Rye, Marte; Torres, Elisa M; Friborg, Oddgeir; Skre, Ingunn; Aarons, Gregory A
Short and valid instruments for measuring factors facilitating or hindering implementation efforts are called for. This article describes (1) the adaptation of a shorter version of the Evidence-based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS-50 items), and (2) the psychometric properties of the shortened version in both US and Norwegian data. The US participants were mental health service providers (N = 418) recruited from clinics providing mental health services in San Diego County, California. The Norwegian participants were psychologists, psychiatric nurses, and psychology students (N = 838) recruited from the Norwegian Psychological Association and the Norwegian Nurses Organization. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) approach was used. The reduction resulted in 36 items named EBPAS-36, and the original 12 factor model was maintained. The EBPAS-36 had acceptable model fit, as indicated by a low degree of misspecification errors in both the US (RMSEA = .045 (CI 90% .040-.049); SRMR = .05) and the Norwegian data (RMSEA = .052 (CI 90% .047-.056, SRMR = .07). Incremental model fit was fair in the US (CFI = .93, TLI = .91) and in the Norwegian samples (CFI = .91, TLI = .89). The internal consistency (Cronbach's α) in the US and the Norwegian samples were good for the total EBPAS-36 score (.79 and .86, respectively) and were ranged from adequate to excellent for the subscales (US .60-.91 and Norway .61-.92). The EBPAS-36 has adequate psychometric properties both in US and Norwegian samples, hence indicating cross-cultural validity. It is a brief, pragmatic, and more user-friendly instrument than the EBPAS-50, yet maintains a broad scope by retaining the original 12 measurement domains.
Carstensen, L.L.; Turan, B.; Scheibe, S.; Ram, N.; Ersner-Hershfield, H.; Samanez-Larkin, G.R.; Brooks, K.P.; Nesselroade, J.R.
Recent evidence suggests that emotional well-being improves from early adulthood to old age. This study used experience-sampling to examine the developmental course of emotional experience in a representative sample of adults spanning early to very late adulthood. Participants (N = 184, Wave 1; N =
Chellasamy, Menaka; Ferre, Ty; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog
An approach to use the available agricultural parcel information to automatically select training samples for crop classification is investigated. Previous research addressed the multi-evidence crop classification approach using an ensemble classifier. This first produced confidence measures using...... three Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) neural networks trained separately with spectral, texture and vegetation indices; classification labels were then assigned based on Endorsement Theory. The present study proposes an approach to feed this ensemble classifier with automatically selected training samples....... The available vector data representing crop boundaries with corresponding crop codes are used as a source for training samples. These vector data are created by farmers to support subsidy claims and are, therefore, prone to errors such as mislabeling of crop codes and boundary digitization errors. The proposed...
Wang, Tengfei; Ren, Xuezhu; Schweizer, Karl; Xu, Fen
The current research investigated the variability of school effects on intelligence development in considering two economically and socially distinct groups of children. The data came from a nationally representative sample of primary school children from urban and rural areas of China. Two standardised reasoning tests were used to assess fluid…
Full Text Available Introduction: Comparative effectiveness and efficacy research for analysis and practice (CEERAP was performed to assess the effects of penicillin-based versus erythromycin-based antibiotic treatments in patients with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs including cellulitis, impetigo, and erysipelas. Because SSTIs, especially orofacial cellulitis, are volatile infectious diseases of a life-threatening nature, research on the most efficacious remedies is necessary. Methods: The stringent bibliome yielded three systematic reviews, which were examined for quality of research synthesis protocol and clinical relevance. Results: The sample size of three, rendered the statistical analyses and cumulative meta-analysis problematic. Conclusion: The systematic review outlined here should aid in increasing clinical awareness, improving patient health literacy, and promoting consensus of the best evidence base (BEB to mitigate the threat of sepsis and potential death caused by cellulitis infections.
Zhang, Jie; Wei, Shimin; Ayres, David W; Smith, Harold T; Tse, Francis L S
Although it is well known that automation can provide significant improvement in the efficiency of biological sample preparation in quantitative LC-MS/MS analysis, it has not been widely implemented in bioanalytical laboratories throughout the industry. This can be attributed to the lack of a sound strategy and practical procedures in working with robotic liquid-handling systems. Several comprehensive automation assisted procedures for biological sample preparation and method validation were developed and qualified using two types of Hamilton Microlab liquid-handling robots. The procedures developed were generic, user-friendly and covered the majority of steps involved in routine sample preparation and method validation. Generic automation procedures were established as a practical approach to widely implement automation into the routine bioanalysis of samples in support of drug-development programs.
Evidence-based practice (EBP) is an influential interdisciplinary movement that originated in medicine as evidence-based medicine (EBM) about 1992. EBP is of considerable interest to library and information science (LIS) because it focuses on a thorough documentation of the basis for the decision...
Full Text Available Evidence-based medicine (EBM has become a hot topic in medical practice, education, and research. However, a large number of senior doctors did not have an opportunity to learn EBM in medical schools. Firstly, this article addresses the history of EBM and the principle of practicing EBM, i.e., asking, acquiring, appraisal, application, and auditing. Secondly, this article also provides a brief introduction to evidence-based dermatology and compares the introduction of clinical practice guidelines between Europe, the UK, and the US. Finally, this article addresses the present condition and future perspective of evidence-based dermatology in Taiwan.
Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper
Systems development is replete with projects that represent substantial resource investments but result in systems that fail to meet users needs. Evidence-based development is an emerging idea intended to provide means for managing customer-vendor relationships and working systematically toward...... and electronic patient records for diabetes patients, this paper reports research in progress regarding the prospects and pitfalls of evidence-based development....
Hotelling, Barbara A.
Childbirth educators are responsible for providing expectant parents with evidence-based information. In this column, the author suggests resources where educators can find evidence-based research for best practices. Additionally, the author describes techniques for childbirth educators to use in presenting research-based information in their classes. A sample of Web sites and books that offer evidence-based resources for expectant parents is provided.
Hafslund, Bjorg [Institute of Radiography, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Bergen University College, P.O. Box 7030, N-5020 Bergen (Norway)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Clare, Judith; Graverholt, Birgitte; Wammen Nortvedt, Monica [Centre for Evidence Based Practice, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Bergen University College, Bergen (Norway)
Evidence-based practice (EBP) offers the integration of the best research evidence with clinical knowledge and expertise and patient values. EBP is a well known term in health care. This paper discusses the implementation of EBP into radiography and introduces the term evidence-based radiography. Evidence-based radiography is radiography informed and based on the combination of clinical expertise and the best available research-based evidence, patient preferences and resources available. In Norway, EBP in radiography is being debated and radiographers are discussing the challenges of implementing EBP in both academic and clinical practice. This discussion paper explains why EBP needs to be a basis for a radiography curriculum and a part of radiographers' practice. We argue that Norwegian radiographers must increase participation in research and developing practice within their specific radiographic domain.
Full Text Available Xiao-Ying Zhao,1 Hui-Min Xu,2 Quan Zhou2 1The Medical Ethics Committee, 2Department of Pharmacy, The Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, People's Republic of ChinaWe read with great interest the study by Del Tacca et al,1 who performed a comparative pharmacokinetic (PK and pharmacodynamic (PD evaluation of branded and generic formulations of meloxicam in healthy male subjects, and concluded that the two products can be used interchangeably in clinical practice. We especially appreciate their exploratory study on the PD/PK relationship which provides an important reference for bioequivalence studies of analgesics. However, we found two points worthy of discussion and we would like to share our perspectives in the following paragraphs.View original paper by Del Tacca and colleagues.
Hoffmann, Sebastian; Hartung, Thomas; Stephens, Martin
Evidence-based toxicology (EBT) was introduced independently by two groups in 2005, in the context of toxicological risk assessment and causation as well as based on parallels between the evaluation of test methods in toxicology and evidence-based assessment of diagnostics tests in medicine. The role model of evidence-based medicine (EBM) motivated both proposals and guided the evolution of EBT, whereas especially systematic reviews and evidence quality assessment attract considerable attention in toxicology.Regarding test assessment, in the search of solutions for various problems related to validation, such as the imperfectness of the reference standard or the challenge to comprehensively evaluate tests, the field of Diagnostic Test Assessment (DTA) was identified as a potential resource. DTA being an EBM discipline, test method assessment/validation therefore became one of the main drivers spurring the development of EBT.In the context of pathway-based toxicology, EBT approaches, given their objectivity, transparency and consistency, have been proposed to be used for carrying out a (retrospective) mechanistic validation.In summary, implementation of more evidence-based approaches may provide the tools necessary to adapt the assessment/validation of toxicological test methods and testing strategies to face the challenges of toxicology in the twenty first century.
Zhang, Cuicui; Liang, Xuefeng; Matsuyama, Takashi
Multi-camera networks have gained great interest in video-based surveillance systems for security monitoring, access control, etc. Person re-identification is an essential and challenging task in multi-camera networks, which aims to determine if a given individual has already appeared over the camera network. Individual recognition often uses faces as a trial and requires a large number of samples during the training phrase. This is difficult to fulfill due to the limitation of the camera hardware system and the unconstrained image capturing conditions. Conventional face recognition algorithms often encounter the "small sample size" (SSS) problem arising from the small number of training samples compared to the high dimensionality of the sample space. To overcome this problem, interest in the combination of multiple base classifiers has sparked research efforts in ensemble methods. However, existing ensemble methods still open two questions: (1) how to define diverse base classifiers from the small data; (2) how to avoid the diversity/accuracy dilemma occurring during ensemble. To address these problems, this paper proposes a novel generic learning-based ensemble framework, which augments the small data by generating new samples based on a generic distribution and introduces a tailored 0-1 knapsack algorithm to alleviate the diversity/accuracy dilemma. More diverse base classifiers can be generated from the expanded face space, and more appropriate base classifiers are selected for ensemble. Extensive experimental results on four benchmarks demonstrate the higher ability of our system to cope with the SSS problem compared to the state-of-the-art system.
Han, Taewon; O'Neal, Dennis L; Ortiz, Carlos A
The ANSI/HPS-N13.1-1999 standard is based on the concept of obtaining a single point representative sample from a location where the velocity and contaminant profiles are relatively uniform. It is difficult to predict the level of mixing in an arbitrary stack or duct without experimental data to meet the ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 requirements. The goal of this study was to develop experimental data for a range of conditions in "S" (S-shaped configuration) duct systems with different mixing elements and "S" systems having one or two mixing elements. Results were presented in terms of the coefficients of variation (COVs) for velocity, tracer gas, and 10-mum aerodynamic diameter (AD) aerosol particle profiles at different downstream locations for each mixing element. Five mixing elements were tested, including a 90 degrees elbow, a commercial static mixer, a Small-Horizontal Generic-Tee-Plenum (SH-GTP), a Small-Vertical Generic-Tee-Plenum (SV-GTP), and a Large-Horizontal Generic-Tee-Plenum (LH-GTP) system. The COVs for velocity, gas concentration, and aerosol particles for the three GTP systems were all determined to be less than 8%. Tests with two different sizes of GTPs were conducted, and the results showed the performance of the GTPs was relatively unaffected by either size or velocity as reflected by the Reynolds number. The pressure coefficients were 0.59, 0.57, and 0.65, respectively, for the SH-GTP, SV-GTP, and LH-GTP. The pressure drop for the GTPs was approximately twice that of the round elbow, but a factor of 5 less than a Type IV Air Blender. The GTP was developed to provide a sampling location less than 4-duct diameters downstream of a mixing element with low pressure drop condition. The object of the developmental effort was to provide a system that could be employed in new stack; however, the concept of GTPs could also be retrofitted onto existing system applications as well. Results from these tests show that the system performance is well within the ANSI
Danielson, Carla Kmett; McCauley, Jenna L; Jones, Andrea M; Borkman, April L; Miller, Stephanie; Ruggiero, Kenneth J
The current study examined the feasibility of an HIV/STI prevention intervention for African American female adolescents. The intervention SiHLEWeb is a web-based adaptation of the evidence-based intervention, Sistas, Informing, Healing, Living, and Empowering (SiHLE). Participants were 41 African American girls aged 13 to 18 years, recruited in collaboration with community partners (local high schools, Department of Juvenile Justice, child advocacy center, medical university). Results support the feasibility of recruitment, screening, and follow-up retention methods. The majority (63.4%) of recruited participants completed the intervention, taking an average of 4.5 (SD = 3.63) site visits. Completers of SiHLEWeb demonstrated increases in knowledge regarding HIV/STI risks and risk reduction behavior [t(18) = 4.74, p < .001], as well as significant increases in condom use self-efficacy [t(16) = 2.41, p = .03]. Findings provide preliminary support for the large-scale, randomized-controlled trial of the efficacy of SiHLEWeb to reduce high-risk sexual behavior among female African American adolescents.
Almeida, Thaís Elias; Hennequin, Sabine; Schneider, Harald; Smith, Alan R; Batista, João Aguiar Nogueira; Ramalho, Aline Joseph; Proite, Karina; Salino, Alexandre
Thelypteridaceae is one of the largest fern families, having about 950 species and a cosmopolitan distribution but with most species occurring in tropical and subtropical regions. Its generic classification remains controversial, with different authors recognizing from one up to 32 genera. Phylogenetic relationships within the family have not been exhaustively studied, but previous studies have confirmed the monophyly of the lineage. Thus far, sampling has been inadequate for establishing a robust hypothesis of infrafamilial relationships within the family. In order to understand phylogenetic relationships within Thelypteridaceae and thus to improve generic reclassification, we expand the molecular sampling, including new samples of Old World taxa and, especially, many additional neotropical representatives. We also explore the monophyly of exclusively or mostly neotropical genera Amauropelta, Goniopteris, Meniscium, and Steiropteris. Our sampling includes 68 taxa and 134 newly generated sequences from two plastid genomic regions (rps4-trnS and trnL-trnF), plus 73 rps4 and 72 trnL-trnF sequences from GenBank. These data resulted in a concatenated matrix of 1980 molecular characters for 149 taxa. The combined data set was analyzed using maximum parsimony and bayesian inference of phylogeny. Our results are consistent with the general topological structure found in previous studies, including two main lineages within the family: phegopteroid and thelypteroid. The thelypteroid lineage comprises two clades; one of these included the segregates Metathelypteris, Coryphopteris, and Amauropelta (including part of Parathelypteris), whereas the other comprises all segregates of Cyclosorus s.l., such as Goniopteris, Meniscium, and Steiropteris (including Thelypteris polypodioides, previously incertae sedis). The three mainly neotropical segregates were found to be monophyletic but nested in a broadly defined Cyclosorus. The fourth mainly neotropical segregate, Amauropelta
Pérez-Ortega, Patricia; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; García-Reyes, Juan F; Ramos-Martos, Natividad; Molina-Díaz, Antonio
In this work, a generic sample treatment method for simultaneous determination of multiclass pesticides and mycotoxins in wines is presented. The proposed method is based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) using polymeric-type SPE cartridges. To evaluate the proposed sample treatment, a liquid chromatography electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry method was used for testing 60 selected representative multiclass pesticides and 9 mycotoxins. Two different polymeric sorbents were evaluated, with hydrophilic-lipophilic-balanced (HLB) polymer cartridges being selected (Oasis HLB) as the most suitable for the present study. The identification and confirmation of the compounds was based on retention time and accurate mass measurements of the protonated molecules ([M+H](+)). Limits of detection were below 1 μg L(-1) for the 87% of the studied compounds. With the selected 4:1 preconcentration factor, 70% of the target compounds showed relatively low matrix effects, corresponding to signal suppressions lower than 30%. Recovery studies (n=10) were carried out at two concentration levels, 2.5 μg L(-1) and 25 μg L(-1), obtaining mean recovery rates between 70 and 120% for the 90% of studied analytes. The relative standard deviation (RSD%) values of the entire procedure were below 15% in most cases (97% of the studied analytes). The proposed method was successfully applied to 24 red wine samples produced in different regions of Spain. The concentration levels of the target compounds found in the studied samples were in compliance with the current regulations. Aflatoxin B(2) and metalaxyl were the most detected compounds (75% and 50% of the studied samples, respectively). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
da Silva, Fabiana Fernanda Pacheco; Horvath, Mariana Bandeira; Silveira, Juliana Guedes; Pieta, Luiza; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar
A total of 120 beef carcasses were analyzed during processing at a slaughterhouse in southern Brazil. The carcasses were sampled by swab at three different steps of the slaughter line and then they were tested for Salmonella and E. coli. The Salmonella isolates were also examined for antimicrobial susceptibility. Salmonella prevalence distribution was modeled and the probability of contamination was simulated using @Risk program and 10,000 interactions. Results demonstrated that 4 beef carcasses (3.3%) were positive for Salmonella only in the first point. The six isolates of Salmonella were classified: S. Newport (n = 3), S. Saintpaul (n = 2) and S. Anatum (n = 1). No Salmonella strains exhibited resistance to any of the antimicrobials tested. As expected, the most contaminated point with E. coli was the first point (hide), presenting counts from 0.31 to 5.07 log cfu/100 cm2. Much smaller E. coli counts were observed in the other points. Results indicated low levels of Salmonella and E. coli on the beef carcasses analyzed and also low probability of contamination of the carcasses by Salmonella, suggesting adequate microbiological quality. PMID:24948909
Anne J. Kleinnijenhuis
Full Text Available In this study, we developed a generic bioanalytical workflow providing sensitive, specific, and accurate absolute quantification of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in serum. The workflow involves magnetic beads coated with protein A to pull-down therapeutic monoclonal antibodies with affinity for protein A from the biological matrix, followed by tryptic digestion and LC-MS/MS quantification of a unique signature peptide, considering of course the matrix of interest and other present mAbs, if applicable. The feasibility of this approach was demonstrated for Infliximab (trade name Remicade in rat serum. The assigned signature peptide was monitored in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM mode. Assay variability was determined to be below 20%, except at the QC low level, which was provided through optimization of the sample preparation and monitoring of the LC-MS/MS using a stable isotope labeled signature peptide as internal standard. The 100 ng/ml lower limit of quantification using only 25 μl sample volume, is generally considered as sufficient for pharmaceutical development purposes for monoclonal antibodies.
Van Opstal, Diane; Srebniak, Malgorzata I
It has been shown that in non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) there is a small chance of a false-positive or false-negative result. This is partly due to the fact that the fetal cell-free DNA present in maternal plasma is derived from the cytotrophoblast of chorionic villi (CV), which is not always representative for the fetal karyotype due to chromosomal mosaicism. Therefore, a positive NIPT result should always be confirmed with invasive testing, preferably amniocentesis, in order to investigate the fetal karyotype. However, since this invasive test can only be safely performed after 15.5 weeks of gestation while NIPT can be done from the 10(th) week of gestation, this potentially means an unacceptable long waiting time for the prospective parents to receive a definitive result. Based on our experience with cytogenetic investigations in CV and the literature, we determined whether CV sampling may be appropriate for confirmation of an abnormal NIPT result.
Cocks, Kim; King, Madeleine T; Velikova, Galina; Martyn St-James, Marrissa; Fayers, Peter M; Brown, Julia M
PURPOSE; To use published literature to estimate large, medium, and small differences in quality of life (QOL) data from the European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30). An innovative method combining systematic review of published studies, expert opinions, and meta-analysis was used to estimate large, medium, and small differences for QLQ-C30 scores. Published mean data were identified from the literature. Differences (contrasts) between groups (eg, between treatment groups, age groups, and performance status groups) were reviewed by 34 experts in QOL measurement and cancer treatment. The experts, blinded to actual QOL results, were asked to predict these differences. A large difference was defined as one representing unequivocal clinical relevance. A medium difference was defined as likely to be clinically relevant but to a lesser extent. A small difference was one believed to be subtle but nevertheless clinically relevant. A trivial difference was used to describe circumstances unlikely to have any clinical relevance. Actual QOL results were combined using meta-analytic techniques to estimate differences corresponding to small, medium, or large effects. Nine hundred eleven articles were identified, leading to 152 relevant articles (2,217 contrasts) being reviewed by at least two experts. Resulting estimates from the meta-analysis varied depending on the subscale. Thus, the recommended minimum to detect medium differences ranges from 9 (cognitive functioning) to 19 points (role functioning). Guidelines for the size of effects are provided for the QLQ-C30 subscales. These guidelines can be used for sample size calculations for clinical trials and can also be used to aid interpretation of differences in QLQ-C30 scores.
Evidence-based medicine combines the patient's preferences with clinical experience and the best research evidence. Randomized clinical trials are considered the most valid research design for evaluating health-care interventions. However, empirical research shows that intervention effects may...... practice. By investments in education, applied research, and The Cochrane Collaboration, evidence-based medicine may form a stronger basis for clinical practice....
It's best to use the generic name when referring to a medicine. This reduces the likelihood of accidental double prescribing or purchase of a drug, particularly if it has more than one brand name. Prescribing by generic name is also generally cheaper and avoids confusion because the name is internationally recognised. Nevertheless, brand names enjoy undue prominence, even allowing for the clinical situations where it is important to prescribe by brand rather than generic name.
Lee, Matthew K; Most, Sam P
Evidence-based medicine has become increasingly prominent in the climate of modern day healthcare. The practice of evidence-based medicine involves the integration of the best available evidence with clinical experience and expertise to help guide clinical decision-making. The essential tenets of evidence-based medicine can be applied to both functional and aesthetic rhinoplasty. Current outcome measures in functional and aesthetic rhinoplasty, including objective, subjective, and clinician-reported measures, is summarized and the current data is reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jensen, Torben Juel
that the increased use of generic du began in Copenhagen and started spreading from Copenhagen to the rest of the country before the time of the old recordings in the 1980s. However, the use of generic du has peaked, or is about to peak, in the Danish speech community seen as a whole, and the developments in the use......In modern Danish, a handful of pronouns may be used to refer to a generic referent. In recent decades, the second person singular pronoun du has gained ground, apparently in parallel to similar recent developments in other languages. Even though generic du may not be as old as the traditional...
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Generic Advantages. Scalability an incremental coverage. Standardization. Business Plan Flexibility. Lifecycle Flexibility. Reliability. Service Interoperability. Changed Industry dynamics.
Shinagare, Atul B.; Khorasani, Ramin [Dept. of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston (Korea, Republic of)
With the advances in the field of oncology, imaging is increasingly used in the follow-up of cancer patients, leading to concerns about over-utilization. Therefore, it has become imperative to make imaging more evidence-based, efficient, cost-effective and equitable. This review explores the strategies and tools to make diagnostic imaging more evidence-based, mainly in the context of follow-up of cancer patients.
Smith, Tony [Senior Lecturer in Medical Radiation Science, University Department of Rural Health, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, Locked Bag 9783 NEMSC, Tamworth, NSW 2348 (Australia)], E-mail: email@example.com
Background: The evidence based paradigm was first described about a decade ago. Previous authors have described a framework for the application of evidence based medicine which can be readily adapted to medical imaging practice. Purpose: This paper promotes the application of the evidence based framework in both the justification of the choice of examination type and the optimisation of the imaging technique used. Methods: The framework includes five integrated steps: framing a concise clinical question; searching for evidence to answer that question; critically appraising the evidence; applying the evidence in clinical practice; and, evaluating the use of revised practices. Results: This paper illustrates the use of the evidence based framework in medical imaging (that is, evidence based medical imaging) using the examples of two clinically relevant case studies. In doing so, a range of information technology and other resources available to medical imaging practitioners are identified with the intention of encouraging the application of the evidence based paradigm in radiography and radiology. Conclusion: There is a perceived need for radiographers and radiologists to make greater use of valid research evidence from the literature to inform their clinical practice and thus provide better quality services.
Shrank, William H; Liberman, Joshua N; Fischer, Michael A; Girdish, Charmaine; Brennan, Troyen A; Choudhry, Niteesh K
With constrained health-care resources, there is a need to understand barriers to cost-effective medication use. To study physician perceptions about generic medications. Physicians used 5-point Likert scales to report perceptions about cost-related medication nonadherence, the efficacy and quality of generic medications, preferences for generic use, and the implications of dispensing medication samples. Descriptive statistics were used to assess physician perceptions and logistic regression models were used to evaluate predictors of physician perceptions. Among the invited sample, 839 (30.4%) responded and 506 (18.3%) were eligible and included in the final study population. Over 23% of physicians surveyed expressed negative perceptions about efficacy of generic drugs, almost 50% reported negative perceptions about quality of generic medications, and more than one quarter do not prefer to use generics as first-line medications for themselves or for their family. Physicians over the age of 55 years were 3.3 times more likely to report negative perceptions about generic quality, 5.8 times more likely to report that they would not use generics themselves, and 7.5 times more likely to state that they would not recommend generics for family members (p generic medication. Almost half of the respondents expressed concern that free samples may adversely affect subsequent affordability, yet two thirds of respondents provide free samples. A meaningful proportion of physicians expressed negative perceptions about generic medications, representing a potential barrier to generic use. Payors and policymakers trying to encourage generic use may consider educational campaigns targeting older physicians.
Kovner, Anthony R; Rundall, Thomas G
Reports of medical mistakes have splashed across newspapers and magazines in the United States. At the same time, instances of overuse, underuse, and misuse of management tactics and strategies receive far less attention. The sense of urgency associated with improving the quality of medical care does not exist with respect to improving the quality of management decision making. A more evidence-based approach would improve the competence of the decision-makers and their motivation to use more scientific methods when making a decision. The authors of this article consider a study of 68 U.S. health services managers that found a low level of evidence-based management behaviors. From the findings, four strategies are suggested to increase health systems managers' use of research evidence to improve decision making: focusing evidence-based decision making on strategically important issues, developing committees and other structures to diffuse management research throughout the organization, building a management culture that values research, and training managers in the competencies required to apply research evidence to health services management decisions. To aid the manager in understanding and applying an evidenced-based approach to decision making, the article provides practical tools, techniques, and resources for immediate use.
Williams, D. R. R. (David Robert Rhys)
... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ix 1. The Evidence Base for Diabetes Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rhys Williams, William Herman, Ann-Louise Kinmonth...
Refshauge, Anne Dahl; Stigsdotter, Ulrika K.; Lamm, Bettina
This paper develops, explores and evaluates an evidence-based approach to playground design, with a public park playground (playlab Cph) in Copenhagen as a case study. In the increasingly urbanised world, park playgrounds are valuable places that support healthy child development by providing...... opportunities for play, nature exploration and sensory stimulation. As it is increasingly expected that designers base their decisions on research evidence, there is a need to develop approaches to facilitate this, which also applies to playground design. The design of PlayLab Cph was based on relevant evidence...
Proponents of evidence-based medicine (EBM) have argued convincingly for applying this scientific method to medicine. However, the current methodological framework of the EBM movement has recently been called into question, especially in epidemiology and the philosophy of science. The debate has focused on whether the methodology of randomized controlled trials provides the best evidence available. This paper attempts to shift the focus of the debate by arguing that clinical reasoning involves a patchwork of evidential approaches and that the emphasis on evidence hierarchies of methodology fails to lend credence to the common practice of corroboration in medicine. I argue that the strength of evidence lies in the evidence itself, and not the methodology used to obtain that evidence. Ultimately, when it comes to evaluating the effectiveness of medical interventions, it is the evidence obtained from the methodology rather than the methodology that should establish the strength of the evidence. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
This presentation will describe a concrete strategy for bridging the gap between the *science* of science communication and the practice of it. In recent years, social scientists have made substantial progress in identifying the psychological influences that shape public receptivity to scientific information relating to climate change and other public policy issues. That work, however, has consisted nearly entirely of laboratory experiments and public opinion surveys; these methods identify general mechanisms of information processing but do not yield concrete prescriptions for communication in field settings. In order to integrate the findings of the science of science communication with the practice of it, field communication must now be made into a meaningful site of science communication research. "Evidence-based science communication" will involve collaborative work between social scientists and practitioners aimed at formulating and testing scientifically informed communication strategies in real-world contexts.
Type abstraction in object-oriented languages embody two techniques, each with its own strenghts and weaknesses. The first technique is extension, yielding abstraction mechanisms with good support for gradual specification. The prime example is inheritance. The second technique is functional...... abstraction, yielding more precise knowledge about the outcome. The prime example is type parameterized classes. This paper argues that these techniques should be clearly separated to work optimally, and also that current languages fail to do this. We have applied this design philosophy to a language based...... the result as family genericity. The presented language design has been implemented....
American Psychologist, 2006
The evidence-based practice movement has become an important feature of health care systems and health care policy. Within this context, the APA 2005 Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice defines and discusses evidence-based practice in psychology (EBPP). In an integration of science and practice, the Task Force's report describes…
The guidelines of all international hernia societies recommend as procedures of choice the laparoendoscopic techniques total extraperitoneal patch plasty (TEP) and transabdominal preperitoneal patch plasty (TAPP) as well as the open Lichtenstein operation for elective inguinal hernia repair. The learning curve associated with the laparoendoscopic techniques, in particular TEP, is longer than that for the open Lichtenstein technique due to the complexity of the procedures. Accordingly, for laparoendoscopic techniques it is particularly important that the operations are conducted in a standardized manner in compliance with the evidence-based recommendations given for the technical details. When procedures are carried out in strict compliance with the guidelines of the international hernia societies, low rates of perioperative complications, complication-related reoperations, recurrences and chronic pain can be expected for TEP. Compliance with the guidelines can also positively impact mastery of the learning curve for TEP. The technical guidelines on TEP are based on study results and on the experiences of numerous experts; therefore, it is imperative that they are implemented in routine surgical practice.
Schaefer, Jessica D; Welton, John M
To analyse and define the concept "evidence based practice readiness" in nurses. Evidence based practice readiness is a term commonly used in health literature, but without a clear understanding of what readiness means. Concept analysis is needed to define the meaning of evidence based practice readiness. A concept analysis was conducted using Walker and Avant's method to clarify the defining attributes of evidence based practice readiness as well as antecedents and consequences. A Boolean search of PubMed and Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature was conducted and limited to those published after the year 2000. Eleven articles met the inclusion criteria for this analysis. Evidence based practice readiness incorporates personal and organisational readiness. Antecedents include the ability to recognize the need for evidence based practice, ability to access and interpret evidence based practice, and a supportive environment. The concept analysis demonstrates the complexity of the concept and its implications for nursing practice. The four pillars of evidence based practice readiness: nursing, training, equipping and leadership support are necessary to achieve evidence based practice readiness. Nurse managers are in the position to address all elements of evidence based practice readiness. Creating an environment that fosters evidence based practice can improve patient outcomes, decreased health care cost, increase nurses' job satisfaction and decrease nursing turnover. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Link, Nils; Weber, Wilfried; Fussenegger, Martin
Excessive use of antibiotics in veterinary medicine and as growth promoters in stock farming has been associated with the dramatically increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant human pathogenic bacteria. European community legislators have therefore restricted the veterinary use of antibiotics and banned them as growth-promoting food additives in stock breeding (1831/2003/EC). The monitoring of such legislation requires technology for precise and straightforward on-site quantification of antibiotics in farm samples and food products without the need for extensive laboratory equipment and trained personnel. Capitalizing on bacterial transcriptional regulators (TetR, PIP, E), which are dose-dependently released from their cognate operators (tetO, PIR, ETR) upon binding of specific classes of antibiotics (tetracycline, streptogramins, macrolides) we have designed an easy-to-handle dipstick-based assay for detection of antibiotic levels in serum, meat and milk whose detection limits are up to 40-fold below licensed threshold values. The generic dipstick consists of either nitrocellulose, nylon or polyvinylidenfluorid (PVDF) membrane strips coated with streptavidin and immobilized biotinylated operator DNA, which acts as capture DNA to bind hexa-histidine (His(6))-tagged bacterial biosensors. Antibiotics present in specific samples triggered the dose-dependent release of the capture DNA-biosensor interaction, which, after dipping into two different solutions, results in a correlated conversion of a chromogenic substrate by a standard His(6)-targeted enzyme complex. This can be quantified by comparison of the dipstick to a standardized color scale or by assessing the terminal solution at 450nm. As demonstrated using serum, meat and milk samples spiked with 14 different antibiotics, the dipstick technology provided sensitive detection in a rapid assay format, and could be employed to monitor non-authorized use of antibiotics and to discover novel antibiotics.
Yu. V. Lukina
Full Text Available Data of the evidence based medicine about bisoprolol treatment of patients with cardiovascular diseases (arterial hypertension, ischemic heart disease, chronic heart failure, rhythm disorders are presented. Implementation of bisoprolol generics as well as bisoprolol usage in smoking cardiovascular patients is also discussed.
Hernández F., Luis J.
Evidence based Public Health is the execution and evaluation of the efficiency of interventions, plans, programs, projects and politics in public health through the application of the scientific principles of reasoning, including the systematic use of information and information systems. Evidence based public health involves the use of methodologies similar to those applied in evidence-based clinical medicine, but differs in its contents. In public health two types of evidence are described. ...
First steps towards a generic sample preparation scheme for inorganic engineered nanoparticles in a complex matrix for detection, characterization, and quantification by asymmetric flow-field flow fractionation coupled to multi-angle light scattering and ICP-MS
Wagner, Stephan; Legros, Samuel; Löschner, Katrin
The applicability of a multi-step generic procedure to systematically develop sample preparation methods for the detection, characterization, and quantification of inorganic engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in a complex matrix was successfully demonstrated. The research focused on the optimization...... content by asymmetric flow-field flow fractionation coupled to a multi-angle light scattering detector and an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Following the proposed generic procedure SiO2-ENPs were separated from a tomato soup. Two potential sample preparation methods were tested these being...... of the sample preparation, aiming to achieve a complete separation of ENPs from a complex matrix without altering the ENP size distribution and with minimal loss of ENPs. The separated ENPs were detected and further characterized in terms of particle size distribution and quantified in terms of elemental mass...
Adams, Susan; McCarthy, Ann Marie
School nurses need to demonstrate that their practice is based on the best evidence available, which is usually data obtained from research. Evidence-based practice involves combining the best evidence available with nursing expertise and patient and family preferences to determine optimum care. Evidence-based practice guidelines are developed by…
Marcilly, Romaric; Peute, Linda W.; Beuscart-Zephir, Marie-Catherine; Jaspers, Monique W.
In a Health Information Technology (HIT) regulatory context in which the usability of this technology is more and more a critical issue, there is an increasing need for evidence based usability practice. However, a clear definition of evidence based usability practice and how to achieve it is still
Grote, F.K.; Dommelen, P. van; Oostdijk, W.; Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S.M.P.F. de; Verkerk, P.H.; Wit, J.M.; Buuren, S. van
Objective: To establish evidence based guidelines for growth monitoring on a population basis. Study design: Several auxological referral criteria were formulated and applied to longitudinal growth data from four different patient groups, as well as three samples from the general population.
Objectives: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the awareness and attitude of hospital resident doctors towards evidence-based medicine (EBM) and their related educational needs. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed on a randomly selected sample of 141 hospital resident ...
R.A. Bal (Roland)
textabstractThe call for evidence-based policy is often accompanied by rather uncritical references to the success of evidence-based medicine, leading to often unsuccessful translation attempts. In this paper, I reflect on the practice of evidence-based medicine in an attempt to sketch a more
Full Text Available Abstract Background A variety of definitions of evidence-based practice (EBP exist. However, definitions are in themselves insufficient to explain the underlying processes of EBP and to differentiate between an evidence-based process and evidence-based outcome. There is a need for a clear statement of what Evidence-Based Practice (EBP means, a description of the skills required to practise in an evidence-based manner and a curriculum that outlines the minimum requirements for training health professionals in EBP. This consensus statement is based on current literature and incorporating the experience of delegates attending the 2003 Conference of Evidence-Based Health Care Teachers and Developers ("Signposting the future of EBHC". Discussion Evidence-Based Practice has evolved in both scope and definition. Evidence-Based Practice (EBP requires that decisions about health care are based on the best available, current, valid and relevant evidence. These decisions should be made by those receiving care, informed by the tacit and explicit knowledge of those providing care, within the context of available resources. Health care professionals must be able to gain, assess, apply and integrate new knowledge and have the ability to adapt to changing circumstances throughout their professional life. Curricula to deliver these aptitudes need to be grounded in the five-step model of EBP, and informed by ongoing research. Core assessment tools for each of the steps should continue to be developed, validated, and made freely available. Summary All health care professionals need to understand the principles of EBP, recognise EBP in action, implement evidence-based policies, and have a critical attitude to their own practice and to evidence. Without these skills, professionals and organisations will find it difficult to provide 'best practice'.
Roger L Sur
Full Text Available This essay reviews the historical circumstances surrounding the introduction and evolution of evidence-based medicine. Criticisms of the approach are also considered. Weaknesses of existing standards of clinical practice and efforts to bring more certainty to clinical decision making were the foundation for evidence-based medicine, which integrates epidemiology and medical research. Because of its utility in designing randomized clinical trials, assessing the quality of the literature, and applying medical research at the bedside, evidence-based medicine will continue to have a strong influence on everyday clinical practice.
O'Leary, A; Usher, C; Lynch, M; Hall, M; Hemeryk, L; Spillane, S; Gallagher, P; Barry, M
The Health (Pricing and Supply of Medical Goods) Act 2013 passed into law in July 2013 and legislated for generic substitution in Ireland. The aim of the study was to ascertain the knowledge and perceptions of stakeholders i.e. patients, pharmacists and prescribers, of generic medicines and to generic substitution with the passing of legislation. Three stakeholder specific questionnaires were developed to assess knowledge of and perceptions to generic medicines and generic substitution. Purposive samples of patients, prescribers and pharmacists were analysed. Descriptive quantitative and qualitative analyses were undertaken. A total of 762 healthcare professionals and 353 patients were recruited. The study highlighted that over 84% of patients were familiar with generic medicines and are supportive of the concept of generic substitution. Approximately 74% of prescribers and 84% of pharmacists were supportive of generic substitution in most cases. The main areas of concern highlighted by the healthcare professionals that might impact on the successful implementation of the policy, were the issue of bioequivalence with generic medicines, the computer software systems used at present in general practitioner (GP) surgeries and the availability of branded generics. The findings from this study identify a high baseline rate of acceptance to generic medicines and generic substitution among patients, prescribers and pharmacists in the Irish setting. The concerns of the main stakeholders provide a valuable insight into the potential difficulties that may arise in its implementation, and the need for on-going reassurance and proactive dissemination of the impact of the generic substitution policy. The existing positive attitude to generic medicines and generic substitution among key stakeholders in Ireland to generic substitution, combined with appropriate support and collaboration should result in the desired increase in rates of prescribing, dispensing and use of generic
Williams, D. R. R. (David Robert Rhys)
... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3. Evidence-Based Deﬁnition and Classiﬁcation: A Commentary . . . . . . Steve O'Rahilly 37 PART II: PREVENTION OF DIABETES 4. Prevention of Type 1 Diabetes...
Full Text Available the engagement between science and policymaking. It is concluded that the issue of evidence-based policymaking remains unresolved and questions for future research on the science–policy interface are raised....
Gudray, Kiran; Walmsley, Anthony Damien
This article informs readers of a method of implementing evidence-based dentistry in practice. Following these steps, practitioners should be able to use this skill in an efficient manner. The importance of evidence-based dentistry and its relevance to situations encountered in everyday practice is also highlighted. Clinical relevance: This article highlights a series of steps to be followed by practitioners to ensure that treatment provided is supported by the most recent, good quality evidence.
The call for evidence-based policy is often accompanied by rather uncritical references to the success of evidence-based medicine, leading to often unsuccessful translation attempts. In this paper, I reflect on the practice of evidence-based medicine in an attempt to sketch a more productive approach to translating evidence into the practice of policy making. Discussing three episodes in the history of evidence-based medicine - clinical trials, and the production and use of clinical guidelines - I conclude that the success of evidence-based medicine is based on the creation of reflexive practices in which evidence and practice can be combined productively. In the conclusion, I discuss the prospects of such a practice for evidence-based policy.
Farkas, D.F.; Swart, Henriëtte de
We take a fresh look at the connection between genericity and (in)definiteness by reconsidering a long-standing puzzle concerning the relation between definiteness and genericity. We contrast English on the one hand and Romance languages and Hungarian on the other, focusing on generic sentences
Vijayalakshmi, R.; Anitha, V.; Ramakrishnan, T.; Sudhakar, Uma
Dentists need to make clinical decisions based on limited scientific evidence. In clinical practice, a clinician must weigh a myriad of evidences every day. The goal of evidence-based dentistry is to help practitioners provide their patients with optimal care. This is achieved by integrating sound research evidence with personal clinical expertise and patient values to determine the best course of treatment. Periodontology has a rich background of research and scholarship. Therefore, efficient use of this wealth of research data needs to be a part of periodontal practice. Evidence-based periodontology aims to facilitate such an approach and it offers a bridge from science to clinical practice. The clinician must integrate the evidence with patient preference, scientific knowledge, and personal experience. Most important, it allows us to care for our patients. Therefore, evidence-based periodontology is a tool to support decision-making and integrating the best evidence available with clinical practice. PMID:20142947
Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian
This chapter begins by outlining the challenges of preparing a chapter on evidence-based practice (EBP) to underpin the use of music as a therapeutic tool in treatment, in the overall frame of music, health, and wellbeing. It then reviews the terminology of EBP and evidence-based medicine...... practice as health, education, and social services tighten their belts and the demand on their resources grows, there is increasing interest in the value of music for health and wellbeing, despite even less ‘hard’ evidence that it is effective against illness and disability....
Jones, Ronald N; Watters, Amy A; Flamm, Robert K; Sader, Helio S
Numerous studies of generic vancomycin (GV) lots have emerged since the 1980s, casting some doubt on product quality. Publications question the in vivo activity, even when concurrent in vitro and chemical assays meet regulatory guidelines. This study assessed contemporary GV lots by an in vitro assay capable of measuring small variations from target-benchmark (BM) activity. Nine GV lots (Hospira [6 lots; 0.5- or 1.0-g vials], Akorn [1 lot; 1.0-g vial], APP [2 lots; 1.0-g vials]) were obtained from local United States distributors. A reagent-grade lot (Sigma lot 080M1341V) was tested as BM component due to the inability to purchase branded product vials in the USA. All lots of GV did not vary significantly from the analytical control when testing the 3 Staphylococcus aureus (wild-type 4B25, ATCC 25923, and 29213) and Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) strains. These MIC end points were read at 18 h of incubation, and Hospira lots averaged +3.5% potency (range, -3% to +8%), and Akorn and APP at 0% variance, e.g., acceptable performance. In conclusion, with a validated, precise multi-organism assay, current GV lots marketed in the USA showed minimal activity variations from a selected BM control lot. Generic antimicrobial products, in general, should be regularly monitored for potency, chemical purity, and in vivo activity before routine use in medical centers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kamalbekova, G; Kalieva, M
Understanding principles of evidence-based medicine is of vital importance for improving quality of care, promoting public health and health system development. Understanding principles of evidence-based medicine allows using the most powerful information source, which have ever existed in medicine. To evaluate the effectiveness of teaching Evidence-Based Medicine, including long-term outcomes of training. The study was conducted at the Medical University of Astana, where the Scientific and Educational Center of Evidence-Based Medicine was established in 2010 with the help of the corresponding project of the World Bank. The participants of the study were the faculty trained in Evidence-Based Medicine at the workshop "Introduction to Evidence-Based Medicine" for the period of 2010-2015 years. There were a total of 16 workshops during the period, and 323 employees were trained. All participants were asked to complete our questionnaire two times: before the training - pre-training (to determine the initial level of a listener) and after the training - post-training (to determine the acquired level and get the feedback). Questionnaires were prepared in such a way, that the majority of questions before and after training were identical. Thus, it provided a clear picture of the effectiveness of training. Questions in the survey were open-ended so that the respondents had the opportunity to freely and fully express their views. The main part of the questionnaires included the following questions: "Do you understand what evidence-based medicine is", "how do you understand what the study design means", "what is randomization", "how research is classified", "do you know the steps of decision-making according to Evidence-Based Medicine, list them", "what literature do you prefer to use when searching for information (print, electronic, etc.)", "what resources on the Internet do you prefer to use". Only 30-35% of respondents gave correct answers to the questions on
Wolf, Fredric M.
Presents statistics of deaths caused by medical errors and argues the effects of misconceptions in diagnosis and treatment. Suggests evidence-based medicine to enhance the quality of practice and minimize error rates. Presents 10 evidence-based lessons and discusses the possible benefits of evidence-based medicine to evidence-based education and…
Winning, T.; Needleman, I.; Rohlin, M.; Carrassi, A.; Chadwick, B.; Eaton, K.; Hardwick, K.; Ivancakova, R.; Jallaludin, R.L.; Johnsen, D.; Kim, J.G.; Lekkas, D.; Li, D.; Onisei, D.; Pissiotis, A.; Reynolds, P.; Tonni, I.; Vanobbergen, J.; Vassileva, R.; Virtanen, J.; Wesselink, P.R.; Wilson, N.
An evidence-based (EB) approach has been a significant driver in reforming healthcare over the past two decades. This change has extended across a broad range of health professions, including oral healthcare. A key element in achieving an EB approach to oral healthcare is educating our
B. Spek; M. Wieringa-de Waard; C. Lucas; N. van Dijk
BACKGROUND: Worldwide speech-language therapy (SLT) students are educated in evidence-based practice (EBP). For students to use EBP in their future day-to-day clinical practice, they must value EBP as positive and must feel confident in using it. For curricula developers it is therefore important to
In this paper, a model for assessment and intervention is presented. This model explains how to perform theory- and evidence-based as well as practice-based assessment and intervention. The assessment model applies a holistic approach to treatment planning which includes recognition...
Mesibov, Gary B.; Shea, Victoria
Interventions for autism are increasing being held to standards such as "evidence-based practice" in psychology and "scientifically-based research" in education. When these concepts emerged in the context of adult psychotherapy and regular education, they caused considerable controversy. Application of the concepts to autism treatments and special…
Hajebrahimi, Sakineh; Sadeghi-Ghyassi, Fatemeh; Olfati, Nahid; Dastgiri, Saeed; Maghbouli, Leili
To determine the attitudes and beliefs of Iranian urologists toward Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) and investigation of the barriers of evidence based practice (EBP). A self- administrated, Likert scale questionnaire designed in Persian and filled up by censuses selected urologist from Iranian Urology Association (IUA). Data were entered to Predictive Analytics Soft Ware version 18.0 and descriptive statistics were obtained for all parts of the questionnaire. A total of 111 out of 500 Iranian urologists who attended in IUA annual meeting, responded to the questionnaires. Mean attitude score of respondents was 30.4 (SD: 5.7, range 16-40). Attitude score showed statistically significant association to previous participation in EBM workshops (P = .01). Of participants 96% believed EBP will improve patient care and 76.2% of them appreciated the impact of use of research utilization and application of evidence based guidelines on clinical decision making and the outcome of surgery. The main barriers to EBP stated as lack of time (64.8%), facilities (53.4%), and training in EBM (29.4%). The urologists have positive attitudes towards EBP. However, regarding lack of time, pre-appraised databases or EBP guidelines can be helpful. Evidence based workshops and familiarity with evidence databases is recommended for Iranian urologists. In addition, health care system and policy makers could play a major role to provide a culture of EBP.
Hoerle, S; Kroll, P
Evidence-based medicine is often misunderstood as 'cookbook medicine with standard recipes' that does not take clinical experience into account. It is, however, supposed to be a basis for decision making in caring for individual patients under consideration of patients' preferences. This seems to be very important, since diabetic retinopathy continues to be the most frequent cause of vision loss in working age adults with negative consequences for patients' quality of life and for health economics. The most important evidence-based therapy for diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy is laser coagulation. Vitrectomy for proliferative stages has also been proven effective by clinical studies. For more recent treatment options like triamcinolone injection and vitrectomy for diabetic macular edema there is a lower level of evidence so far. The Diabetic Retinopathy Study was the first to show the effectiveness of panfundus laser coagulation for a larger group of patients. The Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study in turn serves as a basis for laser coagulation of retinopathy and maculopathy. The Diabetic Retinopathy Vitrectomy Study could show the advantages of timely vitrectomy. Both the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial and the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study could show the value of intensive blood glucose control. Evidence-based medicine on the basis of the studies mentioned above is practiced quite self-evidently in ophthalmo-diabetology. It should be regarded as a helpful tool for special therapeutic situations which still leaves room for one's personal clinical experience to be included. It is somewhat problematic that the term evidence-based medicine seems to be restricted to the results of large randomized studies, because even special problems and very individual, difficult therapeutic questions can be placed on an evidence-based foundation, although at a lower level of evidence, using today's modern means of literature research. Copyright (c
Full Text Available Nel corso dell’ultimo decennio, nel pensiero pedagogico anglosassone, si è affermata una cultura dell’evidenza cui ci si riferisce con l’espressione “evidence based education” (EBE. Secondo tale prospettiva, le decisioni in ambito educativo dovrebbero essere assunte sulla base delle conoscenze che la ricerca empirica offre in merito alla minore o maggiore efficacia delle differenti opzioni didattiche. Si tratta di un approccio (denominato “evidence based practice” che ha origine in ambito medico e che in seguito ha trovato applicazione in differenti domini delle scienze sociali. L’autore presenta un quadro introduttivo all’EBE, dando conto delle sue origini e dei differenti significati di cui è portatrice.
This book contains an evidence-based pedagogic guide to enable any motivated teaching/training professional to be able to teach effectively and creatively. It firstly summarises the extensive research field on human psychological functioning relating to learning and how this can be fully utilised in the design and facilitation of quality learning experiences. It then demonstrates what creativity actually 'looks like' in terms of teaching practices, modelling the underpinning processes of creative learning design and how to apply these in lesson planning. The book, having established an evidence-based and pedagogically driven approach to creative learning design, extensively focuses on key challenges facing teaching professionals today. These include utilising information technologies in blended learning formats, differentiating instruction, and developing self-directed learners who can think well. The main purpose of the book is to demystify what it means to teach creatively, explicitly demonstrating the pr...
The use of science for policy is at the core of a perfect storm generated by the insurgence of several concurrent crises: of science, of trust, of sustainability. The modern positivistic model of science for policy, known as evidence based policy, is based on dramatic simplifications and compressions of available perceptions of the state of affairs and possible explanations (hypocognition). This model can result in flawed prescriptions. The flaws become more evident when dealing with complex issues characterized by concomitant uncertainties in the normative, descriptive and ethical domains. In this situation evidence-based policy may concur to the fragility of the social system. Science plays an important role in reducing the feeling of vulnerability of humans by projecting a promise of protection against uncertainties. In many applications quantitative science is used to remove uncertainty by transforming it into probability, so that mathematical modelling can play the ritual role of haruspices. This epistem...
