Jeffrey; Scheck, Adrienne C; Rakela, Jorge


    It has been reported that hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with cognitive dysfunction, fatigue and depression, which do not correlate with the severity of liver disease and cannot be accounted for by hepatic encephalopathy or drug abuse. There is also emerging evidence that HCV infection can have negative neurocognitive effects in HIV-infected cohorts. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy has suggested the likely existence of a biological basis for these effects. HCV replicative forms have recently been detected in autopsy brain tissue and the infected cells have been identified as CD68-positive (macrophages/microglia). These findings raise the possibility that HCV infection of the brain could be directly related to the reported neuropsychological and cognitive changes. HCV is not strictly hepatotropic, as it can also replicate in leukocytes, including monocytes/macrophages. The latter cells could provide access of HCV into the central nervous system ('Trojan horse' mechanism) in a process similar to that postulated for HIV-1. In support of this hypothetical mechanism come reports showing a close relationship between HCV sequences present in the brain and cerebrospinal fluid and sequences found in lymph nodes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. However, despite some similarities there is a fundamental difference between HIV-1 and HCV infection as the latter does not progress into AIDS-type dementia.

  10. Recent evidence on the management of bronchiolitis. (United States)

    Schroeder, Alan R; Mansbach, Jonathan M


    Bronchiolitis is a common condition in children less than 2  years of age and is a leading cause of infant hospitalization. Although there is significant variability in testing and treatment of children with bronchiolitis, diagnostic testing rarely improves care, and no currently available pharmacologic options have been proven to provide meaningful benefits or improve outcomes. Beta-agonists continue to be used frequently despite evidence that they do not reduce hospital admissions or length of stay. In general, therapies initially considered promising were subsequently proven ineffective, a pattern seen in studies on corticosteroids, and more recently with nebulized racemic epinephrine and hypertonic saline. Recent research has improved our understanding of the viral epidemiology of bronchiolitis, with increasing recognition of viruses other than respiratory syncytial virus and better awareness of the role of viral coinfections. How these findings will translate into improved outcomes remains uncertain. Much of the emphasis of the last few decades of bronchiolitis clinical care and research has centered on the identification and testing of novel therapies. Future quality improvement efforts should focus more on the limitation of unnecessary testing and treatments. Future research should include identification of subgroups of children with bronchiolitis that may benefit from focused clinical interventions.

  11. Evidence Synthesis for Decision Making 2 (United States)

    Sutton, Alex J.; Ades, A. E.; Welton, Nicky J.


    We set out a generalized linear model framework for the synthesis of data from randomized controlled trials. A common model is described, taking the form of a linear regression for both fixed and random effects synthesis, which can be implemented with normal, binomial, Poisson, and multinomial data. The familiar logistic model for meta-analysis with binomial data is a generalized linear model with a logit link function, which is appropriate for probability outcomes. The same linear regression framework can be applied to continuous outcomes, rate models, competing risks, or ordered category outcomes by using other link functions, such as identity, log, complementary log-log, and probit link functions. The common core model for the linear predictor can be applied to pairwise meta-analysis, indirect comparisons, synthesis of multiarm trials, and mixed treatment comparisons, also known as network meta-analysis, without distinction. We take a Bayesian approach to estimation and provide WinBUGS program code for a Bayesian analysis using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. An advantage of this approach is that it is straightforward to extend to shared parameter models where different randomized controlled trials report outcomes in different formats but from a common underlying model. Use of the generalized linear model framework allows us to present a unified account of how models can be compared using the deviance information criterion and how goodness of fit can be assessed using the residual deviance. The approach is illustrated through a range of worked examples for commonly encountered evidence formats. PMID:23104435

  12. Fossil evidence for the early ant evolution (United States)

    Perrichot, Vincent; Lacau, Sébastien; Néraudeau, Didier; Nel, André


    Ants are one of the most studied insects in the world; and the literature devoted to their origin and evolution, systematics, ecology, or interactions with plants, fungi and other organisms is prolific. However, no consensus yet exists on the age estimate of the first Formicidae or on the origin of their eusociality. We review the fossil and biogeographical record of all known Cretaceous ants. We discuss the possible origin of the Formicidae with emphasis on the most primitive subfamily Sphecomyrminae according to its distribution and the Early Cretaceous palaeogeography. And we review the evidence of true castes and eusociality of the early ants regarding their morphological features and their manner of preservation in amber. The mid-Cretaceous amber forest from south-western France where some of the oldest known ants lived, corresponded to a moist tropical forest close to the shore with a dominance of gymnosperm trees but where angiosperms (flowering plants) were already diversified. This palaeoenvironmental reconstruction supports an initial radiation of ants in forest ground litter coincident with the rise of angiosperms, as recently proposed as an ecological explanation for their origin and successful evolution.

  13. Ziconotide combination intrathecal therapy: rationale and evidence. (United States)

    Wallace, Mark S; Rauck, Richard L; Deer, Timothy


    Ziconotide is a nonopioid intrathecal analgesic used to manage moderate to severe chronic pain. Although ziconotide is approved in the United States for intrathecal monotherapy only, it is often used in combination with other intrathecal drugs in clinical practice. The need exists for a critical assessment of the currently available published literature on ziconotide combination therapy. This review summarizes and evaluates the publications from preclinical and clinical peer-reviewed experiments that have investigated the safety and effectiveness of ziconotide in combination with a variety of other drugs. Eleven relevant publications were identified through a systematic search of multiple databases. In preclinical studies, additive or synergistic antinociceptive effects were discovered when ziconotide was used in combination with morphine, clonidine, or baclofen; however, no additional antinociceptive effects were observed when bupivacaine was added to ziconotide therapy. Safety data from animal studies revealed that ziconotide did not exacerbate morphine-induced respiratory depression, or clonidine-induced hypotension or bradycardia; however, ziconotide did potentiate morphine-induced hypotension and inhibition of gastrointestinal tract motility. Results from 2 open-label trials indicated that combination ziconotide and morphine therapy produced greater analgesia than was produced by the use of either drug alone. Preliminary support for the use of ziconotide in combination with morphine, baclofen, or hydromorphone was provided by case studies. Although clinical and preclinical studies provide some support for the use of ziconotide in combination with morphine, hydromorphone, clonidine, or baclofen, strong evidence-based data are limited. Controlled, long-term clinical trials are warranted.

  14. Evidence Synthesis for Decision Making 3 (United States)

    Sutton, Alex J.; Welton, Nicky J.; Ades, A. E.


