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Sample records for evidence supports linguistic

  1. Forensic Linguistics: The Linguistic Analyst and Expert Witness of Language Evidence in Criminal Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Sherilynn Nidever

    Forensic linguistics (FL) provides consultation to lawyers through the analysis of language evidence during the pre-trial investigation. Evidence commonly analyzed by linguists in criminal cases includes transcripts of police interviews and language crimes (such as bribery) and anonymous or questioned texts. Forensic linguistic testimony is rarely…

  2. Visible Social Interactions Do Not Support the Development of False Belief Understanding in the Absence of Linguistic Input: Evidence from Deaf Adult Homesigners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Deanna L; Coppola, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Congenitally deaf individuals exhibit enhanced visuospatial abilities relative to normally hearing individuals. An early example is the increased sensitivity of deaf signers to stimuli in the visual periphery (Neville and Lawson, 1987a). While these enhancements are robust and extend across a number of visual and spatial skills, they seem not to extend to other domains which could potentially build on these enhancements. For example, congenitally deaf children, in the absence of adequate language exposure and acquisition, do not develop typical social cognition skills as measured by traditional Theory of Mind tasks. These delays/deficits occur despite their presumed lifetime use of visuo-perceptual abilities to infer the intentions and behaviors of others (e.g., Pyers and Senghas, 2009; O'Reilly et al., 2014). In a series of studies, we explore the limits on the plasticity of visually based socio-cognitive abilities, from perspective taking to Theory of Mind/False Belief, in rarely studied individuals: deaf adults who have not acquired a conventional language (Homesigners). We compared Homesigners' performance to that of two other understudied groups in the same culture: Deaf signers of an emerging language (Cohort 1 of Nicaraguan Sign Language), and hearing speakers of Spanish with minimal schooling. We found that homesigners performed equivalently to both comparison groups with respect to several visual socio-cognitive abilities: Perspective Taking (Levels 1 and 2), adapted from Masangkay et al. (1974), and the False Photograph task, adapted from Leslie and Thaiss (1992). However, a lifetime of visuo-perceptual experiences (observing the behavior and interactions of others) did not support success on False Belief tasks, even when linguistic demands were minimized. Participants in the comparison groups outperformed the Homesigners, but did not universally pass the False Belief tasks. Our results suggest that while some of the social development achievements of

  3. Evidence and Formal Models in the Linguistic Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Carlos Gray

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation contains a collection of essays centered on the relationship between theoretical model-building and empirical evidence-gathering in linguistics and related language sciences. The first chapter sets the stage by demonstrating that the subject matter of linguistics is manifold, and contending that discussion of relationships…

  4. Linguistic Ability: Some Myths and Some Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Gail L.

    "Linguistic ability" is a widely misused term in foreign language literature. This confusion prompted an investigation into language aptitude testing, the specific goals of which included determining: the distribution of language aptitude across ability range; the validity of Pimsleur's suggestions of combined verbal and auditory scores;…

  5. Neurological Evidence Linguistic Processes Precede Perceptual Simulation in Conceptual Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max eLouwerse

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence from response time experiments that language statistics and perceptual simulations both play a role in conceptual processing. In an EEG experiment we compared neural activity in cortical regions commonly associated with linguistic processing and visual perceptual processing to determine to what extent symbolic and embodied accounts of cognition applied. Participants were asked to determine the semantic relationship of word pairs (e.g., sky – ground or to determine their iconic relationship (i.e., if the presentation of the pair matched their expected physical relationship. A linguistic bias was found towards the semantic judgment task and a perceptual bias was found towards the iconicity judgment task. More importantly, conceptual processing involved activation in brain regions associated with both linguistic and perceptual processes. When comparing the relative activation of linguistic cortical regions with perceptual cortical regions, the effect sizes for linguistic cortical regions were larger than those for the perceptual cortical regions early in a trial with the reverse being true later in a trial. These results map upon findings from other experimental literature and provide further evidence that processing of concept words relies both on language statistics and on perceptual simulations, whereby linguistic processes precede perceptual simulation processes.

  6. Support for linguistic macrofamilies from weighted sequence alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Computational phylogenetics is in the process of revolutionizing historical linguistics. Recent applications have shed new light on controversial issues, such as the location and time depth of language families and the dynamics of their spread. So far, these approaches have been limited to single-language families because they rely on a large body of expert cognacy judgments or grammatical classifications, which is currently unavailable for most language families. The present study pursues a different approach. Starting from raw phonetic transcription of core vocabulary items from very diverse languages, it applies weighted string alignment to track both phonetic and lexical change. Applied to a collection of ∼1,000 Eurasian languages and dialects, this method, combined with phylogenetic inference, leads to a classification in excellent agreement with established findings of historical linguistics. Furthermore, it provides strong statistical support for several putative macrofamilies contested in current historical linguistics. In particular, there is a solid signal for the Nostratic/Eurasiatic macrofamily. PMID:26403857

  7. Support for linguistic macrofamilies from weighted sequence alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Gerhard

    2015-10-13

    Computational phylogenetics is in the process of revolutionizing historical linguistics. Recent applications have shed new light on controversial issues, such as the location and time depth of language families and the dynamics of their spread. So far, these approaches have been limited to single-language families because they rely on a large body of expert cognacy judgments or grammatical classifications, which is currently unavailable for most language families. The present study pursues a different approach. Starting from raw phonetic transcription of core vocabulary items from very diverse languages, it applies weighted string alignment to track both phonetic and lexical change. Applied to a collection of ∼1,000 Eurasian languages and dialects, this method, combined with phylogenetic inference, leads to a classification in excellent agreement with established findings of historical linguistics. Furthermore, it provides strong statistical support for several putative macrofamilies contested in current historical linguistics. In particular, there is a solid signal for the Nostratic/Eurasiatic macrofamily.

  8. Linguistic Phylogenies Support Back-Migration from Beringia to Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicoli, Mark A.; Holton, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Recent arguments connecting Na-Dene languages of North America with Yeniseian languages of Siberia have been used to assert proof for the origin of Native Americans in central or western Asia. We apply phylogenetic methods to test support for this hypothesis against an alternative hypothesis that Yeniseian represents a back-migration to Asia from a Beringian ancestral population. We coded a linguistic dataset of typological features and used neighbor-joining network algorithms and Bayesian model comparison based on Bayes factors to test the fit between the data and the linguistic phylogenies modeling two dispersal hypotheses. Our results support that a Dene-Yeniseian connection more likely represents radiation out of Beringia with back-migration into central Asia than a migration from central or western Asia to North America. PMID:24621925

  9. Linguistic phylogenies support back-migration from Beringia to Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Sicoli

    Full Text Available Recent arguments connecting Na-Dene languages of North America with Yeniseian languages of Siberia have been used to assert proof for the origin of Native Americans in central or western Asia. We apply phylogenetic methods to test support for this hypothesis against an alternative hypothesis that Yeniseian represents a back-migration to Asia from a Beringian ancestral population. We coded a linguistic dataset of typological features and used neighbor-joining network algorithms and Bayesian model comparison based on Bayes factors to test the fit between the data and the linguistic phylogenies modeling two dispersal hypotheses. Our results support that a Dene-Yeniseian connection more likely represents radiation out of Beringia with back-migration into central Asia than a migration from central or western Asia to North America.

  10. Neural systems supporting linguistic structure, linguistic experience, and symbolic communication in sign language and gesture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Aaron J; Supalla, Ted; Fernandez, Nina; Newport, Elissa L; Bavelier, Daphne

    2015-09-15

    Sign languages used by deaf communities around the world possess the same structural and organizational properties as spoken languages: In particular, they are richly expressive and also tightly grammatically constrained. They therefore offer the opportunity to investigate the extent to which the neural organization for language is modality independent, as well as to identify ways in which modality influences this organization. The fact that sign languages share the visual-manual modality with a nonlinguistic symbolic communicative system-gesture-further allows us to investigate where the boundaries lie between language and symbolic communication more generally. In the present study, we had three goals: to investigate the neural processing of linguistic structure in American Sign Language (using verbs of motion classifier constructions, which may lie at the boundary between language and gesture); to determine whether we could dissociate the brain systems involved in deriving meaning from symbolic communication (including both language and gesture) from those specifically engaged by linguistically structured content (sign language); and to assess whether sign language experience influences the neural systems used for understanding nonlinguistic gesture. The results demonstrated that even sign language constructions that appear on the surface to be similar to gesture are processed within the left-lateralized frontal-temporal network used for spoken languages-supporting claims that these constructions are linguistically structured. Moreover, although nonsigners engage regions involved in human action perception to process communicative, symbolic gestures, signers instead engage parts of the language-processing network-demonstrating an influence of experience on the perception of nonlinguistic stimuli.

  11. Disadvantages of Linguistic Origin – Evidence from Immigrant Literacy Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Isphording, Ingo Eduard

    2013-01-01

    This study quantifies the disadvantage in the formation of literacy skills of immigrants that arises from the linguistic distance between mother tongue and host country language. Combining unique cross-country data on literacy scores with information on the linguistic distance between languages, gaps in literacy test scores are estimated. Linguistically distant immigrants face significant initial disadvantages of linguistic origin that exceed existing differentials across wage distributions a...

  12. Dissociating Linguistic and Non-Linguistic Gesture Processing: Electrophysiological Evidence from American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosvald, Michael; Gutierrez, Eva; Hafer, Sarah; Corina, David

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental advance in our understanding of human language would come from a detailed account of how non-linguistic and linguistic manual actions are differentiated in real time by language users. To explore this issue, we targeted the N400, an ERP component known to be sensitive to semantic context. Deaf signers saw 120 American Sign Language…

  13. Does Linguistic Comprehension Support the Decoding Skills of Struggling Readers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blick, Michele; Nicholson, Tom; Chapman, James; Berman, Jeanette

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of linguistic comprehension to the decoding skills of struggling readers. Participants were 36 children aged between eight and 12 years, all below average in decoding but differing in linguistic comprehension. The children read passages from the Neale Analysis of Reading Ability and their first 25 miscues…

  14. Cross-linguistic Evidence for Gender as a Prominence Feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia eEsaulova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses recent findings in the online sentence processing research that suggest to consider gender information a prominence feature. Prominence features are hierarchically ordered information types that interact with formal features of arguments (e.g., grammatical functions, thematic roles and thus determine the readers’ ability to efficiently interpret linguistic ambiguities. While previous research addressed a number of prominence features (e.g., animacy, definiteness, person, there is now first empirical evidence indicating that gender information also influences the assignment of thematic roles across languages. Grammatically masculine role nouns are processed faster as agents than patients compared to feminine ones. Stereotypically male role nouns (e.g., electrician are integrated with an agent role easier than neutral ones (e.g., musician, which in turn are integrated easier than female ones (e.g., beautician. Conceptualizing gender as a prominence feature will not only expand our knowledge about information types relevant for online comprehension but also uncover subtle gender biases present in language. The present work explores the possibility for a theoretical integration of social psychological and psycholinguistic research focusing on gender with research on prominence. Potential advantages an interdisciplinary approach to the study of gender as a prominence feature, open questions and future directions are discussed.

  15. Cross-linguistic evidence for gender as a prominence feature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esaulova, Yulia; von Stockhausen, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses recent findings in the online sentence processing research that suggest to consider gender information a prominence feature. Prominence features are hierarchically ordered information types that interact with formal features of arguments (e.g., grammatical functions, thematic roles) and thus determine the readers' ability to efficiently interpret linguistic ambiguities. While previous research addressed a number of prominence features (e.g., animacy, definiteness, person), there is now first empirical evidence indicating that gender information also influences the assignment of thematic roles across languages. Grammatically masculine role nouns are processed faster as agents than patients compared to feminine ones. Stereotypically male role nouns (e.g., electrician) are integrated with an agent role easier than neutral ones (e.g., musician), which in turn are integrated easier than female ones (e.g., beautician). Conceptualizing gender as a prominence feature will not only expand our knowledge about information types relevant for online comprehension but also uncover subtle gender biases present in language. The present work explores the possibility for a theoretical integration of social psychological and psycholinguistic research focusing on gender with research on prominence. Potential advantages an interdisciplinary approach to the study of gender as a prominence feature, open questions and future directions are discussed.

  16. Cross-linguistic evidence for gender as a prominence feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esaulova, Yulia; von Stockhausen, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses recent findings in the online sentence processing research that suggest to consider gender information a prominence feature. Prominence features are hierarchically ordered information types that interact with formal features of arguments (e.g., grammatical functions, thematic roles) and thus determine the readers’ ability to efficiently interpret linguistic ambiguities. While previous research addressed a number of prominence features (e.g., animacy, definiteness, person), there is now first empirical evidence indicating that gender information also influences the assignment of thematic roles across languages. Grammatically masculine role nouns are processed faster as agents than patients compared to feminine ones. Stereotypically male role nouns (e.g., electrician) are integrated with an agent role easier than neutral ones (e.g., musician), which in turn are integrated easier than female ones (e.g., beautician). Conceptualizing gender as a prominence feature will not only expand our knowledge about information types relevant for online comprehension but also uncover subtle gender biases present in language. The present work explores the possibility for a theoretical integration of social psychological and psycholinguistic research focusing on gender with research on prominence. Potential advantages an interdisciplinary approach to the study of gender as a prominence feature, open questions and future directions are discussed. PMID:26441732

  17. Dissociating linguistic and non-linguistic gesture processing: electrophysiological evidence from American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosvald, Michael; Gutierrez, Eva; Hafer, Sarah; Corina, David

    2012-04-01

    A fundamental advance in our understanding of human language would come from a detailed account of how non-linguistic and linguistic manual actions are differentiated in real time by language users. To explore this issue, we targeted the N400, an ERP component known to be sensitive to semantic context. Deaf signers saw 120 American Sign Language sentences, each consisting of a "frame" (a sentence without the last word; e.g. BOY SLEEP IN HIS) followed by a "last item" belonging to one of four categories: a high-close-probability sign (a "semantically reasonable" completion to the sentence; e.g. BED), a low-close-probability sign (a real sign that is nonetheless a "semantically odd" completion to the sentence; e.g. LEMON), a pseudo-sign (phonologically legal but non-lexical form), or a non-linguistic grooming gesture (e.g. the performer scratching her face). We found significant N400-like responses in the incongruent and pseudo-sign contexts, while the gestures elicited a large positivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Neurolinguistics of Linguistic Perseveration: Evidences from Clinical Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Prema K. S.

    2007-01-01

    It is generally well known that linguistic perseveration is a common symptom in individuals with brain damage and that its manifestation may be at the phonological, syntactic and/or semantic levels. The influence of perseveratory behavior on a subject's response to test stimuli and in therapeutic process has triggered the interests of the speech…

  19. Linguistics deviation, a tool for teaching English grammar: evidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We have always advocated that those teaching the Use of English must seek out novel ways of teaching the grammar of English to take out the drudgery of the present approach. Here, we proposed using Linguistic deviation as a tool for teaching English grammar. This approach will produce students who are both strong in ...

  20. Evidence-based Neuro Linguistic Psychotherapy: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharia, Cătălin; Reiner, Melita; Schütz, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP) Framework has enjoyed enormous popularity in the field of applied psychology. NLP has been used in business, education, law, medicine and psychotherapy to identify people's patterns and alter their responses to stimuli, so they are better able to regulate their environment and themselves. NLP looks at achieving goals, creating stable relationships, eliminating barriers such as fears and phobias, building self-confidence, and self-esteem, and achieving peak performance. Neuro Linguistic Psychotherapy (NLPt) encompasses NLP as framework and set of interventions in the treatment of individuals with different psychological and/or social problems. We aimed systematically to analyse the available data regarding the effectiveness of Neuro Linguistic Psychotherapy (NLPt). The present work is a meta-analysis of studies, observational or randomized controlled trials, for evaluating the efficacy of Neuro Linguistic Programming in individuals with different psychological and/or social problems. The databases searched to identify studies in English and German language: CENTRAL in the Cochrane Library; PubMed; ISI Web of Knowledge (include results also from Medline and the Web of Science); PsycINFO (including PsycARTICLES); Psyndex; Deutschsprachige Diplomarbeiten der Psychologie (database of theses in Psychology in German language), Social SciSearch; National library of health and two NLP-specific research databases: one from the NLP Community (http://www.nlp.de/cgi-bin/research/nlprdb.cgi?action=res_entries) and one from the NLP Group (http://www.nlpgrup.com/bilimselarastirmalar/bilimsel-arastirmalar-4.html#Zweig154). From a total number of 425 studies, 350 were removed and considered not relevant based on the title and abstract. Included, in the final analysis, are 12 studies with numbers of participants ranging between 12 and 115 subjects. The vast majority of studies were prospective observational. The actual paper represents the first

  1. Cognitive Systematicity of Semantic Change: Cross-Linguistic Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baseel A. AlBzour

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Banking on intrinsic generative assumptions of cognitive semantics, this paper is a humble attempt that specifically sheds light on some major aspects of overtly intricate yet covertly systematic interaction that steers our conceptual processing of inherent semantic and pragmatic changes. The basic premises of such cognitive operations stem from yet may exceed the limitations of Elizabeth Traugott’s and Eve Sweetser’s historical pragmatic approach that elaborately envisages such lexical changes as meaning relations with their metaphorically polysemous progress in light of relevant epistemic constraints that can help us decode ambiguous components of some functional and lexical categories. Therefore, this paper examines in principle how schematic lexical meaning can be cross-linguistically and cross-culturally traced, handled and perceived in order to cater for an optimal matrix and some rule-governed clues and rules that may explain the internal universal design and flow of semanticity and pragmaticity in charge of such linguistic behavior. The data this study exploits and explores draw on some English and Arabic representative examples that can satisfactorily exhibit an interesting well-established cognitive mechanism that can reveal the role of Homo sapiens’ encyclopedic and collective faculty vis-à-vis such word processing; the data primarily encompass the English words silly, simple, innocent and naïve as well as their Arabic counterparts.

  2. Cross-Linguistic Evidence and the Licensing of Implicit Arguments

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    Eva Kardos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the occurrence and the licensing of implicit object arguments, also referred to in the literature as null complements or understood arguments. Functionalist accounts (such as those by Groefsema and Németh T. which are couched in a relevance-theoretic framework have repeatedly claimed that this phenomenon is fundamentally dependent on dis-course-interpretational factors. In particular, it has been stated that implicit arguments can be used in Hungarian in a rather unrestricted way, and their occurrence is only limited by considerations of interpretability. We argue against both of these positions and try to show that cross-linguistic data can assist in revealing the circular nature and ultimate inadequacy of existing functional accounts of implicit argument licensing.

  3. Cross-linguistic differences in the neural representation of human language: evidence from users of signed languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corina, David P; Lawyer, Laurel A; Cates, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Studies of deaf individuals who are users of signed languages have provided profound insight into the neural representation of human language. Case studies of deaf signers who have incurred left- and right-hemisphere damage have shown that left-hemisphere resources are a necessary component of sign language processing. These data suggest that, despite frank differences in the input and output modality of language, core left perisylvian regions universally serve linguistic function. Neuroimaging studies of deaf signers have generally provided support for this claim. However, more fine-tuned studies of linguistic processing in deaf signers are beginning to show evidence of important differences in the representation of signed and spoken languages. In this paper, we provide a critical review of this literature and present compelling evidence for language-specific cortical representations in deaf signers. These data lend support to the claim that the neural representation of language may show substantive cross-linguistic differences. We discuss the theoretical implications of these findings with respect to an emerging understanding of the neurobiology of language.

  4. Cross-linguistic differences in the neural representation of human language: evidence from users of signed languages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eCorina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of deaf individuals who are users of signed languages have provided profound insight into the neural representation of human language. Case studies of deaf signers who have incurred left- and right-hemisphere damage have shown that left-hemisphere resources are a necessary component of sign language processing. These data suggest that, despite frank differences in the input and output modality of language,; core left perisylvian regions universally serve linguistic function. Neuroimaging studies of deaf signers have generally provided support for this claim. However, more fine-tuned studies of linguistic processing in deaf signers are beginning to show evidence of important differences in the representation of signed and spoken languages. In this paper, we provide a critical review of this literature and present compelling evidence for language-specific cortical representations in deaf signers. These data lend support to the claim that the neural representation of language may show substantive cross-linguistic differences. We discuss the theoretical implications of these findings with respect to an emerging understanding of the neurobiology of language.

  5. Cross-Linguistic Differences in the Neural Representation of Human Language: Evidence from Users of Signed Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corina, David P.; Lawyer, Laurel A.; Cates, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Studies of deaf individuals who are users of signed languages have provided profound insight into the neural representation of human language. Case studies of deaf signers who have incurred left- and right-hemisphere damage have shown that left-hemisphere resources are a necessary component of sign language processing. These data suggest that, despite frank differences in the input and output modality of language, core left perisylvian regions universally serve linguistic function. Neuroimaging studies of deaf signers have generally provided support for this claim. However, more fine-tuned studies of linguistic processing in deaf signers are beginning to show evidence of important differences in the representation of signed and spoken languages. In this paper, we provide a critical review of this literature and present compelling evidence for language-specific cortical representations in deaf signers. These data lend support to the claim that the neural representation of language may show substantive cross-linguistic differences. We discuss the theoretical implications of these findings with respect to an emerging understanding of the neurobiology of language. PMID:23293624

  6. Grammaticality as Evidence and as Prediction in a Galilean Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, N.

    2009-01-01

    Standard criticisms of unjustified grammaticality assignments in generative syntax are easily countered by reminders that grammaticality is a different notion from acceptability. In response, the criticisms are reformulated here in a way that interprets unjustified assignments as possible evidence of the predictive failure of current generative…

  7. Evidence and Interpretation in Language Learning Research: Opportunities for Collaboration with Computational Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurers, Detmar; Dickinson, Markus

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses two types of opportunities for interdisciplinary collaboration between computational linguistics (CL) and language learning research. We target the connection between data and theory in second language (L2) research and highlight opportunities to (a) enrich the options for obtaining data and (b) support the identification…

  8. Supporting linguistic research using generic automatic audio/video analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Schreer, Oliver; Schneider, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Automatic analysis can speed up the annotation process and free up human resources, which can then be spent on theorizing instead of tedious annotation tasks. We will describe selected automatic tools that support the most time-consuming steps in annotation, such as speech and speaker segmentation, time alignment of existing transcripts, automatic scene analysis with respect to camera motion, face/person detection, and the tracking of head and hands as well as the resulting gesture analysis.

  9. Probabilistic linguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bod, R.; Heine, B.; Narrog, H.

    2010-01-01

    Probabilistic linguistics takes all linguistic evidence as positive evidence and lets statistics decide. It allows for accurate modelling of gradient phenomena in production and perception, and suggests that rule-like behaviour is no more than a side effect of maximizing probability. This chapter

  10. The Effects of Linguistic Qualifiers and Intensifiers on Group Interaction and Performance in Computer-Supported Collaborative Argumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan C. Jeong

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the effects of linguistic qualifiers and intensifiers on the number and types of replies elicited per argument and per challenge posted in online debates. To facilitate collaborative argumentation, thirty-two students (22 females, 10 males enrolled in a graduate-level online course classified and labeled their messages as arguments, challenges, supporting evidence, or explanations prior to posting each message. The findings showed that qualified arguments elicited 41 percent fewer replies (effect size = -.64, and the reduction in replies was greatest when qualified arguments were presented by females than males. Challenges without qualifiers, however, did not elicit more replies than challenges with qualifiers. These findings suggest that qualifiers were used to hedge arguments, and such behaviors should be discouraged during initial stages of identifying arguments (more so in all-female than in all-male groups in order to elicit more diverse and more opposing viewpoints needed to thoroughly and critically analyze arguments.

  11. Linguistic relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Phillip; Holmes, Kevin J

    2011-05-01

    The central question in research on linguistic relativity, or the Whorfian hypothesis, is whether people who speak different languages think differently. The recent resurgence of research on this question can be attributed, in part, to new insights about the ways in which language might impact thought. We identify seven categories of hypotheses about the possible effects of language on thought across a wide range of domains, including motion, color, spatial relations, number, and false belief understanding. While we do not find support for the idea that language determines the basic categories of thought or that it overwrites preexisting conceptual distinctions, we do find support for the proposal that language can make some distinctions difficult to avoid, as well as for the proposal that language can augment certain types of thinking. Further, we highlight recent evidence suggesting that language may induce a relatively schematic mode of thinking. Although the literature on linguistic relativity remains contentious, there is growing support for the view that language has a profound effect on thought. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 253-265 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.104 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Cognitive and linguistic precursors to numeracy in kindergarten: Evidence from first and second language learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleemans, M.A.J.; Segers, P.C.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of cognitive and linguistic precursors to early numeracy skills to examine the interrelations between the development of linguistic and numeracy skills. General intelligence, working memory, phonological awareness, grammatical ability, and early numeracy

  13. Supporting culturally and linguistically diverse children with speech, language and communication needs: Overarching principles, individual approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne; Wong, Sandie

    2015-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are working with an increasing number of families from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds as the world's population continues to become more internationally mobile. The heterogeneity of these diverse populations makes it impossible to identify and document a one size fits all strategy for working with culturally and linguistically diverse families. This paper explores approaches to practice by SLPs identified as specialising in multilingual and multicultural practice in culturally and linguistically diverse contexts from around the world. Data were obtained from ethnographic observation of 14 sites in 5 countries on 4 continents. The sites included hospital settings, university clinics, school-based settings, private practices and Indigenous community-based services. There were 652 individual artefacts collected from the sites which included interview transcripts, photographs, videos, narrative reflections, informal and formal field notes. The data were analysed using Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (Engeström, 1987). From the analysis six overarching Principles of Culturally Competent Practice (PCCP) were identified. These were: (1) identification of culturally appropriate and mutually motivating therapy goals, (2) knowledge of languages and culture, (3) use of culturally appropriate resources, (4) consideration of the cultural, social and political context, (5) consultation with families and communities, and (6) collaboration between professionals. These overarching principles align with the six position statements developed by the International Expert Panel on Multilingual Children's Speech (2012) which aim to enhance the cultural competence of speech pathologists and their practice. The international examples provided in the current study demonstrate the individualised ways that these overarching principles are enacted in a range of different organisational, social, cultural and political contexts

  14. Birth order and mortality in two ethno-linguistic groups: Register-based evidence from Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Jan; Cederström, Agneta; Rostila, Mikael

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has documented an association between birth order and suicide, although no study has examined whether it depends on the cultural context. Our aim was to study the association between birth order and cause-specific mortality in Finland, and whether it varies by ethno-linguistic affiliation. We used data from the Finnish population register, representing a 5% random sample of all Finnish speakers and a 20% random sample of Swedish speakers, who lived in Finland in any year 1987-2011. For each person, there was a link to all children who were alive in 1987. In total, there were 254,059 siblings in 96,387 sibling groups, and 9797 deaths. We used Cox regressions stratified by each siblings group and estimated all-cause and cause-specific mortality risks during the period 1987-2011. In line with previous research from Sweden, deaths from suicide were significantly associated with birth order. As compared to first-born, second-born had a suicide risk of 1.27, third-born of 1.35, and fourth- or higher-born of 1.72, while other causes of death did not display an evident and consistent birth-order pattern. Results for the Finnish-speaking siblings groups were almost identical to those based on both ethno-linguistic groups. In the Swedish-speaking siblings groups, there was no increase in the suicide risk by birth order, but a statistically not significant tendency towards an association with other external causes of death and deaths from cardiovascular diseases. Our findings provided evidence for an association between birth order and suicide among Finnish speakers in Finland, while no such association was found for Swedish speakers, suggesting that the birth order effect might depend on the cultural context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Acquisition of Social Support and Linguistic Characteristics of Social Media Posts About Young Adult Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Echo L; Ellington, Lee; Kirchhoff, Anne C; Cloyes, Kristin G

    2017-11-03

    Social media (SM) is a burgeoning source of social support for young adults (YAs). We explored the language used to communicate about YA cancer on Instagram and for indicators of social support (i.e., number of likes and comments). Instagram posts using #youngadultcancer were randomly selected (N = 50). Text and hashtags were collected, and posts were coded for gender (female and male), treatment status (active treatment and survivorship), type of user (individual and organization), and caregiver status (yes and no). Indicators of social support, valence (e.g., positive vs. negative terms), and lexical content (e.g., emotional terms and pronouns) were measured using Yoshikoder and Linguistic Inquiry Word Count and compared by gender, treatment status, type of user, and caregiver status. Survivors' posts had more likes compared to those in active treatment (mean: 54.5 vs. 32.3, p = 0.03). Individuals' posts had more comments than those of organizations (mean: 5.3 vs. 1.2, p = 0.01). More positive (30%) than negative (13%) terms were used by survivors (p Instagram users communicate about YA cancer and whether the language they use garners social support. Studying online language use may help YA patients, caregivers, and organizations use SM to gain social support.

  16. Supporting graduation programs through empirical evidence and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Supporting graduation programs through empirical evidence and leadership promotion. This project will support the scaling up of locally-tested interventions aimed at improving the livelihoods of women and youth in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. It targets special interventions for people who have fallen through the cracks ...

  17. Evidence in clinical reasoning: a computational linguistics analysis of 789,712 medical case summaries 1983-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Bastian M; Campbell, Steven; Bell, Erica

    2015-03-21

    Better understanding of clinical reasoning could reduce diagnostic error linked to 8% of adverse medical events and 30% of malpractice cases. To a greater extent than the evidence-based movement, the clinical reasoning literature asserts the importance of practitioner intuition—unconscious elements of diagnostic reasoning. The study aimed to analyse the content of case report summaries in ways that explored the importance of an evidence concept, not only in relation to research literature but also intuition. The study sample comprised all 789,712 abstracts in English for case reports contained in the database PUBMED for the period 1 January 1983 to 31 December 2012. It was hypothesised that, if evidence and intuition concepts were viewed by these clinical authors as essential to understanding their case reports, they would be more likely to be found in the abstracts. Computational linguistics software was used in 1) concept mapping of 21,631,481 instances of 201 concepts, and 2) specific concept analyses examining 200 paired co-occurrences for 'evidence' and research 'literature' concepts. 'Evidence' is a fundamentally patient-centred, intuitive concept linked to less common concepts about underlying processes, suspected disease mechanisms and diagnostic hunches. In contrast, the use of research literature in clinical reasoning is linked to more common reasoning concepts about specific knowledge and descriptions or presenting features of cases. 'Literature' is by far the most dominant concept, increasing in relevance since 2003, with an overall relevance of 13% versus 5% for 'evidence' which has remained static. The fact that the least present types of reasoning concepts relate to diagnostic hunches to do with underlying processes, such as what is suspected, raises questions about whether intuitive practitioner evidence-making, found in a constellation of dynamic, process concepts, has become less important. The study adds support to the existing corpus of

  18. Cognitive Linguistics and Second Language Learning: Theoretical Basics and Experimental Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This book illustrates the ways that cognitive linguistics, a relatively new paradigm in language studies, can illuminate and facilitate language research and teaching. The first part of the book introduces the basics of cognitive linguistic theory in a way that is geared toward second language teachers and researchers. The second part of the book…

  19. Evidence for the Pinocchio Effect: Linguistic Differences between Lies, Deception by Omissions, and Truths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Swol, Lyn M.; Braun, Michael T.; Malhotra, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    The study used Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count and Coh-Metrix software to examine linguistic differences with deception in an ultimatum game. In the game, the Allocator was given an amount of money to divide with the Receiver. The Receiver did not know the precise amount the Allocator had to divide, and the Allocator could use deception.…

  20. Cognitive and Linguistic Precursors to Numeracy in Kindergarten: Evidence from First and Second Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleemans, Tijs; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of cognitive and linguistic precursors to early numeracy skills to examine the interrelations between the development of linguistic and numeracy skills. General intelligence, working memory, phonological awareness, grammatical ability, and early numeracy skills were assessed in 75 first (mean age 6.1) and 55…

  1. Meeting People Where They Are: A Study of Social Supports for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Families of Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, LaQuita Spivey

    2017-01-01

    Little research has been devoted to the study of parent centers serving culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) families of children with disabilities. Community Parent Resource Centers (CPRCs), provide information and emotional supports to families from traditionally underserved communities. The traditionally underserved for the most part are…

  2. "It's worth our time": a model of culturally and linguistically supportive professional development for K-12 STEM educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charity Hudley, Anne H.; Mallinson, Christine

    2017-09-01

    Professional development on issues of language and culture is often separate from professional development on issues related to STEM education, resulting in linguistic and cultural gaps in K-12 STEM pedagogy and practice. To address this issue, we have designed a model of professional development in which we work with educators to build cultural and linguistic competence and to disseminate information about how educators view the relevance of language, communication, and culture to STEM teaching and learning. We describe the design and facilitation of our model of culturally and linguistically responsive professional development, grounded in theories of multicultural education and culturally supportive teaching, through professional development workshops to 60 K-12 STEM educators from schools in Maryland and Virginia that serve African American students. Participants noted that culturally and linguistically responsive approaches had yet to permeate their K-12 STEM settings, which they identified as a critical challenge to effectively teaching and engaging African-American students. Based on pre-surveys, workshops were tailored to participants' stated needs for information on literacy (e.g., disciplinary literacies and discipline-specific jargon), cultural conflict and mismatch (e.g., student-teacher miscommunication), and linguistic bias in student assessment (e.g., test design). Educators shared feedback via post-workshop surveys, and a subset of 28 participants completed in-depth interviews and a focus group. Results indicate the need for further implementation of professional development such as ours that address linguistic and cultural issues, tailored for K-12 STEM educators. Although participants in this study enumerated several challenges to meeting this need, they also identified opportunities for collaborative solutions that draw upon teacher expertise and are integrated with curricula across content areas.

  3. Dissociable Mechanisms Supporting Awareness: The P300 and Gamma in a Linguistic Attentional Blink Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karns, Christina M.; Neville, Helen

    2012-01-01

    As demonstrated by the attentional blink (AB) phenomenon, awareness for attended stimuli is governed by sharp capacity limits. We used a linguistic AB task to investigate the neural mechanisms that underlie failures of awareness, examining both event-related potentials and oscillatory brain activity to correctly reported and missed second targets (T2s) presented after a correctly reported first target (T1) in a rapid visual stream of distractors. Correctly reported targets occurring at a short lag (250 ms) after T1—within the classic AB period—elicited enhanced late gamma activity relative to incorrectly reported targets but showed no P300 modulation relative to missed targets. In contrast, correctly reported targets presented at a long lag (830 ms)—outside the classic AB period—elicited a greater P300 component but did not significantly modulate oscillatory activity. This double dissociation suggests that there are multiple neural mechanisms supporting awareness that may operate in parallel. Either the P300 or the gamma can index impairment in the cascade of processing leading to a target's entry into awareness. We conclude that the P300 and gamma activity reflect functionally distinct neural mechanisms, each of which plays an independent role in awareness. PMID:22166765

  4. Status of Austro-Asiatic groups in the peopling of India: An exploratory study based on the available prehistoric, linguistic and biological evidences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumar, Vikrant; Reddy, B Mohan

    2003-01-01

    .... It has been suggested that the communities affiliated to the Austro-Asiatic linguistic family are perhaps the first to settle in India and the palaeoanthropological evidences suggest the earliest...

  5. Supporting culturally and linguistically diverse students during clinical placement: strategies from both sides of the table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Sharleen L; Milner, Julia

    2015-10-15

    Increasing proportions of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) students within health professional courses at universities creates challenges in delivering inclusive training and education. Clinical placements are a core component of most health care degrees as they allow for applied learning opportunities. A research gap has been identified in regard to understanding challenges and strategies for CALD students in health professional placements. A key stakeholder approach was used to examine barriers and enablers experienced by CALD students in clinical placement. Semi-structured focus groups with healthcare students (n = 13) and clinical placement supervisors (n = 12) were employed. The focus groups were analysed using open coding and thematic analysis. Three main barrier areas were identified: placement planning and preparation; teaching, assessment and feedback; and cultural and language issues. Potential solutions included addressing placement planning and preparation barriers, appropriate student placement preparation, pre-placement identification of higher risk CALD students, and diversity training for supervisors. For the barrier of teaching, assessment & feedback, addressing strategies were to: adapt student caseloads, encourage regular casual supervisor-student conversations, develop supportive placement delivery modes and structures, set expectations early, model the constructive feedback process, use visual aids, and tailor the learning environment to individual student needs. The enablers for cultural & language issues were to: build language and practical approaches for communication, raise awareness of the healthcare system (how it interacts with healthcare professions and how patients access it), and initiate mentoring programs. The findings suggest that teaching and learning strategies should be student-centred, aiming to promote awareness of difference and its impacts then develop appropriate responses by both student and teacher

  6. Linguistic Evidence for Social Psychological Attitudes: Hyperaccommodation or (r) by Singers from a Mizrahi Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaeger-Dror, Malcah

    1991-01-01

    Language usage patterns of popular singers from different ethnic backgrounds were studied to identify possible linguistic conditioning regarding use of the Mizrahi dialect. The data suggest that there is an unconscious and hyperaccommodative, rather than hypercorrective, pull toward the dominant norm. Contains 74 references. (LB)

  7. On the analytic hierarchy process and decision support based on fuzzy-linguistic preference structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco de los Rios, Camilo Andres

    2014-01-01

    The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) has received different fuzzy formulations, where two main lines of research can be identified in literature. The most popular one refers to the Extent Analysis Method, which has been subject of recent criticism, among other things, due to a number of missaplic...... through membership functions and not assume a direct mapping between words and crisp numbers. In this paper we propose the fuzzy representation of linguistic preferences for the AHP, and examine its generalization by means of the fuzzy-linguistic AHP algorithm....

  8. 20 CFR 219.57 - Evidence of a parent's support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of a parent's support. 219.57... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Other Evidence Requirements § 219.57 Evidence of a parent's support. (a) The... Board will require other convincing evidence that the parent is receiving one-half of his or her support...

  9. Evidence from Neurolinguistic Methodologies: Can It Actually Inform Linguistic/Language Acquisition Theories and Translate to Evidence-Based Applications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Leah; González Alonso, Jorge; Pliatsikas, Christos; Rothman, Jason

    2018-01-01

    This special issue is a testament to the recent burgeoning interest by theoretical linguists, language acquisitionists and teaching practitioners in the neuroscience of language. It offers a highly valuable, state-of-the-art overview of the neurophysiological methods that are currently being applied to questions in the field of second language…

  10. Structural similarities between brain and linguistic data provide evidence of semantic relations in the brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen E Crangle

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method of analysis by which structural similarities between brain data and linguistic data can be assessed at the semantic level. It shows how to measure the strength of these structural similarities and so determine the relatively better fit of the brain data with one semantic model over another. The first model is derived from WordNet, a lexical database of English compiled by language experts. The second is given by the corpus-based statistical technique of latent semantic analysis (LSA, which detects relations between words that are latent or hidden in text. The brain data are drawn from experiments in which statements about the geography of Europe were presented auditorily to participants who were asked to determine their truth or falsity while electroencephalographic (EEG recordings were made. The theoretical framework for the analysis of the brain and semantic data derives from axiomatizations of theories such as the theory of differences in utility preference. Using brain-data samples from individual trials time-locked to the presentation of each word, ordinal relations of similarity differences are computed for the brain data and for the linguistic data. In each case those relations that are invariant with respect to the brain and linguistic data, and are correlated with sufficient statistical strength, amount to structural similarities between the brain and linguistic data. Results show that many more statistically significant structural similarities can be found between the brain data and the WordNet-derived data than the LSA-derived data. The work reported here is placed within the context of other recent studies of semantics and the brain. The main contribution of this paper is the new method it presents for the study of semantics and the brain and the focus it permits on networks of relations detected in brain data and represented by a semantic model.

  11. Non-linguistic learning and aphasia: Evidence from a paired associate and feedback-based task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallila-Rohter, Sofia; Kiran, Swathi

    2013-01-01

    Though aphasia is primarily characterized by impairments in the comprehension and/or expression of language, research has shown that patients with aphasia also show deficits in cognitive-linguistic domains such as attention, executive function, concept knowledge and memory (Helm-Estabrooks, 2002 for review). Research in aphasia suggests that cognitive impairments can impact the online construction of language, new verbal learning, and transactional success (Freedman & Martin, 2001; Hula & McNeil, 2008; Ramsberger, 2005). In our research, we extend this hypothesis to suggest that general cognitive deficits influence progress with therapy. The aim of our study is to explore learning, a cognitive process that is integral to relearning language, yet underexplored in the field of aphasia rehabilitation. We examine non-linguistic category learning in patients with aphasia (n=19) and in healthy controls (n=12), comparing feedback and non-feedback based instruction. Participants complete two computer-based learning tasks that require them to categorize novel animals based on the percentage of features shared with one of two prototypes. As hypothesized, healthy controls showed successful category learning following both methods of instruction. In contrast, only 60% of our patient population demonstrated successful non-linguistic category learning. Patient performance was not predictable by standardized measures of cognitive ability. Results suggest that general learning is affected in aphasia and is a unique, important factor to consider in the field of aphasia rehabilitation. PMID:23127795

  12. 33 CFR 25.115 - Evidence supporting a claim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence supporting a claim. 25... GENERAL CLAIMS General § 25.115 Evidence supporting a claim. The claimant shall present independent evidence to support a claim. This evidence may include, if available, statements of witnesses, accident or...

  13. Linguistic Dating of Biblical Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    2003-01-01

    For two centuries, scholars have pointed to consistent differences in the Hebrew of certain biblical texts and interpreted these differences as reflecting the date of composition of the texts. Until the 1980s, this was quite uncontroversial as the linguistic findings largely confirmed the chronol......For two centuries, scholars have pointed to consistent differences in the Hebrew of certain biblical texts and interpreted these differences as reflecting the date of composition of the texts. Until the 1980s, this was quite uncontroversial as the linguistic findings largely confirmed...... the chronology of the texts established by other means: the Hebrew of Genesis-2 Kings was judged to be early and that of Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles to be late. In the current debate where revisionists have questioned the traditional dating, linguistic arguments in the dating of texts have...... come more into focus. The study critically examines some linguistic arguments adduced to support the traditional position, and reviewing the arguments it points to weaknesses in the linguistic dating of EBH texts to pre-exilic times. When viewing the linguistic evidence in isolation it will be clear...

  14. Age constraints on first versus second language acquisition: evidence for linguistic plasticity and epigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, Rachel I; Lock, Elizabeth

    2003-12-01

    Does age constrain the outcome of all language acquisition equally regardless of whether the language is a first or second one? To test this hypothesis, the English grammatical abilities of deaf and hearing adults who either did or did not have linguistic experience (spoken or signed) during early childhood were investigated with two tasks, timed grammatical judgement and untimed sentence to picture matching. Findings showed that adults who acquired a language in early life performed at near-native levels on a second language regardless of whether they were hearing or deaf or whether the early language was spoken or signed. By contrast, deaf adults who experienced little or no accessible language in early life performed poorly. These results indicate that the onset of language acquisition in early human development dramatically alters the capacity to learn language throughout life, independent of the sensory-motor form of the early experience.

  15. Word frequency cues word order in adults: cross-linguistic evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervain, Judit; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Díaz, Begoña; Laka, Itziar; Mazuka, Reiko; Yamane, Naoto; Nespor, Marina; Mehler, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    One universal feature of human languages is the division between grammatical functors and content words. From a learnability point of view, functors might provide entry points or anchors into the syntactic structure of utterances due to their high frequency. Despite its potentially universal scope, this hypothesis has not yet been tested on typologically different languages and on populations of different ages. Here we report a corpus study and an artificial grammar learning experiment testing the anchoring hypothesis in Basque, Japanese, French, and Italian adults. We show that adults are sensitive to the distribution of functors in their native language and use them when learning new linguistic material. However, compared to infants' performance on a similar task, adults exhibit a slightly different behavior, matching the frequency distributions of their native language more closely than infants do. This finding bears on the issue of the continuity of language learning mechanisms. PMID:24106483

  16. Word Frequency Cues Word Order in Adults: Cross-Linguistic Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit eGervain

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One universal feature of human languages is the division between grammatical functors and content words. From a learnability point of view, functors might provide entry points or anchors into the syntactic structure of utterances due to their high frequency. Despite its potentially universal scope, this hypothesis has not yet been tested on typologically different languages and on populations of different ages. Here we report a corpus study and an artificial grammar learning experiment testing the anchoring hypothesis in Basque, Japanese, French and Italian adults. We show that adults are sensitive to the distribution of functors in their native language and use them when learning new linguistic material. However, compared to infants’ performance on a similar task, adults exhibit a slightly different behavior, matching the frequency distributions of their native language more closely than infants do. This finding bears on the issue of the continuity of language learning mechanisms.

  17. Word frequency cues word order in adults: cross-linguistic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervain, Judit; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Díaz, Begoña; Laka, Itziar; Mazuka, Reiko; Yamane, Naoto; Nespor, Marina; Mehler, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    One universal feature of human languages is the division between grammatical functors and content words. From a learnability point of view, functors might provide entry points or anchors into the syntactic structure of utterances due to their high frequency. Despite its potentially universal scope, this hypothesis has not yet been tested on typologically different languages and on populations of different ages. Here we report a corpus study and an artificial grammar learning experiment testing the anchoring hypothesis in Basque, Japanese, French, and Italian adults. We show that adults are sensitive to the distribution of functors in their native language and use them when learning new linguistic material. However, compared to infants' performance on a similar task, adults exhibit a slightly different behavior, matching the frequency distributions of their native language more closely than infants do. This finding bears on the issue of the continuity of language learning mechanisms.

  18. Supporting cross-cultural communication and culturally competent care in the linguistically and culturally diverse hospital settings of UAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Amouri, Souher; O'Neill, Shirley

    2011-10-01

    The United Arab Emirates (UAE) has become a linguistically and culturally diverse society where the majority of health care staff is drawn from a range of non-Arabic speaking backgrounds. In hospitals, the resultant mix of language and cultural differences highlights the importance of the role of nurses in facilitating the quality of care as the primary healthcare workers communicating and interacting with both patients and colleagues. Given the dearth of research in this area in the unique context of UAE, this research sought to identify the kind of strategies in use to effectively communicate to provide culturally competent care (CCC). Data were collected from a total of 153 hospital staff from four private and six government hospitals across UAE. While nurses in both hospital types used a variety of strategies to support cross-cultural communication they saw a need for additional communication support and professional development.

  19. Costs and Benefits of Orthographic Inconsistency in Reading: Evidence from a Cross-Linguistic Comparison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Valeria Marinelli

    Full Text Available We compared reading acquisition in English and Italian children up to late primary school analyzing RTs and errors as a function of various psycholinguistic variables and changes due to experience. Our results show that reading becomes progressively more reliant on larger processing units with age, but that this is modulated by consistency of the language. In English, an inconsistent orthography, reliance on larger units occurs earlier on and it is demonstrated by faster RTs, a stronger effect of lexical variables and lack of length effect (by fifth grade. However, not all English children are able to master this mode of processing yielding larger inter-individual variability. In Italian, a consistent orthography, reliance on larger units occurs later and it is less pronounced. This is demonstrated by larger length effects which remain significant even in older children and by larger effects of a global factor (related to speed of orthographic decoding explaining changes of performance across ages. Our results show the importance of considering not only overall performance, but inter-individual variability and variability between conditions when interpreting cross-linguistic differences.

  20. Estimating valence from the sound of a word: Computational, experimental, and cross-linguistic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwerse, Max; Qu, Zhan

    2017-06-01

    It is assumed linguistic symbols must be grounded in perceptual information to attain meaning, because the sound of a word in a language has an arbitrary relation with its referent. This paper demonstrates that a strong arbitrariness claim should be reconsidered. In a computational study, we showed that one phonological feature (nasals in the beginning of a word) predicted negative valence in three European languages (English, Dutch, and German) and positive valence in Chinese. In three experiments, we tested whether participants used this feature in estimating the valence of a word. In Experiment 1, Chinese and Dutch participants rated the valence of written valence-neutral words, with Chinese participants rating the nasal-first neutral-valence words more positive and the Dutch participants rating nasal-first neutral-valence words more negative. In Experiment 2, Chinese (and Dutch) participants rated the valence of Dutch (and Chinese) written valence-neutral words without being able to understand the meaning of these words. The patterns replicated the valence patterns from Experiment 1. When the written words from Experiment 2 were transformed into spoken words, results in Experiment 3 again showed that participants estimated the valence of words on the basis of the sound of the word. The computational study and psycholinguistic experiments indicated that language users can bootstrap meaning from the sound of a word.

  1. Development of patient-centric linguistically tailored psychoeducational messages to support nutrition and medication self-management in type 2 diabetes: a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Rebecca J Bartlett; Connor, Ulla; Marshall, James

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated the feasibility of developing linguistically tailored educational messages designed to match the linguistic styles of patients segmented into types with the Descriptor™, and to determine patient preferences for tailored or standard messages based on their segments. Patients and methods Twenty patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) were recruited from a diabetes health clinic. Participants were segmented using the Descriptor™, a language-based questionnaire, to identify patient types based on their control orientation (internal/external), agency (high/low), and affect (positive/negative), which are well studied constructs related to T2DM self-management. Two of the seven self-care behaviors described by the American Association of Diabetes Educators (healthy eating and taking medication) were used to develop standard messages and then linguistically tailored using features of the six different construct segment types of the Descriptor™. A subset of seven participants each provided feedback on their preference for standard or linguistically tailored messages; 12 comparisons between standard and tailored messages were made. Results Overall, the tailored messages were preferred to the standard messages. When the messages were matched to specific construct segment types, the tailored messages were preferred over the standard messages, although this was not statistically significant. Conclusion Linguistically tailoring messages based on construct segments is feasible. Furthermore, tailored messages were more often preferred over standard messages. This study provides some preliminary evidence for tailoring messages based on the linguistic features of control orientation, agency, and affect. The messages developed in this study should be tested in a larger more representative sample. The present study did not explore whether tailored messages were better understood. This research will serve as preliminary evidence to develop future studies

  2. Does the mean adequately represent reading performance? Evidence from a cross-linguistic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Chiara V.; Horne, Joanna K.; McGeown, Sarah P.; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi; Martelli, Marialuisa

    2014-01-01

    Reading models are largely based on the interpretation of average data from normal or impaired readers, mainly drawn from English-speaking individuals. In the present study we evaluated the possible contribution of orthographic consistency in generating individual differences in reading behavior. We compared the reading performance of young adults speaking English (one of the most irregular orthographies) and Italian (a very regular orthography). In the 1st experiment we presented 22 English and 30 Italian readers with 5-letter words using the Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) paradigm. In a 2nd experiment, we evaluated a new group of 26 English and 32 Italian proficient readers through the RSVP procedure and lists matched in the two languages for both number of phonemes and letters. The results of the two experiments indicate that English participants read at a similar rate but with much greater individual differences than the Italian participants. In a 3rd experiment, we extended these results to a vocal reaction time (vRT) task, examining the effect of word frequency. An ex-Gaussian distribution analysis revealed differences between languages in the size of the exponential parameter (tau) and in the variance (sigma), but not the mean, of the Gaussian component. Notably, English readers were more variable for both tau and sigma than Italian readers. The pattern of performance in English individuals runs counter to models of performance in timed tasks (Faust et al., 1999; Myerson et al., 2003) which envisage a general relationship between mean performance and variability; indeed, this relationship does not hold in the case of the English participants. The present data highlight the importance of developing reading models that not only capture mean level performance, but also variability across individuals, especially in order to account for cross-linguistic differences in reading behavior. PMID:25191289

  3. Evidence-based interventions to support breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman-Winter, Lori

    2013-02-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the past decade in developing comprehensive support systems to enable more women to reach their breastfeeding goals. Given that most women in the United States participate in some breastfeeding, it is essential that each of these support systems be rigorously tested and if effective replicated. Additional research is needed to determine the best methods of support during the preconception period to prepare women to exclusively breastfeed as a cultural norm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Current Evidence Supporting Obstetric Fistula Prevention Strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grey literature provided context. Evidences from the articles were linked to prevention strategies retrieved from grey literature. The strategies were classified using an innovative target-focused method. Gaps in the literature show the need for fistula prevention research to aim at systematically measuring incidence and ...

  5. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Publisher. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics (SPiL) is published by the Department of General Linguistics of Stellenbosch University. Department of General Linguistics, Stellenbosch University. Sources of Support. The Department of General Linguistics acknowledges the financial support provided by the Fonds ...

  6. Linguistic Complexity and Information Structure in Korean: Evidence from Eye-Tracking during Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoonhyoung; Lee, Hanjung; Gordon, Peter C.

    2007-01-01

    The nature of the memory processes that support language comprehension and the manner in which information packaging influences online sentence processing were investigated in three experiments that used eye-tracking during reading to measure the ease of understanding complex sentences in Korean. All three experiments examined reading of embedded…

  7. Language support for linguistic minority chronic hepatitis B/C patients: an exploratory study of availability and clinicians’ perceptions of language barriers in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Falla (Abby); I.K. Veldhuizen (Irene); R.A. Ahmad (Riris); M. Levi (Miriam); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Language support for linguistic minorities can improve patient safety, clinical outcomes and the quality of health care. Most chronic hepatitis B/C infections in Europe are detected among people born in endemic countries mostly in Africa, Asia and Central/Eastern Europe,

  8. From Teacher Professional Development to the Classroom: How NLP Technology Can Enhance Teachers' Linguistic Awareness to Support Curriculum Development for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Jill; Shore, Jane; Sabatini, John; Moulder, Brad; Lentini, Jennifer; Biggers, Kietha; Holtzman, Steven

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on two studies using "Language Muse[superscript SM]" (LM), a web-based, teacher professional development (TPD) application designed to enhance teachers' linguistic awareness and to support teachers in the development of language-based instructional scaffolding for English language learners (ELL). In Study 1,…

  9. Psychometrics in Support of a Valid Assessment of Linguistic Minorities: Implications for the Test and Sampling Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveri, María Elena; von Davier, Alina A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we propose that the unique needs and characteristics of linguistic minorities should be considered throughout the test development process. Unlike most measurement invariance investigations in the assessment of linguistic minorities, which typically are conducted after test administration, we propose strategies that focus on the…

  10. The evidence-policy divide: a 'critical computational linguistics' approach to the language of 18 health agency CEOs from 9 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Erica; Seidel, Bastian M

    2012-10-30

    There is an emerging body of literature suggesting that the evidence-practice divide in health policy is complex and multi-factorial but less is known about the processes by which health policy-makers use evidence and their views about the specific features of useful evidence. This study aimed to contribute to understandings of how the most influential health policy-makers view useful evidence, in ways that help explore and question how the evidence-policy divide is understood and what research might be supported to help overcome this divide. A purposeful sample of 18 national and state health agency CEOs from 9 countries was obtained. Participants were interviewed using open-ended questions that asked them to define specific features of useful evidence. The analysis involved two main approaches 1)quantitative mapping of interview transcripts using Bayesian-based computational linguistics software 2)qualitative critical discourse analysis to explore the nuances of language extracts so identified. The decision-making, conclusions-oriented world of policy-making is constructed separately, but not exclusively, by policy-makers from the world of research. Research is not so much devalued by them as described as too technical- yet at the same time not methodologically complex enough to engage with localised policy-making contexts. It is not that policy-makers are negative about academics or universities, it is that they struggle to find complexity-oriented methodologies for understanding their stakeholder communities and improving systems. They did not describe themselves as having a more positive role in solving this challenge than academics. These interviews do not support simplistic definitions of policy-makers and researchers as coming from two irreconcilable worlds. They suggest that qualitative and quantitative research is valued by policy-makers but that to be policy-relevant health research may need to focus on building complexity-oriented research methods for

  11. The history of research on the filled pause as evidence of the written language bias in linguistics (Linell, 1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Daniel C; Kowal, Sabine

    2004-11-01

    Erard's (2004) publication in the New York Times of a journalistic history of the filled pause serves as the occasion for this critical review of the past half-century of research on the filled pause. Historically, the various phonetic realizations or instantiations of the filled pause have been presented with an odd recurrent admixture of the interjection ah. In addition, the filled pause has been consistently associated with both hesitation and disfluency. The present authors hold that such a mandatory association of the filled pause with disfluency is the product of The written language bias in linguistics [Linell, 1982] and disregards much cogent evidence to the contrary. The implicit prescriptivism of well formedness--a demand derived from literacy--must be rejected; literate well formedness is not a necessary or even typical property of spontaneous spoken discourse; its structures and functions--including those of the filled pause--are very different from those of written language The recent work of Clark and Fox Tree (2002) holds promise for moving the status of the filled pause not only toward that of a conventional word, but also toward its status as an interjection. This latter development is also being fostered by lexicographers. Nonetheless, in view of ongoing research regarding the disparate privileges of occurrence and functions of filled pauses in comparison with interjections, the present authors are reluctant to categorize the filled pause as an interjection.