Gale, Barbara Van Patter; Schaffer, Marjorie A
This study explored factors that affect the adoption or rejection of evidence-based practice (EBP) changes and differences in nurse manager and staff nurse perceptions about those factors. Roger's Diffusion of Innovations Theory explains relevant organizational strategies for guiding practice change. The primary author developed the Evidence-Based Practice Changes Survey consisting of 12 items, completed by 92 nurses at a level 1 trauma center. Top barriers to EBP were insufficient time, lack of staff, and not having the right equipment and supplies. Top reasons to adopt EBP were having personal interest in the practice change, avoiding risk of negative consequences to the patient, and personally valuing the evidence. Several statistically significant differences emerged for demographic variables. Planning for EBP change must address barriers and facilitators to practice change and emphasize the benefit for patients and value of the practice change to nurses.
The idea of evidence- based practice is influential in public welfare services, including education. The idea is controversial, however, not least because it involves a poten tial redefinition of the relation ship between knowledge, authority and professionalism. This is discussed based on a study...... of evidence- based methods in Danish pre-school education and care. The management sees the use of these methods as strengthening pre- school teacher professionalism, but the actual practices in the day-careinstitutions are ambiguous. In some cases, using the methods becomes an end in itself and tends...... to displace important educational objectives. In other cases, the methods are reflectively adjusted to a given context. Used in this way only, evid ence-based practice and methodology is a valuable resource for professional practice in education. From such a perspective, at least some types of research based...
e-Health is experiencing a difficult time. On the one side, the forecast is for a bright digital health future created by precision medicine and smart devices. On the other hand, most large scale e-health projects struggle to make a difference and are often controversial. Both futures fail because they are not evidence-based. Medical informatics should follow the example of evidence-based medicine, i.e. conduct rigorous research that gives us evidence to solve real world problems, synthesise that evidence and then apply it strictly. We already have the tools for creating a different universe. What we need is evidence, will, a culture of learning, and hard work.
Cognitive hypnotherapy (CH) is a comprehensive evidence-based hypnotherapy for clinical depression. This article describes the major components of CH, which integrate hypnosis with cognitive-behavior therapy as the latter provides an effective host theory for the assimilation of empirically supported treatment techniques derived from various theoretical models of psychotherapy and psychopathology. CH meets criteria for an assimilative model of psychotherapy, which is considered to be an efficacious model of psychotherapy integration. The major components of CH for depression are described in sufficient detail to allow replication, verification, and validation of the techniques delineated. CH for depression provides a template that clinicians and investigators can utilize to study the additive effects of hypnosis in the management of other psychological or medical disorders. Evidence-based hypnotherapy and research are encouraged; such a movement is necessary if clinical hypnosis is to integrate into mainstream psychotherapy.
Fins, Joseph J
Medicine in the last decades of the twentieth century was ripe for a data sweep that would bring systematic analysis to treatment strategies that seemingly had stood the test of time but were actually unvalidated. Coalescing under the banner of evidence-based medicine, this process has helped to standardize care, minimize error, and promote patient safety. But with this advancement, something of the art of medicine has been lost. © 2016 The Hastings Center.
Wahlqvist, Mark L
The clinical nutrition case study is a neglected area of activity and publication. This may be in part because it is not regarded as a serious contributor to evidence-based nutrition (EBN). Yet it can play a valuable part in hypothesis formulation and in the cross-checking of evidence. Most of all, it is usually a point at which the operationalisation of nutrition evidence is granted best current practice status.
Jan Klusáček; Marie Klusáčková
The article deals with the evidence base of health policy in the Czech Republic. It focuses on articles published in peer-reviewed scholarly journals. It builds on a quantitative analysis of articles published between 2005 and 2010 in scholarly journals in the fields of social science, management and administration, public health and other relevant fields. The main finding is that almost half of the 161 articles with potential use for health policy were published in a single journal, Zdravotn...
Sardanelli, Francesco; Di Leo, Giovanni [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze Medico-Chirurgiche, Unita di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Via Morandi 30, San Donato Milanese, Milan (Italy); Hunink, Myriam G. [Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Harvard School of Public Health, Program for Health Decision Science, Boston, MA (United States); Gilbert, Fiona J. [University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen Biomedical Imaging Centre, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Krestin, Gabriel P. [Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands)
To provide an overview of evidence-based medicine (EBM) in relation to radiology and to define a policy for adoption of this principle in the European radiological community. Starting from Sackett's definition of EBM we illustrate the top-down and bottom-up approaches to EBM as well as EBM's limitations. Delayed diffusion and peculiar features of evidence-based radiology (EBR) are defined with emphasis on the need to shift from the demonstration of the increasing ability to see more and better, to the demonstration of a significant change in treatment planning or, at best, of a significant gain in patient outcome. The ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) principle is thought as a dimension of EBR while EBR is proposed as part of the core curriculum of radiology residency. Moreover, we describe the process of health technology assessment in radiology with reference to the six-level scale of hierarchy of studies on diagnostic tests, the main sources of bias in studies on diagnostic performance, and levels of evidence and degrees of recommendations according to the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (Oxford, UK) as well as the approach proposed by the GRADE working group. Problems and opportunities offered by evidence-based guidelines in radiology are considered. Finally, we suggest nine points to be actioned by the ESR in order to promote EBR. Radiology will benefit greatly from the improvement in practice that will result from adopting this more rigorous approach to all aspects of our work. (orig.)
Eldredge, J D
To demonstrate how the core characteristics of both evidence-based medicine (EBM) and evidence-based health care (EBHC) can be adapted to health sciences librarianship. Narrative review essay involving development of a conceptual framework. The author describes the central features of EBM and EBHC. Following each description of a central feature, the author then suggests ways that this feature applies to health sciences librarianship. First, the decision-making processes of EBM and EBHC are compatible with health sciences librarianship. Second, the EBM and EBHC values of favoring rigorously produced scientific evidence in decision making are congruent with the core values of librarianship. Third, the hierarchical levels of evidence can be applied to librarianship with some modifications. Library researchers currently favor descriptive-survey and case-study methods over systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, or other higher levels of evidence. The library literature nevertheless contains diverse examples of randomized controlled trials, controlled-comparison studies, and cohort studies conducted by health sciences librarians. Health sciences librarians are confronted with making many practical decisions. Evidence-based librarianship offers a decision-making framework, which integrates the best available research evidence. By employing this framework and the higher levels of research evidence it promotes, health sciences librarians can lay the foundation for more collaborative and scientific endeavors.
Khong, T Y
The generation of a pathology test result must be based on criteria that are proven to be acceptably reproducible and clinically relevant to be evidence-based. This review de-constructs the umbilical cord coiling index to illustrate how it can stray from being evidence-based. Publications related to umbilical cord coiling were retrieved and analysed with regard to how the umbilical coiling index was calculated, abnormal coiling was defined and reference ranges were constructed. Errors and other influences that can occur with the measurement of the length of the umbilical cord or of the number of coils can compromise the generation of the coiling index. Definitions of abnormal coiling are not consistent in the literature. Reference ranges defining hypocoiling or hypercoiling have not taken those potential errors or the possible effect of gestational age into account. Even the way numerical test results in anatomical pathology are generated, as illustrated by the umbilical coiling index, warrants a critical analysis into its evidence base to ensure that they are reproducible or free from errors.
Full Text Available This issue of Evidence Based Library and Information Practice includes three papers from the Evidence Based Scholarly Communication Conference (EBSCC that took place in March 2010i. Kroth, Philips and Eldredge have written a commentary that gives an overview of the conference, and introduces us to the research papers that were presented. As well, two research presentations from the conference appear in this issue, an article by Donahue about a potential new method of communicating between scholars, and a paper by Gilliland in our Using Evidence in Practice section, detailing a library’s Open Access Day preparations.Kroth, Philips and Eldredge note that “The EBSCC brought together librarians and information specialists to share evidence-based strategies for developing effective local scholarly communication support and training and, hopefully, form new coalitions to address this topic at a local and national level.” (p 108. This conference focused on translational medicine, and looked at how to promote new methods of scholarly communication, partially through the inclusion of research papers at the conference.The inclusion of these articles and the evidence based focus of the EBSCC conference, made me ask myself, can scholarly communication be evidence based? At its core, scholarly communication is anything but a scientific issue. It is charged with emotion; from authors, publishers, librarians and others involved in the business of publishing. The recent shift to look at new models of scholarly communication has been a threat to many of the established models and sparked much debate in the academic world, especially in relation to open access. In her 2006 EBLIP commentary on evidence based practice and open access, Morrison notes, “Open Access and evidence based librarianship are a natural combination” (p. 49, and outlines her perspective on many of the reasons why. Debate continues to rage, however, regarding how authors should
Full Text Available Evidence based library and information practice (EBLIP is a strategy to bridge research and practice. Generally EBLIP is seen as a movement to encourage and give practitioners the means to incorporate research into their practice, where it previously may have been lacking. The widely accepted definition of EBLIP (Booth, 2000 stresses three aspects that contribute to a practice that is evidence based: 1 "the best available evidence;" 2 "moderated by user needs and preferences;" 3 "applied to improve the quality of professional judgements." The area that the EBLIP movement has focused on is how to create and understand the best available research evidence. CE courses, critical appraisal checklists, and many articles have been written to address a need for librarian education in this area, and it seems that strides have been made.But very little in the EBLIP literature talks about how we make professional judgements, or moderate evidence based on our user needs and preferences. Likewise, how do we make good evidence based decisions when our evidence base is weak. These things seem to be elements we just take for granted or can’t translate into words. It is in keeping with tacit knowledge that librarians just seem to have or acquire skills with education and on the job experience. Tacit knowledge is "knowledge that is not easily articulated, and frequently involves knowledge of how to do things. We can infer its existence only by observing behaviour and determining that this sort of knowledge is a precondition for effective performance" (Patel, Arocha, & Kaufman, 1999, p.78. It is something that is difficult to translate into an article or guideline for how we work. I think of this area as the "art" of evidence based practice. And the art is crucial to being an evidence based practitioner.Science = systematized knowledge, explicit research, methodological examination, investigation, dataArt = professional knowledge of your craft, intuition
The Fortran language does not provide a standard library that implements generic containers, like linked lists, trees, dictionaries, etc. The GFC software provides an implementation of generic Fortran containers natively written in Fortran 2003/2008 language. The following containers are either already implemented or planned: Stack (done), Linked list (done), Tree (done), Dictionary (done), Queue (planned), Priority queue (planned).
Zeeman, Laetitia; Aranda, Kay; Grant, Alec
This paper aims to queer evidence-based practice by troubling the concepts of evidence, knowledge and mental illness. The evidence-based narrative that emerged within biomedicine has dominated health care. The biomedical notion of 'evidence' has been critiqued extensively and is seen as exclusive and limiting, and even though the social constructionist paradigm attempts to challenge the authority of biomedicine to legitimate what constitutes acceptable evidence or knowledge for those experiencing mental illness, biomedical notions of evidence appear to remain relatively intact. Queer theory offers theoretical tools to disrupt biomedical norms and challenges biomedical normativity to indicate how marginalisation occurs when normative truths about mental health classify those who differ from the norm as 'ill' or 'disordered'. Queer theory's emphasis on normativity serves the political aim to subvert marginalisation and bring about radical social and material change. Reference will be made to mental health subjects within each discourse by indicating how the body acts as a vehicle for knowing. Deleuzian notions of the rhizome are used as metaphor to suggest a relational approach to knowledge that does away with either/or positions in either biomedical, or queer knowledge to arrive at a both/and position where the biomedical, constructionist and queer are interrelated and entangled in needing the other for their own evolution. However, queer does not ask for assimilation but celebrates difference by remaining outside to disrupt that which is easily overlooked, assumed to be natural or represented as the norm. The task of queer knowledge is to do justice to the lives lived in the name of evidence-based practice and demands that we consider the relations of power where knowledge is produced. This pursuit creates different knowledge spaces where we identify new intersections that allow for socially just understandings of knowing or evidence to emerge. © 2013 John Wiley
Lewis, Brennan; Allen, Stephanie
The purpose of this article was to provide a framework for evidence-based transition of patient populations within an acute care pediatric institution. Transition within a hospital is foreseeable, given the ever-changing needs of the patients within an evolving healthcare system. These changes include moving patient populations because of expansion, renovation, or cohorting similar patient diagnoses to provide care across a continuum. Over the past 1 to 2 years, Children's Health Children's Medical Center Dallas has experienced a wide variety of transition. To provide a smooth transition for patients and families into new care areas resulting in a healthy work environment for all team members. The planning phase for patient population moves, and transition should address key aspects to include physical location and care flow, supplies and equipment, staffing model and human resources (HR), education and orientation, change process and integrating teams, and family preparation. It is imperative to consider these aspects in order for transitions within a healthcare system to be successful. During a time of such transitions, the clinical nurse specialist (CNS) is a highly valuable team member offering a unique perspective and methodological approach, which is central to the new initiative's overall success. The themes addressed in this article on evidence-based transition are organized according to the CNS spheres of influence: system/organization, patient/family, and nursing. An evidence-based transition plan was developed and implemented successfully with the support from the CNS for 3 patient populations. Organizational leadership gained an increased awareness of the CNS role at the conclusion of each successful transition. The CNS plays a pivotal role as clinical experts and proponents of evidence-based practice and effects change in the system/organization, nursing, and patient/family spheres of influence. While transitions can be a source of stress for leaders
Small, B W
Separating hype from the truth in dental marketing can be frustrating and it is difficult at best for the average dentist to evaluate the safety and efficacy of new products and techniques. Keynote clinicians are presenting information and influencing other dentists without the scientific evidence to support their claims. For the benefit of our patients, the system needs to change. It will not come soon, but until more evidence-based testing is commonplace and made readily available to the practicing dentist, most dentists will continue tradition-based practices.
Jekl, Vladimir; Hauptman, Karel; Knotek, Zdenek
The number of exotic companion pet rodents seen in veterinary practices is growing very rapidly. According to the American Veterinary Medical Association's surveys, more than 2,093,000 pet rodents were kept in US households in 2007 and in 2012 it was more than 2,349,000 animals. This article summarizes the most important evidence-based knowledge in exotic pet rodents (diagnostics of the hyperadrenocorticism in guinea pigs, pituitary tumors in rats, urolithiasis in guinea pigs, use of itopride as prokinetics, use of deslorelin acetate in rodents, cause of dental disease, and prevention of mammary gland tumors in rats). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dougherty, William M; Christophel, John Jared; Park, Stephen S
This article provides the reader with a comprehensive review of high-level evidence-based medicine in facial trauma and highlights areas devoid of high-level evidence. The article is organized in the order one might approach a clinical problem: starting with the workup, followed by treatment considerations, operative decisions, and postoperative treatments. Individual injuries are discussed within each section, with an overview of the available high-level clinical evidence. This article not only provides a quick reference for the facial traumatologist, but also allows the reader to identify areas that lack high-level evidence, perhaps motivating future endeavors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, the creator of the fictional detective Sherlock Holmes, studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh between 1876 and 1881 under Doctor Joseph Bell who emphasised in his teaching the importance of observation, deduction and evidence. Sherlock Holmes was modelled on Joseph Bell. The modern notions of Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) are not new. A very brief indication of some of the history of EBM is presented including a discussion of the important and usually overlooked contribution of statisticians to the Popperian philosophy of EBM.
Laville, Martine; Segrestin, Berenice; Alligier, Maud
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based clinical research poses special barriers in the field of nutrition. The present review summarises the main barriers to research in the field of nutrition that are not common to all randomised clinical trials or trials on rare diseases and highlights opportunities...... as patient-centred outcomes may occur decennia into the future. The methodologies and regulations for drug trials are, however, applicable to nutrition trials. CONCLUSIONS: Research on clinical nutrition should start by collecting clinical data systematically in databases and registries. Measurable patient...
Schwartz, Michael R
After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Understand the key decisions in patient evaluation for cosmetic breast augmentation. 2. Cite key decisions in preoperative planning. 3. Discuss the risks and complications, and key patient education points in breast augmentation. Breast augmentation remains one of the most popular procedures in plastic surgery. The integral information necessary for proper patient selection, preoperative assessment, and surgical approaches are discussed. Current data regarding long term safety and complications are presented to guide the plastic surgeon to an evidence-based approach to the patient seeking breast enhancement to obtain optimal results.
Summa, Noémie M; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon
This article presents relevant advances in avian medicine and surgery over the past 5 years. New information has been published to improve clinical diagnosis in avian diseases. This article also describes new pharmacokinetic studies. Advances in the understanding and treatment of common avian disorders are presented in this article, as well. Although important progress has been made over the past years, there is still much research that needs to be done regarding the etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of avian diseases and evidence-based information is still sparse in the literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Summa, Noémie M; Brandão, João
Rabbit medicine has been continuously evolving over time with increasing popularity and demand. Tremendous advances have been made in rabbit medicine over the past 5 years, including the use of imaging tools for otitis and dental disease management, the development of laboratory testing for encephalitozoonosis, or determination of prognosis in rabbits. Recent pharmacokinetic studies have been published, providing additional information on commonly used antibiotics and motility-enhancer drugs, as well as benzimidazole toxicosis. This article presents a review of evidence-based advances for liver lobe torsions, thymoma, and dental disease in rabbits and controversial and new future promising areas in rabbit medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Aarons, Gregory A; Cafri, Guy; Lugo, Lindsay; Sawitzky, Angelina
Mental health and social service provider attitudes toward evidence-based practice have been measured through the development and validation of the Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS; Aarons, Ment Health Serv Res 6(2):61-74, 2004). Scores on the EBPAS scales are related to provider demographic characteristics, organizational characteristics, and leadership. However, the EBPAS assesses only four domains of attitudes toward EBP. The current study expands and further identifies additional domains of attitudes towards evidence-based practice. A qualitative and quantitative mixed-methods approach was used to: (1) generate items from multiples sources (researcher, mental health program manager, clinician/therapist), (2) identify potential content domains, and (3) examine the preliminary domains and factor structure through exploratory factor analysis. Participants for item generation included the investigative team, a group of mental health program managers (n = 6), and a group of clinicians/therapists (n = 8). For quantitative analyses a sample of 422 mental health service providers from 65 outpatient programs in San Diego County completed a survey that included the new items. Eight new EBPAS factors comprised of 35 items were identified. Factor loadings were moderate to large and internal consistency reliabilities were fair to excellent. We found that the convergence of these factors with the four previously identified evidence-based practice attitude factors (15 items) was small to moderate suggesting that the newly identified factors represent distinct dimensions of mental health and social service provider attitudes toward adopting EBP. Combining the original 15 items with the 35 new items comprises the EBPAS 50-item version (EBPAS-50) that adds to our understanding of provider attitudes toward adopting EBPs. Directions for future research are discussed.
Kaló, Zoltán; Holtorf, Anke-Peggy; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Shen, Jie; Ágh, Tamás; Inotai, András; Brixner, Diana
Policymakers tend to focus on improving patented drug policies because they are under pressure from patients, physicians, and manufacturers to increase access to novel therapies. The success of pharmaceutical innovation over the last few decades has led to the availability of many off-patent drugs to treat disease areas with the greatest public health need. Therefore, the success of public health programs in improving the health status of the total population is highly dependent on the efficiency of generic drug policies. The objective of this article was to explore factors influencing the true efficiency of generic prescription drug policies in supporting public health initiatives in the developed world. Health care decision makers often assess the efficiency of generic drug policies by the level of price erosion and market share of generics. Drug quality, bioequivalence, in some cases drug formulations, supply reliability, medical adherence and persistence, health outcomes, and nondrug costs, however, are also attributes of success for generic drug policies. Further methodological research is needed to measure and improve the efficiency of generic drug policies. This also requires extension of the evidence base of the impact of generic drugs, partly based on real-world evidence. Multicriteria decision analysis may assist policymakers and researchers to evaluate the true value of generic drugs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Chen, Li-Li; Lin, Jun-Dai
Acupressure is a traditional Chinese medicine approach to disease prevention and treatment that may be operated by nurses independently. Therefore, acupressure is being increasingly applied in clinical nursing practice and research. Recently, the implementation of evidence-based nursing (EBN) in clinical practice has been encouraged to promote nursing quality. Evidence-based nursing is a method-ology and process of implementation that applies the best-available evidence to clinical practice, which is acquired through the use of empirical nursing research. Therefore, in this paper, we address the topic of acupressure within the context of empirical nursing practice. We first introduce the current status of acupressure research and provide the locations of common acupoints in order to guide future empirical nursing research and to help nurses use these acupoints in clinical practice. Finally, we describe the steps that are necessary to apply the current empirical information on acupressure as well as provide suggestions to promote safety and efficacy in order to guide nurses in the accurate application of acupressure in nursing practice.
Bilder, Robert M.
Neuropsychology is poised for transformations of its concepts and methods, leveraging advances in neuroimaging, the human genome project, psychometric theory, and information technologies. It is argued that a paradigm shift towards evidence-based science and practice can be enabled by innovations, including: (1) formal definition of neuropsychological concepts and tasks in cognitive ontologies; (2) creation of collaborative neuropsychological knowledgebases; and (3) design of web-based assessment methods that permit free development, large-sample implementation, and dynamic refinement of neuropsychological tests and the constructs these aim to assess. This article considers these opportunities, highlights selected obstacles, and offers suggestions for stepwise progress towards these goals. PMID:21092355
Wegwarth, Odette; Wagner, Gert G; Gigerenzer, Gerd
Informed decision making in medicine, defined as basing one's decision on the best current medical evidence, requires both informed physicians and informed patients. In cancer screening, however, studies document that these prerequisites are not yet met. Many physicians do not know or understand the medical evidence behind screening tests, do not adequately counsel (asymptomatic) people on screening, and make recommendations that conflict with existing guidelines on informed choice. Consistent with this situation, nation-wide studies showed that the general public misperceives the contribution of cancer screening but that understanding considerably improves when evidence-based information is provided. However, can evidence-based patient information about cancer screening make people also less likely to simply follow a physician's non-evidence-based advice? A national sample of 897 German citizens, surveyed in face-to-face computer-assisted personal interviews, received either evidence-based (e.g., absolute risks on benefits and harms; n = 451) or non-evidence-based (e.g., relative risks on benefits only; n = 446) patient information about a cancer screening test and were then asked to make their initial cancer screening choice. Thereafter, participants received a hypothetical physician's recommendation, which was non-evidence-based in terms of existing guidelines on informed decision making (i.e., reporting either benefits or harms but not both; no provision of numbers). When provided with non-evidence-based patient information (n = 446), a mean of 33.1% of 235 participants whose initial screening choice contradicted the hypothetical physician's non-evidence-based recommendation adjusted their choice in deference to that recommendation (95% CI: 27.4 to 39.4%), whereas with evidence-based patient information (n = 451), only half as many, a mean of 16.0% of 225 (95% CI: 11.8 to 21.4%), modified their choice. Thus, evidence-based patient information makes people less
Full Text Available Informed decision making in medicine, defined as basing one's decision on the best current medical evidence, requires both informed physicians and informed patients. In cancer screening, however, studies document that these prerequisites are not yet met. Many physicians do not know or understand the medical evidence behind screening tests, do not adequately counsel (asymptomatic people on screening, and make recommendations that conflict with existing guidelines on informed choice. Consistent with this situation, nation-wide studies showed that the general public misperceives the contribution of cancer screening but that understanding considerably improves when evidence-based information is provided. However, can evidence-based patient information about cancer screening make people also less likely to simply follow a physician's non-evidence-based advice? A national sample of 897 German citizens, surveyed in face-to-face computer-assisted personal interviews, received either evidence-based (e.g., absolute risks on benefits and harms; n = 451 or non-evidence-based (e.g., relative risks on benefits only; n = 446 patient information about a cancer screening test and were then asked to make their initial cancer screening choice. Thereafter, participants received a hypothetical physician's recommendation, which was non-evidence-based in terms of existing guidelines on informed decision making (i.e., reporting either benefits or harms but not both; no provision of numbers. When provided with non-evidence-based patient information (n = 446, a mean of 33.1% of 235 participants whose initial screening choice contradicted the hypothetical physician's non-evidence-based recommendation adjusted their choice in deference to that recommendation (95% CI: 27.4 to 39.4%, whereas with evidence-based patient information (n = 451, only half as many, a mean of 16.0% of 225 (95% CI: 11.8 to 21.4%, modified their choice. Thus, evidence-based patient information makes
Ostlie, Daniel J; St Peter, Shawn D
The efficiency of medical care in the United States has become intensely scrutinized with expectations from patients, families, payors, lawmakers, and, currently, the President. The most effective vehicle to bring more efficient care is the employment of evidence-based medicine whenever possible. Evidence-based medicine is dependent on best evidence, and best evidence is generated from prospective trials. To evaluate current state of evidence based practice in pediatric surgery we reviewed the literature for trials conducted in our field the past 10 years. All randomized controlled trials from January 1999 through December 2009 published in the English literature were identified through a literature search using PubMed (www.pubmed.com). We included only those in pediatric general surgery excluding transplant, oncology, and the other nongeneral subspecialties. The search criteria produced 56 manuscripts, of which 51 described appropriate randomization techniques. A definitive trial design with a sample size calculation was utilized in only 19 studies (34%). A statistically significant difference between treatment arms was identified in 29 of the 56 (52%) trials. There were 26 different journals of publication, with the Journal of Pediatric Surgery being most common (20) followed by Pediatric Surgery International (7). The combined total publications from January 1999 through December 2009 for the 26 journals these randomized trials represent 0.04% of all publications. Appendicitis was the most common condition that was studied (n = 10) followed by pyloric stenosis (n = 4). Trials originated in 19 different countries led by the United States (28%), United Kingdom (14%), and Turkey (12%). There was a generally progressive increase in published trials from 1999 to 2009, however, the percentage of prospective articles published in pediatric surgery was similar to a previous review published in 1999. The current state of evidence-based surgery in pediatric surgery has
Using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic for the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders in a Greek sample with a wide range of intellectual abilities.
Papanikolaou, Katerina; Paliokosta, Elena; Houliaras, Giorgos; Vgenopoulou, Sofia; Giouroukou, Eleni; Pehlivanidis, Artemios; Tomaras, Vlassis; Tsiantis, Ioannis
We studied the interrelationship between the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G), the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and DSM-IV clinical diagnosis, in a Greek sample of 77 children and adolescents, referred for the assessment of a possible pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) and presenting a wide range of cognitive abilities. The agreement of the ADOS-G and the ADI-R with the clinical diagnosis was estimated as satisfactory and moderate, respectively, while both instruments presented with excellent sensitivity for the diagnosis of autistic disorder along with satisfactory specificity. ADOS-G/ADI-R agreement was estimated as fair. Our results confirm the discriminant validity of ADI-R and ADOS-G in diagnosing pervasive developmental disorders in children and adolescents with a wide range of intellectual abilities.
Andersen, Jesper; Lawall, Julia
A key issue in maintaining Linux device drivers is the need to keep them up to date with respect to evolutions in Linux internal libraries. Currently, there is little tool support for performing and documenting such changes. In this paper we present a tool, spdiff, that identifies common changes...... made in a set of files and their updated versions, and extracts a generic patch performing those changes. Library developers can use our tool to extract a generic patch based on the result of manually updating a few typical driver files, and then apply this generic patch to other drivers. Driver...
Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M; Elliott, William J
Many antihypertensive drugs are now available in generic formulations at fractions of the cost of their branded counterparts. In the United States, marketing approval for generic medications is usually granted by the Food and Drug Administration on the basis of two simple studies involving dissolution rates and bioavailability in 24 - 36 healthy people, without data regarding antihypertensive efficacy, safety, or long-term outcomes. This process leaves many true disciples of "Evidence-Based Medicine" in a quandary: prescribe only brand-name medications that have been demonstrated in clinical trials to both lower blood pressure and prevent cardiovascular events, or instead recommend lower-priced generic agents that are usually supported by no such data. This review summarizes the current evidence that generic antihypertensive drugs are likely to be safe and effective, may increase the probability of medication availability and adherence for many patients, but, by law, must have a different physical appearance than the original product.
Chin-Yee, Benjamin H
This article explores the philosophical implications of evidence-based medicine's (EBM's) epistemology in terms of the problem of underdetermination of theory by evidence as expounded by the Duhem-Quine thesis. EBM hierarchies of evidence privilege clinical research over basic science, exacerbating the problem of underdetermination. Because of severe underdetermination, EBM is unable to meaningfully test core medical beliefs that form the basis of our understanding of disease and therapeutics. As a result, EBM adopts an epistemic attitude that is sceptical of explanations from the basic biological sciences, and is relegated to a view of disease at a population level. EBM's epistemic attitude provides a limited research heuristic by preventing the development of a theoretical framework required for understanding disease mechanism and integrating knowledge to develop new therapies. Medical epistemology should remain pluralistic and include complementary approaches of basic science and clinical research, thus avoiding the limited epistemic attitude entailed by EBM hierarchies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Pickrell, Brent B; Hollier, Larry H
After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Explain the epidemiology of mandible fractures. 2. Discuss preoperative evaluation of the patient with a mandible fracture. 3. Compare the various modalities of fracture fixation. 4. Identify common complications after fracture repair. In this Maintenance of Certification/Continuing Medical Education article, the reader is provided with a review of the epidemiology, preoperative evaluation, perioperative management, and surgical outcomes of mandible fractures. The objective of this series is to present a review of the literature so that the practicing physician can remain up-to-date on key evidence-based guidelines to enhance management and improve outcomes. The physician can also seek further in-depth study of the topic through the references provided.
Duran-Vega, Héctor César
Evidence-based surgery is a tool that has been adopted worldwide by surgeons. As all decisions must be current and have a scientific basis, the approach for performing it must be standardised. Five important steps are required to perform surgery based on evidence. Convert the need for information into a question that can be answered, finding the best information to answer that question, critical evaluation of the evidence, and its validity, impact and applicability, integrating the evidence with your own experience, and with the evaluation of the patients. This should take into account their biology, values and specific circumstances, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of the execution of steps 1-4 and propose how to improve them. This article presents the main tools to perform surgery properly based on evidence. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The process of facilitating the uptake of evidence, for example, scientific research findings, into the policymaking process is multifaceted and thus complex. It is therefore important for scientists to understand this process in order to influence it more effectively. Similarly, policymakers need to understand the complexities of the scientific process to improve their interaction with the scientific sphere. This literature review addresses those factors that influence the uptake of scientific evidence into policymaking, the barriers to using science in policymaking, as well as recommendations for improved science–policymaking interaction. A visual diagram of the gears of a car is used to convey the message of the complexities around the engagement between science and policymaking. It is concluded that the issue of evidence-based policymaking remains unresolved and questions for future research on the science–policy interface are raised.
From a humanistic, social scientific perspective, the most complex task in evidence-based medicine lies in the communication of specialized medical knowledge to non-professionals. Information is never simply the neutral transmission of facts, not even when dealing with scientific knowledge and research. It is always interpreted and evaluated from a particular perspective in a specific context. That information can be neutral is thus a myth. In all medical consultations the process of communication is not just a matter of transmitting information from one who knows to one who does not. Knowledge created and formulated in a scientific context is thus recontextualised first in a clinical situation and then as an interpreted version in people's real lives. Furthermore there are difficulties when practice must be based on current research, in a situation in which no prior clinical experience exists and in which results are interpreted and used regardless of the relative certainty of current evidence.
Yadava B Jeve
Full Text Available Recurrent miscarriages are postimplantation failures in natural conception; they are also termed as habitual abortions or recurrent pregnancy losses. Recurrent pregnancy loss is disheartening to the couple and to the treating clinician. There has been a wide range of research from aetiology to management of recurrent pregnancy loss. It is one of the most debated topic among clinicians and academics. The ideal management is unanswered. This review is aimed to produce an evidence-based guidance on clinical management of recurrent miscarriage. The review is structured to be clinically relevant. We have searched electronic databases (PubMed and Embase using different key words. We have combined the searches and arranged them with the hierarchy of evidences. We have critically appraised the evidence to produce a concise answer for clinical practice. We have graded the evidence from level I to V on which these recommendations are based.
Smith, Tristram; Iadarola, Suzannah
This evidence base update examines the level of empirical support for interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) younger than 5 years old. It focuses on research published since a previous review in this journal (Rogers & Vismara, 2008 ). We identified psychological or behavioral interventions that had been manualized and evaluated in either (a) experimental or quasi-experimental group studies or (b) systematic reviews of single-subject studies. We extracted data from all studies that met these criteria and were published after the previous review. Interventions were categorized across two dimensions. First, primary theoretical principles included applied behavior analysis (ABA), developmental social-pragmatic (DSP), or both. Second, practice elements included scope (comprehensive or focused), modality (individual intervention with the child, parent training, or classrooms), and intervention targets (e.g., spoken language or alternative and augmentative communication). We classified two interventions as well-established (individual, comprehensive ABA and teacher-implemented, focused ABA + DSP), 3 as probably efficacious (individual, focused ABA for augmentative and alternative communication; individual, focused ABA + DSP; and focused DSP parent training), and 5 as possibly efficacious (individual, comprehensive ABA + DSP; comprehensive ABA classrooms; focused ABA for spoken communication; focused ABA parent training; and teacher-implemented, focused DSP). The evidence base for ASD interventions has grown substantially since 2008. An increasing number of interventions have some empirical support; others are emerging as potentially efficacious. Priorities for future research include improving outcome measures, developing interventions for understudied ASD symptoms (e.g., repetitive behaviors), pinpointing mechanisms of action in interventions, and adapting interventions for implementation with fidelity by community providers.
The Generic File Format (GFF) is a file format developed within the UK ASW community for the interchange and storage of underwater sonar data. Originally developed for the interchange of time-series data between analysis systems, it has been extended to provide for storage of processed acoustic data (e.g., power and DEMON spectrum, lofargram grey-scale), nonacoustic data (e.g., own-ship dynamics, sensor configuration) and event data (e.g., tracker output, sonar intercepts). The format employs the chunk concept, as used in the WAV and AIFF file formats, to provide extendability (including local variants) while providing a measure of backward compatability. However, the basic concept has been adapted to allow for the mixing in the one file of multiple channels of different sample-rates and data-types through the inclusion of a data frame concept and multiple data blocks. Chunk cross-referencing has been employed to ensure data consistency. A provision is made in the header of the file to store details of the sensor and processing for the data (e.g., the number of hydrophones, beam direction, FFT size) so that an analysis system does not need to know about the sensor or other system from which the data originated.
Hansen, Lone Koefoed
Flanagan proposes that most locative media artworks neglect the particularities of spaces, their historical and political layers. Koolhaas, on the other hand, states that all urban areas are alike, that we are facing a global Generic City. The paper analyses digital media artist Esther Polak’s No......’s NomadicMILK project in light of the generic and particular properties of space as laid out by Flanagan and Koolhaas in order to discuss the possible reconfiguring practices of locative media....
religious acts of the prehistoric era to empirical-rational decisions of the Egyptian civilization, to modern day evidence-based medicine. Evidence-based medicine requires that clinical decisions and health policies on the prevention, diagnosis and ...
Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the current treatments and possible adverse reactions of metabolic myopathy, and to develop the best solution for evidence-based treatment. Methods Taking metabolic myopathy, mitochondrial myopathy, lipid storage myopathy, glycogen storage diseases, endocrine myopathy, drug toxicity myopathy and treatment as search terms, retrieve in databases such as PubMed, Cochrane Library, ClinicalKey database, National Science and Technology Library (NSTL, in order to collect the relevant literature database including clinical guidelines, systematic reviews (SR, randomized controlled trials (RCT, controlled clinical trials, retrospective case analysis and case study. Jadad Scale was used to evaluate the quality of literature. Results Twenty-eight related articles were selected, including 6 clinical guidelines, 5 systematic reviews, 10 randomized controlled trials and 7 clinical controlled trials. According to Jadad Scale, 23 articles were evaluated as high-quality literature (≥ 4, and the remaining 5 were evaluated as low-quality literature (< 4. Treatment principles of these clinical trials, efficacy of different therapies and drug safety evaluation suggest that: 1 Acid α-glycosidase (GAA enzyme replacement therapy (ERT is the main treatment for glycogen storage diseases, with taking a high-protein diet, exercising before taking a small amount of fructose orally and reducing the patient's physical activity gradually. 2 Carnitine supplementation is used in the treatment of lipid storage myopathy, with carbohydrate and low fat diet provided before exercise or sports. 3 Patients with mitochondrial myopathy can take coenzyme Q10, vitamin B, vitamin K, vitamin C, etc. Proper aerobic exercise combined with strength training is safe, and it can also enhance the exercise tolerance of patients effectively. 4 The first choice to treat the endocrine myopathy is treating primary affection. 5 Myopathies due to drugs and toxins should
... about generic medicines? What are generic drugs? A generic drug is a medication created to be the same as an already ... at lower cost, allowing for increased access to medications by the ... Process for Generic Drugs? Detailed information on the critical factors the ...
Atanassow, F.; Clarke, D.; Jeuring, J.T.
A generic program is written once and works on values of many data types. Generic Haskell is a recent extension of the functional programming language Haskell that supports generic programming. This paper discusses how Generic Haskell can be used to implement XML tools whose behaviour depends on
Atanassow, F.; Clarke, D.; Jeuring, J.T.
A generic program is written once and works on values of many data types. Generic Haskell is a recent extension of the functional programming language Haskell that supports generic programming. This paper discusses how Generic Haskell can be used to implement XML tools whose behaviour depends on
van Enst, W.A.
Evidence-Based Medicine is the integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values. Systematic reviews have become the cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, which is reflected in the position systematic reviews have in the pyramid of evidence-based medicine. Systematic
Objective: The development of evidence-based health policy is challenging. This study has attempted to identify some of the underpinning factors that promote the development of evidence based health policy. Methods: A preliminary systematic literature review of published reviews with "evidence based health policy" in their title was conducted…
Objective: Evidence-based medicine has an important place in the teaching and practice of psychiatry. Attempts to teach evidence-based medicine skills can be weakened by conceptual confusions feeding a false polarization between traditional clinical skills and evidence-based medicine. Methods: The author develops a broader conception of clinical…
JCTIC has used open source software to develop a unique school online environment that has made evidence based practice viable in their school. In this paper the proposition is made that eLearning enables evidence based practice which in turn leads to improved student outcomes. Much has been written about evidence based practice in schools, but…
The paper examined information provision in special libraries such as medical libraries. It provides an overview of evidence based practice as a concept for information provision by librarians. It specifically proffers meaning to the term evidence as used in evidence based practice and to evidence based medicine from where ...
Aio’s huisartsgeneeskunde hebben adequate kennis ten aanzien van evidence-based medicine (geneeskunde op basis van bewijs). In de huisartspraktijk is evidence-based gedrag vaak niet direct zichtbaar, maar artsen kunnen wel aangeven op welk aspect van evidence-based medicine de voorgeschreven
This first of three articles on evidence-based dental practice discusses the historical background of evidence-based medicine/evidence-based dentistry, how to formulate clear clinical questions and how to track down (search) the available evidence in the literature databases. Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine ...
The fundamentals of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) are the clinical experience, the application of best evidences from research and the consideration of patient expectations. It enabled significant progresses in the management of diseases with a low or multifactorial causality. But it has also led to unintended negative consequences, partly related to conflicts of interest. The objective of this article is to bring the attention back to the scientific rigor that must sustain the medical practice, namely in the occurrence : 1) formulating a question that addresses all the elements of an individual clinical situation; 2) exploring the literature systematically; 3) estimating the degree of confidence in the conclusions of clinical trials. EBM provides intuitive tools to address some uncomfortable concepts of biostatistics and to identify the biases and the embellished data that invalidate many studies. However, it is difficult to decide of the care of a single patient from observations issued from the comparison of'heterogeneous groups. Personalized medicine should help to overcome this difficulty and should facilitate clinical decision making by targeting the patients who are most likely to benefit from an intervention without much inconvenience.
Full Text Available Evidence-based interactive management of change means hands-on experience of modified work processes, given evidence of change. For this kind of pro-active organizational development support we use an organisational process memory and a communication-based representation technique for role-specific and task-oriented process execution. Both are effective means for organizations becoming agile through interactively modelling the business at the process level and re-constructing or re-arranging process representations according to various needs. The tool allows experiencing role-specific workflows, as the communication-based refinement of work models allows for executable process specifications. When presenting the interactive processes to individuals involved in the business processes, changes can be explored interactively in a context-sensitive way before re-implementing business processes and information systems. The tool is based on a service-oriented architecture and a flexible representation scheme comprising the exchange of message between actors, business objects and actors (roles. The interactive execution of workflows does not only enable the individual reorganization of work but also changes at the level of the entire organization due to the represented interactions.
Kennedy, Suzanne; Bailey, Ryan; Jaffee, Katy; Markus, Anne; Gerstein, Maya; Stevens, David M; Lesch, Julie Kennedy; Malveaux, Floyd J; Mitchell, Herman
Researchers often struggle with the gap between efficacy and effectiveness in clinical research. To bridge this gap, the Community Healthcare for Asthma Management and Prevention of Symptoms (CHAMPS) study adapted an efficacious, randomized controlled trial that resulted in evidence-based asthma interventions in community health centers. Children (aged 5-12 years; N = 590) with moderate to severe asthma were enrolled from 3 intervention and 3 geographically/capacity-matched control sites in high-risk, low-income communities located in Arizona, Michigan, and Puerto Rico. The asthma intervention was tailored to the participant's allergen sensitivity and exposure, and it comprised 4 visits over the course of 1 year. Study visits were documented and monitored prospectively via electronic data capture. Asthma symptoms and health care utilization were evaluated at baseline, and at 6 and 12 months. A total of 314 intervention children and 276 control children were enrolled in the study. Allergen sensitivity testing (96%) and home environmental assessments (89%) were performed on the majority of intervention children. Overall study activity completion (eg, intervention visits, clinical assessments) was 70%. Overall and individual site participant symptom days in the previous 4 weeks were significantly reduced compared with control findings (control, change of -2.28; intervention, change of -3.27; difference, -0.99; P asthma in these high-need populations. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Full Text Available I love food. I love cooking, baking, testing, and eating. I read about food preparation, food facts, and food service. Over the years I’ve developed my fair share of knowledge about cooking and I’m a decent cook, but I’m no chef. I guess I’m what you’d call a “foodie”. However, I have the good fortune to have a friend who is a chef and owns one of the best, and certainly the most innovative, restaurants in town. During this summer I hosted a cooking class in my home for my family with my chef friend as instructor. The Tex-Mex barbecue theme was a big hit (you can contact me for recipes, if you like, but much more fascinating was the explanation of the science behind the cooking. It turns out that there is a term for this: molecular gastronomy. Another term, and hence the genesis of my “Eureka!” moment of the summer, is evidence based cooking. Good cooking is not just following a recipe (not all of which are evidence based but at its best is the culmination of heaps of tested information regarding why and how chemical and environmental factors work together to result in a gastronomical delight. For example, will brining or marinating a pork chop make it moister? And, if brining, what temperature should the water be, how long should it soak, and how much salt is needed? Why does pounding meat increase its tenderness? What will keep guacamole from browning better – the pit or lime juice? What does baking soda do in a chocolate cake? Eggs or no eggs in fresh pasta? Like most librarians, I tend not to take information at face value. I want to know where information comes from and whether or not it is valid, based on specific factors. I’ve come to notice that evidence based, or evidence informed, practice is everywhere and has a tremendous impact on our lives. Why do you rotate the tires on your car? Evidence shows that the front tires wear more quickly (think about all those 3-pointturns, the braking, etc and therefore
Full Text Available Hale Zerrin Toklu Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Abstract: Evidence-based medicine aims to optimize decision-making by using evidence from well-designed and conducted research. The concept of reliable evidence is essential, since the number of electronic information resources is increasing in parallel to the increasing number and type of drugs on the market. The decision-making process is a complex and requires an extensive evaluation as well as the interpretation of the data obtained. Different sources provide different levels of evidence for decision-making. Not all the data have the same value as the evidence. Rational use of medicine requires that the patients receive “medicines appropriate to their clinical needs, in doses that meet their own individual requirements, for an adequate period of time, and at the lowest cost to them and their community.” Pharmacists have a crucial role in the health system to maintain the rational use of medicine and provide pharmaceutical care to patients, because they are the drug experts who are academically trained for this purpose. The rational use of the pharmacist's workforce will improve the outcome of pharmacotherapy as well as decreasing the global health costs. Keywords: pharmacist, rational use of medicine, pharmacotherapy, pharmaceutical, outcome
Sharma, A; Hasan, K; Carter, A; Zaidi, R; Cro, S; Briggs, T; Goldberg, A
Evidence driven orthopaedics is gaining prominence. It enables better management decisions and therefore better patient care. The aim of our study was to review a selection of the leading publications pertaining to knee surgery to assess changes in levels of evidence over a decade. Articles from the years 2000 and 2010 in The Knee, the Journal of Arthroplasty, Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (American Volume) and the Bone and Joint Journal were analysed and ranked according to guidelines from the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. The intervening years (2003, 2005 and 2007) were also analysed to further define the trend. The percentage of high level evidence (level I and II) studies increased albeit without reaching statistical significance. Following a significant downward trend, the latter part of the decade saw a major rise in levels of published evidence. The most frequent type of study was therapeutic. Although the rise in levels of evidence across the decade was not statistically significant, there was a significant drop and then rise in these levels in the interim. It is therefore important that a further study is performed to assess longer-term trends. Recent developments have made clear that high quality evidence will be having an ever increasing influence on future orthopaedic practice. We suggest that journals implement compulsory declaration of a published study's level of evidence and that authors consider their study designs carefully to enhance the quality of available evidence.
Dufour, J-C; Mancini, J; Fieschi, M
The foundation of evidence-based medicine is critical analysis and synthesis of the best data available concerning a given health problem. These factual data are accessible because of the availability on the Internet of web tools specialized in research for scientific publications. A bibliographic database is a collection of bibliographic references describing the documents indexed. Such a reference includes at least the title, summary (or abstract), a set of keywords, and the type of publication. To conduct a strategically effective search, it is necessary to formulate the question - clinical, diagnostic, prognostic, or related to treatment or prevention - in a form understandable by the research engine. Moreover, it is necessary to choose the specific database or databases, which may have particular specificity, and to analyze the results rapidly to refine the strategy. The search for information is facilitated by the knowledge of the standardized terms commonly used to describe the desired information. These come from a specific thesaurus devoted to document indexing. The most frequently used is MeSH (Medical Subject Heading). The principal bibliographic database whose references include a set of describers from the MeSH thesaurus is Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline), which has in turn become a subpart of a still more vast bibliography called PubMed, which indexes an additional 1.4 million references. Numerous other databases are maintained by national or international entities. These include the Cochrane Library, Embase, and the PASCAL and FRANCIS databases.
Yadav, B L
Evidence-based practice places an emphasis on integration of clinical expertise with available best evidence, patient\\'s clinical information and preferences, and with local health resources. This paper reports the findings of a study that investigated the barriers, facilitators and skills in developing evidence-based practice among psychiatric nurses in Ireland. A postal survey was conducted among a random sample of Irish psychiatric nurses and survey data were collected using the Development of Evidence-Based Practice Questionnaire. Respondents reported that insufficient time to find and read research reports and insufficient resources to change practice were the greatest barriers to the development of evidence-based practice. Practice development coordinators were perceived as the most supportive resource for changing practice. Using the Internet to search for information was the highest-rated skill and using research evidence to change practice was the lowest-rated skill for developing evidence-based practice. Nurses\\' precursor skills for developing evidence-based practice, such as database searching and information retrieval, may be insufficient in themselves for promoting evidence-based practice if they cannot find evidence relating to their particular field of practice or if they do not have the time, resources and supports to develop their practice in response to evidence.
Crawford, James M
literature is largely observational in nature, with reports of case series (with or without statistical analysis) constituting the majority of our 'evidence base'. Moreover, anatomic pathology is subject to 'interobserver variation', and potentially to 'error'. Taken further, individual interpretation of tissue samples is not an objective endeavor, and it is not easy to fulfill the role of a 'gold standard'. Both for rendering of an overall interpretation, and for providing the semi-quantitative and quantitative numerical 'scores' which support evidence-based clinical treatment algorithms, the Pathologist has to exercise a high level of interpretive judgment. Nevertheless, the contribution of anatomic pathology to 'EBM' is remarkably strong. To the extent that our judgmental interpretations become data, our tissue interpretations become the arbiters of patient care management decisions. In a more global sense, we support highly successful cancer screening programs, and play critical roles in the multidisciplinary management of complex patients. The true error is for the clinical practitioners of 'EBM' to forget the contribution to the supporting evidence base of the physicians that are Anatomic Pathologists. Finally, the academic productivity of pathology faculty who operate in the clinical realm must be considered. A survey of six North American academic pathology departments reveals that 26% of all papers published in 2005 came from 'unfunded' clinical faculty. While it is likely that their academic productivity is lower than that of 'funded' research faculty, the contribution of clinical faculty to the knowledge base for the practice of modern medicine, and to the academic reputation of the department, must not be overlooked. The ability of clinical faculty in academic departments of pathology to pursue original scholarship must be supported if our specialty is to retain its preeminence as an investigative scientific discipline in the age of EBM.
Lionberger, R; Jiang, W; Huang, S-M; Geba, G
Patients should have confidence that the generic drugs they are prescribed in the United States can be effectively substituted for the brand product or another generic product. Through new bioequivalence study designs for narrow therapeutic index (NTI) drugs and postapproval studies of generic substitution, the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) ongoing generic drug regulatory science activities are designed to ensure successful generic substitution for all drug products.
Visser, Claire; Hadley, Gina; Wee, Bee
There has been a paradigm shift in medicine away from tradition, anecdote and theoretical reasoning from the basic sciences towards evidence-based medicine (EBM). In palliative care however, statistically significant benefits may be marginal and may not be related to clinical meaningfulness. The typical treatment vs. placebo comparison necessitated by 'gold standard' randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is not necessarily applicable. The complex multimorbidity of end of life care involves considerations of the patient's physical, psychological, social and spiritual needs. In addition, the field of palliative care covers a heterogeneous group of chronic and incurable diseases no longer limited to cancer. Adequate sample sizes can be difficult to achieve, reducing the power of studies and high attrition rates can result in inadequate follow up periods. This review uses examples of the management of cancer-related fatigue and death rattle (noisy breathing) to demonstrate the current state of EBM in palliative care. The future of EBM in palliative care needs to be as diverse as the patients who ultimately derive benefit. Non-RCT methodologies of equivalent quality, validity and size conducted by collaborative research networks using a 'mixed methods approach' are likely to pose the correct clinical questions and derive evidence-based yet clinically relevant outcomes.
Straus, Sharon E.; McAlister, Finlay A.
Discussions about evidence-based medicine engender both negative and positive reactions from clinicians and academics. Ways to achieve evidence-based practice are reviewed here and the most common criticisms described. The latter can be classified as ”limitations universal to the practice of medicine,” ”limitations unique to evidence-based medicine” and ”misperceptions of evidence-based medicine.” Potential solutions to the true limitations of evidence-based medicine are discussed and areas f...