    In meta-analysis, between-study heterogeneity indicates the presence of effect-modifiers and has implications for the interpretation of results in cost-effectiveness analysis and decision making. A distinction is usually made between true variability in treatment effects due to variation in patient populations or settings and biases related to the way in which trials were conducted. Variability in relative treatment effects threatens the external validity of trial evidence and limits the ability to generalize from the results; imperfections in trial conduct represent threats to internal validity. We provide guidance on methods for meta-regression and bias-adjustment, in pairwise and network meta-analysis (including indirect comparisons), using illustrative examples. We argue that the predictive distribution of a treatment effect in a “new” trial may, in many cases, be more relevant to decision making than the distribution of the mean effect. Investigators should consider the relative contribution of true variability and random variation due to biases when considering their response to heterogeneity. In network meta-analyses, various types of meta-regression models are possible when trial-level effect-modifying covariates are present or suspected. We argue that a model with a single interaction term is the one most likely to be useful in a decision-making context. Illustrative examples of Bayesian meta-regression against a continuous covariate and meta-regression against “baseline” risk are provided. Annotated WinBUGS code is set out in an appendix. PMID:23804507

  15. Non-accidental head injury - the evidence

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    David, Timothy J. [University of Manchester, Blackley, Department of Child Health, Booth Hall Children' s Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom)


    A postmortem examination and the CT scan documented the above injuries (neuropathology showed acute but with foci of older subdural bleeding) and indicated that in addition there were five recent rib fractures (left ribs 3-5 posteriorly and right ribs 6-7 posteriorly), a large perimacular retinal fold in the left retina, and subscalp bruising in the area of the anterior fontanelle and the occipital area. Family proceedings were commenced in order to protect the 2-year-old girl. Expert forensic, neuro- and eye pathologists instructed on behalf of the girl's father were of the view that the baby's injuries were likely to have resulted from the fall from the bed to the carpet, or alternatively from the step-father's efforts to revive the infant; other possibilities being apnoea and cerebral anoxia and cardiac arrest resulting from gastrooesophageal reflux or overly rough rocking of the baby in a baby rocker by the 2-year-old girl, the scalp bruising allegedly being the result of palpation of the baby's fontanelle by the treating paediatricians. The rib fractures were attributed to cardio-pulmonary resuscitation. This short review looks at the type of evidence that might help one to distinguish between the differing opinions offered as to the cause of this child's injuries. (orig.)

  16. Evidence for online processing during causal learning. (United States)

    Liu, Pei-Pei; Luhmann, Christian C


    Many models of learning describe both the end product of learning (e.g., causal judgments) and the cognitive mechanisms that unfold on a trial-by-trial basis. However, the methods employed in the literature typically provide only indirect evidence about the unfolding cognitive processes. Here, we utilized a simultaneous secondary task to measure cognitive processing during a straightforward causal-learning task. The results from three experiments demonstrated that covariation information is not subject to uniform cognitive processing. Instead, we observed systematic variation in the processing dedicated to individual pieces of covariation information. In particular, observations that are inconsistent with previously presented covariation information appear to elicit greater cognitive processing than do observations that are consistent with previously presented covariation information. In addition, the degree of cognitive processing appears to be driven by learning per se, rather than by nonlearning processes such as memory and attention. Overall, these findings suggest that monitoring learning processes at a finer level may provide useful psychological insights into the nature of learning.

  17. Demographic evidence for adaptive theories of aging. (United States)

    Mitteldorf, J J


    Pleiotropic theories for the evolutionary origins of senescence have been ascendant for forty years (see, for example, G. Williams (1957) Evolution, 11, 398-411; T. Kirkwood (1977) Nature, 270, 301-304), and it is not surprising that interpreters of demographic data seek to frame their results in this context. But some of that evidence finds a much more natural explanation in terms of adaptive aging. Here we re-interpret the 1997 results of the Centenarian Study in Boston, which found in their sample of centenarian women an excess of late childbearing. The finding was originally interpreted as a selection effect: a metabolic link between late menopause and longevity. But we demonstrate that this interpretation is statistically strained, and that the data in fact indicate a causal link: bearing a child late in life induces a metabolic response that promotes longevity. This conclusion directly contradicts some pleiotropic theories of aging that postulate a "cost of reproduction", and it supports theories of aging as an adaptive genetic program.

  18. Evidences for an alternative genealogy of 'Sangiovese'. (United States)

    Bergamini, Carlo; Caputo, Angelo Raffaele; Gasparro, Marica; Perniola, Rocco; Cardone, Maria Francesca; Antonacci, Donato


    Two different hypothesis for the parentage of 'Sangiovese', the most important and widespread Italian winegrape, have been proposed by some previous studies. We screened our grapevine collection, mostly comprising south Italian cultivars collected to preserve biodiversity, to asses kinships. Surprisingly we found two previously unreported candidate parents for 'Sangiovese'. The first putative parent is 'Ciliegiolo' a well know variety already addressed as relative of 'Sangiovese'; the second putative parent is 'Negrodolce', an old local variety we recovered and was considered lost during the last century. In order to obtain a stronger statistical support for this new kinship, we tested seventy different microsatellite markers but only 57 were found reliable. The new proposed parentage stood well even with such a in depth molecular analysis whereas only one discrepancy was found in one of the 57 microsatellite marker analyzed. This discrepancy is certainly due to a null-allele and therefore it should not impair our hypothesis but it points out limits of the microsatellites profiling as a pedigree research method considering that this is the third different kinship proposed so far for 'Sangiovese'. Thus in this article, by means of detailed molecular fingerprinting, we provide a completely new strong evidence for a south Italian origin of 'Sangiovese' and we discuss our findings comparing our data with those previously reported by other authors.

  19. Hydronymic Evidence of Migrations in Western Slovakia

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    Mária Beláková


    Full Text Available The article deals with problems of ethnocultural reconstruction, focusing on the hydronymy of West Slovakia, the area neighbouring with Austria, Hungary and Czech Republic. The author distinguishes several hydronymic strata pertaining to different ethnic groups. The earliest population of the region was Slavic, the Slavs have left their mark in toponymy, particularly, in hydronyms with the ancient Slavic formant -ava. Another stratum is represented by Hungarian hydronyms, Hungarian tribes having arrived in the region in the late 9th — early 10th centuries. Both historical and toponymic data show that in the 12th–18th centuries the region was populated by various Germanic ethnic groups. The author argues that the most notable Germanic “mark” in the toponymy of West Slovakia was left by the first — Bavarian — wave of migration which took place between the 12th and the 15th centuries. The studied material also displays some evidence of the Croatian language influence which is, however, more pesent in oikonymy and anthroponymy than in hydronymy. The analysis of historical and hydronymic data leads the author to conclude that besides the above-mentioned ethnics, some other peoples populated the territory of West Slovakia in the past, though they did not play a significant role in the history of the region.

  20. Visualizing Forensic Data : Evidence Guidelines (Part 1

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    Damian Schofield


    Full Text Available Visualisation is becoming increasingly important for understanding information, such as investigative data (for example: computing, medical and crime scene evidence and analysis (for example: network capability assessment, data file reconstruction and planning scenarios. Investigative data visualisation is used to reconstruct a scene or item and is used to assist the viewer (who may well be a member of the general public with little or no understanding of the subject matter to understand what is being presented. Analysis visualisations, on the other hand, are usually developed to review data, information and assess competing scenario hypotheses for those who usually have an understanding of the subject matter. Visualisation represents information that has been digitally recorded (for example: pictures, video and sound, hand written and/or spoken data, to show what may have, could have, did happen or is believed to have happened. That is why visualising data is an important development in the analysis and investigation realms, as visualisation explores the accuracies, inconsistencies and discrepancies of the collected data and information. This paper presents introduces some of the various graphical techniques and technology used to display digital information in a courtroom. The advantages and disadvantages involved in the implementation of this technology are also discussed. This paper is part one of a two part series that aims to describe the use of, and provide guidelines for, the use of graphical displays in courtrooms.