  12. Auditory Support in Linguistically Diverse Classrooms: Factors Related to Bilingual Text-to-Speech Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laere, E.; Braak, J.

    2017-01-01

    Text-to-speech technology can act as an important support tool in computer-based learning environments (CBLEs) as it provides auditory input, next to on-screen text. Particularly for students who use a language at home other than the language of instruction (LOI) applied at school, text-to-speech can be useful. The CBLE E-Validiv offers content in…

  13. No evidence supports vitamin E indiscriminate supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotan, Yedidia; Lichtenberg, Dov; Pinchuk, Ilya

    2009-01-01

    For many years, the prevailing concept was that LDL oxidation plays the central role in atherogenesis. As a consequence, supplementation of antioxidants, particularly vitamin E, became very popular. Unfortunately, major randomized clinical trials yielded disappointing results and recent meta-analyses concluded that indiscriminate, high dose vitamin E supplementation results in increased mortality. This conclusion raised (quite reasonable) criticism, much of which referred to the characteristics of meta-analysis. In our recent study, we used a Markov-model approach, which is free of most of the limitations of meta-analyses. Our major finding was that the average quality-adjusted life years (QALY) of vitamin E- supplemented individuals was 0.30 QALY (95%CI 0.21 to 0.39) less than that of untreated people. In our view, this supports the view that indiscriminate supplementation of high dose vitamin E can not be recommended to the general public.In the present communication we address several recent studies that demonstrated negative effects of vitamin E and raise possible mechanisms that may be responsible for the harmful effects of vitamin E supplementation. We also review recent studies conducted with specific groups of patients that gained from vitamin E supplementation, indicating that although, on the average, indiscriminate supplementation of high dose vitamin E is not beneficial, specific populations may gain from vitamin E. The challenge is to establish selection criteria that will predict who is likely to benefit from vitamin E supplementation. Such criteria may be based either on the assumption that antioxidants are likely to be beneficial for people under oxidative stress or on knowledge regarding the benefit of sick people with certain diseases. In short, we adopt the view that vitamin E is a "double-edge sword" that should not be consumed until criteria are defined to predict who is likely to benefit from high dose supplementation of vitamin E. (c) 2009

  14. Development of patient-centric linguistically tailored psychoeducational messages to support nutrition and medication self-management in type 2 diabetes: a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis RJB

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rebecca J Bartlett Ellis,1 Ulla Connor,2 James Marshall21Indiana University School of Nursing, 2Indiana University School of Liberal Arts, International Center for Intercultural Communication, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, USA Purpose: This study evaluated the feasibility of developing linguistically tailored educational messages designed to match the linguistic styles of patients segmented into types with the Descriptor™, and to determine patient preferences for tailored or standard messages based on their segments. Patients and methods: Twenty patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM were recruited from a diabetes health clinic. Participants were segmented using the Descriptor™, a language-based questionnaire, to identify patient types based on their control orientation (internal/external, agency (high/low, and affect (positive/negative, which are well studied constructs related to T2DM self-management. Two of the seven self-care behaviors described by the American Association of Diabetes Educators (healthy eating and taking medication were used to develop standard messages and then linguistically tailored using features of the six different construct segment types of the Descriptor™. A subset of seven participants each provided feedback on their preference for standard or linguistically tailored messages; 12 comparisons between standard and tailored messages were made. Results: Overall, the tailored messages were preferred to the standard messages. When the messages were matched to specific construct segment types, the tailored messages were preferred over the standard messages, although this was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Linguistically tailoring messages based on construct segments is feasible. Furthermore, tailored messages were more often preferred over standard messages. This study provides some preliminary evidence for tailoring messages based on the linguistic features of control orientation, agency, and affect

  15. Retrieval and Encoding Interference: Cross-Linguistic Evidence from Anaphor Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurinavichyute, Anna; Jäger, Lena A; Akinina, Yulia; Roß, Jennifer; Dragoy, Olga

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of this paper was to disentangle encoding and retrieval interference effects in anaphor processing and thus to evaluate the hypothesis predicting that structurally inaccessible nouns (distractors) are not considered to be potential anaphor antecedents during language processing (Nicol and Swinney, 1989). Three self-paced reading experiments were conducted: one in German, comparing gender-unmarked reflexives and gender-marked pronouns, and two in Russian, comparing gender-marked and -unmarked reflexives. In the German experiment, no interference effects were found. In the first experiment in Russian, an unexpected reading times pattern emerged: in the condition where the distractor matched the gender of the reflexive's antecedent, reading of the gender-unmarked, but not the gender-marked reflexives was slowed down. The same reading times pattern was replicated in a second experiment in Russian where the order of the reflexive and the main verb was inverted. We conclude that the results of the two experiments in Russian are inconsistent with the retrieval interference account, but can be explained by encoding interference and additional semantic processing efforts associated with the processing of gender-marked reflexives. In sum, we found no evidence that would allow us to reject the syntax as an early filer account (Nicol and Swinney, 1989).

  16. Retrieval and Encoding Interference: Cross-Linguistic Evidence from Anaphor Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Laurinavichyute

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper was to disentangle encoding and retrieval interference effects in anaphor processing and thus to evaluate the hypothesis predicting that structurally inaccessible nouns (distractors are not considered to be potential anaphor antecedents during language processing (Nicol and Swinney, 1989. Three self-paced reading experiments were conducted: one in German, comparing gender-unmarked reflexives and gender-marked pronouns, and two in Russian, comparing gender-marked and -unmarked reflexives. In the German experiment, no interference effects were found. In the first experiment in Russian, an unexpected reading times pattern emerged: in the condition where the distractor matched the gender of the reflexive's antecedent, reading of the gender-unmarked, but not the gender-marked reflexives was slowed down. The same reading times pattern was replicated in a second experiment in Russian where the order of the reflexive and the main verb was inverted. We conclude that the results of the two experiments in Russian are inconsistent with the retrieval interference account, but can be explained by encoding interference and additional semantic processing efforts associated with the processing of gender-marked reflexives. In sum, we found no evidence that would allow us to reject the syntax as an early filer account (Nicol and Swinney, 1989.

  17. Evidence for direct geographic influences on linguistic sounds: the case of ejectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb Everett

    Full Text Available We present evidence that the geographic context in which a language is spoken may directly impact its phonological form. We examined the geographic coordinates and elevations of 567 language locations represented in a worldwide phonetic database. Languages with phonemic ejective consonants were found to occur closer to inhabitable regions of high elevation, when contrasted to languages without this class of sounds. In addition, the mean and median elevations of the locations of languages with ejectives were found to be comparatively high. The patterns uncovered surface on all major world landmasses, and are not the result of the influence of particular language families. They reflect a significant and positive worldwide correlation between elevation and the likelihood that a language employs ejective phonemes. In addition to documenting this correlation in detail, we offer two plausible motivations for its existence. We suggest that ejective sounds might be facilitated at higher elevations due to the associated decrease in ambient air pressure, which reduces the physiological effort required for the compression of air in the pharyngeal cavity--a unique articulatory component of ejective sounds. In addition, we hypothesize that ejective sounds may help to mitigate rates of water vapor loss through exhaled air. These explications demonstrate how a reduction of ambient air density could promote the usage of ejective phonemes in a given language. Our results reveal the direct influence of a geographic factor on the basic sound inventories of human languages.

  18. Making psycholinguistics musical: self-paced reading time evidence for shared processing of linguistic and musical syntax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slevc, L Robert; Rosenberg, Jason C; Patel, Aniruddh D

    2009-04-01

    Linguistic processing, especially syntactic processing, is often considered a hallmark of human cognition; thus, the domain specificity or domain generality of syntactic processing has attracted considerable debate. The present experiments address this issue by simultaneously manipulating syntactic processing demands in language and music. Participants performed self-paced reading of garden path sentences, in which structurally unexpected words cause temporary syntactic processing difficulty. A musical chord accompanied each sentence segment, with the resulting sequence forming a coherent chord progression. When structurally unexpected words were paired with harmonically unexpected chords, participants showed substantially enhanced garden path effects. No such interaction was observed when the critical words violated semantic expectancy or when the critical chords violated timbral expectancy. These results support a prediction of the shared syntactic integration resource hypothesis (Patel, 2003), which suggests that music and language draw on a common pool of limited processing resources for integrating incoming elements into syntactic structures. Notations of the stimuli from this study may be downloaded from pbr.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

  19. The Evidence and Conclusion Ontology (ECO): Supporting GO Annotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibucos, Marcus C; Siegele, Deborah A; Hu, James C; Giglio, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    The Evidence and Conclusion Ontology (ECO) is a community resource for describing the various types of evidence that are generated during the course of a scientific study and which are typically used to support assertions made by researchers. ECO describes multiple evidence types, including evidence resulting from experimental (i.e., wet lab) techniques, evidence arising from computational methods, statements made by authors (whether or not supported by evidence), and inferences drawn by researchers curating the literature. In addition to summarizing the evidence that supports a particular assertion, ECO also offers a means to document whether a computer or a human performed the process of making the annotation. Incorporating ECO into an annotation system makes it possible to leverage the structure of the ontology such that associated data can be grouped hierarchically, users can select data associated with particular evidence types, and quality control pipelines can be optimized. Today, over 30 resources, including the Gene Ontology, use the Evidence and Conclusion Ontology to represent both evidence and how annotations are made.

  20. Are claims made in orthodontic journal advertisements evidence-supported?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, Christos; Kouskoura, Thaleia; Ren, Yijin; Katsaros, Christos; Pandis, Nikolaos

    Objective: To examine the supporting evidence of advertisements published in six leading orthodontic journals. Materials and Methods: The 2012-2013 printed issues of American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Australian Orthodontic Journal, Journal of Orthodontics, European

  1. Evidence and Obesity Prevention: Developing Evidence Summaries to Support Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Rachel; Waters, Elizabeth; Armstrong, Rebecca; Conning, Rebecca; Allender, Steven; Swinburn, Boyd

    2013-01-01

    Public health practitioners make decisions based on research evidence in combination with a variety of other influences. Evidence summaries are one of a range of knowledge translation options used to support evidence-informed decision making. The literature relevant to obesity prevention requires synthesis for it to be accessible and relevant to…

  2. The role of extra-linguistic factors in receptive bilingualism : Evidence from Danish and Swedish pre-schoolers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schüppert, Anja; Gooskens, Charlotte

    Danish and Swedish are closely related languages that are generally mutually intelligible. Previous research has shown, however, that Danes comprehend more spoken Swedish than vice versa. It has been suggested that this asymmetry is caused by extra-linguistic factors such as literacy, contact with,

  3. Cognitive and Linguistic Predictors of Basic Arithmetic Skills: Evidence from First-Language and Second-Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleemans, Tijs; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of both cognitive and linguistic predictors in basic arithmetic skills (i.e., addition and subtraction) in 69 first-language (L1) learners and 60 second-language (L2) learners from the second grade of primary schools in the Netherlands. All children were tested on non-verbal intelligence, working memory,…

  4. Cognitive and Linguistic Predictors of Basic Arithmetic Skills: Evidence from First-language and Second-language Learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleemans, M.A.J.; Segers, P.C.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of both cognitive and linguistic predictors in basic arithmetic skills (i.e., addition and subtraction) in 69 first-language (L1) learners and 60 second-language (L2) learners from the second grade of primary schools in the Netherlands. All children were

  5. Linguistic Imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The study of linguistic imperialism focuses on how and why certain languages dominate internationally, and attempts to account for such dominance in a theoretically informed way.......The study of linguistic imperialism focuses on how and why certain languages dominate internationally, and attempts to account for such dominance in a theoretically informed way....

  6. Russians in treatment: the evidence base supporting cultural adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurcik, Tomas; Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia E; Solopieieva-Jurcikova, Ielyzaveta; Ryder, Andrew G

    2013-07-01

    Despite large waves of westward migration, little is known about how to adapt services to assist Russian-speaking immigrants. In an attempt to bridge the scientist-practitioner gap, the current review synthesizes diverse literatures regarding what is known about immigrants from the Former Soviet Union. Relevant empirical studies and reviews from cross-cultural and cultural psychology, sociology, psychiatric epidemiology, mental health, management, linguistics, history, and anthropology literature were synthesized into three broad topics: culture of origin issues, common psychosocial challenges, and clinical recommendations. Russian speakers probably differ in their form of collectivism, gender relations, emotion norms, social support, and parenting styles from what many clinicians are familiar with and exhibit an apparent paradoxical mix of modern and traditional values. While some immigrant groups from the Former Soviet Union are adjusting well, others have shown elevated levels of depression, somatization, and alcoholism, which can inform cultural adaptations. Testable assessment and therapy adaptations for Russians were outlined based on integrating clinical and cultural psychology perspectives. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Promoting linguistic complexity, greater message length and ease of engagement in email writing in people with aphasia: initial evidence from a study utilizing assistive writing software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Lindsey; Sage, Karen; Conroy, Paul

    2017-01-01

    that assistive writing technologies can support people with aphasia in email writing across a range of important performance parameters. However, more research is needed to measure the effects of these technologies on the writing of people with aphasia, and to determine the optimal compensatory mechanisms for specific people given the linguistic-strategic resources they bring to the task of email writing. © 2016 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  8. Linguistic Polyphony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nølke, Henning

    Linguistic polyphony is an utterance theory (la linguistique de l'énonciation) and is a French speciality. It deals with the numenrous points of view that are likely to be communicated through an utterance. The book introduces utterance act theory and polyphony as such, but most especially focuses...... on the Scandinavian variant of polyphony, ScaPoLine. ScaPoLine is a formal linguistic theory whose main purpose is to specify the instructions conveyed through linguistic form for the creation of polyphonic meaning. The theoretical introduction is followed by polyphonic analyses of linguistic phenomena...... such as negation, mood, modality and connectors, and of textual phenomena such as represented discourse and irony. The book suggests how ScaPoLine could offer new insights within cross-linguistic and interdisciplinary studies....

  9. Teachers' Use of Linguistic Scaffolding to Support the Academic Language Development of First-Grade Emergent Bilingual Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that teachers need to scaffold emergent bilingual students as they develop the complex language associated with school success. This may especially be true in dual language settings, where children are learning two languages simultaneously. In this study, therefore, I investigate the linguistic scaffolding practices of…

  10. NICU nurse educators: what evidence supports your teaching strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Jobeth

    2013-01-01

    One of our roles as nurse educators is to teach best practices related to patient care. However, have you ever stopped to think about what evidence supports your teaching strategies? Just as our patients deserve care that is based on the best available evidence, our learners also deserve education that is based on evidence.1-3 With so many advances in knowledge, technology, and even life itself, it is interesting that education has changed very little over the past 100 years. A study among 946 nurse educators documented that most teach the way they were taught.4 In addition, even after learning new strategies, educators often continue teaching in the manner they are most comfortable. However, this trend is beginning to change. Nurse educators are becoming increasingly aware of and willing to try new and innovative teaching strategies. Educators are also seeking out evidence-based teaching strategies and are becoming more involved in nursing education research.

  11. Theoretical Linguistics And Multilingualism Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KATEVG

    and Garfunkel who released the legendary song with the singular bridge over forty years ago):. • It tries to construct a bridge between the concerns of theoretical linguistics and ...... Four types of morpheme: Evidence from aphasia, code switching, and second-language acquisition. Linguistics 38: 1053-1100. Newmeyer, F.J. ...

  12. Linguistic Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Nigel

    1992-01-01

    Advocates the application of Popper's ideas (1963, 1972) about the nature of science and objectivist epistemology to generativist linguistics, discussing the subsequent effects on five key metatheoretical positions: fallibilism; realism; objectivism; autonomism; and interactionism. (12 references) (CB)

  13. On projecting grammatical persons into social neurocognition: a view from linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nicholas

    2013-08-01

    Though it draws on the grammatical metaphor of person (first, third, second) in terms of representations, Schilbach et al.'s target article does not consider an orthogonal line of evidence for the centrality of interaction to social cognition: the many grammatical phenomena, some widespread cross-linguistically and some only being discovered, which are geared to supporting real-time interaction. My commentary reviews these, and the contribution linguistic evidence can make to a fuller account of social cognition.

  14. Cross-linguistic variation in the neurophysiological response to semantic processing: Evidence from anomalies at the borderline of awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tune, Sarah; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Small, Steven L.; Sanford, Anthony J.; Bohan, Jason; Sassenhagen, Jona; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina

    2014-01-01

    The N400 event-related brain potential (ERP) has played a major role in the examination of how the human brain processes meaning. For current theories of the N400, classes of semantic inconsistencies which do not elicit N400 effects have proven particularly influential. Semantic anomalies that are difficult to detect are a case in point (“borderline anomalies”, e.g. “After an air crash, where should the survivors be buried?”), engendering a late positive ERP response but no N400 effect in English (Sanford, Leuthold, Bohan, & Sanford, 2011). In three auditory ERP experiments, we demonstrate that this result is subject to cross-linguistic variation. In a German version of Sanford and colleagues' experiment (Experiment 1), detected borderline anomalies elicited both N400 and late positivity effects compared to control stimuli or to missed borderline anomalies. Classic easy-to-detect semantic (non-borderline) anomalies showed the same pattern as in English (N400 plus late positivity). The cross-linguistic difference in the response to borderline anomalies was replicated in two additional studies with a slightly modified task (Experiment 2a: German; Experiment 2b: English), with a reliable LANGUAGE × ANOMALY interaction for the borderline anomalies confirming that the N400 effect is subject to systematic cross-linguistic variation. We argue that this variation results from differences in the language-specific default weighting of top-down and bottom-up information, concluding that N400 amplitude reflects the interaction between the two information sources in the form-to-meaning mapping. PMID:24447768

  15. A linguist's views on progressive anomia: evidence for Delbrück (1886) in modern neurolinguistic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bleser, Ria

    2006-08-01

    In his short paper of 1886, the neogrammarian linguist Delbrück sketches his views on normal language processing and their relevance for the interpretation of some of the symptoms of progressive anomic aphasia. In particular, he discusses proper name impairments, verb and abstract noun superiority and the predominance of semantically related errors. Furthermore, he suggests that part of speech, morphology and word order may be preserved in this condition. This historical document has been lost in oblivion but the original ideas and their relevance for contemporary discussions merit a revival.

  16. Lexicography and Linguistic Creativity*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    Abstract: Conventionally, dictionaries present information about institutionalized words, phrases, and senses of words; more creative formations and usages are generally ignored. Yet text and corpus data provide ample evidence of creativity in language, showing that it is part of ordi- nary linguistic behaviour and indeed ...

  17. Lexicography and Linguistic Creativity*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    and corpus data provide ample evidence of creativity in language, showing that it is part of ordi- nary linguistic behaviour and indeed often systematic. This article looks at four specific types of lexical creativity in English: figurative meaning, ... in art and literature can also be found in the communication practices of every-.

  18. Decision support for health care: the PROforma evidence base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Fox

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer Research UK has developed PROforma, a formal language for modelling clinical processes, along with associated tools for creating decision support, care planning, clinical workflow management and other applications. The PROforma method has been evaluated in a variety of settings: in primary health care (prescribing, referral of suspected cancer patients, genetic risk assessment and in specialist care of patients with breast cancer, leukaemia, HIV infection and other conditions. About nine years of experience have been gained with PROforma technologies. Seven trials of decision support applications have been published or are in preparation. Each of these has shown significant positive effects on a variety of measures of quality and/or outcomes of care. This paper reviews the evidence base for the clinical effectiveness of these PROforma applications, and previews the CREDO project _a multi-centre trial of a complex PROforma application for supporting integrated breast cancer care across primary and secondary care settings.

  19. Corpus Linguistics: Discovering How We Use language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, John

    2003-01-01

    Highlights the use of corpus linguistics--or the the study of language through the use of a large collection of naturally-occurring written and spoken texts. Discusses corpora with computers, applications of corpus linguistics, and the University of Pennsylvania's Linguistic data Consortium, which is conducting a speech study to support linguistic…

  20. Linguistic dating of biblical texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Ian; Rezetko, Robert; Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    Since the beginning of critical scholarship biblical texts have been dated using linguistic evidence. In recent years this has become a controversial topic, especially with the publication of Ian Young (ed.), Biblical Hebrew: Studies in Chronology and Typology (2003). However, until now there has...... been no introduction and comprehensive study of the field. Volume 1 introduces the field of linguistic dating of biblical texts, particularly to intermediate and advanced students of biblical Hebrew who have a reasonable background in the language, having completed at least an introductory course...... in this volume are: What is it that makes Archaic Biblical Hebrew archaic , Early Biblical Hebrew early , and Late Biblical Hebrew late ? Does linguistic typology, i.e. different linguistic characteristics, convert easily and neatly into linguistic chronology, i.e. different historical origins? A large amount...

  1. Are claims made in orthodontic journal advertisements evidence-supported?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livas, Christos; Kouskoura, Thaleia; Ren, Yijin; Katsaros, Christos; Pandis, Nikolaos

    2015-03-01

    To examine the supporting evidence of advertisements published in six leading orthodontic journals. The 2012-2013 printed issues of American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Australian Orthodontic Journal, Journal of Orthodontics, European Journal of Orthodontics, Journal of Clinical Orthodontics, and Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics were screened for advertisements implying superior performance compared with competitor products. Advertisements were classified according to type of product, availability, and currency of supporting references. A total of 99 unique advertisements claiming clinical benefit or superiority were identified. The overwhelming majority of the identified advertisements promoted appliance products (62.6%), orthodontic materials (14.1%), and dental operatory equipment, including imaging systems (12.1%). Advertisements were found to provide references or not regardless of the product type. Half of the advertisements referred to at least one peer-reviewed publication, whereas unpublished studies were cited by 25% of the advertisements. Most of the referenced articles were published within the past 5 years. The scientific background of advertisements in the orthodontic literature appears limited. While surveillance of journal advertising needs to be regulated, clinicians are urged to critically appraise the claims being made in orthodontic print advertisements by consulting the associated existing evidence.

  2. Cognitive linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Vyvyan

    2012-03-01

    Cognitive linguistics is one of the fastest growing and influential perspectives on the nature of language, the mind, and their relationship with sociophysical (embodied) experience. It is a broad theoretical and methodological enterprise, rather than a single, closely articulated theory. Its primary commitments are outlined. These are the Cognitive Commitment-a commitment to providing a characterization of language that accords with what is known about the mind and brain from other disciplines-and the Generalization Commitment-which represents a dedication to characterizing general principles that apply to all aspects of human language. The article also outlines the assumptions and worldview which arises from these commitments, as represented in the work of leading cognitive linguists. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:129-141. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1163 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. Language support for linguistic minority chronic hepatitis B/C patients: an exploratory study of availability and clinicians' perceptions of language barriers in six European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falla, Abby M; Veldhuijzen, Irene K; Ahmad, Amena A; Levi, Miriam; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2017-02-20

    Language support for linguistic minorities can improve patient safety, clinical outcomes and the quality of health care. Most chronic hepatitis B/C infections in Europe are detected among people born in endemic countries mostly in Africa, Asia and Central/Eastern Europe, groups that may experience language barriers when accessing health care services in their host countries. We investigated availability of interpreters and translated materials for linguistic minority hepatitis B/C patients. We also investigated clinicians' agreement that language barriers are explanations of three scenarios: the low screening uptake of hepatitis B/C screening, the lack of screening in primary care, and why cases do not reach specialist care. An online survey was developed, translated and sent to experts in five health care services involved in screening or treating viral hepatitis in six European countries: Germany, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom (UK). The five areas of health care were: general practice/family medicine, antenatal care, health care for asylum seekers, sexual health and specialist secondary care. We measured availability using a three-point ordinal scale ('very common', 'variable or not routine' and 'rarely or never'). We measured agreement using a five-point Likert scale. We received 238 responses (23% response rate, N = 1026) from representatives in each health care field in each country. Interpreters are common in the UK, the Netherlands and Spain but variable or rare in Germany, Hungary and Italy. Translated materials are rarely/never available in Hungary, Italy and Spain but commonly or variably available in the Netherlands, Germany and the UK. Differing levels of agreement that language barriers explain the three scenarios are seen across the countries. Professionals in countries with most infrequent availability (Hungary and Italy) disagree strongest that language barriers are explanations. Our findings show pronounced

  4. Hippocampal declarative memory supports gesture production: Evidence from amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilverman, Caitlin; Cook, Susan Wagner; Duff, Melissa C

    2016-12-01

    Spontaneous co-speech hand gestures provide a visuospatial representation of what is being communicated in spoken language. Although it is clear that gestures emerge from representations in memory for what is being communicated (De Ruiter, 1998; Wesp, Hesse, Keutmann, & Wheaton, 2001), the mechanism supporting the relationship between gesture and memory is unknown. Current theories of gesture production posit that action - supported by motor areas of the brain - is key in determining whether gestures are produced. We propose that when and how gestures are produced is determined in part by hippocampally-mediated declarative memory. We examined the speech and gesture of healthy older adults and of memory-impaired patients with hippocampal amnesia during four discourse tasks that required accessing episodes and information from the remote past. Consistent with previous reports of impoverished spoken language in patients with hippocampal amnesia, we predicted that these patients, who have difficulty generating multifaceted declarative memory representations, may in turn have impoverished gesture production. We found that patients gestured less overall relative to healthy comparison participants, and that this was particularly evident in tasks that may rely more heavily on declarative memory. Thus, gestures do not just emerge from the motor representation activated for speaking, but are also sensitive to the representation available in hippocampal declarative memory, suggesting a direct link between memory and gesture production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evidence supporting a circadian control of natural killer cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjona, Alvaro; Sarkar, Dipak K

    2006-09-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells participate in the immune response against infection and cancer. An emerging body of epidemiological data supports that circadian homeostasis may constitute a factor risk for cancer development. Physiological rhythms under circadian control persist in the absence of light entrainment and ultimately rely on a molecular clock. We have previously shown that NK cell cytolytic activity follows a daily rhythm and that NK cells enriched from light-entrained rats present 24-h oscillations of clock genes, cytolytic factors, and cytokines. To investigate whether these oscillations are under a genuine circadian control, we assessed the daily expression of clock genes (Per1, Per2, Clock, and Bmal1), a clock-controlled gene (Dbp), cytolytic factors (granzyme B and perforin), and cytokines (IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha) in NK cells enriched from rats maintained in constant darkness (DD). In addition, we investigated whether the disruption of the NK cell clock by RNA interference (RNAi) affects the expression of cytolytic factors and cytokines. Persistent 24-h oscillations were found in the expression levels of clock genes, cytolytic factors, and cytokines in NK cells enriched from DD rats. In addition, RNAi-mediated Per2 knockdown caused a significant decrease of granzyme B and perforin levels in the rat derived NK cell line RNK16. Taken together, these results provide evidence supporting that NK cell function is under circadian regulation.

  6. Evidence-based nutritional support of the elderly cancer patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzetti, Federico

    2015-04-01

    The papers included in this section represent the effort of the Task Force on Nutrition of the International Society of Geriatric Oncology to synthetize the evidence-based concepts on nutritional support of the elderly cancer patients. In the attempt of presenting a comprehensive overview of the topic, the panel included experts from different specialties: basic researchers, nutritionists, geriatricians, nurses, dieticians, gastroenterologists, oncologists. Cancer in elderly people is a growing problem. Not only in almost every country, the proportion of people aged over 60 years is growing faster than any other age group, but cancer per se is also a disease of old adult-elderly people, hence the oncologists face an increasing number of these patients both now and in the next years. The are several studies on nutrition of elderly subjects and many other on nutrition of cancer patients but relatively few specifically devoted to the nutritional support of the elderly cancer patients. However, the awareness that elderly subjects account for a high proportion of the mixed cancer patients population, in some way legitimates us to extend some conclusions of the literature also to the elderly cancer patients. Although the topics of this Experts' Consensus have been written by specialists in different areas of nutrition, the final message is addressed to the oncologists. Not only they should be more directly involved in the simplest steps of the nutritional care (recognition of the potential existence of a "nutritional risk" which can compromise the planned oncologic program, use of some oral supplements, etc.) but, as the true experts of the natural history of their cancer patient, they should also coordinate the process of the nutritional support, integrating this approach in the overall multidisciplinary cancer care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Concept of Linguistic Difficulty. Working Papers in Linguistics, Volume 3, Number 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Theodore

    Experimental work on the concept of linguistic difficulty is summarized. Inherent linguistic difficulty is distinguished from contrastive linguistic difficulty. Studies of phonological acquisition are cited which tend to support the notion of an ordered acquisition of language features, and it is recommended that we look to cross-linguistic…

  8. Language facilitates event memory in early childhood: Child comprehension, adult-provided linguistic support and delayed recall at 16 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukowski, Angela F; Phung, Janice N; Milojevich, Helen M

    2015-01-01

    Adult-provided supportive language facilitates memory for the past in preverbal and verbal children. Work conducted with 18-month-olds indicates that children benefit from supportive adult language when tested after a 4-week delay but not when tested immediately after sequence demonstration; moreover, findings reveal that supportive language provided only at test may be more facilitative of recall after a delay relative to supportive language provided only at encoding. In the present study, we examined whether child language comprehension abilities moderated the extent to which preverbal children benefitted from supportive language provided at encoding and test. The findings indicated that child language comprehension and supportive language provided at encoding were unassociated with performance at baseline or immediate imitation; however, the moderating effect of child language comprehension on adult-provided supportive language at encoding and test was observed after a 1-week delay. Correlations revealed continuous associations between general comprehension scores and recall performance after the 1-week delay on sequences presented in the most supportive condition at encoding. Taken together, the presented findings reveal that the complex interplay between language and cognition is established in early childhood, with foundational relations emerging before children are capable of verbally reporting on the past.

  9. Developing a Zone of Relevance: Emergent Bilinguals' Use of Social, Linguistic, and Cognitive Support in Peer-Led Literacy Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Beltrán, Melinda; Daniel, Shannon; Peercy, Megan; Silverman, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes how emergent bilinguals discursively support one another during literacy activities in a cross-aged peer-tutoring program in their elementary school. Drawing from Vygotskian sociocultural theory, we frame peer supports as developing a zone of relevance that fosters and sustains peer engagement in literacy discussions.…

  10. The linguistically aware teacher and the teacher-aware linguist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Elspeth; Ellis, Sue

    2013-07-01

    This review evaluates issues of teacher linguistic knowledge relating to their work with children with speech, language and communication difficulties (SLCD). Information is from Ellis and McCartney [(2011a). Applied linguistics and primary school teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press], a state-of-the-art text deriving from a British Association of Applied Linguistics/Cambridge University Press expert seminar series that details: linguistic research underpinning primary school curricula and pedagogy; the form of linguistic knowledge useful for teachers supporting children with SLCD in partnership with speech and language therapists; and how and when teachers acquire and learn to apply such knowledge. Critical analysis of the options presented for teacher learning indicate that policy enjoinders now include linguistic application as an expected part of teachers' professional knowledge, for all children including those with SLCD, but there is a large unmet learning need. It is concluded that there is a role for clinical linguists to disseminate useable knowledge to teachers in an accessible format. Ways of achieving this are considered.

  11. Translating Linguistic Jokes for Dubbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ALEKSANDROVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has attempted to establish the possible ways of translating linguistic jokes whendubbing. The study is also intended to identify the most problematic cases of screen translation andthe factors which cause these problems. In order to support such an approach a corpus of 7American and British films has been compiled, including as many as 16 as their various dubbingtranslations into Russian. In the films, almost 12 instances of original linguistic jokes have beenidentified.

  12. Development of a model of dementia support and pathway for culturally and linguistically diverse communities using co-creation and participatory action research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeman, Dianne; King, Jordan; Koch, Susan

    2016-12-07

    To develop an inclusive model of culturally sensitive support, using a specialist dementia nurse (SDN), to assist people with dementia from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities and their carers to overcome barriers to accessing health and social care services. Co-creation and participatory action research, based on reflection, data collection, interaction and feedback from participants and stakeholders. An SDN support model embedded within a home nursing service in Melbourne, Australia was implemented between October 2013 and October 2015. People experiencing memory loss or with a diagnosis of dementia from CALD backgrounds and their carers and family living in the community setting and expert stakeholders. Reflections from the SDN on interactions with participants and expert stakeholder opinion informed the CALD dementia support model and pathway. Interaction with 62 people living with memory loss or dementia from CALD backgrounds, carers or family members receiving support from the SDN and feedback from 13 expert stakeholders from community aged-care services, consumer advocacy organisations and ethnic community group representatives informed the development and refinement of the CALD dementia model of care and pathway. We delineate the three components of the 'SDN' model: the organisational support; a description of the role; and the competencies needed. Additionally, we provide an accompanying pathway for use by health professionals delivering care to consumers with dementia from CALD backgrounds. Our culturally sensitive model of dementia care and accompanying pathway allows for the tailoring of health and social support to assist people from CALD backgrounds, their carers and families to adjust to living with memory loss and remain living in the community as long as possible. The model and accompanying pathway also have the potential to be rolled out nationally for use by health professionals across a variety of health services. Published

  13. Breaking communication barriers for RA patients of South Asian origin: the use of a bilingual educational audio CD and linguistically appropriate peer support and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kanta; John, Holly; Gordhan, Chandrika; Situnayake, Deva; Raza, Karim; Bacon, Paul A

    2011-03-01

    People from the Indian subcontinent represent one of the largest ethnic groups in the UK. Patient education resources are required to address language barriers, poor literacy and (potentially discordant) cultural beliefs. We have investigated a novel strategy to meet this need. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients of South Asian origin who prefer to communicate in a South Asian language were invited to a face-to-face interaction with a trained patient volunteer to provide linguistically appropriate peer support and education, and given a bilingual educational audio CD. Qualitative methods were used to assess this approach; three focus groups were held and 15 patients participated in total. Four important themes were identified: (1) The need for information about RA; all patients agreed that this was vital to learn how to live with their chronic disease. (2) Currently available approaches to education; particular concerns related to a lack of time in clinic, language barriers, difficulties in communicating via interpreters and that most written information was available only in English. (3) Support provided by a trained patient volunteer; patients appreciated that they were listened to, and were motivated by the volunteers' positive attitude. (4) The usefulness of the audio CD; patients appreciated that information was presented in a language they could understand, via a convenient medium and which offered a helpful perspective on their illness. This approach is a successful way of delivering information and encouraged patients from a difficult-to-reach community to become more involved in their disease management. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Capturing socially motivated linguistic change. How the use of gender-fair language afffects support for social initiatives in Austria and Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Maria Formanowicz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Gender-fair language consists of the symmetric linguistic treatment of women and men instead of using masculine forms as generics. In this study, we examine how the use of gender-fair language affects readers’ support for social initiatives in Poland and Austria. While gender-fair language is relatively novel in Poland, it is well established in Austria. This difference may lead to different perceptions of gender-fair usage in these speech communities. Two studies conducted in Poland investigate whether the evaluation of social initiatives (Study 1: quotas for women on election lists; Study 2: support for women students or students from countries troubled by war is affected by how female proponents (lawyers, psychologists, sociologists, and academics are referred to, with masculine forms (traditional or with feminine forms (modern, gender-fair. Study 3 replicates Study 2 in Austria. Our results indicate that in Poland, gender-fair language has negative connotations and therefore, detrimental effects particularly when used in gender-related contexts. Conversely, in Austria, where gender-fair language has been implemented and used for some time, there are no such negative effects. This pattern of results may inform the discussion about formal policies regulating the use of gender-fair language.

  15. Capturing socially motivated linguistic change: how the use of gender-fair language affects support for social initiatives in Austria and Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formanowicz, Magdalena M.; Cisłak, Aleksandra; Horvath, Lisa K.; Sczesny, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Gender-fair language consists of the symmetric linguistic treatment of women and men instead of using masculine forms as generics. In this study, we examine how the use of gender-fair language affects readers' support for social initiatives in Poland and Austria. While gender-fair language is relatively novel in Poland, it is well established in Austria. This difference may lead to different perceptions of gender-fair usage in these speech communities. Two studies conducted in Poland investigate whether the evaluation of social initiatives (Study 1: quotas for women on election lists; Study 2: support for women students or students from countries troubled by war) is affected by how female proponents (lawyers, psychologists, sociologists, and academics) are referred to, with masculine forms (traditional) or with feminine forms (modern, gender-fair). Study 3 replicates Study 2 in Austria. Our results indicate that in Poland, gender-fair language has negative connotations and therefore, detrimental effects particularly when used in gender-related contexts. Conversely, in Austria, where gender-fair language has been implemented and used for some time, there are no such negative effects. This pattern of results may inform the discussion about formal policies regulating the use of gender-fair language. PMID:26582996

  16. Supporting evidence-based practice for nurses through information technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Diane M; Haynes, R Brian; Kushniruk, André; Straus, Sharon; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Hall, Linda McGillis; Dubrowski, Adam; Di Pietro, Tammie; Newman, Kristine; Almost, Joan; Nguyen, Ha; Carryer, Jennifer; Jedras, Dawn

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate the usability of mobile information terminals, such as personal digital assistants (PDAs) or Tablet personal computers, to improve access to information resources for nurses and to explore the relationship between PDA or Tablet-supported information resources and outcomes. The authors evaluated an initiative of the Nursing Secretariat, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, which provided nurses with PDAs and Tablet PCs, to enable Internet access to information resources. Nurses had access to drug and medical reference information, best practice guidelines (BPGs), and to abstracts of recent research studies. The authors took place over a 12-month period. Diffusion of Innovation theory and the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) model guided the selection of variables for study. A longitudinal design involving questionnaires was used to evaluate the impact of the mobile technologies on barriers to research utilization, perceived quality of care, and on nurses' job satisfaction. The setting was 29 acute care, long-term care, home care, and correctional organizations in Ontario, Canada. The sample consisted of 488 frontline-nurses. Nurses most frequently consulted drug and medical reference information, Google, and Nursing PLUS. Overall, nurses were most satisfied with the Registered Nurses Association of Ontario (RNAO) BPGs and rated the RNAO BPGs as the easiest resource to use. Among the PDA and Tablet users, there was a significant improvement in research awareness/values, and in communication of research. There was also, for the PDA users only, a significant improvement over time in perceived quality of care and job satisfaction, but primarily in long-term care settings. It is feasible to provide nurses with access to evidence-based practice resources via mobile information technologies to reduce the barriers to research utilization.

  17. Effects of Two Linguistically Proximal Varieties on the Spectral and Coarticulatory Properties of Fricatives: Evidence from Athenian Greek and Cypriot Greek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalambos Themistocleous

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have explored the acoustic structure of fricatives, yet there has been very little acoustic research on the effects of dialects on the production of fricatives. This article investigates the effects of two linguistically proximal Modern Greek dialects, Athenian Greek and Cypriot Greek on the temporal, spectral, and coarticulatory properties of fricatives and aims to determine the acoustic properties that convey information about these two dialects. Productions of voiced and voiceless labiodental, dental, alveolar, palatal, and velar fricatives were extracted from a speaking task from typically speaking female adult speakers (25 Cypriot Greek and 20 Athenian Greek speakers. Measures were made of spectral properties, using a spectral moments analysis. The formants of the following vowel were measured and second degree polynomials of the formant contours were calculated. The findings showed that Athenian Greek and Cypriot Greek fricatives differ in all spectral properties across all places of articulation. Also, the co-articulatory effects of fricatives on following vowel were different depending on the dialect. Duration, spectral moments, and the starting frequencies of F1, F2, F3, and F4 contributed the most to the classification of dialect. These findings provide a solid evidence base for the manifestation of dialectal information in the acoustic structure of fricatives.

  18. Effects of Two Linguistically Proximal Varieties on the Spectral and Coarticulatory Properties of Fricatives: Evidence from Athenian Greek and Cypriot Greek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Themistocleous, Charalambos

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have explored the acoustic structure of fricatives, yet there has been very little acoustic research on the effects of dialects on the production of fricatives. This article investigates the effects of two linguistically proximal Modern Greek dialects, Athenian Greek and Cypriot Greek on the temporal, spectral, and coarticulatory properties of fricatives and aims to determine the acoustic properties that convey information about these two dialects. Productions of voiced and voiceless labiodental, dental, alveolar, palatal, and velar fricatives were extracted from a speaking task from typically speaking female adult speakers (25 Cypriot Greek and 20 Athenian Greek speakers). Measures were made of spectral properties, using a spectral moments analysis. The formants of the following vowel were measured and second degree polynomials of the formant contours were calculated. The findings showed that Athenian Greek and Cypriot Greek fricatives differ in all spectral properties across all places of articulation. Also, the co-articulatory effects of fricatives on following vowel were different depending on the dialect. Duration, spectral moments, and the starting frequencies of F 1, F 2, F 3, and F 4 contributed the most to the classification of dialect. These findings provide a solid evidence base for the manifestation of dialectal information in the acoustic structure of fricatives.

  19. Effects of Two Linguistically Proximal Varieties on the Spectral and Coarticulatory Properties of Fricatives: Evidence from Athenian Greek and Cypriot Greek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Themistocleous, Charalambos

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have explored the acoustic structure of fricatives, yet there has been very little acoustic research on the effects of dialects on the production of fricatives. This article investigates the effects of two linguistically proximal Modern Greek dialects, Athenian Greek and Cypriot Greek on the temporal, spectral, and coarticulatory properties of fricatives and aims to determine the acoustic properties that convey information about these two dialects. Productions of voiced and voiceless labiodental, dental, alveolar, palatal, and velar fricatives were extracted from a speaking task from typically speaking female adult speakers (25 Cypriot Greek and 20 Athenian Greek speakers). Measures were made of spectral properties, using a spectral moments analysis. The formants of the following vowel were measured and second degree polynomials of the formant contours were calculated. The findings showed that Athenian Greek and Cypriot Greek fricatives differ in all spectral properties across all places of articulation. Also, the co-articulatory effects of fricatives on following vowel were different depending on the dialect. Duration, spectral moments, and the starting frequencies of F1, F2, F3, and F4 contributed the most to the classification of dialect. These findings provide a solid evidence base for the manifestation of dialectal information in the acoustic structure of fricatives. PMID:29180974

  20. Preliminary Results to Support Evidence of Thermospheric Contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, A.; Swinerd, G.; Lewis, H.

    Atmospheric density has an important influence in predicting the positions of satellites in low Earth orbit. For long-term predictions of satellite ephemerides, any density trend in the thermosphere would be a valuable input, not only to satellite operators, but also to studies of the future low Earth orbit environment in terms of space debris. A secular thermospheric density trend has not yet been definitively proven but predictions by Ramesh and Roble [1], along with evidence by Emmert et al. [2], strongly suggest the existence of such a phenomenon. With the ultimate goal of deriving a long-term empirical model of thermospheric cooling and contraction, the primary focus of this paper is to present preliminary results obtained to support the existing evidence for such a thermospheric contraction. There are many ways of determining atmospheric density, but inferring thermospheric density from satellite drag data is a relatively cost-effective way of gathering in-situ measurements. Given an initial satellite orbit, one approach is to use an orbital propagator to predict the satellite's state at some time ahead and then to compare that state with Two-Line Element (TLE) data at the same epoch. The difference between the semi-major axis of the satellite from the initial orbit and that after the orbit propagation is then integrated to obtain an estimate of global average density. This is the approach adopted in our new work, using a bespoke, orbital propagator that includes perturbations due to atmospheric drag, gravitational anomalies, luni-solar gravity effects and solar radiation pressure. The methods used to derive precise estimates of the ballistic coefficient of each satellite for use in the propagator are outlined, as this information is not contained explicitly in the TLE sets. In validation of the orbital propagator used in this study, Saunders et al. [3] ran simulations to predict satellite re-entry dates with satisfactory results. Now, historical satellite

  1. American Dental Association's Resources to Support Evidence-Based Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravamudhan, K; Frantsve-Hawley, Julie

    2009-09-01

    Time and access have often been cited as barriers to implementing Evidence-Based Dentistry (EBD). This paper describes a new web-based resource launched by the American Dental Association to enable practitioners to incorporate evidence into treatment planning. The website offers a database of systematic reviews, critical summaries of systematic reviews, evidence-based clinical recommendations and links to external resources to enable practitioners to access evidence at the point of care. In addition the site offers an online space for clinicians to suggest clinical scenarios where evidence is lacking. This could potentially be a source of topics to drive future research. With the explosion in the use of information technology within a dental office, this web-site will serve as the one-stop resource for credible scientific information for practitioners.

  2. Human factors of the confirmation bias in intelligence analysis: decision support from graphical evidence landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Maia B; Smallman, Harvey S

    2008-10-01

    This study addresses the human factors challenge of designing and validating decision support to promote less biased intelligence analysis. The confirmation bias can compromise objectivity in ambiguous medical and military decision making through neglect of conflicting evidence and judgments not reflective of the entire evidence spectrum. Previous debiasing approaches have had mixed success and have tended to place additional demands on users' decision making. Two new debiasing interventions that help analysts picture the full spectrum of evidence, the relation of evidence to a hypothesis, and other analysts' evidence assessments were manipulated in a repeated-measures design: (a) an integrated graphical evidence layout, compared with a text baseline; and (b) evidence tagged with other analysts' assessments, compared with participants' own assessments. Twenty-seven naval trainee analysts and reservists assessed, selected, and prioritized evidence in analysis vignettes carefully constructed to have balanced supporting and conflicting evidence sets. Bias was measured for all three evidence analysis steps. A bias to select a skewed distribution of confirming evidence occurred across conditions. However, graphical evidence layout, but not other analysts' assessments, significantly reduced this selection bias, resulting in more balanced evidence selection. Participants systematically prioritized the most supportive evidence as most important. Domain experts exhibited confirmation bias in a realistic intelligence analysis task and apparently conflated evidence supportiveness with importance. Graphical evidence layout promoted more balanced and less biased evidence selection. Results have application to real-world decision making, implications for basic decision theory, and lessons for how shrewd visualization can help reduce bias.

  3. New Evidence: Data Documenting Parental Support for Earlier Sexuality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Elissa M.; Moore, Michele J.; Johnson, Tammie; Forrest, Jamie; Jordan, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies document support for sexuality education to be taught in high school, and often, in middle school. However, little research has been conducted addressing support for sexuality education in elementary schools. Methods: As part of the state Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Survey administration, the…

  4. IDRC evidence and innovation supports India's adaptation to climate ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-02-23

    Feb 23, 2018 ... Starting this year, IDRC will support the development of a new university program in water science and policy, and the Centre will provide new fellowships to emerging women leaders. This support is intended to drive innovations that will help vulnerable people and communities adapt to climate change.

  5. English linguistic purism: history, development, criticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grishechko Ovsanna Savvichna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic purism as an area of linguistic analysis describes the practices of identification and acknowledgement of a certain language variety as more structurally advanced as compared to its other varieties. Linguistic protection is associated with preservation of some abstract, classical, conservative linguistic ideal and performs the regulatory function, above all. The puristic approach to the development of the English language has been subjected to heated debate for several centuries and is reflected in both scientific research and literary texts. Supporters of purification of the English language champion the idea of protection of “pure language”. The idea, however, is actively criticized by opponents.

  6. Assessing linguistic and cultural equivalency of two Chinese-version sexual health instruments among Chinese immigrant youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne; Han, Chong-Suk

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the linguistic and cultural equivalency of two Chinese-version instruments measuring sexual knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among 10 bilingual and 2 monolingual Chinese immigrant youth aged 13-19 years. We used a rigorous design to translate, back-translate, and pilot test the instruments. Kappa coefficient, percentage agreement, and qualitative feedback from participants were used to examine reliability and validity of the instruments. Telephone interviews revealed that answer discrepancies in different language versions were due to external factors rather than lack of linguistic and cultural equivalency. This study offers preliminary evidence supporting the cultural and linguistic equivalence of two Chinese-version sexual scales.

  7. Publication Voting Power (PVP): method of finding Evidence-Support

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It depends on putting the publications in a hierarchal order and assigning a power (Publication Voting Power) to each. As much publications as possible should be sought to make the choice more truthful. Keywords: Evidence based medicine, surgical procedures. Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences Vol. 2 (4) 2007: pp. 241- ...

  8. Vaccines and autism: evidence does not support a causal association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStefano, F

    2007-12-01

    A suggested association between certain childhood vaccines and autism has been one of the most contentious vaccine safety controversies in recent years. Despite compelling scientific evidence against a causal association, many parents and parent advocacy groups continue to suspect that vaccines, particularly measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs), can cause autism.

  9. Applied Linguistics: The Challenge of Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Language has featured prominently in contemporary social theory, but the relevance of this fact to the concerns of Applied Linguistics, with its necessary orientation to practical issues of language in context, represents an ongoing challenge. This article supports the need for a greater engagement with theory in Applied Linguistics. It considers…

  10. An Ever Closer Union . . . of Linguistic Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomozeiu, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The analysis carried out between October 2014 and February 2015 by a team of researchers from the University of Westminster with support from colleagues from across the EU identified the linguistic communities across the 28 EU member states as recognized (or not) by the country's legislation and the linguistic rights of these communities in…

  11. Linguistic Opportunism and English in Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciscel, Matthew H.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the role of English in Moldova. Building on Phillipson's concept of linguistic imperialism and Kachru's three concentric circles of world Englishes, proposes a weak form of linguistic dominance based on the notion of opportunism. The model is supported by data from a recent study of language attitudes and language use in Moldova. Data…

  12. Evidence for the Effectiveness of the Early Literacy Support Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Peter J.; Goetz, Kristina; Snowling, Margaret J.; Hulme, Charles; Gibbs, Simon; Smith, Glynnis

    2006-01-01

    Background: It is widely recognized that effective interventions for poor reading involve training in phoneme awareness and letter-sound knowledge, linked in the context of reading books. From the applied perspective, it is important to gather data on the effectiveness of different forms of implementation of literacy support within this framework.…

  13. An empowerment framework for nursing leadership development: supporting evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macphee, Maura; Skelton-Green, Judith; Bouthillette, France; Suryaprakash, Nitya

    2012-01-01

    This article is a report on a descriptive study of nurse leaders' perspectives of the outcomes of a formal leadership programme. Effective nurse leaders are necessary to address complex issues associated with healthcare systems reforms. Little is known about the types of leadership development programmes that most effectively prepare nurse leaders for healthcare challenges. When nurse leaders use structural and psychological empowerment strategies, the results are safer work environments and better nurse outcomes. The leadership development programme associated with this study is based on a unifying theoretical empowerment framework to empower nurse leaders and enable them to empower others. Twenty seven front-line and mid-level nurse leaders with variable years of experience were interviewed for 1 year after participating in a formal leadership development programme. Data were gathered in 2008-2009 from four programme cohorts. Four researchers independently developed code categories and themes using qualitative content analysis. Evidence of leadership development programme empowerment included nurse leader reports of increased self-confidence with respect to carrying out their roles and responsibilities; positive changes in their leadership styles; and perceptions of staff recognition of positive stylistic changes. Regardless of years of experience, mid-level leaders had a broader appreciation of practice environment issues than front-line leaders. Time for reflection was valuable to all participants, and front-line leaders, in particular, appreciated the time to discuss nurse-specific issues with their colleagues. This study provides evidence that a theoretical empowerment framework and strategies can empower nurse leaders, potentially resulting in staff empowerment. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. American Sign Language Syntactic and Narrative Comprehension in Skilled and Less Skilled Readers: Bilingual and Bimodal Evidence for the Linguistic Basis of Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Charlene; Mayberry, Rachel I.

    2008-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that syntactic and narrative comprehension of a natural sign language can serve as the linguistic basis for skilled reading. Thirty-one adults who were deaf from birth and used American Sign Language (ASL) were classified as skilled or less skilled readers using an eighth-grade criterion. Proficiency with ASL syntax, and…

  15. The Influence of Diglossia in Arabic on Narrative Ability: Evidence from Analysis of the Linguistic and Narrative Structure of Discourse among Pre-School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leikin, Mark; Ibrahim, Raphiq; Eghbaria, Hazar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the influence of diglossia on linguistic and narrative structures in Arab kindergarten children by testing performance in production and comprehension. The 30 children who participated in our study were asked to retell one narrative text that was read aloud to them in Literary Arabic and another narrative…

  16. Putting evidence into nursing practice: four traditional practices not supported by the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makic, Mary Beth Flynn; Martin, Sarah A; Burns, Suzanne; Philbrick, Dinah; Rauen, Carol

    2013-04-01

    Evidence-based nursing practice is essential to the delivery of high-quality care that optimizes patients' outcomes. Studies continue to show improved outcomes when best evidence is used in the delivery of patient care. Despite awareness of the importance of practicing by using best evidence, achieving and sustaining evidence-based practice within practice environments can be challenging, and research suggests that integration of evidence-based practice into daily clinical practice remains inconsistent. This article addresses 4 practice issues that, first, are within the realm of nursing and if changed might improve care of patients and, second, are areas in which the tradition and the evidence do not agree and practice continues to follow tradition. The topics addressed are (1) noninvasive measurement of blood pressure in children, (2) oxygen administration for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, (3) intravenous catheter size and blood administration, and (4) infection control practices to prevent infections. The related beliefs, current evidence, and recommendations for practice related to each topic are described.

  17. Health Awareness Days: Sufficient Evidence to Support the Craze?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Leah A.