Shrank, William H; Cadarette, Suzanne M; Cox, Emily; Fischer, Michael A; Mehta, Jyotsna; Brookhart, Alan M; Avorn, Jerry; Choudhry, Niteesh K
Insurers and policymakers strive to stimulate more cost-effective prescribing and, increasingly, are educating beneficiaries about generics. To evaluate the relationship between patient beliefs and communication about generic drugs and actual drug use. We performed a national mailed survey of a random sample of 2500 commercially-insured adults. Patient responses were linked to pharmacy claims data to assess actual generic medication use. We used factor analysis to develop 5 multi-item scales from patient survey responses that measured: (1) general preferences for generics, (2) generic safety/effectiveness, (3) generic cost/value, (4) comfort with generic substitution, and (5) communication with providers about generics. The relationship between each scale and the proportion of prescriptions filled for generics was assessed using linear regression, controlling for demographic, health, and insurance characteristics. Separate models were created for each scale and then all 5 scales were included simultaneously in a fully-adjusted model. The usable response rate was 48%. When evaluated independently, a 1 SD increase in each of the 5 scales was associated with a 3.1% to 6.3% increase in generic drug use (P generic drug use: comfort with generic substitution (P = 0.021) and communication with providers about generic drugs (P = 0.012). Generic drug use is most closely associated with the 2 actionable items we evaluated: communication with providers about generics and comfort with generic substitution. Educational campaigns that focus on these 2 domains may be most effective at influencing generic drug use.
Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A [Idaho Falls, ID
The present invention provides methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses for a generic robot architecture providing a framework that is easily portable to a variety of robot platforms and is configured to provide hardware abstractions, abstractions for generic robot attributes, environment abstractions, and robot behaviors. The generic robot architecture includes a hardware abstraction level and a robot abstraction level. The hardware abstraction level is configured for developing hardware abstractions that define, monitor, and control hardware modules available on a robot platform. The robot abstraction level is configured for defining robot attributes and provides a software framework for building robot behaviors from the robot attributes. Each of the robot attributes includes hardware information from at least one hardware abstraction. In addition, each robot attribute is configured to substantially isolate the robot behaviors from the at least one hardware abstraction.
Full Text Available The generic business architecture offers an efficient solution for the business engineering and re-engineering processes. This approach strengthen the cooperation between the main actors involved in the business architecture design and implementation, aiming at including all the significant views in a integrated model. The main goal of the development of generic business architectures is to offer a standard model for the integration of the internal processes and for a better management of the technological and informational resources of the enterprise. Such standardization has as main benefits the increase of the management quality and the efficiency in the business engineering processes.
Lisano, Michael E., II; Crues, Edwin Z.
The Generic Kalman Filter (GKF) software provides a standard basis for the development of application-specific Kalman-filter programs. Historically, Kalman filters have been implemented by customized programs that must be written, coded, and debugged anew for each unique application, then tested and tuned with simulated or actual measurement data. Total development times for typical Kalman-filter application programs have ranged from months to weeks. The GKF software can simplify the development process and reduce the development time by eliminating the need to re-create the fundamental implementation of the Kalman filter for each new application. The GKF software is written in the ANSI C programming language. It contains a generic Kalman-filter-development directory that, in turn, contains a code for a generic Kalman filter function; more specifically, it contains a generically designed and generically coded implementation of linear, linearized, and extended Kalman filtering algorithms, including algorithms for state- and covariance-update and -propagation functions. The mathematical theory that underlies the algorithms is well known and has been reported extensively in the open technical literature. Also contained in the directory are a header file that defines generic Kalman-filter data structures and prototype functions and template versions of application-specific subfunction and calling navigation/estimation routine code and headers. Once the user has provided a calling routine and the required application-specific subfunctions, the application-specific Kalman-filter software can be compiled and executed immediately. During execution, the generic Kalman-filter function is called from a higher-level navigation or estimation routine that preprocesses measurement data and post-processes output data. The generic Kalman-filter function uses the aforementioned data structures and five implementation- specific subfunctions, which have been developed by the user on
Austvoll-Dahlgren, Astrid; Bjørndal, Arild; Odgaard-Jensen, Jan; Helseth, Sølvi
Using the conceptual framework of shared decision-making and evidence-based practice, a web portal was developed to serve as a generic (non disease-specific) tailored intervention to improve the lay public's health literacy skills. To evaluate the effects of the web portal compared to no intervention in a real-life setting. A pragmatic randomised controlled parallel trial using simple randomisation of 96 parents who had children aged critical appraisal task, and reporting on perceptions about participation. Data were collected from March through June 2011. Use of the web portal was found to improve attitudes towards searching for health information. This variable was identified as the most important predictor of intention to search in both samples. Participants considered the web portal to have good usability, usefulness, and credibility. The intervention group showed slight increases in the use of evidence-based information, critical appraisal skills, and participation compared to the group receiving no intervention, but these differences were not statistically significant. Despite the fact that the study was underpowered, we found that the web portal may have a positive effect on attitudes towards searching for health information. Furthermore, participants considered the web portal to be a relevant tool. It is important to continue experimenting with web-based resources in order to increase user participation in health care decision-making. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01266798.
Schroeder, T V
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is not a randomised controlled trial (RCT), but EBM seeks to apply evidence gained from scientific methods - which could be RCT - to daily medical practice. Any surgical treatment reflects a certain development technically as well as skills based. The procedure may....... On the other hand, if started too late there is a chance that data may be lost because the technology has already been introduced into the daily clinics and physicians may be unwilling to recruit patients. Or the opposite, that the technique may have been rejected without a proper trial. In this situation...... it has been suggested to perform a so called tracker trial. In such trials protocols are more flexible without prefixed sample size and will require repeated interim analyses. Often, it will be relevant to supplement the clinical trials with data from large clinical databases - in particular when long...
Achenbach, Thomas M
This article presents multicultural ways to advance knowledge of children's problems, to fashion conceptual and practical mental health tools, and to use these tools to help children. Diagnostically based scales and statistically derived syndromes are scored from parallel forms completed by population samples of parents, caregivers, teachers, and youths in many societies. The scores are incorporated into multicultural norms for evaluating individual children, as rated by different respondents in relation to relevant norms, such as norms for host societies where immigrant children reside and norms for their families' home societies. Syndrome structures have been supported in 44 societies. Certain age, gender, and SES effects are consistent across many societies. As reported in over 7000 publications from 85 societies and cultural groups, evidence-based assessment provides a common data language for clinicians, trainees, and researchers around the world.
R. Pietersz (Raoul); M. van Regenmortel
textabstractCurrently, there are two market models for valuation and risk management of interest rate derivatives, the LIBOR and swap market models. In this paper, we introduce arbitrage-free constant maturity swap (CMS) market models and generic market models featuring forward rates that span
Veldhoven, J. van; Riet, M.W.G. van; Dol, H.S.; Mohamoud, A.A.; Keus, D.; Beckers, A.L.D.
In the field of mine laying and of mine countermeasures, understanding of the actuation behaviour of influence mines is of vital importance. Modelling can enhance such understanding. In this paper, a flexible generic mine model is presented that allows the user to easily generate different computer
Klem, Mary L; Weiss, Patricia M
The implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) requires acquisition and use of a complex set of skills, including the ability to locate and critically evaluate clinically relevant research literature. In this article, we discuss information resources and tools that may be of value to educators faced with the task of teaching students to search for and evaluate research-based evidence. In addition, we discuss how health sciences librarians, with the use of new models of information instruction and delivery, can work with nursing faculty in developing curricula for training students in EBP.
Mar 3, 1998 ... There are currently numerous generic psychopharmacological agents available in South Africa, among them two generic substitutes for fluphenazine decanoate.' These products are both cheaper than the innovator product. Substitution of a generic drug product for an innovator product requires that the ...
Malterud, Kirsti; Bjelland, Anne Karen; Elvbakken, Kari Tove
Evidence-based policy (EBP), a concept modelled on the principles of evidence-based medicine (EBM), is widely used in different areas of policymaking. Systematic reviews (SRs) with meta-analyses gradually became the methods of choice for synthesizing research evidence about interventions and judgements about quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. Critics have argued that the relation between research evidence and service policies is weak, and that the notion of EBP rests on a misunderstanding of policy processes. Having explored EBM standards and knowledge requirements for health policy decision-making, we present an empirical point of departure for discussing the relationship between EBM and EBP. In a case study exploring the Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services (NOKC), an independent government unit, we first searched for information about the background and development of the NOKC to establish a research context. We then identified, selected and organized official NOKC publications as an empirical sample of typical top-of-the-line knowledge delivery adhering to EBM standards. Finally, we explored conclusions in this type of publication, specifically addressing their potential as policy decision tools. From a total sample of 151 SRs published by the NOKC in the period 2004-2013, a purposive subsample from 2012 (14 publications) advised major caution about their conclusions because of the quality or relevance of the underlying documentation. Although the case study did not include a systematic investigation of uptake and policy consequences, SRs were found to be inappropriate as universal tools for health policy decision-making. The case study demonstrates that EBM is not necessarily suited to knowledge provision for every kind of policy decision-making. Our analysis raises the question of whether the evidence-based movement, represented here by an independent government organization, undertakes too broad a range of commissions using
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is the conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions regarding the care of individual patients. This concept has gained popularity recently, and its applications have been steadily expanding. Nowadays, the term "evidence-based" is used in numerous situations and conditions, such as evidence-based medicine, evidence-based practice, evidence-based health care, evidence-based social work, evidence-based policy, and evidence-based education. However, many anesthesiologists and their colleagues have not previously been accustomed to utilizing EBM, and they have experienced difficulty in understanding and applying the techniques of EBM to their practice. In this article, the author discusses the brief history, definition, methods, and limitations of EBM. As EBM also involves making use of the best available information to answer questions in clinical practice, the author emphasizes the process of performing evidence-based medicine: generate the clinical question, find the best evidence, perform critical appraisal, apply the evidence, and then evaluate. Levels of evidence and strength of recommendation were also explained. The author expects that this article may be of assistance to readers in understanding, conducting, and evaluating EBM.
Evidence based medicine provides independent, validated advice about treatment options, but does it take sufficient account of individual patients' values to provide them with an optimal health outcome?
Chen, Yu-Chih; Tang, Lee-Chun; Chou, Shin-Shang
Evidence-based practice has been demonstrated to improve quality of care, increase patients' satisfaction, and reduce the costs of medical care. Therefore, evidence-based practice is now central to the clinical decision-making process and to achieving better quality of care. Today, it is one of the important indicators of core competences for healthcare providers and accreditation for healthcare and educational systems. Further, evidence-based practice encourages in-school and continuous education programs to integrate evidence-based elements and concepts into curricula. Healthcare facilities and professional organizations proactively host campaigns and encourage healthcare providers to participate in evidence-based related training courses. However, the clinical evidence-based practice progress is slow. The general lack of a model for organizational follow-up may be a key factor associated with the slow adoption phenomenon. The authors provide a brief introduction to the evidence-based practice model, then described how it may be successfully translated through a staged process into the evidence-based practices of organizational cultures. This article may be used as a reference by healthcare facilities to promote evidence-based nursing practice.
Full Text Available Once intellectual property protection, data and marketing exclusivity of reference medicines have expired, generic medicines and biosimilar medicines can enter the off-patent market. This market entry is conditional on the approval of marketing authorization, pricing and reimbursement. Given that there tends to be confusion surrounding generic and biosimilar medicines, this Editorial introduces basic concepts related to generic and biosimilar medicines and presents the different studies and articles included in this supplement dedicated to generic and biosimilar medicines.
Dunne, Suzanne S; Shannon, Bill; Cullen, Walter; Dunne, Colum P
Following the enactment of legislation in June 2013, generic substitution and reference pricing of medicines has been introduced, for the first time, in Ireland. This novel study is the first assessment of the perceptions of community pharmacists in Ireland towards generic medicines completed in the period immediately prior to the introduction of generic substitution and reference pricing. To determine the perceptions towards generic medicines among community pharmacists. One-to-one semistructured interviews were performed with a convenience sample of 44 community pharmacists (from approximately 4,500 pharmacists in Ireland) recruited from Ireland's Midwest, South, and Southwest regions. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using NVivo (version 9). 98% of pharmacists believed that generics were of a similar quality to the originator, and 96% stated that they were as effective as the originator. However, a small number demonstrated some reticence regarding generics: 9% believed that generics were not manufactured to the same quality as the originator; 7% stated they would prefer to take an originator medicine themselves; and 7% reported having experienced quality issues with generic medicines. 89% of pharmacists reported receiving patient complaints regarding use of generic medicine, although 64% suggested that this was due to a nocebo effect (i.e., a result of patients' preconceived notions that generics were inferior). Only a minority (21%) reported that they had attempted to educate patients as to the equivalency of generics. Although 80% were in favor of Ireland's new legislation promoting the use generic medicines, 46% expressed concerns regarding its practical implementation. This key stakeholder group had positive attitudes towards generics and the legislation that promotes their use. Concerns regarding patient perception and experience, clinical effectiveness, and manufacturing quality were identified. We propose that interventions supporting
Karafyllis, Ioannis; Variti, Lamprini
This paper explains and develops a methodological framework to help evaluate the performance of generic pharmaceutical policies and the correct evaluation of generics sales. Until today erroneous recording of generics does not help proper pricing and their penetration in the Greek market. This classifies Greece on the outliners in every study or comparison that is referred on papers or studies.
Once the different kinds of commercial protection (patents, etc.) granted to the manufacturer of an "originator" drug have expired, the drug in question may be copied by other companies. These copies are known as generics. The characteristics and pharmaceutical quality of generics are governed by international standards. The marketing authorisation procedure for generic drugs dispenses with preclinical and clinical trials, which already exist for the originator drug. In contrast, proof of bioequivalence must be provided. In practice, this means demonstrating that the effects of the generic are similar (but not necessarily identical) to those of the originator drug. Slight differences between a generic and its brand-name counterpart are allowed, provided they do not markedly affect the efficacy or adverse effect profile in comparison to the originator drug. The accepted degree of difference between a generic and the original brand-name drug is the same as the acceptable difference between two batches of the originator drug. The rules governing generic manufacturing conditions are identical to those applying to originator drugs. And issues raised by drug production abroad, particularly to Asian countries, apply to originator just as much as to generic drugs. Generics represent a significant source of financial savings for society. In France, various measures have been introduced to encourage doctors, pharmacists and patients, respectively, to prescribe, dispense and use generics. Criticisms of the efficacy or quality of generics are often unfounded and sometimes deliberately orchestrated. Smear campaigns conducted by drug companies that market originator drugs, and also by some healthcare professionals, sow confusion, to the detriment of generic use. There is no tangible proof that generics are less safe than originator drugs, provided they are chosen wisely, taking into account factors such as their packaging quality. It is up to healthcare professionals to decide
Full Text Available This work presents the Generic Network Location Service based on the Chord implementation utilizing data structures called distributed hash tables (DHT or structured overlay networks, which are used to build scalable self-managing distributed systems. The provided algorithms guarantee resilience in the presence of dynamism: they guarantee consistent lookup results in the presence of nodes failing and leaving. Generic Network Location Service provides a Location Service system based on DHT technology, which is storing device location records in nodes within a Chord DHT. Location records are consisting of network device identification keys as attributes, which are used to create replicas of additional location records through established Chord hashing mechanisms. Storing device location records, in places address-able (using the DHT lookup by individual location record keys provides a simple way of implementing transla¬tion functions similar to well¬ known network services (e.g. ARP, DNS, ENUM. The generic network location ser¬vice presented in the paper is not supposed to be a substitu¬tion of the existing translation techniques (e.g. ARP, DNS, ENUM, but it is considered as an overlay service that uses data available in existing systems and provides some translations currently unavailable.
Sarker, Abeed; Mollá, Diego; Paris, Cecile
Evidence-based medicine practice requires medical practitioners to rely on the best available evidence, in addition to their expertise, when making clinical decisions. The medical domain boasts a large amount of published medical research data, indexed in various medical databases such as MEDLINE. As the size of this data grows, practitioners increasingly face the problem of information overload, and past research has established the time-associated obstacles faced by evidence-based medicine practitioners. In this paper, we focus on the problem of automatic text summarisation to help practitioners quickly find query-focused information from relevant documents. We utilise an annotated corpus that is specialised for the task of evidence-based summarisation of text. In contrast to past summarisation approaches, which mostly rely on surface level features to identify salient pieces of texts that form the summaries, our approach focuses on the use of corpus-based statistics, and domain-specific lexical knowledge for the identification of summary contents. We also apply a target-sentence-specific summarisation technique that reduces the problem of underfitting that persists in generic summarisation models. In automatic evaluations run over a large number of annotated summaries, our extractive summarisation technique statistically outperforms various baseline and benchmark summarisation models with a percentile rank of 96.8%. A manual evaluation shows that our extractive summarisation approach is capable of selecting content with high recall and precision, and may thus be used to generate bottom-line answers to practitioners' queries. Our research shows that the incorporation of specialised data and domain-specific knowledge can significantly improve text summarisation performance in the medical domain. Due to the vast amounts of medical text available, and the high growth of this form of data, we suspect that such summarisation techniques will address the time
Recent reviews of evidence-based treatment for depression did not identify behavioral activation as an evidence-based practice. Therefore, this article conducted a systematic review of behavioral activation treatment of depression, which identified three meta-analyses, one recent randomized controlled trial and one recent follow-up of an earlier…
Adams, Susan; McCarthy, Ann Marie
The use of evidence-based practice (EBP) has become the standard of health care practice. Nurses are expected to use best evidence on a wide range of topics, yet most nurses have limited time, resources, and/or skills to access and evaluate the quality of research and evidence needed to practice evidence-based nursing. EBP guidelines allow nurses…
Prins, David; Ingham, Roger J.
Purpose: To illustrate the way in which both fluency shaping (FS) and stuttering management (SM) treatments for developmental stuttering in adults are evidence based. Method: A brief review of the history and development of FS and SM is provided. It illustrates that both can be justified as evidence-based treatments, each treatment seeking…
School Library Journal's 2007 Leadership Summit, "Where's the Evidence? Understanding the Impact of School Libraries," focused on the topic of evidence-based practice. Evidence-based school librarianship is a systematic approach that engages research-derived evidence, school librarian-observed evidence, and user-reported evidence in the processes…
Hilbert, Anja; Hoek, Hans W.; Schmidt, Ricarda
Purpose of review: The current systematic review sought to compare available evidence-based clinical treatment guidelines for all specific eating disorders. Recent findings: Nine evidence-based clinical treatment guidelines for eating disorders were located through a systematic search. The
Pring, Richard; Thomas, Gary
The book begins with an explication of evidence-based practice. Some of the ideas of its proponents are discussed, including the Campbell Collaboration, and the application to education of Cochrane-style reviews and meta-analyses. The thinking behind evidence-based practice has been the subject of much criticism, particularly in education, and…
Stuart, Richard B.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.
Comments on the report by the APA Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice (see record 2006-05893-001) entitled Evidence-based practice in psychology. Regrettably, the task force report was largely silent on three critical issues. As a consequence, it omitted much of the evidence necessary for a complete picture of evidence-based…
Background: The principles of evidence-based medicine places case reports in the lower level of the hierarchy of scientific evidence. With the increased advocacy of evidence-based medicine, the survival of the case report has been threatened, prompting several authors to call for its preservation. Materials and methods: ...
To conduct an evidence-based analysis of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of bariatric surgery. Obesity is defined as a body mass index (BMI) of at last 30 kg/m(2).() Morbid obesity is defined as a BMI of at least 40 kg/m(2) or at least 35 kg/m(2) with comorbid conditions. Comorbid conditions associated with obesity include diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemias, obstructive sleep apnea, weight-related arthropathies, and stress urinary incontinence. It is also associated with depression, and cancers of the breast, uterus, prostate, and colon, and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Obesity is also associated with higher all-cause mortality at any age, even after adjusting for potential confounding factors like smoking. A person with a BMI of 30 kg/m(2) has about a 50% higher risk of dying than does someone with a healthy BMI. The risk more than doubles at a BMI of 35 kg/m(2). An expert estimated that about 160,000 people are morbidly obese in Ontario. In the United States, the prevalence of morbid obesity is 4.7% (1999-2000). In Ontario, the 2004 Chief Medical Officer of Health Report said that in 2003, almost one-half of Ontario adults were overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m(2)) or obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)). About 57% of Ontario men and 42% of Ontario women were overweight or obese. The proportion of the population that was overweight or obese increased gradually from 44% in 1990 to 49% in 2000, and it appears to have stabilized at 49% in 2003. The report also noted that the tendency to be overweight and obese increases with age up to 64 years. BMI should be used cautiously for people aged 65 years and older, because the "normal" range may begin at slightly above 18.5 kg/m(2) and extend into the "overweight" range. The Chief Medical Officer of Health cautioned that these data may underestimate the true extent of the problem, because they were based on self reports, and people tend to over-report their height and under-report their weight
Qiu, Yun-Liang; Peng, Ming-Qi
As an important component of judicial expertise, forensic science is broad and highly specialized. With development of network technology, increasement of information resources, and improvement of people's legal consciousness, forensic scientists encounter many new problems, and have been required to meet higher evidentiary standards in litigation. In view of this, evidence-based concept should be established in forensic medicine. We should find the most suitable method in forensic science field and other related area to solve specific problems in the evidence-based mode. Evidence-based practice can solve the problems in legal medical field, and it will play a great role in promoting the progress and development of forensic science. This article reviews the basic theory of evidence-based medicine and its effect, way, method, and evaluation in the forensic medicine in order to discuss the application value of forensic evidence-based medicine in computer communication networks.
Full Text Available Psychosocial interventions are an essential part of the treatment for people with severe mental illness such as schizophrenia. The criteria regarding what makes an intervention “evidence-based” along with a current list of evidence-based interventions are presented. Although many evidence-based interventions exist, implementation studies reveal that few, if any, are ever implemented in a given setting. Various theories and approaches have been developed to better understand and overcome implementation obstacles. Among these, merging two evidence-based interventions, or offering an evidence-based intervention within an evidence-based service, are increasingly being reported and studied in the literature. Five such merges are presented, along with their empirical support: cognitive behavior therapy (CBT with skills training; CBT and family psychoeducation; supported employment (SE and skills training; SE and cognitive remediation; and SE and CBT.
Ross J. Todd
Full Text Available Objective – This paper provides an overview of progress and developments surrounding evidence based practice in school librarianship, and seeks to provide a picture of current thinking about evidence based practice as it relates to the field. It addresses current issues and challenges facing the adoption of evidence based practice in school librarianship.Methods – The paper is based on a narrative review of a small but growing body of literature on evidence based practice in school librarianship, set within a broader perspective of evidence based education. In addition, it presents the outcomes of a collaborative process of input from 200 school libraries leaders collected at a School Library summit in 2007 specifically to address the emerging arena of evidence based practice in this field.Results – A holistic model of evidence based practice for school libraries is presented, centering on three integrated dimensions of evidence: evidence for practice, evidence in practice, and evidence of practice.Conclusion – The paper identifies key challenges ahead if evidence based school librarianship is to develop further. These include: building research credibility within the broader educational environment; the need for ongoing review and evaluation of the diverse body of research in education, librarianship and allied fields to make quality evidence available in ways that can enable practicing school librarians to build a culture of evidence based practice; development of tools, strategies, and exemplars to use to facilitate evidence based decision-making; and, ensuring that the many and diverse advances in education and librarianship become part of the practice of school librarianship.
Thompson, Steven K
Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat
Olsson, Erika; Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia
Generic drug substitution reduces costs for medicines, but the downsides include unintentional double medication, confusion and anxiety among patients. Information from pharmacists affects patients' experiences of substitution with generic drugs. The aim of this study was to explore experiences and attitudes to generic substitution among Swedish community pharmacists. An interview guide was developed. Semi-structured interviews with community pharmacists were conducted and transcribed verbatim. Analysis was inductive; extracts from the transcripts were compared and combined to form themes and subcategories. Pharmacists from a heterogeneous convenience sample of pharmacies were interviewed until data saturation had been achieved. Sixteen pharmacists were interviewed. Three main themes and twelve subcategories were identified, with the main themes being the role of the pharmacist, pharmacists' concerns regarding patients, and the generic drug. Pharmacists found it positive that generic substitution decreases the costs for pharmaceuticals but also emphasized that the switch can confuse and worry patients, which could result in less benefit from treatment. Respondents claimed that generic substitution has changed the focus in the pharmacist-patient meeting towards economics and regulations. According to the interviewed pharmacists generic substitution is not primarily an issue of generic versus brand-name products, but concerns above all the challenges that the switch implies for patients and pharmacists. To prevent known confusion and concerns among patients it is important that community pharmacists acquire the necessary tools and knowledge to manage this situation; pharmacists themselves as well as pharmacy owners and authorities share responsibility for this. © 2012 The Authors. IJPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Schaafsma, Frederieke; Hulshof, Carel; van Dijk, Frank; Verbeek, Jos
Objectives This study assessed the extent and nature of information demands among occupational health physicians and their attitude towards the application of evidence-based medicine in occupational health. Methods A questionnaire survey was carried out among a random sample of 159 physicians
Mitten, H. Rae
Evidence-based Practice Guidelines for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) and Literacy and Learning are derived from an inductive analysis of qualitative data collected in field research. FASD is the umbrella term for a spectrum of neurocognitive and physical disabilities caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol. Data from a sample of N =150 was…
Collins, Belva C.; Tekin-Iftar, Elif; Olcay-Gul, Seray
This article explores how international collaboration among researchers can contribute to developing evidence-based practices and disseminating knowledge in the field of special education. A review of a sample of special education journals published in English to identify articles written in collaboration by researchers from different countries is…
Luebberding, Stefanie; Krueger, Nils; Sadick, Neil S
Cellulite is a multifactorial condition that is present in 80-90 % of post-pubertal women. Despite its high prevalence, it remains a major cosmetic concern for women. A wide range of products and treatments for cellulite reduction is available; however, no systematic review has been performed so far to evaluate the efficacy of the available treatment options for cellulite. The objective of this review is to provide a systematic evaluation of the scientific evidence of the efficacy of treatments for cellulite reduction. This systematic review followed the PRISMA guidelines for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Only original articles in English or German reporting data on the efficacy of cellulite treatments from in vivo human studies were considered. In total, 67 articles were analyzed for the following information: therapy, presence of a control group, randomization, blinding, sample size, description of statistical methods, results, and level of evidence. Most of the evaluated studies, including laser- and light-based modalities, radiofrequency, and others had important methodological flaws; some did not use cellulite severity as an endpoint or did not provide sufficient statistical analyses. Of the 67 studies analyzed in this review, only 19 were placebo-controlled studies with randomization. Some evidence for potential benefit was only seen for acoustic wave therapy (AWT) and the 1440 nm Nd:YAG minimally invasive laser. This article provides a systematic evaluation of the scientific evidence of the efficacy of treatment for cellulite reduction. No clear evidence of good efficacy could be identified in any of the evaluated cellulite treatments.
Cheng, Ning; Banerjee, Tannista; Qian, Jingjing; Hansen, Richard A
Prior research suggests that authorized generic drugs increase competition and decrease prices, but little empirical evidence supports this conclusion. This study evaluated the impact of authorized generic marketing on brand and generic prices. Longitudinal analysis of the household component of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Interview panels over 12 years, with a new panel each year. For each panel, 5 rounds of household interviews were conducted over 30 months. Nationally representative sample of the U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population, focusing on people using 1 of 5 antidepressant drugs that became generically available between 2000 to 2011. Drugs and dose/formulations with versus without an authorized generic drug marketed. Multiple linear regression models with lagged variables evaluated the effect of an authorized generic on average inflation-adjusted brand and generic price, adjusting for payment sources, generic entry time, competitor price, and year. During 2000-2011, annual brand antidepressant utilization decreased from 51.47 to 7.52 million prescriptions, and generic antidepressant utilization increased from 0 to 88.83 million prescriptions. Over time, payment per prescription for brand prescriptions increased 25% overall, and generic payments decreased 70% for all payer types. With unadjusted data, after generic entry the average brand price decreased $0.59 per year with and $3.62 per year without an authorized generic in the market. Average generic prices decreased $10.30 per year with and $8.47 per year without an authorized generic in the market. In multiple regression models with lagged variables adjusted for heteroscedasticity, payer source, time since generic entry, competitor price, and year, authorized generics significantly reduced average payment for generic (-$3.03) and brand (-$60.64) prescriptions, and over time this price change slowly diminished. Availability of an authorized generic was associated with reduced average
Hisham, Ranita; Liew, Su May; Ng, Chirk Jenn; Mohd Nor, Kamaliah; Osman, Iskandar Firzada; Ho, Gah Juan; Hamzah, Nurazira; Glasziou, Paul
Background Evidence-based medicine is the integration of individual clinical expertise, best external evidence and patient values which was introduced more than two decades ago. Yet, primary care physicians in Malaysia face unique barriers in accessing scientific literature and applying it to their clinical practice. Aim This study aimed to explore the views and experiences of rural doctors’ about evidence-based medicine in their daily clinical practice in a rural primary care setting. Methods Qualitative methodology was used. The interviews were conducted in June 2013 in two rural health clinics in Malaysia. The participants were recruited using purposive sampling. Four focus group discussions with 15 medical officers and three individual in-depth interviews with family medicine specialists were carried out. All interviews were conducted using a topic guide and were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, checked and analyzed using a thematic approach. Results Key themes identified were: (1) doctors viewed evidence-based medicine mainly as statistics, research and guidelines, (2) reactions to evidence-based medicine were largely negative, (3) doctors relied on specialists, peers, guidelines and non-evidence based internet sources for information, (4) information sources were accessed using novel methods such as mobile applications and (5) there are several barriers to evidence-based practice, including doctor-, evidence-based medicine-, patient- and system-related factors. These included inadequacies in knowledge, attitude, management support, time and access to evidence-based information sources. Participants recommended the use of online services to support evidence-based practice in the rural settings. Conclusion The level of evidence-based practice is low in the rural setting due to poor awareness, knowledge, attitude and resources. Doctors use non-evidence based sources and access them through new methods such as messaging applications. Further research is
Hisham, Ranita; Liew, Su May; Ng, Chirk Jenn; Mohd Nor, Kamaliah; Osman, Iskandar Firzada; Ho, Gah Juan; Hamzah, Nurazira; Glasziou, Paul
Evidence-based medicine is the integration of individual clinical expertise, best external evidence and patient values which was introduced more than two decades ago. Yet, primary care physicians in Malaysia face unique barriers in accessing scientific literature and applying it to their clinical practice. This study aimed to explore the views and experiences of rural doctors' about evidence-based medicine in their daily clinical practice in a rural primary care setting. Qualitative methodology was used. The interviews were conducted in June 2013 in two rural health clinics in Malaysia. The participants were recruited using purposive sampling. Four focus group discussions with 15 medical officers and three individual in-depth interviews with family medicine specialists were carried out. All interviews were conducted using a topic guide and were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, checked and analyzed using a thematic approach. Key themes identified were: (1) doctors viewed evidence-based medicine mainly as statistics, research and guidelines, (2) reactions to evidence-based medicine were largely negative, (3) doctors relied on specialists, peers, guidelines and non-evidence based internet sources for information, (4) information sources were accessed using novel methods such as mobile applications and (5) there are several barriers to evidence-based practice, including doctor-, evidence-based medicine-, patient- and system-related factors. These included inadequacies in knowledge, attitude, management support, time and access to evidence-based information sources. Participants recommended the use of online services to support evidence-based practice in the rural settings. The level of evidence-based practice is low in the rural setting due to poor awareness, knowledge, attitude and resources. Doctors use non-evidence based sources and access them through new methods such as messaging applications. Further research is recommended to develop and evaluate
Full Text Available Evidence-based medicine is the integration of individual clinical expertise, best external evidence and patient values which was introduced more than two decades ago. Yet, primary care physicians in Malaysia face unique barriers in accessing scientific literature and applying it to their clinical practice.This study aimed to explore the views and experiences of rural doctors' about evidence-based medicine in their daily clinical practice in a rural primary care setting.Qualitative methodology was used. The interviews were conducted in June 2013 in two rural health clinics in Malaysia. The participants were recruited using purposive sampling. Four focus group discussions with 15 medical officers and three individual in-depth interviews with family medicine specialists were carried out. All interviews were conducted using a topic guide and were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, checked and analyzed using a thematic approach.Key themes identified were: (1 doctors viewed evidence-based medicine mainly as statistics, research and guidelines, (2 reactions to evidence-based medicine were largely negative, (3 doctors relied on specialists, peers, guidelines and non-evidence based internet sources for information, (4 information sources were accessed using novel methods such as mobile applications and (5 there are several barriers to evidence-based practice, including doctor-, evidence-based medicine-, patient- and system-related factors. These included inadequacies in knowledge, attitude, management support, time and access to evidence-based information sources. Participants recommended the use of online services to support evidence-based practice in the rural settings.The level of evidence-based practice is low in the rural setting due to poor awareness, knowledge, attitude and resources. Doctors use non-evidence based sources and access them through new methods such as messaging applications. Further research is recommended to develop and evaluate
Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Fineout-Overholt, Ellen; Gallagher-Ford, Lynn; Kaplan, Louise
This descriptive survey assessed the perception of evidence-based practice (EBP) among nurses in the United States. Although evidence-based healthcare results in improved patient outcomes and reduced costs, nurses do not consistently implement evidence-based best practices. A descriptive survey was conducted with a random sample of 1015 RNs who are members of the American Nurses Association. Although nurses believe in evidence-based care, barriers remain prevalent, including resistance from colleagues, nurse leaders, and managers. Differences existed in responses of nurses from Magnet® versus non-Magnet institutions as well as nurses with master's versus nonmaster's degrees. Nurse leaders and educators must provide learning opportunities regarding EBP and facilitate supportive cultures to achieve the Institute of Medicine's 2020 goal that 90% of clinical decisions be evidence-based.
Packard, Thomas; Shih, Amber
Planned organizational change processes can be used to address the many challenges facing human service organizations (HSOs) and improve organizational outcomes. There is massive literature on organizational change, ranging from popular management books to academic research on specific aspects of change. Regarding HSOs, there is a growing literature, including increasing attention to implementation science and evidence-based practices. However, research which offers generalizable, evidence-based guidelines for implementing change is not common. The purpose of the authors was to assess the evidence base in this organizational change literature to lay the groundwork for more systematic knowledge development in this important field.
Full Text Available Evidence-based health care informs clinicians of choices regarding the most effective care based on the best available research evidence. However, concepts or instruments of evidence-based medicine are still fragmented for most clinicians. Substantial gaps between evidence and clinical practice remain. A knowledge translation roadmap may help clinicians to improve the quality of care by integration of various concepts in evidence-based health care. Improving research transparency and accuracy, conducting an updated systematic review, and shared decision making are the key points to diminish the gaps between research and practice.
Kessel, Line; Erngaard, Ditte; Flesner, Per
In 2013, the Danish Health and Medicines Authorities published a National Clinical Guideline on the treatment of age-related cataracts. The guideline provided evidence-based recommendations on the indication for cataract surgery, cataract surgery in patients with age-related macular degeneration...... medicine. Thus, evidence-based guidelines do change practice patterns unless they are counteracted by the reimbursement system....... likely to prescribe non-steroidal anti-inflammatory eye drops and to not prescribe topical antibiotic eye drops after the guideline was published. Other parameters, most notably the use of toric IOLs and use of postoperative examinations were more guided by reimbursement standards than by evidence-based...
Kowalski, Evan.; Chung, Kevin C.
Synopsis Evidence based medicine is analyzed from its inception. The authors take the reader through the early formation of ‘scientific medicine’ that has evolved into the multi-purpose tool it has become today. Early proponents and their intentions that sparked evidence base and outcomes are presented: the work of David Sackett, Brian Haynes, Peter Tugwell, and Victor Neufeld is discussed - how they perceived the need for better clinical outcomes that led to a more formalized evidence based practice. The fundamentals are discussed objectively in detail and potential flaws are presented that guide the reader to deeper comprehension. PMID:23506764
Full Text Available Introduction: Evidence-based education has been introduced to dentistry as a new educational tool. However, its effectiveness should be evaluated in different educational topics. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of evidence-based and conventional education on radiography assessment before endodontic treatment. Methods: In this semi-experimental study 75 senior dental students of Kermanshah Dentistry School were enrolled. Demographic information and the results of evaluation were collected using a weblog designed for this purpose. 20 questions were prepared to be answered in 30 minutes. 12 topics were covered in the questionnaire. To analyze the data, the paired sample t-test, Wilcoxon, and Whitney U tests were used. Results: The finding of the present study showed that total scores of the test in both conventional and evidence-based groups significantly improved after education (P=0.005 and P=0.001, respectively. There was a significant difference between the two groups (P=0.047 and evidence-based education showed better results in comparison with conventional one. Conclusion: The present study asserts that evidence-based education can lead to better diagnostic performance of senior dental students and thus can be used as an efficient alternative for conventional education methods in dental schools.
Abdellatif, Hoda; Dechow, Paul C; Jones, Daniel L
In an effort to improve patient care, there has been a growing trend across the nation and the world to embed the principles of evidence-based dentistry into mainstream care delivery by private practicing dentists. Evidence-based dentistry is an essential tool that is used to improve the quality of care and to reduce the gap between what we know, what is possible, and what we do. An evidence-based health care practice is one that includes the decision maker's ability to find, assess, and incorporate high-quality, valid information in diagnosis and treatment. The evidence is considered in conjunction with the clinician's experience and judgment, and the patient's preferences, values, and circumstances. This article introduces the basic skills of evidence-based dentistry. Their practice requires a discipline of lifelong learning in which recent and relevant scientific evidence are translated into practical clinical applications.
Dworkin, Robert H.; O'Connor, Alec B.; Backonja, Miroslav
Patients with neuropathic pain (NP) are challenging to manage and evidence-based clinical recommendations for pharmacologic management are needed. Systematic literature reviews, randomized clinical trials, and existing guidelines were evaluated at a consensus meeting. Medications were considered...
”. No evidence provided. Not evidence-based and impractical for a resource .... European Federation of. Neurological Sciences. Task Force. Non-acute headache. EEG is not routinely indicated in the diagnostic evaluation of headache.
Bracke, Paul J; Howse, David K; Keim, Samuel M
...) health sciences programs and to the University Medical Center. Librarians at AHSL collaborated with UA College of Medicine faculty to create an innovative search engine, Evidence-based Medicine (EBM...
Johannsen, Carl Gustav
The article examines problems concerning the introduction and future implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) in libraries. It includes important conceptual distinctions and definitions, and it reviews the more controversial aspects of EBP, primarely based on experiences from Denmark...
Abstract. This paper will explore the role of evidence-based medicine in ethical practice of health care professionals. It will also address some of its limitations and potential for negative impact on health care.
Ubbink, Dirk T.; Brölmann, Fleur E.; Go, Peter M. N. Y. H.; Vermeulen, Hester
Significance: Large variation and many controversies exist regarding the treatment of, and care for, acute wounds, especially regarding wound cleansing, pain relief, dressing choice, patient instructions, and organizational aspects. Recent Advances: A multidisciplinary team developed evidence-based
Falzon, Louise; Davidson, Karina W.; Bruns, Daniel
There is an increased awareness of evidence-based methodology among psychologists, but little exists in the literature about how to access the research. Moreover, the prohibitive cost of this information combined with limited time are barriers to the identification of evidence to answer clinical questions. This article presents an example of a question worked though in an evidence-based way. Methods are highlighted, including distinguishing background and foreground questions, breaking down questions into searchable statements, and adapting statements to suit both the question being asked and the resource being searched. A number of free, evidence-based resources are listed. Knowing how and where to access this information will enable practitioners to more easily use an evidence-based approach to their practice. PMID:21503266
Christina Ouzouni; Konstantinos Nakakis
Despite the fact that nursing research has been developed in Greece, nevertheless the provision of nursing care is not based on current research findings, but rather on the knowledge gained by nurses during their undergraduate education. The transition of medicine in the last decade towards evidence based practice had definitely an impact on the nursing profession.The aim of this article is to briefly present evidence based nursing as a process and perspective to Greek nurses.Method: A litera...
Joshi, G P; Neugebauer, E A M; Kehlet, Henrik
Haemorrhoidectomy is associated with intense postoperative pain, but optimal evidence-based pain therapy has not been described. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the available literature on the management of pain after haemorrhoidal surgery.......Haemorrhoidectomy is associated with intense postoperative pain, but optimal evidence-based pain therapy has not been described. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the available literature on the management of pain after haemorrhoidal surgery....
Newhouse, Robin P; Dearholt, Sandi; Poe, Stephanie; Pugh, Linda C; White, Kathleen M
Evidence-based practice, a crucial competency for healthcare providers and a basic force in Magnet hospitals, results in better patient outcomes. The authors describe the strategic approach to support the maturation of The Johns Hopkins Nursing evidence-based practice model through providing leadership, setting expectations, establishing structure, building skills, and allocating human and material resources as well as incorporating the model and tools into undergraduate and graduate education at the affiliated university.
Kehlet, Henrik; Wilkinson, Roseanne C; Fischer, H Barrie J; Camu, Frederic
Existing general guidelines for perioperative pain management do not consider procedure-specific differences in analgesic efficacy or applicability of a given analgesic technique. For the clinician, an evidence-based, procedure-specific guideline for perioperative pain management is therefore desirable. This chapter reviews the methodology and results of a public web site (www.postoppain.org) which provides information and recommendations for evidence-based procedure-specific postoperative pain management.
Kianifar, Hamid-Reza; Akhondian, Javad; Najafi-Sani, Mehri; Sadeghi, Ramin
Practicing medicine according to the best evidence is gaining popularity in the medical societies. Although this concept, which is usually called Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) has been explained in many resources, it has not been addressed enough in pediatrics. In this review, we briefly explained Evidence Based Medicine approach and its applications in pediatrics in order to help the pediatricians to efficiently integrate EBM into their daily practice. PMID:23056715
Oude Rengerink, K
This thesis presents a number of research projects centred on ‘evidence-based medicine’. It consists of two parts. Part 1 focuses on improving recruitment of the necessary number of patients in clinical trials, as this is the major problem while evaluating the effectiveness of interventions in health care. To improve our understanding of patient recruitment we tried to identify obstacles and facilitators for successful recruitment. Part 2 focuses on improving integration of evidence-based dec...
Falzon, Louise; Davidson, Karina W.; Bruns, Daniel
There is an increased awareness of evidence-based methodology among psychologists, but little exists in the literature about how to access the research. Moreover, the prohibitive cost of this information combined with limited time are barriers to the identification of evidence to answer clinical questions. This article presents an example of a question worked though in an evidence-based way. Methods are highlighted, including distinguishing background and foreground questions, breaking down q...
Wampold, Bruce E.; Goodheart, Carol D.; Levant, Ronald F.
Responds to comments by D. C. Wendt and B. D. Slife (see record 2007-13085-019), P. H. Hunsberger (see record 2007-13085-020), and R. B. Stuart and S. O. Lilienfeld (see record 2007-13085-021) regarding the report by the APA Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice (see record 2006-05893-001) entitled Evidence-based practice in…
The effect of purely persuasive advertising on generic market entry and social welfare is analysed. An incumbent has the possibility to invest in advertising which affects the prescribing physician's perceived relative qualities of the brand-name and the generic version of the drug. Advertising creates product differentiation and can induce generic market entry which is deterred without differentiation due to strong Bertrand competition. However, over-investment in advertising can deter generic market entry under certain conditions and reduces welfare as compared to accommodated market entry.
This is a concise, practical guide that will help you learn Generics in .NET, with lots of real world and fun-to-build examples and clear explanations. It is packed with screenshots to aid your understanding of the process. This book is aimed at beginners in Generics. It assumes some working knowledge of C# , but it isn't mandatory. The following would get the most use out of the book: Newbie C# developers struggling with Generics. Experienced C++ and Java Programmers who are migrating to C# and looking for an alternative to other generic frameworks like STL and JCF would find this book handy.
Mihalic, Sharon F; Elliott, Delbert S
There is a growing demand for evidence-based programs to promote healthy youth development, but this growth has been accompanied by confusion related to varying definitions of evidence-based and mixed messages regarding which programs can claim this designation. The registries that identify evidence-based programs, while intended to help users sift through the findings and claims regarding programs, has oftentimes led to more confusion with their differing standards and program ratings. The advantages of using evidence-based programs and the importance of adopting a high standard of evidence, especially when taking programs to scale,are described. One evidence-based registry is highlighted--Blueprints for Healthy Youth Development hosted at the University of Colorado Boulder. Unlike any previous initiative of its kind, Blueprints established unmatched standards for identifying evidence-based programs and has acted in a way similar to the FDA--evaluating evidence, data and research to determine which programs meet their high standard of proven efficacy. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Hansen, Richard A; Qian, Jingjing; Berg, Richard; Linneman, James; Seoane-Vazquez, Enrique; Dutcher, Sarah K; Raofi, Saeid; Page, C David; Peissig, Peggy
Generic drugs contain identical active ingredients as their corresponding brand drugs and are pharmaceutically equivalent and bioequivalent, whereas authorized generic drugs (AGs) contain both identical active and inactive ingredients as their corresponding brand drugs but are marketed as generics. This study compares generic-to-brand switchback rates between generic and AGs. Retrospective cohort study. Claims and electronic health record data from a regional U.S. health care system. The full cohort consisted of 5542 unique patients who received select branded drugs during the 6 months prior to their generic drug market availability (between 1999 and 2014) and then were switched to an AG or generic drug within 30 months of generic drug entry. For these patients, 5929 unique patient-drug combinations (867 with AGs and 5062 with generic drugs) were evaluated. Ten drugs with AGs and generics marketed between 1999 and 2014 were evaluated. The date of the first generic prescription was considered the index date for each drug, and it marked the beginning of follow-up to evaluate the occurrence of generic-to-brand switchback patterns over the subsequent 30 months. Switchback rates were compared between patients receiving AGs versus those receiving generics using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, controlling for individual drug effects, age, sex, Charlson Comorbidity Score, pre-index drug use characteristics, and pre-index health care utilization. Among the 5542 unique patients who switched from brand to generic or brand to AG, 264 (4.8%) switched back to the brand drug. Overall switchback rates were similar for AGs compared with generics (hazard ratio [HR] 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65-1.15). The likelihood of switchback was higher for alendronate (HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.20-2.23) and simvastatin (HR 1.81, 95% CI 1.30-2.54) and lower for amlodipine (HR 0.27, 95% CI 0.17-0.42) compared with the other drugs evaluated. Overall switchback rates were similar
Bernert, Rebecca A; Kim, Joanne S; Iwata, Naomi G; Perlis, Michael L
Increasing research indicates that sleep disturbances may confer increased risk for suicidal behaviors, including suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and death by suicide. Despite increased investigation, a number of methodological problems present important limitations to the validity and generalizability of findings in this area, which warrant additional focus. To evaluate and delineate sleep disturbances as an evidence-based suicide risk factor, a systematic review of the extant literature was conducted with methodological considerations as a central focus. The following methodologic criteria were required for inclusion: the report (1) evaluated an index of sleep disturbance; (2) examined an outcome measure for suicidal behavior; (3) adjusted for presence of a depression diagnosis or depression severity, as a covariate; and (4) represented an original investigation as opposed to a chart review. Reports meeting inclusion criteria were further classified and reviewed according to: study design and timeframe; sample type and size; sleep disturbance, suicide risk, and depression covariate assessment measure(s); and presence of positive versus negative findings. Based on keyword search, the following search engines were used: PubMed and PsycINFO. Search criteria generated N = 82 articles representing original investigations focused on sleep disturbances and suicide outcomes. Of these, N = 18 met inclusion criteria for review based on systematic analysis. Of the reports identified, N = 18 evaluated insomnia or poor sleep quality symptoms, whereas N = 8 assessed nightmares in association with suicide risk. Despite considerable differences in study designs, samples, and assessment techniques, the comparison of such reports indicates preliminary, converging evidence for sleep disturbances as an empirical risk factor for suicidal behaviors, while highlighting important, future directions for increased investigation.
Adheed Khalid Sharrad
Full Text Available BackgroundThe use of cheaper generic medicines is a strategy promotedin many countries to reduce rising health care costs. The aimof this study was to explore factors affecting generic medicineprescribing by physicians in Basrah, Iraq.MethodologyA purposive sample of ten physicians practicing in Basrahwas interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide.ResultsAnalysis of the interviews identified seven major themes:medicine prescribing practice, knowledge of therapeuticequivalency of generic medicine, patients’ acceptance ofgeneric medicine, counterfeit medicine, drug informationsource and effect of drug advertising on medicines choice,brand substitution practice by community pharmacists, and,finally strategies to improve generic medicine usefulness.Participants identified helpful strategies to increase genericprescribing including; physician and patient education ongeneric medicine; persuading physicians about the safety andefficacy of generic medicines; and finally educating seniormedical students on generic prescribing.ConclusionThe data suggest that participants were enthusiasticabout prescribing generic medicines. However physiciansinsist that pharmacists should not be allowed tosubstitute generic drugs without prior approval ofdoctors.
Daniels, Karen; Lewin, Simon
While the past two decades have seen a shift towards evidence-based obstetrics and midwifery, the process through which a culture of evidence-based practice develops and is sustained within particular fields of clinical practice has not been well documented, particularly in LMICs (low- and middle-income countries). Forming part of a broader qualitative study of evidence-based policy making, this paper describes the development of a culture of evidence-based practice amongst maternal health policy makers and senior academic obstetricians in South Africa. A qualitative case-study approach was used. This included a literature review, a policy document review, a timeline of key events and the collection and analysis of 15 interviews with policy makers and academic clinicians involved in these policy processes and sampled using a purposive approach. The data was analysed thematically. The concept of evidence-based medicine became embedded in South African academic obstetrics at a very early stage in relation to the development of the concept internationally. The diffusion of this concept into local academic obstetrics was facilitated by contact and exchange between local academic obstetricians, opinion leaders in international research and structures promoting evidence-based practice. Furthermore the growing acceptance of the concept was stimulated locally through the use of existing professional networks and meetings to share ideas and the contribution of local researchers to building the evidence base for obstetrics both locally and internationally. As a testimony to the extent of the diffusion of evidence-based medicine, South Africa has strongly evidence-based policies for maternal health. This case study shows that the combined efforts of local and international researchers can create a culture of evidence-based medicine within one country. It also shows that doing so required time and perseverance from international researchers combined with a readiness by local
Full Text Available Abstract Background While the past two decades have seen a shift towards evidence-based obstetrics and midwifery, the process through which a culture of evidence-based practice develops and is sustained within particular fields of clinical practice has not been well documented, particularly in LMICs (low- and middle-income countries. Forming part of a broader qualitative study of evidence-based policy making, this paper describes the development of a culture of evidence-based practice amongst maternal health policy makers and senior academic obstetricians in South Africa Methods A qualitative case-study approach was used. This included a literature review, a policy document review, a timeline of key events and the collection and analysis of 15 interviews with policy makers and academic clinicians involved in these policy processes and sampled using a purposive approach. The data was analysed thematically. Results The concept of evidence-based medicine became embedded in South African academic obstetrics at a very early stage in relation to the development of the concept internationally. The diffusion of this concept into local academic obstetrics was facilitated by contact and exchange between local academic obstetricians, opinion leaders in international research and structures promoting evidence-based practice. Furthermore the growing acceptance of the concept was stimulated locally through the use of existing professional networks and meetings to share ideas and the contribution of local researchers to building the evidence base for obstetrics both locally and internationally. As a testimony to the extent of the diffusion of evidence-based medicine, South Africa has strongly evidence-based policies for maternal health. Conclusion This case study shows that the combined efforts of local and international researchers can create a culture of evidence-based medicine within one country. It also shows that doing so required time and perseverance
Torus canards are special solutions of fast/slow systems that alternate between attracting and repelling manifolds of limit cycles of the fast subsystem. A relatively new dynamic phenomenon, torus canards have been found in neural applications to mediate the transition from tonic spiking to bursting via amplitude-modulated spiking. In R3, torus canards are degenerate: they require one-parameter families of 2-fast/1-slow systems in order to be observed and even then, they only occur on exponentially thin parameter intervals. The addition of a second slow variable unfolds the torus canard phenomenon, making it generic and robust. That is, torus canards in fast/slow systems with (at least) two slow variables occur on open parameter sets. So far, generic torus canards have only been studied numerically, and their behaviour has been inferred based on averaging and canard theory. This approach, however, has not been rigorously justified since the averaging method breaks down near a fold of periodics, which is exactly where torus canards originate. In this work, we combine techniques from Floquet theory, averaging theory, and geometric singular perturbation theory to show that the average of a torus canard is a folded singularity canard. In so doing, we devise an analytic scheme for the identification and topological classification of torus canards in fast/slow systems with two fast variables and k slow variables, for any positive integer k. We demonstrate the predictive power of our results in a model for intracellular calcium dynamics, where we explain the mechanisms underlying a novel class of elliptic bursting rhythms, called amplitude-modulated bursting, by constructing the torus canard analogues of mixed-mode oscillations. We also make explicit the connection between our results here with prior studies of torus canards and torus canard explosion in R3, and discuss how our methods can be extended to fast/slow systems of arbitrary (finite) dimension.