  1. [Searching for evidence-based data]. (United States)

    Dufour, J-C; Mancini, J; Fieschi, M


    The foundation of evidence-based medicine is critical analysis and synthesis of the best data available concerning a given health problem. These factual data are accessible because of the availability on the Internet of web tools specialized in research for scientific publications. A bibliographic database is a collection of bibliographic references describing the documents indexed. Such a reference includes at least the title, summary (or abstract), a set of keywords, and the type of publication. To conduct a strategically effective search, it is necessary to formulate the question - clinical, diagnostic, prognostic, or related to treatment or prevention - in a form understandable by the research engine. Moreover, it is necessary to choose the specific database or databases, which may have particular specificity, and to analyze the results rapidly to refine the strategy. The search for information is facilitated by the knowledge of the standardized terms commonly used to describe the desired information. These come from a specific thesaurus devoted to document indexing. The most frequently used is MeSH (Medical Subject Heading). The principal bibliographic database whose references include a set of describers from the MeSH thesaurus is Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline), which has in turn become a subpart of a still more vast bibliography called PubMed, which indexes an additional 1.4 million references. Numerous other databases are maintained by national or international entities. These include the Cochrane Library, Embase, and the PASCAL and FRANCIS databases.

  2. China's Land Market Auctions: Evidence of Corruption? (United States)

    Cai, Hongbin; Henderson, J Vernon; Zhang, Qinghua


    This paper studies the urban land market in China in 2003-2007. In China, all urban land is owned by the state. Leasehold use rights for land for (re)development are sold by city governments and are a key source of city revenue. Leasehold sales are viewed as a major venue for corruption, prompting a number of reforms over the years. Reforms now require all leasehold rights be sold at public auction. There are two main types of auction: regular English auction and an unusual type which we call a "two stage auction". The latter type of auction seems more subject to corruption, and to side deals between potential bidders and the auctioneer. Absent corruption, theory suggests that two stage auctions would most likely maximize sales revenue for properties which are likely to have relatively few bidders, or are "cold", which would suggest negative selection on property unobservables into such auctions. However, if such auctions are more corruptible, that could involve positive selection as city officials divert hotter properties to a more corruptible auction form. The paper finds that, overall, sales prices are lower for two stage auctions, and there is strong evidence of positive selection. The price difference is explained primarily by the fact that two stage auctions typically have just one bidder, or no competition despite the vibrant land market in Chinese cities.

  3. Valerian: No Evidence for Clinically Relevant Interactions

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    Olaf Kelber


    Full Text Available In recent popular publications as well as in widely used information websites directed to cancer patients, valerian is claimed to have a potential of adverse interactions with anticancer drugs. This questions its use as a safe replacement for, for example, benzodiazepines. A review on the interaction potential of preparations from valerian root (Valeriana officinalis L. root was therefore conducted. A data base search and search in a clinical drug interaction data base were conducted. Thereafter, a systematic assessment of publications was performed. Seven in vitro studies on six CYP 450 isoenzymes, on p-glycoprotein, and on two UGT isoenzymes were identified. However, the methodological assessment of these studies did not support their suitability for the prediction of clinically relevant interactions. In addition, clinical studies on various valerian preparations did not reveal any relevant interaction potential concerning CYP 1A2, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4. Available animal and human pharmacodynamic studies did not verify any interaction potential. The interaction potential of valerian preparations therefore seems to be low and thereby without clinical relevance. We conclude that there is no specific evidence questioning their safety, also in cancer patients.

  4. Weakening forensic science in Spain: from expert evidence to documentary evidence. (United States)

    Lucena-Molina, Jose-Juan; Pardo-Iranzo, Virginia; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Joaquin


    An amendment in 2002 to the Spanish Code of Criminal Procedure converted into documentary evidence the expert reports prepared by official laboratories aimed at determining the nature, weight, and purity of seized drugs. In most cases, experts are spared from appearance before the courts. This is likely to be extended to other forensic fields. After an overview of criminalistic identification in current forensic science, the objectivity and reliability concepts used by jurists and scientists are considered by comparing the paradigm of individualization with that of likelihood. Subsequently, a detailed critical study is made on the above-mentioned Spanish legal reform, and a comparison is made with the decision on the Melendez-Diaz v. Massachusetts case as ruled by the Supreme Court of the United States. Although the reform is in compliance with the Spanish Constitution, it is at odds with science, in particular regarding the logic underpinning the scientific evaluation of evidence. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Forensic evidence findings in prepubertal victims of sexual assault. (United States)

    Christian, C W; Lavelle, J M; De Jong, A R; Loiselle, J; Brenner, L; Joffe, M


    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends forensic evidence collection when sexual abuse has occurred within 72 hours, or when there is bleeding or acute injury. It is not known whether these recommendations are appropriate for prepubertal children, because few data exist regarding the utility of forensic evidence collection in cases of child sexual assault. This study describes the epidemiology of forensic evidence findings in prepubertal victims of sexual assault. The medical records of 273 children Criminalistics Laboratory were retrospectively reviewed for history, physical examination findings, forensic evidence collection, and forensic results. Some form of forensic evidence was identified in 24.9% of children, all of whom were examined within 44 hours of their assault. Over 90% of children with positive forensic evidence findings were seen within 24 hours of their assault. The majority of forensic evidence (64%) was found on clothing and linens, yet only 35% of children had clothing collected for analysis. After 24 hours, all evidence, with the exception of 1 pubic hair, was recovered from clothing or linens. No swabs taken from the child's body were positive for blood after 13 hours or sperm/semen after 9 hours. A minority of children (23%) had genital injuries. Genital injury and a history of ejaculation provided by the child were associated with an increased likelihood of identifying forensic evidence, but several children had forensic evidence found that was unanticipated by the child's history. The general guidelines for forensic evidence collection in cases of acute sexual assault are not well-suited for prepubertal victims. The decision to collect evidence is best made by the timing of the examination. Swabbing the child's body for evidence is unnecessary after 24 hours. Clothing and linens yield the majority of evidence and should be pursued vigorously for analysis.

  6. Improving the user experience of evidence : a design approach to evidence-informed health care


    Rosenbaum, Sarah


    Systematic reviews are syntheses of the best available evidence on the effects of health care interventions. Cochrane Reviews are high quality reviews that can provide valuable information for clinicians and policy makers, but are poorly suited for decision makers in time-pressed contexts. Condensed, tailored summaries of reviews may help, but there is little research about how to design such summaries, how users will experience them, and what their effect is. In this set of four stud...

  7. Federal Rule of Evidence 412 and Military Rule of Evidence 412: Are They Serving Their Purpose? (United States)


    evidentiary rules, which permitted a wide ranging inquiry into the rape victim’s sex life, but they also hoped to provide a model rule for jurisdictions without...Bocchino, supra note 3; Rothstein,Evidence Workshop, New Federal Ev ence Rule 412 on Sex Victim’s Character, 15 Crim. Law Bull. 353 (1979) hereinafter...victim’s prior extramarital, premarital or unconventional sexual activity distracts the jury to such a degree that the victim becomes the person on

  8. Evidence, virulence, and the disappearance of nursing knowledge: A critique of the evidence-based dogma. (United States)

    Holmes, Dave; Perron, Amélie; O'Byrne, Patrick


    Within the domain of health care, the new discourse of evidence-based practice has appeared and gained momentum, giving rise to a plethora of correlates such as specialized scientific journals and best practice guidelines. Following the crowd, nursing has jumped onto this trend's bandwagon. Although some scholars and clinicians have tried to expand these notions, few have considered a deconstructive approach to do so. Drawing on the works of continental postmodern thinkers such as Baudrillard, Deleuze & Guattari, and Foucault, this paper critically examines the rise of the evidence-based nursing (EBN) movement in order to deconstruct the "taken-for-granted" assumption that EBN is in and of itself the favored path to the sound development of nursing knowledge. We argue against the hierarchical differentiation of varied research approaches so as to allow diverse methodologies to guide research and ultimately practice. The status quo is challenged, where research agendas are currently dominated by one paradigm of knowledge development; that of post-positivism in which randomized control trials are portrayed as superior evidence. There is a hazard in excluding many other venues to build nursing knowledge and in oversimplifying the complexity of clinical nursing practice. Furthermore, we argue that this preferred path of knowledge development contradicts nursing academics' efforts to distance itself from the medical model of health care provision and research.