    2015-01-01

    Health awareness initiatives are a ubiquitous intervention strategy. Nearly 200 health awareness days, weeks, and months are on the US National Health Observances calendar, and more than 145 awareness day bills have been introduced in Congress since 2005. We contend that health awareness days are not held to appropriate scrutiny given the scale at which they have been embraced and are misaligned with research on the social determinants of health and the tenets of ecological models of health promotion. We examined health awareness days from a critical public health perspective and offer empirically supported recommendations to advance the intervention strategy. If left unchecked, health awareness days may do little more than reinforce ideologies of individual responsibility and the false notion that adverse health outcomes are simply the product of misinformed behaviors. PMID:25879148

  18. Etymology and Modern Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkiel, Yakov

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the estrangement between etymology and modern linguistics, and concludes that a reconciliation between spatio-temporal linguistics and etymology must occur, because without it, both disciplines are doomed to inanition. (Author/AM)

  19. Supporting the education evidence portal via text mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananiadou, Sophia; Thompson, Paul; Thomas, James; Mu, Tingting; Oliver, Sandy; Rickinson, Mark; Sasaki, Yutaka; Weissenbacher, Davy; McNaught, John

    2010-01-01

    The UK Education Evidence Portal (eep) provides a single, searchable, point of access to the contents of the websites of 33 organizations relating to education, with the aim of revolutionizing work practices for the education community. Use of the portal alleviates the need to spend time searching multiple resources to find relevant information. However, the combined content of the websites of interest is still very large (over 500 000 documents and growing). This means that searches using the portal can produce very large numbers of hits. As users often have limited time, they would benefit from enhanced methods of performing searches and viewing results, allowing them to drill down to information of interest more efficiently, without having to sift through potentially long lists of irrelevant documents. The Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC)-funded ASSIST project has produced a prototype web interface to demonstrate the applicability of integrating a number of text-mining tools and methods into the eep, to facilitate an enhanced searching, browsing and document-viewing experience. New features include automatic classification of documents according to a taxonomy, automatic clustering of search results according to similar document content, and automatic identification and highlighting of key terms within documents. PMID:20643679

  20. Multinational trials-recommendations on the translations required, approaches to using the same language in different countries, and the approaches to support pooling the data: the ISPOR Patient-Reported Outcomes Translation and Linguistic Validation Good Research Practices Task Force report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Diane; Eremenco, Sonya; Mear, Isabelle; Martin, Mona; Houchin, Caroline; Gawlicki, Mary; Hareendran, Asha; Wiklund, Ingela; Chong, Lee Yee; von Maltzahn, Robyn; Cohen, Lawrence; Molsen, Elizabeth

    2009-06-01

    With the internationalization of clinical trial programs, there is an increased need to translate and culturally adapt patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures. Although guidelines for good practices in translation and linguistic validation are available, the ISPOR Patient-Reported Outcomes Translation and Linguistic Validation Task Force identified a number of areas where they felt that further discussion around methods and best practices would be beneficial. The areas identified by the team were as follows: 1) the selection of the languages required for multinational trials; 2) the approaches suggested when the same language is required across two or more countries; and 3) the assessment of measurement equivalence to support the aggregation of data from different countries. The task force addressed these three areas, reviewed the available literature, and had multiple discussions to develop this report. Decision aid tools have also been developed and presented for the selection of languages and the approaches suggested for the use of the same language in different countries. It is hoped that this report and the decision tools proposed will assist those involved with multinational trials to 1) decide on the translations required for each country; 2) choose the approach to use when the same language is spoken in more than one country; and 3) choose methods to gather evidence to support the pooling of data collected using different language versions of the same tool.

  1. Approaches to Contrastive Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmanova, Olga; And Others

    Linguistics as a science has been concerned with comparison ever since its inception, the number and variety of approaches increasing steadily in the course of its development. Interest in linguistic comparison extends into the field of foreign language teaching. Linguists have attempted to solve the problem of methodology in contrastive…

  2. Linguistic and Paralinguistic Interchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Philip

    Current linguistic theory rigidly compartmentalizes the "cognitive," linguistic aspects of human communication and the presumed "emotive," paralinguistic elements that occur in both human and nonhuman communication. The segmental phonetic units of human speech, according to this view, are supposed to convey linguistically relevant information,…

  3. Statistical and linguistic features of DNA sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlin, S.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Mantegna, R. N.; Peng, C. K.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.

    1995-01-01

    We present evidence supporting the idea that the DNA sequence in genes containing noncoding regions is correlated, and that the correlation is remarkably long range--indeed, base pairs thousands of base pairs distant are correlated. We do not find such a long-range correlation in the coding regions of the gene. We resolve the problem of the "non-stationary" feature of the sequence of base pairs by applying a new algorithm called Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA). We address the claim of Voss that there is no difference in the statistical properties of coding and noncoding regions of DNA by systematically applying the DFA algorithm, as well as standard FFT analysis, to all eukaryotic DNA sequences (33 301 coding and 29 453 noncoding) in the entire GenBank database. We describe a simple model to account for the presence of long-range power-law correlations which is based upon a generalization of the classic Levy walk. Finally, we describe briefly some recent work showing that the noncoding sequences have certain statistical features in common with natural languages. Specifically, we adapt to DNA the Zipf approach to analyzing linguistic texts, and the Shannon approach to quantifying the "redundancy" of a linguistic text in terms of a measurable entropy function. We suggest that noncoding regions in plants and invertebrates may display a smaller entropy and larger redundancy than coding regions, further supporting the possibility that noncoding regions of DNA may carry biological information.

  4. Analysis of collaborative communication for linguistic cues of cognitive load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, M Asif; Chen, Fang; Marcus, Nadine

    2012-08-01

    Analyses of novel linguistic and grammatical features, extracted from transcribed speech of people working in a collaborative environment, were performed for cognitive load measurement Prior studies have attempted to assess users' cognitive load with several measures, but most of them are intrusive and disrupt normal task flow. An effective measurement of people's cognitive load can help improve their performance by deploying appropriate output and support strategies accordingly. The authors studied 33 members of bushfire management teams working collaboratively in computerized incident control rooms and involved in complex bushfire management tasks. The participants' communication was analyzed for some novel linguistic features as potential indices of cognitive load, which included sentence length, use of agreement and disagreement phrases, and use of personal pronouns, including both singular and plural pronoun types. Results showed users' different linguistic and grammatical patterns with various cognitive load levels. Specifically, with high load, people spoke more and used longer sentences, used more words that indicated disagreement with other team members, and exhibited increased use of plural personal pronouns and decreased use of singular pronouns. The article provides encouraging evidence for the use of linguistic and grammatical analysis for measuring users' cognitive load and proposes some novel features as cognitive load indices. The proposed approach may be applied to many data-intense and safety-critical task scenarios, such as emergency management departments, for example, bushfire or traffic incident management centers; air traffic control rooms; and call centers, where speech is used as part of everyday tasks.

  5. Query-oriented evidence extraction to support evidence-based medicine practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Abeed; Mollá, Diego; Paris, Cecile

    2016-02-01

    Evidence-based medicine practice requires medical practitioners to rely on the best available evidence, in addition to their expertise, when making clinical decisions. The medical domain boasts a large amount of published medical research data, indexed in various medical databases such as MEDLINE. As the size of this data grows, practitioners increasingly face the problem of information overload, and past research has established the time-associated obstacles faced by evidence-based medicine practitioners. In this paper, we focus on the problem of automatic text summarisation to help practitioners quickly find query-focused information from relevant documents. We utilise an annotated corpus that is specialised for the task of evidence-based summarisation of text. In contrast to past summarisation approaches, which mostly rely on surface level features to identify salient pieces of texts that form the summaries, our approach focuses on the use of corpus-based statistics, and domain-specific lexical knowledge for the identification of summary contents. We also apply a target-sentence-specific summarisation technique that reduces the problem of underfitting that persists in generic summarisation models. In automatic evaluations run over a large number of annotated summaries, our extractive summarisation technique statistically outperforms various baseline and benchmark summarisation models with a percentile rank of 96.8%. A manual evaluation shows that our extractive summarisation approach is capable of selecting content with high recall and precision, and may thus be used to generate bottom-line answers to practitioners' queries. Our research shows that the incorporation of specialised data and domain-specific knowledge can significantly improve text summarisation performance in the medical domain. Due to the vast amounts of medical text available, and the high growth of this form of data, we suspect that such summarisation techniques will address the time

  6. One Label or Two? Linguistic Influences on the Similarity Judgment of Objects between English and Japanese Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Takahiko; Ishii, Keiko; Miwa, Koji; Rashid, Marghalara; Lee, Hajin; Mahdi, Rania

    2017-01-01

    Recent findings have re-examined the linguistic influence on cognition and perception, while identifying evidence that supports the Whorfian hypothesis. We examine how English and Japanese speakers perceive similarity of pairs of objects, by using two sets of stimuli: one in which two distinct linguistic categories apply to respective object images in English, but only one linguistic category applies in Japanese; and another in which two distinct linguistic categories apply to respective object images in Japanese, but only one applies in English. We conducted four studies and tested different groups of participants in each of them. In Study 1, we asked participants to name the two objects before engaging in the similarity judgment task. Here, we expected a strong linguistic effect. In Study 2, we asked participants to engage in the same task without naming, where we assumed that the condition is close enough to our daily visual information processing where language is not necessarily prompted. We further explored whether the language still influences the similarity perception by asking participants to engage in the same task basing on the visual similarity (Study 3) and the functional similarity (Study 4). The results overall indicated that English and Japanese speakers perceived the two objects to be more similar when they were in the same linguistic categories than when they were in different linguistic categories in their respective languages. Implications for research testing the Whorfian hypothesis and the requirement for methodological development beyond behavioral measures are discussed.

  7. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 14: Organising and using policy dialogues to support evidence-informed policymaking

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. Policy dialogues allow research evidence to be considered together with the views, experiences and tacit knowledge of those who will be involved in, or affected by, future decisions about a high-priority issue. Increasing interest in the use of policy dialogues has been fuelled by a number of factors: 1. The recogni...

  8. Consensus Recommendations for Systematic Evaluation of Drug-Drug Interaction Evidence for Clinical Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheife, Richard T.; Hines, Lisa E.; Boyce, Richard D.; Chung, Sophie P.; Momper, Jeremiah; Sommer, Christine D.; Abernethy, Darrell R.; Horn, John; Sklar, Stephen J.; Wong, Samantha K.; Jones, Gretchen; Brown, Mary; Grizzle, Amy J.; Comes, Susan; Wilkins, Tricia Lee; Borst, Clarissa; Wittie, Michael A.; Rich, Alissa; Malone, Daniel C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Healthcare organizations, compendia, and drug knowledgebase vendors use varying methods to evaluate and synthesize evidence on drug-drug interactions (DDIs). This situation has a negative effect on electronic prescribing and medication information systems that warn clinicians of potentially harmful medication combinations. Objective To provide recommendations for systematic evaluation of evidence from the scientific literature, drug product labeling, and regulatory documents with respect to DDIs for clinical decision support. Methods A conference series was conducted to develop a structured process to improve the quality of DDI alerting systems. Three expert workgroups were assembled to address the goals of the conference. The Evidence Workgroup consisted of 15 individuals with expertise in pharmacology, drug information, biomedical informatics, and clinical decision support. Workgroup members met via webinar from January 2013 to February 2014. Two in-person meetings were conducted in May and September 2013 to reach consensus on recommendations. Results We developed expert-consensus answers to three key questions: 1) What is the best approach to evaluate DDI evidence?; 2) What evidence is required for a DDI to be applicable to an entire class of drugs?; and 3) How should a structured evaluation process be vetted and validated? Conclusion Evidence-based decision support for DDIs requires consistent application of transparent and systematic methods to evaluate the evidence. Drug information systems that implement these recommendations should be able to provide higher quality information about DDIs in drug compendia and clinical decision support tools. PMID:25556085

  9. Linguistic Structure Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Noah A

    2011-01-01

    A major part of natural language processing now depends on the use of text data to build linguistic analyzers. We consider statistical, computational approaches to modeling linguistic structure. We seek to unify across many approaches and many kinds of linguistic structures. Assuming a basic understanding of natural language processing and/or machine learning, we seek to bridge the gap between the two fields. Approaches to decoding (i.e., carrying out linguistic structure prediction) and supervised and unsupervised learning of models that predict discrete structures as outputs are the focus. W

  10. Proposal of a holistic model to support local-level evidence-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahtahmasebi, Said; Villa, Luis; Nielsen, Helen; Graham-Smith, Hilary

    2010-08-03

    In response to a central drive for evidence-based practice, there have been many research support schemes, setups, and other practices concentrating on facilitating access to external research, such as the Centre for Evidence Based Healthcare Aotearoa, the Cochrane Collaboration, and the York Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Very little attention has been paid to supporting internal research in terms of local evidence and internal research capabilities. The whole evidence-based practice movement has alienated internal decision makers and, thus, very little progress has been made in the context of evidence informing local policy formation. Health and social policies are made centrally based on dubious claims and often evidence is sought after implementation. For example, on record, most health care practitioners appear to agree with the causal link between depression and mental illness (sometimes qualified with other social factors) with suicide; off the record, even some psychiatrists doubt that such a link is applicable to the population as a whole. Therefore, be it through misplaced loyalty or a lack of support for internal researchers/decision makers, local evidence informing local decision making may have been ignored in favour of external evidence. In this paper, we present a practical holistic model to support local evidence-based decision making. This approach is more relevant in light of a new approach to primary health care of "local knowledge" complementing external evidence. One possible outcome would be to network with other regional programmes around the world to share information and identify "best" practices, such as the "Stop Youth Suicide Campaign" (www.stopyouthsuicide.com).

  11. Proposal of a Holistic Model to Support Local-Level Evidence-Based Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Shahtahmasebi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to a central drive for evidence-based practice, there have been many research support schemes, setups, and other practices concentrating on facilitating access to external research, such as the Centre for Evidence Based Healthcare Aotearoa, the Cochrane Collaboration, and the York Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Very little attention has been paid to supporting internal research in terms of local evidence and internal research capabilities. The whole evidence-based practice movement has alienated internal decision makers and, thus, very little progress has been made in the context of evidence informing local policy formation. Health and social policies are made centrally based on dubious claims and often evidence is sought after implementation. For example, on record, most health care practitioners appear to agree with the causal link between depression and mental illness (sometimes qualified with other social factors with suicide; off the record, even some psychiatrists doubt that such a link is applicable to the population as a whole. Therefore, be it through misplaced loyalty or a lack of support for internal researchers/decision makers, local evidence informing local decision making may have been ignored in favour of external evidence. In this paper, we present a practical holistic model to support local evidence-based decision making. This approach is more relevant in light of a new approach to primary health care of “local knowledge” complementing external evidence. One possible outcome would be to network with other regional programmes around the world to share information and identify “best” practices, such as the “Stop Youth Suicide Campaign”(www.stopyouthsuicide.com.

  12. Evaluating Evidence-Based Nutrition Support Practice Among Healthcare Professionals With and Without the Certified Nutrition Support Clinician Credential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Rebecca; Hise, Mary; Marcus, Andrea Fleisch; Harvey-Banchik, Lillian; Matarese, Laura E

    2016-01-01

    The National Board of Nutrition Support Certification credentials healthcare professionals and certifies that holders of the Certified Nutrition Support Clinician (CNSC) credential have specialized knowledge of safe and effective nutrition support therapy. The purpose of this pilot study was to survey healthcare professionals affiliated with the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) regarding their approaches to nutrition support practice using a complex patient case scenario in accordance with established clinical guidelines. An electronic survey was emailed to individuals affiliated with A.S.P.E.N. Eight multiple-choice knowledge questions addressed evidence-based nutrition support practice issues for a patient with progressing pancreatitis. Demographic and clinical characteristic data were collected. Of 48,093 email invitations sent, 4455 (9.1%) responded and met inclusion criteria. Most respondents were dietitians (70.8%) and in nutrition support practice for 10.3 years, and 29.3% held the CNSC credential. Respondents with the CNSC credential answered 6.18 questions correctly compared with 4.56 for non-CNSC respondents (P case-based knowledge assessment of guideline recommendations for the nutrition support treatment of pancreatitis compared with those without a credential. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  13. Evidence-informed health policy 2 – Survey of organizations that support the use of research evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxman Andrew D

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous surveys of organizations that support the development of evidence-informed health policies have focused on organizations that produce clinical practice guidelines (CPGs or undertake health technology assessments (HTAs. Only rarely have surveys focused at least in part on units that directly support the use of research evidence in developing health policy on an international, national, and state or provincial level (i.e., government support units, or GSUs that are in some way successful or innovative or that support the use of research evidence in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. Methods We drew on many people and organizations around the world, including our project reference group, to generate a list of organizations to survey. We modified a questionnaire that had been developed originally by the Appraisal of Guidelines, Research and Evaluation in Europe (AGREE collaboration and adapted one version of the questionnaire for organizations producing CPGs and HTAs, and another for GSUs. We sent the questionnaire by email to 176 organizations and followed up periodically with non-responders by email and telephone. Results We received completed questionnaires from 152 (86% organizations. More than one-half of the organizations (and particularly HTA agencies reported that examples from other countries were helpful in establishing their organization. A higher proportion of GSUs than CPG- or HTA-producing organizations involved target users in the selection of topics or the services undertaken. Most organizations have few (five or fewer full-time equivalent (FTE staff. More than four-fifths of organizations reported providing panels with or using systematic reviews. GSUs tended to use a wide variety of explicit valuation processes for the research evidence, but none with the frequency that organizations producing CPGs, HTAs, or both prioritized evidence by its quality. Between one-half and two-thirds of organizations

  14. Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters

    OpenAIRE

    NOVÁKOVÁ, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The title of my bachelor work is ?Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters?. Forensic linguistics is young and not very known branch of applied linguistics. This bachelor work wants to introduce forensic linguistics and its method. The bachelor work has two parts ? theory and practice. The theoretical part informs about forensic linguistics in general. Its two basic aspects utilized in forensic science and respective methods. The practical part t...

  15. Twelve evidence-based principles for implementing self-management support in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battersby, Malcolm; Von Korff, Michael; Schaefer, Judith; Davis, Connie; Ludman, Evette; Greene, Sarah M; Parkerton, Melissa; Wagner, Edward H

    2010-12-01

    Recommendations to improve self-management support and health outcomes for people with chronic conditions in primary care settings are provided on the basis of expert opinion supported by evidence for practices and processes. Practices and processes that could improve self-management support in primary care were identified through a nominal group process. In a targeted search strategy, reviews and meta-analyses were then identifed using terms from a wide range of chronic conditions and behavioral risk factors in combination with Self-Care, Self-Management, and Primary Care. On the basis of these reviews, evidence-based principles for self-management support were developed. The evidence is organized within the framework of the Chronic Care Model. Evidence-based principles in 12 areas were associated with improved patient self-management and/or health outcomes: (1) brief targeted assessment, (2) evidence-based information to guide shared decision-making, (3) use of a nonjudgmental approach, (4) collaborative priority and goal setting, (5) collaborative problem solving, (6) self-management support by diverse providers, (7) self-management interventions delivered by diverse formats, (8) patient self-efficacy, (9) active followup, (10) guideline-based case management for selected patients, (11) linkages to evidence-based community programs, and (12) multifaceted interventions. A framework is provided for implementing these principles in three phases of the primary care visit: enhanced previsit assessment, a focused clinical encounter, and expanded postvisit options. There is a growing evidence base for how self-management support for chronic conditions can be integrated into routine health care.

  16. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 14: Organising and using policy dialogues to support evidence-informed policymaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavis, John N; Boyko, Jennifer A; Oxman, Andrew D; Lewin, Simon; Fretheim, Atle

    2009-12-16

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. Policy dialogues allow research evidence to be considered together with the views, experiences and tacit knowledge of those who will be involved in, or affected by, future decisions about a high-priority issue. Increasing interest in the use of policy dialogues has been fuelled by a number of factors: 1. The recognition of the need for locally contextualised 'decision support' for policymakers and other stakeholders 2. The recognition that research evidence is only one input into the decision-making processes of policymakers and other stakeholders 3. The recognition that many stakeholders can add significant value to these processes, and 4. The recognition that many stakeholders can take action to address high-priority issues, and not just policymakers. In this article, we suggest questions to guide those organising and using policy dialogues to support evidence-informed policymaking. These are: 1. Does the dialogue address a high-priority issue? 2. Does the dialogue provide opportunities to discuss the problem, options to address the problem, and key implementation considerations? 3. Is the dialogue informed by a pre-circulated policy brief and by a discussion about the full range of factors that can influence the policymaking process? 4. Does the dialogue ensure fair representation among those who will be involved in, or affected by, future decisions related to the issue? 5. Does the dialogue engage a facilitator, follow a rule about not attributing comments to individuals, and not aim for consensus? 6. Are outputs produced and follow-up activities undertaken to support action?

  17. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP 14: Organising and using policy dialogues to support evidence-informed policymaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fretheim Atle

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. Policy dialogues allow research evidence to be considered together with the views, experiences and tacit knowledge of those who will be involved in, or affected by, future decisions about a high-priority issue. Increasing interest in the use of policy dialogues has been fuelled by a number of factors: 1. The recognition of the need for locally contextualised 'decision support' for policymakers and other stakeholders 2. The recognition that research evidence is only one input into the decision-making processes of policymakers and other stakeholders 3. The recognition that many stakeholders can add significant value to these processes, and 4. The recognition that many stakeholders can take action to address high-priority issues, and not just policymakers. In this article, we suggest questions to guide those organising and using policy dialogues to support evidence-informed policymaking. These are: 1. Does the dialogue address a high-priority issue? 2. Does the dialogue provide opportunities to discuss the problem, options to address the problem, and key implementation considerations? 3. Is the dialogue informed by a pre-circulated policy brief and by a discussion about the full range of factors that can influence the policymaking process? 4. Does the dialogue ensure fair representation among those who will be involved in, or affected by, future decisions related to the issue? 5. Does the dialogue engage a facilitator, follow a rule about not attributing comments to individuals, and not aim for consensus? 6. Are outputs produced and follow-up activities undertaken to support action?

  18. The Roles of Relative Linguistic Proficiency and Modality Switching in Language Switch Cost: Evidence from Chinese Visual Unimodal and Bimodal Bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Aitao; Wang, Lu; Guo, Yuyang; Zeng, Jiahong; Zheng, Dongping; Wang, Xiaolu; Shao, Yulan; Wang, Ruiming

    2017-09-01

    The current study investigated the mechanism of language switching in unbalanced visual unimodal bilinguals as well as balanced and unbalanced bimodal bilinguals during a picture naming task. All three groups exhibited significant switch costs across two languages, with symmetrical switch cost in balanced bimodal bilinguals and asymmetrical switch cost in unbalanced unimodal bilinguals and bimodal bilinguals. Moreover, the relative proficiency of the two languages but not their absolute proficiency had an effect on language switch cost. For the bimodal bilinguals the language switch cost also arose from modality switching. These findings suggest that the language switch cost might originate from multiple sources from both outside (e.g., modality switching) and inside (e.g., the relative proficiency of the two languages) the linguistic lexicon.

  19. Linguistic Capital Pays Dividends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linse, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Some 37 million U.S. residents speak Spanish at home and more than 55% of them say they also speak English. That creates what is called linguistic capital. Although linguistic capital is difficult to quantify, it is enormously valuable and is determined by an individual's language competency, and is too frequently wasted instead of being…

  20. What Are Applied Linguistics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, S. N.

    1993-01-01

    Several different conceptualizations of applied linguistics are evaluated, ranging from "applications of linguistic theory" to alternative models for studying language that extend and complement generative grammar as a theory of language. It is shown that they imply substantive differences in goals, methods, and priorities of language study. (30…

  1. Quantifying linguistic coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    task (Bahrami et al 2010, Fusaroli et al. 2012) we extend to linguistic coordination dynamical measures of recurrence employed in the analysis of sensorimotor coordination (such as heart-rate (Konvalinka et al 2011), postural sway (Shockley 2005) and eye-movements (Dale, Richardson and Kirkham 2012...... of linguistic coordination and their effects at a fine-degree....

  2. Research-informed evidence and support for road safety legislation: findings from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine Clegg; Debinski, Beata; Pollack, Keshia; Vernick, Jon; Bowman, Stephen; Samuels, Alicia; Gielen, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    Public opinion is influential in the policymaking process, making it important to understand the factors that influence popular support or opposition to public health policies. Researchers and policymakers tend to agree that scientific evidence can inform decision-making, but this influence has not been explored sufficiently, especially in the area of injury prevention. This paper considers the potential for the communication of evidence-based research and public health data to influence opinion about legislation that could reduce road-related injury. We conducted a nationally-representative online survey to assess public attitudes toward four road-safety laws; ignition interlock, school zone red-light cameras, restrictions on infotainment systems, and children's bicycle helmets. For each law, we assessed initial support and then provided a research-informed statistic on either the injury risk posed or the law's efficacy reducing risk and re-examined the law's support or opposition. The survey was completed by 2397 U.S. adults. Each law was initially supported by a majority of respondents, with greatest support for ignition interlock (74.4%) and children's bicycle helmets (74.8%). Exposure to research-informed statements increased legislative support for 20-30% of respondents. Paired analyses demonstrate significant increases toward supportive opinions when comparing responses to the initial and research-informed statements. The study demonstrates considerable public support for evidence-based road-related laws. Overall support was augmented by exposure to research data. Injury prevention practitioners can capitalize on this support in efforts to build support for legislation that would prevent injury. Researchers should be encouraged to expand their efforts to share research results with both the public and policymakers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Right Lateral Cerebellum Represents Linguistic Predictability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesage, Elise; Hansen, Peter C; Miall, R Chris

    2017-06-28

    Mounting evidence indicates that posterolateral portions of the cerebellum (right Crus I/II) contribute to language processing, but the nature of this role remains unclear. Based on a well-supported theory of cerebellar motor function, which ascribes to the cerebellum a role in short-term prediction through internal modeling, we hypothesize that right cerebellar Crus I/II supports prediction of upcoming sentence content. We tested this hypothesis using event-related fMRI in male and female human subjects by manipulating the predictability of written sentences. Our design controlled for motor planning and execution, as well as for linguistic features and working memory load; it also allowed separation of the prediction interval from the presentation of the final sentence item. In addition, three further fMRI tasks captured semantic, phonological, and orthographic processing to shed light on the nature of the information processed. As hypothesized, activity in right posterolateral cerebellum correlated with the predictability of the upcoming target word. This cerebellar region also responded to prediction error during the outcome of the trial. Further, this region was engaged in phonological, but not semantic or orthographic, processing. This is the first imaging study to demonstrate a right cerebellar contribution in language comprehension independently from motor, cognitive, and linguistic confounds. These results complement our work using other methodologies showing cerebellar engagement in linguistic prediction and suggest that internal modeling of phonological representations aids language production and comprehension.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The cerebellum is traditionally seen as a motor structure that allows for smooth movement by predicting upcoming signals. However, the cerebellum is also consistently implicated in nonmotor functions such as language and working memory. Using fMRI, we identify a cerebellar area that is active when words are predicted and when

  4. Empirically supported treatments in psychotherapy: towards an evidence-based or evidence-biased psychology in clinical settings?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Castelnuovo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The field of research and practice in psychotherapy has been deeply influenced by two different approaches: the empirically supported treatments (ESTs movement, linked with the evidence-based medicine (EBM perspective and the “Common Factors” approach, typically connected with the “Dodo Bird Verdict”. About the first perspective, since 1998 a list of ESTs has been established in mental health field. Criterions for “well-established” and “probably efficacious” treatments have arisen. The development of these kinds of paradigms was motivated by the emergence of a “managerial” approach and related systems for remuneration also for mental health providers and for insurance companies. In this article ESTs will be presented underlining also some possible criticisms. Finally complementary approaches, that could add different evidence in the psychotherapy research in comparison with traditional EBM approach, are presented.

  5. Are advertisements in dental journals supported by an appropriate evidence-base?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestnutt, Ivor G; Hardy, Robert

    2013-09-01

    Dental professionals are constantly exposed to advertisements in the dental literature. These promote products, either for use in the operatory or to recommend to patients. In an era of evidence-based practice, what references are provided to support claims made by the advertisers? This study aimed to determine if advertisements in four major dental journals, whose target audience is general dental practitioners, were supported by an appropriate evidence-base, readily accessible to readers. The 2010 printed volumes of the Australian Dental Journal, British Dental Journal, Dental Update and the Journal of the American Dental Association were hand searched to identify advertisements which made a claim of clinical benefit or superiority to competing products. Advertisements were categorized according to type of product being promoted and the availability, nature and number of any supporting references was recorded. Repeated advertisements were analyzed only once. A total of 390 advertisements were identified and 369 made a claim of benefit or superiority. When the 222 duplicates of the same advertisement were removed, 147 unique advertisements remained. Of these: 54 (37%) were advertisements related to dental devices for in-surgery use; 44 (30%) for dental materials, and 27 (18%) for dentifrices/medicaments. 113 (76.9%) advertisements offered no evidential support for claims made. Of the 34 advertisements that provided evidential support, only 20 provided a complete reference that could readily be sourced by an interested reader: 15 articles in refereed journals; 5 data on file; 3 in-house studies and combinations thereof. Four references were not accessible due to incomplete referencing. Two advertisements provided evidence that was not relevant to the product being advertised. The majority of advertisements in the dental literature do not provide an adequate evidence-base, readily available to readers, to support the claims being made. If evidence-based practice is

  6. Brief Report: An Independent Replication and Extension of Psychometric Evidence Supporting the Theory of Mind Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Kathryn J.; Coggins, Truman E.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents an independent replication and extension of psychometric evidence supporting the "Theory of Mind Inventory" ("ToMI"). Parents of 20 children with ASD (4; 1-6; 7 years; months) and 20 with typical development (3; 1-6; 5), rated their child's theory of mind abilities in everyday situations. Other parent report…

  7. 27 CFR 53.176 - Supporting evidence required in case of price readjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supporting evidence required in case of price readjustments. 53.176 Section 53.176 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FIREARMS MANUFACTURERS...

  8. Analysis of Evidence Supporting the Educational Leadership Constituent Council 2011 Educational Leadership Program Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Pamela D.; Anderson, Erin; Reynolds, Amy L.; Mawhinney, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    This document analysis provides a summary of the research from high-impact journals published between 2008 and 2013 with the explicit purpose of determining the extent to which the current empirical evidence supports the individual 2011 Educational Leadership Constituent Council Program Standards and their elements. We found that the standards are…

  9. Evidence Supporting an Early as Well as Late Heavy Bombardment on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Evidence supporting an intense early bombardment on the Moon in addition to the traditional Late Heavy Bombardment at approx. 4 BY ago include the distribution of N(50) Crater Retention Ages (CRAs) for candidate basins, a variety of absolute age scenarios for both a "young" and an "old" Nectaris age, and the decreasing contrasts in both topographic relief and Bouguer gravity with increasing CRA.

  10. Can School-Wide Positive Behavior Support Be an Evidence-Based Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Tyler L.; Young, K. Richard; Caldarella, Paul; Christensen, Lynnette

    2008-01-01

    Researchers invested in school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) have been attempting to answer an important question: Is SWPBS an evidence-based practice (EBP; e.g., Sugai & Horner, 2007)? Given the context of educational policy, this question appears to be reasonable, as its answer could significantly influence funding and adoption of SWPBS…

  11. Supporting Evidence-Based Practice in Schools with an Online Database of Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Joelle D.; Bowen, Natasha K.; Bowen, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    In spite of multidisciplinary recommendations to use evidence-based interventions in schools and a growing knowledge base of such practices, most schools are not using empirically supported interventions. On the basis of a careful analysis of barriers to the implementation of the best researched programs, an online, free, and publicly available…

  12. Evidence-informed health policy 4 - case descriptions of organizations that support the use of research evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavis, John N; Moynihan, Ray; Oxman, Andrew D; Paulsen, Elizabeth J

    2008-12-17

    Previous efforts to produce case descriptions have typically not focused on the organizations that produce research evidence and support its use. External evaluations of such organizations have typically not been analyzed as a group to identify the lessons that have emerged across multiple evaluations. Case descriptions offer the potential for capturing the views and experiences of many individuals who are familiar with an organization, including staff, advocates, and critics. We purposively sampled a subgroup of organizations from among those that participated in the second (interview) phase of the study and (once) from among other organizations with which we were familiar. We developed and pilot-tested a case description data collection protocol, and conducted site visits that included both interviews and documentary analyses. Themes were identified from among responses to semi-structured questions using a constant comparative method of analysis. We produced both a brief (one to two pages) written description and a video documentary for each case. We conducted 51 interviews as part of the eight site visits. Two organizational strengths were repeatedly cited by individuals participating in the site visits: use of an evidence-based approach (which was identified as being very time-consuming) and existence of a strong relationship between researchers and policymakers (which can be challenged by conflicts of interest). Two organizational weaknesses - a lack of resources and the presence of conflicts of interest - were repeatedly cited by individuals participating in the site visits. Participants offered two main suggestions for the World Health Organization (and other international organizations and networks): 1) mobilize one or more of government support, financial resources, and the participation of both policymakers and researchers; and 2) create knowledge-related global public goods. The findings from our case descriptions, the first of their kind, intersect in

  13. Evidence-informed health policy 4 – Case descriptions of organizations that support the use of research evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxman Andrew D

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous efforts to produce case descriptions have typically not focused on the organizations that produce research evidence and support its use. External evaluations of such organizations have typically not been analyzed as a group to identify the lessons that have emerged across multiple evaluations. Case descriptions offer the potential for capturing the views and experiences of many individuals who are familiar with an organization, including staff, advocates, and critics. Methods We purposively sampled a subgroup of organizations from among those that participated in the second (interview phase of the study and (once from among other organizations with which we were familiar. We developed and pilot-tested a case description data collection protocol, and conducted site visits that included both interviews and documentary analyses. Themes were identified from among responses to semi-structured questions using a constant comparative method of analysis. We produced both a brief (one to two pages written description and a video documentary for each case. Results We conducted 51 interviews as part of the eight site visits. Two organizational strengths were repeatedly cited by individuals participating in the site visits: use of an evidence-based approach (which was identified as being very time-consuming and existence of a strong relationship between researchers and policymakers (which can be challenged by conflicts of interest. Two organizational weaknesses – a lack of resources and the presence of conflicts of interest – were repeatedly cited by individuals participating in the site visits. Participants offered two main suggestions for the World Health Organization (and other international organizations and networks: 1 mobilize one or more of government support, financial resources, and the participation of both policymakers and researchers; and 2 create knowledge-related global public goods. Conclusion The findings from

  14. Evidence-informed health policy 4 – Case descriptions of organizations that support the use of research evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavis, John N; Moynihan, Ray; Oxman, Andrew D; Paulsen, Elizabeth J

    2008-01-01

    Background Previous efforts to produce case descriptions have typically not focused on the organizations that produce research evidence and support its use. External evaluations of such organizations have typically not been analyzed as a group to identify the lessons that have emerged across multiple evaluations. Case descriptions offer the potential for capturing the views and experiences of many individuals who are familiar with an organization, including staff, advocates, and critics. Methods We purposively sampled a subgroup of organizations from among those that participated in the second (interview) phase of the study and (once) from among other organizations with which we were familiar. We developed and pilot-tested a case description data collection protocol, and conducted site visits that included both interviews and documentary analyses. Themes were identified from among responses to semi-structured questions using a constant comparative method of analysis. We produced both a brief (one to two pages) written description and a video documentary for each case. Results We conducted 51 interviews as part of the eight site visits. Two organizational strengths were repeatedly cited by individuals participating in the site visits: use of an evidence-based approach (which was identified as being very time-consuming) and existence of a strong relationship between researchers and policymakers (which can be challenged by conflicts of interest). Two organizational weaknesses – a lack of resources and the presence of conflicts of interest – were repeatedly cited by individuals participating in the site visits. Participants offered two main suggestions for the World Health Organization (and other international organizations and networks): 1) mobilize one or more of government support, financial resources, and the participation of both policymakers and researchers; and 2) create knowledge-related global public goods. Conclusion The findings from our case

  15. What can speech production errors tell us about cross-linguistic processing in bilingual aphasia? Evidence from four English/Afrikaans bilingual individuals with aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Kendall

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study is contribute to clinical practice of bilinguals around the globe, as well as to add to our understanding of bilingual aphasia processing, by analysing confrontation naming data from four Afrikaans/English bilingual individuals with acquired aphasia due to a left hemisphere stroke.Methods: This is a case series analysis of four Afrikaans/English bilingual aphasic individuals following a left cerebrovascular accident. Error analysis of confrontation naming data in both languages was performed. Research questions were directed toward the between language differences in lexical retrieval abilities, types of errors produced and degree of cognate overlap.Results: Three of the four participants showed significantly higher naming accuracy in first acquired language (L1 relative to the second acquired language (L2 and the largest proportion of error type for those three participants in both L1 and L2 was omission. One of the four participants (linguistically balanced showed no between language accuracy difference. Regarding cognate overlap, there was a trend for higher accuracy for higher cognate words (compared to low.Discussion: This study showed that naming performance in these four individuals was reflective of their relative language proficiency and use patterns prior to their stroke. These findings are consistent with the hierarchical model, in normal bilingual speakers and with persons with bilingual aphasia.

  16. What can speech production errors tell us about cross-linguistic processing in bilingual aphasia? Evidence from four English/Afrikaans bilingual individuals with aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Diane; Edmonds, Lisa; Van Zyl, Anine; Odendaal, Inge; Stein, Molly; van der Merwe, Anita

    2015-06-26

    The aim of this study is contribute to clinical practice of bilinguals around the globe, as well as to add to our understanding of bilingual aphasia processing, by analysing confrontation naming data from four Afrikaans/English bilingual individuals with acquired aphasia due to a left hemisphere stroke. This is a case series analysis of four Afrikaans/English bilingual aphasic individuals following a left cerebrovascular accident. Error analysis of confrontation naming data in both languages was performed. Research questions were directed toward the between language differences in lexical retrieval abilities, types of errors produced and degree of cognate overlap. Three of the four participants showed significantly higher naming accuracy in first acquired language (L1) relative to the second acquired language (L2) and the largest proportion of error type for those three participants in both L1 and L2 was omission. One of the four participants (linguistically balanced) showed no between language accuracy difference. Regarding cognate overlap, there was a trend for higher accuracy for higher cognate words (compared to low). This study showed that naming performance in these four individuals was reflective of their relative language proficiency and use patterns prior to their stroke. These findings are consistent with the hierarchical model, in normal bilingual speakers and with persons with bilingual aphasia.

  17. Evidence for peer support in rehabilitation for individuals with acquired brain injury: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobma, Ruth; Nijland, Rinske H M; Ket, Johannes C F; Kwakkel, Gert

    2016-11-11

    To systematically review the literature on evidence for the application of peer support in the rehabilitation of persons with acquired brain injury. PubMed, Embase.com, Ebsco/Cinahl, Ebsco/PsycInfo and Wiley/Cochrane Library were searched from inception up to 19 June 2015. Randomized controlled trials were included describing participants with acquired brain injury in a rehabilitation setting and peer supporters who were specifically assigned to this role. Two independent reviewers assessed metho-dological quality using the PEDro scale. Cohen's kappa was calculated to assess agreement between the reviewers. Two randomized controlled trials could be included, both focussing on patients with traumatic brain injury. The randomized controlled trials included a total of 126 participants with traumatic brain injury and 62 care-givers and suggest a positive influence of peer support for traumatic brain injury survivors and their caregivers in areas of social support, coping, behavioural control and physical quality of life. The evidence for peer support is limited and restricted to traumatic brain injury. Randomized controlled trials on peer support for patients with other causes of acquired brain injury are lacking. It is important to gain more insight into the effects of peer support and the influence of patient and peer characteristics and the intervention protocol.

  18. Gelada vocal sequences follow Menzerath’s linguistic law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustison, Morgan L.; Semple, Stuart; Ferrer-i-Cancho, Ramon; Bergman, Thore J.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying universal principles underpinning diverse natural systems is a key goal of the life sciences. A powerful approach in addressing this goal has been to test whether patterns consistent with linguistic laws are found in nonhuman animals. Menzerath’s law is a linguistic law that states that, the larger the construct, the smaller the size of its constituents. Here, to our knowledge, we present the first evidence that Menzerath’s law holds in the vocal communication of a nonhuman species. We show that, in vocal sequences of wild male geladas (Theropithecus gelada), construct size (sequence size in number of calls) is negatively correlated with constituent size (duration of calls). Call duration does not vary significantly with position in the sequence, but call sequence composition does change with sequence size and most call types are abbreviated in larger sequences. We also find that intercall intervals follow the same relationship with sequence size as do calls. Finally, we provide formal mathematical support for the idea that Menzerath’s law reflects compression—the principle of minimizing the expected length of a code. Our findings suggest that a common principle underpins human and gelada vocal communication, highlighting the value of exploring the applicability of linguistic laws in vocal systems outside the realm of language. PMID:27091968

  19. Automatic indexing and retrieval of encounter-specific evidence for point-of-care support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Dympna M; Wilk, Szymon A; Michalowski, Wojtek J; Farion, Ken J

    2010-08-01

    Evidence-based medicine relies on repositories of empirical research evidence that can be used to support clinical decision making for improved patient care. However, retrieving evidence from such repositories at local sites presents many challenges. This paper describes a methodological framework for automatically indexing and retrieving empirical research evidence in the form of the systematic reviews and associated studies from The Cochrane Library, where retrieved documents are specific to a patient-physician encounter and thus can be used to support evidence-based decision making at the point of care. Such an encounter is defined by three pertinent groups of concepts - diagnosis, treatment, and patient, and the framework relies on these three groups to steer indexing and retrieval of reviews and associated studies. An evaluation of the indexing and retrieval components of the proposed framework was performed using documents relevant for the pediatric asthma domain. Precision and recall values for automatic indexing of systematic reviews and associated studies were 0.93 and 0.87, and 0.81 and 0.56, respectively. Moreover, precision and recall for the retrieval of relevant systematic reviews and associated studies were 0.89 and 0.81, and 0.92 and 0.89, respectively. With minor modifications, the proposed methodological framework can be customized for other evidence repositories. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Knowledge into action - supporting the implementation of evidence into practice in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Sandra; Herbert, Paul; Wales, Ann; Ritchie, Karen; Wilson, Suzanne; Dobie, Laura; Thain, Annette

    2017-03-01

    The knowledge into action model for NHS Scotland provides a framework for librarians and health care staff to support getting evidence into practice. Central to this model is the development of a network of knowledge brokers to facilitate identification, use, creation and sharing of knowledge. To translate the concepts described in the model into tangible activities with the intention of supporting better use of evidence in health care and subsequently improving patient outcomes. Four areas of activity were addressed by small working groups comprising knowledge services staff in local and national boards. The areas of activity were as follows: defining existing and required capabilities and developing learning opportunities for the knowledge broker network; establishing national search and summarising services; developing actionable knowledge tools; and supporting person-to-person knowledge sharing. This work presents the development of practical tools and support to translate a conceptual model for getting knowledge into action into a series of activities and outputs to support better use of evidence in health care and subsequently improved patient outcomes. © 2017 Health Libraries Group.

  1. A Systematic Review of the Economic Evidence for Home Support Interventions in Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Paul; Davies, Linda; Jasper, Rowan; Loynes, Niklas; Challis, David

    2017-09-01

    Recent evidence signals the need for effective forms of home support to people with dementia and their carers. The cost-effectiveness evidence of different approaches to support is scant. To appraise economic evidence on the cost-effectiveness of home support interventions for dementia to inform future evaluation. A systematic literature review of full and partial economic evaluations was performed using the British National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database supplemented by additional references. Study characteristics and findings, including incremental cost-effectiveness ratios, when available, were summarized narratively. Study quality was appraised using the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database critical appraisal criteria and independent ratings, agreed by two reviewers. Studies were located on a permutation matrix describing their mix of incremental costs/effects to aid decision making. Of the 151 articles retrieved, 14 studies met the inclusion criteria: 8 concerning support to people with dementia and 6 to carers. Five studies were incremental cost-utility analyses, seven were cost-effectiveness analyses, and two were cost consequences analyses. Five studies expressed incremental cost-effectiveness ratios as cost per quality-adjusted life-year (£6,696-£207,942 per quality-adjusted life-year). In four studies, interventions were dominant over usual care. Two interventions were more costly but more beneficial and were favorable against current acceptability thresholds. Occupational therapy, home-based exercise, and a carers' coping intervention emerged as cost-effective approaches for which there was better evidence. These interventions used environmental modifications, behavior management, physical activity, and emotional support as active components. More robust evidence is needed to judge the value of these and other interventions across the dementia care pathway. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and

  2. The role of reduced humanity in producing linguistic discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarello, Flavia; Rubini, Monica

    2015-02-01

    This article addresses the role of perceived (reduced) humanity and group membership of others in producing linguistic discrimination. Study 1 assessed the effects of these factors on a subtle measure of linguistic discrimination, namely, linguistic abstraction. Study 2 considered the explicit level of verbal abuse. Results highlighted that target's reduced humanity led to enhanced linguistic discrimination toward the target, while group membership moderated this effect in specific conditions. Overall, the evidence of this set of studies sheds light on the role of humanity and its interplay with social categorization on discrimination outcomes. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  3. Do clinicians use online evidence to support patient care? A study of 55,000 clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Johanna I; Gosling, A Sophie; Coiera, Enrico

    2004-01-01

    To determine clinicians' (doctors', nurses', and allied health professionals') "actual" and "reported" use of a point-of-care online information retrieval system; and to make an assessment of the extent to which use is related to direct patient care by testing two hypotheses: hypothesis 1: clinicians use online evidence primarily to support clinical decisions relating to direct patient care; and hypothesis 2: clinicians use online evidence predominantly for research and continuing education. Web-log analysis of the Clinical Information Access Program (CIAP), an online, 24-hour, point-of-care information retrieval system available to 55,000 clinicians in public hospitals in New South Wales, Australia. A statewide mail survey of 5,511 clinicians. Rates of online evidence searching per 100 clinicians for the state and for the 81 individual hospitals studied; reported use of CIAP by clinicians through a self-administered questionnaire; and correlations between evidence searches and patient admissions. Monthly rates of 48.5 "search sessions" per 100 clinicians and 231.6 text hits to single-source databases per 100 clinicians (n = 619,545); 63% of clinicians reported that they were aware of CIAP and 75% of those had used it. Eighty-eight percent of users reported CIAP had the potential to improve patient care and 41% reported direct experience of this. Clinicians' use of CIAP on each day of the week was highly positively correlated with patient admissions (r = 0.99, p true for all ten randomly selected hospitals. Clinicians' online evidence use increases with patient admissions, supporting the hypothesis that clinicians' use of evidence is related to direct patient care. Patterns of evidence use and clinicians' self-reports also support this hypothesis.

  4. Computational Linguistics Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Piasecki, Maciej; Jassem, Krzysztof; Fuglewicz, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The ever-growing popularity of Google over the recent decade has required a specific method of man-machine communication: human query should be short, whereas the machine answer may take a form of a wide range of documents. This type of communication has triggered a rapid development in the domain of Information Extraction, aimed at providing the asker with a  more precise information. The recent success of intelligent personal assistants supporting users in searching or even extracting information and answers from large collections of electronic documents signals the onset of a new era in man-machine communication – we shall soon explain to our small devices what we need to know and expect valuable answers quickly and automatically delivered. The progress of man-machine communication is accompanied by growth in the significance of applied Computational Linguistics – we need machines to understand much more from the language we speak naturally than it is the case of up-to-date search systems. Moreover, w...

  5. Learning concepts, language, and literacy in hybrid linguistic codes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Learning concepts, language, and literacy in hybrid linguistic codes: The multilingual maze of urban grade 1 classrooms in South Africa. ... From the field of developmental psycholinguistics and from conceptual development theory there is evidence that excessive linguistic 'code-switching' in early school education may ...

  6. The focuses of linguistic personality investigations in modern linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Єрьоменко, С. В.

    2015-01-01

    The given articles defines the notion ‘linguistic personality’, discusses the focuses of linguistic personality investigations in linguistics, differentiates the notions ‘discourse’ and ‘linguistic personality’. In the numerous interpretations of linguistic personality that emerged at the end of the previous century, we can clearly distinguish two directions they are linguo-didactic and linguo-cultural. In linguo-didactics a personality is understood as a set of speech abilities. Linguocultu...

  7. Supporting a Knowledge Base With Evidence Retrieved From Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marly G. F. Costa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a methodology based on Evidence-Based Medicine for finding literature-based evidence for a clinical decision support system. As an illustration, we applied this method to parenteral nutrition therapy (PNT. PNT requires expertise and experience and is prone to errors. The Pico's strategy was used to built structured clinical questions, which considered 11 PN clinical indications plus a PN nutrient (amino acid, glucose, lipid, electrolyte, trace elements and vitamins, and an outcome. 211 PICO strategies were structured, and 447 searches at PubMed were performed. The results were classified in levels of evidence and recommendation grades according to criteria of the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine.

  8. Linguistics and the Third Reich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plockinger, Othmar

    2001-01-01

    Examines linguistics during the Third Reich in Nazi Germany. Discusses Nazi linguistics or linguistics in Nazism, Yiddish studies and the horror of assimilation, and remarks on the relevance of historical approaches in linguistics in the field of academic education. (Author/VWL)

  9. Logic Programming for Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a short introduction on how to get started with logic pro- gramming in Prolog that does not require any previous programming expe- rience. The presentation is aimed at students of linguistics, but it does not go deeper into linguistics than any student who has some ideas of what...... a computer is, can follow the text. I cannot, of course, cover all aspects of logic programming in this text, and so we give references to other sources with more details. Students of linguistics must have a very good motivation to spend time on programming, and I show here how logic programming can be used...... for modelling different linguistic phenomena. When modelling language in this way, as opposed to using only paper and pencil, your models go live: you can run and test your models and you can use them as automatic language analyzers. This way you will get a better understanding of the dynamics of languages...

  10. Occupational therapy-based and evidence-supported recommendations for assessment and exercises in hand osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeken, Ingvild

    2011-12-01

    The aims of this study were to develop recommendations for occupational therapy assessment and design of hand exercise programmes in patients with hand osteoarthritis. An expert group followed a Delphi procedure to reach consensus for up to 10 recommendations for assessment and exercises, respectively. Thereafter, an evidence-based approach was used to identify and appraise research evidence supporting each recommendation, before the recommendations were validated by the expert group. The process resulted in 10 recommendations for assessment and eight for design of exercise programmes. The literature search revealed that there is a paucity of clinical trials to guide recommendations for hand osteoarthritis, and the evidence for the majority of the recommendations was based on expert opinions. Also, even if a systematic review demonstrates some evidence for the efficacy of strength training exercises in hand OA, the evidence for any specific exercise is limited to expert opinions. A first set of recommendations for assessment and exercise in hand osteoarthritis has been developed. For many of the recommendations there is a paucity of research evidence. High-quality studies are therefore needed to establish a high level of evidence concerning functional assessment and the effect of hand exercises in hand osteoarthritis.

  11. Language Works. Linguistic Journal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartling, Anna Sofie; Nørreby, Thomas Rørbeck; Skovse, Astrid Ravn

    2016-01-01

    Language works! – and with this initiative and this journal we want to give the opportunity to many more students to present their linguistic research to each other, to the scientific community and to all interested.......Language works! – and with this initiative and this journal we want to give the opportunity to many more students to present their linguistic research to each other, to the scientific community and to all interested....

  12. Mathematics and linguistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landauer, C.; Bellman, K.L.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we study foundational issues that we believe will help us develop a theoretically sound approach to constructing complex systems. The two theoretical approaches that have helped us understand and develop computational systems in the past are mathematics and linguistics. We describe some differences and strengths of the approaches, and propose a research program to combine the richness of linguistic reasoning with the precision of mathematics.

  13. Project management office in health care: a key strategy to support evidence-based practice change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie-Tremblay, Mélanie; Bonneville-Roussy, Arielle; Richer, Marie-Claire; Aubry, Monique; Vezina, Michel; Deme, Mariama

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the contribution of a Transition Support Office (TSO) in a health care center in Canada to supporting changes in practice based on evidence and organizational performance in the early phase of a major organizational change. Semistructured individual interviews were conducted with 11 members of the TSO and 13 managers and clinicians from an ambulatory sector in the organization who received support from the TSO. The main themes addressed in the interviews were the description of the TSO, the context of implementation, and the impact. Using the Competing Value Framework by Quinn and Rohrbaugh [Public Product Rev. 1981;5(2):122-140], results revealed that the TSO is a source of expertise that facilitates innovation and implementation of change. It provides material support and human expertise for evidence-based projects. As a single organizational entity responsible for managing change, it gives a sense of cohesiveness. It also facilitates communication among human resources of the entire organization. The TSO is seen as an expertise provider that promotes competency development, training, and evidence-based practices. The impact of a TSO on change in practices and organizational performance in a health care system is discussed.

  14. Three decades (1978-2008) of Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) practice revised and evidence revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søreide, Kjetil

    2008-12-18

    The Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) Program was developed to teach doctors one safe, reliable method to assess and initially manage the trauma patient. The ATLS principles represents an organized approach for evaluation and management of seriously injured patients and offers a foundation of common knowledge for all members of the trauma team. After 3 decades of teaching (1978-2008) of ATLS worldwide one should intuitively perceive that the evidence for the effect of ATLS teaching on the improved management of the injured patient be well established. This editorial addresses aspects of trauma education with needs for further development of better evidence of best practice.

  15. Three decades (1978–2008 of Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS™ practice revised and evidence revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søreide Kjetil

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS Program was developed to teach doctors one safe, reliable method to assess and initially manage the trauma patient. The ATLS principles represents an organized approach for evaluation and management of seriously injured patients and offers a foundation of common knowledge for all members of the trauma team. After 3 decades of teaching (1978–2008 of ATLS worldwide one should intuitively perceive that the evidence for the effect of ATLS teaching on the improved management of the injured patient be well established. This editorial addresses aspects of trauma education with needs for further development of better evidence of best practice.

  16. Multiple Lines Of Evidence Supporting Natural Attenuation: Lines Of Inquiry Supporting Monitored Natural Attenuation And Enhanced Attenuatin Of Chlorinated Solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangelas, Karen; Widemeirer, T. H.; Barden, M.J.; Dickson, W. Z.; Major, David

    2004-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring an initiative to facilitate efficient, effective and responsible use of Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) and Enhanced Attenuation (EA) for chlorinated solvents. This Office of Environmental Management (EM) ''Alternative Project,'' focuses on providing scientific and policy support for MNA/EA. A broadly representative working group of scientists supports the project along with partnerships with regulatory organizations such as the Interstate Technology Regulatory Council (ITRC) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The initial product of the technical working group was a summary report that articulated the conceptual approach and central scientific tenants of the project, and that identified a prioritized listing of technical targets for field research. This report documented the process in which: (1) scientific ground rules were developed, (2) lines of inquiry were identified and then critically evaluated, (3) promising applied research topics were highlighted in the various lines of inquiry, and (4) these were discussed and prioritized. The summary report will serve as a resource to guide management and decision making throughout the period of the subject MNA/EA Alternative Project. To support and more fully document the information presented in the summary report, the DOE is publishing a series of supplemental documents that present the full texts from the technical analyses within the various lines of inquiry (see listing). The following report--documenting our evaluation of the state of the science for the lines of evidence for supporting decision-making for MNA--is one of those supplemental documents.