Rees, Eliot; Sinha, Yashashwi; Chitnis, Abhishek; Archer, James; Fotheringham, Victoria; Renwick, Stephen
Many medical schools teach the principles of evidence-based medicine (EBM) as part of their undergraduate curriculum. Medical students perceive that EBM is valuable to their undergraduate and postgraduate career. Students may experience barriers to applying EBM principles, especially when searching for evidence or identifying high-quality resources. The UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Evidence Search is a service that enables access to authoritative clinical and non-clinical evidence and best practice through a web-based portal. Evidence-based medicine workshops were organised and delivered by fourth-year medical students, having first received training from NICE to become NICE student champions. The workshops covered the basic principles of EBM and focused on retrieving EBM resources for study through the NICE Evidence Search portal. The scheme was evaluated using a pre-workshop survey and an 8-12 week post-workshop survey. Self-reported confidence in searching for evidence-based resources increased from 29 per cent before the workshop to 87 per cent after the workshop. Only 1 per cent of students rated evidence-based resources as their first preference pre-workshop, compared with 31 per cent post-workshop. The results show that although many students were aware of evidence-based resources, they tended not to use them as their preferred resource. Despite appreciating the value of evidence-based resources, few students were confident in accessing and using such resources for pre-clinical study. A peer-taught workshop in EBM improved students' confidence with, and use of, evidence-based resources. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Farkas, D.F.; Swart, Henriëtte de
We discuss two groups of languages where article use contrasts in generic plural sentences but is otherwise essentially similar. The languages in the first group (English and Dutch) use bare plurals in the expression of kind reference (‘Dinosaurs are extinct’) and in generic
N. P. Kutishenko
Full Text Available Many generic medicines appear in the pharmaceutical market now. However, they are not always completely comparable with original drugs on efficacy and safety. In this article pharmacoeconomical estimation of some generics and original drugs was performed on example of therapeutic equivalency studies.
Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa de; Oliveira, Jéssica Nathalia Soares; Andrade, Marília Dos Santos; Vancini-Campanharo, Cássia Regina; Vancini, Rodrigo Luiz
To assess the level of knowledge, perceptions and usage profile for generic drugs among laypersons. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 278 volunteers (180 women and 98 men, aged 37.1±15.8 years). A questionnaire was drawn up with questions on their use, perceptions and knowledge of generic drugs. Most respondents (99.6%) knew that generic drugs exist, but only 48.6% were able to define them correctly, while 78.8% of the respondents had some information about generics. This information was obtained mainly through television (49.3%). In terms of generic drug characteristics, 79.1% stated that they were confident about their efficacy, 74.8% believed that generic drugs have the same effect as branded medications, 88.8% said that generics were priced lower than branded medications, and 80.2% stated that they bought generic drugs because of price. With regard to drugs prescribed by medical practitioners, 17.6% of the participants said that their doctors never prescribed generics and only 7.5% confirmed that their doctors always prescribed generics. For the lay public, the sample in this study has sufficient knowledge of generic drugs in terms of definition, efficacy and cost. Consequently, the volunteers interviewed are very likely to use generics. Furthermore, the results of this study indicate that programs should be implemented in order to boost generic drug prescriptions by medical practitioners.
Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Tabrizi, Jafar Sadegh; Azami-Aghdash, Saber
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has emerged as an effective strategy to improve health care quality. The aim of this study was to systematically review and carry out an analysis on the barriers to EBM. Different database searching methods and also manual search were employed in this study using the search words ('evidence-based' or 'evidence-based medicine' or 'evidence-based practice' or 'evidence-based guidelines' or 'research utilization') and (barrier* or challenge or hinder) in the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, Cochrane library, Pro Quest, Magiran, SID. Out of 2592 articles, 106 articles were finally identified for study. Research barriers, lack of resources, lack of time, inadequate skills, and inadequate access, lack of knowledge and financial barriers were found to be the most common barriers to EBM. Examples of these barriers were found in primary care, hospital/specialist care, rehabilitation care, medical education, management and decision making. The most common barriers to research utilization were research barriers, cooperation barriers and changing barriers. Lack of resources was the most common barrier to implementation of guidelines. The result of this study shows that there are many barriers to the implementation and use of EBM. Identifying barriers is just the first step to removing barriers to the use of EBM. Extra resources will be needed if these barriers are to be tackled. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Greenroyd, Fraser L; Hayward, Rebecca; Price, Andrew; Demian, Peter; Sharma, Shrikant
Using a case study of a pharmacy department rebuild in the South West of England, this article examines the use of evidence-based design to improve the efficiency and staff well-being with a new design. This article compares three designs, the current design, an anecdotal design, and an evidence-based design, to identify how evidence-based design can improve efficiency and staff well-being by reducing walking time and distance. Data were collected from the existing building and used to measure the efficiency of the department in its current state. These data were then mapped onto an anecdotal design, produced by architects from interviews and workshops with the end users, and an evidence-based design, produced by highlighting functions with high adjacencies. This changed the view on the working processes within the department, shifting away from a focus on the existing robotic dispensing system. Using evidence-based design was found to decrease the walking time and distance for staff by 24%, as opposed to the anecdotal design, which increased these parameters by 9%, and is predicted to save the department 248 min across 2 days in staff time spent walking. © The Author(s) 2016.
Nguyen, Thi Ngoc Minh; Wilson, Anne
Despite the fact that evidence-based practice has increasing emphasis in health care, organizations are not always prepared for its implementation. Identifying organizational preparedness for implementing evidence-based practice is desirable prior to application. A cross-sectional survey was developed to explore nurses' perception of organizational support for evidence-based practice and was implemented via a self-enumerated survey completed by 234 nurses. Data were analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics. Nurses reported that implementation of evidence-based practice is complex and fraught with challenges because of a lack of organizational support. A conceptual framework comprising three key factors: information resources, nursing leadership, and organizational infrastructure was proposed to assist health authorities in the implementation of evidence-based practice. Suggestions of how organizations can be more supportive of research utilization in practice include establishing a library, journal clubs/mentoring programs, nurses' involvement in decision-making at unit level, and a local nursing association. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Full Text Available Global acknowledgement of ecological restoration, as an important tool to complement conservation efforts, requires an effort to increase the effectiveness of restoration interventions. Evidence-based practice is purported to promote effectiveness. A central tenet of this approach is decision making that is based on evidence, not intuition. Evidence can be generated experimentally and in practice but needs to be linked to baseline information collection, clear goals and monitoring of impact. In this paper, we report on a survey conducted to assess practitioners’ perceptions of the evidence generated in restoration practice in South Africa, as well as challenges encountered in building this evidence base. Contrary to a recent assessment of this evidence base which found weaknesses, respondents viewed it as adequate and cited few obstacles to its development. Obstacles cited were mostly associated with planning and resource availability. We suggest that the disparity between practitioners’ perceptions and observed weaknesses in the evidence base could be a challenge in advancing evidence-based restoration. We explore opportunities to overcome this disparity as well as the obstacles listed by practitioners. These opportunities involve a shift from practitioners as users of scientific knowledge and evidence, to practitioners involved in the co-production of evidence needed to increase the effectiveness of restoration interventions.
Public attention to evidence-based health care (EBHC) has increased significantly in recent years. Key problems related to applying EBHC in current healthcare practice include the timely update of up-to-date knowledge and skills and the methodology used to implement EBHC in clinical settings. EBHC has been introduced to the Taiwan healthcare system for the past two decades. The annual EBM (Evidence based medicine) National Competition is a unique and important EBHC activity in Taiwan. EBHC has been promoted widely in medicine, nursing, pharmacy, public health and other professions, and EBHC-related organizations such as the Taiwan Evidence Based Medicine Association (TEBMA), and Taiwan Evidence Based Nursing Association (TEBNA), have increased in number and grown in membership. In addition to domestic developments, Taiwan is also actively involved in global organizations, such as the Cochrane Collaboration, East Asian Cochrane Alliance (EACA), and the International Society for Evidence Based Health Care (ISEHC). In Taiwan, most medical professionals work cooperatively to promote EBHC, which facilitates the gradual improvement of healthcare quality.
Kathleen Packard, PharmD, MS, BCPS
Full Text Available AbstractPurpose: The objective of the study was to compare a traditionally structured journal club with an evidence based structured journal club during an advanced clinical pharmacy rotation and to determine the best utilization that aligns with recent changes to the pharmacy school accreditation standards.Methods: The study included 21 students who completed journal club utilizing the traditional journal club format and 24 students who utilized an evidence based journal club format. Background characteristics, student reported beliefs, and mean critical evaluation skills scores were evaluated and compared in each group.Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the two cohorts in mean overall percentage grade for the activity. Students in the traditional cohort received significantly higher grades for the Study Analysis and Critique section (90.97 + 12.18 versus 81.25 + 11.18, P=0.01 as well as for the Preparedness section (96.11 + 8.03 versus 85.0 + 17.13, P=0.002. Students in the evidence based cohort received statistically superior grades for the Presentation Skills section (96.43 + 6.39 versus 82.47 + 14.12, P=0.0004.Conclusion: An evidence based journal club is a reasonable and effective alternative to the traditionally structured journal club when the primary objective is to assist students in understanding evidence based concepts and to apply current literature to clinical practice.
Doran, Diane M; Haynes, R Brian; Kushniruk, André; Straus, Sharon; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Hall, Linda McGillis; Dubrowski, Adam; Di Pietro, Tammie; Newman, Kristine; Almost, Joan; Nguyen, Ha; Carryer, Jennifer; Jedras, Dawn
To evaluate the usability of mobile information terminals, such as personal digital assistants (PDAs) or Tablet personal computers, to improve access to information resources for nurses and to explore the relationship between PDA or Tablet-supported information resources and outcomes. The authors evaluated an initiative of the Nursing Secretariat, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, which provided nurses with PDAs and Tablet PCs, to enable Internet access to information resources. Nurses had access to drug and medical reference information, best practice guidelines (BPGs), and to abstracts of recent research studies. The authors took place over a 12-month period. Diffusion of Innovation theory and the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) model guided the selection of variables for study. A longitudinal design involving questionnaires was used to evaluate the impact of the mobile technologies on barriers to research utilization, perceived quality of care, and on nurses' job satisfaction. The setting was 29 acute care, long-term care, home care, and correctional organizations in Ontario, Canada. The sample consisted of 488 frontline-nurses. Nurses most frequently consulted drug and medical reference information, Google, and Nursing PLUS. Overall, nurses were most satisfied with the Registered Nurses Association of Ontario (RNAO) BPGs and rated the RNAO BPGs as the easiest resource to use. Among the PDA and Tablet users, there was a significant improvement in research awareness/values, and in communication of research. There was also, for the PDA users only, a significant improvement over time in perceived quality of care and job satisfaction, but primarily in long-term care settings. It is feasible to provide nurses with access to evidence-based practice resources via mobile information technologies to reduce the barriers to research utilization.
Rayan, Nadine; Barnes, Sunni; Fleming, Neil; Kudyakov, Rustam; Ballard, David; Gentilello, Larry M; Shafi, Shahid
We have preciously demonstrated that trauma patients receive less than two-thirds of the care recommended by evidence-based medicine. The purpose of this study was to identify patients least likely to receive optimal care. Records of a random sample of 774 patients admitted to a Level I trauma center (2006-2008) with moderate to severe injuries (Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≥3) were reviewed for compliance with 25 trauma-specific processes of care (T-POC) endorsed by Advanced Trauma Life Support, Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma, the Brain Trauma Foundation, Surgical Care Improvement Project, and the Glue Grant Consortium based on evidence or consensus. These encompassed all aspects of trauma care, including initial evaluation, resuscitation, operative care, critical care, rehabilitation, and injury prevention. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify patients likely to receive recommended care. Study patients were eligible for a total of 2,603 T-POC, of which only 1,515 (58%) were provided to the patient. Compliance was highest for T-POC involving resuscitation (83%) and was lowest for neurosurgical interventions (17%). Increasing severity of head injuries was associated with lower compliance, while intensive care unit stay was associated with higher compliance. There was no relationship between compliance and patient demographics, socioeconomic status, overall injury severity, or daily volume of trauma admissions. Little over half of recommended care was delivered to trauma patients with moderate to severe injuries. Patients with increasing severity of traumatic brain injuries were least likely to receive optimal care. However, differences among patient subgroups are small in relation to the overall gap between observed and recommended care. II.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Using the conceptual framework of shared decision-making and evidence-based practice, a web portal was developed to serve as a generic (non disease-specific tailored intervention to improve the lay public's health literacy skills. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of the web portal compared to no intervention in a real-life setting. METHODS: A pragmatic randomised controlled parallel trial using simple randomisation of 96 parents who had children aged <4 years. Parents were allocated to receive either access to the portal or no intervention, and assigned three tasks to perform over a three-week period. These included a searching task, a critical appraisal task, and reporting on perceptions about participation. Data were collected from March through June 2011. RESULTS: Use of the web portal was found to improve attitudes towards searching for health information. This variable was identified as the most important predictor of intention to search in both samples. Participants considered the web portal to have good usability, usefulness, and credibility. The intervention group showed slight increases in the use of evidence-based information, critical appraisal skills, and participation compared to the group receiving no intervention, but these differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Despite the fact that the study was underpowered, we found that the web portal may have a positive effect on attitudes towards searching for health information. Furthermore, participants considered the web portal to be a relevant tool. It is important to continue experimenting with web-based resources in order to increase user participation in health care decision-making. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01266798.
Howland, Robert H
The distinction between pharmaceutical equivalent and pharmaceutical alternative drug products can lead to considerable confusion, especially with the proliferation of various branded, alternative, and generic medications that contain the same active ingredient. To illustrate this problem, four examples of medication products containing the active ingredients paroxetine, venlafaxine, bupropion, and valproate will be described. Understanding these differences is important for nurses providing patient care. Only generic drugs can be freely substituted for a brand-name product. Switching to a pharmaceutical alternative requires a change in prescription. Finally, the use, labeling, and cost of branded, alternative, and generic medications may be different.
Akinyemi, Oluwaseun O; Martineau, Tim; Tharyan, Prathap
The literature on the use of evidence-based practice is sparse, both in the public and private sectors in middle-and low-income countries, and the present literature shows that physician understanding and use of evidence-based practice is poor. The study aimed to explore the perception of medical practitioners in the private for-profit, private not-for-profit and government sectors in Vellore, India, on evidence-based practice, in order to explain the factors affecting the use of evidence-based practice among the practitioners and to inform local policy and management decisions for improvement in quality of care. Qualitative methodology was employed in the study. Sixteen in-depth and two key informant interviews were carried out with medical practitioners selected by purposive sampling in the private for-profit, private not-for-profit and government sectors. The interviews explored participants' knowledge of evidence-based practice, factors affecting its use and possible ways of improving the use of evidence-based practice among physicians in all the health sectors. Data from the in-depth and key informant interviews were analyzed with the NVIVO (version 8) software package using the framework approach. Although most practitioners interviewed have heard of evidence-based practice, knowledge about evidence-based practice seems inadequate. However, doctors in the private not-for-profit sector seem to be more familiar with the concept of evidence-based practice. Also, practitioners in the private not-for profit sector appear to use medical evidence more in their practices compared to government practitioners or doctors in the private for-profit sector. Perceived factors affecting physician use of evidence-based practice include lack of personal time for literature appraisal as a result of high case load, weak regulatory system, pressure from patients, caregivers and pharmaceutical companies, as well as financial considerations. Opinions of the respondents are that use
Schoemaker, Casper G; Smulders, Yvo M
In 1992, the Canadian physician Gordon Guyatt wrote an article that is generally regarded as the starting point of evidence-based medicine (EBM). He described the ideas behind the McMaster residency programme for 'evidence-based practitioners', founded by David Sackett. Eight years later, in 2000, Guyatt concluded that this programme was too ambitious. In a new publication he described most doctors as 'evidence-users'. This editorial marks the transition from an individual to a collective form of EBM, emphasizing the use of evidence-based guidelines. The starting point of this collective form of EBM is not the well-known 1992 paper, but the forgotten editorial in 2000, which was described by Guyatt's colleagues as the capitulation of EBM.
Lee, Catherine M; Hunsley, John
Evidence-based practice (EBP) requires that clinicians be guided by the best available evidence. In this article, we address the impact of science and pseudoscience on psychotherapy in psychiatric practice. We describe the key principles of evidence-based intervention. We describe pseudoscience and provide illustrative examples of popular intervention practices that have not been abandoned, despite evidence that they are not efficacious and may be harmful. We distinguish efficacy from effectiveness, and describe modular approaches to treatment. Reasons for the persistence of practices that are not evidence based are examined at both the individual and the professional system level. Finally, we offer suggestions for the promotion of EBP through clinical practice guidelines, modelling of scientific decision making, and training in core skills.
Lee, Catherine M; Hunsley, John
Evidence-based practice (EBP) requires that clinicians be guided by the best available evidence. In this article, we address the impact of science and pseudoscience on psychotherapy in psychiatric practice. We describe the key principles of evidence-based intervention. We describe pseudoscience and provide illustrative examples of popular intervention practices that have not been abandoned, despite evidence that they are not efficacious and may be harmful. We distinguish efficacy from effectiveness, and describe modular approaches to treatment. Reasons for the persistence of practices that are not evidence based are examined at both the individual and the professional system level. Finally, we offer suggestions for the promotion of EBP through clinical practice guidelines, modelling of scientific decision making, and training in core skills. PMID:26720821
Full Text Available Abstract Background The reduction of health inequalities is a focus of many national and international health organisations. The need for pragmatic evidence-based approaches has led to the development of a number of evidence-based equity initiatives. This paper describes a new program that focuses upon evidence- based tools, which are useful for policy initiatives that reduce inequities. Methods This paper is based on a presentation that was given at the "Regional Consultation on Policy Tools: Equity in Population Health Reports," held in Toronto, Canada in June 2002. Results Five assessment tools were presented. 1. A database of systematic reviews on the effects of educational, legal, social, and health interventions to reduce unfair inequalities is being established through the Cochrane and Campbell Collaborations. 2 Decision aids and shared decision making can be facilitated in disadvantaged groups by 'health coaches' to help people become better decision makers, negotiators, and navigators of the health system; a pilot study in Chile has provided proof of this concept. 3. The CIET Cycle: Combining adapted cluster survey techniques with qualitative methods, CIET's population based applications support evidence-based decision making at local and national levels. The CIET map generates maps directly from survey or routine institutional data, to be used as evidence-based decisions aids. Complex data can be displayed attractively, providing an important tool for studying and comparing health indicators among and between different populations. 4. The Ottawa Equity Gauge is applying the Global Equity Gauge Alliance framework to an industrialised country setting. 5 The Needs-Based Health Assessment Toolkit, established to assemble information on which clinical and health policy decisions can be based, is being expanded to ensure a focus on distribution and average health indicators. Conclusion Evidence-based planning tools have much to offer the
Määttä, Sylvia; Wallmyr, Gudrun
The aim of this study was to explore nurses' and ward-based clinical librarians' reflections on ward-based clinical librarians as facilitators for nurses' use of evidences-based practice. Nurses' use of evidence-based practice is reported to be weak. Studies have suggested that clinical librarians may promote evidence-based practice. To date, little is known about clinical librarians participating nurses in the wards. A descriptive, qualitative design was adopted for the study. In 2007, 16 nurses who had been attended by a clinical librarian in the wards were interviewed in focus groups. Two clinical librarians were interviewed by individual interviews. In the analysis, a content analysis was used. Three themes were generated from the interviews with nurses: 'The grip of everyday work', 'To articulate clinical nursing issues' and 'The clinical librarians at a catalyst'. The nurses experienced the grip of everyday work as a hindrance and had difficulties to articulate and formulate relevant nursing issues. In such a state, the nurses found the clinical librarian presence in the ward as enhancing the awareness of and the use of evidence-based practice. Three themes emerged from the analysis with the librarians. They felt as outsiders, had new knowledge and acquired a new role as ward-based clinical librarians. Facilitation is needed if nurses' evidence-based practice is going to increase. The combined use of nurses and clinical librarians' knowledge and skills can be optimised. To achieve this, nurses' skills in consuming and implementing evidence ought to be strengthened. The fusion of the information and knowledge management skill of the ward-based clinical librarian and the clinical expertise of the nurses can be of value. With such a collaborative model, nurse and ward-based clinical librarian might join forces to increase the use of evidence-based practice. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Shen, Jiantong; Yao, Leye; Li, Youping; Clarke, Mike; Gan, Qi; Li, Yifei; Fan, Yi; Gou, Yongchao; Wang, Li
To identify patterns in information sharing between a series of Chinese evidence based medicine (EBM) journals and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, to determine key evidence dissemination areas for EBM and to provide a scientific basis for improving the dissemination of EBM research. Data were collected on citing and cited from the Chinese Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine (CJEBM), Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine (JEBMc), Chinese Journal of Evidence Based Pediatrics (CJEBP), and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR). Relationships between citations were visualized. High-frequency key words from these sources were identified, to build a word co-occurrence matrix and to map research subjects. CDSR contains a large collection of information of relevance to EBM and its contents are widely cited across many journals, suggesting a well-developed citation environment. The content and citation of the Chinese journals have been increasing in recent years. However, their citation environments are much less developed, and there is a wide variation in the breadth and strength of their knowledge communication, with the ranking from highest to lowest being CJEBM, JEBMc and CJEBP. The content of CDSR is almost exclusively Cochrane intervention reviews examining the effects of healthcare interventions, so it's contribution to EBM is mostly in disease control and treatment. On the other hand, the Chinese journals on evidence-based medicine and practice focused more on areas such as education and research, design and quality of clinical trials, evidence based policymaking, evidence based clinical practice, tumor treatment, and pediatrics. Knowledge and findings of EBM are widely communicated and disseminated. However, citation environments and range of knowledge communication differ greatly between the journals examined in this study. This finds that Chinese EBM has focused mainly on clinical medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine, pediatrics, tumor
The Institute of Medicine has reported that it takes roughly 17 years for evidence generated through research to move into clinical practice. Bridging that gap is an urgent need and will require educators to rethink how nurses are prepared for evidence-based practice. The constructivist theory for learning--in which it is assumed that students construct knowledge and meaning for themselves as they learn--may provide a framework for a redesigned baccalaureate curriculum, one that supports evidence-based practice throughout a nursing student's education.
Lindoerfer, Doris; Mansmann, Ulrich
This paper discusses an evidence-based approach to software requirements engineering. The approach is called evidence-based, since it uses publications on the specific problem as a surrogate for stakeholder interests, to formulate risks and testing experiences. This complements the idea that agile software development models are more relevant, in which requirements and solutions evolve through collaboration between self-organizing cross-functional teams. The strategy is exemplified and applied to the development of a Software Requirements list used to develop software systems for patient registries.
Eldredge, J D
This paper discusses the challenges of finding evidence needed to implement Evidence-Based Librarianship (EBL). Focusing first on database coverage for three health sciences librarianship journals, the article examines the information contents of different databases. Strategies are needed to search for relevant evidence in the library literature via these databases, and the problems associated with searching the grey literature of librarianship. Database coverage, plausible search strategies, and the grey literature of library science all pose challenges to finding the needed research evidence for practicing EBL. Health sciences librarians need to ensure that systems are designed that can track and provide access to needed research evidence to support Evidence-Based Librarianship (EBL).
Stichler, Jaynelle F
The Evidence-Based Design Accreditation and Certification (EDAC) is a professional certification that validates that individuals have a core body of knowledge and experience necessary to lead and engage in an evidence-based design process for healthcare facilities. This bimonthly department expands nurse leaders' knowledge and competencies in health facility design and enables them to lead in design efforts. In this article, the vision and mission of EDAC and specific content are shared to increase nurse leaders' awareness of the certification when interviewing prospective architectural firms or for nurse leaders who aspire to have a career in the healthcare design field.
Evidence-based medicine's (EBM) quantitative methodologies reflect medical science's long-standing mistrust of the imprecision and subjectivity of ordinary descriptive language. However, EBM's attempts to replace subjectivity with precise empirical methods are problematic when clinicians must negotiate between scientific medicine and patients' experience. This problem is evident in the case of bibliotherapy (patient reading as treatment modality), a practice widespread despite its reliance on anecdotal evidence. While EBM purports to replace such flawed practice with reliable evidence-based methods, this essay argues that its aversion to subjective language prevents EBM from effectively evaluating bibliotherapy or making it amenable to clinical and research governance.
Sarani, Arezoo; Sarani, Melika; Abdar, Mohammad Esmaeli; Abdar, Zahra Esmaeili
Introduction Evidence-based care helps dentists provide quality dental services to patients, and such care is based on the use of reliable information about treatment and patient care from a large number of papers, books, and published textbooks. This study aimed to determine the knowledge, awareness, and attitude of dentistry students towards evidence-based dentistry. Methods In this cross-sectional study, all dentistry students who were studying in their sixth semester and higher in the Kerman School of Dentistry (n = 73) were studied. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 17 and the independent-samples t-tests and the ANOVA test. Results The means of the students’ knowledge, awareness, and attitude scores were 29.2 ± 10.8, 29.9 ± 8.12 and 44.5 ± 5.3, respectively. Among demographic variables, only the number of semesters showed a significant difference with knowledge, awareness, and attitude of dentistry students toward evidence-based dentistry (p = 0.001). Conclusion According to the results of this study, knowledge and awareness of dentistry students at Kerman University of Medical Sciences towards evidence-based dentistry were average and have a neutral attitude. Thus, providing necessary training in this regard will cause promoting the knowledge, awareness, and improved attitudes of dentistry students. PMID:27382446
Reimers, Arne C; Goldstein, Yaron; Bockmayr, Alexander
Flux coupling analysis (FCA) has become a useful tool for aiding metabolic reconstructions and guiding genetic manipulations. Originally, it was introduced for constraint-based models of metabolic networks that are based on the steady-state assumption. Recently, we have shown that the steady-state assumption can be replaced by a weaker lattice-theoretic property related to the supports of metabolic fluxes. In this paper, we further extend our approach and develop an efficient algorithm for generic flux coupling analysis that works with any kind of qualitative pathway model. We illustrate our method by thermodynamic flux coupling analysis (tFCA), which allows studying steady-state metabolic models with loop-law thermodynamic constraints. These models do not satisfy the lattice-theoretic properties required in our previous work. For a selection of genome-scale metabolic network reconstructions, we discuss both theoretically and practically, how thermodynamic constraints strengthen the coupling results that can be obtained with classical FCA. A prototype implementation of tFCA is available at http://hoverboard.io/L4FC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Saunders, Hannele; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri
Although systematic implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) is essential to effectively improve patient outcomes, quality, and value of care, nurses do not consistently use evidence in practice. Uptake is hampered by lack of nurses' readiness for EBP, including nurses' EBP beliefs and lack of EBP mentors. Favorable EBP beliefs are foundational to Registered Nurses' (RNs) use and integration of best evidence into clinical decision making, whereas EBP mentors are in a key role for strengthening RNs' beliefs in the value of EBP and confidence in their ability to implement EBP. Although nurses' EBP beliefs and role of BP mentors have been widely studied in countries leading the EBP movement, less is known about them in the non-English-speaking world. To determine RNs EBP beliefs and the role of EBP mentors at Finnish university hospitals and to explore the associations between RNs' EBP beliefs and sociodemographic factors. A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted in November-December 2014 at every university hospital in Finland with a convenience sample (n = 943) of practicing RNs. The data were collected via an electronic survey, and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. RNs reported low levels of EBP beliefs in the degree to which they believed that clinical nursing practice and their own practice were based on evidence. EBP mentors worked in many professional nursing roles. Several significant differences were found between RN's EBP beliefs and sociodemographic variables. Although RNs were familiar with and believed in the value of EBP in improving care quality and patient outcomes, their ratings were low about the degree to which they believed that clinical nursing practice and their own practice were based on evidence, indicating a modest level of individual EBP readiness among Finnish RNs required for integrating best evidence into clinical care delivery. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Skela-Savič, Brigita; Hvalič-Touzery, Simona; Pesjak, Katja
To establish the connection between values, competencies, selected job characteristics and evidence-based practice use. Nurses rarely apply evidence-based practice in everyday work. A recent body of research has looked at various variables explaining the use of evidence-based practice, but not values and competencies. A cross-sectional, non-experimental quantitative explorative research design. Standardized instruments were used (Nurse Professional Values Scale-R, Nurse Competence Scale, Evidence-Based Practice Beliefs and Implementation Scale). The sample included 780 nurses from 20 Slovenian hospitals. The data were collected in 2015. The study identifies two new variables contributing to a better understanding of beliefs on and implementation of evidence-based practice, thus broadening the existing research evidence. These are the values of activism and professionalism and competencies aimed at the development and professionalization of nursing. Values of caring, trust and justice and competencies expected in everyday practice do not influence the beliefs and implementation of evidence-based practice. Respondents ascribed less importance to values connected with activism and professionalism and competencies connected with the development of professionalism. Nurses agree that evidence-based practice is useful in their clinical work, but they lack the knowledge to implement it in practice. Evidence-based practice implementation in nursing practice is low. Study results stress the importance of increasing the knowledge and skills on professional values of activism and professionalism and competencies connected to nursing development. The study expands the current understanding of evidence-based practice use and provides invaluable insight for nursing managers, higher education managers and the national nursing association. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Embry, Dennis D.; Biglan, Anthony
This paper describes evidence-based kernels, fundamental units of behavioral influence that appear to underlie effective prevention and treatment for children, adults, and families. A kernel is a behavior-influence procedure shown through experimental analysis to affect a specific behavior and that is indivisible in the sense that removing any of…
Cychosz, Chris C.; Phisitkul, Phinit; Barg, Alexej; Nickisch, Florian; van Dijk, C. Niek; Glazebrook, Mark A.
The purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive review of the current literature on tendoscopy of the foot and ankle and assign an evidence-based grade of recommendation for or against intervention. A comprehensive review of the literature was performed on May 26, 2013, using the PubMed,
Kortekaas, Marlous|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357299817; Bartelink, Marie Louise|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/100449069
Aan de praktijk van evidence-based medicine (EBM) besteden we in de huisartsopleiding te weinig aandacht. Iedere huisarts die de adviezen uit een NHG-Standaard volgt, of ervan afwijkt, doet aan EBM: het wegen van beschikbare evidence met de eigen ervaring en met de voorkeuren van de patiënt.
Forrest, Jane L.; Miller, Syrene A.
Evidence-based decision making (EBDM) was incorporated into an institute for 42 dental hygiene, occupational therapy, and physical therapy faculty. The 4-day sessions addressed active teaching techniques, formulation of good questions, critical appraisal of evidence, and application, feedback, and evaluation. Most participants felt prepared to…
Evidence-Based Nursing (EBN) permits the highest quality of care in meeting the multifaceted needs of clients using the best available evidence from research findings, expert ideas from specialists in the various health care sectors and feedback from clients. However, in many instances, various challenges need to be ...
Methadone maintenance therapy as evidence based drug abuse planning in developed countries: Can developing countries afford and learn from this experience? ... However, various studies and preventive approaches have been tried in the US on drug abusers in order to prevent the associated adverse health outcomes.
Rwanda Journal Series F: Medicine and Health Sciences Vol. 2 No. 2, 2015. Making Evidence Based Changes on the Labor Ward of Muhima Hospital: Staff Teaching Staff. Jossette Umucyo1, Rondi Anderson1. 1Muhima Hospital, Kigali, Rwanda. Background. In January 2014 it was noted that Muhima hospital was lagging ...
Concept and practice of evidence-based psychiatry and its application in Nigerian psychiatry: a critical review. PO Onifade, LO Oluwole. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Medicine Vol. 15(1) 2006: 16-19. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.
Weisz, John R.; Ugueto, Ana M.; Cheron, Daniel M.; Herren, Jenny
Five decades of randomized trials research have produced dozens of evidence-based psychotherapies (EBPs) for youths. The EBPs produce respectable effects in traditional efficacy trials, but the effects shrink markedly when EBPs are tested in practice contexts with clinically referred youths and compared to usual clinical care. We considered why…
The project's three components include: -Build capacity for evidence-based public policy-making and analysis in all three countries through the university's Institute of Public Policy and Administration; -Support a group of regional researchers on issues of mountain economies and natural resource management through the ...
Evidence-based medicine has had a major impact on health care in the last 30 years. This approach has lead to the critical appraisal of therapeutic knowledge. Archie Cochrane, an epidemiologist, gave a series of lectures in 1972 regarding his reflections on the effectiveness and efficiency of health services.1 He ...
Boyington, Alice R; Ferrall, Sheila M; Sylvanus, Terry
Nurses should be engaged in evidence-based practice (EBP) to ensure that nursing care is efficient and effective. This article describes one cancer center's use of the Marketing Mix framework to educate staff nurses with the CROC™: Clinging Rigidly to Outdated Care campaign. As a result of the campaign, five EBP projects have been initiated in the cancer center.
LIRNEasia seeks to build the capacity of local researchers and policymakers for evidence-based ICT-related interventions in the public policy process. To this end, it undertakes action research on institutional constraints to the effective use of ICTs. The first phase of LIRNEasia was funded under project 103017. The current ...
Evidence-based ICT Policy for Development and Innovation. The cost of access to information and communication technologies (ITCs) in Africa remains the major impediment to the participation of Africans in the networked society. While Africa is the region with the fastest growing number of mobile phone subscribers in the ...
Bates, Joanne; McClure, Janelle; Spinks, Andy
Evidence-based practice is the collection, interpretation, and use of data, such as collection statistics or assessment results, that measure the effectiveness of a library media program. In this article, the authors will present various forms of evidence and show that any library media specialist can use data to make informed decisions that…
Leipzig, Rosanne M.; Wallace, Eleanor Z.; Smith, Lawrence G.; Sullivant, Jean; Dunn, Kathel; McGinn, Thomas
Described and evaluated an interactive course designed to create a cadre of medical school faculty in New York who could integrate evidence-based medicine into their training programs. Findings for representatives of 30 internal medicine residency programs show the usefulness of the regional dissemination model used. (SLD)
Mottonen, Merja; Tapanainen, Paivi; Nuutinen, Matti; Rantala, Heikki; Vainionpaa, Leena; Uhari, Matti
Evidence-based medicine--the process of using research findings systematically as the basis for clinical decisions--can be taught using problem-solving teaching methods. Evaluates whether it was possible to motivate students to use the original literature by giving them selected patient problems to solve. (Author/ASK)
Dean, R; Brennan, M; Ewers, R; Hudson, C; Daly, J M; Baillie, S; Eisler, M C; Place, E J; Brearley, J; Holmes, M; Handel, I; Shaw, D; McLauchlan, G; McBrearty, A; Cripps, P; Jones, P; Smith, R; Verheyen, K
The Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons now lists 'How to evaluate evidence' as a day one competence for newly qualified vets. In this article, representatives from each of the veterinary schools in the UK discuss how the challenge of delivering and assessing the concepts of evidence-based veterinary medicine in a crowded undergraduate curriculum can be met. British Veterinary Association.
Veugelers, R.; van der Ploeg, F.; Dewatripont, M.; Thys-Clément, F.; Wilkin, L.
Universities are key players in the successful transition to a knowledge-based economy and society. However, this crucial sector of society needs restructuring if Europe is not to lose out in the global competition in education, research and innovation. To allow a more evidence based process of
Spencer, Trina D.; Detrich, Ronnie; Slocum, Timothy A.
The research to practice gap in education has been a long-standing concern. The enactment of No Child Left Behind brought increased emphasis on the value of using scientifically based instructional practices to improve educational outcomes. It also brought education into the broader evidence-based practice movement that started in medicine and has…
David-Ferdon, Corinne; Kaslow, Nadine J.
The evidence-base of psychosocial treatment outcome studies for depressed youth conducted since 1998 is examined. All studies for depressed children meet Nathan and Gorman's (2002) criteria for Type 2 studies whereas the adolescent protocols meet criteria for both Type 1 and Type 2 studies. Based on the Task Force on the Promotion and…
Book Review: Deployment Psychology: Evidence-based strategies to promote mental health in the Military. AB Adler, PD Bliese, CA Castro. Abstract. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association 2011 294 pages ISBN-13: 978-1-4338-0881-4. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT
The checklist included the evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for the HD vascular access, HD adequacy, anemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD), nutrition, cardiovascular risk assessment, and hepatitis B and C virus infection control. Implementation of these guidelines was evaluated, and further graded using a ...
Acute otitis externa (AOE), or diffuse inflammation of the external ear canal, causes a range of symptoms, including otalgia, otorrhoea, hearing loss and itching. Despite AOE being common, with a 12-month prevalence of approximately 1%, there is a paucity of evidence-based treatment guidelines. This contributes to a wide ...
Evidence-based medicine - searching the medical literature. Part 1. ... psychological literature, but these are only available on payment of a subscription. Most of ... 2. Component terms (keywords/phrases) children drug resistant malaria treatment. 3. Alternative terms (synonyms) child drug-resistant resistance multidrug.
Examines to what extent the skills and techniques of evidence-based practice are transferable to the areas of professional practice of librarians and information professionals? Is it desirable for information professionals to integrate research findings into their day-to-day decision making?
Schaffner, Angela D.; Buchanan, Linda Paulk
This study examined the current issues relevant to implementing evidence-based practices in the context of outpatient treatment for eating disorders. The study also examined the effectiveness of an outpatient treatment program for eating disorders among a group of 196 patients presenting with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or eating disorder…
Schroeder, Torben Veith
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is not a randomised controlled trial (RCT), but EBM seeks to apply evidence gained from scientific methods - which could be RCT - to daily medical practice. Any surgical treatment reflects a certain development technically as well as skills based. The procedure may...
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is a rapidly expanding subject. The aim of this editorial is to give an overview and address some of the practical issues relevant to the developing world. EBM may be defined as the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of ...
Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast, 2011
Over the past decade, research on dropout prevention has become focused on using evidence-based practice, and data-driven decisions, to mitigate students' dropping out of high school and instead, support and prepare students for career and college. Early warning systems or on-track indicators, in which readily available student-level data are used…
into the evidence base. Data contributes to develop- ment. Health outcomes can be improved by investing in: □ 17,506 households. □ 203 health facilities. □ 15,606 pregnant women. Data on child health and immunization was gathered from: □ 13,220 households. □ 214 health facilities. □ 22,589 children under the.
This paper is an extension of the author's earlier work on developing management information services and creating a culture of assessment in libraries. The author will focus observations on the use of data in decision-making in libraries, specifically on the role of leadership in making evidence-based decision a reality, and will review new…
Background. The research methodology module was reviewed as part of the overall revision of the undergraduate physiotherapy curriculum of Stellenbosch University. This created an ideal platform from which to assess how to align the principles of evidence-based practice (EBP) with research methodology. Fostering the ...
Morrow, Michael T.; Lee, Hsin-Hua; Bartoli, Eleonora; Gillem, Angela R.
Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a core priority in counselor education. This paper details one United States' counselor education program's self-assessment of its EBP curriculum. Faculty members collaborated to identify challenges and generate solutions to strengthen the EBP emphasis within the program. This paper is intended as a resource for…
The need to integrate the accrued scientific evidence into clinical orthodontic practice is amongst the challenges facing orthodontists in the 21st century. The evidence-based health care approach aims to improve patient care based upon informed decision-making. This article therefore highlights the importance and ...
This article aims to summarise the available evidence in the wound management of diabetic foot ulcers to promote cost-effective evidence-based practice. Diabetic foot ulcers have a significant impact on the individual patient's quality of life, potential morbidity and even mortality. Diabetic foot ulcers also consume a.
This article aims to summarise the available evidence in the wound management of diabetic foot ulcers to promote cost-effective evidence-based practice. Diabetic foot ulcers have a significant impact on the individual patient's quality of life, potential morbidity and even mortality. Diabetic foot ulcers also consume a ...
Jun 1, 2012 ... Since limited resources are available for life-saving health services in Nigeria, those who plan health programs need to know which interventions are most effective and how to prioritise them. An important objective of the Nigeria Evidence-based Health. System Initiative (NEHSI) is to build the capacity of.
Oude Rengerink, K.
This thesis presents a number of research projects centred on ‘evidence-based medicine’. It consists of two parts. Part 1 focuses on improving recruitment of the necessary number of patients in clinical trials, as this is the major problem while evaluating the effectiveness of interventions in
While research is needed and necessary, promoting the value of evidence-based practice (EBP), quality improvement (QI) and project evaluation (PE) initiatives could rapidly and economically further the development of nursing and midwifery disciplines globally, perhaps especially in resource constrained settings.
Bates, Stacey L.
Fifteen studies of family-school interventions with preschool children conducted between 1980 and 2002, and published in peer-reviewed journals, were reviewed and evaluated according to the criteria developed by the Task Force on Evidence-Based Intervention in School Psychology (Division 16 and Society for the Study of School Psychology Task…
Cook, Bryan G.; Tankersley, Melody; Landrum, Timothy J.
Determining evidence-based practices is a complicated enterprise that requires analyzing the methodological quality and magnitude of the available research supporting specific practices. This article reviews criteria and procedures for identifying what works in the fields of clinical psychology, school psychology, and general education; and it…
Byiers, Breanne J.; Reichle, Joe; Symons, Frank J.
Purpose: Single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs) represent an important tool in the development and implementation of evidence-based practice in communication sciences and disorders. The purpose of this article is to review the strategies and tactics of SSEDs and their application in speech-language pathology research. Method: The authors…
Full Text Available . In this paper, we report on a survey conducted to assess practitioners’ perceptions of the evidence generated in restoration practice in South Africa, as well as challenges encountered in building this evidence base. Contrary to a recent assessment...
The purpose of this document is to identify WHC programs and requirements that are an integral part of the authorization basis for nuclear facilities that are generic to all WHC-managed facilities. The purpose of these programs is to implement the DOE Orders, as WHC becomes contractually obligated to implement them. The Hanford Generic ISB focuses on the institutional controls and safety requirements identified in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.
Fraeyman, Jessica; Peeters, Lies; Van Hal, Guido; Beutels, Philippe; De Meyer, Guido R Y; De Loof, Hans
Generic medicines offer an opportunity for governments to contain pharmaceutical expenditures, since generics are generally 10%-80% lower in price than brand medicines. Belgium has a small generic market that takes up 15% of the total pharmaceutical market in packages sold. To determine the knowledge of consumers about the different available packages of a common over-the-counter medicine (acetaminophen) with regard to price advantage, quality, and effectiveness in a country with a small generic market. We conducted an online survey in the general Flemish population using a questionnaire with 25 statements. The questionnaire also contained 2 informative interventions. First, we showed the price per package and per tablet that the patient would pay in the pharmacy. Second, we provided the respondent with general information about generic medication (equivalence, effectiveness, price, and recognition). Before and after the interventions, we probed for preferences and knowledge about the different packages. Multivariate logistic models were used to examine the independent effects of consumer characteristics on responses to the survey statements. We obtained a sample of 1,636 respondents. The general attitude towards generic medication was positive-only 5% would rather not use a generic. Nevertheless, only 17% of the respondents were able to recognize a generic medicine. Older consumers (aged 60 years and above) were more often confused about the different packages (OR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.76-3.80, P ≤ 0.001). Consumers without a higher education degree tended to be more doubtful about the difference in effectiveness and quality between the different brands (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.44-0.79, P ≤ 0.001). Consumer recognition of the name of the active substance of acetaminophen was poor. When different brands were displayed, possible price advantage seemed to be an important motive to switch to a cheaper brand. Consumers generally found medicines
McAlister, Finlay A; Graham, Ian; Karr, Gerald W; Laupacis, Andreas
OBJECTIVE To assess the attitudes of practicing general internists toward evidence-based medicine (EBM—defined as the process of systematically finding, appraising, and using contemporaneous research findings as the basis for clinical decisions) and their perceived barriers to its use. DESIGN Cross-sectional, self-administered mail questionnaire conducted between June and October 1997. SETTING Canada. PARTICIPANTS Questionnaires were sent to all 521 physician members of the Canadian Society of Internal Medicine with Canadian mailing addresses; 296 (60%) of 495 eligible physicians responded. Exclusion of two incomplete surveys resulted in a final sample size of 294. MAIN RESULTS Mean age of respondents was 46 years, 80% were male, and 52% worked in large urban medical centers. Participants reported using EBM in their clinical practice always (33, 11%), often (173, 59%), sometimes (80, 27%), or rarely/never (8, 3%). There were no significant differences in demographics, training, or practice types or locales on univariate or multivariate analyses between those who reported using EBM often or always and those who did not. Both groups reported high usage of traditional (non-EBM) information sources: clinical experience (93%), review articles (73%), the opinion of colleagues (61%), and textbooks (45%). Only a minority used EBM-related information sources such as primary research studies (45%), clinical practice guidelines (27%), or Cochrane Collaboration Reviews (5%) on a regular basis. Barriers to the use of EBM cited by respondents included lack of relevant evidence (26%), newness of the concept (25%), impracticality for use in day-to-day practice (14%), and negative impact on traditional medical skills and “the art of medicine” (11%). Less than half of respondents were confident in basic skills of EBM such as conducting a literature search (46%) or evaluating the methodology of published studies (34%). However, respondents demonstrated a high level of interest
Hoagwood, Kimberly; Johnson, Jacqueline
Describes current perspectives on evidence-based practices in psychology, medicine, and education; discusses challenges in the implementation and dissemination of research-based findings into schools; describes differences between current models of organizational behavior as studied in children's mental health services and in education; and…
Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Kelleher, Kelly; Murray, Laura K; Jensen, Peter S
The present study examined implementation issues in adopting cognitive-behavioral therapies in routine clinical settings in four countries reflecting diverse cultures, languages, settings, and traditions. A Director's Systems Survey was administered prior to program implementation and one year later. Therapist ratings on attitudes about evidence-based practices and satisfaction were also gathered. All sites reported successful adoption of the program, although significant variations existed in fiscal support, family involvement, prior experience with cognitive-behavioral therapies, and plans for sustainability. Therapists' ratings indicated overall satisfaction with the implementation of the project. Findings from the Director's Systems Survey pointed to five factors facilitating implementation: 1) early adoption and guidance by innovative leaders (i.e., the Directors); 2) attention to the "fit" between the intervention model and local practices; 3) attention to front-end implementation processes (e.g., cultural adaptation, translation, training, fiscal issues); 4) attention to back-end processes early in the project (e.g., sustainability); and 5) establishing strong relationships with multiple stakeholders within the program setting. The implementation issues here mirror those identified in other studies of evidence-based practices uptake. Some of the obstacles to implementation of evidence-based practices may be generic, whereas issues such as the impact of political/economic instability, availability of translated materials, constitute unique stressors that differentially affect implementation efforts within specific countries.
Vokinger, Kerstin Noëlle; Kesselheim, Aaron S; Avorn, Jerry; Sarpatwari, Ameet
Increasing prescription drug expenditures in the United States are primarily driven by high brand-name drug prices. Although generic competition helps lower drug prices, manufacturers of brand-name drugs often work to delay the availability of generic versions of their products. Strategies to forestall generic competition include patenting peripheral aspects of a drug or modified formulations that do not add clinical value, paying generic manufacturers to settle lawsuits challenging the validity of patents on brand-name drugs ("reverse payment" settlements), denying generic manufacturers access to drug samples necessary for bioequivalence testing, misusing risk evaluation and mitigation strategies, and filing citizen petitions with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). To address such tactics, the federal government can interpret existing patenting standards more strictly and promote certain types of patent challenges to ensure that patents are granted or upheld only for true innovations. Congress can enact pending legislation that would help discourage reverse payment settlements and compel brand-name manufacturers to share drug samples for bioequivalence testing. Finally, the FDA can provide earlier guidance on bioequivalence determinations for complex generic products and adopt the presumption that late-filed citizen petitions should be summarily rejected.
Ventimiglia, Jeffrey; Kalali, Amir H
In this article, we explore the accelerated penetration of generic antidepressants in the United States market following the availability of generic citalopram and sertraline. Analysis suggests that overall, generic penetration into the antidepressant market has grown from approximately 41 percent in January 2004 to over 73 percent in January 2010. Similar trends are uncovered when branded and generic prescriptions are analyzed by specialty.