  9. Knowledge and Attitude of Medical Students and Lecturers Toward Evidence-Based Medicine: Evidence from Shiraz

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    Ahmad Ghanizadeh


    Full Text Available Background and purpose: The application of diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic evidence in day-to-day management of patients has been in constant focus during the last two decades. This study is an attempt to investigate attitude and knowledge of post-graduated medical students and lecturers towards evidence-based medicine (EBM and assess their preferences to clinical practice guidelines.Methods: The designed questionnaire was posted to the randomly selected post-graduated medical students and lecturers of medical department at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences.Results: There were one hundred sixty subjects (60% who answered the questionnaire. Sixty nine percent were male, 46.3% were lecturers, and 53.2% were post-graduated medical students.About 66% of the respondents have heard of the term of EBM. Only 7.8% of the respondents have already attended to a course to learn the skills of EBM and one hundred twenty five (78.1% like to attend a course to learn the skills of EBM. The most common perceived reason for use of EBM was lack of enough motivation.Conclusion: They have not yet integrated the use of EBM into their practices widely. Their knowledge is at a high risk of becoming out of data. Education of EBM should be a hot topic among educationalplanning programmers until it becomes a part of university educational curriculum in Iran.Keywords: POST-GRADUATED MEDICAL STUDENT, LECTURER, KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE, EVIDENCE-BASED MEDICINE, IRAN.

  10. Should a child be allowed to give evidence? The position of child evidence under civil and Islamic laws in Malaysia


    Mohd Shukri, Muhammad Hafiz; Hassan, Mohd Khairul Hisyam


    Currently, more children fall victim to crime and go to court to give evidence. The key issues include the acceptability of children as witnesses, the weight to be given to their evidence and whether or not there should be special procedures to ease the stress of giving evidence in court. The main objective of this article is to discuss the position of child evidence under civil and Islamic laws in Malaysia. This article will focus on the provisions of laws relating to evidence given by a chi...

  11. Sharing evidence of sustainable land management impacts (United States)

    Schwilch, Gudrun; Mekdaschi Studer, Rima; Providoli, Isabelle; Liniger, Hanspeter


    Ensuring sustainable use of natural resources is crucial for maintaining the basis for our livelihoods. With threats from climate change, disputes over water, biodiversity loss, competing claims on land, and migration increasing worldwide, the demands for sustainable land management (SLM) practices will only increase in the future. For years already, various national and international organizations (GOs, NGOs, donors, research institutes, etc.) have been working on alternative forms of land management. And numerous land users worldwide - especially small farmers - have been testing, adapting, and refining new and better ways of managing land. All too often, however, the resulting SLM knowledge has not been sufficiently evaluated, documented and shared. Among other things, this has often prevented valuable SLM knowledge from being channelled into evidence-based decision-making processes. Indeed, proper knowledge management is crucial for SLM to reach its full potential. Since more than 20 years, the international WOCAT network documents and promotes SLM through its global platform. As a whole, the WOCAT methodology comprises tools for documenting, evaluating, and assessing the impact of SLM practices, as well as for knowledge sharing, analysis and use for decision support in the field, at the planning level, and in scaling up identified good practices. In early 2014, WOCAT's growth and ongoing improvement culminated in its being officially recognized by the UNCCD as the primary recommended database for SLM best practices. Over the years, the WOCAT network confirmed that SLM helps to prevent desertification, to increase biodiversity, enhance food security and to make people less vulnerable to the effects of climate variability and change. In addition, it plays an important role in mitigating climate change through improving soil organic matter and increasing vegetation cover. In-depth assessments of SLM practices from desertification sites enabled an evaluation of

  12. Evidence Report: Risk of Renal Stone Formation (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D.; Pietrzyk, Robert


    The formation of renal stones poses an in-flight health risk of high severity, not only because of the impact of renal colic on human performance but also because of complications that could potentially lead to crew evacuation, such as hematuria, infection, hydronephrosis, and sepsis. Evidence for risk factors comes from urine analyses of crewmembers, documenting changes to the urinary environment that are conducive to increased saturation of stone-forming salts, which are the driving force for nucleation and growth of a stone nidus. Further, renal stones have been documented in astronauts after return to Earth and in one cosmonaut during flight. Biochemical analysis of urine specimens has provided indication of hypercalciuria and hyperuricemia, reduced urine volumes, and increased urine saturation of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. A major contributor to the risk for renal stone formation is bone atrophy with increased turnover of the bone minerals. Dietary and fluid intakes also play major roles in the risk because of the influence on urine pH (more acidic) and on volume (decreased). Historically, specific assessments on urine samples from some Skylab crewmembers indicated that calcium excretion increased early in flight, notable by day 10 of flight, and almost exceeded the upper threshold for normal excretion (300mg/day in males). Other crewmember data documented reduced intake of fluid and reduced intake of potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, and citrate (an inhibitor of calcium stone formation) in the diet. Hence, data from both short-duration and long-duration missions indicate that space travel induces risk factors for renal stone formation that continue to persist after flight; this risk has been documented by reported kidney stones in crewmembers.

  13. Smartphone breast applications - what's the evidence? (United States)

    Mobasheri, Mohammad H; Johnston, Maximilian; King, Dominic; Leff, Daniel; Thiruchelvam, Paul; Darzi, Ara


    There are around 40,000 healthcare applications (apps) available for smartphones. Apps have been reviewed in many specialties. Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in females with almost 1.38 million new cases a year worldwide. Despite the high prevalence of breast disease, apps in this field have not been reviewed to date. We have evaluated apps relevant to breast disease with an emphasis on their evidence base (EB) and medical professional involvement (MPI). Searching the major app stores (apple iTunes, Google Play, BlackBerry World, Windows Phone) using the most common breast symptoms and diseases identified relevant apps. Extracted data for each app included target consumer, disease focus, app function, documentation of any EB, documentation of MPI in development, and potential safety concerns. One-hundred-and-eighty-five apps were reviewed. The majority focused on breast cancer (n = 139, 75.1%). Educational (n = 94) and self-assessment tools (n = 30) were the most common functions demonstrated. EB and MPI was identified in 14.2% and 12.8% of apps respectively. Potential safety concerns were identified in 29 (15.7%) apps. There is a lack of EB and MPI in the development of current breast apps. Safety concerns highlight the need for regulation, full authorship disclosure and clinical trials. A robust framework for identifying high quality applications is necessary. This will address the current barrier pertaining to a lack of consumer confidence in their use and further aid to promote their widespread implementation within healthcare. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Perceiving the future news: Evidence for retrocausation (United States)

    Graff, Dale E.; Cyrus, Patricia S.