  17. Lexicography and Linguistic Creativity | Moon | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Conventionally, dictionaries present information about institutionalized words, phrases, and senses of words; more creative formations and usages are generally ignored. Yet text and corpus data provide ample evidence of creativity in language, showing that it is part of ordinary linguistic behaviour and indeed ...

  18. Integration of evidence-based practice in bedside teaching paediatrics supported by e-learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potomkova, Jarmila; Mihal, Vladimir; Zapletalova, Jirina; Subova, Dana

    2010-03-01

    Bedside teaching with evidence-based practice elements, supported by e-learning activities, can play an important role in modern medical education. Teachers have to incorporate evidence from the medical literature to increase student motivation and interactivity. An integral part of the medical curricula at Palacky University Olomouc (Czech Republic) are real paediatric scenarios supplemented with a review of current literature to enhance evidence-based bedside teaching & learning. Searching for evidence is taught through librarian-guided interactive hands-on sessions and/or web-based tutorials followed by clinical case presentations and feedback. Innovated EBM paediatric clerkship demonstrated students' preferences towards web-based interactive bedside teaching & learning. In two academic years (2007/2008, 2008/2009), learning-focused feedback from 106 and 131 students, resp. was obtained about their attitudes towards evidence-based bedside teaching. The assessment included among others the overall level of instruction, quality of practical evidence-based training, teacher willingness and impact of instruction on increased interest in the specialty. There was some criticism about excessive workload. A parallel survey was carried out on the perceived values of different forms of information skills training (i.e. demonstration, online tutorials, and librarian-guided interactive search sessions) and post-training self-reported level of search skills. The new teaching/learning paediatric portfolio is a challenge for further activities, including effective knowledge translation, continuing medical & professional development of teachers, and didactic, clinically integrated teaching approaches.

  19. The relationship between priming and linguistic representations is mediated by processing constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slevc, L Robert; Ivanova, Iva

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the nature of linguistic representations undoubtedly will benefit from multiple types of evidence, including structural priming. Here, we argue that successfully gaining linguistic insights from structural priming requires us to better understand (1) the precise mappings between linguistic input and comprehenders' syntactic knowledge; and (2) the role of cognitive faculties such as memory and attention in structural priming.

  20. The information infrastructure that supports evidence-based veterinary medicine: a comparison with human medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Lorraine

    2011-01-01

    In human medicine, the information infrastructure that supports the knowledge translation processes of exchange, synthesis, dissemination, and application of the best clinical intervention research has developed significantly in the past 15 years, facilitating the uptake of research evidence by clinicians as well as the practice of evidence-based medicine. Seven of the key elements of this improved information infrastructure are clinical trial registries, research reporting standards, systematic reviews, organizations that support the production of systematic reviews, the indexing of clinical intervention research in MEDLINE, clinical search filters for MEDLINE, and point-of-care decision support information resources. The objective of this paper is to describe why these elements are important for evidence-based medicine, the key developments and issues related to these seven information infrastructure elements in human medicine, how these 7 elements compare with the corresponding infrastructure elements in veterinary medicine, and how all of these factors affect the translation of clinical intervention research into clinical practice. A focused search of the Ovid MEDLINE database was conducted for English language journal literature published between 2000 and 2010. Two bibliographies were consulted and selected national and international Web sites were searched using Google. The literature reviewed indicates that the information infrastructure supporting evidence-based veterinary medicine practice in all of the 7 elements reviewed is significantly underdeveloped in relation to the corresponding information infrastructure in human medicine. This lack of development creates barriers to the timely translation of veterinary medicine research into clinical practice and also to the conduct of both primary clinical intervention research and synthesis research.

  1. Non-genetic data supporting genetic evidence for the eastern wolf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David

    2011-01-01

    Two schools of thought dominate the molecular-genetics literature on Canis spp. (wolves) in the western Great Lakes region of the US and Canada: (1) they are hybrids between Canis lupus (Gray Wolf) and Canis latrans (Coyote), or (2) they are hybrids between the Gray Wolf and Canis lycaon (Eastern Wolf). This article presents 3 types of non-genetic evidence that bears on the controversy and concludes that all 3 support the second interpretation.

  2. Additional Interventions to Enhance the Effectiveness of Individual Placement and Support: A Rapid Evidence Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Boycott

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Topic. Additional interventions used to enhance the effectiveness of individual placement and support (IPS. Aim. To establish whether additional interventions improve the vocational outcomes of IPS alone for people with severe mental illness. Method. A rapid evidence assessment of the literature was conducted for studies where behavioural or psychological interventions have been used to supplement standard IPS. Published and unpublished empirical studies of IPS with additional interventions were considered for inclusion. Conclusions. Six published studies were found which compared IPS alone to IPS plus a supplementary intervention. Of these, three used skills training and three used cognitive remediation. The contribution of each discrete intervention is difficult to establish. Some evidence suggests that work-related social skills and cognitive training are effective adjuncts, but this is an area where large RCTs are required to yield conclusive evidence.

  3. Linguistic and Cultural Adaptation of a Computer-Based Counseling Program (CARE+ Spanish) to Support HIV Treatment Adherence and Risk Reduction for People Living With HIV/AIDS: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Ann E; Chhun, Nok; Cleland, Charles M; Crespo-Fierro, Michele; Parés-Avila, José A; Lizcano, John A; Norman, Robert G; Shedlin, Michele G; Johnston, Barbara E; Sharp, Victoria L

    2016-07-13

    transmission risk behaviors over time, these findings were not statistically significant. We also conducted 61 qualitative exit interviews with participants and two focus groups with a total of 16 providers. A computer-based counseling tool grounded in the TAM theoretical model and delivered in Spanish was acceptable and feasible to implement in a high-volume HIV clinic setting. It was able to provide evidence-based, linguistically appropriate ART adherence support without requiring additional staff time, bilingual status, or translation services. We found that language preferences and cultural acceptability of a computer-based counseling tool exist on a continuum in our urban Spanish-speaking population. Theoretical frameworks of technology's usefulness for behavioral modification need further exploration in other languages and cultures. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01013935; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01013935 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6ikaD3MT7).

  4. Supporting science learning in linguistically diverse classrooms : Factors related to the use of bilingual content in a computer-based learning environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Laere, E.; Agirdag, O.; van Braak, J.

    2016-01-01

    Computer-based learning environments (CBLEs) are a promising means to support language minority (LMi) students in acquiring knowledge and skills through the integration of authentic support in their home language. This study aimed to determine the use of scientific bilingual content offered to

  5. Iberia: population genetics, anthropology, and linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaiz-Villena, A; Martínez-Laso, J; Alonso-García, J

    1999-10-01

    Basques, Portuguese, Spaniards, and Algerians have been studied for HLA and mitochondrial DNA markers, and the data analysis suggests that pre-Neolithic gene flow into Iberia came from ancient white North Africans (Hamites). The Basque language has also been used to translate the Iberian-Tartesian language and also Etruscan and Minoan Linear A. Physical anthropometry of Iberian Mesolithic and Neolithic skeletons does not support the demic replacement in Iberia of preexisting Mesolithic people by Neolithic people bearing new farming technologies from Europe and the Middle East. Also, the presence of cardial impressed pottery in western Mediterranean Europe and across the Maghreb (North Africa) coasts at the beginning of the Neolithic provides good evidence of pre-Neolithic circum-Mediterranean contacts by sea. In addition, pre-dynastic Egyptian El-Badari culture (4,500 years ago) is similar to southern Iberian Neolithic settlements with regard to pottery and animal domestication. Taking the genetic, linguistic, anthropological, and archeological evidence together with the documented Saharan area desiccation starting about 10,000 years ago, we believe that it is possible that a genetic and cultural pre-Neolithic flow coming from southern Mediterranean coasts existed toward northern Mediterranean areas, including at least Iberia and some Mediterranean islands. This model would substitute for the demic diffusion model put forward to explain Neolithic innovations in Western Europe.

  6. Linguistic Pattern Analysis of Misspellings of Typically Developing Writers in Grades 1 to 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Ruth Huntley; Silliman, Elaine R.; Berninger, Virginia W.; Dow, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Purpose A mixed methods approach, evaluating triple word form theory, was used to describe linguistic patterns of misspellings. Method Spelling errors were taken from narrative and expository writing samples provided by 888 typically developing students in grades 1–9. Errors were coded by category (phonological, orthographic, and morphological) and specific linguistic feature affected. Grade level effects were analyzed with trend analysis. Qualitative analyses determined frequent error types and how use of specific linguistic features varied across grades. Results Phonological, orthographic, and morphological errors were noted across all grades, but orthographic errors predominated. Linear trends revealed developmental shifts in error proportions for the orthographic and morphological categories between grades 4–5. Similar error types were noted across age groups but the nature of linguistic feature error changed with age. Conclusions Triple word-form theory was supported. By grade 1, orthographic errors predominated and phonological and morphological error patterns were evident. Morphological errors increased in relative frequency in older students, probably due to a combination of word-formation issues and vocabulary growth. These patterns suggest that normal spelling development reflects non-linear growth and that it takes a long time to develop a robust orthographic lexicon that coordinates phonology, orthography, and morphology and supports word-specific, conventional spelling. PMID:22473834

  7. Integrational Linguistics and the Structuralist Legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Roy

    1999-01-01

    Examines attempts to extend Ferdinand de Saussure's structuralist linguistic theory, particularly those by integrational linguists. Discusses the place of integrational linguistics with regard to Saussurean work. (MSE)

  8. Promoting Linguistic Complexity, Greater Message Length and Ease of Engagement in Email Writing in People with Aphasia: Initial Evidence from a Study Utilizing Assistive Writing Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Lindsey; Sage, Karen; Conroy, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Background: Improving email writing in people with aphasia could enhance their ability to communicate, promote interaction and reduce isolation. Spelling therapies have been effective in improving single-word writing. However, there has been limited evidence on how to achieve changes to everyday writing tasks such as email writing in people with…

  9. Young infants view physically possible support events as unexpected: New evidence for rule learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Su-Hua; Zhang, Yu; Baillargeon, Renée

    2016-12-01

    It has been suggested that one of the mechanisms by which infants acquire their physical knowledge is rule learning: Infants generate rules about the likely outcomes of events and revise these rules when confronted with discrepant outcomes. This approach predicts that when infants' rules are only partially correct, they will view as unexpected events that are physically possible and even ordinary but happen to contradict their faulty rules. Here we provide evidence for this prediction in young infants' responses to support events. According to prior findings, by 6.5months of age, most infants expect an object to be stable if released with half or more of its bottom surface on a support; by 8months, most infants have refined this rule and realize that an object can be stable with less support as long as the middle of the object's bottom surface is supported. In line with these findings, 7.5- but not 8.5-month-olds viewed as unexpected a possible event in which a wide box remained stable when released with only the middle third of its bottom surface resting on a narrow platform. These results provide new evidence that young infants, like older children and adults, generate and revise rules to make sense of physical events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Le paradoxe du linguiste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primož Vitez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Le linguiste, dans sa volonté explicite de s'imposer comme sujet scientifique et de décrire objectivement la langue comme un objet qui lui est extérieur, est paradoxal, parce que, du fait même qu'il est habité de sa langue, il se trouve nécessairement dans l'impossibilité de remplir la tâche qu'il se propose. Le paradoxe du linguiste consiste donc en cela que, si on se permet de paraphraser l'observation de Labov, « les faits de la langue s'étudient selon la vision de tel ou tel linguiste individuel, alors que le linguiste n'existe que par son expérience personnelle des faits linguistiques ». Cela signifie très simplement que le linguiste, en tant que descripteur d'une langue, n'est opératif qu'à l'intérieur de son objet d'analyse. La crédibilité de l'analyste dépend entièrement de la position éthique qu'il prendra vis-à-vis de sa recherche.

  11. Sustainability of evidence-based healthcare: research agenda, methodological advances, and infrastructure support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Enola; Luke, Douglas; Calhoun, Annaliese; McMillen, Curtis; Brownson, Ross; McCrary, Stacey; Padek, Margaret

    2015-06-11

    Little is known about how well or under what conditions health innovations are sustained and their gains maintained once they are put into practice. Implementation science typically focuses on uptake by early adopters of one healthcare innovation at a time. The later-stage challenges of scaling up and sustaining evidence-supported interventions receive too little attention. This project identifies the challenges associated with sustainability research and generates recommendations for accelerating and strengthening this work. A multi-method, multi-stage approach, was used: (1) identifying and recruiting experts in sustainability as participants, (2) conducting research on sustainability using concept mapping, (3) action planning during an intensive working conference of sustainability experts to expand the concept mapping quantitative results, and (4) consolidating results into a set of recommendations for research, methodological advances, and infrastructure building to advance understanding of sustainability. Participants comprised researchers, funders, and leaders in health, mental health, and public health with shared interest in the sustainability of evidence-based health care. Prompted to identify important issues for sustainability research, participants generated 91 distinct statements, for which a concept mapping process produced 11 conceptually distinct clusters. During the conference, participants built upon the concept mapping clusters to generate recommendations for sustainability research. The recommendations fell into three domains: (1) pursue high priority research questions as a unified agenda on sustainability; (2) advance methods for sustainability research; (3) advance infrastructure to support sustainability research. Implementation science needs to pursue later-stage translation research questions required for population impact. Priorities include conceptual consistency and operational clarity for measuring sustainability, developing evidence

  12. Contrastive Linguistics at the Center for Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemser, William

    1970-01-01

    Describes the activities of the Center for Applied Linguistics in the field of contrastive linguistics since its founding in 1959. The author is Director of the Foreign Language Program at the Center. (FB)

  13. Applied Linguistics and Primary School Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Sue, Ed.; McCartney, Elspeth, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Modern primary teachers must adapt literacy programmes and ensure efficient learning for all. They must also support children with language and literacy difficulties, children learning English as an additional language and possibly teach a modern foreign language. To do this effectively, they need to understand the applied linguistics research…

  14. Teaching Linguistics and Lexicography with Online Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battenburg, John D.; Lant, Kathleen Margaret

    2003-01-01

    Describes the use of the California Central Coast Online Dictionary, a database-supported Web site, in teaching an introductory class on linguistics and lexicography. The project allowed consideration of several models for teaching in the information age: teaching as modeling, teaching as negotiation, and teaching as defamiliarization or…

  15. Primary total hip arthroplasty in Catalonia: What is the clinical evidence that supports our prosthesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaverri-Fierro, D; Lobo-Escolar, L; Espallargues, M; Martínez-Cruz, O; Domingo, L; Pons-Cabrafiga, M

    The implementation of National Prostheses Registries allows us to obtain a large amount of data and make conclusions in order to improve the use of them. Sweden was the first country to implement a National Prostheses Registry in 1979. Catalonia has been doing this since 2005. The aim of our study is to analyse the evidence that supports primary total hip replacement in Catalonia in the last 9 years, based on the Arthroplasty Registry of Catalonia (RACat). A review of the literature was carried out of the prosthesis (acetabular cups/stems) reported in the RACat between the period 2005 to 2013 in the following databases: ODEP (Orthopaedic Data Evaluation Panel), TRIP database, PubMed, and Google Scholar. Those prostheses implanted in less than 10 units (182 acetabular components corresponding to 49 models/228 stems corresponding to 63 models) were excluded. A total of 18,634 (99%) implanted acetabular cups were analysed out of a total number of 18,816, corresponding to 74 different models. In 18 models (2527 acetabular cups) no clinical evidence to support its use was found. An analysis was performed on 19,367 (98.84%) out of a total number of 19,595 implanted stems, corresponding to 75 different models. In 16 models (1845 stems) no clinical evidence was found to support their use. Variable evidence was found in the 56 models of acetabular cups (16,107) and 59 models of stems (17,522), most of it corresponding to level iv clinical evidence. There was a significant number implanted prostheses evaluated (13.56% acetabular cups/9.5% stems) for which no clinical evidence was found. The elevated number of models is highlighted (49 types for acetabular cups/63 types for stems) with less than 10 units implanted, which corresponds to only 1% of the total implants. The use of arthroplasty registers is shown to be an extremely helpful tool that allows analyses and conclusions to be made for the follow-up and post-marketing surveillance period. Copyright © 2016 SECOT

  16. Cancer Multidisciplinary Team Meetings: Evidence, Challenges, and the Role of Clinical Decision Support Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patkar, Vivek; Acosta, Dionisio; Davidson, Tim; Jones, Alison; Fox, John; Keshtgar, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Multidisciplinary team (MDT) model in cancer care was introduced and endorsed to ensure that care delivery is consistent with the best available evidence. Over the last few years, regular MDT meetings have become a standard practice in oncology and gained the status of the key decision-making forum for patient management. Despite the fact that cancer MDT meetings are well accepted by clinicians, concerns are raised over the paucity of good-quality evidence on their overall impact. There are also concerns over lack of the appropriate support for this important but overburdened decision-making platform. The growing acceptance by clinical community of the health information technology in recent years has created new opportunities and possibilities of using advanced clinical decision support (CDS) systems to realise full potential of cancer MDT meetings. In this paper, we present targeted summary of the available evidence on the impact of cancer MDT meetings, discuss the reported challenges, and explore the role that a CDS technology could play in addressing some of these challenges. PMID:22295234

  17. Cancer Multidisciplinary Team Meetings: Evidence, Challenges, and the Role of Clinical Decision Support Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Patkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Multidisciplinary team (MDT model in cancer care was introduced and endorsed to ensure that care delivery is consistent with the best available evidence. Over the last few years, regular MDT meetings have become a standard practice in oncology and gained the status of the key decision-making forum for patient management. Despite the fact that cancer MDT meetings are well accepted by clinicians, concerns are raised over the paucity of good-quality evidence on their overall impact. There are also concerns over lack of the appropriate support for this important but overburdened decision-making platform. The growing acceptance by clinical community of the health information technology in recent years has created new opportunities and possibilities of using advanced clinical decision support (CDS systems to realise full potential of cancer MDT meetings. In this paper, we present targeted summary of the available evidence on the impact of cancer MDT meetings, discuss the reported challenges, and explore the role that a CDS technology could play in addressing some of these challenges.

  18. Ocean Acidification and the End-Permian Mass Extinction: To What Extent does Evidence Support Hypothesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Béatrice Forel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification in modern oceans is linked to rapid increase in atmospheric CO2, raising concern about marine diversity, food security and ecosystem services. Proxy evidence for acidification during past crises may help predict future change, but three issues limit confidence of comparisons between modern and ancient ocean acidification, illustrated from the end-Permian extinction, 252 million years ago: (1 problems with evidence for ocean acidification preserved in sedimentary rocks, where proposed marine dissolution surfaces may be subaerial. Sedimentary evidence that the extinction was partly due to ocean acidification is therefore inconclusive; (2 Fossils of marine animals potentially affected by ocean acidification are imperfect records of past conditions; selective extinction of hypercalcifying organisms is uncertain evidence for acidification; (3 The current high rates of acidification may not reflect past rates, which cannot be measured directly, and whose temporal resolution decreases in older rocks. Thus large increases in CO2 in the past may have occurred over a long enough time to have allowed assimilation into the oceans, and acidification may not have stressed ocean biota to the present extent. Although we acknowledge the very likely occurrence of past ocean acidification, obtaining support presents a continuing challenge for the Earth science community.

  19. READING COMPREHENSION RFSEARCH AND LINGUISTIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    READING COMPREHENSION RFSEARCH AND LINGUISTIC PRAGMATICS: MAPPING OUT SOME UNRECOGNIZED INTERDISCIPLINARY. COMMON GROUND. 1. Introduction. Melinda Sinclair. Department of General Linguistics. University of SteUenbosch. 83. On the whole, research into the various aspects of natural ...

  20. Linguistic Atlas of French Polynesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Charpentier, Jean-Michel; François, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    ... François, the Linguistic Atlas of French Polynesia pays tribute to the rich linguistic landscape of the country by documenting thoroughly twenty different communalects, in the form of 2250 maps...

  1. Evidence supporting an intentional Neandertal burial at La Chapelle-aux-Saints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendu, William; Beauval, Cédric; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Bayle, Priscilla; Balzeau, Antoine; Bismuth, Thierry; Bourguignon, Laurence; Delfour, Géraldine; Faivre, Jean-Philippe; Lacrampe-Cuyaubère, François; Tavormina, Carlotta; Todisco, Dominique; Turq, Alain; Maureille, Bruno

    2014-01-07

    The bouffia Bonneval at La Chapelle-aux-Saints is well known for the discovery of the first secure Neandertal burial in the early 20th century. However, the intentionality of the burial remains an issue of some debate. Here, we present the results of a 12-y fieldwork project, along with a taphonomic analysis of the human remains, designed to assess the funerary context of the La Chapelle-aux-Saints Neandertal. We have established the anthropogenic nature of the burial pit and underlined the taphonomic evidence of a rapid burial of the body. These multiple lines of evidence support the hypothesis of an intentional burial. Finally, the discovery of skeletal elements belonging to the original La Chapelle aux Saints 1 individual, two additional young individuals, and a second adult in the bouffia Bonneval highlights a more complex site-formation history than previously proposed.

  2. Force That Increases at Larger Distance Has Some Psychological and Astronomical Evidence Supporting its Existence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, James

    2011-09-01

    Force that Increases with distance is different than dark energy as I am arguing for existence of force based on psychological and astronomical bases. Hubble shift, doppler shift, comet return, quasar zoo and quasars and psychological evidence of interest in distant objects lends support to a force like gravity, nuclear, weak, strong, virtual, decay, biological, growth forces which increases its intensity with distance unlike gravity which decreases in intensity with distance. Jane Frances Back Struck contributed to this finding with her request that her grandparents have "perfect justice" even though her grandparents had died before she was born; interest increasing with distance from grandparents.

  3. Numerical Methods in Linguistics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 1. Numerical Methods in Linguistics - An Introduction to Glottochronology. Raamesh Gowri Raghavan. General Article Volume 10 Issue 1 January 2005 pp 17-24. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  4. Linguistic Corpora and Lexicography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijs, Willem

    1996-01-01

    Overviews the development of corpus linguistics, reviews the use of corpora in modern lexicography, and presents central issues in ongoing work aimed at broadening the scope of lexicographical use of corpus data. Focuses on how the field has developed in relation to the production of new monolingual English dictionaries by major British…

  5. Noah Webster's Linguistic Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreidler, Charles W.

    1998-01-01

    Examines ways in which Noah Webster's linguistic theories and work on dictionaries influenced North American English lexicography, arguing that his impact on American education was great because his spellers and dictionaries monopolized a rapidly growing market, and influence on lexicography was substantial because he insisted on the validity of…

  6. ARMAH'S LINGUISTIC MYTHOPOEISIS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    thing white and accepting everything black but in carefully selecting what is good in both cul- tures. Keywords: Linguistic mythopoeisis, black, white, road, way. ..... walker…' (p.186). The most recurrent of the pejorative associa- tions of whiteness in Two Thousand Seasons is death. Armah links death and whiteness be-.

  7. Formal monkey linguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Schel, Anne M.; Fuller, James; Gautier, Jean Pierre; Kuhn, Jeremy; Veselinović, Dunja; Arnold, Kate; Cäsar, Cristiane; Keenan, Sumir; Lemasson, Alban; Ouattara, Karim; Ryder, Robin; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    We argue that rich data gathered in experimental primatology in the last 40 years can benefit from analytical methods used in contemporary linguistics. Focusing on the syntactic and especially semantic side, we suggest that these methods could help clarify five questions: (i) what morphology and

  8. A Linguistic Theoretical Exercise

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    communication with other people in the environment which they find themselves. This paper aims at carrying out linguistic theoretical exercise as regards the use of the English primary auxiliary verbs. The paper also aims at exposing the rate at which speakers of English Language misuse the. English primary auxiliary ...

  9. Papers in Contrastive Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Gerhard, Ed.

    The contrastive linguistics papers contained in this collection concern a wide variety of issues within the field -- ranging from phonology and syntax to interference and error analysis in foreign language instruction. The papers, while discussing specific topics, for example, "Equivalence, Congruence, and Deep Structure" or "Comparative Analysis…

  10. Promoting Linguistic Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daryai-Hansen, Petra Gilliyard

    2005-01-01

    To face up to the omnipresence of ‘Anglo-American’, conferences on language policy today address the issue of promoting linguistic diversity. This especially applies to contemporary Europe. Nevertheless, these conferences, which can be regarded as a kind of laboratories or academic microcosm, do...

  11. The linguistics of gender.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berkum, J.J.A.

    1996-01-01

    This chapter explores grammatical gender as a linguistic phenomenon. First, I define gender in terms of agreement, and look at the parts of speech that can take gender agreement. Because it relates to assumptions underlying much psycholinguistic gender research, I also examine the reasons why gender

  12. Linguistics in Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Yunus, Reva

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the contribution of insights from theoretical linguistics to an understanding of language acquisition and the nature of language in terms of their potential benefit to language education. We examine the ideas of innateness and universal language faculty, as well as multilingualism and the language-society relationship. Modern…

  13. Linguistic Barriers and Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    The influence of language on social capital in low-skill and ethnically diverse workplaces has thus far received very limited attention within the sociology of work. As the ethnically diverse workplace is an important social space for the construction of social relations bridging different social...... communication related to collaboration and ‘small talk’ may provide linguistic bridges to social capital formation....

  14. Applied Linguistics: What's That?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markee, Numa

    1990-01-01

    The historical development of strong and weak definitions of applied linguistics is traced. It is argued that weak definitions do not limit themselves to resolution of second-language teaching problems, potentially address all practical language-related problems, and provide the necessary flexibility for realistic theory and practice of applied…

  15. The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader" is an essential collection of readings for students of Applied Linguistics. Divided into five sections: Language Teaching and Learning, Second Language Acquisition, Applied Linguistics, Identity and Power and Language Use in Professional Contexts, the "Reader" takes a broad…

  16. Four Conceptions of Linguistic Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorten, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Policymakers need a conception of linguistic disadvantage to supply guidance about the relative priority of inequalities with a linguistic dimension and to inform decisions about whether such inequalities require correction or compensation. A satisfactory conception of linguistic disadvantage will make it possible to compare the situations of…

  17. Peace linguistics for language teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco GOMES DE MATOS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This text aims at presenting the concept of Peace Linguistics - origins and recent developments -- as being implemented in the author's ongoing work in that emerging branch of Applied Linguistics. Examples of applicational possibilities are given, with a focus on language teaching-learning and a Checklist is provided, of topics for suggested linguistic-educational research, centered on communicative peace.

  18. METEOR: An Enterprise Health Informatics Environment to Support Evidence-Based Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puppala, Mamta; He, Tiancheng; Chen, Shenyi; Ogunti, Richard; Yu, Xiaohui; Li, Fuhai; Jackson, Robert; Wong, Stephen T C

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose the design and implementation of next-generation enterprise analytics platform developed at the Houston Methodist Hospital (HMH) system to meet the market and regulatory needs of the healthcare industry. For this goal, we developed an integrated clinical informatics environment, i.e., Methodist environment for translational enhancement and outcomes research (METEOR). The framework of METEOR consists of two components: the enterprise data warehouse (EDW) and a software intelligence and analytics (SIA) layer for enabling a wide range of clinical decision support systems that can be used directly by outcomes researchers and clinical investigators to facilitate data access for the purposes of hypothesis testing, cohort identification, data mining, risk prediction, and clinical research training. Data and usability analysis were performed on METEOR components as a preliminary evaluation, which successfully demonstrated that METEOR addresses significant niches in the clinical informatics area, and provides a powerful means for data integration and efficient access in supporting clinical and translational research. METEOR EDW and informatics applications improved outcomes, enabled coordinated care, and support health analytics and clinical research at HMH. The twin pressures of cost containment in the healthcare market and new federal regulations and policies have led to the prioritization of the meaningful use of electronic health records in the United States. EDW and SIA layers on top of EDW are becoming an essential strategic tool to healthcare institutions and integrated delivery networks in order to support evidence-based medicine at the enterprise level.

  19. Using Multimedia to Introduce Your Promising Practice. Supported Education: A Promising Practice. Evidence-Based Practices KIT (Knowledge Informing Transformation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Karen V.

    2011-01-01

    Supported Education is a promising practice that helps people with mental illnesses who are interested in education and training return to school. Current research shows that Supported Education has demonstrated results. While more research is needed, Supported Education services show promise of becoming an evidence-based practice. Education…

  20. No evidence of nanodiamonds in Younger-Dryas sediments to support an impact event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daulton, Tyrone L; Pinter, Nicholas; Scott, Andrew C

    2010-09-14

    The causes of the late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions in North America, disappearance of Clovis paleoindian lithic technology, and abrupt Younger-Dryas (YD) climate reversal of the last deglacial warming in the Northern Hemisphere remain an enigma. A controversial hypothesis proposes that one or more cometary airbursts/impacts barraged North America ≈12,900 cal yr B.P. and caused these events. Most evidence supporting this hypothesis has been discredited except for reports of nanodiamonds (including the rare hexagonal polytype) in Bølling-Ållerod-YD-boundary sediments. The hexagonal polytype of diamond, lonsdaleite, is of particular interest because it is often associated with shock pressures related to impacts where it has been found to occur naturally. Unfortunately, previous reports of YD-boundary nanodiamonds have left many unanswered questions regarding the nature and occurrence of the nanodiamonds. Therefore, we examined carbon-rich materials isolated from sediments dated 15,818 cal yr B.P. to present (including the Bølling-Allerod-YD boundary). No nanodiamonds were found in our study. Instead, graphene- and graphene/graphane-oxide aggregates are ubiquitous in all specimens examined. We demonstrate that previous studies misidentified graphene/graphane-oxide aggregates as hexagonal diamond and likely misidentified graphene as cubic diamond. Our results cast doubt upon one of the last widely discussed pieces of evidence supporting the YD impact hypothesis.

  1. No evidence of nanodiamonds in Younger–Dryas sediments to support an impact event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daulton, Tyrone L.; Pinter, Nicholas; Scott, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    The causes of the late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions in North America, disappearance of Clovis paleoindian lithic technology, and abrupt Younger–Dryas (YD) climate reversal of the last deglacial warming in the Northern Hemisphere remain an enigma. A controversial hypothesis proposes that one or more cometary airbursts/impacts barraged North America ≈12,900 cal yr B.P. and caused these events. Most evidence supporting this hypothesis has been discredited except for reports of nanodiamonds (including the rare hexagonal polytype) in Bølling–Ållerod-YD-boundary sediments. The hexagonal polytype of diamond, lonsdaleite, is of particular interest because it is often associated with shock pressures related to impacts where it has been found to occur naturally. Unfortunately, previous reports of YD-boundary nanodiamonds have left many unanswered questions regarding the nature and occurrence of the nanodiamonds. Therefore, we examined carbon-rich materials isolated from sediments dated 15,818 cal yr B.P. to present (including the Bølling–Ållerod-YD boundary). No nanodiamonds were found in our study. Instead, graphene- and graphene/graphane-oxide aggregates are ubiquitous in all specimens examined. We demonstrate that previous studies misidentified graphene/graphane-oxide aggregates as hexagonal diamond and likely misidentified graphene as cubic diamond. Our results cast doubt upon one of the last widely discussed pieces of evidence supporting the YD impact hypothesis. PMID:20805511

  2. An evidence-based approach to perioperative nutrition support in the elective surgery patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Keith R; Wischmeyer, Paul E; Taylor, Beth; McClave, Stephen A

    2013-09-01

    In surgical practice, great attention is given to the perioperative management of the elective surgical patient with regard to surgical planning, stratification of cardiopulmonary risk, and postoperative assessment for complication. However, growing evidence supports the beneficial role for implementation of a consistent and literature-based approach to perioperative nutrition therapy. Determining nutrition risk should be a routine component of the preoperative evaluation. As with the above issues, this concept begins with the clinician's first visit with the patient as risk is assessed and the severity of the surgical insult considered. If the patient is an appropriate candidate for benefit from preoperative support, a plan for initiation and reassessment should be implemented. Once appropriate nutrition end points have been achieved, special consideration should be given to beneficial practices the immediate day preceding surgery that may better prepare the patient for the intervention from a metabolic standpoint. In the operating room, consideration should be given to the potential placement of enteral access during the index operation as well as judicious and targeted intraoperative resuscitation. Immediately following the intervention, adequate resuscitation and glycemic control are key concepts, as is an evidence-based approach to the early advancement of an enteral/oral diet in the postoperative patient. Through the implementation of perioperative nutrition therapy plans in the elective surgery setting, outcomes can be improved.

  3. Using knowledge brokering to promote evidence-based policy-making: The need for support structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kammen, Jessika; de Savigny, Don; Sewankambo, Nelson

    2006-08-01

    Knowledge brokering is a promising strategy to close the "know-do gap" and foster greater use of research findings and evidence in policy-making. It focuses on organizing the interactive process between the producers and users of knowledge so that they can co-produce feasible and research-informed policy options. We describe a recent successful experience with this novel approach in the Netherlands and discuss the requirements for effective institutionalization of knowledge brokering. We also discuss the potential of this approach to assist health policy development in low-income countries based on the experience of developing the Regional East-African Health (REACH)-Policy Initiative. We believe that intermediary organizations, such as regional networks, dedicated institutional mechanisms and funding agencies, can play key roles in supporting knowledge brokering. We recommend the need to support and learn from the brokerage approach to strengthen the relationship between the research and policy communities and hence move towards a stronger culture of evidence-based policy and policy-relevant research.

  4. Extracting physician group intelligence from electronic health records to support evidence based medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffin M Weber

    Full Text Available Evidence-based medicine employs expert opinion and clinical data to inform clinical decision making. The objective of this study is to determine whether it is possible to complement these sources of evidence with information about physician "group intelligence" that exists in electronic health records. Specifically, we measured laboratory test "repeat intervals", defined as the amount of time it takes for a physician to repeat a test that was previously ordered for the same patient. Our assumption is that while the result of a test is a direct measure of one marker of a patient's health, the physician's decision to order the test is based on multiple factors including past experience, available treatment options, and information about the patient that might not be coded in the electronic health record. By examining repeat intervals in aggregate over large numbers of patients, we show that it is possible to 1 determine what laboratory test results physicians consider "normal", 2 identify subpopulations of patients that deviate from the norm, and 3 identify situations where laboratory tests are over-ordered. We used laboratory tests as just one example of how physician group intelligence can be used to support evidence based medicine in a way that is automated and continually updated.

  5. Evidence supporting extraocular muscle pulleys: refuting the platygean view of extraocular muscle mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demer, Joseph L

    2006-01-01

    Late in the 20th century, it was recognized that connective tissue structures in the orbit influence the paths of the extraocular muscles and constitute their functional origins. Targeted investigations of these connective tissue "pulleys" led to the formulation of the active pulley hypothesis, which proposes that pulling directions of the rectus extraocular muscles are actively controlled via connective tissues. This review rebuts a series of criticisms of the active pulley hypothesis published by Jampel, and Jampel and Shi, in which these authors have disputed the existence and function of the pulleys. This article reviews published evidence for the existence of orbital pulleys, the active pulley hypothesis, and physiological tests of the active pulley hypothesis. Magnetic resonance imaging in a living subject and histological examination of a human cadaver directly illustrate the relationship of pulleys to extraocular muscles. Strong scientific evidence is cited that supports the existence of orbital pulleys and their role in ocular motility. The criticisms of the hypothesis have ignored mathematical truisms and strong scientific evidence. Actively control led orbital pulleys play a fundamental role in ocular motility. Pulleys profoundly influence the neural commands required to control eye movements and binocular alignment. Familiarity with the anatomy and physiology of the pulleys is requisite for a rational approach to diagnosing and treating strabismus using emerging methods. Conversely, approaches that deny or ignore the pulleys risk the sorts of errors that arise in geography and navigation from incorrect assumptions such as those of a flat ("platygean") earth.

  6. Current evidence does not support the use of Kinesio Taping in clinical practice: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia do Carmo Silva Parreira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Questions: Is Kinesio Taping more effective than a sham taping/placebo, no treatment or other interventions in people with musculoskeletal conditions? Is the addition of Kinesio Taping to other interventions more effective than other interventions alone in people with musculoskeletal conditions? Design: Systematic review of randomised trials. Participants: People with musculoskeletal conditions. Intervention: Kinesio Taping was compared with sham taping/placebo, no treatment, exercises, manual therapy and conventional physiotherapy. Outcome measures: Pain intensity, disability, quality of life, return to work, and global impression of recovery. Results: Twelve randomised trials involving 495 participants were included in the review. The effectiveness of the Kinesio Taping was tested in participants with: shoulder pain in two trials; knee pain in three trials; chronic low back pain in two trials; neck pain in three trials; plantar fasciitis in one trial; and multiple musculoskeletal conditions in one trial. The methodological quality of eligible trials was moderate, with a mean of 6.1 points on the 10-point PEDro Scale score. Overall, Kinesio Taping was no better than sham taping/placebo and active comparison groups. In all comparisons where Kinesio Taping was better than an active or a sham control group, the effect sizes were small and probably not clinically significant or the trials were of low quality. Conclusion: This review provides the most updated evidence on the effectiveness of the Kinesio Taping for musculoskeletal conditions. The current evidence does not support the use of this intervention in these clinical populations. PROSPERO registration: CRD42012003436. [Parreira PdCS, Costa LdCM, Hespanhol Junior LC, Lopes AD, Costa LOP (2014 Current evidence does not support the use of Kinesio Taping in clinical practice: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy 60: 31–39

  7. How is research evidence used to support claims made in advertisements for wound care products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumville, Jo C; Petherick, Emily S; O'Meara, Susan; Raynor, Pauline; Cullum, Nicky

    2009-05-01

    To investigate the amount, type and accuracy of citations use in support of product related claims from advertisements of wound care products. Although articles submitted to most medical journals are subjected to peer review, such scrutiny is often not required for the content of advertisements. A contents survey of advertisements from two wound care journals (Journal of Wound Care and Ostomy Wound Management) from 2002-2003 and the British Medical Journal, 2002-2003. Data collected from advertisements included identification of product related claims made and any corresponding citations. Where journal articles were cited to support claims, the articles were obtained. Where data on file were cited, this material was requested. In each case the accuracy of claims in relation to the content of the supporting citation was assessed. The use of citations to support product related claims was infrequent in advertisements from wound care journals, where 35% of advertisements containing a product related claim also contained at least one citation, compared with 63% of advertisements from the British Medical Journal. Of citations that were supplied, journal articles were less common in the wound journals (40% vs. 73% in the British Medical Journal) and data on file more common (38% vs. 6% in the British Medical Journal). Where journal articles were obtained, 56% of claims in the wound care journals advertisements were not supported by the cited article, compared with 12% of claims in the British Medical Journal. The wound journals advertised predominantly medical devices. The use and accuracy of referencing in advertisements from wound care journals was poor. Nurses have increasing responsibilities for the prescribing of both drugs and devices, which must be accompanied by the ability to interpret marketing materials and research evidence critically. Nurse educators must ensure that nurse education generally and nurse prescriber training particularly, builds skills of

  8. An online community of practice to support evidence-based physiotherapy practice in manual therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Cathy; Yeung, Euson; Markoulakis, Roula; Guilcher, Sara

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how a community of practice promoted the creation and sharing of new knowledge in evidence-based manual therapy using Wenger's constructs of mutual engagement, joint enterprise, and shared repertoire as a theoretical framework. We used a qualitative approach to analyze the discussion board contributions of the 19 physiotherapists who participated in the 10-week online continuing education course in evidence-based practice (EBP) in manual therapy. The course was founded on community of practice, constructivism, social, and situated learning principles. The 1436 postings on 9 active discussion boards revealed that the community of practice was a social learning environment that supported strong participation and mutual engagement. Design features such as consistent facilitation, weekly guiding questions, and collaborative assignments promoted the creation and sharing of knowledge. Participants applied research evidence to the contexts in which they worked through reflective comparison of what they were reading to its applicability in their everyday practice. Participants' shared goals contributed to the common ground established in developing collective knowledge about different study designs, how to answer research questions, and the difficulties of conducting sound research. An online longitudinal community of practice utilized as a continuing education approach to deliver an online course based on constructivist and social learning principles allowed geographically dispersed physiotherapists to be mutually engaged in a joint enterprise in evidence-based manual therapy. Advantages included opportunity for reflection, modeling, and collaboration. Future studies should examine the impact of participation on clinical practice. © 2014 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on Continuing Medical Education, Association for Hospital

  9. Equity and Blindness: Closing Evidence Gaps to Support Universal Eye Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramke, Jacqueline; Zwi, Anthony B; Palagyi, Anna; Blignault, Ilse; Gilbert, Clare E

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization Program for the Prevention of Blindness adopted the principles of universal health coverage (UHC) in its latest plan, Universal Eye Health: A Global Action Plan, 2014-2019. This plan builds on the achievements of Vision 2020, which aimed to reduce the global prevalence of avoidable blindness, and its unequal distribution, by the year 2020. We reviewed the literature on health equity and the generation and use of evidence to promote equity, particularly in eye health. We describe the nature and extent of the equity-focused evidence to support and inform eye health programs on the path to universal eye health, and propose ways to improve the collection and reporting of this evidence. Blindness prevalence decreased in all regions of the world between 1990 and 2010, albeit not at the same rate or to the same extent. In 2010, the prevalence of blindness in West Africa (6.0%) remained 15 times higher than in high-income regions (0.4%); within all regions, women had a higher prevalence of blindness than men. Beyond inter-regional and sex differences, there is little comparable data on the distribution of blindness across social groups within regions and countries, or on whether this distribution has changed over time. Similarly, interventions known to address inequity in blindness are few, and equity-relevant goals, targets and indicators for eye health programs are scarce. Equity aims of eye health programs can benefit from the global momentum towards achieving UHC, and the progress being made on collecting, communicating and using equity-focused evidence.

  10. Evidence supporting the use of cone-beam computed tomography in orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vlijmen, Olivier J C; Kuijpers, Mette A R; Bergé, Stefaan J; Schols, Jan G J H; Maal, Thomas J J; Breuning, Hero; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie

    2012-03-01

    The authors conducted a systematic review of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) applications in orthodontics and evaluated the level of evidence to determine whether the use of CBCT is justified in orthodontics. The authors identified articles by searching the Cochrane Library, PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature databases. They searched the articles' reference lists manually for additional articles and had no language limitations. They did not search the gray literature. Inclusion criteria were CBCT use in orthodontics and that the participants be human. The lowest level of evidence accepted for inclusion was a case series with five or more participants. The authors evaluated the studies' methodological quality according to 13 criteria related to study design, measurements and statistical analysis. The authors identified 550 articles, and 50 met the inclusion criteria. Study topics included temporary anchorage devices, cephalometry, combined orthodontic and surgical treatment, airway measurements, root resorption and tooth impactions, and cleft lip and palate. The methodological quality averaged 53 percent (range, 15-77 percent) of the maximum score. The authors found no high-quality evidence regarding the benefits of CBCT use in orthodontics. Limited evidence shows that CBCT offers better diagnostic potential, leads to better treatment planning or results in better treatment outcome than do conventional imaging modalities. Only the results of studies on airway diagnostics provided sound scientific data suggesting that CBCT use has added value. The additional radiation exposure should be weighed against possible benefits of CBCT, which have not been supported in the literature. In future studies, investigators should evaluate the effects of CBCT on treatment procedures, progression and outcome quantitatively.

  11. Identifying Educational Practices Supported by Rigorous Evidence: A Guide to the Selection of Evidence-Based Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Resource Center Program, 2014

    2014-01-01

    One component of the recently required State Systemic Improvement Plan (SSIP) for State Departments of Education calls for the selection and implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs). This report provides six steps to guide the process of selecting evidence based practices (EBP): (1) Begin with the End in Mind--Determine Targeted Outcomes;…

  12. Cancer based pharmacogenomics network supported with scientific evidences: from the view of drug repurposing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liwei; Liu, Hongfang; Chute, Christopher G; Zhu, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacogenomics (PGx) as an emerging field, is poised to change the way we practice medicine and deliver health care by customizing drug therapies on the basis of each patient's genetic makeup. A large volume of PGx data including information among drugs, genes, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) has been accumulated. Normalized and integrated PGx information could facilitate revelation of hidden relationships among drug treatments, genomic variations, and phenotype traits to better support drug discovery and next generation of treatment. In this study, we generated a normalized and scientific evidence supported cancer based PGx network (CPN) by integrating cancer related PGx information from multiple well-known PGx resources including the Pharmacogenomics Knowledge Base (PharmGKB), the FDA PGx Biomarkers in Drug Labeling, and the Catalog of Published Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS). We successfully demonstrated the capability of the CPN for drug repurposing by conducting two case studies. The CPN established in this study offers comprehensive cancer based PGx information to support cancer orientated research, especially for drug repurposing.

  13. Facilitating the implementation of evidence-based practice through contextual support and nursing leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kueny A

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Angela Kueny,1 Leah L Shever,2 Melissa Lehan Mackin,3 Marita G Titler4 1Luther College, Decorah, IA, 2The University of Michigan Hospital and Health Center, Ann Arbor, MI, 3University of Iowa College of Nursing, Iowa City, IA, 4University of Michigan School of Nursing, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Background/purpose: Nurse managers (NMs play an important role promoting evidence-based practice (EBP on clinical units within hospitals. However, there is a dearth of research focused on NM perspectives about institutional contextual factors to support the goal of EBP on the clinical unit. The purpose of this article is to identify contextual factors described by NMs to drive change and facilitate EBP at the unit level, comparing and contrasting these perspectives across nursing units. Methods: This study employed a qualitative descriptive design using interviews with nine NMs who were participating in a large effectiveness study. To stratify the sample, NMs were selected from nursing units designated as high or low performing based on implementation of EBP interventions, scores on the Meyer and Goes research use scale, and fall rates. Descriptive content analysis was used to identify themes that reflect the complex nature of infrastructure described by NMs and contextual influences that supported or hindered their promotion of EBP on the clinical unit. Results: NMs perceived workplace culture, structure, and resources as facilitators or barriers to empowering nurses under their supervision to use EBP and drive change. A workplace culture that provides clear communication of EBP goals or regulatory changes, direct contact with CEOs, and clear expectations supported NMs in their promotion of EBP on their units. High-performing unit NMs described a structure that included nursing-specific committees, allowing nurses to drive change and EBP from within the unit. NMs from high-performing units were more likely to articulate internal resources, such as quality

  14. Use of multicriteria decision analysis to support weight of evidence evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkov, Igor; Welle, Paul; Loney, Drew; Tkachuk, Alex; Canis, Laure; Kim, J B; Bridges, Todd

    2011-08-01

    Weight of evidence (WOE) methods are key components of ecological and human health risk assessments. Most WOE applications rely on the qualitative integration of diverse lines of evidence (LOE) representing impact on ecological receptors and humans. Recent calls for transparency in assessments and justifiability of management decisions are pushing the community to consider quantitative methods for integrated risk assessment and management. This article compares and contrasts the type of information required for application of individual WOE techniques and the outcomes that they provide in ecological risk assessment and proposes a multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) framework for integrating individual LOE in support of management decisions. The use of quantitative WOE techniques is illustrated for a hypothetical but realistic case study of selecting remedial alternatives at a contaminated aquatic site. Use of formal MCDA does not necessarily eliminate biases and judgment calls necessary for selecting remedial alternatives, but allows for transparent evaluation and fusion of individual LOE. It also provides justifiable methods for selecting remedial alternatives consistent with stakeholder and decision-maker values. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Working memory training in older adults: Bayesian evidence supporting the absence of transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guye, Sabrina; von Bastian, Claudia C

    2017-12-01

    The question of whether working memory training leads to generalized improvements in untrained cognitive abilities is a longstanding and heatedly debated one. Previous research provides mostly ambiguous evidence regarding the presence or absence of transfer effects in older adults. Thus, to draw decisive conclusions regarding the effectiveness of working memory training interventions, methodologically sound studies with larger sample sizes are needed. In this study, we investigated whether or not a computer-based working memory training intervention induced near and far transfer in a large sample of 142 healthy older adults (65 to 80 years). Therefore, we randomly assigned participants to either the experimental group, which completed 25 sessions of adaptive, process-based working memory training, or to the active, adaptive visual search control group. Bayesian linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate performance improvements on the level of abilities, using multiple indicator tasks for near (working memory) and far transfer (fluid intelligence, shifting, and inhibition). Our data provided consistent evidence supporting the absence of near transfer to untrained working memory tasks and the absence of far transfer effects to all of the assessed abilities. Our results suggest that working memory training is not an effective way to improve general cognitive functioning in old age. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Pet ownership and cardiovascular risk reduction: supporting evidence, conflicting data and underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arhant-Sudhir, Kanish; Arhant-Sudhir, Rish; Sudhir, Krishnankutty

    2011-11-01

    1. It is widely believed that pet ownership is beneficial to humans and that some of this benefit is through favourable effects on cardiovascular risk. In the present review, we critically examine the evidence in support of this hypothesis and present the available data with respect to major cardiovascular risk factors. 2. There is evidence that dog owners are less sedentary and have lower blood pressure, plasma cholesterol and triglycerides, attenuated responses to laboratory-induced mental stress and improved survival following myocardial infarction compared with non-pet owners. However, conflicting data exist with regard to the association between pet ownership and each of these risk factors. 3. Numerous non-cardiovascular effects of pet ownership have been reported, largely in the psychosocial domain, but the relationship is complex and can vary with demographic and social factors. 4. A unifying hypothesis is presented, linking improved mood and emotional state to decreased central and regional autonomic activity, improved endothelial function and, thus, lower blood pressure and reduced cardiac arrhythmias. 5. Overall, ownership of domestic pets, particularly dogs, is associated with positive health benefits. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Exploring use of images in clinical articles for decision support in evidence-based medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antani, Sameer; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Li, Jiang; Srinivasan, Balaji V.; Thoma, George R.

    2008-01-01

    Essential information is often conveyed pictorially (images, illustrations, graphs, charts, etc.) in biomedical publications. A clinician's decision to access the full text when searching for evidence in support of clinical decision is frequently based solely on a short bibliographic reference. We seek to automatically augment these references with images from the article that may assist in finding evidence. In a previous study, the feasibility of automatically classifying images by usefulness (utility) in finding evidence was explored using supervised machine learning and achieved 84.3% accuracy using image captions for modality and 76.6% accuracy combining captions and image data for utility on 743 images from articles over 2 years from a clinical journal. Our results indicated that automatic augmentation of bibliographic references with relevant images was feasible. Other research in this area has determined improved user experience by showing images in addition to the short bibliographic reference. Multi-panel images used in our study had to be manually pre-processed for image analysis, however. Additionally, all image-text on figures was ignored. In this article, we report on developed methods for automatic multi-panel image segmentation using not only image features, but also clues from text analysis applied to figure captions. In initial experiments on 516 figure images we obtained 95.54% accuracy in correctly identifying and segmenting the sub-images. The errors were flagged as disagreements with automatic parsing of figure caption text allowing for supervised segmentation. For localizing text and symbols, on a randomly selected test set of 100 single panel images our methods reported, on the average, precision and recall of 78.42% and 89.38%, respectively, with an accuracy of 72.02%.

  18. Supporting Evidence Use in Networked Professional Learning: The Role of the Middle Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPointe-McEwan, Danielle; DeLuca, Christopher; Klinger, Don A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In Canada, contemporary collaborative professional learning models for educators utilise multiple forms of evidence to inform practice. Commonly, two forms of evidence are prioritised: (a) research-based evidence and (b) classroom-based evidence of student learning. In Ontario, the integration of these two forms of evidence within…

  19. Resting position variables at the shoulder: evidence to support a posture-impairment association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borstad, John D

    2006-04-01

    A relationship between posture and impairment at the shoulder is theorized, but not supported by evidence. It is proposed that posture and impairment are not directly related, but linked by movement dysfunction. The purpose of this analysis was to explore the relationships among posture, pectoralis minor muscle length, and movement alterations at the shoulder. Subjects who were asymptomatic for shoulder pathology were divided into 2 groups of 25 subjects each based on normalized pectoralis minor muscle resting length. Scapula orientation, thoracic kyphosis, and pectoralis minor muscle lengths were measured, and ratios and indexes of postural variables were calculated. All variables were analyzed for correlations and group differences. Significant group differences were demonstrated for several posture variables, including thoracic spine kyphosis and scapular internal rotation. The distance from the sternal notch to the coracoid process demonstrated the highest correlation with pectoralis minor muscle length. The findings indicate a relationship between posture and pectoralis minor muscle length and support a proposed model linking posture, an anatomical variable, movement dysfunction, and impairment.

  20. Narrative production weakness in Russian dyslexics: Linguistic or procedural limitations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr N. Kornev

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the impact of non-linguistic factors on narrative production in Russian-speaking dyslexic children. The experimental group consisted of 12 children (age 9–10 with dyslexia and the control group comprised 12 peers without any developmental disorders. The sample was counterbalanced from the perspective of narrative mode, story complexity, and task order. One of the classic methodologies for narrative analysis, i.e. story grammar, was extended in our study by a novel dynamic approach, enabling us to evaluate procedural features of narrative production. The results of our study highlight limitations in dyslexic narrative language underlined by two different causes. The first one can be defined as inefficiency in developing logical (temporal/causal relationships between events; the other is difficulties in structuring an episode description. The high flexibility and dynamic changes in the episode structure in dyslexics anticipated the evidence that limitations in dyslexic narrative language are related to the deficit in procedural functions rather than to the primary language limitations; however, linguistic shortcomings in dyslexic narrative production still remain. Our experience with the dynamic approach to narrative assessment lends support to its value as a research tool. The novel dynamic approach to episode completeness analysis proved to be an effective and informative method that might highlight new mechanisms of narration and thus extend the classic narrative analysis by the addition of qualitative information.