Osborne, Andrew; Taylor, Louise; Reuber, Markus; Grünewald, Richard A; Parkinson, Martin; Dickson, Jon M
Seizures are a common presentation to pre-hospital emergency services and they generate significant healthcare costs. This article summarises the United Kingdom (UK) Ambulance Service guidelines for the management of seizures and explores the extent to which these guidelines are evidence-based. Summary of the Clinical Practice Guidelines of the UK Joint Royal Colleges Ambulance Liaison Committee relating to the management of seizures. Review of the literature relating to pre-hospital management of seizure emergencies. Much standard practice relating to the emergency out of hospital management of patients with seizures is drawn from generic Advanced Life Support (ALS) guidelines although many patients do not need ALS during or after a seizure and the benefit of many ALS interventions in seizure patients remains to be established. The majority of studies identified pertain to medical treatment of status epilepticus. These papers show that benzodiazepines are safe and effective but it is not possible to draw definitive conclusions about the best medication or the optimal route of administration. The evidence base for current pre-hospital guidelines for seizure emergencies is incomplete. A large proportion of patients are transported to hospital after a seizure but many of these may be suitable for home management. However, there is very little research into alternative care pathways or criteria that could be used to help paramedics avoid transport to hospital. More research is needed to improve care for people after a seizure and to improve the cost-effectiveness of the healthcare systems within which they are treated. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Moreira, Paulo A S; Oliveira, João Tiago; Dias, Paulo; Vaz, Filipa Machado; Torres-Oliveira, Isabel
Students' perceptions about school success promotion strategies are of great importance for schools, as they are an indicator of how students perceive the school success promotion strategies. The objective of this study was to develop and analyze the validity evidence based of The Students' Perceptions of School Success Promoting Strategies Inventory (SPSI), which assesses both individual students' perceptions of their school success promoting strategies, and dimensions of school quality. A structure of 7 related factors was found, which showed good adjustment indices in two additional different samples, suggesting that this is a well-fitting multi-group model (p Educational Technologies and Extra-curricular activities (p students within schools) dimensions of school success. In addition, there is preliminary evidence for its adequacy for measuring school success promotion dimensions between schools for 4 dimensions. This study supports the validity evidence based of the SPSI (validity evidence based on test content, on internal structure, on relations to other variables and on consequences of testing). Future studies should test for within- and between-level variance in a bigger sample of schools.
Tang, Yan; Gellad, Walid F; Men, Aiju; Donohue, Julie M
Little is known about how Medicare Part D plan features influence choice of generic versus brand drugs. To examine the association between Part D plan features and generic medication use. Data from a 2009 random sample of 1.6 million fee-for-service, Part D enrollees aged 65 years and above, who were not dually eligible or receiving low-income subsidies, were used to examine the association between plan features (generic cost-sharing, difference in brand and generic copay, prior authorization, step therapy) and choice of generic antidepressants, antidiabetics, and statins. Logistic regression models accounting for plan-level clustering were adjusted for sociodemographic and health status. Generic cost-sharing ranged from $0 to $9 for antidepressants and statins, and from $0 to $8 for antidiabetics (across 5th-95th percentiles). Brand-generic cost-sharing differences were smallest for statins (5th-95th percentiles: $16-$37) and largest for antidepressants ($16-$64) across plans. Beneficiaries with higher generic cost-sharing had lower generic use [adjusted odds ratio (OR)=0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.95-0.98 for antidepressants; OR=0.97, 95% CI, 0.96-0.98 for antidiabetics; OR=0.94, 95% CI, 0.92-0.95 for statins]. Larger brand-generic cost-sharing differences and prior authorization were significantly associated with greater generic use in all categories. Plans could increase generic use by 5-12 percentage points by reducing generic cost-sharing from the 75th ($7) to 25th percentiles ($4-$5), increasing brand-generic cost-sharing differences from the 25th ($25-$26) to 75th ($32-$33) percentiles, and using prior authorization and step therapy. Cost-sharing features and utilization management tools were significantly associated with generic use in 3 commonly used medication categories.
Hanley, Sean; Ringwalt, Chris; Vincus, Amy A; Ennett, Susan T; Bowling, J Michael; Haws, Susan W; Rohrbach, Louise A
It is widely recognized that teacher training affects the fidelity with which evidence-based substance use prevention curricula are implemented. We present the results of a 2005 survey of teachers from a nationally representative sample of 1721 public middle schools in the U.S. (78.1% response rate). We measured fidelity along two dimensions (adherence and dose) and also assessed the number of hours, recency, and perceived effectiveness of teachers' training, as well as the degree to which adherence was emphasized during training. Among teachers using evidence-based curricula, 35.3% reported following their curriculum guide very closely. The average proportion of lessons taught was 64.9%, and only 30.2% of teachers taught all the lessons in their curriculum. Analyses revealed that teachers whose training emphasized adherence were 5 times as likely to be more adherent. We present recommendations for training-related factors that may increase fidelity of implementation.
Andrews, Christina M.; D’Aunno, Thomas A.; Pollack, Harold A.; Friedmann, Peter D.
This article examines changes from 2005 to 2011 in the use of an evidence-based clinical innovation, buprenorphine use, among a nationally representative sample of opioid treatment programs and identifies characteristics associated with its adoption. We apply a model of the adoption of clinical innovations that focuses on the work needs and characteristics of staff; organizations’ technical and social support for the innovation; local market dynamics and competition; and state policies governing the innovation. Results indicate that buprenorphine use increased 24% for detoxification and 47% for maintenance therapy between 2005 and 2011. Buprenorphine use was positively related to reliance on private insurance and availability of state subsidies to cover its cost and inversely related to the percentage of clients who injected opiates, county size, and local availability of methadone. The results indicate that financial incentives and market factors play important roles in opioid treatment programs’ decisions to adopt evidence-based clinical innovations such as buprenorphine use. PMID:24051897
Aravamudhan, K; Frantsve-Hawley, Julie
Time and access have often been cited as barriers to implementing Evidence-Based Dentistry (EBD). This paper describes a new web-based resource launched by the American Dental Association to enable practitioners to incorporate evidence into treatment planning. The website offers a database of systematic reviews, critical summaries of systematic reviews, evidence-based clinical recommendations and links to external resources to enable practitioners to access evidence at the point of care. In addition the site offers an online space for clinicians to suggest clinical scenarios where evidence is lacking. This could potentially be a source of topics to drive future research. With the explosion in the use of information technology within a dental office, this web-site will serve as the one-stop resource for credible scientific information for practitioners.
Byiers, Breanne J; Reichle, Joe; Symons, Frank J
Single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs) represent an important tool in the development and implementation of evidence-based practice in communication sciences and disorders. The purpose of this article is to review the strategies and tactics of SSEDs and their application in speech-language pathology research. The authors discuss the requirements of each design, followed by advantages and disadvantages. The logic and methods for evaluating effects in SSED are reviewed as well as contemporary issues regarding data analysis with SSED data sets. Examples of challenges in executing SSEDs are included. Specific exemplars of how SSEDs have been used in speech-language pathology research are provided throughout. SSED studies provide a flexible alternative to traditional group designs in the development and identification of evidence-based practice in the field of communication sciences and disorders.
Lee, M W L; McPhee, R W; Stringer, M D
The dermatome is a fundamental concept in human anatomy and of major importance in clinical practice. There are significant variations in current dermatome maps in standard anatomy texts. The aim of this study was to undertake a systematic literature review of the available evidence for the distribution of human dermatomes. Particular emphasis was placed on the technique of ascertainment, the location and extent of each dermatome, the number of subjects studied, and methodologic limitations. Our findings demonstrate that current dermatome maps are inaccurate and based on flawed studies. After selecting the best available evidence, a novel evidence-based dermatome map was constructed. This represents the most consistent tactile dermatomal areas for each spinal dorsal nerve root found in most individuals. In addition to highlighting the orderly arrangement, areas of consistency and clinical usefulness of dermatomes, their overlap and variability deserve greater emphasis. This review demonstrates the validity of an evidence-based approach to an anatomical concept.
Soltani Arabshahi, SeyyedKamran; Mohammadi Kenari, Hoorieh; Kordafshari, Gholamreza; Shams-Ardakani, MohammadReza; Bigdeli, Shoaleh
The major difference between Iranian traditional medicine and allopathic medicine is in the application of evidence and documents. In this study, criteria for evidence-based practice in Iranian traditional medicine and its rules of practice were studied. The experts' views were investigated through in- depth, semi-structured interviews and the results were categorized into four main categories including Designing clinical questions/clinical question-based search, critical appraisal, resource search criteria and clinical prescription appraisal. Although the application of evidence in Iranian traditional medicine follows Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) principles but it benefits from its own rules, regulations, and criteria that are compatible with EBM.
Mühlhauser, Ingrid; Albrecht, Martina; Steckelberg, Anke
Consumers and patients want to be included in decisions regarding their own health and have an ethically justified claim on informed decisions. Therefore, sound information is required, but health information is often misleading and based on different interests. The risks of disease and the benefits of medical interventions tend to be overestimated, whereas harm is often underestimated. Evidence-based health information has to fulfil certain criteria, for instance, it should be evidence-based, independent, complete, true as well as understandable. The aim of a medical intervention has to be explained. The different therapeutic options including the option not to intervene have to be delineated. The probabilities for success, lack of success and unwanted side effects have to be communicated in a numerical and understandable manner. Patients have the right to reject medical interventions without any sanctions.
Hajebrahimi, Sakineh; Mostafaie, Ali
The goal of this article is to help develop, disseminate, and evaluate resources that can be used to practice and teach EBM for urology residents and continuing education of urologists to reduce the gap between research and clinical practice. Urology departments should build capacity for residents to shape the future of quality and safety in healthcare through translating evidence into practice. Cutting edge approaches require knowing how to teach Evidence-based urology, to make Bio-statistics easy to understanding and how to lead improvement at every level. The authors shared their experience about ‘what works’ in a surgical department to building an Evidence-based environment and high quality of cares. PMID:22279316
Mokhles, Sahar; Takkenberg, Johanna Jm; Treasure, Tom
Good clinical practice is an amalgamation of personalized medicine with evidence-based medicine in the best interests of patient. Hence, our title uses Boolean operators to indicate that it is [AND] not [OR]. This is the syntax of formal searching for systematic reviews, ensuring that all the evidence is found. Comprehensive evidence-based guidance can thus be formulated. Many residents and fellows around the world, and their chiefs, are now exposed to consensus documents, white papers, levels of appropriateness, and guidelines and are in many jurisdictions expected to comply with them. However, they are the summation of many forms of evidence, each of which has its place, and we consider them in turn in this article. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vratny, Amy; Shriver, Deb
Nursing administration at a small medical center is developing and implementing an evidence-based practice (EBP) model of care to support a culture of quality care, clinical excellence, cost-effectiveness, critical thinking, empowerment of staff, and professional growth. The purpose of this article is to describe a conceptual model for EBP that addresses how to overcome barriers to implementation. Clinician expertise and values, experience, patient preference and expectation, and caring become grounded in a practice environment that must strive to become rooted in clinical research to evolve into a practice that is evidence-based. Education helps to nourish EBP, but leadership, enthusiasm, mentorship, clinical inquiry, and reflective practice make EBP thrive. The EBP ambassadors branch out to each department to grow journal clubs, EBP Web pages, EBP projects, research utilization projects, and staff-led practice reviews. The fruits are quality patient care and outcomes, clinical excellence, cost-effectiveness, critical thinking, empowerment of staff, and professional growth.
Nüssler, Emil Karl; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Håkonsson, Dorthe Døjbak
Surgeons who perform prolapse surgeries face the dilemma of choosing to use mesh, with its assumed benefits, and the risks associated with mesh. In this paper, we examine whether decisions to use mesh is evidence based. Based on data of 30,398 patients from the Swedish National Quality Register...... of Gynecological Surgery we examine factors related to decisions to use mesh. Our results indicate that decisions to use mesh are not evidence based, and cannot be explained neither by FDA safety communications, nor by medical conditions usually assumed to predict its usage. Instead, decisions to use mesh...... are highly influenced by the geographical placement of surgeons. Therfore, decisions to use mesh are boundedly rationality, rather than rational....
Mittman, Brian S
Intensive efforts are under way to improve health care quality and safety throughout the United States and abroad. Many of these efforts use the quality improvement collaborative method, an approach emphasizing collaborative learning and exchange of insights and support among a set of health care organizations. Unfortunately, the widespread acceptance and reliance on this approach are based not on solid evidence but on shared beliefs and anecdotal affirmations that may overstate the actual effectiveness of the method. More effective use of the collaborative method will require a commitment by users, researchers, and other stakeholders to rigorous, objective evaluation and the creation of a valid, useful knowledge and evidence base. Development of this evidence base will require improved conceptions of the nature of quality problems, quality improvement processes, and the types of research needed to elucidate these processes. Researchers, journal editors, and funding agencies must also cooperate to ensure that published evaluations are relevant, comprehensive, and cumulative.
Mitchell, Helen L; Aggett, Peter J; Richardson, David P; Stowell, Julian D
The present report summarises a meeting held by the Food & Health Forum at the Royal Society of Medicine, London, on 27 May 2010. The objective of the meeting was to review the problems associated with the use of evidence-based nutrition and to discuss what constitutes the efficacy for foods and food constituents and how the strength and consistency of the evidence can be assessed and adapted to circumstances in which health claims are to be used on food products. The meeting highlighted the limitations with the present evidence-based nutrition models with the prospect that this may have long-term consequences for nutrition science and ultimately the consumer who may not benefit from new science that could have an impact on health.
Rapp, Amy M.; Bergman, R. Lindsay; Piacentini, John; McGuire, Joseph F.
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neuropsychiatric illness that often develops in childhood, affects 1%–2% of the population, and causes significant impairment across the lifespan. The first step in identifying and treating OCD is a thorough evidence-based assessment. This paper reviews the administration pragmatics, psychometric properties, and limitations of commonly used assessment measures for adults and youths with OCD. This includes diagnostic interviews, clinician-administered symptom severity scales, self-report measures, and parent/child measures. Additionally, adjunctive measures that assess important related factors (ie, impairment, family accommodation, and insight) are also discussed. This paper concludes with recommendations for an evidence-based assessment based on individualized assessment goals that include generating an OCD diagnosis, determining symptom severity, and monitoring treatment progress. PMID:27594793
Amy M. Rapp
Full Text Available Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD is a neuropsychiatric illness that often develops in childhood, affects 1%–2% of the population, and causes significant impairment across the lifespan. The first step in identifying and treating OCD is a thorough evidence-based assessment. This paper reviews the administration pragmatics, psychometric properties, and limitations of commonly used assessment measures for adults and youths with OCD. This includes diagnostic interviews, clinician-administered symptom severity scales, self-report measures, and parent/child measures. Additionally, adjunctive measures that assess important related factors (ie, impairment, family accommodation, and insight are also discussed. This paper concludes with recommendations for an evidence-based assessment based on individualized assessment goals that include generating an OCD diagnosis, determining symptom severity, and monitoring treatment progress.
Evidence-based management of medical disposable materials pays attention to collect evidence comprehensively and systematically, accumulate and create evidence through its own work and also evaluate evidence strictly. This can be used as a function to guide out job. Medical disposable materials evidence system contains product register qualification, product quality certification, supplier's behavior, internal and external communication evidence. Managers can find different ways in creating and using evidence referring to specific inside and outside condition. Evidence-based management can help accelerating the development of management of medical disposable materials from traditional experience pattern to a systematic and scientific pattern. It also has the very important meaning to improve medical quality, control the unreasonable growth of medical expense and make purchase and supply chain be more efficient.
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) as a health care practice is being incorporated into education programs across the spectrum of medical education to develop lifelong learning skills and to enhance the practice of evidence-based health care. Since improving the quality of patient care is the ultimate goal of EBM, EBM learning must be integrated with clinical application, and resulted outcomes must be reflected in learning transfer (or EBM practice) within the context of solving patient problems. Different factors may constitute the context or environment in which EBM is learned, practiced, and sustained. However, these contextual factors are seldom considered and examined in the development, implementation, and evaluation of EBM instruction for learners at different levels. This article will introduce several contextual factors as tips and strategies that affect EBM learning and transfer. Also included in the article are recommended practices for designing effective EBM instruction that would contribute to a sustainable change in learner behavior.
Background. Evidence-based medicine is a method that helps physicians find and critically evaluate evidences from the medical literature, and apply the evidences in clinical decision-making. In clinical practice the method supplements core medical skills, clinical experience and emphasizes the importance of clinical research evidence. Evidencebased medicine is characterised by two fundamental principles: first, the scientific evidences alone do not suffice for clinical decision-making, second...
Nilsen, Per; Neher, Margit; Ellström, Per-Erik; Gardner, Benjamin
For many nurses and other health care practitioners, implementing evidence-based practice (EBP) presents two interlinked challenges: acquisition of EBP skills and adoption of evidence-based interventions and abandonment of ingrained non-evidence-based practices. The purpose of this study to describe two modes of learning and use these as lenses for analyzing the challenges of implementing EBP in health care. The article is theoretical, drawing on learning and habit theory. Adaptive learning involves a gradual shift from slower, deliberate behaviors to faster, smoother, and more efficient behaviors. Developmental learning is conceptualized as a process in the "opposite" direction, whereby more or less automatically enacted behaviors become deliberate and conscious. Achieving a more EBP depends on both adaptive and developmental learning, which involves both forming EBP-conducive habits and breaking clinical practice habits that do not contribute to realizing the goals of EBP. From a learning perspective, EBP will be best supported by means of adaptive learning that yields a habitual practice of EBP such that it becomes natural and instinctive to instigate EBP in appropriate contexts by means of seeking out, critiquing, and integrating research into everyday clinical practice as well as learning new interventions best supported by empirical evidence. However, the context must also support developmental learning that facilitates disruption of existing habits to ascertain that the execution of the EBP process or the use of evidence-based interventions in routine practice is carefully and consciously considered to arrive at the most appropriate response. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Sammut, Mario R.
Background In Malta smoking is widespread and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Family doctors are well-placed to provide smoking cessation advice to their patients. Objective The aim of this review is to assist family doctors in helping their patients quit smoking by informing them of evidence-based therapies. Method The online Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews within the Cochrane Library was searched for metaanalyses and systematic reviews related to various smoking...
Song, Wenjia; Eaton, Linda H; Gordon, Debra B; Hoyle, Christine; Doorenbos, Ardith Z
It is important to ensure that cancer pain management is based on the best evidence. Nursing evidence-based pain management can be examined through an evaluation of pain documentation. The aim of this study was to modify and test an evaluation tool for nursing cancer pain documentation, and describe the frequency and quality of nursing pain documentation in one oncology unit via the electronic medical system. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used for this study at an oncology unit of an academic medical center in the Pacific Northwest. Medical records were examined for 37 adults hospitalized during April and May 2013. Nursing pain documentations (N = 230) were reviewed using an evaluation tool modified from the Cancer Pain Practice Index to consist of 13 evidence-based pain management indicators, including pain assessment, care plan, pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions, monitoring and treatment of analgesic side effects, communication with physicians, and patient education. Individual nursing documentation was assigned a score ranging from 0 (worst possible) to 13 (best possible), to reflect the delivery of evidence-based pain management. The participating nurses documented 90% of the recommended evidence-based pain management indicators. Documentation was suboptimal for pain reassessment, pharmacologic interventions, and bowel regimen. The study results provide implications for enhancing electronic medical record design and highlight a need for future research to understand the reasons for suboptimal nursing documentation of cancer pain management. For the future use of the data evaluation tool, we recommend additional modifications according to study settings. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Narra, Lekha; Sahama, Tony; Stapleton, Peta
Large volumes of heterogeneous health data silos pose a big challenge when exploring for information to allow for evidence based decision making and ensuring quality outcomes. In this paper, we present a proof of concept for adopting data warehousing technology to aggregate and analyse disparate health data in order to understand the impact various lifestyle factors on obesity. We present a practical model for data warehousing with detailed explanation which can be adopted similarly for studying various other health issues.
Visser, Claire; Hadley, Gina; Wee, Bee
There has been a paradigm shift in medicine away from tradition, anecdote and theoretical reasoning from the basic sciences towards evidence-based medicine (EBM). In palliative care however, statistically significant benefits may be marginal and may not be related to clinical meaningfulness. The typical treatment vs. placebo comparison necessitated by ‘gold standard’ randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is not necessarily applicable. The complex multimorbidity of end of life care involves cons...
Reese, Robert J; Slone, Norah C; Soares, Neelkamal; Sprang, Rob
Families with a child diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder completed an 8-session parenting program, the Group Triple P Positive Parenting Program, provided by videoconferencing technology. Families reported improved child behavior (effect size of d = -1.23) and decreased parent distress (d = -0.34). Parent training implemented with videoconferencing technology can be an effective way of delivering evidence-based services to families with specialized needs. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Alireza Moayyeri; Akbar Soltani; Hamideh Moosapour; Mohsin Raza
Physicians all through the world visit patients under time limitations. The most important troubled clinical skill under ?time constraint? is the diagnostic approach. In this situation, clinicians need some diagnostic approaches to reduce both diagnostic time and errors. It seems that highly experienced physicians utilize some special tactics in this regard. Evidence-based medicine (EBM) as a relatively new paradigm for clinical practice stresses on using research evidences in diagnostic eval...
Pagoto, Sherry; Schneider, Kristin; Jojic, Mirjana; DeBiasse, Michele; Mann, Devin
Physicians have limited time for weight-loss counseling, and there is a lack of resources to which they can refer patients for assistance with weight loss. Weight-loss mobile applications (apps) have the potential to be a helpful tool, but the extent to which they include the behavioral strategies included in evidence-based interventions is unknown. The primary aims of the study were to determine the degree to which commercial weight-loss mobile apps include the behavioral strategies included in evidence-based weight-loss interventions, and to identify features that enhance behavioral strategies via technology. Thirty weight-loss mobile apps, available on iPhone and/or Android platforms, were coded for whether they included any of 20 behavioral strategies derived from an evidence-based weight-loss program (i.e., Diabetes Prevention Program). Data on available apps were collected in January 2012; data were analyzed in June 2012. The apps included on average 18.83% (SD=13.24; range=0%-65%) of the 20 strategies. Seven of the strategies were not found in any app. The most common technology-enhanced features were barcode scanners (56.7%) and a social network (46.7%). Weight-loss mobile apps typically included only a minority of the behavioral strategies found in evidence-based weight-loss interventions. Behavioral strategies that help improve motivation, reduce stress, and assist with problem solving were missing across apps. Inclusion of additional strategies could make apps more helpful to users who have motivational challenges. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.
Brand, Paul L P
A critical step in the development of evidence based guidelines is the interpretation and weighing-up of the epidemiological evidence. According to the model of human dynamic judgement formation, the personal views, convictions, and choices of the experts developing the guidelines play a part in determining this process. If such views, convictions, and choices are stated explicitly (as is recommended in the GRADE methodology for developing guidelines), physicians are more likely to really follow the guidelines.
Evidence-based practice (EBP) is now the dominant model in health care; its aim is to increase the use of research evidence to inform clinical decision making. Clinical practice guidelines are the predominant method by which research is distilled into practice recommendations. Clinical psychology has its own model which promotes the integration of research evidence with clinical expertise, the scientist practitioner model (SPM). Recent developments within the United Kingdom health service, su...
Ollendick, Thomas H.
Evidence-based practice has a long history; however attempts to bridge the gap between science and practice have been only partially effective and much work remains to be done. Part of the problem has been the unilateral approach associated with dissemination of research findings to clinical practitioners. In this special series, Goldfried and colleagues suggest a two-way bridge, in which practitioners are afforded the opportunity to disseminate their rich clinical experiences to researchers ...
Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas
of greater complexity. Consequently, there is a need for a simple, general method which is capable of generating both types of objects. Generic Graph Grammar has been developed to address this need. The production rules consist of a small set of basic productions which are applied directly onto primitives...... in a directed cyclic graph. Furthermore, the basic productions are chosen such that Generic Graph Grammar seamlessly combines the capabilities of L-systems to imitate biological growth (to model trees, animals, etc.) and those of split grammars to design structured objects (chairs, houses, etc.). This results...... in a highly expressive grammar capable of generating a wide range of types of models. Models which consist of skeletal structures or surfaces or any combination of these. Besides generic modelling capabilities, the focus has also been on usability, especially userfriendliness and efficiency. Therefore several...
Dea, Nicolas; Fisher, Charles G
Treatment modalities for metastatic spine disease have significantly expanded over the last two decades. This expansion occurred in many different fields. Improvement in surgical techniques and instrumentation now allow the oncologic spine surgeons to effectively circumferentially decompress the neural elements without compromising stability. Percutaneous techniques, both vertebral augmentation and pre-operative endovascular embolization procedures, also greatly benefit patients suffering from spinal column metastasis. Imaging technology advances has contributed to better pre-operative planning and the development of highly conformational radiation techniques, thus permitting the delivery of high-dose radiation to tumors, while avoiding radiotoxicity to the spinal cord and other vital structures. These new developments, combined with evidence-based stability and disease-specific quality of life scores now allow not only better treatment, but also a solid foundation for high-quality research. Spine oncology literature currently suffers from a lack of high-quality evidence due to low prevalence of the disease and complex methodological issues. However, when following evidence-based medicine principles, which incorporate best available evidence, clinical expertise and patient preference, sound, evidence-based recommendations can be made regarding the abovementioned treatment modalities.
Perlstein, P H; Kotagal, U R; Bolling, C; Steele, R; Schoettker, P J; Atherton, H D; Farrell, M K
To describe the effect of implementing an evidence-based clinical practice guideline for the inpatient care of infants with bronchiolitis at the Children's Hospital Medical Center in Cincinnati, Ohio. A multidisciplinary team generated the guideline for infants first-time episode of typical bronchiolitis. The guideline was implemented January 15, 1997, and data on all patients admitted with bronchiolitis from that date through March 27, 1997, were compared with data on similar patients admitted in the same periods in the years 1993 through 1996. Data were extracted from hospital charts and clinical and financial databases. They included LOS and use and costs of resources ancillary to bed occupancy. After implementation of the guideline, admissions decreased 29% and mean LOS decreased 17%. Nasopharyngeal washings for respiratory syncytial virus were obtained in 52% fewer patients. Twenty percent fewer chest radiographs were ordered. There were significant reductions in the use of all respiratory therapies, with a 30% decrease in the use of at least 1 beta-agonist inhalation therapy. In addition, 51% fewer repeated inhalations were administered. Mean costs for all resources ancillary to bed occupancy decreased 37%. Mean costs for respiratory care services decreased 77%. An evidence-based clinical practice guideline for managing bronchiolitis was highly successful in modifying care during its first year of implementation.guideline, bronchiolitis, evidence-based medicine, pediatrics, outcome research.
Martinón-Torres, F; Rodríguez Núñez, A; Martinón Sánchez, J M
Bronchiolitis is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection in infants and produces significant morbidity. Limited progress has been made in the treatment of this disease and, in many cases, the therapy employed is controversial and mainly based on general recommendations and not on evidence-based strategies. This report uses evidence-based methodology to provide a critical review of the data available on the treatment of acute bronchiolitis (understood as the first episode of respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in a previously healthy infant). After this analysis, we conclude that the only justifiable therapeutic interventions in these patients are supportive treatment, nebulized epinephrine and mechanical ventilation. Other therapies such us physiotherapy, nebulization, heliox, anticholinergics or exogenous surfactant, among others, require further randomized controlled trials to determine their utility. No evidence supports the routine use of corticosteroids, beta-adrenergic drugs, antibiotics, immunoglobulins, interferon, vitamin A or ribavirin in these patients. Finally, we consider that a national consensus review for the implementation of evidence-based clinical practical guidelines on the management of acute bronchiolitis would be of great interest.
ZHANG, QIANG; YANG, JIE; QIAN, QUN
Rectal cancer is a worldwide disease whose incidence has increased significantly. Evidence-based medicine is a category of medicine that optimizes decision making by using evidence from well-designed and conducted research. Evidence-based medicine can be used to formulate a reasonable treatment plan for newly diagnosed rectal cancer patients. The current review focuses on the application of evidence-based treatment on patients with rectal cancer. The relationship between perioperative blood transfusion and recurrence of rectal cancer after surgery, the selection between minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery and traditional laparotomy, choice of chemotherapy for patients with rectal cancer prior to surgery, selection between stapled and hand-sewn methods for colorectal anastomosis during rectal cancer resection, and selection between temporary ileostomy and colostomy during the surgery were addressed. Laparoscopy is considered to have more advantages but is time-consuming and has high medical costs. In addition, laparoscopic rectal cancer radical resection is preferred to open surgery. In radical resection surgery, use of a stapling device for anastomosis can reduce postoperative anastomotic fistula, although patients should be informed of possible anastomotic stenosis. PMID:26998054
Fernanda Carolina Camargo
Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To analyze the apprehensions of nurse managers in the implementation of the Evidence Based Practice in a Teaching Hospital of Triângulo Mineiro. Method: Qualitative research guided by the Theory of the Diffusion of Innovations. Five workshops were conducted per focal group (n = 18 participants, conducted by hermeneutic-dialectic interactions between August and September/2016. Textual records resulting from each workshop were analyzed by semantic categories. Results: Aspects conditioning to the implementation of the Evidence Based Practice permeate from elements related to the fragmentation of the care network to the necessary expansion of the governability of the nurse managers to put changes into practice in their sectors. Most importantly, timely access to the results of research conducted at the teaching hospital was mentioned as crucial to guide better practices. Final considerations: The approach allowed the recognition of contextual conditions for the implementation of the Evidence-Based Practice, which may coincide with similar scenarios, as well as increase the national scientific production on the subject, which is still scarce.
Full Text Available Background. Evidence-based medicine employs systematic searching, evaluation and use of current research findings as the basis for clinical decision-making. However, there are some problems and uncertainties hindering introduction and spreading of the use of the method in clinical practice. Physicians often have no time for literature searching and for use of the method in practice. For certain questions in clinical practice there are no answers in medical literature. Most of the evidences in medical literature are only available in English. Introduction of the method is hampered also by the fact that clinical decision-making is complex and does not allow procedures prescribed in advance. Rigidity and universality of decisions resulting from the evidence may appear impersonal and may affect the relationship between the physician and the patient. Trends towards evidence based medicine are followed also by big multinational pharmaceutical corporations. They carry out large and expensive clinical trials using the results for promotional purposes. In this way, they get the competitive advantage and influence the objectivity of physicians’ clinical decision-making.Conclusions. With introduction of evidence based medicine into clinical practice physicians acquire new information and use a new form of continuing education by following new developments in their field. This way, new findings from medical literature get into clinical practice faster and more efficiently. In addition, physicians get more professional satisfaction and quality in clinical practice is higher.
Full Text Available There has been renewed recognition that proactive strategies and interventions can address the social determinants of health, and the environmental health profession is well placed to effect positive change in many of these determinants. This qualitative research has revealed differences in the perceptions, experiences, and understandings of evidence-based practice among public health professionals from different backgrounds across different services in health care and local government in England. The absence of a strong tradition of evidence-based practice in environmental health appears to be a disadvantage in securing funding and playing a full role, as it has become the expectation in the new public health system. This has, at times, resulted in tensions between professionals with different backgrounds and frustration on the part of environmental health practitioners, who have a tradition of responding quickly to new challenges and “getting on with the job.” There is generally a willingness to develop evidence-based practice in environmental health; however, this will take time and investment.
Dijkzeul, Dennis; Hilhorst, Dorothea; Walker, Peter
This introductory paper sets the stage for this special issue of Disasters on evidence-based action in humanitarian crises. It reviews definition(s) of evidence and it examines the different disciplinary and methodological approaches to collecting and analysing evidence. In humanitarian action, the need for evidence-based approaches sometimes is viewed in tension with a principled approach, often unnecessarily. Choosing appropriate research methods depends on the objectives of the researcher, in particular whether the research focuses on the intervention and/or the context and the length and complexity of the causal chains involved. The paper concludes by defining some trends in evidence-based approaches in crises: the move away from inputs and outputs of humanitarian action towards outcomes and impacts; the shift towards a higher degree of partnerships in research, and the participation of users and target groups; and the acceptance of a broad array of approaches to establish evidence. © 2013 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.
Prudhomme, Michael B; Ropp, Lincoln G; Sauer, Samual W; LaVan, Joseph T
Using concepts from evidence-based medicine, systems theory, and risk assessment, a standardized model was developed to accept or reject medications for use in flight. The model calculates the risk scores of medications, which can then be compared to an organization's acceptable risk tolerance. Risk scores for each medication were established by summing the products of incidence rates and severity scores for all published side effects. The incidence of each side effect was obtained in an evidence-based manner and each assigned a severity multiplier. Using statistical analysis of the calculated risk scores of approved medications, an acceptance control chart was generated. Range of calculated risk scores of historically approved medications was 10-9140. Six Sigma Acceptance Control Line was calculated at 1.5 SDs above the mean and was 9822. Risk score range of medications generally felt unsafe was 27,010-41,294. Risk score range of medications under consideration for approval was 986-6863. This novel approach to medication approval is the first in aerospace medicine to attempt to combine evidence-based medicine, risk analysis, and control charts to standardize and streamline the medication approval process within an organization. The model was validated by testing against medications generally accepted to be unsafe for use in flight. These medications fell several deviations above the control line. Other medications not yet authorized fall well below the acceptance line and could be considered for approval.
Johansson, Birgitta; Fogelberg-Dahm, Marie; Wadensten, Barbro
To describe evidence-based practice among head nurses and to explore whether number of years of duty is associated with such activities. Further to evaluate the effects of education on evidence-based practice and perceived support from immediate superiors. Registered nurses in Sweden are required by law to perform care based on research findings and best experiences. In order to achieve this, evidence-based practice (EBP) is of key importance. All 168 head nurses at two hospitals were asked to participate. Ninety-nine (59%) completed the survey. Data were collected using a study-specific web-based questionnaire. The majority reported a positive attitude towards EBP, but also a lack of time for EBP activities. A greater number of years as a head nurse was positively correlated with research utilization. Education in research methods and perceived support from immediate superiors were statistically and significantly associated with increased EBP activities. The present study highlights the value of education in research methods and the importance of supportive leadership. Education is an important factor in the employment of head nurses. We recommend interventions to create increased support for EBP among management, the goal being to deliver high-quality care and increase patient satisfaction.
Chiang, Li-Chi; Liao, Mei-Nan
As clinical scientists on the interdisciplinary healthcare team, nurses use the art and science of current nursing knowledge to provide evidence-based healthcare to each patient and his/her family. Nurses not only comprise the largest contingent of medical personnel and provide 24-hour patient care but are also professional scientists that develop unique nursing knowledge through reflective practice. Five strategies for expanding the body of current evidence-based nursing scientific knowledge include: (1) reflecting empirically on the practice-service domain, (2) developing nursing knowledge using rigorous methodology, (3) emancipating nursing knowledge using innovative transformation, (4) using collaborative interdisciplinary healthcare that is based in patient-centered care, and (5) initiating innovative transformation in nursing education. Nurses are critical healthcare providers that make important contributions to today's healthcare system. Nursing scientists provide frontline, evidence-based transforming care that deserves to be respected and valued on an equal basis with the care and services that are provided by other medical personnel.
Satterfield, Jason M; Spring, Bonnie; Brownson, Ross C; Mullen, Edward J; Newhouse, Robin P; Walker, Barbara B; Whitlock, Evelyn P
Context This article describes the historical context and current developments in evidence-based practice (EBP) for medicine, nursing, psychology, social work, and public health, as well as the evolution of the seminal “three circles” model of evidence-based medicine, highlighting changes in EBP content, processes, and philosophies across disciplines. Methods The core issues and challenges in EBP are identified by comparing and contrasting EBP models across various health disciplines. Then a unified, transdisciplinary EBP model is presented, drawing on the strengths and compensating for the weaknesses of each discipline. Findings Common challenges across disciplines include (1) how “evidence” should be defined and comparatively weighted; (2) how and when the patient's and/or other contextual factors should enter the clinical decision-making process; (3) the definition and role of the “expert”; and (4) what other variables should be considered when selecting an evidence-based practice, such as age, social class, community resources, and local expertise. Conclusions A unified, transdisciplinary EBP model would address historical shortcomings by redefining the contents of each model circle, clarifying the practitioner's expertise and competencies, emphasizing shared decision making, and adding both environmental and organizational contexts. Implications for academia, practice, and policy also are discussed. PMID:19523122
Full Text Available The practice of "evidence-based medicine" aims at the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of the current best evidence in making decisions about the individualised patient care. The clinical genetics evolved from translational genetics research and contributes to the clinical care of patients and families through evidence-based health care in managing inherited disorders through accurate diagnosis, molecular pathology and assessing phenotypic correlations. Translational genetics and genomics research has led to the development of powerful tools for clinical diagnosis, assessing individual's genomic profile for disease prediction/prevention, high-throughput genome-wide screening for predisposition and/or protection to complex medical conditions, and discovery and development of new drugs and vaccines. Gene mapping and deciphering pathogenic mutations have helped in unravelling the basic biological mechanisms leading to new drug discovery and development. Targeted pharmacotherapy is now possible for managing the highly penetrant multi-system dominantly inherited conditions. Notable examples include rapamycin (sirolimus in suppressing the mTOR pathway associated hamartomas in dominantly inherited cancer family syndromes and angiotensin converting enzyme receptor blockers (ACE-RB in preventing aortic dilatation in Marfan syndrome and related familial arteriopathies. The translational genomic research is the essential prerequisite for developing sound evidence-based diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic clinical protocols for the practice of personalised clinical medicine.
In April 2008, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began an evidence-based review of the literature concerning pressure ulcers.Please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site, http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/tech/tech_mn.html to review these titles that are currently available within the Pressure Ulcers series.PRESSURE ULCER PREVENTION: an evidence based analysisThe cost-effectiveness of prevention strategies for pressure ulcers in long-term care homes in Ontario: projections of the Ontario Pressure Ulcer Model (field evaluation)MANAGEMENT OF CHRONIC PRESSURE ULCERS: an evidence-based analysis The Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) conducted a systematic review on interventions used to treat pressure ulcers in order to answer the following questions: Do currently available interventions for the treatment of pressure ulcers increase the healing rate of pressure ulcers compared with standard care, a placebo, or other similar interventions?Within each category of intervention, which one is most effective in promoting the healing of existing pressure ulcers? A pressure ulcer is a localized injury to the skin and/or underlying tissue usually over a bony prominence, as a result of pressure, or pressure in conjunction with shear and/or friction. Many areas of the body, especially the sacrum and the heel, are prone to the development of pressure ulcers. People with impaired mobility (e.g., stroke or spinal cord injury patients) are most vulnerable to pressure ulcers. Other factors that predispose people to pressure ulcer formation are poor nutrition, poor sensation, urinary and fecal incontinence, and poor overall physical and mental health. The prevalence of pressure ulcers in Ontario has been estimated to range from a median of 22.1% in community settings to a median of 29.9% in nonacute care facilities. Pressure ulcers have been shown to increase the risk of mortality among geriatric patients by as much as 400%, to increase the frequency
Weaver, Robert R
Evidence-based and patient-centred health care movements have each enhanced the discussion of how health care might best be delivered, yet the two have evolved separately and, in some views, remain at odds with each other. No clear model has emerged to enable practitioners to capitalize on the advantages of each so actual practice often becomes, to varying degrees, an undefined mishmash of each. When faced with clinical uncertainty, it becomes easy for practitioners to rely on formulas for care developed explicitly by expert panels, or on the tacit ones developed from experience or habit. Either way, these tendencies towards 'cookbook' medicine undermine the view of patients as unique particulars, and diminish what might be considered patient-centred care. The sequence in which evidence is applied in the care process, however, is critical for developing a model of care that is both evidence based and patient centred. This notion derives from a paradigm for knowledge delivery and patient care developed over decades by Dr. Lawrence Weed. Weed's vision enables us to view evidence-based and person-centred medicine as wholly complementary, using computer tools to more fully and reliably exploit the vast body of collective knowledge available to define patients' uniqueness and identify the options to guide patients. The transparency of the approach to knowledge delivery facilitates meaningful practitioner-patient dialogue in determining the appropriate course of action. Such a model for knowledge delivery and care is essential for integrating evidence-based and patient-centred approaches. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Rosen, Raymond C; Ruzek, Josef I; Karlin, Bradley E
There is a pressing global need for trained and competent mental health clinicians to deliver evidence-based psychological therapies to millions of trauma survivors in need of care. Three model, large-scale training programs were initiated a decade ago, one in the United Kingdom (U.K.), and two in the United States (U.S.), to disseminate high-quality, evidence-based psychological care to traumatized children and adults in need of assistance. Milestone contributions to implementation science have been made by each of these training programs, although limitations and challenges remain to be considered. In contrast, culturally adapted and simplified PTSD interventions and therapy training programs have also been developed and tested during the past decade, three of which show particular promise for broader implementation. These simplified but evidence-based interventions have been developed for use by lay counsellors or health technicians with minimal or no prior mental health training. Finally, a growing range of technology-based and technology-assisted training models for PTSD providers have also been developed and disseminated in the past decade. This trend is expected to accelerate as more providers become accustomed to acquiring clinical training in this modality or format, although significant barriers to technology-based training will need to be overcome. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
and skills in the basic disciplines of the professions also termed as disciplinary and procedural knowledge '. Thus the main research question for this paper is: What consequences do recent reform actions in Danish welfare education concerning generic competence have on developing professional knowledge......Our paper is based on an ongoing research project about ‘genericism’ in Danish professional education. We critically discuss the concept of 'generic skills' and argue that the ability to act professionally and reflective, even in changing contexts, should foremost be based on extensive knowledge...
Higa-McMillan, Charmaine; Kotte, Amelia; Jackson, David; Daleiden, Eric L
This study compared consistencies and discrepancies in usual care with practices derived from the evidence-base (PDEB) for youth anxiety in a public mental health system. Youth-level factors (diagnosis, functional impairment) as predictors of the discrepancies were also examined. Psychosocial and service data from 2485 youth with an anxiety disorder and/or receiving services for an anxiety treatment target were extracted. Therapists (N = 616) identified the treatment targets and practices youth received. Although many PDEB for youth anxiety were used by therapists in this sample, Exposure was only used in 15% of cases. Practices not consistent with youth anxiety treatment were also reported and included: PDEB for other conditions, practices common to all therapies, and practices that are not consistent with evidence-based care. Age and diagnosis predicted the delivery of PDEB for youth anxiety. Usual care incorporated many components of evidence-based care but was more diffuse and less focused on well-supported practices.
Hogue, Aaron; Henderson, Craig E; Ozechowski, Timothy J; Robbins, Michael S
This article updates the evidence base on outpatient behavioral treatments for adolescent substance use (ASU) since publication of the previous review completed for this journal by Waldron and Turner ( 2008 ). It first summarizes the Waldron and Turner findings as well as those from more recent literature reviews and meta-analytic studies of ASU treatment. It then presents study design and methods criteria used to select 19 comparative studies subjected to Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology level of support evaluation. These 19 studies are grouped by study category (efficacy or effectiveness) and described for sample characteristics, methodological quality, and substance use outcomes. Cumulative level of support designations are then made for each identified treatment approach: ecological family-based treatment, group cognitive-behavioral therapy, and individual cognitive-behavioral therapy are deemed Well Established; behavioral family-based treatment and motivational interviewing are deemed Probably Efficacious; drug counseling is deemed Possibly Efficacious; and four integrated treatment models combining more than one approach are deemed Well Established or Probably Efficacious. The remainder of the article (a) articulates fidelity, mediator, and moderator effects reported for evidence-based approaches since 2008 and (b) recommends four enhancements to the prevailing business model of ASU outpatient services to accelerate penetration of evidence-based approaches into the underserved consumer base: pursue partnerships with influential governmental systems, utilize web-based technology to extend reach and control costs, adapt effective methods for linking services across sectors of care, and promote uptake and sustainability by emphasizing return on investment.
The study was a double-blind randomised trial involving two parallel groups - generic substitution v. original product. Chronic schizophrenics, aged between 18 and 65 years, who had been on a constant dose of fluphenazine decanoate for at least 3 months preceding the trial, all treated as outpatients in the community, ...
Shreeve, Michael W.
Evidence-based practice has emerged as a driving factor in current curriculum development in chiropractic education. This commentary discusses educational strategies incorporating evidence-based practices in the doctor of chiropractic curriculum and explores whether all five steps of the evidence-based process and patient outcomes from evidence-based practice are being assessed.
Drozdowska, Aleksandra; Hermanowski, Tomasz
Escalating pharmaceutical costs have become a global challenge for both governments and patients. Generic substitution is one way of decreasing these costs. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with patients' choice between generic drugs and innovator drugs. The survey was conducted in June 2013, 1000 people from across Poland were chosen as a representative population sample. The outcome (a preference for generics/a preference for innovator pharmaceuticals/no preference) was modeled by multinomial logistic regression, adjusted for several variables describing patients' sensitivity to selected generic features (price, brand, and country of origin), to third-party opinions about generics (information on generics in the mass media, opinions of health professionals (i.e. physicians, pharmacists), relatives/friends), as well as patients' personal experiences and income per household. The results supported the predictive capacity of most independent variables (except for patient sensitivity to the country of origin and to the information on generics in the mass media), denoting patients' preferences toward generic substitution. Patient sensitivity to recommendations by physicians, generic brand, and household income were the strongest predictors of the choice between generic and innovator pharmaceuticals (P < 0.001). The probability of choosing generics over innovator drugs was significantly higher among respondents with the lowest income levels, in those who were indifferent to generic brand or their physician's opinion, as well as in respondents who were sensitive to recommendations by pharmacists or attached a greater value to a past experience with generics (their own experience or that of relatives/friends). In consideration of the foregoing, awareness-raising campaigns may be recommended, supported by a variety of systemic solutions and tools to encourage generic substitution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kenny, Deborah J; Goodman, Petra
Care of patients with enteral feeding tubes often is based on tradition and textbook guidance rather than best evidence. Care practices can vary widely both between and within institutions, and this was the case at a northeastern military medical center that served as the site for this evidence-based protocol development and implementation project. The purpose of this study was to describe the development and implementation of an evidence-based clinical protocol for care of patients with enteral feeding tubes. This was an evidence-based implementation project with pretest-posttest measures. Protocol data collection occurred both before and after implementation of the protocol. Data collection tools were based on the literature review and included three domains: (a) documentation of patient procedures, (b) nursing knowledge of each of the specific procedures, and (c) environment of care. Descriptive statistics and data were analyzed using independent samples t tests. Overall staff knowledge of enteral feedings and methods used to unclog both large- and small-bore feeding tubes differed significantly before and after implementation (p tubes. There was a 10% improvement in documentation of patient family education and a 15% improvement in recording fluid flushes during medication administration. After implementation, environment of care data collection showed 100% of patients with head of bed elevated and with functioning suction available, an improvement over levels before implementation. Care must be taken in the interpretation of these findings because it was generally not the same nurses who answered both surveys. High staff turnover within this military hospital also affected sustainment of the protocol implementation. Maintenance activities must be constant and visible within the organization. A champion for evidence-based practice greatly enhances uptake and maintenance of nursing practice change.
Lee, A C K
Globally, the incidence of natural disasters is increasing with developing countries tending to be worst affected. Implementing best practices in disaster management that are evidence-based is essential in order to improve disaster resilience and response. This study explores the barriers to evidence-based disaster management encountered in Nepal. A qualitative study was conducted in Nepal involving interviews with key informants in the disaster management field. Government officials, academics, programme managers, disaster management practitioners and policymakers involved in disaster management were purposively sampled and invited to interview. 11 agreed to participate and were interviewed. The face-to-face interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. The interviews uncovered population-level barriers such as contextual factors (e.g. poverty), local custom and culture, as well as community-level issues (e.g. level of engagement and understanding). System-level barriers included limited demand for, availability and accessibility of the evidence-base. The implementation of evidence was influenced by the configuration of the disaster management system and system processes. Political ownership and leadership is an essential determinant of practice. Several barriers to evidence-based practice in disaster management exist in Nepal. The relative influence of the different barriers varies with political determinants likely to have greater importance in countries such as Nepal where system governance and leadership is insufficiently developed. These issues affect a country's vulnerability to disasters and need to be addressed. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mary M. Somerville
Full Text Available Objective – In response to unrelenting disruptions in academic publishing and higher education ecosystems, the Informed Systems approach supports evidence based professional activities to make decisions and take actions. This conceptual paper presents two core models, Informed Systems Leadership Model and Collaborative Evidence-Based Information Process Model, whereby co-workers learn to make informed decisions by identifying the decisions to be made and the information required for those decisions. This is accomplished through collaborative design and iterative evaluation of workplace systems, relationships, and practices. Over time, increasingly effective and efficient structures and processes for using information to learn further organizational renewal and advance nimble responsiveness amidst dynamically changing circumstances. Methods – The integrated Informed Systems approach to fostering persistent workplace inquiry has its genesis in three theories that together activate and enable robust information usage and organizational learning. The information- and learning-intensive theories of Peter Checkland in England, which advance systems design, stimulate participants’ appreciation during the design process of the potential for using information to learn. Within a co-designed environment, intentional social practices continue workplace learning, described by Christine Bruce in Australia as informed learning enacted through information experiences. In addition, in Japan, Ikujiro Nonaka’s theories foster information exchange processes and knowledge creation activities within and across organizational units. In combination, these theories promote the kind of learning made possible through evolving and transferable capacity to use information to learn through design and usage of collaborative communication systems with associated professional practices. Informed Systems therein draws from three antecedent theories to create an original
Romero, Lisa M; Olaiya, Oluwatosin; Hallum-Montes, Rachel; Varanasi, Balalakshmi; Mueller, Trisha; House, L Duane; Schlanger, Karen; Middleton, Dawn
The purposes of this study were to describe changes in implementation of evidence-based clinical practices among health center partners as part of a multicomponent, community-wide teen pregnancy prevention initiative; to better understand the barriers to and facilitators of implementation of the evidence-based clinical practices; and to describe the technical assistance and training provided to the health center partners and key lessons learned. Health center data from the second and third years (2012 and 2013) of the teen pregnancy prevention community-wide initiative were analyzed from 10 communities (the first year was a planning year; program implementation began in the second year). Data were analyzed from 48 health center partners that contributed data in both years to identify evidence-based clinical practices that were being implemented and opportunities for improvement. In addition, data were analyzed from a purposive sample of 30 health center partners who were asked to describe their experiences in implementing evidence-based clinical practices in adolescent reproductive health care and barriers and facilitators to implementation. Across 48 health centers in the 10 communities, 52% reported an increase in the implementation of evidence-based clinical practices from 2012 to 2013, mostly in providing contraceptive access (23%) and offering Quick Start (19%). Among health centers that reported no change (13%), the majority reported that practices were already being implemented before the initiative. Finally, among health centers that reported a decrease in implementation of evidence-based clinical practices (35%), most reported a decrease in having either hormonal contraception or intrauterine devices available at every visit (15%), having HIV rapid testing available (10%), or participating in the federal 340B Drug Discount Program (2%). In addition, health systems and community-level factors influence health center implementation of evidence-based
Glober, Nancy K.; Sporer, Karl A.; Guluma, Kama Z.; Serra, John P.; Barger, Joe A.; Brown, John F.; Gilbert, Gregory H.; Koenig, Kristi L.; Rudnick, Eric M.; Salvucci, Angelo A.