    Thirty-three exploratory psi investigations were recently performed using Conscious State Psi and Dream State Psi protocols for photographic material that did not exist at the time of the psi sessions. Results would provide evidence for retrocausation if the future photographs had influenced the sessions' data. The psi targets were Associated Press (AP) news photographs published in a Reading, PA area newspaper on a specific page three days in the future. These photographs were taken one day after the psi sessions. Following each psi session, and prior to the photograph's existence, perceptions were recorded in project records and email transmitted for date validation. Feedback was provided when the photograph was published. There were two phases: Phase I was an informal investigation performed by the principle author to evaluate project feasibility. Phase II was a formal investigation with a colleague 1,000 miles from the principle author and the area newspaper location. All data were evaluated by direct comparison to the intended photographs using numerical assessment scales and noting unique features. Data from 21 of the 33 sessions (64%) yielded sketches and narratives with medium and high degrees of correlations with the future news photographs. A subsequent binary analysis using control photographs yielded p = 0.040. Visual informational content of these future newspaper photographs had interacted with the brain's cognitive processes in a retrocausal sense. The future photographs affected the sessions' data. A subconscious interaction between the future and the present or past may be an on-going feature of the mental and physical universe. Suggestions for follow-on investigations into retrocausation are provided.

  15. Evidence of dopaminergic processing of executive inhibition.

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    Rajendra D Badgaiyan

    Full Text Available Inhibition of unwanted response is an important function of the executive system. Since the inhibitory system is impaired in patients with dysregulated dopamine system, we examined dopamine neurotransmission in the human brain during processing of a task of executive inhibition. The experiment used a recently developed dynamic molecular imaging technique to detect and map dopamine released during performance of a modified Eriksen's flanker task. In this study, young healthy volunteers received an intravenous injection of a dopamine receptor ligand ((11C-raclopride after they were positioned in the PET camera. After the injection, volunteers performed the flanker task under Congruent and Incongruent conditions in a single scan session. They were required to inhibit competing options to select an appropriate response in the Incongruent but not in the Congruent condition. The PET data were dynamically acquired during the experiment and analyzed using two variants of the simplified reference region model. The analysis included estimation of a number of receptor kinetic parameters before and after initiation of the Incongruent condition. We found increase in the rate of ligand displacement (from receptor sites and decrease in the ligand binding potential in the Incongruent condition, suggesting dopamine release during task performance. These changes were observed in small areas of the putamen and caudate bilaterally but were most significant on the dorsal aspect of the body of left caudate. The results provide evidence of dopaminergic processing of executive inhibition and demonstrate that neurochemical changes associated with cognitive processing can be detected and mapped in a single scan session using dynamic molecular imaging.

  16. Fairness in Risky Environments: Theory and Evidence

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    Silvester Van Koten


    Full Text Available The relationship between risk in the environment, risk aversion and inequality aversion is not well understood. Theories of fairness have typically assumed that pie sizes are known ex-ante. Pie sizes are, however, rarely known ex ante. Using two simple allocation problems—the Dictator and Ultimatum game—we explore whether, and how exactly, unknown pie sizes with varying degrees of risk (“endowment risk” influence individual behavior. We derive theoretical predictions for these games using utility functions that capture additively separable constant relative risk aversion and inequity aversion. We experimentally test the theoretical predictions using two subject pools: students of Czech Technical University and employees of Prague City Hall. We find that: (1 Those who are more risk-averse are also more inequality-averse in the Dictator game (and also in the Ultimatum game but there not statistically significantly so in that they give more; (2 Using the within-subject feature of our design, and in line with our theoretical prediction, varying risk does not influence behavior in the Dictator game, but does so in the Ultimatum game (contradicting our theoretical prediction for that game; (3 Using the within-subject feature of our design, subjects tend to make inconsistent decisions across games; this is true on the level of individuals as well as in the aggregate. This latter finding contradicts the evidence in Blanco et al. (2011; (4 There are no subject-pool differences once we control for the elicited risk attitude and demographic variables that we collect.

  17. Estimating Model Evidence Using Data Assimilation (United States)

    Carrassi, Alberto; Bocquet, Marc; Hannart, Alexis; Ghil, Michael


    We review the field of data assimilation (DA) from a Bayesian perspective and show that, in addition to its by now common application to state estimation, DA may be used for model selection. An important special case of the latter is the discrimination between a factual model - which corresponds, to the best of the modeller's knowledge, to the situation in the actual world in which a sequence of events has occurred-and a counterfactual model, in which a particular forcing or process might be absent or just quantitatively different from the actual world. Three different ensemble-DA methods are reviewed for this purpose: the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), the ensemble four-dimensional variational smoother (En-4D-Var), and the iterative ensemble Kalman smoother (IEnKS). An original contextual formulation of model evidence (CME) is introduced. It is shown how to apply these three methods to compute CME, using the approximated time-dependent probability distribution functions (pdfs) each of them provide in the process of state estimation. The theoretical formulae so derived are applied to two simplified nonlinear and chaotic models: (i) the Lorenz three-variable convection model (L63), and (ii) the Lorenz 40- variable midlatitude atmospheric dynamics model (L95). The numerical results of these three DA-based methods and those of an integration based on importance sampling are compared. It is found that better CME estimates are obtained by using DA, and the IEnKS method appears to be best among the DA methods. Differences among the performance of the three DA-based methods are discussed as a function of model properties. Finally, the methodology is implemented for parameter estimation and for event attribution.

  18. Evidence for a Cystic Fibrosis Enteropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlou P M Adriaanse

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested the existence of enteropathy in cystic fibrosis (CF, which may contribute to intestinal function impairment, a poor nutritional status and decline in lung function. This study evaluated enterocyte damage and intestinal inflammation in CF and studied its associations with nutritional status, CF-related morbidities such as impaired lung function and diabetes, and medication use.Sixty-eight CF patients and 107 controls were studied. Levels of serum intestinal-fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP, a specific marker for enterocyte damage, were retrospectively determined. The faecal intestinal inflammation marker calprotectin was prospectively studied. Nutritional status, lung function (FEV1, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI, CF-related diabetes (CFRD and use of proton pump inhibitors (PPI were obtained from the medical charts.Serum I-FABP levels were elevated in CF patients as compared with controls (p<0.001, and correlated negatively with FEV1 predicted value in children (r-.734, p<0.05. Faecal calprotectin level was elevated in 93% of CF patients, and correlated negatively with FEV1 predicted value in adults (r-.484, p<0.05. No correlation was found between calprotectin levels in faeces and sputum. Faecal calprotectin level was significantly associated with the presence of CFRD, EPI, and PPI use.This study demonstrated enterocyte damage and intestinal inflammation in CF patients, and provides evidence for an inverse correlation between enteropathy and lung function. The presented associations of enteropathy with important CF-related morbidities further emphasize the clinical relevance.

  19. Current clinical evidence on topiramate pharmacokinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljević Mihajlo


    Full Text Available Topiramate is biochemically classified as a fructopyranose sulphamate. Discovered as early as 1979, during middle 1980's it was approved in many countries for the treatment of epilepsies and migraine prevention. More recently, in the experimental stage, possible new indications have been disclosed: treatment of obesity, bipolar disorder, also cessation of smoking, neuropathic pain, cerebral pseudotumour, bulimia, periventricular leucomalatia in preterm infants and alcohol addiction. Most epileptologists consider it to be the first choice antiepileptic drug in severe pharmacoresistant epilepsies. A substantial corpus of evidence in paediatric population has been accumulated that confirms its efficiency in the treatment of generalised tonic-clonic seizures, Lenox-Gestaut syndrome, partial, absence and combined seizures. Having a unique monosaccharide chemical structure among other anticonvulsant drugs, characterizes it with special pharmacokinetic features. This substance exhibits a low interindividual variability in plasma levels and hence it features predictable pharmacokinetics. A steady state plasma concentration of topiramate increases linearly with higher dosages. Serum protein binding is approximately 15%, and biologic half-life in healthy volunteers is considered to range from 20 to 30 hours. Mean expected distribution volume rates from 0.55-0.8 l/kg, and accordingly, the drug shows a low and saturable binding capacity toward erythrocytes. It has not been present at the market for a sufficiently long time that would enable us to speak about a significant accumulation of data on its metabolism based on post-registration 4th stage clinical trials. For this purpose, we have done a literature review in order to summarise so far reported experience on topiramate pharmacokinetics in patients and healthy adults. Deeper understanding of its pharmacokinetic profile could enable a better technological design of the produced drug and the choice of