  1. A Comparison of Types of Support for Lower-Skill Workers: Evidence for the Importance of Family Supportive Supervisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muse, Lori A.; Pichler, Shaun

    2011-01-01

    The work-family literature to date does not offer a clear picture in terms of the relative importance of different types of supports for balancing work and family demands. Grounded in conservation or resources theory, we develop an integrative model relating multiple forms of social support, both formal (i.e., work-life benefit use) and informal…

  2. Social support in the post-abortion recovery room: evidence from patients, support persons and nurses in a Vancouver clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Mariana B; Lam, Melanie; Gemeinhardt, Carla; Houlihan, Edwina; Fitzsimmons, Brian P; Hodgson, Zoë G

    2011-03-01

    The benefits of social support in post-surgical recovery are well documented; social support decreases preoperative stress and postoperative recovery time. However, a paucity of studies have examined the effect of social support in the context of pregnancy termination. This study is the first to examine the effect of postoperative accompaniment from the patient, support person and nurses' perspective. This study was carried out in two phases. In Phase I, no accompaniment was allowed in the post-anesthesia recovery room (PAR); in Phase II, accompaniment was permitted. All participants completed pre- and postoperative questionnaires. The perception of accompaniment was overwhelmingly positive in patients and support people. Patients in Phase II demonstrated a high (over 95%) acceptance of accompaniment in the recovery room. It was found that 96.8% reported they would choose to be accompanied in the recovery room again if they had to have another abortion. Support persons felt very strongly that their presence was helpful to the patient. The decrease in pre- to postoperative anxiety levels was significantly greater in those women who were accompanied. However, overall, nurses demonstrated a negative attitude towards accompaniment in the recovery room. In summary, the presence of a support person in the PAR was perceived in a positive manner by patients and support people. However, the reasoning behind the negative opinion of nurses requires further study before PAR accompaniment can be considered a possibility in the context of pregnancy termination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Supporting Formulary Decisions: The Discovery of New Facts or Constructed Evidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Langley

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A critical question, given the growing importance of more targeted therapies to support personalized and precision medicine, is the credibility of the evidence base to support formulary decisions and pricing. On the one hand, for those who subscribe to the reference case model of the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE in the UK, the decision rests upon the creation of modeled or simulated imaginary worlds and the application of threshold willingness-to-pay cost-per-QALY thresholds. On the other hand, for those who subscribe to the standards of normal science, the decision rests upon the ability to evaluate competing claims, both clinical and cost-effective, in a timeframe that is meaningful to a formulary committee. If we subscribe to the scientific method where the focus is on the discovery of new facts, untestable claims for clinical benefit and cost-effectiveness, such as created claims for lifetime cost per-quality-adjusted discounted life years (QALYs, are properly relegated to the category of pseudoscience. We have no idea, and will never know, whether the claims are right or even if they are wrong. If formulary decisions are to respect the standards of normal science then there has to be a commitment to claims evaluation. A willingness to accept new products provisionally, subject to an agreed protocol to support the evaluation of clinical and cost-effectiveness claims. This dichotomy between the standards of normal science and pseudoscience is explored in the context of published claims for cost-effectiveness and recommendations for product pricing in the US.   Type: Commentary

  4. Linguistics and the digital humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2014-01-01

    Corpus linguistics has been closely intertwined with digital technology since the introduction of university computer mainframes in the 1960s. Making use of both digitized data in the form of the language corpus and computational methods of analysis involving concordancers and statistics software......, corpus linguistics arguably has a place in the digital humanities. Still, it remains obscure and figures only sporadically in the literature on the digital humanities. This article provides an overview of the main principles of corpus linguistics and the role of computer technology in relation to data...... and method and also offers a bird's-eye view of the history of corpus linguistics with a focus on its intimate relationship with digital technology and how digital technology has impacted the very core of corpus linguistics and shaped the identity of the corpus linguist. Ultimately, the article is oriented...

  5. Formalism and functionalism in linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmeyer, Frederick J

    2010-05-01

    Formalism and functionalism in linguistics are often taken to be diametrically opposed approaches. However, close examination of the relevant phenomena reveals that the two are complementary, rather than being irrevocably in opposition to each other. One can be a formal linguist and a functional linguist at the same time, without there being any contradiction. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Derivation and validation of the Personal Support Algorithm: an evidence-based framework to inform allocation of personal support services in home and community care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ling Joanna Sinn

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Personal support services enable many individuals to stay in their homes, but there are no standard ways to classify need for functional support in home and community care settings. The goal of this project was to develop an evidence-based clinical tool to inform service planning while allowing for flexibility in care coordinator judgment in response to patient and family circumstances. Methods The sample included 128,169 Ontario home care patients assessed in 2013 and 25,800 Ontario community support clients assessed between 2014 and 2016. Independent variables were drawn from the Resident Assessment Instrument-Home Care and interRAI Community Health Assessment that are standardised, comprehensive, and fully compatible clinical assessments. Clinical expertise and regression analyses identified candidate variables that were entered into decision tree models. The primary dependent variable was the weekly hours of personal support calculated based on the record of billed services. Results The Personal Support Algorithm classified need for personal support into six groups with a 32-fold difference in average billed hours of personal support services between the highest and lowest group. The algorithm explained 30.8% of the variability in billed personal support services. Care coordinators and managers reported that the guidelines based on the algorithm classification were consistent with their clinical judgment and current practice. Conclusions The Personal Support Algorithm provides a structured yet flexible decision-support framework that may facilitate a more transparent and equitable approach to the allocation of personal support services.

  7. Derivation and validation of the Personal Support Algorithm: an evidence-based framework to inform allocation of personal support services in home and community care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinn, Chi-Ling Joanna; Jones, Aaron; McMullan, Janet Legge; Ackerman, Nancy; Curtin-Telegdi, Nancy; Eckel, Leslie; Hirdes, John P

    2017-11-25

    Personal support services enable many individuals to stay in their homes, but there are no standard ways to classify need for functional support in home and community care settings. The goal of this project was to develop an evidence-based clinical tool to inform service planning while allowing for flexibility in care coordinator judgment in response to patient and family circumstances. The sample included 128,169 Ontario home care patients assessed in 2013 and 25,800 Ontario community support clients assessed between 2014 and 2016. Independent variables were drawn from the Resident Assessment Instrument-Home Care and interRAI Community Health Assessment that are standardised, comprehensive, and fully compatible clinical assessments. Clinical expertise and regression analyses identified candidate variables that were entered into decision tree models. The primary dependent variable was the weekly hours of personal support calculated based on the record of billed services. The Personal Support Algorithm classified need for personal support into six groups with a 32-fold difference in average billed hours of personal support services between the highest and lowest group. The algorithm explained 30.8% of the variability in billed personal support services. Care coordinators and managers reported that the guidelines based on the algorithm classification were consistent with their clinical judgment and current practice. The Personal Support Algorithm provides a structured yet flexible decision-support framework that may facilitate a more transparent and equitable approach to the allocation of personal support services.

  8. The Evidence Base for How We Learn: Supporting Students' Social, Emotional, and Academic Development. Consensus Statements of Evidence from the Council of Distinguished Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie M.; Kahn, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    "The Evidence Base for How We Learn: Supporting Students' Social, Emotional, and Academic Development" articulates the scientific consensus regarding how people learn. The research brief presents a set of consensus statements--developed and unanimously signed onto by the Commission's Council of Distinguished Scientists--that affirm the…

  9. Computational linguistics for word processing: opportunities and limits

    OpenAIRE

    Mahlow, C.; Piotrowski, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we briefly outline editing functions which are aware of the structures of natural languages by using methods from computational linguistics. Such functions could reduce errors and better support writers in realizing their communicative goals. However, linguistic methods have limits, and there are various aspects software developers have to take into account to avoid creating a solution looking for a problem:Language-aware functions could be powerful tools for writers, but writer...

  10. A kindergarten experiment in linguistic e-learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2006-01-01

    As part of the BlaSq project, we are developing a set of linguistic games to be used in kindergartens. The first of these games is Crazipes, that we are currently testing in a Danish kindergarten, with the support of the local teachers. Here we discuss the architecture of the game, its potentials...... as a linguistic e-learning tool, together with the design and methodology adopted for the study. Some early results are also discussed....

  11. Linguistic Turn and Postmodernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio García-Lorente

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to show how postmodernity comes from doctrines originating in the «linguistic revolution». The thinkers of the 19th century German tradition —who are included in the socalled «Triple-H theory»— wanted to shift the line of argument from reason to language. The presupposition of the primacy of language will be presumed by the prophet of postmodernism, Nietzsche, thus making possible the dawning of postmodernity. Postmodernity will accept unquestionably the shift from the universal and absolute to the particular and relative.

  12. Motivations for Botanical Use by Socioeconomically Diverse, Urban Adults: Does Evidence Support Motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Grace F; Shupe, Emily Stave; Kuczmarski, Marie Fanelli; Zonderman, Alan B; Evans, Michele K

    2017-10-01

    The study objectives were to characterize botanical dietary supplement (BDS) use and to compare the motivations for botanical supplement (BS) use to the efficacy of the botanical in a socioeconomically and racially diverse urban adult population. Subjects were from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study, a 20-year prospective health disparities study with African American and white adults from Baltimore, Maryland. All study participants completed two dietary recalls and a dietary supplement (DS) questionnaire in Wave 3 (n = 2140). Diet quality was evaluated by the Healthy Eating Index-2010 and the Mean Adequacy Ratio for 17 micronutrients. A comparison of reported motivations to efficacy reported in the literature of single BS was conducted. Approximately 50% (1062/2140) of participants took DS. Of these, 8% (n = 178) reported taking either BS or BDS. It was found that BDS users had better diet quality than DS users as well as nonusers of DS. The top three motivations for BDS users were to improve overall health, to maintain health, and to supplement the diet. There is limited evidence for the efficacy of most BS. Review of the efficacy of the 15 BS reported by ≥5% of the study population revealed beneficial health roles for only fiber, gingko biloba extract EGb 761, and hawthorn berry. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to report a better quality diet with BDS use for a racially diverse urban population. Yet, improvement in diet is needed because overall quality did not achieve current recommendations. To improve overall health, it may be beneficial for this population to focus on dietary modifications to reduce the risks associated with chronic diseases. In general, the reported motivations for BS use were not supported by clinical evidence.

  13. Evidence to Support the Anti-Cancer Effect of Olive Leaf Extract and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Boss

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The traditional Mediterranean diet (MD is associated with long life and lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease and cancers. The main components of this diet include high intake of fruit, vegetables, red wine, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO and fish, low intake of dairy and red meat. Olive oil has gained support as a key effector of health benefits and there is evidence that this relates to the polyphenol content. Olive leaf extract (OLE contains a higher quantity and variety of polyphenols than those found in EVOO. There are also important structural differences between polyphenols from olive leaf and those from olive fruit that may improve the capacity of OLE to enhance health outcomes. Olive polyphenols have been claimed to play an important protective role in cancer and other inflammation-related diseases. Both inflammatory and cancer cell models have shown that olive leaf polyphenols are anti-inflammatory and protect against DNA damage initiated by free radicals. The various bioactive properties of olive leaf polyphenols are a plausible explanation for the inhibition of progression and development of cancers. The pathways and signaling cascades manipulated include the NF-κB inflammatory response and the oxidative stress response, but the effects of these bioactive components may also result from their action as a phytoestrogen. Due to the similar structure of the olive polyphenols to oestrogens, these have been hypothesized to interact with oestrogen receptors, thereby reducing the prevalence and progression of hormone related cancers. Evidence for the protective effect of olive polyphenols for cancer in humans remains anecdotal and clinical trials are required to substantiate these claims idea. This review aims to amalgamate the current literature regarding bioavailability and mechanisms involved in the potential anti-cancer action of olive leaf polyphenols.

  14. Further evidence supporting a role for gs signal transduction in severe malaria pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Auburn

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available With the functional demonstration of a role in erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium falciparum parasites, implications in the aetiology of common conditions that prevail in individuals of African origin, and a wealth of pharmacological knowledge, the stimulatory G protein (Gs signal transduction pathway presents an exciting target for anti-malarial drug intervention. Having previously demonstrated a role for the G-alpha-s gene, GNAS, in severe malaria disease, we sought to identify other important components of the Gs pathway. Using meta-analysis across case-control and family trio (affected child and parental controls studies of severe malaria from The Gambia and Malawi, we sought evidence of association in six Gs pathway candidate genes: adenosine receptor 2A (ADORA2A and 2B (ADORA2B, beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 1 (ADRBK1, adenylyl cyclase 9 (ADCY9, G protein beta subunit 3 (GNB3, and regulator of G protein signalling 2 (RGS2. Our study amassed a total of 2278 cases and 2364 controls. Allele-based models of association were investigated in all genes, and genotype and haplotype-based models were investigated where significant allelic associations were identified. Although no significant associations were observed in the other genes, several were identified in ADORA2A. The most significant association was observed at the rs9624472 locus, where the G allele (approximately 20% frequency appeared to confer enhanced risk to severe malaria [OR = 1.22 (1.09-1.37; P = 0.001]. Further investigation of the ADORA2A gene region is required to validate the associations identified here, and to identify and functionally characterize the responsible causal variant(s. Our results provide further evidence supporting a role of the Gs signal transduction pathway in the regulation of severe malaria, and request further exploration of this pathway in future studies.

  15. Evidence to Support a Contribution of Polyreactive Antibodies to HLA Serum Reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Baoshan; Rong, Chunshu; Porcheray, Fabrice; Moore, Carolina; Girouard, Timothy C; Saidman, Susan L; Wong, Waichi; Fu, Yaowen; Zorn, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Assessing the serum reactivity to HLA is essential for the evaluation of transplant candidates and the follow-up of allograft recipients. In this study, we look for evidence at the clonal level that polyreactive antibodies cross-reactive to apoptotic cells and multiple autoantigens can also react to HLA and contribute to the overall serum reactivity. We immortalized B cell clones from the blood of 2 kidney transplant recipients and characterized their reactivity to self-antigens, apoptotic cells as well as native, denatured, and cryptic HLA determinants using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunofluorescence, flow cytometry and Luminex assays. We also assessed the reactivity of 300 pretransplant serum specimens to HLA and apoptotic cells. We report here 4 distinct B cell clones cross-reactive to self and HLA class I. All 4 clones reacted to numerous HLA class I alleles but did not appear to target canonical "shared" epitopes. In parallel experiments, we observed a strong correlation between IgG reactivity to HLA and apoptotic cells in pretransplant serum samples collected from 300 kidney transplant recipients. Further analysis revealed that samples with higher reactivity to apoptotic cells displayed significantly higher class I percent panel-reactive antibodies compared to samples with low reactivity to apoptotic cells. We provide here (1) proof of principle at the clonal level that human polyreactive antibodies can cross-react to HLA, multiple self-antigens and apoptotic cells and (2) supportive evidence that polyreactive antibodies contribute to overall HLA reactivity in the serum of patients awaiting kidney transplant.

  16. Current evidence does not support the use of Kinesio Taping in clinical practice: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parreira, Patrícia do Carmo Silva; Costa, Lucíola da Cunha Menezes; Hespanhol, Luiz Carlos; Lopes, Alexandre Dias; Costa, Leonardo Oliveira Pena

    2014-03-01

    Is Kinesio Taping more effective than a sham taping/placebo, no treatment or other interventions in people with musculoskeletal conditions? Is the addition of Kinesio Taping to other interventions more effective than other interventions alone in people with musculoskeletal conditions? Systematic review of randomised trials. People with musculoskeletal conditions. Kinesio Taping was compared with sham taping/placebo, no treatment, exercises, manual therapy and conventional physiotherapy. Pain intensity, disability, quality of life, return to work, and global impression of recovery. Twelve randomised trials involving 495 participants were included in the review. The effectiveness of the Kinesio Taping was tested in participants with: shoulder pain in two trials; knee pain in three trials; chronic low back pain in two trials; neck pain in three trials; plantar fasciitis in one trial; and multiple musculoskeletal conditions in one trial. The methodological quality of eligible trials was moderate, with a mean of 6.1 points on the 10-point PEDro Scale score. Overall, Kinesio Taping was no better than sham taping/placebo and active comparison groups. In all comparisons where Kinesio Taping was better than an active or a sham control group, the effect sizes were small and probably not clinically significant or the trials were of low quality. This review provides the most updated evidence on the effectiveness of the Kinesio Taping for musculoskeletal conditions. The current evidence does not support the use of this intervention in these clinical populations. PROSPERO registration: CRD42012003436. Copyright © 2014 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Feature engineering and a proposed decision-support system for systematic reviewers of medical evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Bekhuis

    Full Text Available Evidence-based medicine depends on the timely synthesis of research findings. An important source of synthesized evidence resides in systematic reviews. However, a bottleneck in review production involves dual screening of citations with titles and abstracts to find eligible studies. For this research, we tested the effect of various kinds of textual information (features on performance of a machine learning classifier. Based on our findings, we propose an automated system to reduce screeing burden, as well as offer quality assurance.We built a database of citations from 5 systematic reviews that varied with respect to domain, topic, and sponsor. Consensus judgments regarding eligibility were inferred from published reports. We extracted 5 feature sets from citations: alphabetic, alphanumeric(+, indexing, features mapped to concepts in systematic reviews, and topic models. To simulate a two-person team, we divided the data into random halves. We optimized the parameters of a Bayesian classifier, then trained and tested models on alternate data halves. Overall, we conducted 50 independent tests.All tests of summary performance (mean F3 surpassed the corresponding baseline, P<0.0001. The ranks for mean F3, precision, and classification error were statistically different across feature sets averaged over reviews; P-values for Friedman's test were .045, .002, and .002, respectively. Differences in ranks for mean recall were not statistically significant. Alphanumeric(+ features were associated with best performance; mean reduction in screening burden for this feature type ranged from 88% to 98% for the second pass through citations and from 38% to 48% overall.A computer-assisted, decision support system based on our methods could substantially reduce the burden of screening citations for systematic review teams and solo reviewers. Additionally, such a system could deliver quality assurance both by confirming concordant decisions and by naming

  18. Organizational supports used by private child and family serving agencies to facilitate evidence use: a mixed methods study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Emmeline; Collins-Camargo, Crystal; McBeath, Bowen

    2017-04-08

    Challenges to evidence use are well documented. Less well understood are the formal supports-e.g., technical infrastructure, inter-organizational relationships-organizations may put in place to help overcome these challenges. This study will identify supports for evidence use currently used by private child and family serving agencies delivering publicly funded behavioral health and/or human services; examine contextual, organizational, and managerial factors associated with use of such supports; and determine how identified supports affect evidence use by staff at multiple levels of the organization. We will use a sequential explanatory mixed methods design, with study activities occurring in two sequential phases: In phase 1, quantitative survey data collected from managers of private child and family serving agencies in six states (CA, IN, KY, MO, PA, and WI) and analyzed using both regression and qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) will identify organizational supports currently being used to facilitate evidence use and examine the contextual, organizational, and managerial factors associated with the use of such supports. In phase 2, data from phase 1 will be used to select a purposive sample of 12 agencies for in-depth case studies. In those 12 agencies, semi-structured interviews with key informants and managers, focus groups with frontline staff, and document analysis will provide further insight into agencies' motivation for investing in organizational supports for evidence use and the facilitators and barriers encountered in doing so. Semi-structured interviews with managers and focus groups with frontline staff will also assess whether and how identified supports affect evidence use at different levels of the organization (senior executives, middle managers, frontline supervisors, and frontline staff). Within- and between-case analyses supplemented by QCA will identify combinations of factors associated with the highest and lowest levels of staff

  19. On the observability of turbulent transport rates by Argo: supporting evidence from an inversion experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Forget

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although estimation of turbulent transport parameters using inverse methods is not new, there is little evaluation of the method in the literature. Here, it is shown that extended observation of the broad-scale hydrography by Argo provides a path to improved estimates of regional turbulent transport rates. Results from a 20-year ocean state estimate produced with the ECCO v4 (Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean, version 4 non-linear inverse modeling framework provide supporting evidence. Turbulent transport parameter maps are estimated under the constraints of fitting the extensive collection of Argo profiles collected through 2011. The adjusted parameters dramatically reduce misfits to in situ profiles as compared with earlier ECCO solutions. They also yield a clear reduction in the model drift away from observations over multi-century-long simulations, both for assimilated variables (temperature and salinity and independent variables (biogeochemical tracers. Despite the minimal constraints imposed specifically on the estimated parameters, their geography is physically plausible and exhibits close connections with the upper-ocean stratification as observed by Argo. The estimated parameter adjustments furthermore have first-order impacts on upper-ocean stratification and mixed layer depths over 20 years. These results identify the constraint of fitting Argo profiles as an effective observational basis for regional turbulent transport rate inversions. Uncertainties and further improvements of the method are discussed.

  20. Historic evidence to support a causal relationship between spirochetal infections and Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith eMiklossy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Following previous observations a statistically significant association between various types of spirochetes and Alzheimer’s disease (AD fulfilled Hill’s criteria in favor of a causal relationship. If spirochetal infections can indeed cause AD, the pathological and biological hallmarks of AD should also occur in syphilitic dementia. To answer this question, observations and illustrations on the detection of spirochetes in the atrophic form of general paresis, which is known to be associated with slowly progressive dementia, were reviewed and compared with the characteristic pathology of AD. Historic observations and illustrations published in the first half of the 20th Century indeed confirm that the pathological hallmarks, which define AD, are also present in syphilitic dementia. Cortical spirochetal colonies are made up by innumerable tightly spiraled Treponema pallidum spirochetes, which are morphologically indistinguishable from senile plaques, using conventional light microscopy. Local brain amyloidosis also occurs in general paresis and, as in AD, corresponds to amyloid beta. These historic observations enable us to conclude that chronic spirochetal infections can cause dementia and reproduce the defining hallmarks of AD. They represent further evidence in support a causal relationship between various spirochetal infections and AD. They also indicate that local invasion of the brain by these helically shaped bacteria reproduce the filamentous pathology characteristic of AD. Chronic infection by spirochetes, and co-infection with other bacteria and viruses should be included in our current view on the etiology of AD. Prompt action is needed as AD might be prevented.

  1. Historic evidence to support a causal relationship between spirochetal infections and Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklossy, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Following previous observations a statistically significant association between various types of spirochetes and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) fulfilled Hill’s criteria in favor of a causal relationship. If spirochetal infections can indeed cause AD, the pathological and biological hallmarks of AD should also occur in syphilitic dementia. To answer this question, observations and illustrations on the detection of spirochetes in the atrophic form of general paresis, which is known to be associated with slowly progressive dementia, were reviewed and compared with the characteristic pathology of AD. Historic observations and illustrations published in the first half of the 20th Century indeed confirm that the pathological hallmarks, which define AD, are also present in syphilitic dementia. Cortical spirochetal colonies are made up by innumerable tightly spiraled Treponema pallidum spirochetes, which are morphologically indistinguishable from senile plaques, using conventional light microscopy. Local brain amyloidosis also occurs in general paresis and, as in AD, corresponds to amyloid beta. These historic observations enable us to conclude that chronic spirochetal infections can cause dementia and reproduce the defining hallmarks of AD. They represent further evidence in support a causal relationship between various spirochetal infections and AD. They also indicate that local invasion of the brain by these helically shaped bacteria reproduce the filamentous pathology characteristic of AD. Chronic infection by spirochetes, and co-infection with other bacteria and viruses should be included in our current view on the etiology of AD. Prompt action is needed as AD might be prevented. PMID:25932012

  2. Genetic evidence supporting a critical role of endothelial caveolin-1 during the progression of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Hernando, Carlos; Yu, Jun; Suárez, Yajaira; Rahner, Christoph; Dávalos, Alberto; Lasunción, Miguel A; Sessa, William C

    2009-07-01

    The accumulation of LDL-derived cholesterol in the artery wall is the initiating event that causes atherosclerosis. However, the mechanisms that lead to the initiation of atherosclerosis are still poorly understood. Here, by using endothelial cell-specific transgenesis of the caveolin-1 (Cav-1) gene in mice, we show the critical role of Cav-1 in promoting atherogenesis. Mice were generated lacking Cav-1 and apoE but expressing endothelial-specific Cav-1 in the double knockout background. Genetic ablation of Cav-1 on an apoE knockout background inhibits the progression of atherosclerosis, while re-expression of Cav-1 in the endothelium promotes lesion expansion. Mechanistically, the loss of Cav-1 reduces LDL infiltration into the artery wall, promotes nitric oxide production, and reduces the expression of leukocyte adhesion molecules, effects completely reversed in transgenic mice. In summary, this unique model provides physiological evidence supporting the important role of endothelial Cav-1 expression in regulating the entry of LDL into the vessel wall and the initiation of atherosclerosis.

  3. Prevention of childhood obesity: a review of the current guidelines and supporting evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thury, Chad; de Matos, Carla Valentina Melo

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is considered by many one of the biggest public health issues facing our country. In the U.S. almost one in three children are overweight and one in five are obese. This article aims to outline the current childhood obesity prevention measures as well as discuss programs that have had success in reducing childhood overweight and obesity. Recent literature on prevention of childhood obesity was reviewed. There was a focus on systematic reviews, random controlled trials and well-designed observational studies. Evidenced-based prevention of childhood obesity demonstrates that there is a benefit to programs that focus on a collaboration of community/school, primary health care, and home/family based interventions that involve both a physical activity and dietary component. Successful programs have more efficacy if they are longer in duration and initiated for children in middle school or younger. The most recent recommendations regarding prevention of childhood obesity focus on increased exercise and improved diet to prevent childhood obesity. Despite these clear recommendations and general consensus for them, childhood obesity continues to increase. The evidence supports a collaborative effort with multiple stakeholders to reverse the trend in childhood obesity.

  4. Providing Evidence-Based, Intelligent Support for Flood Resilient Planning and Policy: The PEARL Knowledge Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Karavokiros

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available While flood risk is evolving as one of the most imminent natural hazards and the shift from a reactive decision environment to a proactive one sets the basis of the latest thinking in flood management, the need to equip decision makers with necessary tools to think about and intelligently select options and strategies for flood management is becoming ever more pressing. Within this context, the Preparing for Extreme and Rare Events in Coastal Regions (PEARL intelligent knowledge-base (PEARL KB of resilience strategies is presented here as an environment that allows end-users to navigate from their observed problem to a selection of possible options and interventions worth considering within an intuitive visual web interface assisting advanced interactivity. Incorporation of real case studies within the PEARL KB enables the extraction of (evidence-based lessons from all over the word, while the KB’s collection of methods and tools directly supports the optimal selection of suitable interventions. The Knowledge-Base also gives access to the PEARL KB Flood Resilience Index (FRI tool, which is an online tool for resilience assessment at a city level available to authorities and citizens. We argue that the PEARL KB equips authorities with tangible and operational tools that can improve strategic and operational flood risk management by assessing and eventually increasing resilience, while building towards the strengthening of risk governance. The online tools that the PEARL KB gives access to were demonstrated and tested in the city of Rethymno, Greece.

  5. Visceral and subcutaneous fat have different origins and evidence supports a mesothelial source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, You-Ying; Bandiera, Roberto; Serrels, Alan; Martínez-Estrada, Ofelia M; Qing, Wei; Lee, Martin; Slight, Joan; Thornburn, Anna; Berry, Rachel; McHaffie, Sophie; Stimson, Roland H; Walker, Brian R; Chapuli, Ramon Muñoz; Schedl, Andreas; Hastie, Nick

    2014-04-01

    Fuelled by the obesity epidemic, there is considerable interest in the developmental origins of white adipose tissue (WAT) and the stem and progenitor cells from which it arises. Whereas increased visceral fat mass is associated with metabolic dysfunction, increased subcutaneous WAT is protective. There are six visceral fat depots: perirenal, gonadal, epicardial, retroperitoneal, omental and mesenteric, and it is a subject of much debate whether these have a common developmental origin and whether this differs from that for subcutaneous WAT. Here we show that all six visceral WAT depots receive a significant contribution from cells expressing Wt1 late in gestation. Conversely, no subcutaneous WAT or brown adipose tissue arises from Wt1-expressing cells. Postnatally, a subset of visceral WAT continues to arise from Wt1-expressing cells, consistent with the finding that Wt1 marks a proportion of cell populations enriched in WAT progenitors. We show that all visceral fat depots have a mesothelial layer like the visceral organs with which they are associated, and provide several lines of evidence that Wt1-expressing mesothelium can produce adipocytes. These results reveal a major ontogenetic difference between visceral and subcutaneous WAT, and pinpoint the lateral plate mesoderm as a major source of visceral WAT. They also support the notion that visceral WAT progenitors are heterogeneous, and suggest that mesothelium is a source of adipocytes.

  6. Evidence-based practice implementation: The impact of public versus private sector organization type on organizational support, provider attitudes, and adoption of evidence-based practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sommerfeld David H

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of this study is to extend research on evidence-based practice (EBP implementation by examining the impact of organizational type (public versus private and organizational support for EBP on provider attitudes toward EBP and EBP use. Both organization theory and theory of innovation uptake and individual adoption of EBP guide the approach and analyses in this study. We anticipated that private sector organizations would provide greater levels of organizational support for EBPs leading to more positive provider attitudes towards EBPs and EBP use. We also expected attitudes toward EBPs to mediate the association of organizational support and EBP use. Methods Participants were mental health service providers from 17 communities in 16 states in the United States (n = 170. Path analyses were conducted to compare three theoretical models of the impact of organization type on organizational support for EBP and of organizational support on provider attitudes toward EBP and EBP use. Results Consistent with our predictions, private agencies provided greater support for EBP implementation, and staff working for private agencies reported more positive attitudes toward adopting EBPs. Organizational support for EBP partially mediated the association of organization type on provider attitudes toward EBP. Organizational support was significantly positively associated with attitudes toward EBP and EBP use in practice. Conclusion This study offers further support for the importance of organizational context as an influence on organizational support for EBP and provider attitudes toward adopting EBP. The study demonstrates the role organizational support in provider use of EBP in practice. This study also suggests that organizational support for innovation is a malleable factor in supporting use of EBP. Greater attention should be paid to organizational influences that can facilitate the dissemination and implementation of EBPs in

  7. Factors that influence evidence-based program sustainment for family support providers in child protection services in disadvantaged communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Lauren M; Turner, Karen M T; Sanders, Matthew R; Forster, Michell

    2017-08-01

    This paper evaluates program, workplace and process factors associated with implementation and sustainment of an evidence-based parenting support program (EBP) in disadvantaged communities. Correlation analyses and binary logistic regressions were used to assess the associations between key implementation support factors and program implementation (at 18 months) and sustainment (at 36 months) post training with (N=35) Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander family support providers using the Triple P - Positive Parenting Program in Indigenous child protection agencies. This study demonstrated that for implementation at 18 months, there was a trend for implementing providers to report higher levels of partnership support, perceived program benefit, workplace support and workplace cohesion. However, the only significant relationship was with partnership support (r=.31 pprogram implementation. For sustained implementation at 36 months, no relationship was found between sustainment and program characteristics, workplace characteristics, supervision and peer support or sustainability planning. Supportive coaching was the only significant correlate (r=0.46, pp=0.009] in the program sustainment model. Overall, these findings suggest the need for further exploration of program and workplace variables and provide evidence to consider incorporating partnership support and supportive coaching in real world implementation models to improve the likelihood of EBP implementation and sustainment in Indigenous communities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mailing Address. Editors SPiL. Department of General Linguistics University of Stellenbosch Private Bag X1 Matieland, 7602. Stellenbosch South Africa. Principal Contact. Dr Kate Huddlestone Journal Manager Department of General Linguistics. University of Stellenbosch. Private Bag X1. Matieland, 7602. Stellenbosch.

  9. A Survey of Structural Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepschy, Giulio C.

    This book, a revised and expanded English version of the author's Italian work "La Linguistica strutturale" (1961), is a survey of the main trends in structural linguistics intended not only for the linguist but for specialists in other fields and the general reader as well. The initial chapter, "Introductory Notions," discusses general linguistic…

  10. Linguistic Markedness and Category Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Todd R.; Mansfield, Cade D.; Brewer, Katherine M.

    2011-01-01

    Several psycholinguistic theories have appealed to the linguistic notion of markedness to help explain asymmetrical patterns of behavioural data. We suggest that this sort of markedness is best thought of as a derived rather than a primitive notion, emerging when the distributional properties of linguistic categories interact with general-purpose…

  11. Ontological problems of contemporary linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А В Бондаренко

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The article studies linguistic ontology problems such as evolution of essential-existential views of language, interrelation within Being-Language-Man triad, linguistics gnosiological principles, language essence localization, and «expression» as language metalinguistic unit as well as architectonics of language personality et alia.

  12. Concise Lexicon for Sign Linguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Jan Nijen Twilhaar; Dr. Beppie van den Bogaerde

    2016-01-01

    This extensive, well-researched and clearly formatted lexicon of a wide variety of linguistic terms is a long overdue. It is an extremely welcome addition to the bookshelves of sign language teachers, interpreters, linguists, learners and other sign language users, and of course of the Deaf

  13. Linguistics and the Literary Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrar, Madeleine

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the opposing viewpoints of the two most influential linguists of this century--Saussure and Chomsky--suggesting that while both are interested in form as opposed to substance, Saussure sees linguistics as a branch of semiotics and Chomsky sees it as part of cognitive psychology. Evaluates the relevance of these two viewpoints to the…

  14. Linguistic Profiling of Language Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanth, Prathibha

    2010-01-01

    The history of the evolution of language assessments for children and adults with language disorders is described briefly. This is followed by a discussion on language assessment of the clinical population with an emphasis on linguistic profiling, illustrated through the Linguistic Profile Test. Discourse analysis, in particular, is highlighted…

  15. Applied Linguistics for Language Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeng, Paul A.

    This article reviews the historical development of applied linguistics in foreign language instruction. Five major principles influencing early applied linguistic theory are summarized, emphasizing the oral nature of language. Central to the article are discussions of: (1) prescriptive or normative grammar, (2) transformational grammar, (3)…

  16. Contrastive Linguistics and Social Lectology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, Walt

    In the past, social lectologists have not considered their work as contrastive linguistics. One reason is that sociolects of a language differ quantitatively; differences lie in the frequency patterns with which certain forms occur in each lect. Contrastive linguistics deals with standard or idealized languages, while sociolects are often…

  17. Linguistic Human Rights and Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Lionel

    2007-01-01

    The Linguistic Human Rights (LHRs) paradigm is motivated by the desire to combat linguistic discrimination, where speakers of discriminated languages find themselves unable to use their preferred language in society at large. However, in an increasingly globalised world where speakers may feel the need or the desire to travel across state…

  18. Learning concepts, language, and literacy in hybrid linguistic codes : the multilingual maze of urban grade 1 classrooms in South Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henning, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    From the field of developmental psycholinguistics and from conceptual development theory there is evidence that excessive linguistic 'code-switching' in early school education may pose some hazards...

  19. Managing symptoms during cancer treatments: evaluating the implementation of evidence-informed remote support protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey Dawn

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Management of cancer treatment-related symptoms is an important safety issue given that symptoms can become life-threatening and often occur when patients are at home. With funding from the Canadian Partnership Against Cancer, a pan-Canadian steering committee was established with representation from eight provinces to develop symptom protocols using a rigorous methodology (CAN-IMPLEMENT©. Each protocol is based on a systematic review of the literature to identify relevant clinical practice guidelines. Protocols were validated by cancer nurses from across Canada. The aim of this study is to build an effective and sustainable approach for implementing evidence-informed protocols for nurses to use when providing remote symptom assessment, triage, and guidance in self-management for patients experiencing symptoms while undergoing cancer treatments. Methods A prospective mixed-methods study design will be used. Guided by the Knowledge to Action Framework, the study will involve (a establishing an advisory knowledge user team in each of three targeted settings; (b assessing factors influencing nurses’ use of protocols using interviews/focus groups and a standardized survey instrument; (c adapting protocols for local use, ensuring fidelity of the content; (d selecting intervention strategies to overcome known barriers and implementing the protocols; (e conducting think-aloud usability testing; (f evaluating protocol use and outcomes by conducting an audit of 100 randomly selected charts at each of the three settings; and (g assessing satisfaction with remote support using symptom protocols and change in nurses’ barriers to use using survey instruments. The primary outcome is sustained use of the protocols, defined as use in 75% of the calls. Descriptive analysis will be conducted for the barriers, use of protocols, and chart audit outcomes. Content analysis will be conducted on interviews/focus groups and usability testing

  20. What supports do health system organizations have in place to facilitate evidence-informed decision-making? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen, Moriah E; Léon, Gregory; Bouchard, Gisèle; Lavis, John N; Ouimet, Mathieu; Grimshaw, Jeremy M

    2013-08-06

    Decisions regarding health systems are sometimes made without the input of timely and reliable evidence, leading to less than optimal health outcomes. Healthcare organizations can implement tools and infrastructures to support the use of research evidence to inform decision-making. The purpose of this study was to profile the supports and instruments (i.e., programs, interventions, instruments or tools) that healthcare organizations currently have in place and which ones were perceived to facilitate evidence-informed decision-making. In-depth semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with individuals in three different types of positions (i.e., a senior management team member, a library manager, and a 'knowledge broker') in three types of healthcare organizations (i.e., regional health authorities, hospitals and primary care practices) in two Canadian provinces (i.e., Ontario and Quebec). The interviews were taped, transcribed, and then analyzed thematically using NVivo 9 qualitative data analysis software. A total of 57 interviews were conducted in 25 organizations in Ontario and Quebec. The main findings suggest that, for the healthcare organizations that participated in this study, the following supports facilitate evidence-informed decision-making: facilitating roles that actively promote research use within the organization; establishing ties to researchers and opinion leaders outside the organization; a technical infrastructure that provides access to research evidence, such as databases; and provision and participation in training programs to enhance staff's capacity building. This study identified the need for having a receptive climate, which laid the foundation for the implementation of other tangible initiatives and supported the use of research in decision-making. This study adds to the literature on organizational efforts that can increase the use of research evidence in decision-making. Some of the identified supports may increase the use of

  1. Implementing supported self-management for asthma:a systematic review and suggested hierarchy of evidence of implementation studies

    OpenAIRE

    Pinnock, Hilary; Epiphaniou, Eleni; Pearce, Gemma; Parke, Hannah; Greenhalgh, Trish; Sheikh, Aziz; Griffiths, Chris J; Taylor, Stephanie J C

    2015-01-01

    Background Asthma self-management remains poorly implemented in clinical practice despite overwhelming evidence of improved healthcare outcomes, reflected in guideline recommendations over three decades. To inform delivery in routine care, we synthesised evidence from implementation studies of self-management support interventions. Methods We systematically searched eight electronic databases (1980 to 2012) and research registers, and performed snowball and manual searches for studies evaluat...

  2. Medical School Librarians Need More Training to Support their Involvement in Evidence Based Medicine Curricula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aislinn Conway

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To describe the self-perceived role of librarians in developing evidence based medicine (EBM curricula and identify their current and desired level of training to support these activities. Design – Multi-institutional qualitative study. Setting – Nine medical schools in Canada and the United States of America. Subjects – Nine librarians identified by medical school faculty as central to the provision of EBM training for medical students at their institution. Methods – The researchers designed a semi-structured interview schedule based on a review of the literature and their own experiences as librarians teaching EBM. The topics covered were; librarians’ perceptions of their roles in relation to the curriculum, the training required to enable them to undertake these roles, and their professional development needs. The interviews were conducted by telephone and then audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The authors present five main themes; curricular design, curricular deployment, curricular assessment, educational training, and professional development. Profiles were developed for each participant based on the latter two themes and from this information common characteristics were identified. Main Results – The participants described the importance of collaboration with faculty and student bodies when designing a curriculum. Information literacy instruction and specifically literature searching and forming a research question were taught by all of the participants to facilitate curricular deployment. Some of the librarians were involved or partly involved in curricular assessment activities such as formulating exam questions or providing feedback on assignments. Educational training of participants varied from informal observation to formal workshops offered by higher education institutions. All librarians indicated a willingness to partake in professional development focused on teaching and EBM. The subjects

  3. Experimental evidence supports the abscess theory of development of radicular cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, P N R; Sundqvist, Göran; Sjögren, Ulf

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this study was to experimentally induce inflammatory cysts in an animal model so as to test the hypothesis that radicular cysts develop via the "abscess pathway." Twenty-eight perforated custom-made Teflon cages were surgically implanted into defined locations in the back of 7 Sprague Dawley rats. A week after the implantation of the cages, a known quantity of freshly grown, close allogeneic oral keratinocytes in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) was injected into each cage. One cage per animal was treated as the control that received only epithelial cells. The remaining 3 cages of each animal were trials. Seven days post epithelial cell inoculation; a suspension of 0.2 mL of Fusobacterium nucleatum (10(8) bacteria per mL) was injected into each of the 3 trial cages. Two, 12, and 24 weeks after the inoculation of the bacteria, the cages were taken out, and the tissue contents were fixed and processed by correlative light and transmission electron microscopy. Sixteen of the 21 trial cages could be processed and yielded results. Inoculations of epithelial cells followed 1 week later by F. nucleatum into tissue cages resulted in the development inflammatory cysts in 2 of the 16 cages. The 2 cages contained a total of 4 cystic sites. None of the control cages showed the presence of any cyst-like pathology. Inflammatory cysts were induced by initiating acute inflammatory foci (abscess/necrotic area) by bacterial injection that got enclosed by a proliferating epithelium. This finding provides strong experimental evidence in support of the "abscess theory" of development of radicular cysts.

  4. Evidence-informed health policy 1 – Synthesis of findings from a multi-method study of organizations that support the use of research evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moynihan Ray

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organizations have been established in many countries and internationally to support the use of research evidence by producing clinical practice guidelines, undertaking health technology assessments, and/or directly supporting the use of research evidence in developing health policy on an international, national, and state or provincial level. Learning from these organizations can reduce the need to 'reinvent the wheel' and inform decisions about how best to organize support for such organizations, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. Methods We undertook a multi-method study in three phases – a survey, interviews, and case descriptions that drew on site visits – and in each of the second and third phases we focused on a purposive sample of those involved in the previous phase. We used the seven main recommendations that emerged from the advice offered in the interviews to organize much of the synthesis of findings across phases and methods. We used a constant comparative method to identify themes from across phases and methods. Results Seven recommendations emerged for those involved in establishing or leading organizations that support the use of research evidence in developing health policy: 1 collaborate with other organizations; 2 establish strong links with policymakers and involve stakeholders in the work; 3 be independent and manage conflicts of interest among those involved in the work; 4 build capacity among those working in the organization; 5 use good methods and be transparent in the work; 6 start small, have a clear audience and scope, and address important questions; and 7 be attentive to implementation considerations, even if implementation is not a remit. Four recommendations emerged for the World Health Organization (WHO and other international organizations and networks: 1 support collaborations among organizations; 2 support local adaptation efforts; 3 mobilize support; and 4 create

  5. Coherence of evidence from systematic reviews as a basis for evidence strength - a case study in support of an epistemological proposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickenautsch Steffen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article aims to offer, on the basis of Coherence theory, the epistemological proposition that mutually supportive evidence from multiple systematic reviews may successfully refute radical, philosophical scepticism. Methods A case study including seven systematic reviews is presented with the objective of refuting radical philosophical scepticism towards the belief that glass-ionomer cements (GIC are beneficial in tooth caries therapy. The case study illustrates how principles of logical and empirical coherence may be applied as evidence in support of specific beliefs in healthcare. Results The results show that radical scepticism may epistemologically be refuted on the basis of logical and empirical coherence. For success, several systematic reviews covering interconnected beliefs are needed. In praxis, these systematic reviews would also need to be of high quality and its conclusions based on reviewed high quality trials. Conclusions A refutation of radical philosophical scepticism to clinical evidence may be achieved, if and only if such evidence is based on the logical and empirical coherence of multiple systematic review results. Practical application also requires focus on the quality of the systematic reviews and reviewed trials.

  6. Multidimensional Analysis of Linguistic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Tanya; Banisch, Sven

    Network-based approaches play an increasingly important role in the analysis of data even in systems in which a network representation is not immediately apparent. This is particularly true for linguistic networks, which use to be induced from a linguistic data set for which a network perspective is only one out of several options for representation. Here we introduce a multidimensional framework for network construction and analysis with special focus on linguistic networks. Such a framework is used to show that the higher is the abstraction level of network induction, the harder is the interpretation of the topological indicators used in network analysis. Several examples are provided allowing for the comparison of different linguistic networks as well as to networks in other fields of application of network theory. The computation and the intelligibility of some statistical indicators frequently used in linguistic networks are discussed. It suggests that the field of linguistic networks, by applying statistical tools inspired by network studies in other domains, may, in its current state, have only a limited contribution to the development of linguistic theory.

  7. Linguistic threat activates the human amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, N.; Silbersweig, D.; Engelien, A.; Emmerich, S.; Malavade, K.; Beattie, B.; Leon, A. C.; Stern, E.

    1999-01-01

    Studies in animals demonstrate a crucial role for the amygdala in emotional and social behavior, especially as related to fear and aggression. Whereas lesion and functional-imaging studies in humans indicate the amygdala’s participation in assessing the significance of nonverbal as well as paralinguistic cues, direct evidence for its role in the emotional processing of linguistic cues is lacking. In this study, we use a modified Stroop task along with a high-sensitivity neuroimaging technique to target the neural substrate engaged specifically when processing linguistic threat. Healthy volunteer subjects were instructed to name the color of words of either threat or neutral valence, presented in different color fonts, while neural activity was measured by using H215O positron-emission tomography. Bilateral amygdalar activation was significantly greater during color naming of threat words than during color naming of neutral words. Associated activations were also noted in sensory-evaluative and motor-planning areas of the brain. Thus, our results demonstrate the amygdala’s role in the processing of danger elicited by language. In addition, the results reinforce the amygdala’s role in the modulation of the perception of, and response to, emotionally salient stimuli. The current study further suggests conservation of phylogenetically older mechanisms of emotional evaluation in the context of more recently evolved linguistic function. PMID:10468630

  8. Supporting Evidence-Informed Teaching in Biomedical and Health Professions Education Through Knowledge Translation: An Interdisciplinary Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tractenberg, Rochelle E; Gordon, Morris

    2017-01-01

    Phenomenon: The purpose of "systematic" reviews/reviewers of medical and health professions educational research is to identify best practices. This qualitative article explores the question of whether systematic reviews can support "evidence informed" teaching and contrasts traditional systematic reviewing with a knowledge translation (KT) approach to this objective. Degrees of freedom analysis (DOFA) is used to examine the alignment of systematic review methods with educational research and the pedagogical strategies and approaches that might be considered with a decision-making framework developed to support valid assessment. This method is also used to explore how KT can be used to inform teaching and learning. The nature of educational research is not compatible with most (11/14) methods for systematic review. The inconsistency of systematic reviewing with the nature of educational research impedes both the identification and implementation of "best-evidence" pedagogy and teaching. This is primarily because research questions that do support the purposes of review do not support educational decision making. By contrast to systematic reviews of the literature, both a DOFA and KT are fully compatible with informing teaching using evidence. A DOFA supports the translation of theory to a specific teaching or learning case, so could be considered a type of KT. The DOFA results in a test of alignment of decision options with relevant educational theory, and KT leads to interventions in teaching or learning that can be evaluated. Examples of how to structure evaluable interventions are derived from a KT approach that are simply not available from a systematic review. Insights: Systematic reviewing of current empirical educational research is not suitable for deriving or supporting best practices in education. However, both "evidence-informed" and scholarly approaches to teaching can be supported as KT projects, which are inherently evaluable and can generate

  9. Sleep facilitates learning a new linguistic rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterink, Laura J; Oudiette, Delphine; Reber, Paul J; Paller, Ken A

    2014-12-01

    Natural languages contain countless regularities. Extraction of these patterns is an essential component of language acquisition. Here we examined the hypothesis that memory processing during sleep contributes to this learning. We exposed participants to a hidden linguistic rule by presenting a large number of two-word phrases, each including a noun preceded by one of four novel words that functioned as an article (e.g., gi rhino). These novel words (ul, gi, ro and ne) were presented as obeying an explicit rule: two words signified that the noun referent was relatively near, and two that it was relatively far. Undisclosed to participants was the fact that the novel articles also predicted noun animacy, with two of the articles preceding animate referents and the other two preceding inanimate referents. Rule acquisition was tested implicitly using a task in which participants responded to each phrase according to whether the noun was animate or inanimate. Learning of the hidden rule was evident in slower responses to phrases that violated the rule. Responses were delayed regardless of whether rule-knowledge was consciously accessible. Brain potentials provided additional confirmation of implicit and explicit rule-knowledge. An afternoon nap was interposed between two 20-min learning sessions. Participants who obtained greater amounts of both slow-wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep showed increased sensitivity to the hidden linguistic rule in the second session. We conclude that during sleep, reactivation of linguistic information linked with the rule was instrumental for stabilizing learning. The combination of slow-wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep may synergistically facilitate the abstraction of complex patterns in linguistic input. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Relationship Between College Zoology Students' Religious Beliefs and Their Ability to Objectively View the Scientific Evidence Supporting Evolutionary Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Anne; Baldwin, Beatrice

    An anonymous 12-item, multiple-choice questionnaire was administered to 218 southern college, introductory zoology students prior to and following a study of evolutionary theory to assess their understanding and acceptance of the credibility of the evidence supporting the theory. Key topics addressed were the history of evolutionary thought, basic…

  11. 27 CFR 53.179 - Supporting evidence required in case of manufacturers tax involving exportations, uses, sales, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Administrative Provisions of Special Application to Manufacturers Taxes § 53.179 Supporting evidence required in... exportations, uses, sales, or resales on which the claim is based and which give rise to a right of credit or refund under section 6416(b)(2) of the Code and § 53.177, (2) Identifying the article, both as to nature...

  12. Do cultural and linguistic competence matter in Latinos’ completion of mandated substance abuse treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerrero Erick G

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing evidence suggests that culturally and linguistically responsive programs may improve substance abuse treatment outcomes among Latinos. However, little is known about whether individual practices or culturally and linguistically responsive contexts support efforts by first-time Latino clients to successfully complete mandated treatment. Methods We analyzed client and program data from publicly funded treatment programs contracted through the criminal justice system in California. A sample of 5,150 first-time Latino clients nested within 48 treatment programs was analyzed using multilevel logistic regressions. Results Outpatient treatment, homelessness, and a high frequency of drug use at intake were associated with decreased odds of treatment completion among Latinos. Programs that routinely offered a culturally and linguistically responsive practice—namely, Spanish-language translation—were associated with increased odds of completion of mandated treatment. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggest that concrete practices such as offering Spanish translation improve treatment adherence within a population that is at high risk of treatment dropout.

  13. Linguistics in the digital humanities: (computational) corpus linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Ebensgaard Jensen

    2014-01-01

    Corpus linguistics has been closely intertwined with digital technology since the introduction of university computer mainframes in the 1960s. Making use of both digitized data in the form of the language corpus and computational methods of analysis involving concordancers and statistics software, corpus linguistics arguably has a place in the digital humanities. Still, it remains obscure and fi gures only sporadically in the literature on the digital humanities. Th is article provides an ove...

  14. Legalising medical use of cannabis in South Africa: Is the empirical evidence sufficient to support policy shifts in this direction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Charles D H; Myers, Bronwyn J

    2014-03-12

    Inkatha Freedom Party MP Mario Oriani-Ambrosini's impassioned plea to legalise the medical use of cannabis must be understood in the context of his own condition as well as legislative changes in at least ten countries. This article argues that any decisions to shift policy must be based on a consideration of the evidence on the risks and benefits associated with the medical use of cannabis for the individual and broader society. It concludes that there are important gaps in the evidence base, particularly in human trials supporting the efficacy of cannabis use for treating and preventing medical conditions and alleviating negative symptoms associated with these conditions. South African researchers should be enabled actively to support development of the necessary evidence base actively by conducting preclinical and clinical research in this area. Human trials to establish the efficacy of the use of cannabis/cannabinoids in addressing AIDS wasting syndrome and other negative sequelae of HIV and AIDS are especially needed.

  15. Changes in the Linguistic Confidence of Primary and Secondary Students in Catalonia: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretxa, Vanessa; Comajoan, Llorenç; Ubalde, Josep; Vila, F. Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Previous research in first (L1) and second language (L2) acquisition has provided evidence that linguistic confidence is a key construct that can explain linguistic behaviour. In this paper, we apply previous research in the socio-contextual model of L2 learning to data from Catalonia. More specifically, the paper investigates linguistic…

  16. Exploratory Factor Analysis as a Construct Validation Tool: (Mis)applications in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Factor analysis has been frequently exploited in applied research to provide evidence about the underlying factors in various measurement instruments. A close inspection of a large number of studies published in leading applied linguistic journals shows that there is a misconception among applied linguists as to the relative merits of exploratory…

  17. Earliest Ga-Dangme culture from a linguistic point of view | Dakubu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores what linguistic research can tell us about the earliest history of the Ga and the Dangme languages: how they came to develop as separate languages, and where their early speakers may have come from. Hypotheses proposed in earlier writings by this author are refined. In addition, linguistic evidence is ...

  18. Speech-Language Pathology and Clinical Linguistics--Hope beyond the Horizon!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prema, K. S.

    2007-01-01

    The discipline of Speech-Language Pathology is a specialized field that most often adopts some of the principles from various other disciplines including Linguistics. Since long, the strength of Linguistics and its application to clinical population was evident through the work of Aphasiologists. Yet, to date, the two disciplines have remained…

  19. The interaction between specificity and linguistic contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Kuniko

    2005-09-01

    Previous studies have shown listeners' ability to remember fine phonetic details [e.g., Mullennix et al., 1989], providing support for the episodic view of speech perception. The imitation paradigm [Goldinger, 1998, Shockley et al., 2004], in which subjects' speech is compared before and after they are exposed to target speech (= study phase) has shown that subjects shift their production in the direction of the target. Our earlier results [Nielsen, 2005] showed that the imitation effect for extended VOT was generalized to new stimuli as well as to a new segment, suggesting that the locus of the imitation effect can be smaller than individual words or segments. The current study aims to further investigate how experienced speech input interacts with linguistic representations, by testing whether the imitation effect is observed when the modeled stimuli have reduced VOT (which could introduce linguistic ambiguity). In other words, do speakers imitate and generalize shorter VOT even if the change might impair linguistic contrasts? To address this question, the study phase includes words with initial /p/ with reduced VOT, while the pre- and post-study production list includes (1) the modeled words, (2) the modeled segments /p/ in new words, and (3) the new segment /k/.

  20. Semantics, contrastive linguistics and parallel corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Semantics, contrastive linguistics and parallel corpora In view of the ambiguity of the term “semantics”, the author shows the differences between the traditional lexical semantics and the contemporary semantics in the light of various semantic schools. She examines semantics differently in connection with contrastive studies where the description must necessary go from the meaning towards the linguistic form, whereas in traditional contrastive studies the description proceeded from the form towards the meaning. This requirement regarding theoretical contrastive studies necessitates construction of a semantic interlanguage, rather than only singling out universal semantic categories expressed with various language means. Such studies can be strongly supported by parallel corpora. However, in order to make them useful for linguists in manual and computer translations, as well as in the development of dictionaries, including online ones, we need not only formal, often automatic, annotation of texts, but also semantic annotation - which is unfortunately manual. In the article we focus on semantic annotation concerning time, aspect and quantification of names and predicates in the whole semantic structure of the sentence on the example of the “Polish-Bulgarian-Russian parallel corpus”.

  1. A systematic review of the evidence supporting a causal link between dietary factors and coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mente, Andrew; de Koning, Lawrence; Shannon, Harry S; Anand, Sonia S

    2009-04-13

    Although a wealth of literature links dietary factors and coronary heart disease (CHD), the strength of the evidence supporting valid associations has not been evaluated systematically in a single investigation. We conducted a systematic search of MEDLINE for prospective cohort studies or randomized trials investigating dietary exposures in relation to CHD. We used the Bradford Hill guidelines to derive a causation score based on 4 criteria (strength, consistency, temporality, and coherence) for each dietary exposure in cohort studies and examined for consistency with the findings of randomized trials. Strong evidence supports valid associations (4 criteria satisfied) of protective factors, including intake of vegetables, nuts, and "Mediterranean" and high-quality dietary patterns with CHD, and associations of harmful factors, including intake of trans-fatty acids and foods with a high glycemic index or load. Among studies of higher methodologic quality, there was also strong evidence for monounsaturated fatty acids and "prudent" and "western" dietary patterns. Moderate evidence (3 criteria) of associations exists for intake of fish, marine omega-3 fatty acids, folate, whole grains, dietary vitamins E and C, beta carotene, alcohol, fruit, and fiber. Insufficient evidence (< or =2 criteria) of association is present for intake of supplementary vitamin E and ascorbic acid (vitamin C); saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids; total fat; alpha-linolenic acid; meat; eggs; and milk. Among the dietary exposures with strong evidence of causation from cohort studies, only a Mediterranean dietary pattern is related to CHD in randomized trials. The evidence supports a valid association of a limited number of dietary factors and dietary patterns with CHD. Future evaluation of dietary patterns, including their nutrient and food components, in cohort studies and randomized trials is recommended.