Introduction In the United States, emergency medical services (EMS) protocols vary widely across jurisdictions. We sought to develop evidence-based recommendations for the prehospital evaluation and treatment of a patient with a suspected stroke and to compare these recommendations against the current protocols used by the 33 EMS agencies in the state of California. Methods We performed a literature review of the current evidence in the prehospital treatment of a patient with a suspected stroke and augmented this review with guidelines from various national and international societies to create our evidence-based recommendations. We then compared the stroke protocols of each of the 33 EMS agencies for consistency with these recommendations. The specific protocol components that we analyzed were the use of a stroke scale, blood glucose evaluation, use of supplemental oxygen, patient positioning, 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and cardiac monitoring, fluid assessment and intravenous access, and stroke regionalization. Results Protocols across EMS agencies in California varied widely. Most used some sort of stroke scale with the majority using the Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale (CPSS). All recommended the evaluation of blood glucose with the level for action ranging from 60 to 80mg/dL. Cardiac monitoring was recommended in 58% and 33% recommended an ECG. More than half required the direct transport to a primary stroke center and 88% recommended hospital notification. Conclusion Protocols for a patient with a suspected stroke vary widely across the state of California. The evidence-based recommendations that we present for the prehospital diagnosis and treatment of this condition may be useful for EMS medical directors tasked with creating and revising these protocols. PMID:26973735
Gausche-Hill, Marianne; Brown, Kathleen M; Oliver, Zoë J; Sasson, Comilla; Dayan, Peter S; Eschmann, Nicholas M; Weik, Tasmeen S; Lawner, Benjamin J; Sahni, Ritu; Falck-Ytter, Yngve; Wright, Joseph L; Todd, Knox; Lang, Eddy S
The management of acute traumatic pain is a crucial component of prehospital care and yet the assessment and administration of analgesia is highly variable, frequently suboptimal, and often determined by consensus-based regional protocols. To develop an evidence-based guideline (EBG) for the clinical management of acute traumatic pain in adults and children by advanced life support (ALS) providers in the prehospital setting. Methods. We recruited a multi-stakeholder panel with expertise in acute pain management, guideline development, health informatics, and emergency medical services (EMS) outcomes research. Representatives of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (sponsoring agency) and a major children's research center (investigative team) also contributed to the process. The panel used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology to guide the process of question formulation, evidence retrieval, appraisal/synthesis, and formulation of recommendations. The process also adhered to the National Prehospital Evidence-Based Guideline (EBG) model process approved by the Federal Interagency Council for EMS and the National EMS Advisory Council. Four strong and three weak recommendations emerged from the process; two of the strong recommendations were linked to high- and moderate-quality evidence, respectively. The panel recommended that all patients be considered candidates for analgesia, regardless of transport interval, and that opioid medications should be considered for patients in moderate to severe pain. The panel also recommended that all patients should be reassessed at frequent intervals using a standardized pain scale and that patients should be re-dosed if pain persists. The panel suggested the use of specific age-appropriate pain scales. GRADE methodology was used to develop an evidence-based guideline for prehospital analgesia in trauma. The panel issued four strong recommendations regarding patient
Kenny, Deborah J; Richard, Maggie L; Ceniceros, Xochitl; Blaize, Kelli
Military medical treatment facilities offer a unique environment in which to develop a culture of evidence-based practice (EBP). Distinctive issues arise in the context of changed patient care demographics because of a war-injured population. These issues offer an opportunity to enhance the quality of care through the use and adaptation of research findings in this special nursing environment. In addition, the colocation of two military medical centers offers the prospect of collaborative efforts to create a regional culture for nursing EBP. The purposes of this study were to describe the processes of a collaborative project to train nurses in EBP and to share resources in developing and implementing evidence-based clinical nursing guidelines in two large military medical centers in the Northeastern United States and to discuss the collective efforts of nurse researchers, leadership, advanced practice nurses, and staff nurses in each hospital to facilitate the EBP process. A description of the organizational structure and the climate for EBP of each facility is provided followed by discussion of training efforts and the inculcation of an organizational culture for EBP. Contextual barriers and facilitators were encountered throughout the project. The two nurse researchers leading the projects were able to overcome the barriers and capitalize on opportunities to promote EBP. Three evidence-based clinical practice guidelines were developed at each facility and are currently in various stages of implementation. Despite the barriers, EBP continues to be at the forefront of military nursing practice in the U.S. National Capital Region. Clear communication and regular meetings were essential to the success of the collaborative project within and between the two military hospitals. Military-specific barriers to EBP included high team attrition and turnover because of the war mission and the usual high staff turnover at military hospitals. Military facilitators included a
I respond to Kamhi's (2011) conclusion in his article "Balancing Certainty and Uncertainty in Clinical Practice" that rational or critical thinking is an essential complement to evidence-based practice (EBP). I expand on Kamhi's conclusion and briefly describe what clinicians might need to know to think critically within an EBP profession. Specifically, I suggest how critical thinking is relevant to EBP, broadly summarize the relevant skills, indicate the importance of thinking dispositions, and outline the various ways our thinking can go wrong. I finish the commentary by suggesting that critical thinking skills should be considered a required outcome of our professional training programs.
The workshop titled, National Library of Medicine: Evidence-based Information At Your Fingertips, is a computer training class designed to meet the needs of nurses who require access to information on specific medical topics and on the adverse health effects of exposure to hazardous substances. The Specialized Information Services Division of the National Library of Medicine (NLM) is sponsoring this workshop for the National Black Nurses Association to increase the awareness of health professionals of the availability and value of the free NLM medical, environmental health, and toxicology databases.
BACKGROUND: The aim of this conference paper was to examine the evidence base for primary and secondary prevention of dental caries, erosions and dentin hypersensitivity through professional and self-care measures. METHODS: A mapping of systematic reviews (SR) of literature was carried out in Pub...... and preventive dentistry that must be addressed and bridged through clinical research of good quality....... review articles of potential interest. Meta-analyses, guidelines and treatment recommendations were considered only when SR's were lacking. In the event of updates or multiple systematic reviews covering the same topic, only the most recent article was included. No quality assessment of the systematic...
Gennari, Rosella; Marenzi, Ivana; Prieta, Fernando; Rodríguez, Juan
Research on Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) investigates how information and communication technologies can be designed in order to support pedagogical activities. The workshop proceedings collects contributions concerning evidence based TEL systems, like their design following EBD principles as well as studies or best practices that educators, education stakeholders or psychologists used to diagnose or improve their students' learning skills, including students with specific difficulties. The international ebTEL’12 workshop wants to be a forum in which TEL researchers and practitioners alike can discuss ideas, projects, and lessons related to ebTEL. The workshop takes place in Salamanca, Spain, on March 28th-30th 2012.
Mold, James W; Hamm, Robert; Scheid, Dewey
Evidence-based medicine and goal-directed, patient-centered health care seem, at times, like parallel universes, though, at a conceptual level, they are perfectly compatible. Part of the problem is that many of the kinds of information required for decision making in primary care are often unavailable or difficult to find. Several case examples are used to illustrate this problem, and reasons and solutions are suggested. The goal-directed health care model could be helpful for directing the search for evidence that is relevant to the decisions that patients and their primary care physicians must make on a regular basis.
The Montessori educational method has existed for over 100 years, but evaluations of its effectiveness are scarce. This review paper has three aims, namely to (1) identify some key elements of the method, (2) review existing evaluations of Montessori education, and (3) review studies that do not explicitly evaluate Montessori education but which evaluate the key elements identified in (1). The goal of the paper is therefore to provide a review of the evidence base for Montessori education, with the dual aspirations of stimulating future research and helping teachers to better understand whether and why Montessori education might be effective.
Raditic, Donna M; Bartges, Joseph W
Integrative medicine is the combined use of complementary and alternative medicine with conventional or traditional Western medicine systems. The demand for integrative veterinary medicine is growing, but evidence-based research on its efficacy is limited. In veterinary clinical oncology, such research could be translated to human medicine, because veterinary patients with spontaneous tumors are valuable translational models for human cancers. An overview of specific herbs, botanics, dietary supplements, and acupuncture evaluated in dogs, in vitro canine cells, and other relevant species both in vivo and in vitro is presented for their potential use as integrative therapies in veterinary clinical oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Saugel, Bernd; Malbrain, Manu L N G; Perel, Azriel
Hemodynamic instability frequently occurs in critically ill patients. Pathophysiological rationale suggests that hemodynamic monitoring (HM) may identify the presence and causes of hemodynamic instability and therefore may allow targeting therapeutic approaches. However, there is a discrepancy between this pathophysiological rationale to use HM and a paucity of formal evidence (as defined by the strict criteria of evidence-based medicine (EBM)) for its use. In this editorial, we discuss that this paucity of formal evidence that HM can improve patient outcome may be explained by both the shortcomings of the EBM methodology in the field of intensive care medicine and the shortcomings of HM itself.
A single 5-6 hours manualized abreactive ego state therapy session has recently been subjected to two placebo-controlled investigations meeting evidence-based criteria. Ego state therapy was found to be a highly effective and durable treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. Apparently, ego state therapy works because it is emotion focused, activates sub-cortical structures, and because the supportive, interpretive therapist reconstructs the patient's personality to be resilient and adaptive. In this article the author reviews the treatment procedures and presents the findings of both studies.
Bishop, SueZanne Monique
Little research exists linking interview-appropriate attire to improved employment outcomes for women. Thus, it appears that the professional clothing bank has not been investigated as evidence-based practice. To provide preliminary evidence for clothing banks, in this article the author synthesizes findings from existing research on the provision of a professional clothing bank as a means for offering interview-appropriate attire to poor women in job readiness programming. For context, job readiness programs are explored and a case study of one program operating a professional clothing bank is presented. Finally, preliminary considerations for planning and implementing clothing banks based on this literature review are given.
Thomas, Laurie Endicott
Medical students in the United States are taught little about nutrition and dietetics. Worse yet, their training biases them against the studies that show the power of dietary approaches to managing disease. The current approach to evidence-based medicine encourages physicians to ignore any information that does not come from a double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Yet human beings cannot be blinded to a dietary intervention. As a result, physicians are biased toward drug treatments and against dietary interventions for the management of chronic disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This work aims to deepen our understanding of the role played by technical guidelines and tools for the design, construction and operation of healthcare facilities, ultimately establishing the impact of the physical environment on staff and patient outcomes. Using case studies largely drawn from the UK, Europe, China and Australasia, design approaches such as sustainability (e.g. targets for energy efficiency, carbon neutrality, reduction of waste), evidence-based design (EBD), and Post-Project Evaluation (PPE) are examined in order to identify policies, mechanisms and strategies that can promote an integrated learning environment that in turn supports innovation in healthcare.
The authoritarian standpoint in medicine has been under challenge by various groups and researchers since the 1980s. The challenges have been ethical, political and medical, with patient movements at the forefront. Over the past decade, however, a deep challenge has been posed by evidence-based...... medicine (EBM), which has challenged the entire strategy of medical treatment from the point of view of a self-critical, anti-authoritarian and hereby also (it has been claimed) a more democratic medical practice. Previously, the challenges arose out of the patient rights perspective. EBM, by contrast...
Lystbæk, Christian Tang
, cost-efficiency and measurable quality. Thus, today, evidence-based practice has become an expectation and fashion, often used to emphasize the grounding of practice in research based knowledge that provides measurable evidence for best practice. But at the same time, there is a growing distrust......“Knowledge” is of the utmost significance for professional practice and learning. Today, though, the established knowledge base is changing in all areas of the labour market (Alvesson, 2004). Work and society are dominated by commitment to demands for high levels of demonstrable accountability...
Christiansen, Ole B; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; Bosch, Ernesto
OBJECTIVE: To give an overview of currently used investigations and treatments offered to women with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) and, from an evidence-based point of view, to evaluate the usefulness of these interventions. DESIGN: Ten experts on epidemiologic, genetic, anatomic, endocrinologic......, and an extensive investigation for all major factors should always be undertaken. There is an urgent need for agreement concerning the thresholds for detecting what is normal and abnormal, irrespective of whether laboratory tests or uterine abnormalities are concerned. A series of lifestyle factors should...
Vergneau-Grosset, Claire; Larrat, Sylvain
Fish and aquatic invertebrates deserve evidence-based medicine. Pharmacologic information is available; most pharmacokinetic studies are derived from the aquaculture industry and extrapolated to ornamental fish. Conversely, advanced diagnostics and information regarding diseases affecting only ornamental fish and invertebrates require more peer-reviewed experimental studies; the examples of carp edema virus, sea star wasting disease, seahorse nutrition, and gas bubble disease of fish under human care are discussed. Antinociception is also a controversial topic of growing interest in aquatic animal medicine. This article summarizes information regarding new topics of interest in companion fish and invertebrates and highlights some future avenues for research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Evidence-based polices have important place for the educational development. Monitoring and reporting activities through national and international reports and surveys provide data sources for a comparable education in Europe and make contribution to a more effective policy making process. It is seen that only almost half of the European countries carry out such surveys and reports by the year of 2010/2011 within the context of teaching methods and low achievement in mathematics education. In order to reach to the common educational objectives, systematic data sources are required both in national and international level.
GENERIC is a nonequilibrium thermodynamic formalism in which the dynamic behavior of a system is described by a single compact equation involving two types of brackets: a Poisson bracket and a dissipative bracket. This formalism has proved to be a very powerful instrument to model the dynamic
Wang, Ting-Shun; Tsai, Tsen-Fang
Scalp psoriasis is commonly the initial presentation of psoriasis, and almost 80 % of patients with psoriasis will eventually experience it. Although several systematic reviews and guidelines exist, an up-to-date evidence-based review including more recent progress on the use of biologics and new oral small molecules was timely. Of the 475 studies initially retrieved from PubMed and the 845 from Embase (up to May 2016), this review includes 27 clinical trials, four papers reporting pooled analyses of other clinical trials, ten open-label trials, one case series, and two case reports after excluding non-English literature. To our knowledge, few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are conducted specifically in scalp psoriasis. Topical corticosteroids provide good effects and are usually recommended as first-line treatment. Calcipotriol-betamethasone dipropionate is well tolerated and more effective than either of its individual components. Localized phototherapy is better than generalized phototherapy on hair-bearing areas. Methotrexate, cyclosporine, fumaric acid esters, and acitretin are well-recognized agents in the treatment of psoriasis, but we found no published RCTs evaluating these agents specifically in scalp psoriasis. Biologics and new small-molecule agents show excellent effects on scalp psoriasis, but the high cost of these treatments mean they may be limited to use in extensive scalp psoriasis. More controlled studies are needed for an evidence-based approach to scalp psoriasis.
Bracke, Paul J; Howse, David K; Keim, Samuel M
This paper reports on the development of a tool by the Arizona Health Sciences Library (AHSL) for searching clinical evidence that can be customized for different user groups. The AHSL provides services to the University of Arizona's (UA's) health sciences programs and to the University Medical Center. Librarians at AHSL collaborated with UA College of Medicine faculty to create an innovative search engine, Evidence-based Medicine (EBM) Search, that provides users with a simple search interface to EBM resources and presents results organized according to an evidence pyramid. EBM Search was developed with a web-based configuration component that allows the tool to be customized for different specialties. Informal and anecdotal feedback from physicians indicates that EBM Search is a useful tool with potential in teaching evidence-based decision making. While formal evaluation is still being planned, a tool such as EBM Search, which can be configured for specific user populations, may help lower barriers to information resources in an academic health sciences center.
Full Text Available In everyday clinical practice there is a constant need for valid information about diagnosis, prognosis, therapy and prevention of a variety of diseases. But there could be a disparity between the physician's diagnostic skills and his clinical judgment if he relies only on traditional sources of information. In the 1992, a group of scientists from the McMaster University in Ontario, Canada attempted to integrate individual clinical expertise with the best external evidence. They propose a process in which systematically finding, appraising and using of contemporaneous research were the base for proper clinical decision. They called this integration of personal clinical knowledge with research evidence - Evidence Based Medicine (EBM and since then interest in this field has growing exponentially. But 400 years before this important concept emerged a young physician from Koper, named Santorio Santorio (1561 - 1636 argued that a doctor should first rely on sense experience, then on reasoning, and only lastly on authority. Beside his numerous medical inventions he was the first to search justification to his practice by using some vital connection between measured parameters and a person's health state. He could be therefore credited as one of the beginners of modern concepts of science or evidence based medicine.
Eui Geum Oh, PhD, RN
Full Text Available As evidence-based practice has become an important issue in healthcare settings, the educational needs for knowledge and skills for the generation and utilization of healthcare evidence are increasing. Systematic review (SR, a way of evidence generation, is a synthesis of primary scientific evidence, which summarizes the best evidence on a specific clinical question using a transparent, a priori protocol driven approach. SR methodology requires a critical appraisal of primary studies, data extraction in a reliable and repeatable way, and examination for validity of the results. SRs are considered hierarchically as the highest form of evidence as they are a systematic search, identification, and summarization of the available evidence to answer a focused clinical question with particular attention to the methodological quality of studies or the credibility of opinion and text. The purpose of this paper is to introduce an overview of the fundamental knowledge, principals and processes in SR. The focus of this paper is on SR especially for the synthesis of quantitative data from primary research studies that examines the effectiveness of healthcare interventions. To activate evidence-based nursing care in various healthcare settings, the best and available scientific evidence are essential components. This paper will include some examples to promote understandings.
Full Text Available Sydney Y Rucker,1 Zulfukar Ozdogan,1 Morhaf Al Achkar2 1School of Education, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 2Department of Family Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA Abstract: Journal club (JC, as a pedagogical strategy, has long been used in graduate medical education (GME. As evidence-based medicine (EBM becomes a mainstay in GME, traditional models of JC present a number of insufficiencies and call for novel models of instruction. A flipped classroom model appears to be an ideal strategy to meet the demands to connect evidence to practice while creating engaged, culturally competent, and technologically literate physicians. In this article, we describe a novel model of flipped classroom in JC. We present the flow of learning activities during the online and face-to-face instruction, and then we highlight specific considerations for implementing a flipped classroom model. We show that implementing a flipped classroom model to teach EBM in a residency program not only is possible but also may constitute improved learning opportunity for residents. Follow-up work is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of this model on both learning and clinical practice. Keywords: evidence-based medicine, flipped classroom, residency education
Underwood, J Michael; Lakhani, Naheed; Finifrock, DeAnna; Pinkerton, Beth; Johnson, Krystal L; Mallory, Sharon H; Migliore Santiago, Patricia; Stewart, Sherri L
One of six priorities of CDC's National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) is to address the needs of cancer survivors within the local population served by individually funded states, tribes, and territories. This report examines cancer survivorship activities implemented in five NCCCP grantees, which have initiated evidence-based activities outlined in A National Action Plan for Cancer Survivorship: Advancing Public Health Strategies (NAP). NCCCP action plans, submitted annually to CDC, from 2010 to 2014 were reviewed in February 2015 to assess implementation of cancer survivorship activities and recommended strategies consistent with the NAP. Four state-level and one tribal grantee with specific activities related to one of each of the four NAP strategies were chosen for inclusion. Brief case reports describing the initiation and impact of implemented activities were developed in collaboration with each grantee program director. New Mexico, South Carolina, Vermont, Washington state, and Fond Du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa programs each implemented activities in surveillance and applied research; communication, education, and training; programs, policies, and infrastructure; and access to quality care and services. This report provides examples for incorporating cancer survivorship activities within Comprehensive Cancer Control programs of various sizes, demographic makeup, and resource capacity. New Mexico, South Carolina, Vermont, Washington state, and Fond Du Lac Band developed creative cancer survivorship activities that meet CDC recommendations. NCCCP grantees can follow these examples by implementing evidence-based survivorship interventions that meet the needs of their specific populations. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Talbot, Elizabeth A; Chen, Lin H; Sanford, Christopher; McCarthy, Anne; Leder, Karin
Travel medicine is the medical subspecialty which promotes healthy and safe travel. Numerous studies have been published that provide evidence for the practice of travel medicine, but gaps exist. The Research Committee of the International Society of Travel Medicine (ISTM) established a Writing Group which reviewed the existing evidence base and identified an initial list of research priorities through an interactive process that included e-mails, phone calls, and smaller meetings. The list was presented to a broader group of travel medicine experts, then was presented and discussed at the Annual ISTM Meeting, and further revised by the Writing Group. Each research question was then subject to literature search to ensure that adequate research had not already been conducted. Twenty-five research priorities were identified and categorized as intended to inform pre-travel encounters, safety during travel, and post-travel management. We have described the research priorities that will help to expand the evidence base in travel medicine. This discussion of research priorities serves to highlight the commitment that the ISTM has in promoting quality travel-related research. © 2010 International Society of Travel Medicine.
Han, Jung Yeon; Choi-Kwon, Smi
This study was designed to adapt a surgical wound care algorithm that is used to provide evidence-based surgical wound care in a critical care unit. This study used, the 'ADAPTE process', an international clinical practice guideline development method. The 'Bonnie Sue wound care algorithm' was used as a draft for the new algorithm. A content validity index (CVI) targeting 135 critical care nurses was conducted. A 5-point Likert scale was applied to the CVI test using a statistical criterion of .75. A surgical wound care algorithm comprised 9 components: wound assessment, infection control, necrotic tissue management, wound classification by exudates and depths, dressing selection, consideration of systemic factors, wound expected outcome, reevaluate non-healing wounds, and special treatment for non-healing wounds. All of the CVI tests were ≥.75. Compared to existing wound care guidelines, the new wound care algorithm provides precise wound assessment, reliabilities of wound care, expands applicability of wound care to critically ill patients, and provides evidence and strength of recommendations. The new surgical wound care algorithm will contribute to the advancement of evidence-based nursing care, and its use is expected as a nursing intervention in critical care.
Doumit, Gaby D; Papay, Frank A; Moores, Neal; Meisler, Eileen; Zins, James E
In health care, it is widely known that evidence-based medicine (EBM) has a significant impact on clinical practice, and opinion leaders can enhance the clinician's application of EBM in various disciplines. In this article, we examine the existence and impact of opinion leaders in craniofacial surgery as well as barriers to evidence-based practice. We compiled the answers of an Internet questionnaire, which was sent to 102 craniofacial surgeons. Our results demonstrate that opinion leaders most definitely can be identified in craniofacial surgery. They are tightly connected to their field's social network and promote EBM. In this survey, 44% of craniofacial surgeons reported that their greatest obstacle to clinical decision making in the management of nonsyndromic synostosis was lack of surgical consensus. In addition, craniofacial surgeons stated that EBM and opinion leaders are the most influential factors that caused them to change their management of craniosynostosis. We expect that the use of opinion leaders can further enhance the uptake of EBM in craniofacial surgery.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In resource-limited settings where laboratory capacity is limited and response strategy is non-specific, delayed or inappropriate intervention against outbreaks of Norovirus (NoV are common. Here we report interventions of two norovirus outbreaks, which highlight the importance of evidence-based modeling and assessment to identify infection sources and formulate effective response strategies. Methods Spatiotemporal scanning, mathematical and random walk modeling predicted the modes of transmission in the two incidents, which were supported by laboratory results and intervention outcomes. Results Simulation results indicated that contaminated water was 14 to 500 fold more infectious than infected individuals. Asymptomatic individuals were not effective transmitters. School closure for up to a week still could not contain the outbreak unless the duration was extended to 10 or more days. The total attack rates (TARs for waterborne NoV outbreaks reported in China (n = 3, median = 4.37 were significantly (p < 0.05 lower than worldwide (n = 14, median = 41.34. The low TARs are likely due to the high number of the affected population. Conclusions We found that school closure alone could not contain Norovirus outbreaks. Overlooked personal hygiene may serve as a hotbed for infectious disease transmission. Our results reveal that evidence-based investigations can facilitate timely interventions of Norovirus transmission.
Besag, Frank; Ettinger, Alan B.; Mula, Marco; Gobbi, Gabriella; Comai, Stefano; Aldenkamp, Albert P.; Steinhoff, Bernhard J.
Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have many benefits but also many side effects, including aggression, agitation, and irritability, in some patients with epilepsy. This article offers a comprehensive summary of current understanding of aggressive behaviors in patients with epilepsy, including an evidence-based review of aggression during AED treatment. Aggression is seen in a minority of people with epilepsy. It is rarely seizure related but is interictal, sometimes occurring as part of complex psychiatric and behavioral comorbidities, and it is sometimes associated with AED treatment. We review the common neurotransmitter systems and brain regions implicated in both epilepsy and aggression, including the GABA, glutamate, serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline systems and the hippocampus, amygdala, prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and temporal lobes. Few controlled clinical studies have used behavioral measures to specifically examine aggression with AEDs, and most evidence comes from adverse event reporting from clinical and observational studies. A systematic approach was used to identify relevant publications, and we present a comprehensive, evidence-based summary of available data surrounding aggression-related behaviors with each of the currently available AEDs in both adults and in children/adolescents with epilepsy. A psychiatric history and history of a propensity toward aggression/anger should routinely be sought from patients, family members, and carers; its presence does not preclude the use of any specific AEDs, but those most likely to be implicated in these behaviors should be used with caution in such cases. PMID:27255267
Silveira, Dierci Marcio
In Human Factors and Ergonomics Science (HFES), it is difficult to identify what is the best approach to tackle the workplace and systems design problems which needs to be solved, and it has been also advocated as transdisciplinary and multidisciplinary the issue of "How to solve the human factors and ergonomics problems that are identified?". The proposition on this study is to combine the theoretical approach for Sustainability Science, the Taxonomy of the Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE) discipline and the framework for Evidence-Based Medicine in an attempt to be applied in Human Factors and Ergonomics. Applications of ontologies are known in the field of medical research and computer science. By scrutinizing the key requirements for the HFES structuring of knowledge, it was designed a reference model, First, it was identified the important requirements for HFES Concept structuring, as regarded by Meister. Second, it was developed an evidence-based ergonomics framework as a reference model composed of six levels based on these requirements. Third, it was devised a mapping tool using linguistic resources to translate human work, systems environment and the complexities inherent to their hierarchical relationships to support future development at Level 2 of the reference model and for meeting the two major challenges for HFES, namely, identifying what problems should be addressed in HFE as an Autonomous Science itself and proposing solutions by integrating concepts and methods applied in HFES for those problems.
Full Text Available In the last twenty years the term “Evidence Based Medicine (EBM” has spread into all areas of medicine and is often used for decision-making in the medical and public health sector. It is also used to verify the significance and/or the effectiveness of different therapies. The definition of EBM is to use the physician’s individual expertise, the patient’s needs and the best external evidence for each individual patient. Today, however, the term EBM is often wrongly used as a synonym for best “external evidence”. This leads not only to a misuse of evidence based medicine but suggests a fundamental misunderstanding of the model which was created by Gordon Guyatt, David Sackett and Archibald Cochrane. This problem becomes even greater the more social insurance institutions, public healthcare providers and politicians use external evidence alone as a main guideline for financing therapies in physical medicine and general rehabilitation without taking into account the physician’s expertise and the patient’s needs.The wrong interpretation of EBM can lead to the following problems: well established clinical therapies are either questioned or not granted and are therefore withheld from patients (for example physical pain management. Absence of evidence for individual therapy methods does not prove their ineffectiveness! In this short statement the significance of EBM in physical medicine and general rehabilitation will be analysed and discussed.
Choe, Jae Gol [Korea University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
EBM is 'the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of the individual patient. It means integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available external clinical evidence from systematic research.' EBM is the integration of clinical expertise, patient values, and the best evidence into the decision making process for patient care. The practice of EBM is usually triggered by patient encounters which generate questions about the effects of therapy, the utility of diagnostic tests, the prognosis of diseases, or the etiology of disorders. The best evidence is usually found in clinically relevant research that has been conducted using sound methodology. Evidence-based medicine requires new skills of the clinician, including efficient literature-searching, and the application of formal rules of evidence in evaluating the clinical literature. Evidence-based medicine converts the abstract exercise of reading and appraising the literature into the pragmatic process of using the literature to benefit individual patients while simultaneously expanding the clinician's knowledge base. This review will briefly discuss about concepts of evidence medicine and method of critical appraisal of literatures.
Liu, Weiming; Ni, Ming; Jia, Wang; Wan, Weiqing; Tang, Jie
Although evidence-based medicine (EBM) has been progressively developing for decades in neurosurgery, there remains a lack of data to fully understand this topic. This study was aimed to evaluate extensively EBM related to neurosurgery through the analysis of neurosurgical EBM publications. We searched the Web of Science (WoS) Core Collection database for all EBM publications related to neurosurgery. The number of publications and other information were obtained. Data were extracted from the search results to obtain the following information: document type, countries/territories, funding agencies, organizations, publication year, source of titles, and research area. From among all of the publications, we extracted randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for further analysis at RCT characteristic and funding agencies. According to the search strategy, 6907 publications were related to EBM in neurosurgery. A total of 91 countries/territories participated in neurosurgical EBM publications. English-speaking countries (USA, England, and Canada) contributed most of the publications. "University of Toronto" is the organization which published the most EBM publications. In total, 1654 neurosurgical RCTs were found. We summarize their characteristics and record the highest cited (more than 400) RCTs, which we descript the distribution in different neurosurgical fields and stages. We also found that more than half of the RCTs were directly funded by industrial companies, and government-funded agencies accounted for no more than one fifth of the RCTs. EBM in neurosurgery has a good foundation but also needs to be constantly revised and improved to synchronize with evidence-based medicine development.
Kamel Remah M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Infertility is defined as inability of a couple to conceive naturally after one year of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. It remains a major clinical and social problem, affecting perhaps one couple in six. Evaluation usually starts after 12 months; however it may be indicated earlier. The most common causes of infertility are: male factor such as sperm abnormalities, female factor such as ovulation dysfunction and tubal pathology, combined male and female factors and unexplained infertility. Objectives The aim of this study is to provide the healthcare professionals an evidence-based management protocol for infertile couples away from medical information overload. Methods A comprehensive review where the literature was searched for "Management of infertility and/or infertile couples" at library website of University of Bristol (MetaLib by using a cross-search of different medical databases besides the relevant printed medical journals and periodicals. Guidelines and recommendations were retrieved from the best evidence reviews such as that from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (ACOG, American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM, Canadian Fertility and Andrology Society (CFAS, and Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG. Results A simple guide for the clinicians to manage the infertile couples. Conclusions The study deploys a new strategy to translate the research findings and evidence-base recommendations into a simplified focused guide to be applied on routine daily practice. It is an approach to disseminate the recommended medical care for infertile couple to the practicing clinicians.
Full Text Available Rapid eye movement (REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD is characterized by dream enactment behavior resulting from a loss of REM skeletal muscle atonia. The neurobiology of REM sleep and the characteristic features of REM atonia have an important basis for understanding the aggravating etiologies the proposed pharmacological interventions in its management. This review outlines the evidence for behavioral and therapeutic measures along with evidence-based guidelines for their implementation, impact on falls, and effect on polysomnography (PSG while highlighting the non-motor, autonomic, and cognitive impact of this entity. PubMed databases were reviewed upto May 2013 in peer-reviewed scientific literature regarding the pathophysiology and management of RBD in adults. The literature was graded according to the Oxford centre of evidence-based Medicine Levels. An early intervention that helps prevent consequences such as falls and provides a base for intervention with neuroprotective mechanisms and allocates a unique platform that RBD portrays with its high risk of disease conversion with a sufficiently long latency. RBD provides a unique platform with its high risk of disease conversion with a sufficiently long latency, providing an opportunity for early intervention both to prevent consequences such as falls and provide a base for intervention with neuroprotective mechanisms.
Mezza, E; Piccoli, G B; Pacitti, A; Soragna, G; Bermond, F; Burdese, M; Gai, M; Motta, D; Jeantet, A; Merletti, F; Vineis, P; Segoloni, G P
Informed consent is crucial in therapeutic choices; however, the forms presented to patients are often locally developed and information may not be homogeneous. To prepare an evidence-based model for informed consent, applied in the case of erythropoietin therapy (EPO) as a teaching tool for medical students. Methodological tools of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) were developed within the EBM Course in the Medical School of Torino, Italy, as problem solving and patient information tools (5th year students work in small groups under the supervision of statisticians, epidemiologists and experts of internal medicine--nephrology in this case). Methodological and ethical problems were identified: in the pre-dialysis field, evidence from randomized clinical trials (RCT) is scant; how to use evidence gathered in dialysis? How to deal with implementation? How with the mass media? Do we need to discuss the drug choice with the patients? How to deal with rare and severe side effects?). The "evidence" was searched for on Medline/Embase, by using key-words and free terms. About 680 papers were retrieved and screened. Forms available on the Internet were retrieved and a general scheme was drawn: it included 5 areas: title, aim and targets (patients and family physicians); search strategies and updating; pros and cons of therapy; alternative options; open questions. EBM may offer valuable tools for systematically approaching patient information; the inclusion of this kind of exercise in the Medical School EBM courses may help enhance the awareness of future physicians of the correct communication with patients.
Masley, Samantha A; Gillanders, David T; Simpson, Susan G; Taylor, Morag A
Schema Therapy is becoming an increasingly popular psychological model for working with individuals who have a variety of mental health and personality difficulties. The aim of this review is to look at the current evidence base for Schema Therapy and highlight directions for further research. A systematic search of the literature was conducted up until January 2011. All studies that had clinically tested the efficacy of Schema Therapy as described by Jeffrey Young (1994 and 2003) were considered. These studies underwent detailed quality assessments based on Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN-50) culminating in 12 studies being included in the review. The culminative message (both from the popularity of this model and the medium-to-large effect sizes) is of a theory that has already demonstrated clinically effective outcomes in a small number of studies and that would benefit from ongoing research and development with complex client groups. It is imperative that psychological practice be guided by high-quality research that demonstrates efficacious, evidence-based interventions. It is therefore recommended that researchers and clinicians working with Schema Therapy seek to build on these positive outcomes and further demonstrate the clinical effectiveness of this model through ongoing research.
The objective of the author in this article was to examine possible differences in knowledge and attitudes toward evidence-based practice (EBP) among social workers across geographic regions. A random national sample of 180 NASW members was obtained from mail and Internet groups. MANOVA analysis was performed to determine possible differences in knowledge and attitudes toward EBP among these social workers. Findings suggest that knowledge and attitude toward EBP did not differ among these practitioners. Despite increasing efficacy and widespread knowledge of EBPs, there is little or no empirical evidence to support any differences in attitudes and knowledge of EBP among social workers across geographic regions.
Verloo, Henk; Desmedt, Mario; Morin, Diane
To evaluate two psychometric properties of the French versions of the Evidence-Based Practice Beliefs and Evidence-Based Practice Implementation scales, namely their internal consistency and construct validity. The Evidence-Based Practice Beliefs and Evidence-Based Practice Implementation scales developed by Melnyk et al. are recognised as valid, reliable instruments in English. However, no psychometric validation for their French versions existed. Secondary analysis of a cross sectional survey. Source data came from a cross-sectional descriptive study sample of 382 nurses and other allied healthcare providers. Cronbach's alpha was used to evaluate internal consistency, and principal axis factor analysis and varimax rotation were computed to determine construct validity. The French Evidence-Based Practice Beliefs and Evidence-Based Practice Implementation scales showed excellent reliability, with Cronbach's alphas close to the scores established by Melnyk et al.'s original versions. Principal axis factor analysis showed medium-to-high factor loading scores without obtaining collinearity. Principal axis factor analysis with varimax rotation of the 16-item Evidence-Based Practice Beliefs scale resulted in a four-factor loading structure. Principal axis factor analysis with varimax rotation of the 17-item Evidence-Based Practice Implementation scale revealed a two-factor loading structure. Further research should attempt to understand why the French Evidence-Based Practice Implementation scale showed a two-factor loading structure but Melnyk et al.'s original has only one. The French versions of the Evidence-Based Practice Beliefs and Evidence-Based Practice Implementation scales can both be considered valid and reliable instruments for measuring Evidence-Based Practice beliefs and implementation. The results suggest that the French Evidence-Based Practice Beliefs and Evidence-Based Practice Implementation scales are valid and reliable and can therefore be used to
Arnet, Isabelle; Altermatt, Matthias; Roggo, Yves; Schnetzler, Gabriel
To compare the pharmaceutical quality of original and generic ceftriaxone sodium preparations for injection produced in Eastern Asia. Standard physical and chemical laboratory tests were performed. Participants/material: Ceftriaxone (Rocephin®, Roche, Switzerland) was the reference material. Generics produced in China, India, and Indonesia were sampled in China and Myanmar within their expiration dates. Eight generics obtained from Eastern Asia markets in January 2013 were analysed. All eight generics failed the specifications in three or more tests. Residues of solvents and metals were detected in all generics, four were not particle free, and two were not sterile. All tested generic ceftriaxone products failed to meet the pharmaceutical quality standards of the branded original. The high levels of impurities and the identified contamination of particles and residues are of clinical concern, as they could impact tolerability and safety in patients in need of an effective parenteral antibiotic.
'Evidence-based policy' has become the catch-cry of the drug policy field. A growing literature has been dedicated to better realising the goal of evidence-based drug policy: to maximise the use of the best quality research to inform policy decision-making and help answer the question of 'what works'. Alternative accounts in the policy processes literature conceptualise policy activity as an ambiguous and contested process, and the role of evidence as being only marginally influential. Multiple participants jostle for influence and seek to define what may be regarded as a policy problem, how it may be appropriately addressed, which participants may speak authoritatively, and what knowledge(s) may be brought to bear. The question posited in this article is whether the conceptual shift offered by thinking about policy activity as a process of social construction may be valuable for beginning to explore different perspectives of the evidence-based drug policy endeavour. Within a constructionist account of policy, what counts as valid 'evidence' will always be a constructed notion within a dynamic system, based on the privileging and silencing of participants and discourse, and the contestation of those many positions and perspectives. The social construction account shifts our focus from the inherent value of 'evidence' for addressing 'problems' to the ways in which policy knowledge is made valid, by whom and in what contexts. As such, social construction provides a framework for critically analysing the ways in which 'policy-relevant knowledge' may not be a stable concept but rather one which is constructed through the policy process, and, through a process of validation, is rendered useful. We have limited knowledge in the drug policy field about how this happens; how ambiguity about the problems to be addressed, which voices should be heard, and what activities may be appropriate is contested and managed. By unpicking the values and assumptions which underlie drug
Kelly, M P; Atkins, L; Littleford, C; Leng, G; Michie, S
In 2013, many public health functions transferred from the National Health Service to local government in England. From 2006 NICE had produced public health guidelines based on the principles of evidence-based medicine. This study explores how the guidelines were received in the new environment in local government and related issues raised relating to the use of evidence in local authoritites. In depth, interviews with 31 elected members and officers, including Directors of Public Health, from four very different local government organizations ('local authorities'). Participants reported that (i) there were tensions between evidence-based, and political decision-making; (ii) there were differences in views about what constituted 'good' evidence and (iii) that organizational life is an important mediator in the way evidence is used. Democratic political decision-making does not necessarily naturally align with decision-making based on evidence from the international scientific literature, and local knowledge and local evidence are very important in the ways that public health decisions are made.
Full Text Available Although clinical pharmacy training in Pakistan is a novelty in the undergraduate pharmacy curriculum, it has significantly improved the practical knowledge of the undergraduate students with regards practice of pharmacy in health care settings. The implementation of the curriculum change was a major innovation but the possible negative implications were not contemplated at the time of execution and combined with a failure in regular review and assessment of the plan. This led to undesirable outcomes such as breaching of health care protocols and ethics by students, inadequate aptitude and poor clinical research skills. These shortcomings were analyzed and an evidence based improvement program known as the Evidence Based Improvement (EBI initiative was designed containing structured modules to empower undergraduates in those areas. It was implemented by the authorities and has led to positive outcomes which render it very useful and this improvement program can serve as a guide to develop clinical pharmacy training programs in those countries where the practice of pharmacy is evolving.
This report contains the papers selected for presentation at the 2nd Workshop on Generic Programming (WGP2000), which was held on July 6, 2000 in Ponte de Lima, Portugal. Generic programming is about making programs more adaptable by making them more general. Generic programs often embody
Background. The use of generic medicines to reduce healthcare costs has become a mandated policy in South Africa. An increase in the use of generics can be achieved through improved knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of generic medicine among healthcare professionals. Objective. To explore knowledge, attitudes ...
Keenum, Amy J; Devoe, Jennifer E; Chisolm, Deena J; Wallace, Lorraine S
Because generic medications are less expensive than brand-name medications, government and private insurers have encouraged and/or mandated the use of generics. This study aimed at evaluating perceptions about generic medications among English-speaking women of childbearing age currently enrolled in U.S. TennCare (Medicaid). We recruited a convenience sample of patients from the waiting room of a primary care/gynecology health clinic, with 80% recruitment rate among those approached. We orally administered a 25-item questionnaire to gather sociodemographic information and to assess beliefs regarding the efficacy, safety, cost, and preferences for personal use of generic medications. The average age of the women (n=172) was 28.8 ± 6.4 years, and most were white (82.0%) and currently married (58.1%). Nearly one-fifth (19.2%) had not completed high school. Most women believed that generic medications were less expensive (97.6%) and better value (60.5%) than brand-name medications, but only 45.3% preferred to take generics themselves. About a quarter (23.3%) believed that brand-name medications were more effective than generics, whereas 13.4% believed that generics caused more side effects. Few women reported that their doctor (29.7%) and/or pharmacist (35.5%) had ever talked to them about taking generics. Awareness of the benefits of generics did not equal preferences for personal use of generics among this sample of women enrolled in U.S. TennCare. Furthermore, women reported that providers-both physicians and pharmacists-infrequently discussed generic substitution with them. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: familial hypercholesterolemia (FH and familial hyperlipidemia combined (HFC are metabolic disorders of lipids associated with increase of the risk for cerebrovascular disease. Clinical case: 8-years-old Indigenous child with HFC presented right hemiparesis, motor aphasia and right central facial paralysis for a cerebral ischemic accident; in addition, he had altered lipid profile and family history of hypercholesterolemia. Methodology: this article used patient`s therapeutic approach using evidence-based medicine (EBM, started from a structured clinical question and PubMED search. Four systematic reviews were included. Discussion: statins are safe in children with HF and HFC are effective in improving lipid profile. EBM methodology could help to solve similar therapeutic problems.
Wright, Barry; Edginton, Elizabeth
Various interventions are used in clinical practice to address insecure or disorganized attachment patterns and attachment disorders. The most common of these are parenting interventions, but not all have a robust empirical evidence base. We undertook a systematic review of randomized trials comparing a parenting intervention with a control, where these used a validated attachment instrument, in order to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of interventions aiming to improve attachment in children with severe attachment problems (mean age parenting interventions included in our systematic review that were clinically effective in promoting secure attachment. For completeness, we also briefly discuss other interventions without randomized controlled trial evidence, identified in Patient Public Involvement workshops and expert groups at the point our review was completed as being used or recommended. We outline the key implications of our findings for clinical practice and future research. PMID:27583298
Rucker, Sydney Y; Ozdogan, Zulfukar; Al Achkar, Morhaf
Journal club (JC), as a pedagogical strategy, has long been used in graduate medical education (GME). As evidence-based medicine (EBM) becomes a mainstay in GME, traditional models of JC present a number of insufficiencies and call for novel models of instruction. A flipped classroom model appears to be an ideal strategy to meet the demands to connect evidence to practice while creating engaged, culturally competent, and technologically literate physicians. In this article, we describe a novel model of flipped classroom in JC. We present the flow of learning activities during the online and face-to-face instruction, and then we highlight specific considerations for implementing a flipped classroom model. We show that implementing a flipped classroom model to teach EBM in a residency program not only is possible but also may constitute improved learning opportunity for residents. Follow-up work is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of this model on both learning and clinical practice.
Eaton, Kevin P; Levy, Kathryn; Soong, Christine; Pahwa, Amit K; Petrilli, Christopher; Ziemba, Justin B; Cho, Hyung J; Alban, Rodrigo; Blanck, Jaime F; Parsons, Andrew S
Routine daily laboratory testing of hospitalized patients reflects a wasteful clinical practice that threatens the value of health care. Choosing Wisely initiatives from numerous professional societies have identified repetitive laboratory testing in the face of clinical stability as low value care. Although laboratory expenditure often represents less than 5% of most hospital budgets, the impact is far-reaching given that laboratory tests influence nearly 60% to 70% of all medical decisions. Excessive phlebotomy can lead to hospital-acquired anemia, increased costs, and unnecessary downstream testing and procedures. Efforts to reduce the frequency of laboratory orders can improve patient satisfaction and reduce cost without negatively affecting patient outcomes. To date, numerous interventions have been deployed across multiple institutions without a standardized approach. Health care professionals and administrative leaders should carefully strategize and optimize efforts to reduce daily laboratory testing. This review presents an evidence-based implementation blueprint to guide teams aimed at improving appropriate routine laboratory testing among hospitalized patients.
Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Guyatt, Gordon H
In response to limitations in the understanding and use of published evidence, evidence-based medicine (EBM) began as a movement in the early 1990s. EBM's initial focus was on educating clinicians in the understanding and use of published literature to optimise clinical care, including the science of systematic reviews. EBM progressed to recognise limitations of evidence alone, and has increasingly stressed the need to combine critical appraisal of the evidence with patient's values and preferences through shared decision making. In another progress, EBM incorporated and further developed the science of producing trustworthy clinical practice guidelines pioneered by investigators in the 1980s. EBM's enduring contributions to clinical medicine include placing the practice of medicine on a solid scientific basis, the development of more sophisticated hierarchies of evidence, the recognition of the crucial role of patient values and preferences in clinical decision making, and the development of the methodology for generating trustworthy recommendations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The contrast between the efficiency of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), a scientific fact, and the popularity of Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM) is a paradox of the art of healing. EBM is based on the paradigm of positivism and materialism while CAM are based on those of relativism and vitalism. These paradigms are diametrically opposed and the aim of an integrative medicine is aporetic. However, EBM is today in a dead end. The objective proof of a disease according to the rules of EBM is often lacking face to the expectations of patients demanding their illness to be taken into account. EBM and CAM have thus to coexist. Lessons can be drawn from CAM : patient expectations should be given a meaning and be integrated in his or her psychosocial context.
Sisk, Angela; Fonteyn, Marsha
Introducing patients with cancer to the practice of yoga can be beneficial for coping with the side effects of treatment and the psychological aspects of cancer that are often difficult and distressing for patients. Oncology nurses can learn to use simple yoga techniques for themselves and as interventions with their patients. This article provides details about the development and implementation of a yoga class for patients with cancer and provides details about other ways nurses can integrate yoga into oncology nursing and cancer care. Current research literature was reviewed and synthesized to provide support for the use of yoga as an evidence-based nursing intervention. A detailed approach for implementing yoga into professional practice was delineated. Yoga techniques can be easily integrated into nursing practice and have been shown to be beneficial for patients and nurses.
Lawson, Jennifer; Berrick, Jill Duerr
In this article the authors examine the evidentiary status of the Court Appointed Special Advocates (CASA) program through a review of current research findings and a critical analysis of the study methodologies used to produce those findings. Due to the equivocal research findings and widespread methodological weaknesses (most notably selection bias) in the literature base, it is determined that there is not currently enough evidence to establish CASA as an evidence-based practice. In spite of the challenges to the feasibility of such research, a future research agenda is suggested that calls for the execution of large randomized controlled trials in order to produce findings that will inform a deeper understanding of CASA effectiveness in improving child outcomes.
Furberg Curt D
Full Text Available Abstract Contradictory statements about the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs from the European Medicines Agency and the United States Food and Drug Administration have raised questions about whether regulatory decisions are evidence-based. For the selective COX-2 inhibitors, there are clear contraindications and warnings in Europe, but only a vaguely worded Black Box warning in the United States. All the non-selective agents are given an almost "clean bill of health" in Europe, while all of them are judged to have a similar risk-benefit ratio as celecoxib in the United States. The regulatory agencies have failed to recognize the clinical trial evidence that the risk of cardiovascular events varies substantially among the non-selective agents, with diclofenac carrying the highest risk of harm.
Horwitz, Ralph I; Hayes-Conroy, Allison; Caricchio, Roberto; Singer, Burton H
Evidence based medicine, using randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses as the major tools and sources of evidence about average results for heterogeneous groups of patients, developed as a reaction against poorly designed observational treatment research and physician reliance on personal experience with other patients as a guide to decision-making about a patient at hand. However, these tools do not answer the clinician's question: "Will a given therapeutic regimen help my patient at a given point in her/his clinical course?" We introduce fine-grained profiling of the patient at hand, accompanied by comparative evidence of responses from approximate matches to this patient on whom a contemplated treatment has/has not been administered. This represents medicine based evidence that is tuned to decision-making for the particular patient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Barry Wright MD, FRCPsych
Full Text Available Various interventions are used in clinical practice to address insecure or disorganized attachment patterns and attachment disorders. The most common of these are parenting interventions, but not all have a robust empirical evidence base. We undertook a systematic review of randomized trials comparing a parenting intervention with a control, where these used a validated attachment instrument, in order to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of interventions aiming to improve attachment in children with severe attachment problems (mean age <13 years. This article aims to inform clinicians about the parenting interventions included in our systematic review that were clinically effective in promoting secure attachment. For completeness, we also briefly discuss other interventions without randomized controlled trial evidence, identified in Patient Public Involvement workshops and expert groups at the point our review was completed as being used or recommended. We outline the key implications of our findings for clinical practice and future research.
Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck (SCCHN is one of the commonest cancers seen in India, constituting up to 25% of their overall cancer burden. Advanced SCCHN is a bad disease with a poor prognosis and patients usually die of uncontrolled loco-regional disease. Curative intent management of loco-regionally advanced SCCHN has become more evidence-based with active clinical research in the form of large prospective randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses. However, little has been written about palliative radiotherapy (PRT in head and neck cancers. It is widely recognized that PRT provides effective palliation and improved quality-of-life in advanced incurable malignancies. It is in this context that this study proposes to review the existing literature on palliative radiotherapy in advanced incurable SCCHN to help formulate consensus guidelines and recommendations.
Rousseau, Denise M; Gunia, Brian C
Evidence-based practice (EBP) is an approach used in numerous professions that focuses attention on evidence quality in decision making and action. We review research on EBP implementation, identifying critical underlying psychological factors facilitating and impeding its use. In describing EBP and the forms of evidence it employs, we highlight the challenges individuals face in appraising evidence quality, particularly that of their personal experience. We next describe critical EBP competencies and the challenges underlying their acquisition: foundational competencies of critical thinking and domain knowledge, and functional competencies such as question formulation, evidence search and appraisal, and outcome evaluation. We then review research on EBP implementation across diverse fields from medicine to management and organize findings around three key contributors to EBP: practitioner ability, motivation, and opportunity to practice (AMO). Throughout, important links between psychology and EBP are highlighted, along with the contributions psychological research can make to further EBP development and implementation.
Byrne, Michelle; Schroeter, Kathryn; Carter, Shannon; Mower, Julie
Competency assessment is critical for a myriad of disciplines, including medicine, law, education, and nursing. Many nurse managers and educators are responsible for nursing competency assessment, and assessment results are often used for annual reviews, promotions, and satisfying accrediting agencies' requirements. Credentialing bodies continually seek methods to measure and document the continuing competence of licensees or certificants. Many methods and frameworks for continued competency assessment exist. The portfolio process is one method to validate personal and professional accomplishments in an interactive, multidimensional manner. This article illustrates how portfolios can be used to assess competence. One specialty nursing certification board's process of creating an evidence-based portfolio for recertification or reactivation of a credential is used as an example. The theoretical background, development process, implementation, and future implications may serve as a template for other organizations in developing their own portfolio models. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.