  20. Improving the use of research evidence in guideline development: 8. Synthesis and presentation of evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fretheim Atle


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO, like many other organisations around the world, has recognised the need to use more rigorous processes to ensure that health care recommendations are informed by the best available research evidence. This is the eighth of a series of 16 reviews that have been prepared as background for advice from the WHO Advisory Committee on Health Research to WHO on how to achieve this. Objectives We reviewed the literature on the synthesis and presentation of research evidence, focusing on four key questions. Methods We searched PubMed and three databases of methodological studies for existing systematic reviews and relevant methodological research. We did not conduct systematic reviews ourselves. Our conclusions are based on the available evidence, consideration of what WHO and other organisations are doing and logical arguments. Key questions and answers We found two reviews of instruments for critically appraising systematic reviews, several studies of the importance of using extensive searches for reviews and determining when it is important to update reviews, and consensus statements about the reporting of reviews that informed our answers to the following questions. How should existing systematic reviews be critically appraised? • Because preparing systematic reviews can take over a year and require capacity and resources, existing reviews should be used when possible and updated, if needed. • Standard criteria, such as A MeaSurement Tool to Assess Reviews (AMSTAR, should be used to critically appraise existing systematic reviews, together with an assessment of the relevance of the review to the questions being asked. When and how should WHO undertake or commission new reviews? • Consideration should be given to undertaking or commissioning a new review whenever a relevant, up-to-date review of good quality is not available. • When time or resources are limited it may be necessary to

  1. The Evidence and Conclusion Ontology (ECO): Supporting GO Annotations. (United States)

    Chibucos, Marcus C; Siegele, Deborah A; Hu, James C; Giglio, Michelle


    The Evidence and Conclusion Ontology (ECO) is a community resource for describing the various types of evidence that are generated during the course of a scientific study and which are typically used to support assertions made by researchers. ECO describes multiple evidence types, including evidence resulting from experimental (i.e., wet lab) techniques, evidence arising from computational methods, statements made by authors (whether or not supported by evidence), and inferences drawn by researchers curating the literature. In addition to summarizing the evidence that supports a particular assertion, ECO also offers a means to document whether a computer or a human performed the process of making the annotation. Incorporating ECO into an annotation system makes it possible to leverage the structure of the ontology such that associated data can be grouped hierarchically, users can select data associated with particular evidence types, and quality control pipelines can be optimized. Today, over 30 resources, including the Gene Ontology, use the Evidence and Conclusion Ontology to represent both evidence and how annotations are made.

  2. Identifying Challenges to Building an Evidence Base for Restoration Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phumza Ntshotsho


    Full Text Available Global acknowledgement of ecological restoration, as an important tool to complement conservation efforts, requires an effort to increase the effectiveness of restoration interventions. Evidence-based practice is purported to promote effectiveness. A central tenet of this approach is decision making that is based on evidence, not intuition. Evidence can be generated experimentally and in practice but needs to be linked to baseline information collection, clear goals and monitoring of impact. In this paper, we report on a survey conducted to assess practitioners’ perceptions of the evidence generated in restoration practice in South Africa, as well as challenges encountered in building this evidence base. Contrary to a recent assessment of this evidence base which found weaknesses, respondents viewed it as adequate and cited few obstacles to its development. Obstacles cited were mostly associated with planning and resource availability. We suggest that the disparity between practitioners’ perceptions and observed weaknesses in the evidence base could be a challenge in advancing evidence-based restoration. We explore opportunities to overcome this disparity as well as the obstacles listed by practitioners. These opportunities involve a shift from practitioners as users of scientific knowledge and evidence, to practitioners involved in the co-production of evidence needed to increase the effectiveness of restoration interventions.

  3. Observational Evidence for Interactions and Mergers (United States)

    Schweizer, François

    Interactions in Our Time Hubble's Morphological Sequence Peculiar Galaxies: Zwicky and Arp "TT": Galactic Bridges and Tails Objections to the Toomres' Hypothesis Mergers with Gas: Galaxy Building N-body Simulations: From N = 2 to 2 X 106 Some Key Questions General References Tidal Signatures Bridges and Tails: Morphology, Contents, & Kinematics Dwarf-Galaxy Formation in Tails Beautiful Two-Armed Spirals Collisional Ring Galaxies Summary Recent Merger Remnants A Rosetta Stone: NGC 7252 The Dynamically Young Remnant NGC 3921 NGC 3921 & NGC 7252 as likely Protoellipticals Even Younger Merger Remnants Summary Early-Type Galaxies: Isophotal Shapes and Fine Structure Structure of Ellipticals from Isophotal Analysis: Triaxiality Embedded Disk and Boxiness in E and SO Galaxies Ripples("Shell") in Ellipticals Ripples in SO-Sb Galaxies X-Structure and Other Fine Structure Summary Kinematic Signatures of Post Mergers Galaxies with Polar Rings Inner and Outer Gas Disks in Ellipticals Oddly Rotating Stellar Cores in Ellipticals Counterrotating Gas in Disk Galaxies Counterrotating Stars in Disk Galaxies! Summary Formation of E and SO Galaxies Fine-Structure Statistics and Index Evidence for Ancient Starbursts in E and SO Galaxies Age Dating E and SO Galaxies Delayed Formation of Bulges Summary Formation of Globular Clusters Status Around 1990 Young Globular Clusters in Merger Remnants Young Globular Clusters in Merging and Starburst Galaxies Globular Cluster in Ellipticals and cD Galaxies Globular Cluster via Satellite Accretion A Recipe for Making Globular Clusters Summary Interactions and Mergers in the Local Group The Milky Way: ELS (1962) Versus Searle-Zinn (1978) The Milky Way's Warp Accretion (?) of the Sagittarius Dwarf Milky Way Halo: Retrograde Orbits and Ghostly Streams High-Latitude A V Stars, Thick Disk, and youngish Bulge The Magellanic Clouds and Stream Interaction in the M31 Subgroup The Double Nucleus of M31: Merger or Not? Motions Within and Around the Local

  4. Bariatric surgery: an evidence-based analysis. (United States)


    To conduct an evidence-based analysis of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of bariatric surgery. Obesity is defined as a body mass index (BMI) of at last 30 kg/m(2).() Morbid obesity is defined as a BMI of at least 40 kg/m(2) or at least 35 kg/m(2) with comorbid conditions. Comorbid conditions associated with obesity include diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemias, obstructive sleep apnea, weight-related arthropathies, and stress urinary incontinence. It is also associated with depression, and cancers of the breast, uterus, prostate, and colon, and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Obesity is also associated with higher all-cause mortality at any age, even after adjusting for potential confounding factors like smoking. A person with a BMI of 30 kg/m(2) has about a 50% higher risk of dying than does someone with a healthy BMI. The risk more than doubles at a BMI of 35 kg/m(2). An expert estimated that about 160,000 people are morbidly obese in Ontario. In the United States, the prevalence of morbid obesity is 4.7% (1999-2000). In Ontario, the 2004 Chief Medical Officer of Health Report said that in 2003, almost one-half of Ontario adults were overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m(2)) or obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)). About 57% of Ontario men and 42% of Ontario women were overweight or obese. The proportion of the population that was overweight or obese increased gradually from 44% in 1990 to 49% in 2000, and it appears to have stabilized at 49% in 2003. The report also noted that the tendency to be overweight and obese increases with age up to 64 years. BMI should be used cautiously for people aged 65 years and older, because the "normal" range may begin at slightly above 18.5 kg/m(2) and extend into the "overweight" range. The Chief Medical Officer of Health cautioned that these data may underestimate the true extent of the problem, because they were based on self reports, and people tend to over-report their height and under-report their weight