  2. Teaching Hispanic Linguistics: Strategies to Engage Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knouse, Stephanie M.; Gupton, Timothy; Abreau, Laurel

    2015-01-01

    Even though many post-secondary institutions offer a variety of Hispanic linguistics classes (Hualde 2006; Lipski 2006), research on the pedagogy of Hispanic linguistics is an underdeveloped or non-existent area of the discipline. Courses in Hispanic linguistics can present not only linguistic challenges for non-native speakers of Spanish, but…

  3. LINGUISTICS AND SECOND LANGUAGE TEACHING: AN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between linguistics and second language teaching has always been a controversial one. Many linguists have argued that linguistics has nothing to say to the teacher. Sampson (1980, p.10), for example, says: "I do not believe that linguistics has any contribution to make to the teaching of English or the.

  4. Marriage Squeeze and Intergenerational Support in Contemporary Rural China: Evidence from X County of Anhui Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaoyi; Guo, Qiuju; Feldman, Marcus W

    2015-01-01

    With China's gender imbalance and increasingly severe male marriage squeeze, patterns of intergenerational support in rural areas are likely to undergo significant change. Using data from a survey of four towns from X county in Anhui province carried out in 2008, this article analyzes the effects of sons' marital status on intergenerational support. Random-effect regression analysis shows that son's marital status has strong effects on financial support to and coresidence with parents. Compared with married sons, older unmarried sons (so-called forced bachelors) tend to provide less financial support to their parents and are more likely to live with their parents. Parents' support of sons, as well as the parents' own needs and sons' capabilities all affect the support provided by sons. These results show that both theories of exchange and altruism are simultaneously relevant in the context of the marriage squeeze of contemporary rural China. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Precedent Phenomena in Quebecois Linguistic World View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ксения Эдуардовна Болотина

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the linguocultural analysis of precedent phenomena as parts of Quebecois’ cognitive base. Precedent phenomena being cultural facts are one of the key issues in modern linguistic and cognitive studies. By precedent phenomena we mean, according to Y.E. Prohorov, such entities when verbalized in discourse that refer to a certain cultural fact behind them. In the article the precedent phenomena such as precedent text, precedent situation, precedent utterance, and precedent name are analyzed. The main theses of the precedence theory given in the article (Y.N. Karaulov, Y.E. Prohorov, V.V. Krasnyh, D.B. Gudkov are at the heart of precedence studies on the basis of different languages. However, a complex analysis of precedent phenomena in the Quebec national variant of French is new to Russian linguistics. The study of precedent phenomena enables us to elicit features of their functioning in ethnospecific discourse and determine cultural dominants existing in Quebecois’ linguistic world view. Given the fact that the size of the article is limited, we undertooke the analysis of eight phenomena precedent of the bearers of Quebec linguoculture. The choice of phenomena is determined by the frequency of their use in discourse. The facts analyzed are of national character, i.e. known to all members of the linguocultural community. A certain cultural fact is at the very core of each precedent phenomenon given in the article. To get the whole picture we analysed historic, political, and cultural context connected to the precedent phenomena in question. The study enables us to elicit distinctive features that are at the core of each phenomenon. The results are backed with the supportive material drawn from analysis of different types of discourse. The analysis of precedent phenomena undertaken in this article allows us to reconstruct, to a certain extent, Quebec cultural space and is a stepping stone to the reconstruction of the

  6. Gesture Modelling for Linguistic Purposes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olivrin, GJ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of sign languages attempts to create a coherent model that binds the expressive nature of signs conveyed in gestures to a linguistic framework. Gesture modelling offers an alternative that provides device independence, scalability...

  7. Linguistics: evolution and language change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowern, Claire

    2015-01-05

    Linguists have long identified sound changes that occur in parallel. Now novel research shows how Bayesian modeling can capture complex concerted changes, revealing how evolution of sounds proceeds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Heritage language and linguistic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scontras, Gregory; Fuchs, Zuzanna; Polinsky, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses a common reality in many cases of multilingualism: heritage speakers, or unbalanced bilinguals, simultaneous or sequential, who shifted early in childhood from one language (their heritage language) to their dominant language (the language of their speech community). To demonstrate the relevance of heritage linguistics to the study of linguistic competence more broadly defined, we present a series of case studies on heritage linguistics, documenting some of the deficits and abilities typical of heritage speakers, together with the broader theoretical questions they inform. We consider the reorganization of morphosyntactic feature systems, the reanalysis of atypical argument structure, the attrition of the syntax of relativization, and the simplification of scope interpretations; these phenomena implicate diverging trajectories and outcomes in the development of heritage speakers. The case studies also have practical and methodological implications for the study of multilingualism. We conclude by discussing more general concepts central to linguistic inquiry, in particular, complexity and native speaker competence. PMID:26500595

  9. Functional categories in comparative linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    Functional categories in comparative linguistics Even after many decades of typological research, the biggest methodological problem still concerns the fundamental question: how can we be sure that we identify and compare the same linguistic form, structure, meaning etc. across languages? Very few...... linguistic categories, if any, appear to be ‘universal’ in the sense that they are attested in each and every language (Evans and Levinson 2009). The language-specific nature of form-based (structural, morphosyntactic) categories is well known, which is why typologists usually resort to ‘Greenbergian......’, meaning-based categories. The use of meaning-based or semantic categories, however, does not necessarily result in the identification of cross-linguistically comparable data either, as was already shown by Greenberg (1966: 88) himself. Whereas formal categories are too narrow in that they do not cover all...

  10. Heritage language and linguistic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scontras, Gregory; Fuchs, Zuzanna; Polinsky, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses a common reality in many cases of multilingualism: heritage speakers, or unbalanced bilinguals, simultaneous or sequential, who shifted early in childhood from one language (their heritage language) to their dominant language (the language of their speech community). To demonstrate the relevance of heritage linguistics to the study of linguistic competence more broadly defined, we present a series of case studies on heritage linguistics, documenting some of the deficits and abilities typical of heritage speakers, together with the broader theoretical questions they inform. We consider the reorganization of morphosyntactic feature systems, the reanalysis of atypical argument structure, the attrition of the syntax of relativization, and the simplification of scope interpretations; these phenomena implicate diverging trajectories and outcomes in the development of heritage speakers. The case studies also have practical and methodological implications for the study of multilingualism. We conclude by discussing more general concepts central to linguistic inquiry, in particular, complexity and native speaker competence.

  11. Heritage Language and Linguistic Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory eScontras

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a common reality in many cases of multilingualism: heritage speakers, or unbalanced bilinguals, simultaneous or sequential, who shifted early in childhood from one language (their heritage language to their dominant language (the language of their speech community. To demonstrate the relevance of heritage linguistics to the study of linguistic competence more broadly defined, we present a series of case studies on heritage linguistics, documenting some of the deficits and abilities typical of heritage speakers, together with the broader theoretical questions they inform. We consider the reorganization of morphosyntactic feature systems, the reanalysis of atypical argument structure, the attrition of the syntax of relativization, and the simplification of scope interpretations; these phenomena implicate diverging trajectories and outcomes in the development of heritage speakers. The case studies also have practical and methodological implications for the study of multilingualism. We conclude by discussing more general concepts central to linguistic inquiry, in particular, complexity and native speaker competence.

  12. A systematic review of the literature to support an evidence-based precepting program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann-Salinas, Elizabeth; Hayes, Elizabeth; Robbins, Johnnie; Sabido, Jean; Feider, Laura; Allen, David; Yoder, Linda

    2014-05-01

    To provide a systematic review of the literature regarding development of an evidence-based Precepting Program for nurses transitioning to burn specialty practice. Burned patients are admitted to specialty Burn Centers where highly complex nursing care is provided. Successful orientation and integration into such a specialized work environment is a fundamental component of a nurse's ability to provide safe and holistic patient care. A systematic review of the literature was performed for the period 1995-2011 using electronic databases within PUBMED and Ovid search engines. Databases included Medline, CINHAL, ProQuest for Dissertations and Thesis, and Cochran Collaboration using key search terms: preceptor, preceptee, preceptorship, precept*, nurs*, critical care, personality types, competency-based education, and learning styles. Nurses graded the level and quality of evidence of the included articles using a modified 7-level rating system and the Johns Hopkins Nursing Quality of Evidence Appraisal during journal-club meetings. A total of 43 articles related to competency (n=8), knowledge acquisition and personality characteristics (n=8), learning style (n=5), preceptor development (n=7), and Precepting Programs (n=14). A significant clinical gap existed between the scientific evidence and actual precepting practice of experienced nurses at the Burn Center. Based on this extensive review of the literature, it was determined that a sufficient evidence base existed for development of an evidence-based Precepting Program. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. Neuro Linguistic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Padežanin

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is in fact an introduction to the field known as neuro-linguistic programming or NLP. It describes the origins of thi s method and funda­ mental assumptions about NLP -current perception of reality, establishment of rapport, and  development of our unique potential in order to understand the world. The paper furthermore provides insight into how we use our inner senses for reflection , how language and thought interact, and how we can determine the way other people think. The NLP method simultaneousl y takes into consideration all of the personality signals - bod y a nd speech signals, and visua l pattems. NLP assumes tha t the usual framework of interpretation and criticism needs to be transcended in order for us to be able to see matters ina different light, and thus develop better al ternatives for achieving our original goals. The paper emphasizes the inner processing of information, which is captured by certain NLP diagnostic models, thus providing the starting point for change.

  14. The new linguistic order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Fishman

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The globalisation phenomenon that we are currently seeing has lead to major linguistic changes on a worldwide scale. English has become the leading international language, in economic and political spheres, and is becoming the language of high society and of the young. At the same time, however, regional languages are also making considerable headway, thanks to new social interaction and economic backing from their governments. In turn, and as a result of these two trends, there is impetus for feelings of belonging to local communities which see their language as a sign of their own authenticity, one that has to be defended against the phenomena of globalisation and regionalisation. We are thus heading towards a multilingual society, in which each language has its own, distinct social functions, even though it is inevitable that there will be conflict between the languages that come into contact. In this scenario, the author predicts a loss of hegemony for English, in favour of regional languages, and the future extinction of the least spoken minority languages.

  15. Parental Maltreatment, Bullying, and Adolescent Depression: Evidence for the Mediating Role of Perceived Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeds, Pamela M.; Harkness, Kate L.; Quilty, Lena C.

    2010-01-01

    The support deterioration model of depression states that stress deteriorates the perceived availability and/or effectiveness of social support, which then leads to depression. The present study examined this model in adolescent depression following parent-perpetrated maltreatment and peer-perpetrated bullying, as assessed by a rigorous contextual…

  16. Are Peer Support Arrangements an Evidence-Based Practice? A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Matthew E.; Huber, Heartley B.

    2017-01-01

    Peer support arrangements involve peers without disabilities providing academic and social support to students with severe disabilities (i.e., students eligible for their state's alternate assessment) in general education classrooms. We conducted a systematic literature review of studies published through 2016 to determine whether peer support…

  17. Gender, social support, and well-being: Evidence from a Greek community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Kafetsios

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of social support for psychological well-being has been aptly highlighted in epidemiological and psychological research. However, it is not clear from the existing research whether gender differences in structural (relationship status, network size, frequency of interactions with friends and functional (support satisfaction aspects of social support exist and -if they do- to what extent they affect males’ and females’ well-being. Hierarchical regression analyses of crossectional data from a Greek community sample showed that support satisfaction was an important predictor of well-being outcomes in males whereas several structural indicators were predictors of different well-being outcomes in females. Females’ anxiety, perceived stress, and loneliness were adversely affected by frequency of interaction with acquaintances. The results are discussed with regard to gender-role differences that may be underlying the social support effects on well-being, as well as related cultural values.

  18. Parental maltreatment, bullying, and adolescent depression: evidence for the mediating role of perceived social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeds, Pamela M; Harkness, Kate L; Quilty, Lena C

    2010-01-01

    The support deterioration model of depression states that stress deteriorates the perceived availability and/or effectiveness of social support, which then leads to depression. The present study examined this model in adolescent depression following parent-perpetrated maltreatment and peer-perpetrated bullying, as assessed by a rigorous contextual interview and rating system. In 101 depressed and nondepressed community adolescents between the ages of 13 and 18 (M = 15.51, SD = 1.27), peer bullying and father-perpetrated maltreatment were associated with lower perceptions of tangible support and of belonging in a social network. These forms of support mediated the association of bullying and father-perpetrated maltreatment with greater depression severity. In contrast, mother-perpetrated maltreatment was associated with higher perceptions of tangible support.

  19. Sustaining and Expanding Evidence-Based Supported Employment: The Role of State Leaders Participating in a Learning Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Gary R; Johnson-Kwochka, Annalee V; Becker, Deborah R; Drake, Robert E; Greene, Mary Ann

    2017-05-01

    State leaders often promote implementation of evidence-based practices but have difficulty sustaining and expanding them over time. This paper examines the activities of leaders in 13 states that have successfully implemented, sustained, and expanded evidence-based supported employment, known as Individual Placement and Support (IPS), for 4 to 12 years. We interviewed state leaders from 13 states participating in a learning community regarding the composition of their leadership team, participation in the learning community, interagency collaboration, state policy alignment, financing, training, and monitoring of fidelity and outcome. To assess state-level performance in implementing, sustaining, and expanding IPS services, we obtained measures of sustainment, expansion, program fidelity, and employment in the subsequent year and compared them to a priori benchmarks. The majority of states (between 69 % and 77 %) met benchmarks for sustainment, expansion, fidelity, and employment. States varied widely in specific actions to advance IPS, but all had established leadership teams, participated in the national learning community, and built an infrastructure supporting IPS. Leaders in 13 states participating in a learning community have adopted and maintained multiple strategies to sustain and expand evidence-based supported employment at a high level of fidelity with good employment outcomes.

  20. [Online information service: the library support for evidence-based practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markulin, Helena; Petrak, Jelka

    2014-01-01

    It frequently happens that physicians do not have adequate skills or enough time for searching and evaluating evidence needed in their everyday practice. Medical librarian can serve as a mediator in enabling physicians to utilize the potential offered by contemporary evidence-based medicine. The Central Medical Library (CML) at University of Zagreb, School of Medicine, designed a web-based information service aimed at the promotion of evidence-based practice in the Croatian medical community. The users can ask for a help in finding information on their clinical problems. A responsible librarian will analyse the problem, search information resources and evaluate the evidence. The answer is returned to the user by an e-mail. In the 2008-2012 period 166 questions from 12 clinical fields were received and most of them (36.1%) came from internal medicine doctors. The share of treatment-related questions was 70.5%. In the setting of underdeveloped ICT infrastructure and inadequate EBM resources availability, such information service can help in transfer of scientific evidence into the everyday clinical practice.

  1. What supports do health system organizations have in place to facilitate evidence-informed decision-making? a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Decisions regarding health systems are sometimes made without the input of timely and reliable evidence, leading to less than optimal health outcomes. Healthcare organizations can implement tools and infrastructures to support the use of research evidence to inform decision-making. Objectives The purpose of this study was to profile the supports and instruments (i.e., programs, interventions, instruments or tools) that healthcare organizations currently have in place and which ones were perceived to facilitate evidence-informed decision-making. Methods In-depth semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with individuals in three different types of positions (i.e., a senior management team member, a library manager, and a ‘knowledge broker’) in three types of healthcare organizations (i.e., regional health authorities, hospitals and primary care practices) in two Canadian provinces (i.e., Ontario and Quebec). The interviews were taped, transcribed, and then analyzed thematically using NVivo 9 qualitative data analysis software. Results A total of 57 interviews were conducted in 25 organizations in Ontario and Quebec. The main findings suggest that, for the healthcare organizations that participated in this study, the following supports facilitate evidence-informed decision-making: facilitating roles that actively promote research use within the organization; establishing ties to researchers and opinion leaders outside the organization; a technical infrastructure that provides access to research evidence, such as databases; and provision and participation in training programs to enhance staff’s capacity building. Conclusions This study identified the need for having a receptive climate, which laid the foundation for the implementation of other tangible initiatives and supported the use of research in decision-making. This study adds to the literature on organizational efforts that can increase the use of research evidence in decision

  2. Evidence of convergent and discriminant validity of child, teacher, and peer reports of teacher-student support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Hughes, Jan N; Kwok, Oi-Man; Hsu, Hsien-Yuan

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the construct validity of measures of teacher-student support in a sample of 709 ethnically diverse 2nd- and 3rd-grade academically at-risk students. Confirmatory factor analysis investigated the convergent and discriminant validities of teacher, child, and peer reports of teacher-student support and child conduct problems. Results supported the convergent and discriminant validity of scores on the measures. Peer reports accounted for the largest proportion of trait variance and nonsignificant method variance. Child reports accounted for the smallest proportion of trait variance and the largest method variance. A model with 2 latent factors provided a better fit to the data than a model with 1 factor, providing further evidence of the discriminant validity of measures of teacher-student support. Implications for research, policy, and practice are discussed.

  3. Developing and Evaluating Communication Strategies to Support Informed Decisions and Practice Based on Evidence (DECIDE): protocol and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treweek, Shaun; Oxman, Andrew D; Alderson, Philip; Bossuyt, Patrick M; Brandt, Linn; Brożek, Jan; Davoli, Marina; Flottorp, Signe; Harbour, Robin; Hill, Suzanne; Liberati, Alessandro; Liira, Helena; Schünemann, Holger J; Rosenbaum, Sarah; Thornton, Judith; Vandvik, Per Olav; Alonso-Coello, Pablo

    2013-01-09

    Healthcare decision makers face challenges when using guidelines, including understanding the quality of the evidence or the values and preferences upon which recommendations are made, which are often not clear. GRADE is a systematic approach towards assessing the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations in healthcare. GRADE also gives advice on how to go from evidence to decisions. It has been developed to address the weaknesses of other grading systems and is now widely used internationally. The Developing and Evaluating Communication Strategies to Support Informed Decisions and Practice Based on Evidence (DECIDE) consortium (http://www.decide-collaboration.eu/), which includes members of the GRADE Working Group and other partners, will explore methods to ensure effective communication of evidence-based recommendations targeted at key stakeholders: healthcare professionals, policymakers, and managers, as well as patients and the general public. Surveys and interviews with guideline producers and other stakeholders will explore how presentation of the evidence could be improved to better meet their information needs. We will collect further stakeholder input from advisory groups, via consultations and user testing; this will be done across a wide range of healthcare systems in Europe, North America, and other countries. Targeted communication strategies will be developed, evaluated in randomized trials, refined, and assessed during the development of real guidelines. Results of the DECIDE project will improve the communication of evidence-based healthcare recommendations. Building on the work of the GRADE Working Group, DECIDE will develop and evaluate methods that address communication needs of guideline users. The project will produce strategies for communicating recommendations that have been rigorously evaluated in diverse settings, and it will support the transfer of research into practice in healthcare systems globally.

  4. A framework for production of systematic review based briefings to support evidence-informed decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chambers Duncan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have developed a framework for translating existing sources of synthesized and quality-assessed evidence, primarily systematic reviews, into actionable messages in the form of short accessible briefings. The service aims to address real-life problems in response to requests from decision-makers. Development of the framework was based on a scoping review of existing resources and our initial experience with two briefing topics, including models of service provision for young people with eating disorders. We also drew on previous experience in dissemination research and practice. Where appropriate, we made use of the SUPporting POlicy relevant Reviews and Trials (SUPPORT tools for evidence-informed policymaking. Findings To produce a product that it is fit for this purpose it has been necessary to go beyond a traditional summary of the available evidence relating to effectiveness. Briefings have, therefore, included consideration of cost effectiveness, local applicability, implications relating to local service delivery, budgets, implementation and equity. Our first evidence briefings produced under this framework cover diagnostic endoscopy by specialist nurses and integrated care pathways in mental healthcare settings. Conclusions The framework will enable researchers to present and contextualize evidence from systematic reviews and other sources of synthesized and quality-assessed evidence. The approach is designed to address the wide range of questions of interest to decision-makers, especially those commissioning services or managing service delivery and organization in primary or secondary care. Evaluation of the use and usefulness of the evidence briefings we produce is an integral part of the framework and will help to fill a gap in the literature.

  5. Entrepreneurs' attitudes to training and support initiatives: evidence from Ireland and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Faoite, D.; Henry, C.; Johnston, K.; van der Sijde, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Increasingly, academics, practitioners and governments recognise the need to examine the role and effectiveness of entrepreneurship training and support. Studies to date have examined the importance of training and other skil development opportunities in promoting entrepreneurship in the context of

  6. Cultural and Linguistic Diversity Representation in School Psychology Intervention Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Victor

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of the current intervention research is critical to the adoption of evidence-based practices in the delivery of psychological services; however, the generalizability and utility of intervention research for culturally and linguistically diverse youth may be limited by the types of research samples utilized. This study addresses…

  7. Extraction and use of linguistic patterns for modelling medical guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serban, Radu; ten Teije, Annette; van Harmelen, Frank; Marcos, Mar; Polo-Conde, Cristina

    Objective: The quality of knowledge updates in evidence-based medical guidelines can be improved and the effort spent for updating can be reduced if the knowledge underlying the guideline text is explicitly modelled using the so-called linguistic guideline patterns, mappings between a text fragment

  8. Between Duty Statement and Reality--The "Linguist/Coordinator" at an Australian Indigenous Language Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olawsky, Knut J.

    2014-01-01

    The size of Australian Indigenous language centres varies from small programs with a single employment position up to large organisations which may involve several linguists, a manager and a range of support staff. This article is based on the linguist's work at an organisation at the smaller end of the scale--"Mirima Dawang…

  9. Linguistic and Psycho-Physiological Fundamentals of Linguistic Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Juškienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses one of the most important aspects of linguistic activity, i.e. psycho-physiological fundamentals. The topic is of a great importance as there is no uniform theoretical concept of this issue, although there is a range of articles that analyze some of the aspects of the problem. The author has described physiological components of linguistic activity. From the psychological point of view, the author has accentuated two types of linguistic activity – the perceptive and the expressive – that are substantially analyzed in the present article. The author assumes that the implementation of linguistic activity as well as of any activity is possible by virtue of certain competences and skills. Linguistic competences and skills are thoroughly scrutinized and their distinctive features are pointed out in the current study. The paper also presents and analyzes the key stages of the nurturing of skills. The article could be useful both for theorists of linguodidactics and for language teaching specialists.

  10. How experimental biology and ecology can support evidence-based decision-making in conservation: avoiding pitfalls and enabling application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Steven J; Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Lennox, Robert J; Taylor, Jessica J; Rytwinski, Trina; Rummer, Jodie L; Franklin, Craig E; Bennett, Joseph R; Haddaway, Neal R

    2017-01-01

    Policy development and management decisions should be based upon the best available evidence. In recent years, approaches to evidence synthesis, originating in the medical realm (such as systematic reviews), have been applied to conservation to promote evidence-based conservation and environmental management. Systematic reviews involve a critical appraisal of evidence, but studies that lack the necessary rigour (e.g. experimental, technical and analytical aspects) to justify their conclusions are typically excluded from systematic reviews or down-weighted in terms of their influence. One of the strengths of conservation physiology is the reliance on experimental approaches that help to more clearly establish cause-and-effect relationships. Indeed, experimental biology and ecology have much to offer in terms of building the evidence base that is needed to inform policy and management options related to pressing issues such as enacting endangered species recovery plans or evaluating the effectiveness of conservation interventions. Here, we identify a number of pitfalls that can prevent experimental findings from being relevant to conservation or would lead to their exclusion or down-weighting during critical appraisal in a systematic review. We conclude that conservation physiology is well positioned to support evidence-based conservation, provided that experimental designs are robust and that conservation physiologists understand the nuances associated with informing decision-making processes so that they can be more relevant.

  11. How experimental biology and ecology can support evidence-based decision-making in conservation: avoiding pitfalls and enabling application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Lennox, Robert J.; Taylor, Jessica J.; Rytwinski, Trina; Rummer, Jodie L.; Franklin, Craig E.; Bennett, Joseph R.; Haddaway, Neal R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Policy development and management decisions should be based upon the best available evidence. In recent years, approaches to evidence synthesis, originating in the medical realm (such as systematic reviews), have been applied to conservation to promote evidence-based conservation and environmental management. Systematic reviews involve a critical appraisal of evidence, but studies that lack the necessary rigour (e.g. experimental, technical and analytical aspects) to justify their conclusions are typically excluded from systematic reviews or down-weighted in terms of their influence. One of the strengths of conservation physiology is the reliance on experimental approaches that help to more clearly establish cause-and-effect relationships. Indeed, experimental biology and ecology have much to offer in terms of building the evidence base that is needed to inform policy and management options related to pressing issues such as enacting endangered species recovery plans or evaluating the effectiveness of conservation interventions. Here, we identify a number of pitfalls that can prevent experimental findings from being relevant to conservation or would lead to their exclusion or down-weighting during critical appraisal in a systematic review. We conclude that conservation physiology is well positioned to support evidence-based conservation, provided that experimental designs are robust and that conservation physiologists understand the nuances associated with informing decision-making processes so that they can be more relevant. PMID:28835842

  12. Connecting Research to Practice: Searching for Evidence to Support Favorable Student Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenos, Jeanne; Trick, Teri

    2013-01-01

    Educators have reported feeling stressed, overwhelmed, or demoralized when undesirable student behaviors are coupled with other instructional and programmatic barriers. Although helpful resources abound, it is not always easy to connect research to practice. Teachers can benefit from evidence-based practice (EBP), which basically involves reading…

  13. Validity-Supporting Evidence of the Self-Efficacy for Teaching Mathematics Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Jennifer R.; Wang, Chuang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide evidence of reliability and validity of the Self-Efficacy for Teaching Mathematics Instrument (SETMI). Self-efficacy, as defined by Bandura, was the theoretical framework for the development of the instrument. The complex belief systems of mathematics teachers, as touted by Ernest provided insights into the…

  14. Molecular archeological evidence in support of the repeated loss of a papillomavirus gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doorslaer, Koenraad; McBride, Alison A.

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming clear that, in addition to gene gain, the loss of genes may be an important evolutionary mechanism for many organisms. However, gene loss is often associated with an increased mutation rate, thus quickly erasing evidence from the genome. The analysis of evolutionarily related sequences can provide empirical evidence for gene loss events. This paper analyzes the sequences of over 300 genetically distinct papillomaviruses and provides evidence for a role of gene loss during the evolution of certain papillomavirus genomes. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the viral E6 gene was lost at least twice. Despite belonging to distant papillomaviral genera, these viruses lacking a canonical E6 protein may potentially encode a highly hydrophobic protein from an overlapping open reading frame, which we designate E10. Evolutionary pressure working on this alternative frame, may explain why, despite having lost the E6 open reading frame between 20 and 60 million years ago, evidence of an E6-like protein is conserved. PMID:27604338

  15. Is There Evidence to Support the Use of Social Skills Interventions for Students with Emotional Disabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Amanda L.; Sadeh, Shanna S.

    2014-01-01

    Scholars and practitioners advocate for the use of social skills interventions for students with emotional disabilities because significant social skills deficits are common among these students. Yet contemporary practices must be vetted for empirical evidence of their efficacy and effectiveness to ensure students are provided appropriate…

  16. International Collaboration and Its Contributions: Disseminating Knowledge and Supporting Evidence-Based Practices across Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Belva C.; Tekin-Iftar, Elif; Olcay-Gul, Seray

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how international collaboration among researchers can contribute to developing evidence-based practices and disseminating knowledge in the field of special education. A review of a sample of special education journals published in English to identify articles written in collaboration by researchers from different countries is…

  17. A Linguistic Analysis of Suicide-Related Twitter Posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Bridianne; Larsen, Mark E; Batterham, Philip J; Calear, Alison L; Christensen, Helen

    2017-09-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide. Identifying those at risk and delivering timely interventions is challenging. Social media site Twitter is used to express suicidality. Automated linguistic analysis of suicide-related posts may help to differentiate those who require support or intervention from those who do not. This study aims to characterize the linguistic profiles of suicide-related Twitter posts. Using a dataset of suicide-related Twitter posts previously coded for suicide risk by experts, Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) and regression analyses were conducted to determine differences in linguistic profiles. When compared with matched non-suicide-related Twitter posts, strongly concerning suicide-related posts were characterized by a higher word count, increased use of first-person pronouns, and more references to death. When compared with safe-to-ignore suicide-related posts, strongly concerning suicide-related posts were characterized by increased use of first-person pronouns, greater anger, and increased focus on the present. Other differences were found. The predictive validity of the identified features needs further testing before these results can be used for interventional purposes. This study demonstrates that strongly concerning suicide-related Twitter posts have unique linguistic profiles. The examination of Twitter data for the presence of such features may help to validate online risk assessments and determine those in need of further support or intervention.

  18. The Open Linguistics Working Group: Developing the Linguistic Linked Open Data Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    McCrae, John Philip; Chiarcos, Christian; Bond, Francis; Cimiano, Philipp; Declerck, Thierry; de Melo, Gerard; Gracia, Jorge; Hellmann, Sebastian; Klimek, Bettina; Moran, Steven; Osenova, Petya; Pareja-Lora, Antonio; Pool, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The Open Linguistics Working Group (OWLG) brings together researchers from various fields of linguistics, natural language processing, and information technology to present and discuss principles, case studies, and best practices for representing, publishing and linking linguistic data collections. A major outcome of our work is the Linguistic Linked Open Data (LLOD) cloud, an LOD (sub-)cloud of linguistic resources, which covers various linguistic databases, lexicons, corpora, terminologies,...

  19. Investigation assessing the publicly available evidence supporting postmarketing withdrawals, revocations and suspensions of marketing authorisations in the EU since 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Samantha; Lynn, Elizabeth; Shakir, Saad

    2018-01-23

    To assess the sources of publicly available evidence supporting withdrawal, revocation or suspension of marketing authorisations ('regulatory actions') due to safety reasons in the EU since 2012 and to investigate the time taken since initial marketing authorisation to reach these regulatory decisions. This investigation examined the sources of evidence supporting 18 identified prescription medicinal products which underwent regulatory action due to safety reasons within the EU in the period 1 July 2012 to 31 December 2016. Eighteen single or combined active substances ('medicinal products') withdrawn, revoked or suspended within the EU for safety reasons between 2012 and 2016 met the inclusion criteria. Case reports were most commonly cited, supporting 94.4% of regulatory actions (n=17), followed by randomised controlled trial, meta-analyses, animal and in vitro, ex vivo or in silico study designs, each cited in 72.2% of regulatory actions (n=13). Epidemiological study designs were least commonly cited (n=8, 44.4%). Multiple sources of evidence contributed to 94.4% of regulatory decisions (n=17). Death was the most common adverse drug reaction leading to regulatory action (n=5; 27.8%), with four of these related to medication error or overdose. Median (IQR) time taken to reach a decision from the start of regulatory review was found to be 204.5 days (143, 535 days) and decreased across the study period. Duration of marketing prior to regulatory action, from the medicinal product's authorisation date, increased across the period 2012-2016. The sources of evidence supporting pharmacovigilance regulatory activities appear to have changed since implementation of Directive 2010/84/EU and Regulation (EU) No. 1235/2010. This, together with a small improvement in regulatory efficiency, suggests progress towards more rapid regulatory decisions based on more robust evidence. Future research should continue to monitor sources of evidence supporting regulatory decisions and

  20. Danish evidence-based clinical guideline for use of nutritional support in pulmonary rehabilitation of undernourished patients with stable COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Anne Marie; Iepsen, Ulrik Winning; Topperup, Randi

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Disease-related under-nutrition is a common problem in individuals with COPD. The rationale for nutritional support in pulmonary rehabilitation therefore seems obvious. However there is limited evidence regarding the patient-relevant outcomes i.e. activities of daily living (ADL......) or quality of life. Therefore the topic was included in The Danish Health and Medicines Authority's development of an evidence-based clinical guideline for rehabilitation of patients with stable COPD. Methods The methods were specified by The Danish Health and Medicines Authority as part of a standardized...... approach to evidence-based national clinical practice guidelines. They included formulation of a PICO with pre-defined criteria for the Population, Intervention, Control and Outcomes. Existing guidelines or systematic reviews were used after assessment using the AGREE II tool or AMSTAR, if possible. We...

  1. Autonomous linguistic systems in the language of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Y

    1997-10-01

    This paper considers cross-linguistic findings concerning the early development of formal, arbitrary, grammatical systems in normal hearing and deaf children and in children with congenital brain abnormalities. The paper reviews evidence showing an early acquisition of grammatical forms. Such learning is typically dissociated from the development of the relevant semantics. Form-function correspondences were not required for the development of morphological paradigms and for certain aspects of formal syntax. This finding held across all the populations studied. It is hypothesized that the autonomous nature of these formal paradigms accounts for their priority in learning cross-linguistically.

  2. First steps into language? Examining the specific longitudinal relations between walking, exploration and linguistic skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ora Oudgenoeg-Paz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent empirical evidence demonstrates relationships between motor and language development that are partially mediated by exploration. This is in line with the embodied cognition approach to development that views language as grounded in real-life sensorimotor interactions with the environment. This view implies that the relations between motor and linguistic skills should be specific. Moreover, as motor development initially changes the possibilities children have to explore the environment, initial relations between motor and linguistic skills should become weaker over time. Empirical evidence pertaining to the duration and specificity of these relations is still lacking. The current study investigated longitudinal relations between attainment of walking and the development of several linguistic skills, and tested whether exploration through self-locomotion mediated these relations. Linguistic skills were measured at age 43 months, which is later than the age used in previous studies. Three hypotheses were tested: (1 the relations between walking and language found at younger ages will decrease over time (2 exploration through self-locomotion will remain an important predictor of spatial language (3 no relation will be found between walking, exploration and the use of grammatical and lexical categories and between exploration and general vocabulary. Thirty-one Dutch children took part in a longitudinal study. Parents reported about age of attainment of walking. Exploration through self-locomotion was measured using observations of play with a standard set of toys at age 20 months. Receptive vocabulary, spatial language and use of grammatical and lexical categories were measured at age 43 months using (standard tests. Results reveal that age of walking does not directly predict spatial language at age 43 months. Exploration through self-locomotion does significantly and completely mediate the indirect effect of age of walking on spatial

  3. First Steps into Language? Examining the Specific Longitudinal Relations between Walking, Exploration and Linguistic Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudgenoeg-Paz, Ora; Volman, M Chiel J M; Leseman, Paul P M

    2016-01-01

    Recent empirical evidence demonstrates relationships between motor and language development that are partially mediated by exploration. This is in line with the embodied cognition approach to development that views language as grounded in real-life sensorimotor interactions with the environment. This view implies that the relations between motor and linguistic skills should be specific. Moreover, as motor development initially changes the possibilities children have to explore the environment, initial relations between motor and linguistic skills should become weaker over time. Empirical evidence pertaining to the duration and specificity of these relations is still lacking. The current study investigated longitudinal relations between attainment of walking and the development of several linguistic skills, and tested whether exploration through self-locomotion mediated these relations. Linguistic skills were measured at age 43 months, which is later than the age used in previous studies. Three hypotheses were tested: (1) the relations between walking and language found at younger ages will decrease over time (2) exploration through self-locomotion will remain an important predictor of spatial language (3) no relation will be found between walking, exploration and the use of grammatical and lexical categories and between exploration and general vocabulary. Thirty-one Dutch children took part in a longitudinal study. Parents reported about age of attainment of walking. Exploration through self-locomotion was measured using observations of play with a standard set of toys at age 20 months. Receptive vocabulary, spatial language and use of grammatical and lexical categories were measured at age 43 months using (standard) tests. Results reveal that age of walking does not directly predict spatial language at age 43 months. Exploration through self-locomotion does significantly and completely mediate the indirect effect of age of walking on spatial language. Moreover

  4. Linguistic and Psycho-Linguistic Principles of Linguadidactics (theoretical interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Mauzienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article considers linguadidactics being closely related to linguistics, psychology, psycholinguistics and didactics and applies their theoretical statements and regularities in its scientific studies. Methodology refers to linguistics which investigates the language as a teaching subject. Methodology is linked to psychology in two ways. First of all, it is based on psychology as the teaching process is an intellectual psychical act and its regularities are necessary to know. On the other hand, methodology applies rules of pedagogy that predicts ways of learning and development of language skills. The article emphasizes that sustainable work experience and analysis of scientific research show that teaching process is more effective if consistent patterns of linguistics and psychology are appropriately applied.

  5. Risk Aversion and Support for Merit Pay: Theory and Evidence from Minnesota's Q Comp Program

    OpenAIRE

    Carl Nadler; Matthew Wiswall

    2011-01-01

    Recent research attributes the lack of merit pay in teaching to the resistance of teachers. This article examines whether the structure of merit pay affects the types of teachers who support it. We develop a model of the relative utility teachers receive from merit pay versus the current fixed schedule of raises. We show that if teachers are risk averse, teachers with higher base salaries would be more likely to support a merit pay program that allows them to keep their current base salary an...

  6. Research evidence supports three major glaciation events in the distant past

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Glaciers reached Cape Cod, Mass., in the most recent ice age about 20,000 years ago. But much harsher ice ages hit the Earth in an ancient geological interval known as "the Cryogenian Period" between 750 and 600 million years ago. A team of geologists from China and the United States now report evidence of at least three ice ages during that ancient time.

  7. EQUIPT: supporting European stakeholders to make decisions about investment in evidence-based tobacco control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Evers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available EQUIPT brings together expertise from multiple disciplines and aims to provide policy makers and wider stakeholders with bespoke information about the economic and wider returns that investing in evidence-based tobacco control including smoking cessation agendas can generate. Led by Health Economics Research Group (HERG at Brunel University, London, EQUIPT is a partnership of 11 consortium members from 7 member states – Belgium, Croatia, Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, Spain and the UK.

  8. Evidence from Central Mexico Supporting the Younger Dryas Extraterrestrial Impact Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    27, 2011, Bern Switzerland, #1556. ¶Higgins MD, et al., Bathymetric and petrological evidence for a young (Pleistocene?) 4-km diameter impact crater...Hypothesis, INQUAXVIII, July 21–27, 2011, Bern Switzerland, (abstr.) 1813. ***Kimbel D, West A, Kennett JP, A new method for producing nanodiamonds based on...megatons occur about once every 220 y (52). Similar but smaller effects occurred during the Trinity atomic bomb test in 1945, an aerial burst that also

  9. Reducing potentially inappropriate medications in palliative cancer patients: evidence to support deprescribing approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Julian; Dooley, Michael; Martin, Jennifer; Fay, Michael; Kearney, Alison; Barras, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Cancer patients who have transitioned from curative intent chemotherapy or radiotherapy to palliative therapy have limited life expectancies. Due to this, medications for primary and secondary prevention or those with no short-term benefit are potentially inappropriate medicines in this patient group. These medications often have potentially harmful profiles, increasing the patient's adverse drug events, pill burden, and medication costs. This review evaluates the most current evidence to assess the outcomes and potential methods used for identifying and ceasing potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) in palliative cancer patients. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using the databases Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, IPA, and CINAHL. Of the 51 articles examined in detail, three studies relating to cancer have been evaluated. In these retrospective and cross-sectional studies, the incidence of PIMs was shown in approximately 20% of patients, although the studies were inconsistent. In addition, six studies were identified that demonstrated the evidence in other population groups; these studies have been selected to establish the evidence in large-scale retrospective studies, prospective cross-sectional studies, both demonstrating the prevalence of PIMs, as well as the outcomes of ceasing PIMs. There is evidence that PIMs are commonly prescribed in palliative care patients. There are no studies that have identified the impact of ceasing PIMS in this setting. Published tools and implemented strategies have focused on the elderly populations. Further research is warranted in establishing clear guidelines for the identification of PIMs in palliative cancer patients as well as interventional studies assessing the outcomes of ceasing PIMs in these patients.

  10. The evidence supporting methods of tooth width measurement: Part I. Vernier calipers to stereophotogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Devan; Freer, Terrence J

    2013-11-01

    Measuring tooth widths is a key component of orthodontic treatment planning. Over recent decades, many methods have been proposed to achieve this purpose. The current review highlights and describes the initial techniques. The evidence behind their use is presented along with a brief discussion of their benefits and shortfalls. With knowledge and understanding of the accuracy and limitations of the various measurement methods, the clinician may be better informed and therefore able to select the most appropriate method for clinical practice.

  11. Plantar fasciitis – to jab or to support? A systematic review of the current best evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uden H

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hayley Uden1, Eva Boesch1, Saravana Kumar1,21Division of Health Sciences, 2International Centre for Allied Health Evidence, University of South Australia, North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia, AustraliaBackground: Plantar fasciitis is a common condition routinely managed by podiatrists in the community and is widely treated conservatively. Two commonly used treatments for plantar fasciitis are customized functional foot orthoses and corticosteroid injections. While common to clinical practice, the evidence base underpinning these treatment strategies is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness and safety of customized functional foot orthoses and corticosteroid injections in the treatment of plantar fasciitis.Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted. Experimental studies, in English, from 1998 to 2010 were accepted for inclusion in this review. The PEDro quality assessment tool and the National Health and Medical Research Council's hierarchy of evidence were used to assess the quality of the included studies.Results: Six randomized controlled trials which met the selection criteria were included in this review. Four reported on customized functional foot orthoses and 2 on corticosteroid injections. Current best available evidence highlights that both customized functional foot orthoses and corticosteroid injections can lead to a decrease in pain associated with plantar fasciitis. Additionally, customized functional foot orthoses may also provide an additional benefit in terms of increased functional ability in patients with plantar fasciitis. Corticosteroid injections may have side effects, especially pain (from the injection.Conclusion: Both customized functional foot orthoses and corticosteroid injections can lead to reduction in pain associated with plantar fasciitis. While customized functional foot orthoses may increase the functional outcomes in patients with plantar fasciitis

  12. Creating infrastructure supportive of evidence-based nursing practice: leadership strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Robin P

    2007-01-01

    Nursing leadership is the cornerstone of successful evidence-based practice (EBP) programs within health care organizations. The key to success is a strategic approach to building an EBP infrastructure, with allocation of appropriate human and material resources. This article indicates the organizational infrastructure that enables evidence-based nursing practice and strategies for leaders to enhance evidence-based practice using "the conceptual model for considering the determinants of diffusion, dissemination, and implementation of innovations in health service delivery and organization." Enabling EBP within organizations is important for promoting positive outcomes for nurses and patients. Fostering EBP is not a static or immediate outcome, but a long-term developmental process within organizations. Implementation requires multiple strategies to cultivate a culture of inquiry where nurses generate and answer important questions to guide practice. Organizations that can enable the culture and build infrastructure to help nurses develop EBP competencies will produce a professional environment that will result in both personal growth for their staff and improvements in quality that would not otherwise be possible.

  13. Asset Management Planning – providing the evidence to support robust and risk-based investment decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Chrissy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade the UK’s joint Flood and Coastal Erosion Risk Management Research and Development programme has been developing methods to support a move to a risk-based approach to flood defence asset management. Looking to ensure investment is less ‘find and fix’ and made to those assets where the biggest risk reduction can be made for the money available. In addition, providing the capability to articulate the benefits of investing in these assets quantitatively and transparently. This paper describes how the Asset Performance Tools (APT project [1] is delivering practical methods, prototype tools and supporting guidance which, together with related initiatives such as the Environment Agency’s Creating Asset Management Capacity (CAMC strategic programme [2] and the ‘State of the Nation’ (SoN [3] supportive datasets, will enable a risk-based, ‘predict and protect’ approach to asset management. A key advance is the ability to bring in local knowledge to make national generic datasets locally relevant. The paper also highlights existing outputs that can already be used to support a more proactive approach to asset management. It will summarise the ongoing work which will further develop and fine tune performance assessment and investment decision processes within an integrated conceptual framework aligned with ISO55000, deliverable via CAMC and whose concepts can be used by all risk management authorities.

  14. Transition of Youth and Young Adults with Emotional or Behavioral Difficulties: An Evidence-Supported Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Hewitt B., Ed.; Unruh, Deanne K., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This comprehensive professional handbook will help transition specialists, general and special educators, school psychologists, and administrators support youth and young adults in setting goals and achieving positive outcomes across employment, education, and community settings. Through up-to-date research and in-depth analyses of five successful…

  15. Families Support to Transistion: A Systematic Review of the Evidence. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, Susanne; Cox, Kate; Silfversten, Erik; Anderson, Brent; Meads, Catherine; Schaefer, Agnes Gereben; Larkin, Jody

    2016-01-01

    Each year, approximately 17,000 personnel leave the UK Armed Forces and return to civilian life. The Forces in Mind Trust (FiMT) has called for better transition support in order to assist Service leavers and their families in leading successful civilian lives. FiMT conducted a stakeholder engagement programme in 2015 to identify areas where…

  16. Evidence Supports the Use of Soy Protein to Promote Cardiometabolic Health and Muscle Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Greg; Mendelson, Garry J

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of adequate amounts of dietary protein can help individuals maintain a healthy body composition, especially when combined with resistance exercise and during weight loss. It is well established that dietary protein intake supports muscle development and helps reduce loss of lean body mass during weight loss. Numerous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of soy protein intake for promoting fat loss while preserving muscle mass and supporting lean body mass gains. In fact, soy protein and animal-based proteins both support weight loss and weight maintenance equally as part of an energy-restricted diet; however, soy protein offers additional cardiometabolic advantages. Key teaching points: Soy protein is a high-quality, plant-based protein that can be consumed throughout the life span. More human clinical studies have been conducted to assess the cholesterol-lowering effects of soy protein than any other cholesterol-lowering food ingredient. Ingestion of proteins with unique and complementary characteristics like soy, whey, and casein helps resistance-trained individuals achieve significant muscle growth. Recent research supports the efficacy of consuming a combination of soy, whey, and casein after resistance exercise to extend the time period that muscle building occurs.

  17. Linguistics and cognitive linguistics as tools of pedagogical discourse analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurovskaya Yulia G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the use of linguistics and cognitive linguistics as tools of pedagogical discourse analysis, thus establishing a new branch of pedagogy called pedagogical semiology that is concerned with students’ acquisition of culture encoded in symbols and the way students’ sign consciousness formed in the context of learning affects their world cognition and interpersonal communication. The article introduces a set of tools that would enable the teacher to organize the educational process in compliance with the rules of language as a sign system applied to the context of pedagogy and with the formation of younger generation’s language picture of the world.

  18. Social support and leisure-time physical activity: longitudinal evidence from the Brazilian Pró-Saúde cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werneck Guilherme L

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although social support has been observed to exert a beneficial influence on leisure-time physical activity (LTPA, multidimensional approaches examining social support and prospective evidence of its importance are scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate how four dimensions of social support affect LTPA engagement, maintenance, type, and time spent by adults during a two-year follow-up. Methods This paper reports on a longitudinal study of 3,253 non-faculty public employees at a university in Rio de Janeiro (the Pró-Saúde study. LTPA was evaluated using a dichotomous question with a two-week reference period, and further questions concerning LTPA type (individual or group and time spent on the activity. Social support was measured by the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Scale (MOS-SSS. To assess the association between social support and LTPA, two different statistical models were used: binary and multinomial logistic regression models for dichotomous and polytomous outcomes, respectively. Models were adjusted separately for those who began LTPA in the middle of the follow up (engagement group and for those who had maintained LTPA since the beginning of the follow up (maintenance group. Results After adjusting for confounders, statistically significant associations (p Conclusions All dimensions of social support influenced LTPA type or the time spent on the activity. However, our findings suggest that social support is more important in engagement than in maintenance. This finding is important, because it suggests that maintenance of LTPA must be associated with other factors beyond the individual's level of social support, such as a suitable environment and social/health policies directed towards the practice of LTPA.

  19. Aspects of the linguistic competence of deaf children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, D

    1984-02-01

    In this paper the following three issues are considered in the light of recent research: Do severely/profoundly deaf children develop a grammar for English? Evidence is presented which suggests that they do and that this grammar displays a number of general characteristics some of which parallel the language of younger hearing children, others that do not. The limitations of this grammar will be discussed and hypotheses about the nature, origins and inevitability of such limitations explored. In what ways do the linguistic experiences of deaf children differ from that of hearing children? Some aspects of the deaf child's experience of language will be explored and their linguistic and psychological implications discussed. The relationships between current research findings on the linguistic development of the deaf and the possibility of improved educational methods will also be explored to consider the various different philosophies currently being debated in this field.

  20. Do knowledge infrastructure facilities support evidence-based practice in occupational health? An exploratory study across countries among occupational physicians enrolled on Evidence-Based Medicine courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugenholtz, Nathalie I R; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Sluiter, Judith K; van Dijk, Frank J H

    2009-01-30

    Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) is an important method used by occupational physicians (OPs) to deliver high quality health care. The presence and quality of a knowledge infrastructure is thought to influence the practice of EBM in occupational health care. This study explores the facilities in the knowledge infrastructure being used by OPs in different countries, and their perceived importance for EBM practice. Thirty-six OPs from ten countries, planning to attend an EBM course and to a large extent recruited via the European Association of Schools of Occupational Medicine (EASOM), participated in a cross-sectional study. Research and development institutes, and knowledge products and tools are used by respectively more than 72% and more than 80% of the OPs and they are rated as being important for EBM practice (more than 65 points (range 0-100)). Conventional knowledge access facilities, like traditional libraries, are used often (69%) but are rated as less important (46.8 points (range 0-100)) compared to the use of more novel facilities, like question-and-answer facilities (25%) that are rated as more important (48.9 points (range 0-100)). To solve cases, OPs mostly use non evidence-based sources. However, they regard the evidence-based sources that are not often used, e.g. the Cochrane library, as important enablers for practising EBM. The main barriers are lack of time, payment for full-text articles, language barrier (most texts are in English), and lack of skills and support. This first exploratory study shows that OPs use many knowledge infrastructure facilities and rate them as being important for their EBM practice. However, they are not used to use evidence-based sources in their practice and face many barriers that are comparable to the barriers physicians face in primary health care.

  1. Do knowledge infrastructure facilities support Evidence-Based Practice in occupational health? An exploratory study across countries among occupational physicians enrolled on Evidence-Based Medicine courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Dijk Frank JH

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM is an important method used by occupational physicians (OPs to deliver high quality health care. The presence and quality of a knowledge infrastructure is thought to influence the practice of EBM in occupational health care. This study explores the facilities in the knowledge infrastructure being used by OPs in different countries, and their perceived importance for EBM practice. Methods Thirty-six OPs from ten countries, planning to attend an EBM course and to a large extent recruited via the European Association of Schools of Occupational Medicine (EASOM, participated in a cross-sectional study. Results Research and development institutes, and knowledge products and tools are used by respectively more than 72% and more than 80% of the OPs and they are rated as being important for EBM practice (more than 65 points (range 0–100. Conventional knowledge access facilities, like traditional libraries, are used often (69% but are rated as less important (46.8 points (range 0–100 compared to the use of more novel facilities, like question-and-answer facilities (25% that are rated as more important (48.9 points (range 0–100. To solve cases, OPs mostly use non evidence-based sources. However, they regard the evidence-based sources that are not often used, e.g. the Cochrane library, as important enablers for practising EBM. The main barriers are lack of time, payment for full-text articles, language barrier (most texts are in English, and lack of skills and support. Conclusion This first exploratory study shows that OPs use many knowledge infrastructure facilities and rate them as being important for their EBM practice. However, they are not used to use evidence-based sources in their practice and face many barriers that are comparable to the barriers physicians face in primary health care.

  2. Moderating effects of nurses' organizational justice between organizational support and organizational citizenship behaviors for evidence-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Sheng

    2014-10-01

    Lack of existing literature on the correlation among organizational justice, organizational support, and organizational citizenship behaviors has created a research gap in previous evidence-based practice (EBP) studies on nursing personnel. To investigate whether organizational justice among nurses has a moderating effect between their organizational support and organizational citizenship behaviors in order to bridge such a gap of existing literature with the EBP study on nursing personnel. Nursing staff of one large and influential hospital in Taiwan was surveyed. Four hundred questionnaires were distributed, and 386 were collected with a valid response rate of 96.50%. SPSS 17.0 and Amos 17.0 statistical software packages were used for data analysis. Nurses' organizational support positively influences their organizational citizenship behaviors, and their organizational justice perception has a positive moderating effect between organizational support and organizational citizenship behaviors. Results call hospitals' attention to the type of individual behaviors that may improve organizational performance. When nursing staff perceive fair and impartial treatment by the organization and supportive emotional attachment, behaviors beneficial for the organization are expressed in return. Subjective perceptions of nursing staff play an important role in organizational exchange relationship; the higher the degree of nursing staff's perceived organizational justice, the higher the degree of their organizational support, perception, and exhibition of organizational citizenship behaviors such as altruistic behavior and dedication to the work. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  3. Updated evidence in support of diet and exercise interventions in cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekmezi, Dorothy W; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2011-02-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that diet and exercise behaviors and body weight status influence health-related outcomes after a cancer diagnosis. This review synthesizes the recent progress in lifestyle interventions in light of current guidelines put forth by the American Cancer Society (ACS), the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) and the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). The PubMed database was searched for terms of cancer survivor(s) or neoplasms/survivor, cross-referenced with MeSH terms of lifestyle, health behavior, physical activity, exercise, body weight, obesity, weight loss, diet, nutrition, and intervention studies and limited to randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that had retention rates exceeding 75%. There has been an increase in the number and methodological rigor of the studies in this area, with 21 RCTs identified in the past three years. Results suggest that physical activity interventions are safe for cancer survivors and produce improvements in fitness, strength, physical function, and cancer-related psychosocial variables, whereas dietary interventions improve diet quality, nutrition-related biomarkers and body weight. Preliminary evidence also suggests that diet and exercise may positively influence biomarkers associated with progressive disease and overall survival (e.g., insulin levels, oxidative DNA damage, tumor proliferation rates). The evidence base regarding health-related benefits of increased physical activity, an improved diet, and weight control continues to expand. Due to the large (and increasing) number of cancer survivors, more research is needed that tests the impact of lifestyle change on health-related outcomes in this population, especially research that focuses on high-reach, sustainable interventions that recruit diverse, representative samples to help increase the generalizability of findings to the population at large. Concurrent research also needs to address

  4. Spectroscopic evidence for origins of size and support effects on selectivity of Cu nanoparticle dehydrogenation catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witzke, M. E.; Dietrich, P. J.; Ibrahim, M. Y. S.; Al-Bardan, K.; Triezenberg, M. D.; Flaherty, D. W.