Ollendick, Thomas H
Evidence-based practice has a long history; however, attempts to bridge the gap between science and practice have been only partially effective and much work remains to be done. Part of the problem has been the unilateral approach associated with dissemination of research findings to clinical practitioners. In this special series, Goldfried and colleagues (2014--this issue) suggest a two-way bridge, in which practitioners are afforded the opportunity to disseminate their rich clinical experiences to researchers as well. In this manner, a more collaborative working relationship is espoused. Surveys of practitioners on the use of CBT procedures in the treatment of panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder are described. The findings are reviewed and limitations associated with the surveys are noted. Finally, future directions are suggested for rapprochement, hopefully resulting in a greater synthesis of research and practice. © 2013.
Full Text Available Cancer Research UK has developed PROforma, a formal language for modelling clinical processes, along with associated tools for creating decision support, care planning, clinical workflow management and other applications. The PROforma method has been evaluated in a variety of settings: in primary health care (prescribing, referral of suspected cancer patients, genetic risk assessment and in specialist care of patients with breast cancer, leukaemia, HIV infection and other conditions. About nine years of experience have been gained with PROforma technologies. Seven trials of decision support applications have been published or are in preparation. Each of these has shown significant positive effects on a variety of measures of quality and/or outcomes of care. This paper reviews the evidence base for the clinical effectiveness of these PROforma applications, and previews the CREDO project _a multi-centre trial of a complex PROforma application for supporting integrated breast cancer care across primary and secondary care settings.
Duclos, P; Durrheim, D N; Reingold, A L; Bhutta, Z A; Vannice, K; Rees, H
The Strategic Group of Advisory Experts (SAGE) on immunization is an independent advisory committee with a mandate to advise the World Health Organization (WHO) on the development of vaccine and immunization related policies. SAGE working groups are established on a time-limited basis to review and provide evidence-based recommendations, together with their implications, for open deliberation and decision-making by SAGE. In making its recommendations, SAGE takes into consideration: the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of the disease; vaccine and immunization characteristics; economic analysis; health system considerations; the existence of and interaction with other intervention and control strategies; costing and social impacts; and legal and ethical concerns. Since 1998, WHO has produced evidence-based vaccine position papers for use primarily by national public health officials and immunization programme managers. Since April 2006 all new or updated position papers have been based on SAGE recommendations. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach has been adopted by WHO and, since 2008, GRADE tables that rate the quality of evidence have been produced in support of key recommendations. SAGE previously expressed concern that GRADE was not ideally suited to many immunization-specific issues such as the vaccine population level effect and the inclusion of surveillance system data, particularly for vaccine safety. Extensive productive interactions with various advisory groups including the US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, the European Centres for Disease Control, the German Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO), WHO's Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety and the GRADE working group resulted in key enhancements to accommodate vaccine-relevant evidence. This facilitated integration and acceptability of the GRADE approach in the development of immunization related SAGE and WHO
Buckwalter, Kathleen C; Cullen, Laura; Hanrahan, Kirsten; Kleiber, Charmaine; McCarthy, Ann Marie; Rakel, Barbara; Steelman, Victoria; Tripp-Reimer, Toni; Tucker, Sharon
The Iowa Model is a widely used framework for the implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP). Changes in health care (e.g., emergence of implementation science, emphasis on patient engagement) prompted the re-evaluation, revision, and validation of the model. A systematic multi-step process was used capturing information from the literature and user feedback via an electronic survey and live work groups. The Iowa Model Collaborative critically assessed and synthesized information and recommendations before revising the model. Survey participants (n = 431) had requested access to the Model between years 2001 and 2013. Eighty-eight percent (n = 379) of participants reported using the Iowa Model and identified the most problematic steps as: topic priority, critique, pilot, and institute change. Users provided 587 comments with rich contextual rationale and insightful suggestions. The revised model was then evaluated by participants (n = 299) of the 22nd National EBP Conference in 2015. They validated the model as a practical tool for the EBP process across diverse settings. Specific changes in the model are discussed. This user driven revision differs from other frameworks in that it links practice changes within the system. Major model changes are expansion of piloting, implementation, patient engagement, and sustaining change. The Iowa Model-Revised remains an application-oriented guide for the EBP process. Intended users are point of care clinicians who ask questions and seek a systematic, EBP approach to promote excellence in health care. © 2017 University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Full Text Available Objective To formulate the best treatment plan for multiple sclerosis (MS patients by evaluating the therapeutic efficacy and side effect of various evidence-based programs. Methods Key words were defined as multiple sclerosis, immunomodulatory therapy and therapy, etc. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Wanfang data bases for Scientific Journals in China and National Knowledge Infrastructure for Chinese Scientific Journals Database. Additionally, we applied manual searching and screened out conference paper and academic dissertation, etc, from various references. After that we obtained and evaluated by Jadad scales on systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials and observational study cases about glucocorticoids, plasmapheresis, intravenous immunoglobulin, IFN-β, glatiramer acetate, mitoxantrone, natalizumab, fingolimod. Results After screening, all seventeen selected resources included systematic reviews 6 articles, randomized controlled trials 7 articles, controlled clinical trials 2 articles, observational study cases 2 articles, among which fifteen articles were proved to be high quality (according to Jadad scoring system, five score 4, six score 5, four score 7, two chapters were judged to be low quality scoring 3. Finally, we summerize that: 1 The first choice of treatment for acute relapses is glucocorticoids and we suggest that plasmapheresis or intravenous immunoglobulin may be tried as an alternative therapy in acute MS relapse, especially in case of contraindications to intravenous methylprednisolone. 2 Immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive treatment (IFN-β, glatiramer acetate, mitoxantrone, natalizumab can be an option to prevent new relapses and progression of disability. 3 Fingolimod is an oral treatment for multiple sclerosis to improve treatment adherence. Conclusion Using evidence-based medicine methods can provide us best clinical evidence on MS treatment.
J. O. Macaulay
Full Text Available Introduction and objectivesIt is has been widely accepted that assessment of learning is a critical component of education and that assessment drives/guides student learning through shaping study habits and student approaches to learning. However, although most academics would agree that assessment is a critical aspect of their roles as teachers it is often an aspect of teaching that is regarded more as an additional task rather than an integral component of the teaching/learning continuum. An additional impediment to high quality assessment is the non-evidence based-approach to the decision making process. The overall aim of this project was to improve the quality of assessment in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology undergraduate education by promoting high quality assessment.Materials and methodsTo do this we developed and trialled an audit tool for mapping assessment practices. The audit tool was designed to gather data on current assessment practices and identify areas of good practice in which assessment aligned with the learning objectives and areas in need of improvement. This evidence base will then be used to drive change in assessment.Results and conclusionsUsing the assessment mapping tool we have mapped the assessment regime in a Biochemistry and Molecular Biology major at Monash University. Criteria used included: assessment type, format, timing, assessors, provision of feedback, level of learning (Bloom’s, approaches taken to planning assessment. We have mapped assessment of content and the systematic development of higher order learning and skills progression throughout the program of study. The data has enabled us to examine the assessment at unit (course level as well as the vertical development across the major. This information is now being used to inform a review of the units and the major.
Hasan, Kamrul; Shankar, Shivakumar; Sharma, Aadhar; Carter, Alison; Zaidi, Razi; Cro, Suzie; Skinner, John; Goldberg, Andy
The burden of traumatic and elective hip surgery is set to grow. With an increasing number of techniques and implants against the background of an aging population, the emphasis on evidence-based treatment has never been greater. The purpose of this study was to assess changes in the levels of evidence in the hip literature over a decade. Articles pertaining to hip surgery from the years 2000 and 2010 in Hip International, Journal of Arthroplasty, Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery and The Bone and Joint Journal were analysed. Articles were ranked by a five-point level of evidence scale and by type of study, according to guidelines from the Centre for Evidence-based Medicine. 531 articles were analysed from 48 countries. The kappa value for the inter-observer reliability showed excellent agreement between the reviewers for study type (κ = 0.956, P < 0.01) and for levels of evidence (κ = 0.772, P < 0.01). Between 2000 and 2010, the overall percentage of high-level evidence (levels I and II) studies more than doubled (12 to 31 %, P < 0.001). The most frequent study type was therapeutic; the USA and UK were the largest producers of published work in these journals, with contributions from other countries increasing markedly over the decade. There has been a significant increase in high levels of evidence in hip surgery over a decade (P < 0.001). We recommend that all orthopaedic journals consider implementing compulsory declaration by authors of the level of evidence to help enhance quality of evidence. Level 2: economic and decision analysis.
Background Competition and education are intimately related and can be combined in many ways. The role of competition in medical education of evidence-based medicine (EBM) has not been investigated. In order to enhance the dissemination and implementation of EBM in Taiwan, EBM competitions have been established among healthcare professionals. This study was to evaluate the impact of competition in EBM learning. Methods The EBM competition used PICO (patient, intervention, comparison, and outcome) queries to examine participants’ skills in framing an answerable question, literature search, critical appraisal and clinical application among interdisciplinary teams. A structured questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate EBM among participants in the years of 2009 and 2011. Participants completed a baseline questionnaire survey at three months prior to the competition and finished the same questionnaire right after the competition. Results Valid questionnaires were collected from 358 participants, included 162 physicians, 71 nurses, 101 pharmacists, and 24 other allied healthcare professionals. There were significant increases in participants’ knowledge of and skills in EBM (p evidence-based retrieval databases, including the Cochrane Library (p < 0.001), MD Consult (p < 0.001), ProQuest (p < 0.001), UpToDate (p = 0.001), CINAHL (p = 0.001), and MicroMedex (p = 0.024). Conclusions The current study demonstrates a method that successfully enhanced the knowledge of, skills in, and behavior of EBM. The data suggest competition using PICO queries may serve as an effective way to facilitate the learning of EBM. PMID:23651869
Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and side effects of various treatment for sleep disorders in order to provide the best therapeutic regimen for the evidence-based treatment of sleep disorders. Methods Sleep disorder, insomnia, restless legs syndrome or RLS, obstructive sleep apnea or OSA, narcolepsy, REM behaviour disorder or RBD, treatment or therapy were used as retrieval words. Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, ScienceDirect were used for retrieval, and manual searching was also used. Related clinical guidelines, systematic reviews, randomized controlled clinical trials, retrospective case analysis, case-observation studies and reviews were collected and evaluated by Jadad Scale. Results Forty related articles were selected as following: 6 clinical guidelines, 12 systematic reviews, 5 randomized controlled trials, 2 retrospective case analysis, 1 case-observation study and 14 reviews. Thirty-three were of high quality, while 7 were of low quality with score. According to the evaluation of therapeutic efficacy and side effects of various therapies, it is suggested as following: 1 insomnia is the most common in sleep disorders; the treatment methods of insomnia mainly include drug therapy and cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT; the two kinds of therapy have their own advantages and disadvantages, and the combination therapy of drugs and CBT is the best treatment plan. 2 The first-line treatment of primary RLS is dopamine agonists and anti-seizure drugs; however, the treatment of secondary RLS is mainly etiologic treatment. 3 The main treatments of OSAS are nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP, oral orthotics and surgery, and nCPAP is the first-line treatments. 4 The medication of narcolepsy is mainly modafinil, hydroxy butyric acid sodium and antidepressants, and the specific choosingshould accord to clinical classifications. 5 The main treatments of RBD include general treatments such as avoiding triggers, insuring the
E. Carlos Rodriguez-Merchan
Full Text Available Background: Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS is defined as pain surrounding the patella when sitting with bent knees for prolonged periods of time or when performing activities like ascending or descending stairs, squatting or athletic activities. Patella dislocation is not included in PFPS. Purpose: This review analyzes the evidence based conservative management of PFPS. Methods: A Cochrane Library search related to PFPS was performed until 18 January 2014. The key words were: patellofemoral pain syndrome. Eight papers were found, of which three were reviewed because they were focused on the topic of the article. We also searched the PubMed using the following keywords: evidence based conservative management of patellofemoral pain syndrome. Twelve articles were found, of which seven were reviewed because they were focused on the topic of the article. Overall ten articles were analyzed. Results: Different treatments can be tried for PFPS, including pharmacotherapy, therapeutic ultrasound, exercise therapy, and taping and braces. Conclusions: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs may reduce pain in the short term, but pain does not improve after three months. Therapeutic ultrasound appears not to have a clinically important effect on pain relief for patients with PFPS. The evidence that exercise therapy is more effective in treating PFPS than no exercise is limited with respect to pain reduction, and conflicting with respect to functional improvement. No significant difference has been found between taping and non-taping. The role of knee braces is still controversial. More well-designed studies are needed.
Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of the treatments for sleep disorders in neurodegenerative diseases so as to provide the best therapeutic regimens for the evidence-based treatment. Methods Search PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Wanfang Data and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI databases with "sleep disorder or sleep disturbance", "neurodegenerative diseases", "Parkinson's disease or PD", "Alzheimer's disease or AD", "multiple system atrophy or MSA" as retrieval words. The quality of the articles were evaluated with Jadad Scale. Results A total of 35 articles, including 2 systematic reviews, 5 randomized controlled trials, 13 clinical controlled trials, 13 case series and 2 epidemiological investigation studies were included for evaluation, 13 of which were high grade and 22 were low grade articles. Clinical evidences showed that: 1 advice on sleep hygiene, careful use of dopaminergic drugs and hypnotic sedative agents should be considered for PD. Bright light therapy (BLT may improve circadian rhythm sleep disorders and clonazepam may be effective for rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD. However, to date, very few controlled studies are available to make a recommendation for the management of sleep disorders in PD; 2 treatments for sleep disorders in AD include drug therapy (e.g. melatonin, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, antipsychotic drugs, antidepressants and non-drug therapy (e.g. BLT, behavior therapy, but very limited evidence shows the effectiveness of these treatments; 3 the first line treatment for sleep-related breathing disorder in MSA is nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP, and clonazepam is effective for RBD in MSA; 4 there is rare evidence related to the treatment of sleep disorders in dementia with Lewy body (DLB and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Conclusion Evidence-based medicine can provide the best clinical evidence on sleep disorders' treatment in neurodegenerative
Full Text Available Abstract Background Venous Thromboembolism (VTE is a cause of hospital mortality and managing its morbidity is associated with significant expenditure. Uptake of evidenced based guideline recommendations intended to prevent VTE in hospital settings is sub-optimal. This study was conducted to explore clinicians' attitudes and the clinical environment in which they work to understand their reluctance to adopt VTE prophylaxis guidelines. Methods Between February and November 2009, 40 hospital employed doctors from 2 Australian metropolitan hospitals were interviewed in depth. Qualitative data were analysed according to thematic methodology. Results Analysis of interviews revealed that barriers to evidence based practice include i the fragmented system of care delivery where multiple members of teams and multiple teams are responsible for each patient's care, and in the case of VTE, where everyone shares responsibility and no-one in particular is responsible; ii the culture of practice where team practice is tailored to that of the team head, and where medicine is considered an 'art' in which guidelines should be adapted to each patient rather than applied universally. Interviewees recommend clear allocation of responsibility and reminders to counteract VTE risk assessment being overlooked. Conclusions Senior clinicians are the key enablers for practice change. They will need to be convinced that guideline compliance adds value to their patient care. Then with the support of systems in the organisation designed to minimize the effects of care fragmentation, they will drive practice changes in their teams. We believe that evidence based practice is only possible with a coordinated program that addresses individual, cultural and organisational constraints.
Thiel, Linda; Ghosh, Yashowanto
As health care systems worldwide move toward instituting evidence-based practice (EBP), its implementation can be challenging. Conducting a baseline assessment to determine nurses' readiness for EBP presents opportunities to plan strategies before implementation. Although a growing body of research literature is focused on implementing EBP, little attention has been paid to assessing nurses' readiness for EBP. The purpose of this study was to assess registered nurses' readiness for EBP in a moderate-sized acute care hospital in the Midwestern United States before implementation of a hospital-wide nursing EBP initiative. A descriptive cross-sectional survey design was used; 121 registered nurses completed the survey. The participants (n= 121) completed the 64-item Nurses' Readiness for Evidence-Based Practice Survey that allowed measurement of information needs, knowledge and skills, culture, and attitudes. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and a post hoc analysis. The majority (72.5%) of respondents indicated that when they needed information, they consulted colleagues and peers rather than using journals and books; 24% of nurses surveyed used the health database, Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). The respondents perceived their EBP knowledge level as moderate. Cultural EBP scores were moderate, with unit scores being higher than organizational scores. The nurses' attitudes toward EBP were positive. The post hoc analysis showed many significant correlations. Nurses have access to technological resources and perceive that they have the ability to engage in basic information gathering but not in higher level evidence gathering. The elements important to EBP such as a workplace culture and positive attitudes are present and can be built upon. A "site-specific" baseline assessment provides direction in planning EBP initiatives. The Nurses' Readiness for EBP Survey is a streamlined tool with established reliability and
Nelson, Michael; Breda, João
Following an international workshop on developing the evidence base for policy relating to school food held in London, UK, in January 2012, the objectives of the present paper were (i) to outline a rationale for school food research, monitoring and evaluation in relation to policy and (ii) to identify ways forward for future working. The authors analysed presentations, summaries of evidence, and notes from discussions held at the international workshop in London in 2012 to distil common themes and make recommendations for the development of coherent research programmes relating to food and nutrition in schools. International, with an emphasis on middle- and high-income countries. Overviews of existing school food and nutrition programmes from the UK, Hungary, Sweden, the USA, Australia, Brazil, China, Mexico and other countries were presented, along with information on monitoring, evaluation and other research to demonstrate the impact of school feeding on health, attainment, food sourcing, procurement and finances, in the context of interactions between the evidence base and policy decisions. This provided the material which, together with summaries and notes of discussions, was used to develop recommendations for the development and dissemination of robust approaches to sustainable and effective school food and nutrition programmes in middle- and high-income countries, including policy guidelines, standards, cost-effectiveness measures and the terms of political engagement. School food and nutrition can provide a cohesive core for health, education and agricultural improvement provided: (i) policy is appropriately framed and includes robust monitoring and evaluation; and (ii) all stakeholders are adequately engaged in the process. International exchange of information will be used to develop a comprehensive guide to the assessment of the impact of school food and nutrition policy and supporting infrastructure.
E. Carlos Rodriguez-Merchan
Full Text Available Background: Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS is defined as pain surrounding the patella when sitting with bent knees for prolonged periods of time or when performing activities like ascending or descending stairs, squatting or athletic activities. Patella dislocation is not included in PFPS. Purpose: This review analyzes the evidence based conservative management of PFPS. Methods: A Cochrane Library search related to PFPS was performed until 18 January 2014. The key words were: patellofemoral pain syndrome. Eight papers were found, of which three were reviewed because they were focused on the topic of the article. We also searched the PubMed using the following keywords: evidence based conservative management of patellofemoral pain syndrome. Twelve articles were found, of which seven were reviewed because they were focused on the topic of the article. Overall ten articles were analyzed. Results: Different treatments can be tried for PFPS, including pharmacotherapy, therapeutic ultrasound, exercise therapy, and taping and braces. Conclusions: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs may reduce pain in the short term, but pain does not improve after three months. Therapeutic ultrasound appears not to have a clinically important effect on pain relief for patients with PFPS. The evidence that exercise therapy is more effective in treating PFPS than no exercise is limited with respect to pain reduction, and conflicting with respect to functional improvement. No significant difference has been found between taping and non-taping. The role of knee braces is still controversial. More well-designed studies are needed.
Federici, A; Borgia, P; Guasticchi, G
Several population-based trials have shown the efficacy of colorectal cancer mass-screening based on guaiac faecal blood testing in a generic risk population. SCCR represents a very complex and resource-demanding public health intervention and, for this reason, its planning requires actual efficacy as a main goal. Since evidence of efficacy demonstrated by population-based trials may not actually generate effectiveness, the Regional Government of Latium Region decided to implement some experimental studies before introducing a screening programme, in order to define an evidence-based organisational model of SCCR and a feasibility evaluation of the real needs for screening. The aims of the pilot studies were to define an evidence-based organisational model, to evaluate the necessary resources and the actual quality standard of clinical examination, treatment and surgery. The aim of the feasibility study is to test the organisational model for SCCR for about 300,000 citizens residing in the Latium region. The present article illustrates the scheduling path set out, which is based on the involvement of experts, GP representatives and specialists from scientific societies and it is planned by the following actions: Definition of evidence-based recommendations; identification of further investigations; realization of experimental studies; definition of an evidence-based organisational model. The main research areas have been dealt with using randomised trials, in order to evaluate the efficacy of the involvement of GPs and the kind of test for RSOF Our work has produced evidences which were sometimes in contrast with information in the literature, demonstrating that guaiac RSOF testing is less reproducible and determines lower uptake than immunochemical testing. Our work also shows that the involvement of GPs should be based on their personal skills rather than on their role. Such evidences are fundamental to the definition of the organisational model and confirm the
Full Text Available This article provides insights into proactive safety management and mitigation. An analysis of accident reports reveals categories of supervening causes of accidents which can be directly linked to the concept of generic competencies (information management, communication and coordination, problem solving, and effect control. These findings strongly suggest adding the human element as another safety-constituting pillar to the concept of ship safety next to technology and regulation. We argue that the human element has unique abilities in dealing with critical and highly dynamic situations which can contribute to the system's recovery from non-routine or critical situations. By educating seafarers in generic competencies we claim to enable the people onboard to successfully deal with critical situations.
Matthias Galota; Sven Kosub (Hrsg.); Heribert Vollmer
In the early nineties of the previous century, leaf languages were introduced as a means for the uniform characterization of many complexity classes, mainly in the range between P (polynomial time) and PSPACE (polynomial space). It was shown that the separability of two complexity classes can be reduced to a combinatorial property of the corresponding defining leaf languages. In the present paper, it is shown that every separation obtained in this way holds for every generic oracle in the sen...
Fiore, John N.; Summers, George D.
A 'Smallsat' generic structure has been developed for LEO and expendable launch vehicles. The structure makes extensive use of Al-alloy honeycomb-stabilized panels in order to satisfy stiffness, weight, strength and thermal stability requirements in the LEO environment, in conjunction with discrete applications of multilayered insulation blankets and silverized Teflon radiators. The Smallsat structure is ideally suited for assembly-line manufacturing and storage until required.
Beck, Aaron T; Haigh, Emily A P
For over 50 years, Beck's cognitive model has provided an evidence-based way to conceptualize and treat psychological disorders. The generic cognitive model represents a set of common principles that can be applied across the spectrum of psychological disorders. The updated theoretical model provides a framework for addressing significant questions regarding the phenomenology of disorders not explained in previous iterations of the original model. New additions to the theory include continuity of adaptive and maladaptive function, dual information processing, energizing of schemas, and attentional focus. The model includes a theory of modes, an organization of schemas relevant to expectancies, self-evaluations, rules, and memories. A description of the new theoretical model is followed by a presentation of the corresponding applied model, which provides a template for conceptualizing a specific disorder and formulating a case. The focus on beliefs differentiates disorders and provides a target for treatment. A variety of interventions are described.
Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Dowie, Jack
’Evidence-based Health Care via Multi-Criteria Decision Analytic decision support: a Danish case study......’Evidence-based Health Care via Multi-Criteria Decision Analytic decision support: a Danish case study...
Juan Carlos Fernández-Domínguez
Full Text Available Most of the EBP measuring instruments available to date present limitations both in the operationalisation of the construct and also in the rigour of their psychometric development, as revealed in the literature review performed. The aim of this paper is to provide rigorous and adequate reliability and validity evidence of the scores of a new transdisciplinary psychometric tool, the Health Sciences Evidence-Based Practice (HS-EBP, for measuring the construct EBP in Health Sciences professionals.A pilot study and a subsequent two-stage validation test sample were conducted to progressively refine the instrument until a reduced 60-item version with a five-factor latent structure. Reliability was analysed through both Cronbach's alpha coefficient and intraclass correlations (ICC. Latent structure was contrasted using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA following a model comparison aproach. Evidence of criterion validity of the scores obtained was achieved by considering attitudinal resistance to change, burnout, and quality of professional life as criterion variables; while convergent validity was assessed using the Spanish version of the Evidence-Based Practice Questionnaire (EBPQ-19.Adequate evidence of both reliability and ICC was obtained for the five dimensions of the questionnaire. According to the CFA model comparison, the best fit corresponded to the five-factor model (RMSEA = 0.049; CI 90% RMSEA = [0.047; 0.050]; CFI = 0.99. Adequate criterion and convergent validity evidence was also provided. Finally, the HS-EBP showed the capability to find differences between EBP training levels as an important evidence of decision validity.Reliability and validity evidence obtained regarding the HS-EBP confirm the adequate operationalisation of the EBP construct as a process put into practice to respond to every clinical situation arising in the daily practice of professionals in health sciences (transprofessional. The tool could be useful for EBP
Fernández-Domínguez, Juan Carlos; de Pedro-Gómez, Joan Ernest; Morales-Asencio, José Miguel; Sastre-Fullana, Pedro; Sesé-Abad, Albert
Introduction Most of the EBP measuring instruments available to date present limitations both in the operationalisation of the construct and also in the rigour of their psychometric development, as revealed in the literature review performed. The aim of this paper is to provide rigorous and adequate reliability and validity evidence of the scores of a new transdisciplinary psychometric tool, the Health Sciences Evidence-Based Practice (HS-EBP), for measuring the construct EBP in Health Sciences professionals. Methods A pilot study and a subsequent two-stage validation test sample were conducted to progressively refine the instrument until a reduced 60-item version with a five-factor latent structure. Reliability was analysed through both Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and intraclass correlations (ICC). Latent structure was contrasted using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) following a model comparison aproach. Evidence of criterion validity of the scores obtained was achieved by considering attitudinal resistance to change, burnout, and quality of professional life as criterion variables; while convergent validity was assessed using the Spanish version of the Evidence-Based Practice Questionnaire (EBPQ-19). Results Adequate evidence of both reliability and ICC was obtained for the five dimensions of the questionnaire. According to the CFA model comparison, the best fit corresponded to the five-factor model (RMSEA = 0.049; CI 90% RMSEA = [0.047; 0.050]; CFI = 0.99). Adequate criterion and convergent validity evidence was also provided. Finally, the HS-EBP showed the capability to find differences between EBP training levels as an important evidence of decision validity. Conclusions Reliability and validity evidence obtained regarding the HS-EBP confirm the adequate operationalisation of the EBP construct as a process put into practice to respond to every clinical situation arising in the daily practice of professionals in health sciences (transprofessional). The
The objective of this analysis is to review a spectrum of functional brain imaging technologies to identify whether there are any imaging modalities that are more effective than others for various brain pathology conditions. This evidence-based analysis reviews magnetoencephalography (MEG), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), positron emission tomography (PET), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for the diagnosis or surgical management of the following conditions: Alzheimer's disease (AD), brain tumours, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis (MS), and Parkinson's disease (PD). TARGET POPULATION AND CONDITION Alzheimer's disease is a progressive, degenerative, neurologic condition characterized by cognitive impairment and memory loss. The Canadian Study on Health and Aging estimated that there will be 97,000 incident cases (about 60,000 women) of dementia (including AD) in Canada in 2006. In Ontario, there will be an estimated 950 new cases and 580 deaths due to brain cancer in 2006. Treatments for brain tumours include surgery and radiation therapy. However, one of the limitations of radiation therapy is that it damages tissue though necrosis and scarring. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may not distinguish between radiation effects and resistant tissue, creating a potential role for functional brain imaging. Epilepsy is a chronic disorder that provokes repetitive seizures. In Ontario, the rate of epilepsy is estimated to be 5 cases per 1,000 people. Most people with epilepsy are effectively managed with drug therapy; but about 50% do not respond to drug therapy. Surgical resection of the seizure foci may be considered in these patients, and functional brain imaging may play a role in localizing the seizure foci. Multiple sclerosis is a progressive, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The cause of MS is unknown; however, it is thought to be due to a combination of etiologies, including
Hammami, Muhammad M; De Padua, Sophia J S; Hussein, Rajaa; Al Gaai, Eman; Khodr, Nesrine A; Al-Swayeh, Reem; Alvi, Syed N; Binhashim, Nada
The extents of generic-reference and generic-generic average bioequivalence and intra-subject variation of on-market drug products have not been prospectively studied on a large scale. We assessed bioequivalence of 42 generic products of 14 immediate-release oral drugs with the highest number of generic products on the Saudi market. We conducted 14 four-sequence, randomized, crossover studies on the reference and three randomly-selected generic products of amlodipine, amoxicillin, atenolol, cephalexin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, diclofenac, ibuprofen, fluconazole, metformin, metronidazole, paracetamol, omeprazole, and ranitidine. Geometric mean ratios of maximum concentration (Cmax) and area-under-the-concentration-time-curve, to last measured concentration (AUCT), extrapolated to infinity (AUCI), or truncated to Cmax time of reference product (AUCReftmax) were calculated using non-compartmental method and their 90% confidence intervals (CI) were compared to the 80.00%-125.00% bioequivalence range. Percentages of individual ratios falling outside the ±25% range were also determined. Mean (SD) age and body-mass-index of 700 healthy volunteers (28-80/study) were 32.2 (6.2) years and 24.4 (3.2) kg/m2, respectively. In 42 generic-reference comparisons, 100% of AUCT and AUCI CIs showed bioequivalence, 9.5% of Cmax CIs barely failed to show bioequivalence, and 66.7% of AUCReftmax CIs failed to show bioequivalence/showed bioinequivalence. Adjusting for 6 comparisons, 2.4% of AUCT and AUCI CIs and 21.4% of Cmax CIs failed to show bioequivalence. In 42 generic-generic comparisons, 2.4% of AUCT, AUCI, and Cmax CIs failed to show bioequivalence, and 66.7% of AUCReftmax CIs failed to show bioequivalence/showed bioinequivalence. Adjusting for 6 comparisons, 2.4% of AUCT and AUCI CIs and 14.3% of Cmax CIs failed to show bioequivalence. Average geometric mean ratio deviation from 100% was ≤3.2 and ≤5.4 percentage points for AUCI and Cmax, respectively, in both generic
Guest, Greg; Namey, Emily; McKenna, Kevin
Few empirical studies exist to guide researchers in determining the number of focus groups necessary for a research study. The analyses described here provide foundational evidence to help researchers in this regard. We conducted a thematic analysis of 40 focus groups on health-seeking behaviors of African American men in Durham, North Carolina.…
Ramos-Morcillo, Antonio J; Fernández-Salazar, Serafín; Ruzafa-Martínez, María; Del-Pino-Casado, Rafael
Barriers to the implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) by nursing professionals include a lack of knowledge, inadequate skills in searching for and appraising evidence, and consulting research articles. However, few studies have addressed the effectiveness of educational interventions to improve their competence. To evaluate the effectiveness of a brief basic online and face-to-face educational intervention to promote EBP attitudes, knowledge and skills, and practice in clinical care nurses. This study was quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design with a comparison group. The sample included registered nurses enrolled in the free continuing education courses offered in 2013 by the Nursing Council of Jaén (Spain). The study included 109 participants (54 in the intervention group and 55 in the comparison group). The intervention was a brief, basic EBP course with online and face-to-face learning. The comparison group received an educational intervention with different content. The evidence-based practice questionnaire (EBPQ) was used to evaluate EBP attitude, knowledge and skills, and practice before the intervention, and at 21 and 60 days following the intervention. Two-way mixed analysis of variance was conducted. There was a significant difference between intervention and comparison groups in the knowledge and skills dimension. The difference between groups was not significant in the EBP practice dimension. Both groups had high scores in the attitude dimension that did not change after the intervention. A brief basic educational intervention on EBP with online and face-to-face learning can produce improvements in the knowledge and skills of clinical nurses. © 2015 The Authors. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Sigma Theta Tau International The Honor Society of Nursing.
Drolet, Brian C; Lorenzi, Nancy M
Evidence-based medicine is a vital process for maintaining and improving quality and value in health care. However, evidence-based practice is most limited by the availability of research and outcomes data. Although randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been identified by numerous research organizations as the criterion standard for research methodology (eg, "level I evidence"), the execution of well-designed RCTs has proved either challenging or impossible in many surgical fields and with rare disease conditions. In particular, craniofacial and plastic surgery has been noted to be lacking in both the number and quality of RCTs. Many reasons are discussed for this dearth of research including inadequate sample size and challenges in randomization, blinding, and clinical equipoise. Yet, data for outcomes assessment are highly valued by surgeons and by consumers and payers. Therefore, alternative and more practical means for research and data collection must be sought. Observational studies of clinical practice are particularly useful for outcomes assessment despite relegation to a lower tier of evidence (eg, "level II evidence"). Functional databases with well-defined processes for data collection, called medical data registries, are an essential informatics tool to collect and store outcomes data and produce high-quality observational, practice-based research studies. A properly designed and implemented registry can provide surgeons with an abundance of data to perform research and quality improvement projects. In fact, registries may be superior in many ways to RCTs for craniofacial and plastic surgeons both pragmatically and functionally. In this commentary, we discuss the production of such registries in the framework of evidence-based practice and the relevant studies in craniofacial surgery.
Marília Cruz Guttier
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to identify factors associated with the preference for purchasing generic drugs in a medium-sized municipality in Southern Brazil. METHODS We have analyzed data from a population-based cross-sectional study conducted in 2012 with a sample of 2,856 adults (≥ 20 years old. The preference for purchasing generic drugs was the main outcome. The explanatory variables were the demographic and socioeconomic variables. Statistical analyses included Poisson regressions. RESULTS The preference for purchasing generic drugs was 63.2% (95%CI 61.4–64.9. The variables correlated with this preference in the fully adjusted models were: male (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.08; 95%CI 1.03–1.14, age of 20–39 years (PR = 1.10; 95%CI 1.02–1.20, low socioeconomic status (PR = 1.15; 95%CI 1.03–1.28, and good knowledge about generic drugs (PR= 4.66; 95%CI 2.89–7.52. Among those who preferred to purchase generic drugs, 55.1% have reported accepting to replace the prescribed drug (if not a generic with the equivalent generic drug. Another correlate of the preference for purchasing generic drugs was because individuals consider their quality equivalent to reference medicines (PR = 2.15; 95%CI 1.93–2.41. CONCLUSIONS Knowledge about generic drugs was the main correlate of the preference for purchasing generic drugs. The greater the knowledge or positive perception about generic drugs, the greater is the preference to purchase them. Therefore, educational campaigns for healthcare professionals and consumers appear to be the best strategy for expanding the use of generic drugs in Brazil.
Guttier, Marília Cruz; Silveira, Marysabel Pinto Telis; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso
The objective of this study is to identify factors associated with the preference for purchasing generic drugs in a medium-sized municipality in Southern Brazil. We have analyzed data from a population-based cross-sectional study conducted in 2012 with a sample of 2,856 adults (≥ 20 years old). The preference for purchasing generic drugs was the main outcome. The explanatory variables were the demographic and socioeconomic variables. Statistical analyses included Poisson regressions. The preference for purchasing generic drugs was 63.2% (95%CI 61.4-64.9). The variables correlated with this preference in the fully adjusted models were: male (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.08; 95%CI 1.03-1.14), age of 20-39 years (PR = 1.10; 95%CI 1.02-1.20), low socioeconomic status (PR = 1.15; 95%CI 1.03-1.28), and good knowledge about generic drugs (PR= 4.66; 95%CI 2.89-7.52). Among those who preferred to purchase generic drugs, 55.1% have reported accepting to replace the prescribed drug (if not a generic) with the equivalent generic drug. Another correlate of the preference for purchasing generic drugs was because individuals consider their quality equivalent to reference medicines (PR = 2.15; 95%CI 1.93-2.41). Knowledge about generic drugs was the main correlate of the preference for purchasing generic drugs. The greater the knowledge or positive perception about generic drugs, the greater is the preference to purchase them. Therefore, educational campaigns for healthcare professionals and consumers appear to be the best strategy for expanding the use of generic drugs in Brazil.
Fritsche, L; Greenhalgh, T; Falck-Ytter, Y; Neumayer, H-H; Kunz, R
Objective To develop and validate an instrument for measuring knowledge and skills in evidence based medicine and to investigate whether short courses in evidence based medicine lead to a meaningful increase in knowledge and skills. Design Development and validation of an assessment instrument and before and after study. Setting Various postgraduate short courses in evidence based medicine in Germany. Participants The instrument was validated with experts in evidence based medicine, postgraduate doctors, and medical students. The effect of courses was assessed by postgraduate doctors from medical and surgical backgrounds. Intervention Intensive 3 day courses in evidence based medicine delivered through tutor facilitated small groups. Main outcome measure Increase in knowledge and skills. Results The questionnaire distinguished reliably between groups with different expertise in evidence based medicine. Experts attained a threefold higher average score than students. Postgraduates who had not attended a course performed better than students but significantly worse than experts. Knowledge and skills in evidence based medicine increased after the course by 57% (mean score before course 6.3 (SD 2.9) v 9.9 (SD 2.8), Pevidence based medicine. An intensive 3 day course in evidence based medicine led to a significant increase in knowledge and skills. What is already known on this topicNumerous observational studies have investigated the impact of teaching evidence based medicine to healthcare professionals, with conflicting resultsMost of the studies were of poor methodological qualityWhat this study addsAn instrument assessing basic knowledge and skills required for practising evidence based medicine was developed and validatedAn intensive 3 day course on evidence based medicine for doctors from various backgrounds and training level led to a clinically meaningful improvement of knowledge and skills PMID:12468485
Pfefferbaum, Betty; Jacobs, Anne K; Nitiéma, Pascal; Everly, George S
Debriefing, a controversial crisis intervention delivered in the early aftermath of a disaster, has not been well evaluated for use with children and adolescents. This report constitutes a review of the child debriefing evidence base. A systematic search of selected bibliographic databases (EBM Reviews, EMBASE, ERIC, Medline, Ovid, PILOTS, PubMed, and PsycINFO) was conducted in the spring of 2014 using search terms related to psychological debriefing. The search was limited to English language sources and studies of youth, aged 0 to 18 years. No time limit was placed on date of publication. The search yielded 713 references. Titles and abstracts were reviewed to select publications describing scientific studies and clinical reports. Reference sections of these publications, and of other literature known to the authors that was not generated by the search, were used to locate additional materials. Review of these materials generated 187 publications for more thorough examination; this assessment yielded a total of 91 references on debriefing in children and adolescents. Only 15 publications on debriefing in children and adolescents described empirical studies. Due to a lack of statistical analysis of effectiveness data with youth, and some articles describing the same study, only seven empirical studies described in nine papers were identified for analysis for this review. These studies were evaluated using criteria for assessment of methodological rigor in debriefing studies. Children and adolescents included in the seven empirical debriefing studies were survivors of motor-vehicle accidents, a maritime disaster, hostage taking, war, or peer suicides. The nine papers describing the seven studies were characterized by inconsistency in describing the interventions and populations and by a lack of information on intervention fidelity. Few of the studies used randomized design or blinded assessment. The results described in the reviewed studies were mixed in regard to
Full Text Available This paper describes the philosophy, development and framework of the body of elements formulated to provide an approach to evidence-based learning sustained by Learning Objects and web based technology Due to the demands for continuous improvement in the delivery of healthcare and in the continuous endeavour to improve the quality of life, there is a continuous need for practitioner's to update their knowledge by accomplishing accredited courses. The rapid advances in medical science has meant increasingly, there is a desperate need to adopt wireless schemes, whereby bespoke courses can be developed to help practitioners keep up with expanding knowledge base. Evidently, without current best evidence, practice risks becoming rapidly out of date, to the detriment of the patient. There is a need to provide a tactical, operational and effective environment, which allows professional to update their education, and complete specialised training, just-in-time, in their own time and location. Following this demand in the marketplace the information engineering group, in combination with several medical and dental schools, set out to develop and design a conceptual framework which form the basis of pioneering research, which at last, enables practitioner's to adopt a philosophy of life long learning. The body and structure of this framework is subsumed under the term Object oriented approach to Evidence Based learning, Just-in-time, via Internet sustained by Reusable Learning Objects (The OEBJIRLO Progression. The technical pillars which permit this concept of life long learning are pivoted by the foundations of object oriented technology, Learning objects, Just-in-time education, Data Mining, intelligent Agent technology, Flash interconnectivity and remote wireless technology, which allow practitioners to update their professional skills, complete specialised training which leads to accredited qualifications. This paper sets out to develop and
Pathak, Ram A; Rawal, Bhupendra; Li, Zhuo; Broderick, Gregory A
The primary aim of our study was to determine whether an evidence-based rationale could categorize cavernous venous occlusive disease into mild, moderate and severe erectile dysfunction. A total of 863 patients underwent color duplex Doppler ultrasound from January 2010 to June 2013 performed by a single urologist. We identified a cohort of 75 patients (8.7%) with a diagnosis of cavernous venous occlusive disease based on a unilateral resistive index less than 0.9, and right and left peak systolic velocity 35 cm per second or less after visual sexual stimulation. At a median followup of 13 months patients were evaluated for treatment efficacy. A total of 75 patients with a median age of 60 years (range 19 to 83) and a mean body mass index of 26.3 kg/m(2) (range 19.0 to 39.3) satisfied the criteria of cavernous venous occlusive disease. When substratified into tertiles, resistive index cutoffs were obtained, including mild cavernous venous occlusive disease-81.6 to 94.0, moderate disease-72.6 to 81.5 and severe disease-59.5 to 72.5. Using these 3 groups the phosphodiesterase type 5-inhibitor failure rate (p = 0.017) and SHIM (Sexual Health Inventory for Men) score categories (1 to 10 vs 11 to 20, p = 0.030) were statistically significantly different for mild, moderate and severe cavernous venous occlusive disease. Treatment satisfaction was also statistically significantly different. Penile prosthetic placement was a more common outcome among patients with erectile dysfunction and more severe cavernous venous occlusive disease. Our retrospective analysis supports a correlation between the phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor failure rate, SHIM score and the rate of surgical intervention using resistive index values. Our data further suggest that an evidence-based classification of cavernous venous occlusive disease by color Doppler ultrasound is possible and can triage patients to penile prosthetic placement. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association
Aarons, Gregory A; Glisson, Charles; Green, Phillip D; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Kelleher, Kelly J.; Landsverk, John A; ,
AbstractBackgroundEvidence-based practices have not been routinely adopted in community mental health organizations despite the support of scientific evidence and in some cases even legislative or regulatory action. We examined the association of clinician attitudes toward evidence-based practice with organizational culture, climate, and other characteristics in a nationally representative sample of mental health organizations in the United States.MethodsIn-person, group-administered surveys ...
Supplee, Lauren H.; Metz, Allison
Despite a robust body of evidence of effectiveness of social programs, few evidence-based programs have been scaled for population-level improvement in social problems. Since 2010 the federal government has invested in evidence-based social policy by supporting a number of new evidence-based programs and grant initiatives. These initiatives…
Honeybul, S; Ho, K M
The introduction of evidence based medicine de-emphasised clinical experience and so-called "background information" and stressed the importance of evidence gained from clinical research when making clinical decisions. For many years randomised controlled trials have been seen to be the only way to advance clinical practice, however, applying this methodology in the context of severe trauma can be problematic. In addition, it is increasingly recognised that considerable clinical experience is required in order to critically evaluate the quality of the evidence and the validity of the conclusions as presented. A contemporary example is seen when considering the role of decompressive craniectomy in the management of neurotrauma. Although there is a considerable amount of evidence available attesting to the efficacy of the procedure, considerable clinical expertise is required in order to properly interpret the results of these studies and the implications for clinical practice. Given these limitations the time may have come for a redesign of the traditional pyramid of evidence, to a model that re-emphasises the importance of "background information" such as pathophysiology and acknowledges the role of clinical experience such that the evidence can be critically evaluated in its appropriate context and the subsequent implications for clinical practice be clearly and objectively defined. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Marshall, T A; Straub-Morarend, C L; Guzmán-Armstrong, S; Handoo, N
The integration of evidence-based dentistry (EBD) into pre-doctoral dental curricula requires the identification of desired outcomes, development of curricular content and design of assessment strategies which guide student performance whilst documenting achievement of desired curricular outcomes. Models for developing EBD curriculums have been described in the literature; however, the logistics of designing assessment instruments to progressively document student performance have received less attention. The objective of this article is to describe the University of Iowa's College of Dentistry's development and implementation of assessment strategies to guide student learning of EBD knowledge, application and assimilation to serve as a model for other institutions developing EBD assessment protocols. Desired EBD knowledge and behaviour outcomes guided the development of curricular content and progressive formative and summative assessment strategies. Vertically and horizontally integrated educational activities enabling students to demonstrate EBD knowledge whilst modelling desired behaviours were identified, whilst assessment principles guided development of learning guides and assessment instruments to document achievement of desired outcomes. Consistent EBD language and educational activities are utilised throughout the 4-year interdisciplinary curriculum with stepwise assessment protocols matched to the curriculum. Examples of student learning guides and assessment instruments are provided. Curricular design guides development of assessment strategies. Assessment protocols provide consistent formative and summative feedback to enable continuous student growth to become proficient EBD practitioners. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Breitbart, William; Alici, Yesne
Delirium is the most common neuropsychiatric complication seen in patients with cancer, and it is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Increased health care costs, prolonged hospital stays, and long-term cognitive decline are other well-recognized adverse outcomes of delirium. Improved recognition of delirium and early treatment are important in diminishing such morbidity. There has been an increasing number of studies published in the literature over the last 10 years regarding delirium treatment as well as prevention. Antipsychotics, cholinesterase inhibitors, and alpha-2 agonists are the three groups of medications that have been studied in randomized controlled trials in different patient populations. In patients with cancer, the evidence is most clearly supportive of short-term, low-dose use of antipsychotics for controlling the symptoms of delirium, with close monitoring for possible adverse effects, especially in older patients with multiple medical comorbidities. Nonpharmacologic interventions also appear to have a beneficial role in the treatment of patients with cancer who have or are at risk for delirium. This article presents evidence-based recommendations based on the results of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic studies of the treatment and prevention of delirium. PMID:22412123
Baird, Ruth Ann; Wiebe, Sam; Zunt, Joseph R.; Halperin, John J.; Gronseth, Gary; Roos, Karen L.
Objective: To review the evidence base for different treatment strategies in intraparenchymal neurocysticercosis in adults and children. Method: A literature search of Medline, EMBASE, LILACS, and the Cochrane Database from 1980 to 2008, updated in 2012, resulted in the identification of 10 Class I or Class II trials of cysticidal drugs administered with or without corticosteroids in the treatment of neurocysticercosis. Results: The available data demonstrate that albendazole therapy, administered with or without corticosteroids, is probably effective in decreasing both long-term seizure frequency and the number of cysts demonstrable radiologically in adults and children with neurocysticercosis, and is well-tolerated. There is insufficient information to assess the efficacy of praziquantel. Recommendations: Albendazole plus either dexamethasone or prednisolone should be considered for adults and children with neurocysticercosis, both to decrease the number of active lesions on brain imaging studies (Level B) and to reduce long-term seizure frequency (Level B). The evidence is insufficient to support or refute the use of steroid treatment alone in patients with intraparenchymal neurocysticercosis (Level U). PMID:23568997
Freddi, Goffredo; Romàn-Pumar, José Luis
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is not a old hat, a "cookbook" medicine perpetrated by arrogant to serve cost cutters to suppress clinical freedom, a mandatory, deterministic, totalitarian practice of medicine, a way to control cost and to ignore patient preferences, a limit to personal/ humanistic/individual medicine. EBM is a reference of excellence to guide clinical decisions, the integration of own expertise with others' expertise and patient preferences, a way to improve medical practice and limit the variability and errors created when there is not evidence to identify the gold standard and differentiate among alternatives available. But evidences need to be integrated with a new thinking based on Complexity Science. Health care systems operates as complex adaptative systems rather than rigid, linear or mechanical organizations and innovation is a critical outcome of Complexity Science. How does EBM impact drug innovation? New drug approvals are not keeping pace with rising Research and Development spending, clinical approval success rate for new chemical entities (NCEs) is progressively dropping and maybe, through these indicators, we are seeing the worst face of EBM: its limiting, blocking, and controlling side. If that is the case, EBM is the main ally to keep the economy of health systems under control and the great excuse to block the access of the innovation to patients. Certainly not the best way to maximize the benefits of EBM.
Kim, Kwang-Il; Jung, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Chang Oh; Kim, Soo-Kyung; Cho, Hyun-Ho; Kim, Dae Yul; Ha, Yong-Chan; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Won, Chang Won; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Jae Gyu
Falls and fall-related injuries are common in older populations and have negative effects on quality of life and independence. Falling is also associated with increased morbidity, mortality, nursing home admission, and medical costs. Korea has experienced an extreme demographic shift with its population aging at the fastest pace among developed countries, so it is important to assess fall risks and develop interventions for high-risk populations. Guidelines for the prevention of falls were first developed by the Korean Association of Internal Medicine and the Korean Geriatrics Society. These guidelines were developed through an adaptation process as an evidence-based method; four guidelines were retrieved via systematic review and the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II process, and seven recommendations were developed based on the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation framework. Because falls are the result of various factors, the guidelines include a multidimensional assessment and multimodal strategy. The guidelines were developed for primary physicians as well as patients and the general population. They provide detailed recommendations and concrete measures to assess risk and prevent falls among older people. PMID:28049285
Searching the literature, a core requirement of evidence-based medicine has been impossibly oversold. The literature search is supposed to provide evidence independent from expert opinion, which has been deemed to be low on the evidence hierarchy. Yet freedom from expertise is not free. Paradoxically, practitioners are told to search the literature to avoid authority, but because there is too much information and too little time, they are urged to rely on authoritative digests. But the chain of errors inherent in searching literature for decision making, whether in scoping the decision, finding relevant documents, or in the document content, cannot be ignored. This article explores those errors. With examples from signal theory and decision theory, the literature search is analyzed in light of fundamental limits in the nature of informaiton. You can run from expertise but you cannot hide. Expertise is inevitably required to deal with these errors. So do-it-yourself searching is inadequate in the absence of expertise. The best decisions result from collaboration with subject matter experts and decision-making experts.
McIlwaine, Maggie Patricia; Lee Son, Nicole Marie; Richmond, Melissa Lynn
To provide a comprehensive overview and evidence to support the role of physiotherapy in the management of individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) including airway clearance, exercise, and musculoskeletal concerns which can affect activities of daily living and respiratory health. Several long-term studies have looked at the efficacy of airway clearance techniques, including active cycle of breathing techniques, autogenic drainage, high frequency chest wall oscillation, postural drainage, positive expiratory pressure (PEP), and oscillating PEP. Each of these studies reported some efficacy of airway clearance in maintaining health with no one technique being superior to another. However, one study suggested that high frequency chest wall oscillation was not as effective as PEP in maintaining health in CF patients. Individual preference needs to be considered when selecting a technique. Recent studies have found exercise to increase mucociliary clearance peripherally. Musculoskeletal issues, including posture, bone density, urinary incontinence, and pain should be assessed and managed in individuals to improve the mechanics of breathing and overall well-being. The role of physiotherapy in CF is complex and includes airway clearance, exercise, and management of the long-term sequelae of musculoskeletal issues. More rigorous physiotherapy studies are required to assist with evidence based practice.