  5. Evidence for production of single top quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, V.M.; /Dubna, JINR; Abbott, B.; /Oklahoma U.; Abolins, M.; /Michigan State U.; Acharya, B.S.; /Tata Inst.; Adams, M.; /Illinois U., Chicago; Adams, T.; /Florida State U.; Aguilo, E.; /Simon Fraser U.; Ahn, S.H.; /Korea U., KODEL; Ahsan, M.; /Kansas State U.; Alexeev, G.D.; /Dubna, JINR; Alkhazov, G.; /St. Petersburg, INP /Michigan U.


    We present first evidence for the production of single top quarks in the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron p{bar p} collider. The standard model predicts that the electroweak interaction can produce a top quark together with an antibottom quark or light quark, without the antiparticle top quark partner that is always produced from strong coupling processes. Top quarks were first observed in pair production in 1995, and since then, single top quark production has been searched for in ever larger datasets. In this analysis, we select events from a 0.9 fb{sup -1} dataset that have an electron or muon and missing transverse energy from the decay of a W boson from the top quark decay, and two, three, or four jets, with one or two of the jets identified as originating from a b hadron decay. The selected events are mostly backgrounds such as W+jets and t{bar t} events, which we separate from the expected signals using three multivariate analysis techniques: boosted decision trees, Bayesian neural networks, and matrix element calculations. A binned likelihood fit of the signal cross section plus background to the data from the combination of the results from the three analysis methods gives a cross section for single top quark production of {sigma}(p{bar p} {yields} tb + X, tqb + X) = 4.7 {+-} 1.3 pb. The probability to measure a cross section at this value or higher in the absence of signal is 0.014%, corresponding to a 3.6 standard deviation significance. The measured cross section value is compatible at the 10% level with the standard model prediction for electroweak top quark production. We use the cross section measurement to directly determine the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark mixing matrix element that describes the Wtb coupling and find |V{sub tb}f{sub 1}{sup L}| = 1.31{sub -0.21}{sup +0.25}, where f{sub 1}{sup L} is a generic vector coupling. This model-independent measurement translates into 0.68 < |V{sub tb}| {le} 1 at the 95% C.L. in the standard model.

  6. Osteopathic research: elephants, enigmas, and evidence (United States)

    Licciardone, John C


    Background The growth and acceptance of osteopathic physicians as conventional medical practitioners in the United States has also raised questions about the distinctive aspects of osteopathic medicine. Although the use of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) and a focus on primary care are most often cited as rationales for the uniqueness of osteopathic medicine, an osteopathic professional identity remains enigmatic. Discussion The fledgling basic osteopathic research efforts of the early and mid-twentieth century have not been sustained and expanded over time. Thus, there is presently a scarcity of basic mechanistic and translational research that can be considered to be uniquely osteopathic. To be sure, there have been advances in osteopathic clinical trials, particularly those involving OMT for low back pain. Meta-analysis of these low back pain trials has provided evidence that: (1) OMT affords greater pain reduction than active or placebo control treatments; (2) the effects of OMT are comparable regardless of whether treatment is provided by fully-licensed osteopathic physicians in the United States or by osteopaths in the United Kingdom; and (3) the effects of OMT increase over time. However, much more clinical research remains to be done. The planning and implementation of a large longitudinal study of the natural history and epidemiology of somatic dysfunction, including an OMT component, represents a much-needed step forward. Osteopathic medicine's use of OMT and its focus on primary care are not mutually exclusive aspects of its uniqueness. The intersection of these fundamental aspects of osteopathic medicine suggests that the profession may successfully adopt a generic strategy of "focused differentiation" to attain a competitive advantage in the health care arena. While there are both requisite demands and risks for the osteopathic profession in adopting such a strategy, these are reasonable in relation to the potential rewards to be attained. To

  7. Principles of evidence-based dental practice (EBDP). (United States)

    Abdellatif, Hoda; Dechow, Paul C; Jones, Daniel L


    In an effort to improve patient care, there has been a growing trend across the nation and the world to embed the principles of evidence-based dentistry into mainstream care delivery by private practicing dentists. Evidence-based dentistry is an essential tool that is used to improve the quality of care and to reduce the gap between what we know, what is possible, and what we do. An evidence-based health care practice is one that includes the decision maker's ability to find, assess, and incorporate high-quality, valid information in diagnosis and treatment. The evidence is considered in conjunction with the clinician's experience and judgment, and the patient's preferences, values, and circumstances. This article introduces the basic skills of evidence-based dentistry. Their practice requires a discipline of lifelong learning in which recent and relevant scientific evidence are translated into practical clinical applications.

  8. Merging Evidence-Based Psychosocial Interventions in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Lecomte


    Full Text Available Psychosocial interventions are an essential part of the treatment for people with severe mental illness such as schizophrenia. The criteria regarding what makes an intervention “evidence-based” along with a current list of evidence-based interventions are presented. Although many evidence-based interventions exist, implementation studies reveal that few, if any, are ever implemented in a given setting. Various theories and approaches have been developed to better understand and overcome implementation obstacles. Among these, merging two evidence-based interventions, or offering an evidence-based intervention within an evidence-based service, are increasingly being reported and studied in the literature. Five such merges are presented, along with their empirical support: cognitive behavior therapy (CBT with skills training; CBT and family psychoeducation; supported employment (SE and skills training; SE and cognitive remediation; and SE and CBT.

  9. Judges Awareness, Understanding, and Application of Digital Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary C Kessler


    Full Text Available As digital evidence grows in both volume and importance in criminal and civil courts, judges need to fairly and justly evaluate the merits of the offered evidence. To do so, judges need a general understanding of the underlying technologies and applications from which digital evidence is derived. Due to the relative newness of the computer forensics field, there have been few studies on the use of digital forensic evidence and none about judges’ relationship with digital evidence.This paper describes a recent study, using grounded theory methods, into judges’ awareness, knowledge, and perceptions of digital evidence. This study is the first in the U.S. to examine judges and digital forensics, thus opening up a new avenue of research. It is the second time that grounded theory has been employed in a published digital forensics study, demonstrating the applicability of that methodology to this discipline.

  10. Expediting the transfer of evidence into practice: building clinical partnerships* (United States)

    Rader, Tamara; Gagnon, Anita J.