    2016-12-12

    Selective dehydrogenation catalysts that produce acetaldehyde from bio-derived ethanol can increase the efficiency of subsequent processes such as C–C coupling over metal oxides to produce 1-butanol or 1,3-butadiene or oxidation to acetic acid. Here, we use in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy and steady state kinetics experiments to identify Cuδ+ at the perimeter of supported Cu clusters as the active site for esterification and Cu0 surface sites as sites for dehydrogenation. Correlation of dehydrogenation and esterification selectivities to in situ measures of Cu oxidation states show that this relationship holds for Cu clusters over a wide-range of diameters (2–35 nm) and catalyst supports and reveals that dehydrogenation selectivities may be controlled by manipulating either.

  5. A Framework to Reenvision Instructional Scaffolding for Linguistically Diverse Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Luciana C.; Athanases, Steven Z.

    2017-01-01

    This commentary presents a coherent framework that reenvisions instructional scaffolding for linguistically and culturally diverse learners, based on our research, teaching, and collaborations with teachers. We have worked to understand how, why, and when supports work, for whom, and in what ways, as well as tensions and challenges that teachers…

  6. A Linguistic Research Programme for Reading in African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... be supported by language-specific pedagogies. We argue for research programmes that situate reading pedagogy within the language-specific spaces defined by Linguistic approaches to understanding (a) orthography, (b) cognitive reading skills and models and (c) indigenous, language-specific norms and resources.

  7. "Knowing Your Students" in the Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Robyn; Saltmarsh, David

    2016-01-01

    The population movement of globalization brings greater cultural and linguistic diversity (CALD) to communities and education systems. To address the growing diversity in school classrooms, beginning teachers need an expanded set of skills and attitudes to support effective learning. It is an expectation today that teachers know their students and…

  8. A kindergarten experiment in linguistic e-learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2006-01-01

    As part of the BlaSq project, we are developing a set of linguistic games to be used in kindergartens. The first of these games is Crazipes, that we are currently testing in a Danish kindergarten, with the support of the local teachers. Here we discuss the architecture of the game, its potentials...

  9. Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Gabriele; Wagner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    For the last decade, conversation analysis (CA) has increasingly contributed to several established fields in applied linguistics. In this article, we will discuss its methodological contributions. The article distinguishes between basic and applied CA. Basic CA is a sociological endeavor concerned...... been driven by applied work. After laying out CA's standard practices of data treatment and analysis, this article takes up the role of comparison as a fundamental analytical strategy and reviews recent developments into cross-linguistic and cross-cultural directions. The remaining article focuses...... on learning and development. In conclusion, we address some emerging themes in the relationship of CA and applied linguistics, including the role of multilingualism, standard social science methods as research objects, CA's potential for direct social intervention, and increasing efforts to complement CA...

  10. Executive control influences linguistic representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Ari, Shiri; Keysar, Boaz

    2014-02-01

    Although it is known that words acquire their meanings partly from the contexts in which they are used, we proposed that the way in which words are processed can also influence their representation. We further propose that individual differences in the way that words are processed can consequently lead to individual differences in the way that they are represented. Specifically, we showed that executive control influences linguistic representations by influencing the coactivation of competing and reinforcing terms. Consequently, people with poorer executive control perceive the meanings of homonymous terms as being more similar to one another, and those of polysemous terms as being less similar to one another, than do people with better executive control. We also showed that bilinguals with poorer executive control experience greater cross-linguistic interference than do bilinguals with better executive control. These results have implications for theories of linguistic representation and language organization.

  11. COGNITIVE METAPHOR IN MODERN LINGUISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina KARTASHOVA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the basic notions connected with cognitive metaphor which has lately undergone a thorough examination. The contribution made by linguists resulted in the rise of cognitive linguistics. This science regards metaphor not as a linguistic phenomenon but as a mental one that establishes connection between language and mind in the form of understanding new notions in terms of notions and categories known due to the previously gained experience. The interaction of new and previous experience can generate three main types of metaphors: structural metaphors which imply the structuring of target domain in terms of source domain, ontological metaphors which view abstract notions as concrete objects with clear outlines and orientational metaphors which represent the ways to fix the experience of spatial orientation. The classification of metaphors complemented with examples is presented below along with some controversial cases of determining the type of metaphor.

  12. Comparative Public Support for Conserving Reptile Species is High: Australian Evidence and its Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.; Wilson, Clevo; Swarna Nantha, Hemanath

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates factors influencing the public’s support for conservation of tropical reptile species in a focal group drawing on Australian data and an experiment involving a sample of the Australian public. The influences of the likeability of the species, their degree of endangerment, ethical considerations as well as knowledge are examined and found to be important. Likeability is found to be much less important than the existing literature suggests. This is highlighted by compari...

  13. Evaluating the role of postconstruction support in sustaining drinking water projects : Evidence from Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Wakeman, W.; Thorsten, R.; Prokopy, L. S.; Bakalian, A.

    2008-01-01

    This article assesses the impact of postconstruction support (PCS) on the sustainability of participatory, demand-driven rural water projects in the Cuzco region of Peru. This Study evaluates ninety-nine villages from two water supply schemes-projects built under a social investment fund program and those built under a nongovernmental program funded by the Swiss government. Overall, the study finds that the projects are performing very well. Multivariate regression analysis suggests that hous...

  14. Waterpipe tobacco smoking: what is the evidence that it supports nicotine/tobacco dependence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboaziza, Eiman; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Objective Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) involves passing tobacco smoke through water prior to inhalation, and has spread worldwide. This spread becomes a public health concern if it is associated with tobacco-caused disease and if WTS supports tobacco/nicotine dependence. A growing literature demonstrates that WTS is associated with disability, disease and death. This narrative review examines if WTS supports nicotine/tobacco dependence, and is intended to help guide tobacco control efforts worldwide. Data sources PUBMED search using: ((“waterpipe” or “narghile” or “arghile” or “shisha” or “goza” or “narkeela” or “hookah” or “hubble bubble”)) AND (“dependence” or “addiction”). Study selection Excluded were articles not in English, without original data, and that were not topic-related. Thirty-two articles were included with others identified by inspecting reference lists and other sources. Data synthesis WTS and the delivery of the dependence-producing drug nicotine were examined, and then the extent to which the articles addressed WTS-induced nicotine/dependence explicitly, as well as implicitly with reference to criteria for dependence outlined by the WHO. Conclusions WTS supports nicotine/tobacco dependence because it is associated with nicotine delivery, and because some smokers experience withdrawal when they abstain from waterpipe, alter their behaviour in order to access a waterpipe and have difficulty quitting, even when motivated to do so. There is a strong need to support research investigating measurement of WTS-induced tobacco dependence, to inform the public of the risks of WTS, which include dependence, disability, disease and death, and to include WTS in the same public health policies that address tobacco cigarettes. PMID:25492935

  15. Evidence in Support of Potential Applications of Lipid Peroxidation Products in Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erejuwa, Omotayo O.; Sulaiman, Siti A.; Ab Wahab, Mohd S.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer cells generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting from mitochondrial dysfunction, stimulation of oncogenes, abnormal metabolism, and aggravated inflammatory activities. Available evidence also suggests that cancer cells depend on intrinsic ROS level for proliferation and survival. Both physiological and pathophysiological roles have been ascribed to ROS which cause lipid peroxidation. In spite of their injurious effects, the ROS and the resulting lipid peroxidation products could be beneficial in cancer treatment. This review presents research findings suggesting that ROS and the resulting lipid peroxidation products could be utilized to inhibit cancer growth or induce cancer cell death. It also underscores the potential of lipid peroxidation products to potentiate the antitumor effect of other anticancer agents. The review also highlights evidence demonstrating other potential applications of lipid peroxidation products in cancer treatment. These include the prospect of lipid peroxidation products as a diagnostic tool to predict the chances of cancer recurrence, to monitor treatment progress or how well cancer patients respond to therapy. Further and detailed research is required on how best to successfully, effectively, and selectively target cancer cells in humans using lipid peroxidation products. This may prove to be an important strategy to complement current treatment regimens for cancer patients. PMID:24369491

  16. Use of evidence to support healthy public policy: a policy effectiveness-feasibility loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Sarah; Unwin, Nigel; Critchley, Julia; Capewell, Simon; Husseini, Abdullatif; Maziak, Wasim; Zaman, Shahaduz; Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Fouad, Fouad; Phillimore, Peter; Unal, Belgin; Khatib, Rana; Shoaibi, Azza; Ahmad, Balsam

    2012-11-01

    Public policy plays a key role in improving population health and in the control of diseases, including non-communicable diseases. However, an evidence-based approach to formulating healthy public policy has been difficult to implement, partly on account of barriers that hinder integrated work between researchers and policy-makers. This paper describes a "policy effectiveness-feasibility loop" (PEFL) that brings together epidemiological modelling, local situation analysis and option appraisal to foster collaboration between researchers and policy-makers. Epidemiological modelling explores the determinants of trends in disease and the potential health benefits of modifying them. Situation analysis investigates the current conceptualization of policy, the level of policy awareness and commitment among key stakeholders, and what actually happens in practice, thereby helping to identify policy gaps. Option appraisal integrates epidemiological modelling and situation analysis to investigate the feasibility, costs and likely health benefits of various policy options. The authors illustrate how PEFL was used in a project to inform public policy for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes in four parts of the eastern Mediterranean. They conclude that PEFL may offer a useful framework for researchers and policy-makers to successfully work together to generate evidence-based policy, and they encourage further evaluation of this approach.

  17. Biological evidence supports an early and complex emergence of the Isthmus of Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Christine D.; Silvestro, Daniele; Jaramillo, Carlos; Smith, Brian Tilston; Chakrabarty, Prosanta; Antonelli, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    The linking of North and South America by the Isthmus of Panama had major impacts on global climate, oceanic and atmospheric currents, and biodiversity, yet the timing of this critical event remains contentious. The Isthmus is traditionally understood to have fully closed by ca. 3.5 million years ago (Ma), and this date has been used as a benchmark for oceanographic, climatic, and evolutionary research, but recent evidence suggests a more complex geological formation. Here, we analyze both molecular and fossil data to evaluate the tempo of biotic exchange across the Americas in light of geological evidence. We demonstrate significant waves of dispersal of terrestrial organisms at approximately ca. 20 and 6 Ma and corresponding events separating marine organisms in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans at ca. 23 and 7 Ma. The direction of dispersal and their rates were symmetrical until the last ca. 6 Ma, when northern migration of South American lineages increased significantly. Variability among taxa in their timing of dispersal or vicariance across the Isthmus is not explained by the ecological factors tested in these analyses, including biome type, dispersal ability, and elevation preference. Migration was therefore not generally regulated by intrinsic traits but more likely reflects the presence of emergent terrain several millions of years earlier than commonly assumed. These results indicate that the dramatic biotic turnover associated with the Great American Biotic Interchange was a long and complex process that began as early as the Oligocene–Miocene transition. PMID:25918375

  18. Linguistic Justice and Endangered Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salverda Reinier

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This contribution will engage with Van Parijs’s approach to linguistic justice and his working principles for the reduction of unfairness in the language domain (in particular, the need for intervention and his territorial principle, reflecting on a range of cases of multilingual practice and linguistic coexistence – respectively, in the multilingual capital of the world which is London today; in Fryslân, the minority language area in northern Netherlands; and in Europe, through its European Charter of Regional Minority Languages.

  19. Linguistics, human communication and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P; Fraser, W

    1994-11-01

    Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics have extended our understanding of the abnormal communication seen in psychosis, as well as that of people with autism and Asperger's syndrome. Psycholinguistics has the potential to increase the explanatory power of cognitive and neuropsychological approaches to psychosis and new methods of assessment and therapy are now being developed, based on linguistic theory. A MEDLINE literature search was used. Of 205 relevant articles identified, 65 were selected for review. Greater familiarity with linguistic theory could improve psychiatrists' assessment skills and their understanding of the relevance of human communication to the new cognitive models of psychosis.

  20. Linguistic Policies, Linguistic Planning, and Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quadros, Ronice Muller

    2012-01-01

    This article explains the consolidation of Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil through a linguistic plan that arose from the Brazilian Sign Language Federal Law 10.436 of April 2002 and the subsequent Federal Decree 5695 of December 2005. Two concrete facts that emerged from this existing language plan are discussed: the implementation of bilingual…

  1. Further Evidence in Support of the Universal Nilpotent Grammatical Computational Paradigm of Quantum Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcer, Peter J.; Rowlands, Peter

    2010-12-01

    Further evidence is presented in favour of the computational paradigm, conceived and constructed by Rowlands and Diaz, as detailed in Rowlands' book Zero to Infinity (2007) [2], and in particular the authors' paper `The Grammatical Universe: the Laws of Thermodynamics and Quantum Entanglement' [1]. The paradigm, which has isomorphic group and algebraic quantum mechanical language interpretations, not only predicts the well-established facts of quantum physics, the periodic table, chemistry / valence and of molecular biology, whose understanding it extends; it also provides an elegant, simple solution to the unresolved quantum measurement problem. In this fundamental paradigm, all the computational constructs / predictions that emerge, follow from the simple fact, that, as in quantum mechanics, the wave function is defined only up to an arbitrary fixed phase. This fixed phase provides a simple physical understanding of the quantum vacuum in quantum field theory, where only relative phases, known to be able to encode 3+1 relativistic space-time geometries, can be measured. It is the arbitrary fixed measurement standard, against which everything that follows is to be measured, even though the standard itself cannot be, since nothing exists against which to measure it. The standard, as an arbitrary fixed reference phase, functions as the holographic basis for a self-organized universal quantum process of emergent novel fermion states of matter where, following each emergence, the arbitrary standard is re-fixed anew so as to provide a complete history / holographic record or hologram of the current fixed past, advancing an unending irreversible evolution, such as is the evidence of our senses. The fermion states, in accord with the Pauli exclusion principle, each correspond to a unique nilpotent symbol in the infinite alphabet (which specifies the grammar in this nilpotent universal computational rewrite system (NUCRS) paradigm); and the alphabet, as Hill and Rowlands

  2. Working group reports: Evaluation of the evidence to support practice guidelines for nutritional care of preterm infants-the Pre-B Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The "Evaluation of the Evidence to Support Practice Guidelines for the Nutritional Care of Preterm Infants: The Pre-B Project" is the first phase in a process to present the current state of knowledge and to support the development of evidence-informed guidance for the nutritional care of preterm an...

  3. 20 CFR 404.780 - Evidence of “good cause” for exceeding time limits on accepting proof of support or application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... limits on accepting proof of support or application for a lump-sum death payment. 404.780 Section 404.780... accepting proof of support or application for a lump-sum death payment. (a) When evidence of good cause is... death payment. You may be asked for evidence of good cause for these delays if— (1) You are the insured...

  4. Lateral meningocele syndrome: additional report and further evidence supporting a connective tissue basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Daniela; Sampaio, Mafalda; Figueiredo, Rita; Leão, Miguel

    2013-07-01

    Lateral meningocele syndrome is a rare disorder of unknown etiology, first described in 1977 and subsequently reported in nine other patients. These patients present distinctive craniofacial features and skeletal abnormalities in addition to multiple lateral meningoceles, suggesting a connective tissue disorder. Autosomal dominant inheritance is clearly suggested in one family and could explain familiar aggregation in another. We describe a simplex case of lateral meningocele syndrome with bicuspid aortic valve, supporting the hypothesis of a connective tissue basis for this disorder and further expanding the phenotype. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Does evidence support physiotherapy management of adult female chronic pelvic pain? A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loving, Sys; Nordling, Jørgen; Jaszczak, Poul

    2012-01-01

    dysfunction is frequently cited as a possible aetiology. Physiotherapy is therefore recommended as one treatment modality. The aim of this systematic review was to source and critically evaluate the evidence for an effect of physiotherapy on pain, physical activity and quality of life in the treatment...... of female CPP. Methods Electronic databases, conference proceedings, text books and clinical guidelines were searched for quantitative, observational, and prospective clinical intervention studies of female chronic pelvic pain where physiotherapy was a sole or significant component of the intervention...... in the other study types. Physiotherapy treatments varied between studies and were provided in combination with psychotherapeutic modalities and medical management. This did not allow for the ‘stand-alone’ value of physiotherapy to be determined. Heterogeneity across the studies, with respect to participants...

  6. Evidence to support IL-13 as a risk locus for psoriatic arthritis but not psoriasis vulgaris.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bowes, John

    2011-06-01

    There is great interest in the identification of genetic factors that differentiate psoriatic arthritis (PsA) from psoriasis vulgaris (PsV), as such discoveries could lead to the identification of distinct underlying aetiological pathways. Recent studies identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the interleukin 13 (IL-13) gene region as risk factors for PsV. Further investigations in one of these studies found the effect to be primarily restricted to PsA, thus suggesting the discovery of a specific genetic risk factor for PsA. Given this intriguing evidence, association to this gene was investigated in large collections of PsA and PsV patients and healthy controls.

  7. Where is the evidence supporting public service announcements to eliminate mental illness stigma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W

    2012-01-01

    Advocates and social marketers have used substantial resources to develop public service announcements (PSAs) as a lead strategy in public education and awareness campaigns meant to eliminate stigma associated with mental illness. Evaluations of PSAs are needed to determine whether this is a good investment. The author notes that very few studies have been reported in the peer-reviewed medical and psychological research literature addressing this question. Reports of government contractors suggest that PSAs have some effect as measured by population penetration, but such data provide no meaningful evidence about the impact of PSAs, such as real-world change in prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behaviors. The author considers reasons for the limited impact of PSAs and proposes that social marketing campaigns could enhance their impact by targeting local groups.

  8. American Society for Microbiology resources in support of an evidence-based approach to teaching microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Susan M

    2016-08-01

    Numerous national reports have addressed the need for changing how science courses in higher education are taught, so that students develop a deeper understanding of critical concepts and the analytical and cognitive skills needed to address future challenges. This review presents some evidence-based approaches to curriculum development and teaching. Results from discipline-based education research indicate that it is critically important for educators to formulate learning goals, provide frequent and authentic assessments and actively engage students in their learning. Professional societies can play a role in helping to put these changes into practice. To this end, the American Society for Microbiology has developed a number of educational programs and resources, which are described here to encourage the implementation of student-centered learning in microbiology education. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Enhancing international medical graduates' communication: the contribution of applied linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Maria R; Yates, Lynda; Ogden, Kathryn; Rooney, Kim; Sheldon, Brooke

    2015-08-01

    International medical graduates (IMGs) make up one-third of the Australian medical workforce. Those from non-English-language backgrounds can face cultural and communication barriers, yet linguistic support is variable and medical educators are often required to provide feedback on both medical and communication issues. However, some communication difficulties may be very specific to the experiences of IMGs as second language users. This interdisciplinary study combines perspectives from applied linguistics experts and clinical educators to address IMGs' difficulties from multiple dimensions and to enhance feedback quality. Five video-recorded patient encounters with five IMGs were collected at Launceston General Hospital. Three clinical educators gave quantitative and qualitative feedback using the Rating Instrument for Clinical Consulting Skills, and two applied linguistics experts analysed the data for language, pragmatic and communication difficulties. The comparison of the educators' language-related feedback with linguistic analyses of the same interactions facilitated the exploration of differences in the difficulties identified by the two expert groups. Although the clinical educators were able to use their tacit intuitive understanding of communication issues to identify IMG difficulties, they less frequently addressed the underlying issues or suggested specific remedies in their feedback. This pilot study illustrates the effectiveness of interdisciplinary collaboration in highlighting the specific discourse features contributing to IMG communication difficulties and thus assists educators in deconstructing their intuitive knowledge. The authors suggest that linguistic insights can therefore improve communications training by assisting educators to provide more targeted feedback. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. BEASTling: A software tool for linguistic phylogenetics using BEAST 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurits, Luke; Forkel, Robert; Kaiping, Gereon A; Atkinson, Quentin D

    2017-01-01

    We present a new open source software tool called BEASTling, designed to simplify the preparation of Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of linguistic data using the BEAST 2 platform. BEASTling transforms comparatively short and human-readable configuration files into the XML files used by BEAST to specify analyses. By taking advantage of Creative Commons-licensed data from the Glottolog language catalog, BEASTling allows the user to conveniently filter datasets using names for recognised language families, to impose monophyly constraints so that inferred language trees are backward compatible with Glottolog classifications, or to assign geographic location data to languages for phylogeographic analyses. Support for the emerging cross-linguistic linked data format (CLDF) permits easy incorporation of data published in cross-linguistic linked databases into analyses. BEASTling is intended to make the power of Bayesian analysis more accessible to historical linguists without strong programming backgrounds, in the hopes of encouraging communication and collaboration between those developing computational models of language evolution (who are typically not linguists) and relevant domain experts.

  11. Levers supporting tariff growth for water services: evidence from a contingent valuation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrini, Andrea; Vigolo, Vania; Romano, Giulia; Testa, Federico

    2018-02-01

    The backwardness of the water utilities sector necessitates urgent investment in infrastructure to improve water quality and efficiency in water supply networks. A policy of tariff growth represents the main source to sustain such investments. Therefore, customer engagement in the form of willingness to pay (WTP) is highly desirable by water utilities to obtain social legitimization and support. This study examines the determinants of consumers' WTP for improvement programs for three drinking water issues: quality of water sources, renewal of water mains, and building of new wastewater treatment plants. The study is based on a survey conducted among a sample of 587 customers of a water utility located in the province of Verona in the north of Italy. The contingence valuation method is used to measure WTP. Specifically, an ordinal logistic regression model yields the following significant determinants of WTP: quality of water and services provided, preference for privatization of the water utility, sustainable consumption of water, and some socio-demographic variables. The findings provide interesting insights into the drivers of WTP as well as managerial recommendations for water utilities. In particular, the findings show that water utilities need to improve service and water quality to increase customers' acceptance of tariff growth. In addition, utilities should invest in customer education and communication activities focusing on specific age groups (e.g., older customers) to enhance their WTP. Finally, communication strategies should reinforce the possible role of liberalization and privatization in supporting infrastructure investments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Public Policies to Support Entrepreneurship and SMEs. Empirical Evidences from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Gabriel ANTON

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on a set of variables measured in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM study, we analyzed the entrepreneurial profi le of Romanian economy after the onset of fi nancial crisis. We found a positive attitude towards entrepreneurship in Romania, but the fi nancial crisis started in 2008 severely affected the entrepreneurial environment. In many countries, the lack of an entrepreneurial culture and fi nancial constraints are seen as critical barriers to entrepreneurship. In the light of global fi nancial crisis, the support of entrepreneurial activities has risen as the entrepreneurship has the potential to foster economic recovery. In the second part of the paper we analyze policy actions implemented by the Romanian authorities in order to support SMEs in coping with the effects of fi nancial crisis. We have found that the most used policy tools have been public subsidies for new businesses and loan guarantees. The paper highlights the main weaknesses in the design and implementation of public policies in Romania and recommends some policy action to improve SMEs’ access to fi nance. The results of this study can be useful for improving the local entrepreneurial environment and also for designing new policy actions aimed to improve the SMEs’ access to fi nancing.

  13. Communicating Program Outcomes to Encourage Policymaker Support for Evidence-Based State Tobacco Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M. Schmidt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use, the leading cause of preventable death in the U.S., can be reduced through state-level tobacco prevention and cessation programs. In the absence of research about how to communicate the need for these programs to policymakers, this qualitative study aimed to understand the motivations and priorities of policymakers in North Carolina, a state that enacted a strong tobacco control program from 2003–2011, but drastically reduced funding in recent years. Six former legislators (three Democrats, three Republicans and three lobbyists for health organizations were interviewed about their attitudes towards tobacco use, support of state-funded programs, and reactions to two policy briefs. Five themes emerged: (1 high awareness of tobacco-related health concerns but limited awareness of program impacts and funding, (2 the primacy of economic concerns in making policy decisions, (3 ideological differences in views of the state’s role in tobacco control, (4 the impact of lobbyist and constituent in-person appeals, and (5 the utility of concise, contextualized data. These findings suggest that building relationships with policymakers to communicate ongoing program outcomes, emphasizing economic data, and developing a constituent advocacy group would be valuable to encourage continued support of state tobacco control programs.

  14. What is the evidence to support the use of therapeutic gardens for the elderly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, Mark B; Sharma, Taral; Detweiler, Jonna G; Murphy, Pamela F; Lane, Sandra; Carman, Jack; Chudhary, Amara S; Halling, Mary H; Kim, Kye Y

    2012-06-01

    Horticulture therapy employs plants and gardening activities in therapeutic and rehabilitation activities and could be utilized to improve the quality of life of the worldwide aging population, possibly reducing costs for long-term, assisted living and dementia unit residents. Preliminary studies have reported the benefits of horticultural therapy and garden settings in reduction of pain, improvement in attention, lessening of stress, modulation of agitation, lowering of as needed medications, antipsychotics and reduction of falls. This is especially relevant for both the United States and the Republic of Korea since aging is occurring at an unprecedented rate, with Korea experiencing some of the world's greatest increases in elderly populations. In support of the role of nature as a therapeutic modality in geriatrics, most of the existing studies of garden settings have utilized views of nature or indoor plants with sparse studies employing therapeutic gardens and rehabilitation greenhouses. With few controlled clinical trials demonstrating the positive or negative effects of the use of garden settings for the rehabilitation of the aging populations, a more vigorous quantitative analysis of the benefits is long overdue. This literature review presents the data supporting future studies of the effects of natural settings for the long term care and rehabilitation of the elderly having the medical and mental health problems frequently occurring with aging.

  15. A web-based platform to support an evidence-based mental health intervention: lessons from the CBITS web site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vona, Pamela; Wilmoth, Pete; Jaycox, Lisa H; McMillen, Janey S; Kataoka, Sheryl H; Wong, Marleen; DeRosier, Melissa E; Langley, Audra K; Kaufman, Joshua; Tang, Lingqi; Stein, Bradley D

    2014-11-01

    To explore the role of Web-based platforms in behavioral health, the study examined usage of a Web site for supporting training and implementation of an evidence-based intervention. Using data from an online registration survey and Google Analytics, the investigators examined user characteristics and Web site utilization. Site engagement was substantial across user groups. Visit duration differed by registrants' characteristics. Less experienced clinicians spent more time on the Web site. The training section accounted for most page views across user groups. Individuals previously trained in the Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools intervention viewed more implementation assistance and online community pages than did other user groups. Web-based platforms have the potential to support training and implementation of evidence-based interventions for clinicians of varying levels of experience and may facilitate more rapid dissemination. Web-based platforms may be promising for trauma-related interventions, because training and implementation support should be readily available after a traumatic event.

  16. Family Assisted Contingency Management within the Context of Evidence-Supported Treatment for Child Neglect and Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Brad; Plant, Christopher P; Loughran, Travis A; Torres, Anali

    2017-08-01

    Contingency management (CM) has extensively been shown to be effective in reducing substance use disorders, but its effects in reducing child maltreatment have yet to be determined. The current study provides preliminary support for the utilization of an innovative family-assisted CM component in 18 mothers who were referred to an evidence-supported behavioral treatment for concurrent child neglect and drug abuse by Child Protective Service caseworkers. In the examined CM, participants were invited to indicate from a list of common actions incompatible with child neglect (i.e. positive parenting actions), the extent to which these actions had been experienced utilizing a 3-point scale (almost never, sometimes, almost always). For each item that was indicated to be almost never or sometimes experienced, the participants were queried to indicate if the neglect incompatible action should be targeted as a therapeutic goal. Contingencies were subsequently established in which the participants were rewarded by involved family members for their completion of therapeutic goals. At baseline, results indicated that there was a negative association between the number of neglect incompatible parenting actions that were infrequently experienced and child abuse potential. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that the number of neglect incompatible actions targeted as therapeutic goals at baseline, but not the number of positive parenting actions experienced infrequently at baseline, predicted reduced child maltreatment potential following treatment. These findings suggest the examined CM may assist evidence supported behavioral treatment specific to child neglect and drug abuse.

  17. Referential Metonymy across Languages: What Can Cognitive Linguistics and "Contrastive Linguistics" Learn from Each Other?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brdar-Szabó, Rita; Brdar, Mario

    2003-01-01

    The paper demonstrates how contrastive linguistics may receive a fresh breath of life from approaching certain problems from the cognitive linguistic point of view. Cognitive linguistics is not only capable of providing contrastive linguistics with a comprehensive but coherent theoretical backbone the latter has always badly needed for its…

  18. Using support vector machines to identify literacy skills: Evidence from eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Ya; Liu, Yanping; Kaakinen, Johanna K; Li, Xingshan

    2017-06-01

    Is inferring readers' literacy skills possible by analyzing their eye movements during text reading? This study used Support Vector Machines (SVM) to analyze eye movement data from 61 undergraduate students who read a multiple-paragraph, multiple-topic expository text. Forward fixation time, first-pass rereading time, second-pass fixation time, and regression path reading time on different regions of the text were provided as features. The SVM classification algorithm assisted in distinguishing high-literacy-skilled readers from low-literacy-skilled readers with 80.3 % accuracy. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of combining eye tracking and machine learning techniques to detect readers with low literacy skills, and suggest that such approaches can be potentially used in predicting other cognitive abilities.

  19. Growing body of evidence on survival rates of implant-supported fixed prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abt, Elliot

    2008-01-01

    Medline and manual searches were made of the bibliographies of all full-text articles and related reviews selected from the electronic search and the following journals: American Journal of Dentistry, Australian Dental Journal, British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, Clinical Oral Implants Research, Deutsche Zahnärztliche Zeitschrift, European Journal of Oral Sciences, International Dental Journal, International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants, International Journal of Periodontics and Restorative Dentistry, International Journal of Prosthodontics, Journal de Parodontologie, Journal of Clinical Periodontology, Journal of Dental Research, Journal of Oral Implantology, Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, Journal of Periodontology, Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, Quintessence International, Swedish Dental Journal and Schweizerische Monatsschrift Zahnmedizin. Prospective or retrospective cohort studies were included if they had a mean follow-up of 5 years or more; were reported in the dental literature in the English or German language; patients had been examined clinically at the follow-up visit; and details of the characteristics of the suprastructures were reported. Publications that combined findings for both implant-supported fixed partial dentures and single-tooth crowns were selected if they allowed for extraction of the data for the single-tooth crowns group. Publications based on patient records only or on questionnaires or interviews were excluded. Failure and complication rates are calculated by dividing the number of events (failures or complications; the numerator) by the total exposure time [single crown (SC) time and/ or implant time; the denominator]. Event rates for SC and/ or implants were calculated by dividing the total number of events by the total SC or implant exposure time in years. The total number of events was considered to be Poisson distributed. To assess heterogeneity of

  20. A cross-linguistic study of early word meaning: universal ontology and linguistic influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, M; Gentner, D

    1997-02-01

    This research concerns how children learn the distinction between substance names and object names. Quine (1969) proposed that children learn the distinction through learning the syntactic distinctions inherent in count/mass grammar. However, Soja et al. (1991) found that English-speaking 2-year-olds, who did not seem to have acquired count/mass grammar, distinguished objects from substances in a word extension task, suggesting a pre-linguistic ontological distinction. To test whether the distinction between object names and substance names is conceptually or linguistically driven, we repeated Soja et al.'s study with English- and Japanese-speaking 2-, 2.5-, and 4-year-olds and adults. Japanese does not make a count-mass grammatical distinction: all inanimate nouns are treated alike. Thus if young Japanese children made the object-substance distinction in word meaning, this would support the early ontology position over the linguistic influence position. We used three types of standards: substances (e.g., sand in an S-shape), simple objects (e.g., a kidney-shaped piece of paraffin) and complex objects (e.g., a wood whisk). The subjects learned novel nouns in neutral syntax denoting each standard entity. They were then asked which of the two alternatives--one matching in shape but not material and the other matching in material but not shape--would also be named by the same label. The results suggest the universal use of ontological knowledge in early word learning. Children in both languages showed differentiation between (complex) objects and substances as early as 2 years of age. However, there were also early cross-linguistic differences. American and Japanese children generalized the simple object instances and the substance instances differently. We speculate that children universally make a distinction between individuals and non-individuals in word learning but that the nature of the categories and the boundary between them is influenced by language.

  1. Questions of Logic, Philosophy, and Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Chaves-Tannús

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available There were in the past, just as there are in the present, several diverse attempts to establish a unique theory capable of identifying in all natural languages a similar, invariable basic structure of a logical nature. If such a theory exists, then there must be principles that rule the functioning of these languages and they must have a logical origin. Based on a work by the French linguist, Oswald Ducrot, entitled D’un mauvais usage de la logique, this paper aims to present in a concise manner two of the above mentioned attempts. They were elaborated in diverse epochs and different arguments were put forward to support them. The first attempt was in XVII century France and its theoretic basis was the renowned ‘Port-Royal Logic’. The second attempt is recent and its theoretic support comes from Contemporary Logic.

  2. Ontology supported system for searching evidence of wild animals trafficking in social network posts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael da Silva Carrasco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available O comércio ilegal de animais silvestres é uma das atividades criminais mais lucrativas da atualidade. No Brasil, a grande variedade de fauna nativa tem alimentado o mercado ilegal, o que gera sérias implicações ambientais e sociais. A luta contra o comércio ilegal de animais silvestres é crucial para ajudar a proteger os recursos naturais e evitar a disseminação de outras formas de crime. Esse tipo de comércio ilegal usa cada vez mais, a internet para realizar suas atividades. A fim de combater tal crime, um sistema automático de monitorização é essencial. No entanto, para realizar essa tarefa de forma eficaz, o sistema deve ser capaz de analisar as mensagens trocadas durante essa prática. Para isso, é necessário o conhecimento dos conceitos e relações que ocorrem nesse domínio. Este artigo apresenta um sistema multiagente apoiado por ontologia de domínio e frames semânticos para buscar evidências de comércio ilegal de animais silvestres. No artigo, é mostrado como o sistema pode ser usado na tarefa de rastreamento do comércio ilegal de animais silvestres, além de apresentar os resultados da aplicação do sistema em um pequeno corpus.

  3. European Union research in support of environment and health: Building scientific evidence base for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Tuomo; Hoeveler, Arnd; Draghia-Akli, Ruxandra

    2017-06-01

    Opinion polls show that the European Union citizens are increasingly concerned about the impact of environmental factors on their health. In order to respond and provide solid scientific evidence for the numerous policies related to the protection of human health and the environment managed at the Union level, the European Union made a substantial investment in research and innovation in the past two decades through its Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development, including the current programme, Horizon 2020, which started in 2014. This policy review paper analysed the portfolio of forty collaborative projects relevant to environment and health, which received a total amount of around 228 million euros from the EU. It gives details on their contents and general scientific trends observed, the profiles of the participating countries and institutions, and the potential policy implications of the results obtained. The increasing knowledge base is needed to make informed policy decisions in Europe and beyond, and should be useful to many stakeholders including the scientific community and regulatory authorities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Evidence supporting oral sensitivity to complex carbohydrates independent of sweet taste sensitivity in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Y Q Low

    Full Text Available Compared to simple sugars, complex carbohydrates have been assumed invisible to taste. However, two recent studies proposed that there may be a perceivable taste quality elicited by complex carbohydrates independent of sweet taste. There is precedent with behavioural studies demonstrating that rats are very attracted to complex carbohydrates, and that complex carbohydrates are preferred to simple sugars at low concentrations. This suggests that rats may have independent taste sensors for simple sugars and complex carbohydrates. The aim of this paper is to investigate oral sensitivities of two different classes of complex carbohydrates (a soluble digestible and a soluble non-digestible complex carbohydrate, and to compare these to other caloric and non-nutritive sweeteners in addition to the prototypical tastes using two commonly used psychophysical measures. There were strong correlations between the detection thresholds and mean intensity ratings for complex carbohydrates (maltodextrin, oligofructose (r = 0.94, P 0.05. However, moderate correlations were observed between perceived intensities of complex carbohydrates and sweeteners (r = 0.48-0.61, P < 0.05. These data provide evidence that complex carbohydrates can be sensed in the oral cavity over a range of concentrations independent of sweet taste sensitivity at low concentrations, but with partial overlap with sweet taste intensity at higher concentrations.

  5. Evidence Supporting the Internal Validity of the Proposed ND-PAE Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kable, Julie A; Coles, Claire D

    2017-06-20

    The internal validity of the proposed Neurobehavioral Disorder Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (ND-PAE) was evaluated in children diagnosed with either Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) or partial FAS who were 3-10 years of age and had enrolled in a math intervention study. Symptoms were coded as present or absent using assessments conducted in the study, including standardized measures of neurocognitive and behavioral functioning, parent interview, and direct observations of the child. The number of endorsed ND-PAE symptoms was not related to environmental factors but was moderately related to the child's age. ND-PAE symptoms were highly consistent and this did not vary by age. Evidence suggested the ND-PAE adaptive symptoms may be too restrictive and only one symptom from this domain may be sufficient. Impulsiveness was not related to an endorsement of the ND-PAE disorder but research is needed with other clinical groups to establish the discriminative validity of this symptom.

  6. The color of a Dalmatian's spots: Linkage evidence to support the TYRP1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strain George M

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The distinctive coat pattern of a Dalmatian is the result of the interaction of several loci. While the encoded function of these genes is not fully understood, it is known the Piebald, Ticking, and Flecking loci interact to produce the Dalmatian's classic pigmented spots on a white background. The color of the pigmented spots in purebred Dalmatians can either be black or liver, but the locus responsible for color determination is unknown. Studies have been conducted to determine the underlying genes involved in coat color determination in the dog, e.g., in the Labrador Retriever, but none to date have addressed black versus liver in the Dalmatian. Results A genome scan was conducted in a multi-generational kindred of Dalmatians segregating black and liver spot color. Linkage analysis was performed using a total of 113 polymorphic microsatellite markers from the kindred. Linkage was found between spot color and a single microsatellite marker, FH2319 (LOD = 12.5 on chromosome 11. Conclusion The TYRP1 (Brown locus is located at position 50.1 Mb on chromosome 11, which is approximately 0.4 Mb from marker FH2319. Given the recent characterization of TYRP1 genetic variations in the dog and the linkage evidence reported here, TYRP1 is likely responsible for the spot color variation of black versus liver seen in the Dalmatian.

  7. Archives: Ghana Journal of Linguistics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 12 of 12 ... The papers of this issue are a testament to the wide variety of theoretical approaches and diverse research areas pertaining to linguistics found in Africa. In this vein, GJL continues to serve as a hub of scholarship, providing an avenue for the publication of double-blind peer-reviewed studies on language, ...

  8. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ). The SPiL Plus series has two main aims. Firstly, it serves as a vehicle for the distribution of new and relatively inaccessible information in the field of modern linguistics. Secondly, it aims to stimulate critical discussion in Southern African ...

  9. STRUCTURAL LINGUISTICS AND BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MALONE, KEMP

    A STRUCTURAL, LINGUISTIC APPROACH TO BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES WAS DESCRIBED. DETAILED DISCUSSIONS WERE INCLUDED FOR USES OF MORPHEMES, MORPHEMIC SEQUENCES, PHONEMES, PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTIONS, AND ALLOPHONES. THIS REPORT IS ONE OF A SERIES OF 13 PAPERS PRESENTED AT A CONFERENCE ON LEXICOGRAPHY, INDIANA UNIVERSITY, NOVEMBER 11-12, 1960. (GC)

  10. Ghana Journal of Linguistics: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. PLEASE follow these guidelines closely when preparing your paper for submission. The editors reserve the right to reject inadequately prepared papers. All areas of linguistics are invited – the journal is not limited to articles on languages of or in Ghana or Africa. ALL CONTRIBUTIONS must be submitted ...

  11. Applied Linguistics Research on Asianness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    As China is increasingly occupying the world's attention, its explosively expanding economical and political clout has also been felt in the applied linguistics domain, with the discussion on China's/Chinese language issues growing by leaps and bounds (e.g. China's English education policies, Chinese language classes in the West). Amid the world's…

  12. Understanding software through linguistic abstraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, E.

    2013-01-01

    Preprint submitted to "Science of Computer Programming", Elsevier, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scico.2013.12.001 In this essay, I argue that linguistic abstraction should be used systematically as a tool to capture our emerging understanding of domains of computation. Moreover, to enable that

  13. Formal monkey linguistics : The debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Schel, Anne M.; Fuller, James; Gautier, Jean Pierre; Kuhn, Jeremy; Veselinović, Dunja; Arnold, Kate; Cäsar, Cristiane; Keenan, Sumir; Lemasson, Alban; Ouattara, Karim; Ryder, Robin; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    We explain why general techniques from formal linguistics can and should be applied to the analysis of monkey communication - in the areas of syntax and especially semantics. An informed look at our recent proposals shows that such techniques needn't rely excessively on categories of human language:

  14. Text linguistics: memory and representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Lopes Fávero

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Text Linguistics originates in Brazil in the 80s of the twentieth century. The first work that we know of is from 1981, authored by Prof. Ignacio Antonio Neiss, entitled Por uma gramática textua, which was followed by two other in 1983: Linguística textual: o que é e como se faz, by Prof. Luiz Antônio Marcuschi and Linguística textual: introdução by Leonor Lopes Favero and Ingedore Villaça Koch. Professor Neiss shows how initial attempts to textual linguistics, were generally related to structural and generative grammars. The work of Prof. Marcuschi focuses on the analysis of some text definitions and on the study of theoretical aspects in relation to their applicability. Leonor Lopes Favero and Ingedore V. Koch aim to provide the Brazilian reader with an overview of text linguistics in Europe, a recent branch of language science then. This work is part of the History of Linguistic Ideas, part of the Cultural History, which seeks to identify how at different times , a social reality is constructed, designed, and enlightened (Chartier, 1990.

  15. READING COMPREHENSION RFSEARCH AND LINGUISTIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    can be recovered solely on the basis of linguistic knowledge - or to put it differently, how ... The answer which Gricean pragmatic theories provide to this question goes ..... written language have important implications for conceptions of literacy - see e.g. (Olson, ..... Are academic texts really decontextualized and fully explicit?

  16. a systemic functional linguistic approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysing social identity in casual Zambian/English conversation: a systemic functional linguistic approach. ... Through an analysis of sentence-level grammatical patterns, and of speakers' mood choices in particular, the study shows how interactants construct identities ('self' and 'other') and social roles, as well as role ...

  17. A Bibliography of Contrastive Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, John H.; Rice, Frank A.

    This 484-item bibliography is a revised and expanded version of William W. Gage's "Contrastive Studies in Linguistics: A Bibliographical Checklist" (CAL, 1961). Following a general section, the entries are arranged alphabetically by foreign language. The language headings are: Afrikaans, Arabic, Armenian, Azerbaijani, Bantu, Batak, Bengali,…

  18. Desiderata for Linguistic Software Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garretson, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a series of guidelines both for researchers in search of software to be used in linguistic analysis and for programmers designing such software. A description of the intended audience and the types of software under consideration and a review of some relevant literature are followed by a discussion of several important…

  19. Multidisciplinary Approaches in Evolutionary Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan; Wu, Yicheng

    2013-01-01

    Studying language evolution has become resurgent in modern scientific research. In this revival field, approaches from a number of disciplines other than linguistics, including (paleo)anthropology and archaeology, animal behaviors, genetics, neuroscience, computer simulation, and psychological experimentation, have been adopted, and a wide scope…

  20. Linguistics, Logic, and Finite Trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blackburn, P.; Meyer-Viol, W.

    1993-01-01

    A modal logic is developed to deal with finite ordered binary trees as they are used in (computational) linguistics. A modal language is introduced with operators for the 'mother of', 'first daughter of' and 'second daughter of' relations together with their transitive reflexive closures.

  1. Pairing Linguistic and Music Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiEdwardo, MaryAnn Pasda

    2005-01-01

    This article describes how music in the language classroom setting can be a catalyst for developing reading, writing, and understanding skills. Studies suggest that pairing music and linguistic intelligences in the college classroom improves students' grades and abilities to compose theses statements for research papers in courses that emphasize…

  2. Quantitative Research in Systemic Functional Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qingshun

    2018-01-01

    The research of Systemic Functional Linguistics has been quite in-depth in both theory and practice. However, many linguists hold that Systemic Functional Linguistics has no hypothesis testing or experiments and its research is only qualitative. Analyses of the corpus, intelligent computing and language evolution on the ideological background of…

  3. Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies publishes articles on a wide range of linguistic topics and acts as a forum for research into ALL the languages of southern Africa, including English and Afrikaans. Original contributions are welcomed on any of the core areas of Linguistics, both theoretical (e.g. ...

  4. A Brief Reappraisal of Contrastive Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selinker, Larry

    1972-01-01

    Two questions, what is a contrastive grammar, and what is comparable across linguistic systems, are touched on. The problem of the exact relationship of contrastive linguistics to linguistic theory is addressed. Two perhaps mutually exclusive views are discussed. See FL 508 197 for availability. (Author/RM)

  5. 1. Introduction Is theoretical linguistics, and specifically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MY discussion of the question of the empirical status of trans- formation8i generative grammar will focus on general-linguistic hypo- theses. That is. the thesis (1) will be argued with reference to linguistic hypotheses which postulate linguistic universals. A conventional sort of approach to the ~eneral question of the empirical.

  6. Critical and Alternative Directions in Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennycook, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    Critical directions in applied linguistics can be understood in various ways. The term "critical" as it has been used in "critical applied linguistics," "critical discourse analysis," "critical literacy" and so forth, is now embedded as part of applied linguistic work, adding an overt focus on questions of power and inequality to discourse…

  7. Pedagogical Scholarship in Public Health: A Call for Cultivating Learning Communities to Support Evidence-Based Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzel, Cheryl; Halkitis, Perry; Healton, Cheryl

    Public health education is experiencing record growth and transformation. The current emphasis on learning outcomes necessitates attention to creating and evaluating the best curricula and learning methods for helping public health students develop public health competencies. Schools and programs of public health would benefit from active engagement in pedagogical research and additional platforms to support dissemination and implementation of educational research findings. We reviewed current avenues for sharing public health educational research, curricula, and best teaching practices; we identified useful models from other health professions; and we offered suggestions for how the field of public health education can develop communities of learning devoted to supporting pedagogy. Our goal was to help advance an agenda of innovative evidence-based public health education, enabling schools and programs of public health to evaluate and measure success in meeting the current and future needs of the public health profession.

  8. Y-chromosome evidence supports asymmetric dog introgression into eastern coyotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeldon, Tyler J; Rutledge, Linda Y; Patterson, Brent R; White, Bradley N; Wilson, Paul J

    2013-09-01

    Hybridization has played an important role in the evolutionary history of Canis species in eastern North America. Genetic evidence of coyote-dog hybridization based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is lacking compared to that based on autosomal markers. This discordance suggests dog introgression into coyotes has potentially been male biased, but this hypothesis has not been formally tested. Therefore, we investigated biparentally, maternally, and paternally inherited genetic markers in a sample of coyotes and dogs from southeastern Ontario to assess potential asymmetric dog introgression into coyotes. Analysis of autosomal microsatellite genotypes revealed minimal historical and contemporary admixture between coyotes and dogs. We observed only mutually exclusive mtDNA haplotypes in coyotes and dogs, but we observed Y-chromosome haplotypes (Y-haplotypes) in both historical and contemporary coyotes that were also common in dogs. Species-specific Zfy intron sequences of Y-haplotypes shared between coyotes and dogs confirmed their homology and indicated a putative origin from dogs. We compared Y-haplotypes observed in coyotes, wolves, and dogs profiled in multiple studies, and observed that the Y-haplotypes shared between coyotes and dogs were either absent or rare in North American wolves, present in eastern coyotes, but absent in western coyotes. We suggest the eastern coyote has experienced asymmetric genetic introgression from dogs, resulting from predominantly historical hybridization with male dogs and subsequent backcrossing of hybrid offspring with coyotes. We discuss the temporal and spatial dynamics of coyote-dog hybridization and the conditions that may have facilitated the introgression of dog Y-chromosomes into coyotes. Our findings clarify the evolutionary history of the eastern coyote.

  9. Weak evidence to support benefit of periodontal maintenance therapy in prevention of tooth loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Debora

    2010-01-01

    Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), OpenSIGLE (System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe) and reference lists of identified studies. Study Selection Cohort studies, case-control studies and case series limited to patients with periodontitis who underwent active periodontal treatment (APT) and followed a maintenance care programme for at least 5 years that reported data on tooth loss were included. Two independent reviewers screened the studies and extracted the data, with disagreements being resolved by discussion and consensus. Methodological quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Data were pooled into evidence tables and grouped according to the type of study. A descriptive summary was performed. Thirteen retrospective case series were included in this review. The risk of bias assessment showed that eight studies were of medium methodological quality and five of low quality. Of 41404 teeth present after active periodontal treatment, 3919 were lost during PM. The percentages of tooth loss due to periodontal reasons and of patients who did not experience tooth loss varied from 1.5 to 9.8% and 36.0 to 88.5%. Studies' individual outcomes showed that different patient-related factors (ie, age and smoking), and tooth-related factors (tooth type and location and the initial tooth prognosis) were associated with tooth loss during PM. The considerable heterogeneity found among studies did not allow definitive conclusions. Age, smoking and initial tooth prognosis were found to be associated with tooth loss during PM. Overall, patients must be instructed to follow periodic PM and quit smoking (smokers). Prospective cohort studies are required to confirm the possible predictors of tooth loss due to periodontal reasons. The allocation of patients into subgroups according to the type of periodontitis and smoking frequency will allow more accurate evaluations.

  10. Evidence from central Mexico supporting the Younger Dryas extraterrestrial impact hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israde-Alcántara, Isabel; Bischoff, James L; Domínguez-Vázquez, Gabriela; Li, Hong-Chun; DeCarli, Paul S; Bunch, Ted E; Wittke, James H; Weaver, James C; Firestone, Richard B; West, Allen; Kennett, James P; Mercer, Chris; Xie, Sujing; Richman, Eric K; Kinzie, Charles R; Wolbach, Wendy S

    2012-03-27

    We report the discovery in Lake Cuitzeo in central Mexico of a black, carbon-rich, lacustrine layer, containing nanodiamonds, microspherules, and other unusual materials that date to the early Younger Dryas and are interpreted to result from an extraterrestrial impact. These proxies were found in a 27-m-long core as part of an interdisciplinary effort to extract a paleoclimate record back through the previous interglacial. Our attention focused early on an anomalous, 10-cm-thick, carbon-rich layer at a depth of 2.8 m that dates to 12.9 ka and coincides with a suite of anomalous coeval environmental and biotic changes independently recognized in other regional lake sequences. Collectively, these changes have produced the most distinctive boundary layer in the late Quaternary record. This layer contains a diverse, abundant assemblage of impact-related markers, including nanodiamonds, carbon spherules, and magnetic spherules with rapid melting/quenching textures, all reaching synchronous peaks immediately beneath a layer containing the largest peak of charcoal in the core. Analyses by multiple methods demonstrate the presence of three allotropes of nanodiamond: n-diamond, i-carbon, and hexagonal nanodiamond (lonsdaleite), in order of estimated relative abundance. This nanodiamond-rich layer is consistent with the Younger Dryas boundary layer found at numerous sites across North America, Greenland, and Western Europe. We have examined multiple hypotheses to account for these observations and find the evidence cannot be explained by any known terrestrial mechanism. It is, however, consistent with the Younger Dryas boundary impact hypothesis postulating a major extraterrestrial impact involving multiple airburst(s) and and/or ground impact(s) at 12.9 ka.

  11. Bioprospecting the Bibleome: Adding Evidence to Support the Inflammatory Basis of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, Peter L; Frankel, Andrew; Liebow-Liebling, Ester H; Elkin, Jared R; Tuttle, Mark S; Brown, Steven H

    2012-05-05

    BioProspecting is a novel approach that enabled our team to mine genetic marker related data from the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) utilizing Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) and the Human Gene Ontology (HUGO). Genes associated with disorders using the Multi-threaded Clinical Vocabulary Server (MCVS) Natural Language Processing (NLP) engine, whose output was represented as an ontology-network incorporating the semantic encodings of the literature. Metabolic functions were used to identify potentially novel relationships between (genes or proteins) and (diseases or drugs). In an effort to identify genes important to transformation of normal tissue into a malignancy, we went on to identify the genes linked to multiple cancers and then mapped those genes to metabolic and signaling pathways. Ten Genes were related to 30 or more cancers, 72 genes were related to 20 or more cancers and 191 genes were related to 10 or more cancers. The three pathways most often associated with the top 200 novel cancer markers were the Acute Phase Response Signaling, the Glucocorticoid Receptor Signaling and the Hepatic Fibrosis/Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation pathway. This association highlights the role of inflammation in the induction and perhaps transformation of mortal cells into cancers. BioProspecting can speed our identification and understanding of synergies between articles in the biomedical literature. In this case we found considerable synergy between the Oncology literature and the Sepsis literature. By mapping these associations to known metabolic, regulatory and signaling pathways we were able to identify further evidence for the inflammatory basis of cancer.

  12. Mobile DNA and the TE-Thrust hypothesis: supporting evidence from the primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Keith R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transposable elements (TEs are increasingly being recognized as powerful facilitators of evolution. We propose the TE-Thrust hypothesis to encompass TE-facilitated processes by which genomes self-engineer coding, regulatory, karyotypic or other genetic changes. Although TEs are occasionally harmful to some individuals, genomic dynamism caused by TEs can be very beneficial to lineages. This can result in differential survival and differential fecundity of lineages. Lineages with an abundant and suitable repertoire of TEs have enhanced evolutionary potential and, if all else is equal, tend to be fecund, resulting in species-rich adaptive radiations, and/or they tend to undergo major evolutionary transitions. Many other mechanisms of genomic change are also important in evolution, and whether the evolutionary potential of TE-Thrust is realized is heavily dependent on environmental and ecological factors. The large contribution of TEs to evolutionary innovation is particularly well documented in the primate lineage. In this paper, we review numerous cases of beneficial TE-caused modifications to the genomes of higher primates, which strongly support our TE-Thrust hypothesis.