Fernandez, Rosemarie; Vozenilek, John A; Hegarty, Cullen B; Motola, Ivette; Reznek, Martin; Phrampus, Paul E; Kozlowski, Steve W J
Current health care literature cites communication breakdown and teamwork failures as primary threats to patient safety. The unique, dynamic environment of the emergency department (ED) and the complexity of patient care necessitate the development of strong interdisciplinary team skills among emergency personnel. As part of the 2008 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference on "The Science of Simulation in Healthcare," our workshop group identified key theory and evidence-based recommendations for the design and implementation of team training programs. The authors then conducted an extensive review of the team training literature within the domains of organizational psychology, aviation, military, management, and health care. This review, in combination with the workshop session, formed the basis for recommendations and need for further research in six key areas: 1) developing and refining core competencies for emergency medicine (EM) teams; 2) leadership training for emergency physicians (EPs); 3) conducting comprehensive needs analyses at the organizational, personnel, and task levels; 4) development of training platforms to maximize knowledge transfer; 5) debriefing and provision of feedback; and 6) proper implementation of simulation technology. The authors believe that these six areas should form an EM team training research platform to advance the EM literature, while leveraging the unique team structures present in EM to expand team training theory and research.
Dheeraj D Kalra
Full Text Available Since past few years, there have been many strategies to combat dental caries, erosion, hypersensitivity, and many other oral conditions. The last decade has seen many advanced researches in the field of dentistry. The scope of dentistry has evolved from only a curative one to a largely preventive one. There have been technologies available for the minimal invasive cure of dental caries, early diagnosis and early reversal of the initial carious lesion using nonoperative techniques. There has also more focus being made to treat dental caries as a process rather than curing the lesion only. The role of saliva, demineralization and remineralization has been better understood. The aim of this paper is to review the contemporary nonfluoridated systems available for remineralization therapy and ideas for their implementation into clinical practice. A search of articles from "PubMed" and "Medline" and databases like Google and Google scholar, ScienceDirect and Wiley with the keywords remineralization, demineralization, nonfluoridated demineralizing agents was conducted in the month of August 2012 out of a total 114 articles, 86 articles have been used in the present evidence-based review.
Rothberg, Brian; Feinstein, Robert E; Guiton, Gretchen
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has become an important part of residency education, yet many EBM curricula lack a valid and standardized tool to identify learners' prior knowledge and assess progress. We developed an EBM examination in psychiatry to measure our effectiveness in teaching comprehensive EBM to residents. We developed a psychiatry EBM test using the validated EBM Fresno Test of Competence for family medicine. The test consists of case scenarios with open-ended questions. We also developed a scoring rubric and obtained reliability with multiple raters. Fifty-seven residents provided test data after completing 3, 6, 25, or 31 EBM sessions. The number of sessions for each resident was based on their length of training in our program. The examination had strong interrater reliability, internal reliability, and item discrimination. Many residents showed significant improvement on their examination scores when data were compared from tests taken before and after a sequence of teaching sessions. Also, a threshold for the level of expert on the examination was established using test data from 5 EBM teacher-experts. We successfully developed a valid and reliable EBM examination for use with psychiatry residents to measure essential EBM skills as part of a larger project to encourage EBM practice for residents in routine patient care. The test provides information on residents' knowledge in EBM from entry level concepts through expert performance. It can be used to place incoming residents in appropriate levels of an EBM curriculum and to monitor the effectiveness of EBM instruction.
Full Text Available Objective. To perform an evidence-based review of treatments for Toxoplasma retinochoroiditis (TRC. Methods. A systematic literature search was performed using the PubMed database and the key phrase “ocular toxoplasmosis treatment” and the filter for “controlled clinical trial” and “randomized clinical trial” as well as OVID medline (1946 to May week 2 2014 using the keyword ‘‘ocular toxoplasmosis’’. The included studies were used to evaluate the various treatment modalities of TRC. Results. The electronic search yielded a total of 974 publications of which 44 reported on the treatment of ocular toxoplasmosis. There were 9 randomized controlled studies and an additional 3 comparative studies on the treatment of acute TRC with systemic or intravitreous antibiotics or on reducing the recurrences of TRC. Endpoints of studies included visual acuity improvement, inflammatory response, lesion size changes, recurrences of lesions, and adverse effects of medications. Conclusions. There was conflicting evidence as to the effectiveness of systemic antibiotics for TRC. There is no evidence to support that one antibiotic regimen is superior to another so choice needs to be informed by the safety profile. Intravitreous clindamycin with dexamethasone seems to be as effective as systemic treatments. There is currently level I evidence that intermittent trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prevents recurrence of the disease.
Jones, Deborah J.; Anton, Margaret; Gonzalez, Michelle; Honeycutt, Amanda; Khavjou, Olga; Forehand, Rex; Parent, Justin
Ownership of mobile phones is on the rise, a trend in uptake that transcends age, region, race, and ethnicity, as well as income. It is precisely the emerging ubiquity of mobile phones that has sparked enthusiasm regarding their capacity to increase the reach and impact of health care, including mental health care. Community-based clinicians charged with transporting evidence-based interventions beyond research and training clinics are in turn, ideally and uniquely situated to capitalize on mobile phone uptake and functionality to bridge the efficacy to effectiveness gap. As such, this article delineates key considerations to guide these frontline clinicians in mobile phone-enhanced clinical practice, including an overview of industry data on the uptake of and evolution in the functionality of mobile phone platforms, conceptual considerations relevant to the integration of mobile phones into practice, representative empirical illustrations of mobile-phone enhanced assessment and treatment, and practical considerations relevant to ensuring the feasibility and sustainability of such an approach. PMID:26213458
Mehrdad, Neda; Joolaee, Soodabeh; Joulaee, Azadeh; Bahrani, Naser
Background: Evidence-based practice (EBP) is one of the main professional competencies for health care professionals and a priority for medicine and nursing curriculum as well. EBP leads to improve effective and efficient care and patient outcomes. Nurse educators have responsibility to teach the future nurses, and an opportunity to promote patient outcomes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe nurse educators’ knowledge and attitude on EBP. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive study conducted in nursing faculties of two major universities of medical sciences affiliated to Ministry of Health and Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran. Data were gathered using a three-section questionnaire. Content and face validity was further enhanced by submitting it to nursing research and education experts. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 11 software. Results: According the results, nursing faculties’ knowledge of EBP was mainly moderate (47.1%). Significant statistical relationship was found between the level of knowledge with education and teaching experience in different nursing programs. Nurses generally held positive attitudes toward EBP (88.6%) and there was no statistical significant relationship with demographic variables. Conclusion: Nursing educators are in a position to influence nursing research in clinical practice in the future. Therefore, it is critical to achieve implementation of EBP and be a change agent for a paradigm shift toward EBP. PMID:23922597
McCrea, Michael; Guskiewicz, Kevin
Concussion is not only one of the most common injuries encountered by athletes participating in contact and collision sports, but also among the most complex injuries to manage in a sports medicine setting. Over the past two decades, we have made great progress in advancing the basic and clinical science of concussion. These advances have had enormous clinical translational value for developing evidence-based guidelines for management of concussion in sports. Applied clinical research has clarified the defining characteristics of sport-related concussion (SRC) that support new diagnostic criteria. At the same time, major advancements have been realized in the development and validation of clinical tools that allow a more objective and accurate assessment of concussion and performance-based measures of recovery. These tools provide clinicians with a more informed basis for determining an athlete's cognitive and physical fitness to return to competition after concussion. Standardized injury management protocols that systematically prescribe rest, graded activity, and return to play have been adopted in nearly all clinical settings. Herein, we briefly summarize the findings and recommendations from several national and international consensus guidelines and position statements on best practice in the evaluation and management of SRC. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Dahdaleh, Nader S; Lawton, Cort D; El Ahmadieh, Tarek Y; Nixon, Alexander T; El Tecle, Najib E; Oh, Sanders; Fessler, Richard G; Smith, Zachary A
Evidence-based medicine is used to examine the current treatment options, timing of surgical intervention, and prognostic factors in the management of patients with traumatic central cord syndrome (TCCS). A computerized literature search of the National Library of Medicine database, Cochrane database, and Google Scholar was performed for published material between January 1966 and February 2013 using key words and Medical Subject Headings. Abstracts were reviewed and selected, with the articles segregated into 3 main categories: surgical versus conservative management, timing of surgery, and prognostic factors. Evidentiary tables were then assembled, summarizing data and quality of evidence (Classes I-III) for papers included in this review. The authors compiled 3 evidentiary tables summarizing 16 studies, all of which were retrospective in design. Regarding surgical intervention versus conservative management, there was Class III evidence to support the superiority of surgery for patients presenting with TCCS. In regards to timing of surgery, most Class III evidence demonstrated no difference in early versus late surgical management. Most Class III studies agreed that older age, especially age greater than 60-70 years, correlated with worse outcomes. No Class I or Class II evidence was available to determine the efficacy of surgery, timing of surgical intervention, or prognostic factors in patients managed for TCCS. Hence, there is a need to perform well-controlled prospective studies and randomized controlled clinical trials to further investigate the optimal management (surgical vs conservative) and timing of surgical intervention in patients suffering from TCCS.
Reichenpfader, Ursula; Carlfjord, Siw; Nilsen, Per
This study aims to systematically review published empirical research on leadership as a determinant for the implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) and to investigate leadership conceptualization and operationalization in this field. A systematic review with narrative synthesis was conducted. Relevant electronic bibliographic databases and reference lists of pertinent review articles were searched. To be included, a study had to involve empirical research and refer to both leadership and EBP in health care. Study quality was assessed with a structured instrument based on study design. A total of 17 studies were included. Leadership was mostly viewed as a modifier for implementation success, acting through leadership support. Yet, there was definitional imprecision as well as conceptual inconsistency, and studies seemed to inadequately address situational and contextual factors. Although referring to an organizational factor, the concept was mostly analysed at the individual or group level. The concept of leadership in implementation science seems to be not fully developed. It is unclear whether attempts to tap the concept of leadership in available instruments truly capture and measure the full range of the diverse leadership elements at various levels. Research in implementation science would benefit from a better integration of research findings from other disciplinary fields. Once a more mature concept has been established, researchers in implementation science could proceed to further elaborate operationalization and measurement. Although the relevance of leadership in implementation science has been acknowledged, the conceptual base of leadership in this field has received only limited attention.
Zesiewicz, T.A.; Elble, R.J.; Louis, E.D.; Gronseth, G.S.; Ondo, W.G.; Dewey, R.B.; Okun, M.S.; Sullivan, K.L.; Weiner, W.J.
Background: This evidence-based guideline is an update of the 2005 American Academy of Neurology practice parameter on the treatment of essential tremor (ET). Methods: A literature review using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, and CINAHL was performed to identify clinical trials in patients with ET published between 2004 and April 2010. Results and Recommendations: Conclusions and recommendations for the use of propranolol, primidone (Level A, established as effective); alprazolam, atenolol, gabapentin (monotherapy), sotalol, topiramate (Level B, probably effective); nadolol, nimodipine, clonazepam, botulinum toxin A, deep brain stimulation, thalamotomy (Level C, possibly effective); and gamma knife thalamotomy (Level U, insufficient evidence) are unchanged from the previous guideline. Changes to conclusions and recommendations from the previous guideline include the following: 1) levetiracetam and 3,4-diaminopyridine probably do not reduce limb tremor in ET and should not be considered (Level B); 2) flunarizine possibly has no effect in treating limb tremor in ET and may not be considered (Level C); and 3) there is insufficient evidence to support or refute the use of pregabalin, zonisamide, or clozapine as treatment for ET (Level U). PMID:22013182
Gimpel, John R; Horber, Dorothy; Sandella, Jeanne M; Knebl, Janice A; Thornburg, John E
To ensure that the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination-USA (COMLEX-USA) reflects the evolving practice of osteopathic medicine, the National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners has developed new content and format specifications for an enhanced, competency-based examination program to be implemented with COMLEX-USA Level 3 in 2018. This article summarizes the evidence-based design processes that served as the foundation for blueprint development and the evidence supporting its validity. An overview is provided of the blueprint's 2 dimensions: Competency Domains and Clinical Presentations. The authors focus on the evidence that supports interpretation of test scores for the primary and intended purpose of COMLEX-USA, which is osteopathic physician licensure. Important secondary uses and the educational and catalytic effect of assessments are also described. This article concludes with the National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners' plans to ensure that the COMLEX-USA series remains current and meets the needs of its stakeholders-the patients who seek care from osteopathic physicians.
Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this discussion is to explore the theory, evidence base, and practice of Qigong for individuals with cancer. Questions addressed are: What is qigong? How does it work? What evidence exists supporting its practice in integrative oncology? What barriers to wide-spread programming access exist? Methods: Sources for this discussion include a review of scholarly texts, the Internet, PubMed, field observations, and expert opinion. Results: Qigong is a gentle, mind/body exercise integral within Chinese medicine. Theoretical foundations include Chinese medicine energy theory, psychoneuroimmunology, the relaxation response, the meditation effect, and epigenetics. Research supports positive effects on quality of life (QOL, fatigue, immune function and cortisol levels, and cognition for individuals with cancer. There is indirect, scientific evidence suggesting that qigong practice may positively influence cancer prevention and survival. No one Qigong exercise regimen has been established as superior. Effective protocols do have common elements: slow mindful exercise, easy to learn, breath regulation, meditation, emphasis on relaxation, and energy cultivation including mental intent and self-massage. Conclusions: Regular practice of Qigong exercise therapy has the potential to improve cancer-related QOL and is indirectly linked to cancer prevention and survival. Wide-spread access to quality Qigong in cancer care programming may be challenged by the availability of existing programming and work force capacity.
Schuller, Kristin A; Kash, Bita A; Gamm, Larry D
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the implementation of an organizational change initiative--Studer Group®'s Evidence-Based Leadership (EBL)--in two large, US health systems by comparing and contrasting the factors associated with successful implementation and sustainability of the EBL initiative. This comparative case study assesses the responses to two pairs of open-ended questions during in-depth qualitative interviews of leaders and managers at both health systems. Qualitative content analysis was employed to identify major themes. Three themes associated with success and sustainability of EBL emerged at both health systems: leadership; culture; and organizational processes. The theme most frequently identified for both success and sustainability of EBL was culture. In contrast, there was a significant decline in salience of the leadership theme as attention shifts from success in implementation of EBL to sustaining EBL long term. Within the culture theme, accountability, and buy-in were most often cited by interviewees as success factors, while sense of accountability, buy-in, and communication were the most reported factors for sustainability. Cultural factors, such as accountability, staff support, and communication are driving forces of success and sustainability of EBL across both health systems. Leadership, a critical factor in several stages of implementation, appears to be less salient as among factors identified as important to longer term sustainability of EBL.
Full Text Available In the last twenty years the term “Evidence Based Medicine (EBM” has been increasingly applied in all areas of medicine and is often used for decision-making in the medical and public health sector. It is also used to verify the significance and/or the effectiveness of different therapies. The original definition of EBM rests on the following three pillars: the physician’s individual expertise, the patient’s needs and the best external evidence. Today, however, the term EBM is often wrongly used as a synonym for best external evidence, without taking into consideration the other two pillars of the model which was created by Gordon Guyatt, David Sackett and Archibald Cochrane. This problem becomes even greater the more social insurance institutions and politicians use external evidence alone as the main guideline for financing therapies and therapy guidelines in physical medicine and general rehabilitation without taking into account the physician’s expertise and the patient’s needs.The wrong interpretation of EBM can lead to the following problems: well established clinical therapies are either questioned or not granted and are therefore withheld from patients (for example physical pain management. An absence of evidence for individual therapy methods does not prove their ineffectiveness! In this short statement the significance of EBM in Physical Medicine and general rehabilitation will be analysed and discussed.
Crumley, Ellen; Koufogiannakis, Denise
Evidence-based librarianship (EBL) is a relatively new concept for librarians. This paper lays out a practical framework for the implementation of EBL. A new way of thinking about research in librarianship is introduced using the well-built question process and the assignment of librarian research questions to one of six domains specific to librarianship. As a profession, librarianship tends to reflect more qualitative, social sciences/humanities in its research methods and study types which tend to be less rigorous and more prone to bias. Randomised controlled trials (RCT) do not have to be placed at the top of an evidence 'hierarchy' for librarianship. Instead, a more encompassing model reflecting librarianship as a whole and the kind of research likely to be done by librarians is proposed. 'Evidence' from a number of disciplines including health sciences, business and education can be utilized by librarians and applied to their practice. However, access to and availability of librarianship literature needs to be further studied. While using other disciplines (e.g. EBHC) as a model for EBL has been explored in the literature, the authors develop models unique to librarianship. While research has always been a minor focus in the profession, moving research into practice is becoming more important and librarians need to consider the issues surrounding research in order to move EBL forward.
Pulok K Mukherjee
Full Text Available Evidence based validation of the ethno-pharmacological claims on traditional medicine (TM is the need of the day for its globalization and reinforcement. Combining the unique features of identifying biomarkers that are highly conserved across species, this can offer an innovative approach to biomarker-driven drug discovery and development. TMs are an integral component of alternative health care systems. India has a rich wealth of TMs and the potential to accept the challenge to meet the global demand for them. Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy (AYUSH medicine are the major healthcare systems in Indian Traditional Medicine. The plant species mentioned in the ancient texts of these systems may be explored with the modern scientific approaches for better leads in the healthcare. TM is the best sources of chemical diversity for finding new drugs and leads. Authentication and scientific validation of medicinal plant is a fundamental requirement of industry and other organizations dealing with herbal drugs. Quality control (QC of botanicals, validated processes of manufacturing, customer awareness and post marketing surveillance are the key points, which could ensure the quality, safety and efficacy of TM. For globalization of TM, there is a need for harmonization with respect to its chemical and metabolite profiling, standardization, QC, scientific validation, documentation and regulatory aspects of TM. Therefore, the utmost attention is necessary for the promotion and development of TM through global collaboration and co-ordination by national and international programme.
Render, Marta L; Brungs, Suzanne; Kotagal, Uma; Nicholson, Mary; Burns, Patricia; Ellis, Deborah; Clifton, Marla; Fardo, Rosie; Scott, Mark; Hirschhorn, Larry
In 2003, through the Greater Cincinnati Health Council nine health care systems agreed to participate and fund 50% of a two-year project to reduce hospital-acquired infections among patients in intensive care units (ICU) and following surgery (SIP). Hospitals were randomized to either the CR-BSI or SIP project in the first year, adding the alternative project in year 2. Project leaders, often the infection control professionals, implemented evidence-based practices to reduce catheter-related blood stream infections (CR-BSIs; maximal sterile barriers, chlorhexidine) at their hospitals using a collaborative approach. Team leaders entered process information in a secure deidentifled Web-based database. Of the four initial sites randomized to CR-BSI reduction, all reduced central line infections by 50% (CR-BSI, 1.7 to 0.4/1000 line days, p leadership and development of a local community of practice, facilitated cooperation of physicians, problem solving, and success. Use of forcing functions (removal of betadine in kits, creation of an accessory pack and a checklist for line insertion) improved reliability. The appropriate floor for central line infections in ICUs is < 1 infection /1,000 line days.
Shoja, Mohammadali M; Rashidi, Mohammad Reza; Tubbs, R Shane; Etemadi, Jalal; Abbasnejad, Feridoon; Agutter, Paul S
Although the term 'evidence-based medicine' (EBM) is of recent origin, its roots are generally agreed to lie in earlier times. Several writers have suggested that the 11th century CE physician and philosopher Avicenna (Ibn Sina) formulated an approach to EBM that broadly resembles modern-day principles and practice. The aim of this paper is to explore the origins and influence of Avicenna's version of EBM. A survey of the literature suggests that two influences on Avicenna's thought were crucial: the doctrine of Ijma; and Stoic logic, perhaps transmitted via the writings of Galen. In turn, Avicenna is known to have been a major influence on both medical practice and the development of logic in medieval Europe. Through this route, Avicennian logic (notably its inductive aspect) inspired the new style of thought associated with the scientific revolution, which later came to be reflected in 'scientific medicine', and may therefore have been an indirect source of EBM today. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Raimondi, N; Vial, M R; Calleja, J; Quintero, A; Cortés Alban, A; Celis, E; Pacheco, C; Ugarte, S; Añón, J M; Hernández, G; Vidal, E; Chiappero, G; Ríos, F; Castilleja, F; Matos, A; Rodriguez, E; Antoniazzi, P; Teles, J M; Dueñas, C; Sinclair, J; Martínez, L; Von der Osten, I; Vergara, J; Jiménez, E; Arroyo, M; Rodriguez, C; Torres, J; Fernandez-Bussy, S; Nates, J L
Provide evidence based guidelines for tracheostomy in critically ill adult patients and identify areas needing further research. A task force composed of representatives of 10 member countries of the Pan-American and Iberic Federation of Societies of Critical and Intensive Therapy Medicine and of the Latin American Critical Care Trial Investigators Network developed recommendations based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. The group identified 23 relevant questions among 87 issues that were initially identified. In the initial search, 333 relevant publications were identified of which 226 publications were chosen. The task force generated a total of 19 recommendations: 10 positive (1B=3, 2C=3, 2D=4) and 9 negative (1B=8, 2C=1). A recommendation was not possible in six questions. Percutaneous techniques are associated with a lower risk of infections compared to surgical tracheostomy. Early tracheostomy only seems to reduce the duration of ventilator use but not the incidence of pneumonia, the length of stay, or the long-term mortality rate. The evidence does not support the use of routine bronchoscopy guidance or laryngeal masks during the procedure. Finally, proper prior training is as important or even a more significant factor in reducing complications than the technique used. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.
Meats, Emma; Heneghan, Carl; Crilly, Mike; Glasziou, Paul
It is recognized that clinicians need training in evidence-based medicine (EBM), however there is considerable variation in the content and methods of the EBM curriculum in UK medical schools. To determine current practice and variation in EBM undergraduate teaching in UK medical schools and inform the strategy of medical schools and the National Knowledge Service. We contacted all 32 medical schools in the UK and requested that the person primarily responsible for EBM undergraduate teaching complete a short online survey and provide their EBM curriculum. The survey was completed by representatives from 20 (63%) medical schools and curriculum details were received from 5 (16%). There is considerable variation in the methods and content of the EBM curriculum. Although the majority of schools teach core EBM topics, relatively few allow students to practice the skills or assess such skills. EBM teaching is restricted by lack of curriculum time, trained tutors and teaching materials. Key elements to progress include the integration of EBM with clinical specialties, tutor training and the availability of high-quality teaching resources. The development of a national undergraduate EBM curriculum may help in promoting progress in EBM teaching and assessment in UK medical schools.
Gerber, Andreas; Lungen, Markus; Lauterbach, Karl W
Evidence-based medicine (EbM) has been practised for about a decade now. Until now, it has generally been accepted that EbM has its roots in medical thinking of mid-19th century France. Due to the startling fact that France never was a centre of EbM, historical tradition was reconsidered. Since EbM has mainly been flourishing in Protestant countries, a qualitative historical investigation was conducted according to the approach of Max Weber's "The Protestant Ethics". Thus, it could be shown that there are three major prerequisites for EbM to evolve apart from current technical developments, such as the computer and the internet: (1) historical critical exegesis functioned as a methodology to balance contradictory passages; (2) both an equality based relationship among physicians and a Protestant concept that lay people are considered equal in the theologic debate were fundamental to EbM as a new approach of medical thinking; (3) mostly nationally funded health care systems are prone to practise EbM as they are obliged to provide health care which is both fair in access and allocation to the whole population. Against the background of historical exegesis, it has to be taken into account that EbM implies a twist in medicine towards a concept of textual criticism rather than the mere introduction of statistics. Moreover, it both relies upon and enhances a more equal relationship between physicians.
Full Text Available Psychosocial interventions that are applied in practice should be those that have received the best scientific evidence about their effectiveness. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Intervention is a methodological tool that aims to raise awareness among professionals and policy makers of the need for professional practice to be guided by the best evidence. For this purpose, systematic reviews and meta-analyses of empirical evaluation studies play an important role as they allow us to synthesize the results of numerous studies on the same issue to determine which are the best treatments and interventions for solving the problem. This article presents an overview of the meta-analyses and the information they can provide for professional practice. The phases in which a meta-analysis is carried out are outlined as follows: (a formulating the problem, (b searching for the studies, (c coding the studies, (d calculating the effect size, (e statistical techniques of integration and (f publishing the study. The scope of meta-analyses and their results are illustrated with an example and their implications for professional practice are discussed.
Evidence-based practice (EBP) first appeared on the healthcare horizon just over a decade ago. In 2003 its presence has intensified and extended beyond its initial relation to medicine embracing as it does now, nursing and the allied health disciplines. In this paper, I contend that its appearance and subsequent growth and development are the effects of potent "regimes of truth", four of which bear the names: positivism, empiricism, pragmatism and economic rationalism. My aim is to show how EBP generates the controversy it does because its nature and methods are inextricably interwoven with the way it has become politicised and professionalised. This exegesis is an attempt to outline how the combined effects of the four forms of rationality mentioned above allow for both the methods and objectives of EBP to be constructed as they are, while at the same moment producing the particular effects of knowledge and power in terms of who sells and who buys the idea of EBP in the culture of contemporary healthcare.
Otero, Joel Joshi; Detriche, Olivier; Mommaerts, Maurice Yves
The aim of this study was to establish a fast-track protocol for bimaxillary orthognathic surgery (OGS). Fast-track surgery (FTS) is a multidisciplinary approach where the pre-, intra-, and postoperative management is focusing maximally on a quick patient recovery and early discharge. To enable this, the patients’ presurgical stress and postsurgical discomfort should be maximally reduced. Both referral patterns and expenses within the health-care system are positively influenced by FTS. University hospital-literature review through Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library (January 2000–July 2016) using the following words – “fast track, enhanced recovery, multimodal, and perioperative care” – to define a protocol evidence based for OGS, as well as evidenced-based medicine search of every term added to the protocol during the same period. The process has resulted in an OGS protocol that may improve the outcome of the patient through several nonoperative and operative measures such as preoperative patient education and intra/postoperative measures that should improve overall patient satisfaction, decrease morbidity such as postoperative nausea, headache, dizziness, pain, and intubation discomfort, and shorten hospital stay. A literature review allowed us to fine-tune a fast-track protocol for uncomplicated OGS that can be prospectively studied against currently applied ones. PMID:29264281
Full Text Available Evidence-based medicine (EBM is not a old hat, a "cookbook" medicine perpetrated by arrogant to serve cost cutters to suppress clinical freedom, a mandatory, deterministic, totalitarian practice of medicine, a way to control cost and to ignore patient preferences, a limit to personal/humanistic/individual medicine. EBM is a reference of excellence to guide clinical decisions, the integration of own expertise with others' expertise and patient preferences, a way to improve medical practice and limit the variability and errors created when there is not evidence to identify the gold standard and differentiate among alternatives available. But evidences need to be integrated with a new thinking based on Complexity Science. Health care systems operates as complex adaptative systems rather than rigid, linear or mechanical organizations and innovation is a critical outcome of Complexity Science. How does EBM impact drug innovation? New drug approvals are not keeping pace with rising Research and Development spending, clinical approval success rate for new chemical entities (NCEs is progressively dropping and maybe, through these indicators, we are seeing the worst face of EBM: its limiting, blocking, and controlling side. If that is the case, EBM is the main ally to keep the economy of health systems under control and the great excuse to block the access of the innovation to patients. Certainly not the best way to maximize the benefits of EBM.
Martin, Donna; Albensi, Lisa; Van Haute, Stephanie; Froese, Maria; Montgomery, Mary; Lam, Mavis; Gierys, Kendra; Lajeunesse, Rob; Guse, Lorna; Basova, Nataliya
In 2013, an observational survey was conducted among 242 in-patients in a community hospital with a pressure ulcer (PU) prevalence of 34.3%. An evidence-based pressure ulcer prevention program (PUPP) was then implemented including a staff awareness campaign entitled "Healthy Skin Wins" with an online tutorial about PU prevention. To determine the effectiveness of the PUPP in reducing the prevalence of PUs, to determine the effectiveness of the online tutorial in increasing hospital staff's knowledge level about PU prevention, and to explore frontline staff's perspectives of the PUPP. This was a mixed methods study. A repeat observational survey discerned if the PUPP reduced PU prevalence. A pre-test post-test design was used to determine whether hospital staff's knowledge of PU prevention was enhanced by the online tutorial. Qualitative interviews were conducted with nurses, allied health professionals, and health care aides to explore staff's perspectives of the PUPP. A comparison of initial and repeat observational surveys (n = 239) identified a statistically significant reduction in the prevalence of PU to 7.53% (p tutorial enhanced staff knowledge level with a statistically significantly higher mean post-test score (n = 80). Thirty-five frontline staff shared their perspectives of the PUPP with "it's definitely a combination of everything" and "there's a disconnect between what's needed and what's available" as the main themes. Incorporating evidence-based PU prevention into clinical practice greatly reduced the prevalence of PUs among hospital in-patients. Due to the small sample size for the pre-test post-test component, the effectiveness of the online tutorial in improving the knowledge level of PU prevention among hospital staff requires further research. Evidence-based PU prevention strategies are facilitated by using a multidisciplinary approach. Educational tools about PU prevention must target all members of the healthcare team including healthcare
Painter, Scott Leroy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harp, Dylan Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Perry, Frank Vinton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
A generic reference case for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in crystalline rock is outlined. The generic cases are intended to support development of disposal system modeling capability by establishing relevant baseline conditions and parameters. Establishment of a generic reference case requires that the emplacement concept, waste inventory, waste form, waste package, backfill/buffer properties, EBS failure scenarios, host rock properties, and biosphere be specified. The focus in this report is on those elements that are unique to crystalline disposal, especially the geosphere representation. Three emplacement concepts are suggested for further analyses: a waste packages containing 4 PWR assemblies emplaced in boreholes in the floors of tunnels (KBS-3 concept), a 12-assembly waste package emplaced in tunnels, and a 32-assembly dual purpose canister emplaced in tunnels. In addition, three failure scenarios were suggested for future use: a nominal scenario involving corrosion of the waste package in the tunnel emplacement concepts, a manufacturing defect scenario applicable to the KBS-3 concept, and a disruptive glaciation scenario applicable to both emplacement concepts. The computational approaches required to analyze EBS failure and transport processes in a crystalline rock repository are similar to those of argillite/shale, with the most significant difference being that the EBS in a crystalline rock repository will likely experience highly heterogeneous flow rates, which should be represented in the model. The computational approaches required to analyze radionuclide transport in the natural system are very different because of the highly channelized nature of fracture flow. Computational workflows tailored to crystalline rock based on discrete transport pathways extracted from discrete fracture network models are recommended.
Martin-Moruno, Prado; Visser, Matt [School of Mathematics, Statistics, and Operations Research, Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Garcia, Nadiezhda Montelongo [Departamento de Física, Centro de Investigación y Estudios avanzados del I.P.N., A.P. 14-700,07000 México, DF (Mexico); Lobo, Francisco S.N., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, E-mail: email@example.com, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, E-mail: email@example.com [Centro de Astronomia e Astrofísica da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Edifício C8 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)
We construct generic spherically symmetric thin-shell gravastars by using the cut-and-paste procedure. We take considerable effort to make the analysis as general and unified as practicable; investigating both the internal physics of the transition layer and its interaction with 'external forces' arising due to interactions between the transition layer and the bulk spacetime. Furthermore, we discuss both the dynamic and static situations. In particular, we consider 'bounded excursion' dynamical configurations, and probe the stability of static configurations. For gravastars there is always a particularly compelling configuration in which the surface energy density is zero, while surface tension is nonzero.
Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Loog, Marco; Markussen, Bo
in this work is on applying this selection principle under a Brownian image model. This image model provides a simple scale invariant prior for natural images and we provide illustrative examples of the behavior of our scale estimation on such images. In these illustrative examples, estimation is based......The fundamental problem of local scale selection is addressed by means of a novel principle, which is based on maximum likelihood estimation. The principle is generally applicable to a broad variety of image models and descriptors, and provides a generic scale estimation methodology. The focus...
M. Amparo Pérez-Campos
Full Text Available Objective. to determine the evidence-based practice (EBP competence of Spanish and Latin-American nurses participating in professional forums on the Internet and estimate the influence of socio-demographic and professional factors on their competence, which was defined as knowledge of, attitude towards, and implementation of EBP. Methodology: An online survey was administered to a convenience sample of nurses active in Internet forums, comprising validated Spanish versions of the Evidence-Based Practice Questionnaire (EBPQ and Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI and socio-demographics and professional variables. Results: 314 questionnaires were obtained (76.96%. The mean EBPQ score was 5.02 out of 7 (95%CI, 4.89-5.14. The variables associated with a higher competence in EBP were academic level, (p<03001, professional category (p=0.001, country of work (p<0.001, perception of practice environment (p=0,018 and research activities (p<0,036. Conclusions: These nurses showed a moderate level of EBP competence. They revealed a positive attitude towards EBP and achieved intermediate scores in both EBP-related skills and knowledge and their implementation. Higher academic levels and professional categories were associated with greater EBP competence. A practice environment perceived to be unfavorable has a negative influence on EBP implementation.
Gama, Zenewton A S; Medina-Mirapeix, Francesc; Saturno, Pedro J
To evaluate the effectiveness of an ad hoc multifaceted program to improve structure, professional behavior, and outcomes related to falls prevention. Internal quality improvement cycle. Nursing home in Spain. An institution with 130 residents. Local building of quality criteria, audit and feedback, and a specific intervention to improve based on educational and sensitization activities and changes in the process and recording systems. Quality of falls prevention was assessed using reliable evidence-based criteria (4 of structure and 9 of process), at baseline and 6 months after a specific intervention to improve. Number of falls was recorded in a random sample (n = 60) of residents (≥ 65 years) during a 1-year follow-up and summarized fortnightly as an indicator analyzed using a statistical control chart. Baseline structure and fall prevention practices were poor. After the intervention, all structure criteria were present and 8 of 9 process criteria improved significantly. Thirty-two falls occurred 6 months before and 21 after the intervention started, showing a significant decrease in the fortnightly incidence (P < .01). Adherence to evidence-based recommendations was poor in our setting, but the internal quality improvement cycle was useful in ensuring safe practices and in achieving better outcomes. Copyright © 2011 American Medical Directors Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past years concerns are rising about the use of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM in health care. The calls for an increase in the practice of EBM, seem to be obstructed by many barriers preventing the implementation of evidence-based thinking and acting in general practice. This study aims to explore the barriers of Flemish GPs (General Practitioners to the implementation of EBM in routine clinical work and to identify possible strategies for integrating EBM in daily work. Methods We used a qualitative research strategy to gather and analyse data. We organised focus groups between September 2002 and April 2003. The focus group data were analysed using a combined strategy of 'between-case' analysis and 'grounded theory approach'. Thirty-one general practitioners participated in four focus groups. Purposeful sampling was used to recruit participants. Results A basic classification model documents the influencing factors and actors on a micro-, meso- as well as macro-level. Patients, colleagues, competences, logistics and time were identified on the micro-level (the GPs' individual practice, commercial and consumer organisations on the meso-level (institutions, organisations and health care policy, media and specific characteristics of evidence on the macro-level (policy level and international scientific community. Existing barriers and possible strategies to overcome these barriers were described. Conclusion In order to implement EBM in routine general practice, an integrated approach on different levels needs to be developed.
Pérez-Campos, M Amparo; Sánchez-García, Inmaculada; Pancorbo-Hidalgo, Pedro L
to determine the evidence-based practice (EBP) competence of Spanish and Latin-American nurses participating in professional forums on the Internet and estimate the influence of socio-demographic and professional factors on their competence, which was defined as knowledge of, attitude towards, and implementation of EBP. An online survey was administered to a convenience sample of nurses active in Internet forums, comprising validated Spanish versions of the Evidence-Based Practice Questionnaire (EBPQ) and Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI) and socio-demographics and professional variables. 314 questionnaires were obtained (76.96%). The mean EBPQ score was 5.02 out of 7 (95%CI, 4.89-5.14). The variables associated with a higher competence in EBP were academic level, (pnurses showed a moderate level of EBP competence. They revealed a positive attitude towards EBP and achieved intermediate scores in both EBP-related skills and knowledge and their implementation. Higher academic levels and professional categories were associated with greater EBP competence. A practice environment perceived to be unfavorable has a negative influence on EBP implementation.
Cañadillas-Hidalgo, F M; Sánchez-Alvarez, J C; Serrano-Castro, P J; Mercadé-Cerdá, J M
Pharmaceutical spending in Spain accounts for 1.2-1.4% of the gross domestic product and is increasing by 5-12% per year. One of the measures adopted by the government to cut this spending is the possible substitution of original prescribed drugs by generics. In the case of antiepileptic drugs (AED), which are characterised by a scant therapeutic margin, these steps have sparked a scientific debate about their repercussion on the control of epileptic patients. We propose to draw up a set of implicit evidence-based consensus practice guidelines concerning issues related with this topic. A selective search for quality scientific information on the subject was conducted on PubMed-Medline, Tripdatabase and the Biblioteca Cochrane Plus. The selected references were analysed and discussed by the authors, and the recommendations deriving from them were collected. A total of 21 primary documents and 16 practice guidelines, protocols or experts' recommendations were identified. Our recommendations were explicitly included at the end of the text. The Andalusian Epilepsy Society makes the following recommendations: 1) not replacing an innovative AED by its generic in a controlled patient; 2) beginning treatment with a generic AED in monotherapy or in association is acceptable; 3) not exchanging generic AED from different pharmaceutical companies; 4) explaining to the patient the rules governing the authorization of generics and the importance of avoiding exchanges between different generic AED; and 5) if there is some worsening of the clinical condition or side effects appear following the introduction of a generic, the causes must be investigated and communicated to the bodies responsible for pharmacovigilance.
Maclennan, Alastair H
Background and Objective The highest level of scientific evidence available for each therapy for menopausal symptoms was sought, for example, systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Results There is reasonable evidence that some symptoms are modified by lifestyle, for example, cessation of smoking, exercise, reduction of alcohol, diet and alleviation of psychosocial stress. No complementary medicine, for example, phytoestrogens, black cohosh, herbal or homeopathic medicines or complementary therapies, for example, acupuncture, yoga, chiropractic manipulation, reflexology or magnetic devices have a greater effect than the usual placebo effect seen in quality blinded RCTs. Some have potential side-effects. So-called 'bioidentical hormones' have no evidence-base and potential for harm. None of the above therapies have evidence of efficacy and long-term safety. Selective serotonin and noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitors ameliorate vasomotor symptoms and sometimes menopausal depression better than placebo. The most effective therapy for menopausal (oestrogen) deficiency symptoms is oestrogen which is the main component of hormone replacement therapies (HRT). Compared with placebo HRT is highly effective in relieving hot flushes, night sweats, dry vagina and dyspareunia. It also improved joint pains, sexuality and sleeplessness and reduced subsequent fractures in RCTs. The increased risk of oral HRT for thromboembolism is small around menopause, for those without thrombotic risk factors, and is not elevated with non-oral routes. Cardiovascular disease may be reduced when HRT is initiated near menopause. Breast cancer risk increases after several years with the use of oral HRT containing progestogens at an annual rate of 8/10 000 (<0.1%). No increase in breast cancer risk was seen with oestrogen-only HRT. © 2009 The Author. Journal Compilation © Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Full Text Available Evidence based medicine is the training of health care professionals to access, assess and apply the best scientific evidence to clinical practice. EBM is the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence along with clinical expertise and patient values in making decisions about the case of individual patients. The current undergraduate curriculum of health profession is based on past knowledge accumulated for years. The scientific relevance of the mostly outdated information has never been questioned. The students passively absorb this available knowledge and apply it in their future professional life. There is no active learning on their part, by way of positive enquiry and critical analysis of the curriculum imposed on them. This has an undesirable impact on their competency as health professionals and the quality of the health care imparted by them. Hence there is need for emphasis on the teaching of EBM skills in undergraduate, postgraduate, and continuing medical education programs. Early introduction of EBM in the undergraduate medical curriculum, in the form of a short course, using various modes of instruction, enhances the competence of critical thinking and also influences change in attitude towards EBM positively in medical students. The EBM course is planned to introduce in the curriculum of medical undergraduates at the beginning of second phase when they enter clinical posting. Total number of student would be 100 per batch and the course duration will be of 1 year. Educational methods program incorporates multiple teaching methods like lectures, discussion sessions, demonstration, case based learning, timely feedback, real life exposure, role modeling and peer evaluation.
Kundrot, Craig; Steil, Jennifer; Lumpkins, Sarah; Pellis, Neal
NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is focused on understanding and mitigating thirty two risks to crew health and performance in exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. The HRP has developed an evidence report for each of the risks. Most evidence reports are a brief review article describing the evidence related to a specified risk, written at a level appropriate for the scientifically educated, non-specialist reader. Each evidence report captured the current state of knowledge from both research and operations. Two limitations of the evidence reports have become apparent: 1) they are updated infrequently and 2) they do not take full advantage of the expertise available in other space agencies and in related fields of terrestrial research. Therefore, the HRP is experimenting with the use of Wikipedia articles as a repository for evidence. Wikipedia's accessibility to the international space flight community and researchers in related terrestrial fields creates the opportunity to generate a more timely and comprehensive evidence base. Initial Wikipedia articles were populated for seven risks using a subset of the information in the HRP-approved evidence reports: Fatigue and Sleep Loss, Treating An Ill or Injured Crew Member, Radiation Carcinogenesis, Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure, Renal Stone Formation, Team Cohesion, and Intervertebral Disc Damage. Since the initial articles were created, there have been additions to these Wikipedia articles, including content from sources outside the HRP, and editorial changes to the pages. We will report on the nature of the contributions made after the initial articles were created, the comprehensiveness of the resulting Wikipedia articles, and the effort required to maintain quality control of the content. The Wikipedia approach will also be compared to wiki efforts that exert more traditional editorial control of content prior to posting.
Farzad, Ali; Radin, Bethany; Oh, Jason S; Teague, Heidi M; Euerle, Brian D; Nable, J V; Liferidge, Aisha T; Windsor, T Andrew; Witting, Michael D
The diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage is of paramount concern in patients presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) with acute headache. Computed tomography followed by lumbar puncture is a time-honored practice, but recent technologic advances in magnetic resonance imaging with magnetic resonance angiography and computed tomography with computed tomography angiography can present alternatives for clinicians and patients. The aim of this article was to compare diagnostic strategies for ED patients in whom subarachnoid hemorrhage is suspected. We analyze and discuss current protocols, in addition to summarizing the advantages and disadvantages of each method. Through our residency's journal club, we organized an evidence-based debate that pitted proponents of the three subarachnoid hemorrhage diagnostic strategies against one another. Proponents of each strategy described its advantages and disadvantages. Briefly, computed tomography/lumbar puncture is time honored and effective, but is limited by complications and indeterminate lumbar puncture results. Magnetic resonance imaging with magnetic resonance angiography might be more effective in late presentations and can visualize aneurysms, yet has limited availability. Computed tomography with computed tomography angiography offers rapid diagnosis and is considered the most sensitive for diagnosing aneurysms, but has the highest radiation exposure. Each of the three strategies used to diagnose subarachnoid hemorrhage has advantages and disadvantages with which clinicians should be familiar. Patient factors (e.g., age, body habitus, and risk factors), presentation factors (e.g., time from headache onset and severity of presentation), and institutional factors (availability of magnetic resonance imaging with magnetic resonance angiography) can influence the choice of protocol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Slocum, Timothy A; Detrich, Ronnie; Wilczynski, Susan M; Spencer, Trina D; Lewis, Teri; Wolfe, Katie
Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a model of professional decision-making in which practitioners integrate the best available evidence with client values/context and clinical expertise in order to provide services for their clients. This framework provides behavior analysts with a structure for pervasive use of the best available evidence in the complex settings in which they work. This structure recognizes the need for clear and explicit understanding of the strength of evidence supporting intervention options, the important contextual factors including client values that contribute to decision making, and the key role of clinical expertise in the conceptualization, intervention, and evaluation of cases. Opening the discussion of EBP in this journal, Smith (The Behavior Analyst, 36, 7-33, 2013) raised several key issues related to EBP and applied behavior analysis (ABA). The purpose of this paper is to respond to Smith's arguments and extend the discussion of the relevant issues. Although we support many of Smith's (The Behavior Analyst, 36, 7-33, 2013) points, we contend that Smith's definition of EBP is significantly narrower than definitions that are used in professions with long histories of EBP and that this narrowness conflicts with the principles that drive applied behavior analytic practice. We offer a definition and framework for EBP that aligns with the foundations of ABA and is consistent with well-established definitions of EBP in medicine, psychology, and other professions. In addition to supporting the systematic use of research evidence in behavior analytic decision making, this definition can promote clear communication about treatment decisions across disciplines and with important outside institutions such as insurance companies and granting agencies.
McCart, Michael R.; Sheidow, Ashli J.
Objective This article updates the earlier reviews of evidence-based psychosocial treatments for disruptive behavior in adolescents (Brestan & Eyberg, 1998; Eyberg, Nelson, & Boggs, 2008), focusing primarily on the treatment literature published from 2007 to 2014. Method Studies were identified through an extensive literature search and evaluated using Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology (JCCAP) level of support criteria, which classify studies as well established, probably efficacious, possibly efficacious, experimental, or of questionable efficacy based on existing evidence. The JCCAP criteria have undergone modest changes in recent years. Thus, in addition to evaluating new studies from 2007–2014 for this update, all adolescent-focused articles that had been included in the 1998 and 2008 reviews were re-examined. In total, 86 empirical papers published over a 48-year period and covering 50 unique treatment protocols were identified and coded. Results Two multicomponent treatments that integrate strategies from family, behavioral, and cognitive-behavioral therapy met criteria as well established. Summaries are provided for those treatments, as well as for two additional multicomponent treatments and two cognitive-behavioral treatments that met criteria as probably efficacious. Treatments designated as possibly efficacious, experimental, or of questionable efficacy are listed. Additionally, moderator/mediator research is summarized. Conclusions Results indicate that since the prior reviews, there has been a noteworthy expansion of research on treatments for adolescent disruptive behavior, particularly treatments that are multicomponent in nature. Despite these advances, more research is needed to address key gaps in the field. Implications of the findings for future science and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:27152911
McCart, Michael R; Sheidow, Ashli J
This article updates the earlier reviews of evidence-based psychosocial treatments for disruptive behavior in adolescents (Brestan & Eyberg, 1998; Eyberg, Nelson, & Boggs, 2008), focusing primarily on the treatment literature published from 2007 to 2014. Studies were identified through an extensive literature search and evaluated using Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology (JCCAP) level of support criteria, which classify studies as well-established, probably efficacious, possibly efficacious, experimental, or of questionable efficacy based on existing evidence. The JCCAP criteria have undergone modest changes in recent years. Thus, in addition to evaluating new studies from 2007 to 2014 for this update, all adolescent-focused articles that had been included in the 1998 and 2008 reviews were reexamined. In total, 86 empirical papers published over a 48-year period and covering 50 unique treatment protocols were identified and coded. Two multicomponent treatments that integrate strategies from family, behavioral, and cognitive-behavioral therapy met criteria as well-established. Summaries are provided for those treatments, as well as for two additional multicomponent treatments and two cognitive-behavioral treatments that met criteria as probably efficacious. Treatments designated as possibly efficacious, experimental, or of questionable efficacy are listed. In addition, moderator/mediator research is summarized. Results indicate that since the prior reviews, there has been a noteworthy expansion of research on treatments for adolescent disruptive behavior, particularly treatments that are multicomponent in nature. Despite these advances, more research is needed to address key gaps in the field. Implications of the findings for future science and clinical practice are discussed.
Full Text Available Over the past decades, road safety in highly-motorised countries has made significant progress. Although we have a fair understanding of the reasons for this progress, we don't have conclusive evidence for this. A new generation of road safety management approaches has entered road safety, starting when countries decided to guide themselves by setting quantitative targets (e.g. 50% less casualties in ten years' time. Setting realistic targets, designing strategies and action plans to achieve these targets and monitoring progress have resulted in more scientific research to support decision-making on these topics. Three subjects are key in this new approach of evidence-based and data-driven road safety management: ex-post and ex-ante evaluation of both individual interventions and intervention packages in road safety strategies, and transferability (external validity of the research results. In this article, we explore these subjects based on recent experiences in four jurisdictions (Western Australia, the Netherlands, Sweden and Switzerland. All four apply similar approaches and tools; differences are considered marginal. It is concluded that policy-making and political decisions were influenced to a great extent by the results of analysis and research. Nevertheless, to compensate for a relatively weak theoretical basis and to improve the power of this new approach, a number of issues will need further research. This includes ex-post and ex-ante evaluation, a better understanding of extrapolation of historical trends and the transferability of research results. This new approach cannot be realized without high-quality road safety data. Good data and knowledge are indispensable for this new and very promising approach.
Mehta, Nikisha; Marshman, Zoe
BackgroundThis systematic appraisal was conducted to determine if the Evidence-Based Dentistry Journal (EBDJ) acts as a reliable and contemporary source of knowledge for practitioners across all disciplines within dentistry.ObjectivesThe main objectives were to determine i) the year the articles were published and included in the EBDJ; ii) if the articles published covered all fields equally within dentistry; iii) the type of study design of the articles reported in the journal and; iv) the level of expertise of the writers of the commentaries.MethodsThis study used a systematic approach to assess the articles included in the journal. Data were extracted on the difference in the year the article was originally published and the year the article was included in the EBDJ, the number of articles in each dental discipline, the type of study designs included in the journal and the expertise of the commentators of each article. The information provided by the journal was validated by accessing the original articles through electronic databases.ResultsThe appraisal considered the 582 articles that met the inclusion criteria. Overall, 45.3% of the articles were included in the EBDJ in the same year and 44.8% of the articles were included a year after they were originally published. The number of articles varied across disciplines within dentistry: 23.7% from dental public health, 18.4% from periodontology and 11.8% from orthodontics, with only 4.6% from prosthodontics, 1% from oral pathology and 0.5% from dental materials. Most of the articles were systematic reviews and randomised controlled trials at 72% and 22.3% respectively. The writers of the commentaries were mostly academics and hospital consultants (71.2% and 13.6% commentators).ConclusionsOn the whole, it can be concluded that the journal acts as a reliable and contemporary source of knowledge/evidence for dentists, however, not all specialities within dentistry had equal coverage.