    A librarian/clinician partnership was fostered in one hospital through the formation of the Evidence-based Practice Committee, with an ulterior goal of facilitating the transfer of evidence into practice. The paper will describe barriers to evidence-based practice and outline the committee's strategies for overcoming these barriers, including the development and promotion of a Web-based guide to evidence-based practice specifically designed for clinicians (health professionals). Educational strategies for use of the Web-based guide will also be addressed. Advantages of this partnership are that the skills of librarians in meeting the needs of clinicians are maximized. The evidence-based practice skills of clinicians are honed and librarians make a valuable contribution to the knowledgebase of the clinical staff. The knowledge acquired through the partnership by both clinicians and librarians will increase the sophistication of the dialogue between the two groups and in turn will expedite the transfer of evidence into practice. PMID:10928710

  11. How is evidence to be understood in modern coaching psychology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaten, Ole Michael; Løkken, Lillith Olesen


    The hunt for evidence in modern coaching psychology could be counter-productive, and possibly lead to a simplified approach to research, practice, searching for “definitive truths”. The article discuss a critical approach to evidence hierarchies, and the prevalent (medical) understanding...... of evidence, and in an overall sense the purpose of evidence in coaching psychological practice. Concepts such as “practice-based evidence” and “experienced evidence” will be argued and put in relation to the classic concept of evidence. Will it be useful to suggest a practitioner’s perspective as a wider...... concept of evidence applied to psychological practice? Limitations and challenges in relation to this suggestion are pinpointed in the end....

  12. How is evidence to be understood in modern coaching psychology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Michael Spaten


    Full Text Available The hunt for evidence in modern coaching psychology could be counter-productive, and possibly lead to a sim-plified approach to research, practice, searching for “definitive truths”. The article discuss a critical approachto evidence hierarchies, and the prevalent (medical understanding of evidence, and in an overall sense thepurpose of evidence in coaching psychological practice. Concepts such as “practice-based evidence” and “experi-enced evidence” will be argued and put in relation to the classic concept of evidence. Will it be useful to suggesta practitioner’s perspective as a wider concept of evidence applied to psychological practice? Limitations andchallenges in relation to this suggestion are pinpointed in the end.

  13. A weight of evidence framework for environmental assessments: Inferring qualities. (United States)

    Suter, Glenn; Cormier, Susan; Barron, Mace


    The weighing of heterogeneous evidence such as conventional laboratory toxicity tests, field tests, biomarkers, and community surveys is essential to environmental assessments. Evidence synthesis and weighing is needed to determine causes of observed effects, hazards posed by chemicals or other agents, the completeness of remediation, and other environmental qualities. As part of its guidelines for weight of evidence (WoE) in ecological assessments, the US Environmental Protection Agency has developed a generally applicable framework. Its basic steps are these: assemble evidence, weight the evidence, and weigh the body of evidence. Use of the framework can increase the consistency and rigor of WoE practices and provide greater transparency than ad hoc and narrative-based approaches. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:1038-1044. Published 2017. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2017. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. Evidence-based policymaking is not like evidence-based medicine, so how far should you go to bridge the divide between evidence and policy? (United States)

    Cairney, Paul; Oliver, Kathryn


    There is extensive health and public health literature on the 'evidence-policy gap', exploring the frustrating experiences of scientists trying to secure a response to the problems and solutions they raise and identifying the need for better evidence to reduce policymaker uncertainty. We offer a new perspective by using policy theory to propose research with greater impact, identifying the need to use persuasion to reduce ambiguity, and to adapt to multi-level policymaking systems.We identify insights from secondary data, namely systematic reviews, critical analysis and policy theories relevant to evidence-based policymaking. The studies are drawn primarily from countries such as the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. We combine empirical and normative elements to identify the ways in which scientists can, do and could influence policy.We identify two important dilemmas, for scientists and researchers, that arise from our initial advice. First, effective actors combine evidence with manipulative emotional appeals to influence the policy agenda - should scientists do the same, or would the reputational costs outweigh the policy benefits? Second, when adapting to multi-level policymaking, should scientists prioritise 'evidence-based' policymaking above other factors? The latter includes governance principles such the 'co-production' of policy between local public bodies, interest groups and service users. This process may be based primarily on values and involve actors with no commitment to a hierarchy of evidence.We conclude that successful engagement in 'evidence-based policymaking' requires pragmatism, combining scientific evidence with governance principles, and persuasion to translate complex evidence into simple stories. To maximise the use of scientific evidence in health and public health policy, researchers should recognise the tendency of policymakers to base judgements on their beliefs, and shortcuts based on their emotions

  15. Evidence-informed practice: from individual to context. (United States)

    Rycroft-Malone, Jo


    This commentary considers the shift in evidence-informed practice away from the individual practitioner to an acknowledgement that context is also important. The view of practitioner as 'rational agent' capable of searching, appraising and translating research evidence into individual practice has dominated the literature. However, a growing body of research leads us to question whether evidence use is indeed an individual activity. Key research studies were purposively selected to build the case for the arguments made. Apart from attitude, there is little to indicate that any potential individual determinants influence research use. Views of what constitutes evidence for evidence-based practice have become more inclusive and sophisticated. Evidence tends to be contextually bound and individually interpreted and particularized within that context. As such, evidence use is beginning to be recognized more widely as a contingent process, which varies across setting and time. A number of contextual factors have been found to be potentially influential including culture and leadership. CONCLUSION(S) AND IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: It cannot be assumed that evidence-based resources such as clinical guidelines will be accepted at face value by practitioners. Developing the skills of individuals to critically appraise research will not automatically lead to greater evidence use. Reviewing organizations' capacity for evidence-informed practice as a system property and cultural factor may lead to insights about the barriers and facilitators to evidence use. Investing in the capability of key individuals at multiple levels of the organization as leaders of evidence-based practice activities may be one promising organizational strategy.

  16. Evidence Based Medicine in Pediatric Practice: Brief Review (United States)

    Kianifar, Hamid-Reza; Akhondian, Javad; Najafi-Sani, Mehri; Sadeghi, Ramin


    Practicing medicine according to the best evidence is gaining popularity in the medical societies. Although this concept, which is usually called Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) has been explained in many resources, it has not been addressed enough in pediatrics. In this review, we briefly explained Evidence Based Medicine approach and its applications in pediatrics in order to help the pediatricians to efficiently integrate EBM into their daily practice. PMID:23056715

  17. Evidence-based practice: a trainee clinical psychologist perspective


    Chapman, Lynn


    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is now the dominant model in health care; its aim is to increase the use of research evidence to inform clinical decision making. Clinical practice guidelines are the predominant method by which research is distilled into practice recommendations. Clinical psychology has its own model which promotes the integration of research evidence with clinical expertise, the scientist practitioner model (SPM). Recent developments within the United Kingdom health service, su...

  18. Evidence of microscopic ball lightning in cold fusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, E.H. [PO Box 2013, Champaign, IL 61825 (United States)


    There is evidence of microscopic ball lightning in several methods of cold fusion and transmutation. Thus far the experiments of Matsumoto, Miley, Shoulders, Savvatimova, and Urutskoev et al. have shown evidence of these objects that range in size from sub-atomic to about 1 mm in diameter. This article presents pictures and evidence collected by these groups, summarizes the evidence found by other groups, and discusses the significance of microscopic ball lightning. The implications for atomic physics and physics in general are discussed. (author)

  19. Evidence conflict measure based on OWA operator in open world

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wen Jiang; Shiyu Wang; Xiang Liu; Hanqing Zheng; Boya Wei


    .... In this paper, a new method which combines generalized conflict coefficient, generalized evidence distance, and generalized interval correlation coefficient based on ordered weighted averaging (OWA...

  20. Mandatory IFRS adoption and executive compensation:Evidence from China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qingchuan Hou Qinglu Jin Lanfang Wang


    .... After controlling for firm and corporate governance characteristics, we find strong evidence supporting the positive role of mandatory IFRS adoption on the accounting-based performance sensitivity...