  13. Internet interventions to support lifestyle modification for diabetes management: a systematic review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Alexander P; Durant, Nefertiti; Agne, April A; Cherrington, Andrea L

    2014-01-01

    The Internet presents a widely accessible, 24-h means to promote chronic disease management. The objective of this review is to identify studies that used Internet based interventions to promote lifestyle modification among adults with type 2 diabetes. We searched PubMed using the terms: [internet, computer, phone, smartphone, mhealth, mobile health, web based, telehealth, social media, text messages] combined with [diabetes management and diabetes control] through January 2013. Studies were included if they described an Internet intervention, targeted adults with type 2 diabetes, focused on lifestyle modification, and included an evaluation component with behavioral outcomes. Of the 2803 papers identified, nine met inclusion criteria. Two studies demonstrated improvements in diet and/or physical activity and two studies demonstrated improvements in glycemic control comparing web-based intervention with control. Successful studies were theory-based, included interactive components with tracking and personalized feedback, and provided opportunities for peer support. Website utilization declined over time in all studies that reported on it. Few studies focused on high risk, underserved populations. Web-based strategies provide a viable option for facilitating diabetes self-management. Future research is needed on the use of web-based interventions in underserved communities and studies examining website utilization patterns and engagement over time. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evidence to support the use of vildagliptin monotherapy in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejager S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Sylvie Dejager,1 Anja Schweizer,2 James E Foley31Novartis Pharma SAS, Rueil Malmaison, France; 2Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland; 3Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USAAbstract: The efficacy and safety of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, vildagliptin, as monotherapy have been widely confirmed in a large body of clinical studies of up to 2 years’ duration in various populations with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This paper reviews the data supporting the use of vildagliptin in monotherapy. Consideration based on baseline glycated hemoglobin levels and age is given to patient segments where metformin is not appropriate. In addition, although prediabetes is not an indication, this manuscript briefly reviews some of the existing data showing that the mechanisms at work in diabetic populations are active in patients currently classified as prediabetic, with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose. Finally, the rationale for vildagliptin dosing frequency in monotherapy is discussed. In summary, this review aims to define where in community practice the use of vildagliptin as monotherapy is most desirable, focusing on segments of the population with type 2 diabetes mellitus that might receive the greatest benefit from vildagliptin in the management of their disease.Keywords: vildagliptin, type 2 diabetes, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, monotherapy, elderly

  15. RAPE SUPPORTIVE ATTITUDE SCALE: FIRST EVIDENCE ON ITS RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY IN THE SALVADORIAN SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Sierra

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The tolerant attitudes towards sexual violence on women are important risk factor which should be considered whileexplaining this type of aggressive behaviour. One of the instruments to evaluate these attitudes is Rape SupportiveAttitude Scale (RSAS by Lottes. The scale has showed good indexes of reliability and validity in both American andSpanish university students. The purpose of the study is to explore the psychometric characteristics in El Salvador asit has been applied together with the Double Standard Scale by Caron, Davis, Haltelman and Stickle (1993 and Crowneand Marlowe (1960 Social Desirability Scale in two samples which consisted of 505 and 1499 students, respectively.The results indicate that the one-dimensional structure of the scale stays stable in the two samples reaching thecoefficients of internal consistence higher than .80, although it includes two items which requires to be reviewed infuture studies. Concerning the validity, the RSAS differentiates men and women in these types of attitudes and showssignificant positive correlation with double sexual standard.

  16. Innovation support and economic development at the regional level: panel data evidence from Visegrad countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hunady

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of innovation support and economic development at the regional level. The innovation potential still differs significantly among the EU regions. Perhaps the key factor determining innovation potential and performance of a region is R&D expenditure. The main aim of the paper is to test the potential relationship between gross domestic expenditure on R&D and economic development of the regions. Our dataset consists of the data on the regions of four Visegrad countries during the period of 2001-2014. We assume the existence of non-linear relationship and expect that R&D expenditures are significantly lower in less developed regions. Using the panel Granger causality and panel regression analysis based on these data, we provide insight into the potential relationship between regional economic development measured in terms of GDP per capita and investments in R&D controlling for the number of R&D employees. Our results strongly suggest that higher regional GDP per capita is associated with higher regional gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD per inhabitant. GERD per capita appears to be exponentially rising with regional GDP per capita. We have also found significant regional disparities in terms of innovation performance.

  17. The Support of MPA (Marine Protected Area) in Coral Triangle Area: Evidence from Kei Islands, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Syahibul K.; Teniwut, Wellem A.; Teniwut, Roberto M. K.; Rahantoknam, Meyske A.; Hasyim, Cawalinya L.; Hungan, Marselus

    2017-10-01

    Kei Islands located inside the coral triangle. Therefore, the biodiversity level on the sea in this area is considered high. United nation has proposed for water that included in the coral triangle has to apply marine protected area (MPA) to preserve the area. The main problem is most of the community especially in Kei Islands have depended on the sea as their sources of the economy even fisheries commodity like fish play a large part on the inflation rate and other prosperity indicators likes school and housing. Also, Kei Islands practice on form local wisdom for owning areal of the sea which calls “petuanan laut” by certain of villages or group of villages in one area. This study aimed to map the cluster of catching fisheries area based on the quantity of fish supply on a local market in Kei Islands and measure each cluster on their support and perspective on Marine Protected Area (MPA). We conducted a focus group discussion and collecting additional data by questionnaires with descriptive and quantitative analysis with logistic regression. The implication of this study can provide a clear view of coastal communities view on MPA program also to identify an area that has marine resources, human resources, and equipment to provide government an empirical view on catching fisheries in Kei Islands to issued better policy to develop fishing industry in Kei Islands.

  18. Is There Evidence to Support Brand to Generic Interchange of the Mycophenolic Acid Products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Karen; Reddy, Prabashni; Gabardi, Steven

    2017-02-01

    The uptake of generic immunosuppressants lags comparatively to other drug classes, despite that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) uses identical bioequivalence standards for all drugs. Transplant societies acknowledge the cost savings associated with generic immunosuppressants and support their use following heart, lung, kidney, or bone marrow transplantation. Seven studies of the pharmacokinetics or clinical efficacy of generic mycophenolate mofetil compared to the innovator product are published; all studies and products were ex-United States. Three studies did not demonstrate any pharmacokinetic differences between generic and innovator products in healthy subjects, achieving FDA bioequivalence requirements. Two studies in renal allograft recipients demonstrated no difference in area under the curves between generic and innovator products, and in one, the maximum concentration (Cmax) fell outside the FDA regulatory range. Two studies revealed no difference in acute organ rejection or graft function in renal allograft recipients. Patient surveys indicate that cost is a barrier to immunosuppressant adherence. Generics present a viable method to reduce costs to payers, patients, and health care systems. Adherence to immunosuppressants is crucial to prevent graft failure. An affordable regimen potentially confers greater adherence. Concerns regarding the presumed inferiority of generic immunosuppressants should be assuaged by regulatory requirements for bioequivalency testing, transplant society position statements, and pharmacokinetic and clinical studies.

  19. Developing a globally applicable evidence-informed competency framework to support capacity strengthening in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julé, Amélie; Furtado, Tamzin; Boggs, Liam; van Loggerenberg, Francois; Ewing, Victoria; Vahedi, Manhaz; Launois, Pascal; Lang, Trudie

    2017-01-01

    Capacity development for clinical research is held back by a lack of recognition for the skills acquired through involvement in clinical trials and in other varied types of global health research studies. Although some competency frameworks and associated recognised career pathways exist for different clinical research roles, they mostly apply to a single role or study setting. Our experience supports the need for an integrated approach, looking at the many roles in parallel and at all types of clinical research beyond trials. Here, we propose a single, flexible framework which is applicable to the full global health research team, and can be used for recognising staff by highlighting acquired skills and possible progression between various roles. It can also illuminate where capacity needs strengthening and contribute to raising research engagement. Through systematic analysis of existing competency frameworks and current job descriptions covering 11 distinct, broad clinical research roles, we identified and defined 50 key competencies required by the team as a whole and throughout the study life cycle. The competencies are relevant and adaptable to studies that differ in design, geographical location or disease, and fall in five main areas-(1) Ethics, Quality and Risk Management; (2) Study and Site Management; (3) Research Operations; (4) Scientific Thinking; and (5) Professional Skills. A pilot framework and implementation tools are now available online and in paper format. They have the potential to be a new mechanism for enabling research skills development and career progression for all staff engaged in clinical research globally.

  20. Field evidence that ecosystem service projects support biodiversity and diversify options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Rebecca L; Tallis, Heather; Kareiva, Peter; Daily, Gretchen C

    2008-07-08

    Ecosystem service approaches to conservation are being championed as a new strategy for conservation, under the hypothesis that they will broaden and deepen support for biodiversity protection. Where traditional approaches focus on setting aside land by purchasing property rights, ecosystem service approaches aim to engage a much wider range of places, people, policies, and financial resources in conservation. This is particularly important given projected intensification of human impacts, with rapid growth in population size and individual aspirations. Here we use field research on 34 ecosystem service (ES) projects and 26 traditional biodiversity (BD) projects from the Western Hemisphere to test whether ecosystem service approaches show signs of realizing their putative potential. We find that the ES projects attract on average more than four times as much funding through greater corporate sponsorship and use of a wider variety of finance tools than BD projects. ES projects are also more likely to encompass working landscapes and the people in them. We also show that, despite previous concern, ES projects not only expand opportunities for conservation, but they are no less likely than BD projects to include or create protected areas. Moreover, they do not draw down limited financial resources for conservation but rather engage a more diverse set of funders. We also found, however, that monitoring of conservation outcomes in both cases is so infrequent that it is impossible to assess the effectiveness of either ES or BD approaches.

  1. Large scale brain functional networks support sentence comprehension: evidence from both explicit and implicit language tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zude; Fan, Yuanyuan; Feng, Gangyi; Huang, Ruiwang; Wang, Suiping

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that sentences are comprehended via widespread brain regions in the fronto-temporo-parietal network in explicit language tasks (e.g., semantic congruency judgment tasks), and through restricted temporal or frontal regions in implicit language tasks (e.g., font size judgment tasks). This discrepancy has raised questions regarding a common network for sentence comprehension that acts regardless of task effect and whether different tasks modulate network properties. To this end, we constructed brain functional networks based on 27 subjects' fMRI data that was collected while performing explicit and implicit language tasks. We found that network properties and network hubs corresponding to the implicit language task were similar to those associated with the explicit language task. We also found common hubs in occipital, temporal and frontal regions in both tasks. Compared with the implicit language task, the explicit language task resulted in greater global efficiency and increased integrated betweenness centrality of the left inferior frontal gyrus, which is a key region related to sentence comprehension. These results suggest that brain functional networks support both explicit and implicit sentence comprehension; in addition, these two types of language tasks may modulate the properties of brain functional networks.

  2. Evidence to support a food-based dietary guideline on sugar consumption in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steyn Nelia P

    2012-07-01

    as sugar-sweetened beverages. Conclusion Based on the evidence provided the current DOH food-based dietary guideline on sugar intake should remain as is.

  3. Evidence to support a food-based dietary guideline on sugar consumption in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn, Nelia P; Temple, Norman J

    2012-07-04

    To review studies undertaken in South Africa (SA) which included sugar intake associated with dental caries, non-communicable diseases, diabetes, obesity and/or micronutrient dilution, since the food-based dietary guideline: "Use foods and drinks that contain sugar sparingly and not between meals" was promulgated by the Department of Health (DOH) in 2002. Three databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, and ScienceDirect), and SA Journal of Clinical Nutrition (SAJCN), DOH and SA Medical Research Council (SAMRC) websites were searched for SA studies on sugar intake published between 2000 and January 2012. Studies were included in the review if they evaluated the following: sugar intake and dental caries; sugar intake and non-communicable diseases; sugar and diabetes; sugar and obesity and/or sugar and micronutrient dilution. The initial search led to 12 articles in PubMed, 0 in Cochrane, 35 in ScienceDirect, 5 in the SAJCN and 3 reports from DOH/SAMRC. However, after reading the abstracts only 7 articles from PubMed, 4 from SAJCN and 3 reports were retained for use as being relevant to the current review. Hand searching of reference lists of SAJCN articles produced two more articles. Intake of sugar appears to be increasing steadily across the South African (SA) population. Children typically consume about 50 g per day, rising to as much as 100 g per day in adolescents. This represents about 10% of dietary energy, possibly as much as 20%. It has been firmly established that sugar plays a major role in development of dental caries. Furthermore, a few studies have shown that sugar has a diluting effect on the micronutrient content of the diet which lowers the intake of micronutrients. Data from numerous systematic reviews have shown that dietary sugar increases the risk for development of both obesity and type 2 diabetes. Risk for development of these conditions appears to be especially strong when sugar is consumed as sugar-sweetened beverages. Based on the evidence

  4. Clonal mutations in primary human glial tumors: evidence in support of the mutator hypothesis

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    Sarkar Chitra

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A verifiable consequence of the mutator hypothesis is that even low grade neoplasms would accumulate a large number of mutations that do not influence the tumor phenotype (clonal mutations. In this study, we have attempted to quantify the number of clonal mutations in primary human gliomas of astrocytic cell origin. These alterations were identified in tumor tissue, microscopically confirmed to have over 70% neoplastic cells. Methods Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis was performed using a set of fifteen 10-mer primers of arbitrary but definite sequences in 17 WHO grade II astrocytomas (low grade diffuse astrocytoma or DA and 16 WHO grade IV astrocytomas (Glioblastoma Multiforme or GBM. The RAPD profile of the tumor tissue was compared with that of the leucocyte DNA of the same patient and alteration(s scored. A quantitative estimate of the overall genomic changes in these tumors was obtained by 2 different modes of calculation. Results The overall change in the tumors was estimated to be 4.24% in DA and 2.29% in GBM by one method and 11.96% and 6.03% in DA and GBM respectively by the other. The difference between high and lower grade tumors was statistically significant by both methods. Conclusion This study demonstrates the presence of extensive clonal mutations in gliomas, more in lower grade. This is consistent with our earlier work demonstrating that technique like RAPD analysis, unbiased for locus, is able to demonstrate more intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity in lower grade gliomas compared to higher grade. The results support the mutator hypothesis proposed by Loeb.

  5. Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs): evaluation of evidence to support public policy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardelli, Alexa A; Stafinski, Tania; Motan, Tarek; Klein, Kristin; Menon, Devidas

    2014-11-07

    Over the years, IVF/ICSI protocols have continued to evolve with efforts to improve outcomes. As a result, treatment success may be related to certain procedural factors, including number of embryos transferred and stage at which they are transferred. This review aims to assess the safety and effectiveness of IVF/ICSI in comparison to spontaneous conception and less invasive ARTs and the impact of procedure-related factors on the outcomes of IVF/ICSI in order to support the development of local clinical and policy guidance. Following Cochrane Collaboration guidelines and the PRISMA statement, a comprehensive systematic review of literature examining the impact of procedural characteristics on the safety or effectiveness of IVF/ICSI from 2007 to date was performed. 33 systematic reviews and 3 primary studies evaluating the impact of procedural differences, IVF/ICSI in comparison to less invasive ARTs, and ARTs in comparison to spontaneous conception were found. IVF was shown to offer significant benefits over no treatment and IUI in achieving pregnancy and live birth among couples with endometriosis or unexplained infertility. Frozen and blastocyst-stage embryo transfers were as effective as fresh and cleavage-stage embryo transfers, respectively. In comparison to single embryo transfer, double embryo transfer significantly increased pregnancy, live birth and multiple pregnancy/birth rates. IVF/ICSI was associated with more complications during pregnancy and delivery, and in infants compared to naturally conceived pregnancies, particularly when multiple embryo transfer was used. Frozen embryo transfer had fewer adverse events during pregnancy and delivery than fresh embryo transfer, and was at least as safe in terms of infant outcomes. The potential complications of IVF/ICSI may be minimized through procedural choices, but such choices often impact effectiveness. Thus, in developing clinical and policy guidance around IVF/ICSI, the risk-benefit trade-offs patients

  6. Support for an auto-associative model of spoken cued recall: evidence from fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zubicaray, Greig; McMahon, Katie; Eastburn, Mathew; Pringle, Alan J; Lorenz, Lina; Humphreys, Michael S

    2007-03-02

    Cued recall and item recognition are considered the standard episodic memory retrieval tasks. However, only the neural correlates of the latter have been studied in detail with fMRI. Using an event-related fMRI experimental design that permits spoken responses, we tested hypotheses from an auto-associative model of cued recall and item recognition [Chappell, M., & Humphreys, M. S. (1994). An auto-associative neural network for sparse representations: Analysis and application to models of recognition and cued recall. Psychological Review, 101, 103-128]. In brief, the model assumes that cues elicit a network of phonological short term memory (STM) and semantic long term memory (LTM) representations distributed throughout the neocortex as patterns of sparse activations. This information is transferred to the hippocampus which converges upon the item closest to a stored pattern and outputs a response. Word pairs were learned from a study list, with one member of the pair serving as the cue at test. Unstudied words were also intermingled at test in order to provide an analogue of yes/no recognition tasks. Compared to incorrectly rejected studied items (misses) and correctly rejected (CR) unstudied items, correctly recalled items (hits) elicited increased responses in the left hippocampus and neocortical regions including the left inferior prefrontal cortex (LIPC), left mid lateral temporal cortex and inferior parietal cortex, consistent with predictions from the model. This network was very similar to that observed in yes/no recognition studies, supporting proposals that cued recall and item recognition involve common rather than separate mechanisms.

  7. Extraction and use of linguistic patterns for modelling medical guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serban, Radu; ten Teije, Annette; van Harmelen, Frank; Marcos, Mar; Polo-Conde, Cristina

    2007-02-01

    The quality of knowledge updates in evidence-based medical guidelines can be improved and the effort spent for updating can be reduced if the knowledge underlying the guideline text is explicitly modelled using the so-called linguistic guideline patterns, mappings between a text fragment and a formal representation of its corresponding medical knowledge. Ontology-driven extraction of linguistic patterns is a method to automatically reconstruct the control knowledge captured in guidelines, which facilitates a more effective modelling and authoring of medical guidelines. We illustrate by examples the use of this method for generating and instantiating linguistic patterns in the text of a guideline for treatment of breast cancer, and evaluate the usefulness of these patterns in the modelling of this guideline. We developed a methodology for extracting and using linguistic patterns in guideline formalization, to aid the human modellers in guideline formalization and reduce the human modelling effort. Using automatic transformation rules for simple linguistic patterns, a good recall (between 72% and 80%) is obtained in selecting the procedural knowledge relevant for the guideline model, even though the precision of the guideline model generated automatically covers only between 20% and 35% of the human-generated guideline model. These results indicate the suitability of our method as a pre-processing step in medical guideline formalization. Modelling and authoring of medical texts can benefit from our proposed method. As pre-requisites for generating automatically a skeleton of the guideline model from the procedural part of the guideline text, to aid the human modeller, the medical terminology used by the guideline must have a good overlap with existing medical thesauri and its procedural knowledge must obey linguistic regularities that can be mapped into the control constructs of the target guideline modelling language.

  8. Commentary: Building the evidence base in support of the American Board of Medical Specialties maintenance of certification program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Richard E; Weiss, Kevin B

    2011-01-01

    In this issue, Lipner and colleagues describe research supporting the value of the examinations used in the maintenance of certification (MOC) programs of the American Board of Internal Medicine and the American Board of Surgery. The authors of this commentary review the contribution of this research and previous investigations that underscore the value of this component of the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) MOC program. In addition, they point out that the MOC examination is one element of a comprehensive approach to physician lifelong learning, assessment, and quality improvement. The ABMS MOC program requires diplomates of the ABMS member boards to engage in continuous professional development in the six domains of competence and performance previously defined by the ABMS and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Although evidence and a sound rationale exist to support educational and assessment methods that target all six domains, it will be important to continue to build the body of evidence demonstrating the value of MOC to the public and to the profession.

  9. Genetic Evidence Supports the Multiethnic Character of Teopancazco, a Neighborhood Center of Teotihuacan, Mexico (AD 200-600.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda A Álvarez-Sandoval

    Full Text Available Multiethnicity in Teopancazco, Teotihuacan, is supported by foreign individuals found in the neighborhood center as well as by the diversity observed in funerary rituals at the site. Studies of both stable and strontium isotopes as well as paleodietary analysis, suggest that the population of Teopancazco was composed by three population groups: people from Teotihuacan, people from nearby sites (Tlaxcala-Hidalgo-Puebla, and people from afar, including the coastal plains. In an attempt to understand the genetic dynamics in Teopancazco we conducted an ancient DNA (aDNA analysis based on mtDNA. Our results show that the level of genetic diversity is consistent with the multiethnicity phenomenon at the neighborhood center. Levels of genetic diversity at different time periods of Teopancazco's history show that multiethnicity was evident since the beginning and lasted until the collapse of the neighborhood center. However, a PCA and a Neighbor-Joining tree suggested the presence of a genetically differentiated group (buried at the Transitional phase compared to the population from the initial phase (Tlamimilolpa as well as the population from the final phase (Xolalpan of the history of Teopancazco. Genetic studies showed no differences in genetic diversity between males and females in the adult population of Teopancazco, this data along with ample archaeological evidence, suggest a neolocal post-marital pattern of residence in Teopancazco. Nevertheless, genetic analyses on the infant population showed that the males are significantly more heterogeneous than the females suggesting a possible differential role in cultural practices by sex in the infant sector. Regarding interpopulation analysis, we found similar indices of genetic diversity between Teopancazco and heterogeneous native groups, which support the multiethnic character of Teopancazco. Finally, our data showed a close genetic relationship between Teopancazco and populations from the

  10. Genetic Evidence Supports the Multiethnic Character of Teopancazco, a Neighborhood Center of Teotihuacan, Mexico (AD 200-600).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Sandoval, Brenda A; Manzanilla, Linda R; González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Malgosa, Assumpció; Montiel, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Multiethnicity in Teopancazco, Teotihuacan, is supported by foreign individuals found in the neighborhood center as well as by the diversity observed in funerary rituals at the site. Studies of both stable and strontium isotopes as well as paleodietary analysis, suggest that the population of Teopancazco was composed by three population groups: people from Teotihuacan, people from nearby sites (Tlaxcala-Hidalgo-Puebla), and people from afar, including the coastal plains. In an attempt to understand the genetic dynamics in Teopancazco we conducted an ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis based on mtDNA. Our results show that the level of genetic diversity is consistent with the multiethnicity phenomenon at the neighborhood center. Levels of genetic diversity at different time periods of Teopancazco's history show that multiethnicity was evident since the beginning and lasted until the collapse of the neighborhood center. However, a PCA and a Neighbor-Joining tree suggested the presence of a genetically differentiated group (buried at the Transitional phase) compared to the population from the initial phase (Tlamimilolpa) as well as the population from the final phase (Xolalpan) of the history of Teopancazco. Genetic studies showed no differences in genetic diversity between males and females in the adult population of Teopancazco, this data along with ample archaeological evidence, suggest a neolocal post-marital pattern of residence in Teopancazco. Nevertheless, genetic analyses on the infant population showed that the males are significantly more heterogeneous than the females suggesting a possible differential role in cultural practices by sex in the infant sector. Regarding interpopulation analysis, we found similar indices of genetic diversity between Teopancazco and heterogeneous native groups, which support the multiethnic character of Teopancazco. Finally, our data showed a close genetic relationship between Teopancazco and populations from the "Teotihuacan corridor

  11. A primer in macromolecular linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searls, David B

    2013-03-01

    Polymeric macromolecules, when viewed abstractly as strings of symbols, can be treated in terms of formal language theory, providing a mathematical foundation for characterizing such strings both as collections and in terms of their individual structures. In addition this approach offers a framework for analysis of macromolecules by tools and conventions widely used in computational linguistics. This article introduces the ways that linguistics can be and has been applied to molecular biology, covering the relevant formal language theory at a relatively nontechnical level. Analogies between macromolecules and human natural language are used to provide intuitive insights into the relevance of grammars, parsing, and analysis of language complexity to biology. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. LANGUAGE ECOLOGY AS LINGUISTIC THEORY

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    Mark Garner

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available language ecology was proposed by Einar Haugen in 1972 as the study of the interaction of any given language and its environment. Despite some use of the term in the literature, sociolinguistics have failed to develop the potenstial that Haugen saw in an ecological approach. Recent developments in ecological thought, however; when applied to language, raise questions about many basic assumptions of conventional linguistics. For example, from an ecological perspective, language is not a rule-governed system, but a form of patterned behaviour arising from the needs of human socialtity: communication, culture, and community. As Haugen foresaw, language ecology offers an exciting alternative approach to linguistic theory. Key words: language ecology, patterned behaviour, holistic, dynamic, and interactive

  13. Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Gabriele; Wagner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    on learning and development. In conclusion, we address some emerging themes in the relationship of CA and applied linguistics, including the role of multilingualism, standard social science methods as research objects, CA's potential for direct social intervention, and increasing efforts to complement CA...... with understanding fundamental issues of talk in action and of intersubjectivity in human conduct. The field has expanded its scope from the analysis of talk—often phone calls—towards an integration of language with other semiotic resources for embodied action, including space and objects. Much of this expansion has...... been driven by applied work. After laying out CA's standard practices of data treatment and analysis, this article takes up the role of comparison as a fundamental analytical strategy and reviews recent developments into cross-linguistic and cross-cultural directions. The remaining article focuses...

  14. Corpora and historical linguistics Corpora e linguística histórica

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    Merja Kytö

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to survey and assess the current state of electronic historical corpora and corpus methodology, and attempts to look into possible future developments. It highlights the fact that within the wide spectrum of corpus linguistic methodology, historical corpus linguistics has emerged as a vibrant field that has significantly added to the appeal felt for the study of language history and change. In fact, according to a historical linguist with more than fifty years of experience, "[w]e could even go as far as to say that without the support and new impetus provided by corpora, evidence-based historical linguistics would have been close to the end of its life-span in these days of rapid-changing life and research, increasing competition on the academic career track and the methodological attractions offered to young scholars" (RISSANEN, forthcoming. Historical corpora and other electronic resources have also made the study of language history attractive: working on them engages students in an individual and interactive way that they find appealing (CURZAN 2000, p. 81.Este artigo objetiva fazer um levantamento e avaliar o estado da arte dos corpora históricos eletrônicos e da metodologia de estudos de corpora, assim como sugerir possíveis desenvolvimentos futuros na área. Destaca-se que dentro do espectro metodológico da linguística de corpus, a linguística de corpus histórica emergiu como um campo de investigação vibrante que tem adicionado interesse ao estudo da história e da mudança linguística. De acordo com um pesquisador da área com mais de cinqüenta anos de experiência, "pode-se dizer que sem o apoio e o novo ímpeto trazidos pelos corpora, a linguística histórica baseada em evidências teria estado próxima ao fim de sua vida nesses tempos de rápidas mudanças de vida e de pesquisa, aumentando a competição na carreira acadêmica e nas atrações metodológicas oferecidas aos jovens pesquisadores

  15. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, part 2: a review of clinical studies with supporting preclinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-04-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. Thus, our aim was to provide a comprehensive narrative review of plant-based medicines that have clinical and/or preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity. We present the article in two parts. In part one, we reviewed herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In this current article (part two), we review herbal medicines for which there have been both preclinical and clinical investigations of anxiolytic activity. A search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) for English language papers using the search terms 'anxiety' OR 'anxiety disorder' OR 'generalized anxiety disorder' OR 'social phobia' OR 'post-traumatic stress disorder' OR 'panic disorder' OR 'agoraphobia' OR 'obsessive compulsive disorder' in combination with the search terms 'Herb*' OR 'Medicinal Plants' OR 'Botanical Medicine' OR 'Chinese herb*', in addition to individual herbal medicines. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, of which 53 plants were included in the review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed here in part two), with the other 32 having solely preclinical evidence (reviewed in part one). Support for efficacy was found for chronic use (i.e. greater than one day) of the following herbs in treating a range of anxiety disorders in human clinical trials: Piper methysticum, Matricaria recutita, Ginkgo biloba, Scutellaria lateriflora, Silybum marianum, Passiflora incarnata, Withania somniferum, Galphimia glauca, Centella asiatica, Rhodiola rosea, Echinacea spp., Melissa officinalis and Echium

  16. Can delusions be understood linguistically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinzen, Wolfram; Rosselló, Joana; McKenna, Peter

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Delusions are widely believed to reflect disturbed cognitive function, but the nature of this remains elusive. The “un-Cartesian” cognitive-linguistic hypothesis maintains (a) that there is no thought separate from language, that is, there is no distinct mental space removed from language where “thinking” takes place; and (b) that a somewhat broadened concept of grammar is responsible for bestowing meaning on propositions, and this among other things gives them their quality of being true or false. It is argued that a loss of propositional meaning explains why delusions are false, impossible and sometimes fantastic. A closely related abnormality, failure of linguistic embedding, can additionally account for why delusions are held with fixed conviction and are not adequately justified by the patient. The un-Cartesian linguistic approach to delusions has points of contact with Frith’s theory that inability to form meta-representations underlies a range of schizophrenic symptoms. It may also be relevant to the nature of the “second factor” in monothematic delusions in neurological disease. Finally, it can inform the current debate about whether or not delusions really are beliefs. PMID:27322493

  17. Can delusions be understood linguistically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinzen, Wolfram; Rosselló, Joana; McKenna, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Delusions are widely believed to reflect disturbed cognitive function, but the nature of this remains elusive. The "un-Cartesian" cognitive-linguistic hypothesis maintains (a) that there is no thought separate from language, that is, there is no distinct mental space removed from language where "thinking" takes place; and (b) that a somewhat broadened concept of grammar is responsible for bestowing meaning on propositions, and this among other things gives them their quality of being true or false. It is argued that a loss of propositional meaning explains why delusions are false, impossible and sometimes fantastic. A closely related abnormality, failure of linguistic embedding, can additionally account for why delusions are held with fixed conviction and are not adequately justified by the patient. The un-Cartesian linguistic approach to delusions has points of contact with Frith's theory that inability to form meta-representations underlies a range of schizophrenic symptoms. It may also be relevant to the nature of the "second factor" in monothematic delusions in neurological disease. Finally, it can inform the current debate about whether or not delusions really are beliefs.

  18. Novel evidence in support of the bilingual advantage: influences of task demands and experience on cognitive control and working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnamara, Brooke N; Conway, Andrew R A

    2014-04-01

    The bilingual advantage-enhanced cognitive control relative to monolinguals-possibly occurs due to experience engaging general cognitive mechanisms in order to manage two languages. Supporting this hypothesis is evidence that bimodal (signed language-spoken language) bilinguals do not demonstrate such an advantage, presumably because the distinct language modalities reduce conflict and control demands. We hypothesized that the mechanism responsible for the bilingual advantage is the interplay between (a) the magnitude of bilingual management demands and (b) the amount of experience managing those demands. We recruited adult bimodal bilinguals with high bilingual management demands and examined cognitive control and working memory capacity longitudinally. After gaining experience managing high bilingual management demands, participants outperformed themselves from 2 years earlier on cognitive abilities associated with managing the bilingual demands. These results suggest that cognitive control outcomes for bilinguals vary as a function of the mechanisms recruited during bilingual management and the amount of experience managing the bilingual demands.

  19. Cultural adaptation: translatability assessment and linguistic validation of the patient-reported outcome instrument for irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Herrera, Leticia; Lasch, Kathryn; Popielnicki, Ana; Nishida, Akito; Arbuckle, Rob; Banderas, Benjamin; Zentner, Susan; Gagainis, Ingrid; Zeiher, Bernhardt

    2016-01-01

    Following a 2009 US Food and Drug Administration guidance, a new patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument was developed to support end points in multinational clinical trials assessing irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D) symptom severity. Our objective was to assess the translatability of the IBS-D PRO instrument into ten languages, and subsequently perform a cultural adaptation/linguistic validation of the questionnaire into Japanese and US Spanish. Translatability assessments of the US English version of the IBS-D PRO were performed by experienced PRO translators who were native speakers of each target language and currently residing in target-language countries. Languages were Chinese (People's Republic of China), Dutch (the Netherlands), French (Belgium), German (Germany), Japanese (Japan), Polish (Poland), Portuguese (Brazil), Russian (Russia), Spanish (Mexico), and Spanish (US). The project team assessed the instrument to identify potential linguistic and/or cultural adaptation issues. After the issues identified were resolved, the instrument was translated into Spanish (US) and Japanese through a process of two forward translations, one reconciled translation, and one backward translation. The project team reviewed the translated versions before the instruments were evaluated by cognitive debriefing interviews with samples of five Spanish (US) and five Japanese IBS-D patients. Linguistic and cultural adaptation concerns identified during the translatability assessment required minor revisions, mainly the presentation of dates/times and word structure. During the cognitive debriefing interviews, two of five Spanish respondents misunderstood the term "bowel movement" to mean only diarrhea in the Spanish version. Consequently, the term was changed from "movimiento intestinal" to "evacuaciones". None of the Japanese respondents identified issues with the Japanese version. The translatability of the IBS-D PRO instrument into ten target languages was

  20. Review of the scientific evidence to support environmental risk assessment of shale gas development in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prpich, George; Coulon, Frédéric; Anthony, Edward J

    2016-09-01

    Interest in the development of shale gas resources using hydraulic fracturing techniques is increasing worldwide despite concerns about the environmental risks associated with this activity. In the United Kingdom (UK), early attempts to hydraulically fracture a shale gas well resulted in a seismic event that led to the suspension of all hydraulic fracturing operations. In response to this occurrence, UK regulators have requested that future shale gas operations that use hydraulic fracturing should be accompanied by a high-level environmental risk assessment (ERA). Completion of an ERA can demonstrate competency, communicate understanding, and ultimately build trust that environmental risks are being managed properly, however, this assessment requires a scientific evidence base. In this paper we discuss how the ERA became a preferred assessment technique to understand the risks related to shale gas development in the UK, and how it can be used to communicate information between stakeholders. We also provide a review of the evidence base that describes the environmental risks related to shale gas operations, which could be used to support an ERA. Finally, we conclude with an update of the current environmental risks associated with shale gas development in the UK and present recommendations for further research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A review of evidence supporting the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation for prescribing cephalosporin antibiotics for penicillin-allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichichero, Michael E

    2005-04-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics, evidence-based guidelines endorse the use of cephalosporin antibiotics for patients with reported allergies to penicillin, for the treatment of acute bacterial sinusitis and acute otitis media. Many physicians, however, remain reluctant to prescribe such agents. Although such concern is understandable, lack of consistent data regarding exactly what constitutes an initial penicillin-allergic reaction and subsequent cross-sensitivity to cephalosporins may be preventing many patients from receiving optimal antibiotic therapy. This article reviews evidence in support of the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation. Included is an examination of the types and incidence of reactions to penicillins and cephalosporins; the frequency of cross-reactivity between these 2 groups of agents; experimental and clinical studies that suggest that side chain-specific antibodies predominate in the immune response to cephalosporins, thereby explaining the lack of cross-sensitivity between most cephalosporins and penicillins; the role of skin testing; and the risks of anaphylaxis. Specific recommendations for the treatment of patients on the basis of their responses to previously prescribed agents are summarized.

  2. Empirically supported methods of short-term psychodynamic therapy in depression - towards an evidence-based unified protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichsenring, Falk; Schauenburg, Henning

    2014-12-01

    There is evidence that psychotherapy is helpful in depressive disorders, with no significant differences between psychotherapies. For psychodynamic therapy (PDT) various models prove to be efficacious. Thus, the evidence for PDT is "scattered" between different forms of PDT, also implying problems in training of psychotherapy and in transferring research to clinical practice. A unified protocol based on empirically-supported methods of PDT in depression may contribute to solve these problems Systematic search for randomized controlled trials fulfilling the following criteria: (a) individual psychodynamic therapy (PDT) of depressive disorders, (b) treatment manuals or manual-like guidelines, (c) PDT proved to be efficacious compared to control conditions, (d) reliable measures for diagnosis and outcome, and (f) adult patients. Fourteen RCTs fulfilled the inclusion criteria. By a systematic review of the applied methods of PDT seven treatment components were identified. A high consistency between components was found. The components were conceptualized in the form of seven interrelated treatment modules. A unified psychodynamic protocol for depression may enhance the empirical status of PDT, facilitate both the training in psychotherapy and the transfer of research to clinical practice and may have an impact on the health care system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Evidence Supporting the Uptake and Genomic Incorporation of Environmental DNA in the “Ancient Asexual” Bdelloid Rotifer Philodina roseola

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    Olaf R. P. Bininda-Emonds

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that bdelloid rotifers regularly undergo horizontal gene transfer, apparently as a surrogate mechanism of genetic exchange in the absence of true sexual reproduction, in part because of their ability to withstand desiccation. We provide empirical support for this latter hypothesis using the bdelloid Philodina roseola, which we demonstrate to readily internalize environmental DNA in contrast to a representative monogonont rotifer (Brachionus rubens, which, like other monogononts, is facultative sexual and cannot withstand desiccation. In addition, environmental DNA that was more similar to the host DNA was retained more often and for a longer period of time. Indirect evidence (increased variance in the reproductive output of the untreated F1 generation suggests that environmental DNA can be incorporated into the genome during desiccation and is thus heritable. Our observed fitness effects agree with sexual theory and also occurred when the animals were desiccated in groups (thereby acting as DNA donors, but not individually, indicating the mechanism could occur in nature. Thus, although DNA uptake and its genomic incorporation appears proximally related to anhydrobiosis in bdelloids, it might also facilitate accidental genetic exchange with closely related taxa, thereby maintaining higher levels of genetic diversity than is otherwise expected for this group of “ancient asexuals”.

  4. Evidence Supporting the Uptake and Genomic Incorporation of Environmental DNA in the “Ancient Asexual” Bdelloid Rotifer Philodina roseola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bininda-Emonds, Olaf R. P.; Hinz, Claus; Ahlrichs, Wilko H.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that bdelloid rotifers regularly undergo horizontal gene transfer, apparently as a surrogate mechanism of genetic exchange in the absence of true sexual reproduction, in part because of their ability to withstand desiccation. We provide empirical support for this latter hypothesis using the bdelloid Philodina roseola, which we demonstrate to readily internalize environmental DNA in contrast to a representative monogonont rotifer (Brachionus rubens), which, like other monogononts, is facultative sexual and cannot withstand desiccation. In addition, environmental DNA that was more similar to the host DNA was retained more often and for a longer period of time. Indirect evidence (increased variance in the reproductive output of the untreated F1 generation) suggests that environmental DNA can be incorporated into the genome during desiccation and is thus heritable. Our observed fitness effects agree with sexual theory and also occurred when the animals were desiccated in groups (thereby acting as DNA donors), but not individually, indicating the mechanism could occur in nature. Thus, although DNA uptake and its genomic incorporation appears proximally related to anhydrobiosis in bdelloids, it might also facilitate accidental genetic exchange with closely related taxa, thereby maintaining higher levels of genetic diversity than is otherwise expected for this group of “ancient asexuals”. PMID:27608044

  5. Effects of Web-Based Support on Early Head Start Home Visitors' Use of Evidence-Based Intervention Decision Making and Growth in Children's Expressive Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzhardt, Jay; Greenwood, Charles R.; Walker, Dale; Anderson, Rawni; Howard, Waylon; Carta, Judith J.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated Early Head Start home visitors' use of evidence-based practices and the efficacy of a web-based system to support these practices. Home visitors learned to use 3 evidence-based practices: (a) frequent assessment of children's early communication for screening and progress monitoring, (b) 2 home-based language-promoting…

  6. Gateway Effects: Why the Cited Evidence Does Not Support Their Existence for Low-Risk Tobacco Products (and What Evidence Would

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    Carl V. Phillips

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It is often claimed that low-risk drugs still create harm because of “gateway effects”, in which they cause the use of a high-risk alternative. Such claims are popular among opponents of tobacco harm reduction, claiming that low-risk tobacco products (e.g., e-cigarettes, smokeless tobacco cause people to start smoking, sometimes backed by empirical studies that ostensibly support the claim. However, these studies consistently ignore the obvious alternative causal pathways, particularly that observed associations might represent causation in the opposite direction (smoking causes people to seek low-risk alternatives or confounding (the same individual characteristics increase the chance of using any tobacco product. Due to these complications, any useful analysis must deal with simultaneity and confounding by common cause. In practice, existing analyses seem almost as if they were designed to provide teaching examples about drawing simplistic and unsupported causal conclusions from observed associations. The present analysis examines what evidence and research strategies would be needed to empirically detect such a gateway effect, if there were one, explaining key methodological concepts including causation and confounding, examining the logic of the claim, identifying potentially useful data, and debunking common fallacies on both sides of the argument, as well as presenting an extended example of proper empirical testing. The analysis demonstrates that none of the empirical studies to date that are purported to show a gateway effect from tobacco harm reduction products actually does so. The observations and approaches can be generalized to other cases where observed association of individual characteristics in cross-sectional data could result from any of several causal relationships.

  7. Gateway Effects: Why the Cited Evidence Does Not Support Their Existence for Low-Risk Tobacco Products (and What Evidence Would).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Carl V

    2015-05-21

    It is often claimed that low-risk drugs still create harm because of "gateway effects", in which they cause the use of a high-risk alternative. Such claims are popular among opponents of tobacco harm reduction, claiming that low-risk tobacco products (e.g., e-cigarettes, smokeless tobacco) cause people to start smoking, sometimes backed by empirical studies that ostensibly support the claim. However, these studies consistently ignore the obvious alternative causal pathways, particularly that observed associations might represent causation in the opposite direction (smoking causes people to seek low-risk alternatives) or confounding (the same individual characteristics increase the chance of using any tobacco product). Due to these complications, any useful analysis must deal with simultaneity and confounding by common cause. In practice, existing analyses seem almost as if they were designed to provide teaching examples about drawing simplistic and unsupported causal conclusions from observed associations. The present analysis examines what evidence and research strategies would be needed to empirically detect such a gateway effect, if there were one, explaining key methodological concepts including causation and confounding, examining the logic of the claim, identifying potentially useful data, and debunking common fallacies on both sides of the argument, as well as presenting an extended example of proper empirical testing. The analysis demonstrates that none of the empirical studies to date that are purported to show a gateway effect from tobacco harm reduction products actually does so. The observations and approaches can be generalized to other cases where observed association of individual characteristics in cross-sectional data could result from any of several causal relationships.

  8. Supported employment for people with severe mental illness: systematic review and meta-analysis of the international evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modini, Matthew; Tan, Leona; Brinchmann, Beate; Wang, Min-Jung; Killackey, Eoin; Glozier, Nicholas; Mykletun, Arnstein; Harvey, Samuel B

    2016-07-01

    Individual placement and support (IPS) is a vocational rehabilitation programme that was developed in the USA to improve employment outcomes for people with severe mental illness. Its ability to be generalised to other countries and its effectiveness in varying economic conditions remains to be ascertained. To investigate whether IPS is effective across international settings and in different economic conditions. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials comparing IPS with traditional vocational services was undertaken; 17 studies, as well as 2 follow-up studies, were included. Meta-regressions were carried out to examine whether IPS effectiveness varied according to geographic location, unemployment rates or gross domestic product (GDP) growth. The overall pooled risk ratio for competitive employment using IPS compared with traditional vocational rehabilitation was 2.40 (95% CI 1.99-2.90). Meta-regressions indicated that neither geographic area nor unemployment rates affected the overall effectiveness of IPS. Even when a country's GDP growth was less than 2% IPS was significantly more effective than traditional vocational training, and its benefits remained evident over 2 years. Individual placement and support is an effective intervention across a variety of settings and economic conditions and is more than twice as likely to lead to competitive employment when compared with traditional vocational rehabilitation. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  9. Development of an evidence-based domestic violence guideline: supporting perinatal women-centred care in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Shigeko; Yaju, Yukari; Kataoka, Yaeko; Grace Eto, Hiromi; Matsumoto, Naoko

    2009-02-01

    to develop an evidenced-based, women-centred care clinical guideline designed to assist midwives and other health-care providers in Japanese hospitals, clinics and midwifery offices, in identifying and supporting potential or actual perinatal victims of domestic violence. systematic review and critical appraisal of extant research; structured assessment of clinical guideline development. systematic and comprehensive literature search. Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) was used to assess the guideline development for purposes of assuring methodological quality. electronic searches of medical and nursing databases between February and December 2003 retrieved 2392 articles. Selected as evidence were 157 articles yielding 28 recommendations aligned to clinical assessment questions. using expert consensus and external reviews, recommendations were generated that provided the at-risk perinatal group with the best possible practice available to prevent further harm. the evidenced-based clinical guideline fosters a supportive environment for educating health-care providers on domestic violence, and to improve clinic access for at-risk perinatal women. Information on domestic violence and a negotiated midwife-client safety plan can be initiated for potential or actual victims of domestic violence, and is achieved through understanding the risks of the woman and her fetus or baby, while respecting the woman's intention.

  10. Numerical morphology supports early number word learning: Evidence from a comparison of young Mandarin and English learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corre, Mathieu Le; Li, Peggy; Huang, Becky H.; Jia, Gisela; Carey, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that children learning a language with an obligatory singular/plural distinction (Russian and English) learn the meaning of the number word for one earlier than children learning Japanese, a language without obligatory number morphology (Barner, Libenson, Cheung, & Takasaki, 2009; Sarnecka, Kamenskaya, Yamana, Ogura, & Yudovina, 2007). This can be explained by differences in number morphology, but it can also be explained by many other differences between the languages and the environments of the children who were compared. The present study tests the hypothesis that the morphological singular/plural distinction supports the early acquisition of the meaning of the number word for one by comparing young English learners to age and SES matched young Mandarin Chinese learners. Mandarin does not have obligatory number morphology but is more similar to English than Japanese in many crucial respects. Corpus analyses show that, compared to English learners, Mandarin learners hear number words more frequently, are more likely to hear number words followed by a noun, and are more likely to hear number words in contexts where they denote a cardinal value. Two tasks show that, despite these advantages, Mandarin learners learn the meaning of the number word for one three to six months later than do English learners. These results provide the strongest evidence to date that prior knowledge of the numerical meaning of the distinction between singular and plural supports the acquisition of the meaning of the number word for one. PMID:27423486

  11. Supporting Adolescent Orphan Girls to Stay in School as HIV Risk Prevention: Evidence From a Randomized Controlled Trial in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyunsan; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Iritani, Bonita; Mapfumo, John; Halpern, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Using a randomized controlled trial in rural eastern Zimbabwe, we tested whether comprehensive support to keep orphan adolescent girls in school could reduce HIV risk. Methods. All orphan girls in grade 6 in 25 primary schools were invited to participate in the study in fall 2007 (n = 329). Primary schools were randomized to condition. All primary schools received a universal daily feeding program; intervention participants received fees, uniforms, and a school-based helper to monitor attendance and resolve problems. We conducted annual surveys and collected additional information on school dropout, marriage, and pregnancy rates. We analyzed data using generalized estimating equations over 3 time points, controlling for school and age at baseline. Results. The intervention reduced school dropout by 82% and marriage by 63% after 2 years. Compared with control participants, the intervention group reported greater school bonding, better future expectations, more equitable gender attitudes, and more concerns about the consequences of sex. Conclusions. We found promising evidence that comprehensive school support may reduce HIV risk for orphan girls. Further study, including assessment of dose response, cost benefit, and HIV and herpes simplex virus 2 biomarker measurement, is warranted. PMID:21493943

  12. Auditory discrimination predicts linguistic outcome in Italian infants with and without familial risk for language learning impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Cantiani

    2016-08-01

    Results indicate that RAP abilities are atypical in Italian infants with a first-degree relative affected by LLI and that this impacts later linguistic skills. These findings provide a compelling cross-linguistic comparison with previous research on American infants, supporting the biological unity hypothesis of LLI.

  13. Introduction to Nordlyd 31: The Proceedings of the 19th Scandinavian Conference of Linguistics

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    Peter Svenonius

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This special five-volume edition is both Nordlyd number 31 and the Proceedings for the Nineteenth Scandinavian Conference of Linguistics. Here I provide a little background for the conference and the Proceedings. SCL 19 was held in Tromsø on January 10–12, 2002, under the auspices of the Nordic Association of Linguists (NAL and with support from the Nordic Academy for Advanced Study (NorFA, the University of Tromsø, the Faculty of Humanities, and the English Department at the University of Tromsø. The Center for Advanced Study in Theoretical Linguistics (CASTL also contributed to the production of this Proceedings.

  14. Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE) 7: supporting staff in evidence-based decision-making, implementation and evaluation in a local healthcare setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Claire; Allen, Kelly; Waller, Cara; Dyer, Tim; Brooke, Vanessa; Garrubba, Marie; Melder, Angela; Voutier, Catherine; Gust, Anthony; Farjou, Dina

    2017-06-21

    This is the seventh in a series of papers reporting Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE) in a local healthcare setting. The SHARE Program was a systematic, integrated, evidence-based program for resource allocation within a large Australian health service. It aimed to facilitate proactive use of evidence from research and local data; evidence-based decision-making for resource allocation including disinvestment; and development, implementation and evaluation of disinvestment projects. From the literature and responses of local stakeholders it was clear that provision of expertise and education, training and support of health service staff would be required to achieve these aims. Four support services were proposed. This paper is a detailed case report of the development, implementation and evaluation of a Data Service, Capacity Building Service and Project Support Service. An Evidence Service is reported separately. Literature reviews, surveys, interviews, consultation and workshops were used to capture and process the relevant information. Existing theoretical frameworks were adapted for evaluation and explication of processes and outcomes. Surveys and interviews identified current practice in use of evidence in decision-making, implementation and evaluation; staff needs for evidence-based practice; nature, type and availability of local health service data; and preferred formats for education and training. The Capacity Building and Project Support Services were successful in achieving short term objectives; but long term outcomes were not evaluated due to reduced funding. The Data Service was not implemented at all. Factors influencing the processes and outcomes are discussed. Health service staff need access to education, training, expertise and support to enable evidence-based decision-making and to implement and evaluate the changes arising from those decisions. Three support services were proposed based on research

  15. The linguistic analogy: motivations, results, and speculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Susan; Huebner, Bryce; Hauser, Marc D

    2010-07-01

    Inspired by the success of generative linguistics and transformational grammar, proponents of the linguistic analogy (LA) in moral psychology hypothesize that careful attention to folk-moral judgments is likely to reveal a small set of implicit rules and structures responsible for the ubiquitous and apparently unbounded capacity for making moral judgments. As a theoretical hypothesis, LA thus requires a rich description of the computational structures that underlie mature moral judgments, an account of the acquisition and development of these structures, and an analysis of those components of the moral system that are uniquely human and uniquely moral. In this paper we present the theoretical motivations for adopting LA in the study of moral cognition: (a) the distinction between competence and performance, (b) poverty of stimulus considerations, and (c) adopting the computational level as the proper level of analysis for the empirical study of moral judgment. With these motivations in hand, we review recent empirical findings that have been inspired by LA and which provide evidence for at least two predictions of LA: (a) the computational processes responsible for folk-moral judgment operate over structured representations of actions and events, as well as coding for features of agency and outcomes; and (b) folk-moral judgments are the output of a dedicated moral faculty and are largely immune to the effects of context. In addition, we highlight the complexity of the interfaces between the moral faculty and other cognitive systems external to it (e.g., number systems). We conclude by reviewing the potential utility of the theoretical and empirical tools of LA for future research in moral psychology. Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  16. Supporting Better Evidence Generation and Use within Social Innovation in Health in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Madeleine; Tran, Jenny; Hersch, Fred; Lockwood, Amy; Hartigan, Pamela; Montgomery, Paul

    2017-01-01

    While several papers have highlighted a lack of evidence to scale social innovations in health, fewer have explored decision-maker understandings of the relative merit of different types of evidence, how such data are interpreted and applied, and what practical support is required to improve evidence generation. The objectives of this paper are to understand (1) beliefs and attitudes towards the value of and types of evidence in scaling social innovations for health, (2) approaches to evidence generation and evaluation used in systems and policy change, and (3) how better evidence-generation can be undertaken and supported within social innovation in health. Thirty-two one-on-one interviews were conducted between July and November 2015 with purposively selected practitioners, policymakers, and funders from low- and middle- income countries (LMICs). Data were analysed using a Framework Analysis Approach. While practitioners, funders, and policymakers said they held outcome evidence in high regard, their practices only bear out this assertion to varying degrees. Few have given systematic consideration to potential unintended consequences, in particular harm, of the programs they implement, fund, or adopt. Stakeholders suggest that better evidence-generation can be undertaken and supported within social innovation in health by supporting the research efforts of emerging community organizations; creating links between practitioners and academia; altering the funding landscape for evidence-generation; providing responsive technical education; and creating accountability for funders, practitioners, and policymakers. How better evidence-generation can be undertaken and supported within social innovation in health is a previously under-operationalised aspect of the policy-making process that remains essential in order to refrain from causing harm, enable the optimization of existing interventions, and ultimately, to scale and fund what works.

  17. Supporting Better Evidence Generation and Use within Social Innovation in Health in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Ballard

    Full Text Available While several papers have highlighted a lack of evidence to scale social innovations in health, fewer have explored decision-maker understandings of the relative merit of different types of evidence, how such data are interpreted and applied, and what practical support is required to improve evidence generation. The objectives of this paper are to understand (1 beliefs and attitudes towards the value of and types of evidence in scaling social innovations for health, (2 approaches to evidence generation and evaluation used in systems and policy change, and (3 how better evidence-generation can be undertaken and supported within social innovation in health.Thirty-two one-on-one interviews were conducted between July and November 2015 with purposively selected practitioners, policymakers, and funders from low- and middle- income countries (LMICs. Data were analysed using a Framework Analysis Approach.While practitioners, funders, and policymakers said they held outcome evidence in high regard, their practices only bear out this assertion to varying degrees. Few have given systematic consideration to potential unintended consequences, in particular harm, of the programs they implement, fund, or adopt. Stakeholders suggest that better evidence-generation can be undertaken and supported within social innovation in health by supporting the research efforts of emerging community organizations; creating links between practitioners and academia; altering the funding landscape for evidence-generation; providing responsive technical education; and creating accountability for funders, practitioners, and policymakers.How better evidence-generation can be undertaken and supported within social innovation in health is a previously under-operationalised aspect of the policy-making process that remains essential in order to refrain from causing harm, enable the optimization of existing interventions, and ultimately, to scale and fund what works.

  18. Linguistic documents synchronizing sound and text

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobson, Michel; Michailovsky, Boyd; Lowe, John

    2001-01-01

    The goal of the LACITO linguistic archive project is to conserve and to make available for research recorded and transcribed oral traditions and other linguistic materials in (mainly) unwritten languages, giving simultaneous access to sound recordings and text annotation. The project uses simple, TEI-inspired XML markup for the kinds of annotation traditionally used in field linguistics. Transcriptions are segmented at the levels of, roughly, the sentence and the word, and annotation associat...

  19. Corpus linguistics and statistics with R introduction to quantitative methods in linguistics

    CERN Document Server

    Desagulier, Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    This textbook examines empirical linguistics from a theoretical linguist’s perspective. It provides both a theoretical discussion of what quantitative corpus linguistics entails and detailed, hands-on, step-by-step instructions to implement the techniques in the field. The statistical methodology and R-based coding from this book teach readers the basic and then more advanced skills to work with large data sets in their linguistics research and studies. Massive data sets are now more than ever the basis for work that ranges from usage-based linguistics to the far reaches of applied linguistics. This book presents much of the methodology in a corpus-based approach. However, the corpus-based methods in this book are also essential components of recent developments in sociolinguistics, historical linguistics, computational linguistics, and psycholinguistics. Material from the book will also be appealing to researchers in digital humanities and the many non-linguistic fields that use textual data analysis and t...

  20. Methodological Thoughts from the Linguistic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Davies

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Data are the heart and soul of any linguistic research. Regardless of how incisive an analysis might be, or how clever, it can never be any better than the data it is based upon. For the field linguist gathering data, important considerations include the selection of informants, the number of informants selection, and data collection techniques. Different research objectives, be they descriptive, prescriptive or theory-driven, require techniques appropriate to those particular goals and should be evaluated within the context of inquiry. What follows is a consideration of the techniques generally used by field linguists with a general descriptive goal within the framework of generative linguistics.